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Sample records for bnct radiation treatment

  1. Radiation shielding design of BNCT treatment room for D-T neutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouryavi, Mehdi; Farhad Masoudi, S; Rahmani, Faezeh

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that D-T neutron generator can be used as a proper neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of deep-seated brain tumors. In this paper, radiation shielding calculations have been conducted based on the computational method for designing a BNCT treatment room for a recent proposed D-T neutron source. By using the MCNP-4C code, the geometry of the treatment room has been designed and optimized in such a way that the equivalent dose rate out of the treatment room to be less than 0.5μSv/h for uncontrolled areas. The treatment room contains walls, monitoring window, maze and entrance door. According to the radiation protection viewpoint, dose rate results of out of the proposed room showed that using D-T neutron source for BNCT is safe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SERA -- An advanced treatment planning system for neutron therapy and BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Wemple, C.A.; Wessol, D.E.; Wheeler, F.J.; Albright, C.; Cohen, M.; Frandsen, M.; Harkin, G.; Rossmeier, M.

    1999-01-01

    Detailed treatment planning calculations on a patient-specific basis are required for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Two integrated treatment planning systems developed specifically for BNCT have been in clinical use in the United States over the past few years. The MacNCTPLAN BNCT treatment planning system is used in the clinical BNCT trials that are underway at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A second system, BNCT rtpe (BNCT radiation therapy planning environment), developed independently by the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in collaboration with Montana State University (MSU), is used for treatment planning in the current series of BNCT clinical trials for glioblastoma at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This latter system is also licensed for use at several other BNCT research facilities worldwide. Although the currently available BNCT planning systems have served their purpose well, they suffer from somewhat long computation times (2 to 3 CPU-hours or more per field) relative to standard photon therapy planning software. This is largely due to the need for explicit three-dimensional solutions to the relevant transport equations. The simplifying approximations that work well for photon transport computations are not generally applicable to neutron transport computations. Greater computational speeds for BNCT treatment planning must therefore generally be achieved through the application of improved numerical techniques rather than by simplification of the governing equations. Recent efforts at INEEL and MSU have been directed toward this goal. This has resulted in a new paradigm for this type of calculation and the subsequent creation of the new simulation environment for radiotherapy applications (SERA) treatment planning system for BNCT. SERA is currently in initial clinical testing in connection with the trials at BNL, and it is expected to replace the present BNCT rtpe system upon general release

  3. RADIATION DOSIMETRY IN THE BNCT PATIENT TREATMENT ROOM AT THE BMRR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.; RECINIELLO, R.N.; HU, J.-P.

    2005-05-08

    The Medical Research Reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BMRR) was a heterogeneous, tank type, light water cooled and moderated, graphite reflected reactor, which was operated on demand at a power level up to 3 mega-watts (MW) for medical and biological research [1]. The reactor first went critical on March 15, 1959, with 17 fresh fuel elements (2.52 kg uranium-235 in a total of 2.7 kg uranium) in the center core. The BMRR had two treatment rooms on opposite sides of the core. It had a predominately thermal neutron beam in the Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (TNE) on the west side of the core. By early 1990, a redesigned beam line had a predominately epithermal neutron beam in the Epithermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (ENIF) on the east side of the core [2]. The ENP was approximately 11 feet by 21 feet in size with its focal point consisting of a bismuth plate mounted in the wall adjacent to the reactor shield about 36 inches above the floor. The beam originated at a shutter constructed of 0.75 inch steel filled with concrete and weighing {approx}21 tons. Access to the ENIF was through a pair of hand operated steel shielding doors, each 42 inches wide, 84 inches high and 5 inches thick. The inner door had a 4-inch thick layer of paraffin on the side facing the reactor. The doors 5000 pounds weighed each. Additional shielding material had been added to the entire beam port at reactor wall within the ENIF. The shielding material consisted of 2-inch thick polyethylene sheets, which were impregnated with 95%-enriched {sup 6}Li in lithium carbonate (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). The shielding sheets around the port face were designed to allow the insertion of a variety of different beam collimators.

  4. Introducing BNCT treatment in new treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabel, D.

    2001-01-01

    The physical and radiobiological studies that should be performed before the initiation of BNCT are discussed. The need for dose-escalation versus response studies in large animal models is questioned. These studies are time consuming, expensive and legally difficult in some countries and may be dispensable. (author)

  5. Comparison and analysis of BNCT radiation dose between gold wire and JCDS measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Nagahiro, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    We compared and evaluated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) radiation dose between gold wire measurement and JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS). Gold wire analysis demonstrates the actual BNCT dose though it dose not reflect the real the maximum and minimum dose in tumor tissue. We can conclude that JCDS is precise and high-reliable dose planning system for BNCT. (author)

  6. 'Sequential' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Ana J.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Hughes, Andrea Monti; Heber, Elisa M.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E.; Aromando, Romina F.; Nigg, David W.; Quintana, Jorge; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel 'Tandem' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with 'Tandem BNCT', i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly ((BPA + GB-10)-BNCT) was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. 'Tandem' BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  7. “Sequential” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Marcela A. Garabalino; Silvia I. Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Jorge Quintana; Gustavo A. Santa Cruz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-04-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel “Tandem” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with “Tandem BNCT”, i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly [(BPA + GB-10)-BNCT] was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. “Tandem” BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  8. The effect of ionizing radiation on the blood-brain-barrier (BBB): Considerations for the application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, R.V. III; Spickard, J.H.; Griebenow, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    All methods of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in use or envisioned for treatment of brain tumors have, as an inseparable component, an element of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews data on the effects of ionizing radiation on the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and the blood-tumor-barrier (BTB) and the potential impact of the effects on the delivery techniques of BNCT. This paper has the following objectives: review the available technique for BNCT of brain tumors; review the literature on experimental and human studies regarding the effects of ionizing radiation on the BBB; discuss the impact of these effects on the fractionization question for BNCT; and draw conclusions from that information

  9. Correlation of clinical outcome to the estimated radiation dose from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadha, M. [Beth Israel Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A phase I/II trial delivering a single fraction of BNCT using p-Boronophenylalanine-Fructose and epithermal neutrons at the the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was initiated in September 1994. The primary endpiont of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a given BNCT dose. The clinical outcome of the disease was a secondary endpoint of the study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the correlation of the clinical outcome of patients to the estimated radiation dose from BNCT.

  10. Correlation of clinical outcome to the estimated radiation dose from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, M.

    1996-01-01

    A phase I/II trial delivering a single fraction of BNCT using p-Boronophenylalanine-Fructose and epithermal neutrons at the the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was initiated in September 1994. The primary endpiont of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a given BNCT dose. The clinical outcome of the disease was a secondary endpoint of the study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the correlation of the clinical outcome of patients to the estimated radiation dose from BNCT

  11. PBF/BNCT [power burst facility/boron neutron capture therapy] program for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, R.V. III.

    1989-06-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during June include progress within the areas of gross boron analysis in tissue, blood, and urine; analytical methodologies development for BSH (sodium borocaptate) purity determination; boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development; noninvasive boron quantification determination; dosimetry; and analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT

  12. Some recent developments in treatment planning software and methodology for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Wheeler, F.J.; Wessol, D.E.; Wemple, C.A.; Babcock, R.; Capala, J.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past several years/the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has led the development of a unique, internationally-recognized set of software modules (BNCT rtpe) for computational dosimetry and treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The computational capability represented by this software is essential to the proper administration of all forms of radiotherapy for cancer. Such software addresses the need to perform pretreatment computation and optimization of the radiation dose distribution in the target volume. This permits the achievement of the optimal therapeutic ratio (tumor dose relative to critical normal tissue dose) for each individual patient via a systematic procedure for specifying the appropriate irradiation parameters to be employed for a given treatment. These parameters include angle of therapy beam incidence, beam aperture and shape,and beam intensity as a function of position across the beam front. The INEL software is used for treatment planning in the current series of human glioma trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and has also been licensed for research and developmental purposes to several other BNCT research centers in the US and in Europe

  13. Some recent developments in treatment planning software and methodology for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Wheeler, F.J.; Wessol, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past several years the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has led the development of a unique, internationally-recognized set of software modules (BNCT-rtpe) for computational dosimetry and treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The computational capability represented by this software is essential to the proper administration of all forms of radiotherapy for cancer. Such software addresses the need to perform pretreatment computation and optimization of the radiation dose distribution in the target volume. This permits the achievement of the optimal therapeutic ratio (tumor dose relative to critical normal tissue dose) for each individual patient via a systematic procedure for specifying the appropriate irradiation parameters to be employed for a given treatment. These parameters include angle of therapy beam incidence, beam aperture and shape, and beam intensity as a function of position across the beam front. The INEL software is used for treatment planning in the current series of human glioma trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and has also been licensed for research and developmental purposes to several other BNCT research centers in the US and in Europe

  14. Radiation field characterization of a BNCT research facility using Monte Carlo method - code MCNP-4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Antonio Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - BNCT - is a selective cancer treatment and arises as an alternative therapy to treat cancer when usual techniques - surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy - show no satisfactory results. The main proposal of this work is to project a facility to BNCT studies. This facility relies on the use of an Am Be neutron source and on a set of moderators, filters and shielding which will provide the best neutron/gamma beam characteristic for these Becton studies, i.e., high intensity thermal and/or epithermal neutron fluxes and with the minimum feasible gamma rays and fast neutrons contaminants. A computational model of the experiment was used to obtain the radiation field in the sample irradiation position. The calculations have been performed with the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo Code and the results obtained can be regarded as satisfactory, i.e., a thermal neutron fluencyN T = 1,35x10 8 n/cm , a fast neutron dose of 5,86x10 -10 Gy/N T and a gamma ray dose of 8,30x10 -14 Gy/N T . (author)

  15. Comparison of the radiobiological effects of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and conventional Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Thomasz, Lisa; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario; Pozzi, Emiliano; Thorp, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    BNCT is an experimental radiotherapeutic modality that uses the capacity of the isotope 10 B to capture thermal neutrons leading to the production of 4 He and 7 Li, particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). The aim was to evaluate and compare in vitro the mechanisms of response to the radiation arising of BNCT and conventional gamma therapy. We measured the survival cell fraction as a function of the total physical dose and analyzed the expression of p27/Kip1 and p53 by Western blotting in cells of colon cancer (ARO81-1). Exponentially growing cells were distributed into the following groups: 1) BPA (10 ppm 10 B) + neutrons; 2) BOPP (10 ppm 10 B) + neutrons; 3) neutrons alone; 4) gamma-rays. A control group without irradiation for each treatment was added. The cells were irradiated in the thermal neutron beam of the RA-3 (flux= 7.5 10 9 n/cm 2 sec) or with 60 Co (1Gy/min) during different times in order to obtain total physical dose between 1-5 Gy (±10 %). A decrease in the survival fraction as a function of the physical dose was observed for all the treatments. We also observed that neutrons and neutrons + BOPP did not differ significantly and that BPA was the more effective compound. Protein extracts of irradiated cells (3Gy) were isolated to 24 h and 48 h post radiation exposure. The irradiation with neutrons in presence of 10 BPA or 10 BOPP produced an increase of p53 at 24 h maintain until 48 h. On the contrary, in the groups irradiated with neutrons alone or gamma the peak was observed at 48 hr. The level of expression of p27/Kip1 showed a reduction of this protein in all the groups irradiated with neutrons (neutrons alone or neutrons plus boron compound), being more marked at 24 h. These preliminary results suggest different radiobiological response for high and low let radiation. Future studies will permit establish the role of cell cycle in the tumor radio sensibility to BNCT. (author)

  16. TIDBIT - the INEL database of BNCT information and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The INEL Database of BNCT Information and Treatment (TIDBIT) has been under development for several years. Late in 1993, a new software development team took over the project and did and assessment of the current implementation status, and determined that the user interface was unsatisfactory for the expected users and that the data structures were out of step with the current state of reality. The team evaluated several tools that would improve the user interface to make the system easier to use. Uniface turned out to be the product of choice. During 1994, TIDBIT got its name, underwent a complete change of appearance, had a major overhaul to the data structures that support the application, and system documentation was begun. A prototype of the system was demonstrated in September 1994

  17. Investigation of development and management of treatment planning systems for BNCT at foreign facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A new computational dosimetry system for BNCT: JCDS is developed by JAERI in order to carry out BNCT with epithermal neutron beam at present. The development and management situation of computational dosimetry system, which are developed and are used in BNCT facilities in foreign countries, were investigated in order to accurately grasp functions necessary for preparation of the treatment planning and its future subjects. In present state, 'SERA', which are developed by Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is used in many BNCT facilities. Followings are necessary for development and management of the treatment planning system. (1) Reliability confirmation of system performance by verification as comparison examination of calculated value with actual experimental measured value. (2) Confirmation systems such as periodic maintenance for retention of the system quality. (3) The improvement system, which always considered relative merits and demerits with other computational dosimetry system. (4) The development of integrated system with patient setting. (author)

  18. First clinical results from the EORTC phase I Trial ''postoperative treatment of glioblastoma with BNCT at the Petten irradiation facility''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, W.; Hideghety, K.; Rassow, J.; Devries, M.J.; Goetz, C.; Paquis, P.; Grochulla, F.; Wolbers, J.G.; Haselsberger, K.; Turowski, B.; Moss, R.L.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.; Touw, D.; Wiestler, O.D.; Frankhauser, H.; Gabel, D.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the pre-clinical work of the European Collaboration on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy a study protocol was prepared in 1995 to initiate Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in patients at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten. Bio-distribution and pharmacokinetics data of the boron drug Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH (BSH) as well as the radiobiological effects of BNCT with BSH in healthy brain tissue of dogs were considered in designing the strategy for this clinical Phase I trial. The primary goal of the radiation dose escalation study is the investigation of possible adverse events due to BNCT; i.e. to establish the dose limiting toxicity and the maximal tolerated dose. The treatment is delivered in 4 fractions at a defined average boron concentration in blood. Cohorts of 10 patients are treated per dose group. The starting dose was set at 80% of the dose at which neurological symptoms occurred in preclinical dog experiments following a single fraction. After an observation period of at least 6 months, the dose is increased by 10% for the next cohort if less then three severe side effects related to the treatment occurred. The results of the first cohort are presented here. The evaluated dose level can be considered safe. (author)

  19. Radiation field characterization of a BNCT research facility using Monte Carlo Method - Code MCNP-4B; Caracterizacao do campo de radiacao numa instalacao para pesquisa em BNCT o metodo de Monte Carlo Codigo - MCNP-4B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Antonio Carlos

    2002-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - BNCT- is a selective cancer treatment and arises as an alternative therapy to treat cancer when usual techniques - surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy - show no satisfactory results. The main proposal of this work is to project a facility to BNCT studies. This facility relies on the use of an AmBe neutron source and on a set of moderators, filters and shielding which will provide the best neutron/gamma beam characteristic for these BNCT studies, i.e., high intensity thermal and/or epithermal neutron fluxes and with the minimum feasible gamma rays and fast neutrons contaminants. A computational model of the experiment was used to obtain the radiation field in the sample irradiation position. The calculations have been performed with the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo Code and the results obtained can be regarded as satisfactory, i.e., a thermal neutron fluency {Nu}{sub {Tau}} = 1,35x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}, a fast neutron dose of 5,86x{sup -1}0 Gy/{Nu}{sub {Tau}} and a gamma ray dose of 8,30x{sup -14} Gy/{Nu}{sub {Tau}}. (author)

  20. Treatment planning capability assessment of a beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, M S; González, S J; Burlon, A A; Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2011-12-01

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) a theoretical study was performed to assess the treatment planning capability of different configurations of an optimized beam shaping assembly for such a facility. In particular this study aims at evaluating treatment plans for a clinical case of Glioblastoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a treatment planning system for BNCT based on positron emission tomography data: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, N.; Daquino, G. G.; Muzi, L.; Esposito, J.

    2004-01-01

    Present standard treatment planning (TP) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM - a kind of brain tumor), used in all boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) trials, requires the construction (based on CT and/or MRI images) of a 3D model of the patient head, in which several regions, corresponding to different anatomical structures, are identified. The model is then employed by a computer code to simulate radiation transport in human tissues. The assumption is always made that considering a single value of boron concentration for each specific region will not lead to significant errors in dose computation. The concentration values are estimated "indirectly", on the basis of previous experience and blood sample analysis. This paper describes an original approach, with the introduction of data on the in vivo boron distribution, acquired by a positron emission tomography (PET) scan after labeling the BPA (borono-phenylalanine) with the positron emitter 18F. The feasibility of this approach was first tested with good results using the code CARONTE. Now a complete TPS is under development. The main features of the first version of this code are described and the results of a preliminary study are presented. Significant differences in dose computation arise when the two different approaches ("standard" and "PET-based") are applied to the TP of the same GBM case.

  2. "Sequential” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Marcela A. Garabalino; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Maria E. Itoiz; Silvia I. Thorp; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Jorge Quintana; Gustavo A. Santa Cruz

    2011-04-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that involves the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumors followed by irradiation with a thermal or epithermal neutron beam. The minor abundance stable isotope of boron, 10B, interacts with low energy (thermal) neutrons to produce high linear energy transfer (LET) a-particles and 7Li ions. These disintegration products are known to have a high relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Their short range (<10 {micro}m) would limit the damage to cells containing 10B (1,2). Thus, BNCT would target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Clinical trials of BNCT for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and/or melanoma and, more recently, head and neck tumors and liver metastases, using boronophenylalanine (BPA) or sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborane (BSH) as the 10B carriers, have been performed or are underway in Argentina, Japan, the US and Europe (e.g. 3-8). To date, the clinical results have shown a potential, albeit inconclusive, therapeutic advantage for this technique. Contributory translational studies have been carried out employing a variety of experimental models based on the implantation of tumor cells in normal tissue (e.g. 5).

  3. An update on the clinical trial of BNCT at the BMRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Capala, J.; Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Diaz, A.Z.

    1999-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed more than six decades ago. It is a binary treatment modality that requires selective delivery of a 10 B-labeled compound to a tumor and slow neutron irradiation of the tumor-bearing tissues. In order to improve the penetration of the neutron beam, an epithermal neutron beam was developed at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This epithermal neutron beam can deliver relatively high thermal neutron fluence at depth without severe skin damage. Boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F), a nontoxic boron carrier, was found to preferentially accumulate in tumor cells following intravenous infusion in patients with GBM. In preclinical BNCT studies in rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma, BPA-mediated BNCT was shown to be more efficacious than photon irradiation. In 1994, improvements in the neutron beam and in the understanding of the radiobiology of BPA-mediated BNCT led to the initiation of BNCT trials for human GBM at BMRR using BPA-F and epithermal neutrons. The primary objective of the phase I/II clinical trial of BPA-mediated BNCT at BMRR is to evaluate the safety of the BPA-F-mediated BNCT using epithermal neutrons in patients with GBM at a series of escalating BNCT doses. An incidental objective is to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of BNCT at each dose level. For each dose escalation group, the average brain dose (ABD) is escalated, as well as the minimum tumor dose. In summary, the BNCT procedure employed in the phase I/II clinical trial of BPA-F-mediated BNCT for GBM at BNL was found to be safe in all patients. The palliation afforded by a single session of BNCT compares favorably with palliation provided by fractionated photon therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. If no evidence of radiation-induced brain toxicity is found in the current protocol, BNCT radiation dose will be further escalated

  4. Treatment optimization of a brain tumor in BNCT by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejat, S.; Binesh, A.; Karimian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brain cancers are one of the most important diseases. BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) is used to brain tumor treatment. In this method the 1 0B (n,α) 7 Li reaction is used. The purpose of this study is absorbed dose evaluation of tumoral and healthy parts of brain. To achieve this aim the brain was simulated by a cylindrical phantom with the dimensions of 20 cm in diameter and height. In BNCT treatment the BSH (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH) is injected to the human body and absorbed in the healthy and tumoral parts by the ratios of 18 and 65 ppm respectively. So in this research the absorption of BSH in tumoral and healthy parts of brain was considered as the mentioned ratio. Then the neutron with the energy range of 50 eV - 10 keV was exposed to the brain and maximum absorbed dose in healthy and tumoral parts of brain were calculated for a cylindrical tumor with the thickness of about 1 cm which was considered in 5.5 cm depth of brain. This research showed the suitable energy to treat this tumor by BNCT is interval 4 keV- 6keV. The average of dose which is met with healthy and tumor tissue was gained for 6 keV energy of brain 1.18x10 -12 cGy/n and 5.98x10 -12 cGy/n respectively. Maximum of dose which is met with healthy tissue was 4.3 Gy which is much less than standard amount 12.6 Gy. Therefore BNCT method is known as an effective way in the therapy of this kind of tumor. (authors)

  5. Radiation field characterization of a BNCT research facility using Monte Carlo method - code MCNP-4B; Caracterizacao do campo de radiacao numa instalacao para pesquisa em BNCT utilizando o metodo de Monte Carlo - codigo MCNP-4B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Antonio Carlos

    2002-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - BNCT - is a selective cancer treatment and arises as an alternative therapy to treat cancer when usual techniques - surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy - show no satisfactory results. The main proposal of this work is to project a facility to BNCT studies. This facility relies on the use of an Am Be neutron source and on a set of moderators, filters and shielding which will provide the best neutron/gamma beam characteristic for these Becton studies, i.e., high intensity thermal and/or epithermal neutron fluxes and with the minimum feasible gamma rays and fast neutrons contaminants. A computational model of the experiment was used to obtain the radiation field in the sample irradiation position. The calculations have been performed with the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo Code and the results obtained can be regarded as satisfactory, i.e., a thermal neutron fluencyN{sub T} = 1,35x10{sup 8} n/cm , a fast neutron dose of 5,86x10{sup -10} Gy/N{sub T} and a gamma ray dose of 8,30x10{sup -14} Gy/N{sub T}. (author)

  6. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reprint of Application of BNCT to the treatment of HER2+ breast cancer recurrences: Research and developments in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadan, M.A.; González, S.J.; Batalla, M.; Olivera, M.S.; Policastro, L.; Sztejnberg, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the Argentine BNCT Project a new research line has been started to study the application of BNCT to the treatment of locoregional recurrences of HER2+ breast cancer subtype. Based on former studies, the strategy considers the use of immunoliposomes as boron carriers nanovehicles to target HER2 overexpressing cells. The essential concerns of the current stage of this proposal are the development of carriers that can improve the efficiency of delivery of boron compounds and the dosimetric assessment of treatment feasibility. For this purpose, an specific pool of clinical cases that can benefit from this application was determined. In this work, we present the proposal and the advances related to the different stages of current research. - Highlights: • A new proposal of BNCT for HER2+ breast cancer treatment is introduced. • The proposal considers development of immunoliposomes as boron carrier nanovehicles. • Locoregional recurrences after treatment were identified as candidates for initial BNCT studies. • First analysis show acceptable neutron flux distributions provided by RA-6 BNCT facility.

  8. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included

  9. Co-registration of the BNCT treatment planning images for clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salli, Eero; Seppaelae, Tiina; Kankaanranta, Leena; Asikainen, Sami; Savolainen, Sauli; Koivunoro, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    We have co-registered MRI, CT and FBPA-PET images for BNCT in clinical practice. Co-registration improves the spatial accuracy of the treatment planning by enabling use of information from all the co-registered modalities. The multimodal co-registration has been implemented as a service product provided by the Imaging Center of Helsinki University Central Hospital to other departments. To increase the accuracy of co-registration and patient positioning in the head area BNCT, a patient-specific fixation mask suitable for PET, MRI and CT was developed. The goal of the fixation mask is to normalize the orientation of the patient's head and neck. Co-registration is performed at the image processing unit by using a rigid body model, mutual-information based algorithms and partly in-house developed software tools. The accuracy of co-registration is verified by comparing the locations of the external skin markers and anatomical landmarks in different modalities. After co-registration, the images are transformed and covered into a format required by the BNCT dose-planning software and set to the dose-planning unit of the hospital. So far co-registration has been done for 22 patients. The co-registration protocol has proved to be reliable and efficient. Some registration errors are seen on some patients in the neck area because the rigid-body model used in co-registration is not fully valid for the brain-neck entity. The registration accuracy in this area could likely be improved by implementing a co-registration procedure utilizing a partly non-rigid body model. (author)

  10. Monte Carlo dose calculations for BNCT treatment of diffuse human lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Bruschi, P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to test the possibility to apply BNCT in the core of diffuse lung tumours, dose distribution calculations were made. The simulations were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP.4c2, using the male computational phantom Adam, version 07/94. Volumes of interest were voxelized for the tally requests, and results were obtained for tissues with and without Boron. Different collimated neutron sources were tested in order to establish the proper energies, as well as single and multiple beams to maximize neutron flux uniformity inside the target organs. Flux and dose distributions are reported. The use of two opposite epithermal neutron collimated beams insures good levels of dose homogeneity inside the lungs, with a substantially lower radiation dose delivered to surrounding structures. (author)

  11. Effects of secondary interactions on the dose calculation in treatments with Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, E.

    2004-01-01

    The aimed of this work consists of evaluating the influence of the secondary contributions of dose (thermal neutrons dose, epithermal neutrons dose, fast neutrons dose and photon dose) in treatment planning with BNCT. MCNP4B Code was used to calculate RBE-Gy doses through the irradiation of the modified Snyder head head phantom.A reduction of the therapeutical gain of monoenergetic neutron beans was observed in non invasive treatments, provoked for the predominance of the fast neutron dose component in the skin, showing that the secondary contributions of dose can contribute more in the direction to raise the dose in the fabric healthy that in the tumor, thus reducing the treatment efficiency. (author)

  12. Dosimetry and radiobiology at the new RA-3 reactor boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility: Application to the treatment of experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, E. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina)], E-mail: epozzi@cnea.gov.ar; Nigg, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States); Miller, M.; Thorp, S.I. [Instrumentation and Control Department, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Heber, E.M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Zarza, L.; Estryk, G. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Monti Hughes, A.; Molinari, A.J.; Garabalino, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Itoiz, M.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, R.F. [Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Quintana, J. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, A.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) constructed a novel thermal neutron source for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The aim of the present study was to perform a dosimetric characterization of the facility and undertake radiobiological studies of BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. The free-field thermal flux was 7.1x10{sup 9} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and the fast neutron flux was 2.5x10{sup 6} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, indicating a very well-thermalized neutron field with negligible fast neutron dose. For radiobiological studies it was necessary to shield the body of the hamster from the neutron flux while exposing the everted cheek pouch bearing the tumors. To that end we developed a lithium (enriched to 95% in {sup 6}Li) carbonate enclosure. Groups of tumor-bearing hamsters were submitted to BPA-BNCT, GB-10-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT or beam only treatments. Normal (non-cancerized) hamsters were treated similarly to evaluate normal tissue radiotoxicity. The total physical dose delivered to tumor with the BNCT treatments ranged from 6 to 8.5 Gy. Tumor control at 30 days ranged from 73% to 85%, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Significant but reversible mucositis in precancerous tissue surrounding tumors was associated to BPA-BNCT. The therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in treating experimental oral cancer at this novel facility was unequivocally demonstrated.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation to study the doses in an accelerator BNCT treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlon, Alejandro A.; Valda, Alejandro A.; Somacal, Hector R.; Kreiner, Andres J.; Minsky, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction has been studied as a neutron source for accelerator-based BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In order to optimize the design of the neutron production target and the beam shaping assembly, extensive MCNP simulations have been performed. These simulations include a thick Li metal target, a whole-body phantom, a moderator-reflector assembly (Al/AlF 3 as moderator and graphite as reflector) and the treatment room. The doses were evaluated for two proton bombarding energies of 1.92 MeV (near to the threshold of the reaction) and 2.3 MeV (near to the resonance of the reaction) and for three Al/ALF 3 moderator thicknesses (18, 26 and 34 cm). To assess the doses, a comparison using a Tumor Control Probability (TCP) model was done. In a second instance, the effect of the specific skin radiosensitivity (an RBE of 2.5 for the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction) and a 10 B uptake of 17 ppm was considered for the scalp. Finally, the simulations show the advantage of irradiating with near-resonance-energy protons (2.3 MeV) because of the high neutron yield at this energy, leading to the lowest treatment times. Moreover, the 26 cm Al/AlF 3 moderator has shown the best performance among the studied cases. (author)

  14. BDTPS The BNCT Treatment Planning System jointly developed at DIMNP and JRC/IE

    CERN Document Server

    Daquino, G G; Mazzini, M; Moss, R; Muzi, L; International Workshop on "Neutron Capture Therapy: State of the art"

    2003-01-01

    The idea to couple the Treatment Planning System (TPS) to the information on the real boron distribution in the patient is the main added value of the new methodology set-up at DIMNP of University of Pisa, in collaboration with the JRC of Petten (NL). The methodology has been implemented in the new TPS, called BDTPS (Boron Distribution Treatment Planning System), which takes into account the actual boron distribution in the patient brain, while the standard TPS assumes a uniform boron distribution, absolutely far from the reality. Nowadays, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is able to provide this in vivo information. The new TPS, based on the Monte Carlo technique, has been validated comparing the main BNCT parameters (thermal flux, boron dose, etc.) as measured during the irradiation of a special heterogeneous boron phantom (HEBOM), ad hoc designed, as calculated by the BDTPS and by the standard TPS SERA. An evident SERA overestimation of the thermal neutron flux, as well as the boron dose, has been detect...

  15. Employment of MCNP in the study of TLDS 600 and 700 seeking the implementation of radiation beam characterization of BNCT facility at IEA-R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalieri, Tassio Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT, is a bimodal radiotherapy procedure for cancer treatment. Its useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction driven by impinging thermal neutron upon Boron 10 atoms. A BNCT research facility has been constructed in IPEN at the IEA-R1 reactor, to develop studies in this area. One of its prime experimental parameter is the beam dosimetry which is nowadays made by using activation foils, for neutron measurements, and TLD 400, for gamma dosimetry. For mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, recommends the use of pair of detectors with distinct responses to the field components. The TLD 600/ TLD 700 pair meets this criteria, as the amount of 6 Li, a nuclide with high thermal neutron cross section, greatly differs in their composition. This work presents a series of experiments and simulations performed in order to implement the mixed field dosimetry based on the use of TLD 600/TLD 700 pair. It also intended to compare this mixed field dosimetric methodology to the one so far used by the BNCT research group of IPEN. The response of all TLDs were studied under irradiations in different irradiation fields and simulations, underwent by MCNP, were run in order to evaluate the dose contribution from each field component. Series of repeated irradiations under pure gamma field and mixed field neutron/gamma field showed differences in the TLD individual responses which led to the adoption of a Normalization Factor. It has allowed to overcome TLD selection. TLD responses due to different field components and spectra were studied. It has shown to be possible to evaluate the relative gamma/neutron fluxes from the relative responses observed in the two Regions of Interest, ROIs, from TLD 600 and TLD 700. It has also been possible to observe the TLD 700 response to neutron, which leads to a gamma dose overestimation when one follows the ICRU recommended mixed field dosimetric procedure. Dose

  16. INEEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report, CY-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2001-03-01

    This report is a summary of the activities conducted in conjunction with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 2000. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, neutron source design and demonstration, and support the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National BNCT Program goals are the goals of this Program. Contributions from the individual contributors about their projects are included, specifically described are the following, chemistry: analysis of biological samples and an infrared blood-boron analyzer, and physics: progress in the patient treatment planning software, measurement of neutron spectra for the Argentina RA-6 reactor, and recalculation of the Finnish research reactor FiR 1 neutron spectra, BNCT accelerator technology, and modification to the research reactor at Washington State University for an epithermal-neutron beam.

  17. Liposome and co-spray-dried PVP / o-carborane formulations for BNCT treatment of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Olusanya, Temidayo; Stich, Theresia; Higgins, Samantha Caroline; Lloyd, Rhiannon Eleanor Iris; Pilkington, Geoffrey John; Fatouros, Dimitrios; Calabrese, Gianpiero; Smith, James Richard; Tsibouklis, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a method for selectively destroying malignant (normally glioma) cells whilst sparing normal tissue. Irradiation of 10B (large neutron capture cross-section) with thermal neutrons effects the nuclear fission reaction: 10B + 1n → → 7Li+ + α + γ; where the penetration of α-particles and 7Li+ is only 8 and 5 µm, respectively, i.e., within a single cell thickness. Poor selectivity is the main reason why BNCT has not become a mainstream cancer therap...

  18. BNCT of canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitin, V.N.; Kulakov, V.N.; Khokhlov, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    A dog was diagnosed with osteosarcoma (8x6x5cm) in the right wing of ilium by radiography, radionuclide scintigraphy and histological study of biopsy material. The treatment plan was as follows: γ-therapy in combination with chemotherapy; prevention of hematogenous pulmonary metastases by the transfusion of 130 ml of allogenic marrow from a healthy donor; administration of 11.4g 10 B-boronphenylalanine into the right iliac artery; resection of the right iliac wing with the osteosarcoma lesion; neutron irradiation (MEPhI Reactor) of the bone fragment (dose on healthy osteocytes - 15±4 Gy (W), on tumor - 50±9 Gy (W); reimplantation and fixation of the fragment; three courses of adjuvant chemotherapy. The doses were determined in full-scale calculations of the reactor radiation fields with a model of the bone under the code RADUGA. The 10 B concentration (μg/g) in the bone was: normal tissue - 9±3, tumor - 28±5. In 24 hours post operation the dog was able to walk using the treated limb, and 6 months later it moved freely. The patient has been under observation for 30 months. The results of the research demonstrate complete cure. The use of similar treatment plans improves the therapeutic efficiency of BNCT. (author)

  19. A new approach to determine tumor-to-blood 10B concentration ratios from the clinical outcome of a BNCT treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.J.; Carando, D.G.; Bonomi, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to determine the tumor-to-blood 10 B concentration ratio in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is introduced. It is a statistical method, which uses maximum likelihood estimation on the clinical outcome of a BNCT treatment. Its performance is shown in a clinical case of cutaneous multiple nodular melanomas. The calculations involve a detailed dosimetry analysis, the determination of tumor control probabilities for the different nodules, the maximum likelihood estimation itself, and a parametric bootstrap to obtain confidence intervals for the tumor-to-blood ratio. The obtained ratio is 3.05±0.46 with a 95%-confidence interval. These results are consistent with those found in literature. Moreover, a single patient with multiple nodules proves enough to get statistically relevant results. The proposed method does not involve surgery and can be performed after a BNCT treatment without being invasive for the patient

  20. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Marcelo E.; Sztejnberg, Manuel L.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Longhino, Juan M.; Estryk, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities derived from measurements performed at the RA-6 were compared and no significant differences were found. Global RA-6-based thermal neutron sensitivity showed agreement with pure thermal neutron sensitivity measurements performed in the RA-3 spectrum. Additionally, the detector response proved nearly unchanged by differences in neutron spectra from real (RA-6 BNCT beam) and ideal (considered for calibration calculations at RA-3) neutron source descriptions. The results confirm that the special design of the Rh SPND can be considered as having a pure thermal response for neutron spectra with epithermal-to-thermal flux ratios up to 12%. In addition, the linear response of the detector to thermal flux allows the use of a mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivity of 1.95 ± 0.05 x 10 -21 A n -1 ·cm 2 ·s. This sensitivity can be used in spectra with up to 21% epithermal-to-thermal flux ratio without significant error due to epithermal neutron and gamma induced effects. The values of the measured fluxes in clinical applications had discrepancies with calculated results that were in the range of -25% to +30%, which shows the importance of a local on-line independent measurement as part of a treatment planning quality control system. Conclusions: The usefulness of the CNEA Rh SPND for the on-line local measurement of thermal neutron flux on BNCT patients has been demonstrated based on an appropriate neutron spectra calibration and clinical applications.

  2. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marcelo E; Sztejnberg, Manuel L; González, Sara J; Thorp, Silvia I; Longhino, Juan M; Estryk, Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    -field thermal neutron sensitivities derived from measurements performed at the RA-6 were compared and no significant differences were found. Global RA-6-based thermal neutron sensitivity showed agreement with pure thermal neutron sensitivity measurements performed in the RA-3 spectrum. Additionally, the detector response proved nearly unchanged by differences in neutron spectra from real (RA-6 BNCT beam) and ideal (considered for calibration calculations at RA-3) neutron source descriptions. The results confirm that the special design of the Rh SPND can be considered as having a pure thermal response for neutron spectra with epithermal-to-thermal flux ratios up to 12%. In addition, the linear response of the detector to thermal flux allows the use of a mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivity of 1.95 ± 0.05 × 10(-21) A n(-1)[middle dot]cm² [middle dot]s. This sensitivity can be used in spectra with up to 21% epithermal-to-thermal flux ratio without significant error due to epithermal neutron and gamma induced effects. The values of the measured fluxes in clinical applications had discrepancies with calculated results that were in the range of -25% to +30%, which shows the importance of a local on-line independent measurement as part of a treatment planning quality control system. The usefulness of the CNEA Rh SPND for the on-line local measurement of thermal neutron flux on BNCT patients has been demonstrated based on an appropriate neutron spectra calibration and clinical applications.

  3. Spectrum shaping assessment of accelerator-based fusion neutron sources to be used in BNCT treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, N.; Esposito, J.; Daquino, G. G.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo modelling of an irradiation facility, for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application, using a set of advanced type, accelerator based, 3H(d,n) 4He (D-T) fusion neutron source device is presented. Some general issues concerning the design of a proper irradiation beam shaping assembly, based on very hard energy neutron source spectrum, are reviewed. The facility here proposed, which represents an interesting solution compared to the much more investigated Li or Be based accelerator driven neutron source could fulfil all the medical and safety requirements to be used by an hospital environment.

  4. Depth-dose evaluation for lung and pancreas cancer treatment by BNCT using an epithermal neutron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuo; Fukushima, Yuji [Musashi Institute of Technology, Atomic Energy Research Laboratory, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    The depth-dose distributions were evaluated for possible treatment of both lung and pancreas cancers using an epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP calculations showed that physical dose in tumors were 6 and 7 Gy/h, respectively, for lung and pancreas, attaining an epithermal neutron flux of 5x10{sup 8} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The boron concentrations were assumed at 100 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively, for lung and pancreas tumors and normal tissues contains 1/10 tumor concentrations. The dose ratios of tumor to normal tissue were 2.5 and 2.4, respectively, for lung and pancreas. The dose evaluation suggests that BNCT could be applied for both lung and pancreas cancer treatment. (author)

  5. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schütz, C.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed at Pavia (Italy) a few...... have also been initiated to investigate radiobiological effects of radiation generated during BNCT. For both experiments and treatment, a reliable dosimetry system is necessary. From work elsewhere, the use of alanine detectors appear to be an appropriate dosimetry technique....

  6. Studies for the application of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (CDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpano, Marina; Thomasz, Lisa; Perona, Marina; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Nievas, Susana I.; Pozzi, Emiliano; Thorp, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a high linear energy transfer (LET) radiotherapy for cancer, which it is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when boron-10 that it is a non radioactive isotope of the natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to produce an alpha particle and a nucleus of lithium-7. Both particles have a range smaller than the diameter of a cell causing cell tumor death without significant damage to the surrounding normal tissues. In previous studies we have shown that BNCT can be a possibility for the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC). However, more than 80 % of patients with thyroid neoplasm present differentiated carcinoma (CDT). These carcinomas are treated by surgery followed by therapy with 131 I and mostly these forms are well controlled. But in some patients recurrence of the tumor is observed. BNCT can be an alternative for these patients in who the tumor lost the capacity to concentrate iodide. The aim of these studies was to evaluate the possibility of treating differentiated thyroid cancer by BNCT. Materials and Methods: The human cell lines of follicular (WRO) and papillary carcinomas (TPC-1) were grown in RPMI and modified DMEM medium respectively. Both supplemented with 10 % of SFB. The cell line of thyroid rat, FRTL-5, used as control normal, was cultured in DMEM/F12. The uptakes of 125 I and p-borophenylalanine BPA (6.93mM) were studied. The intracellular boron concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) at 2 hr post incubation. The NIH strain of male nude mice, aged 6 to 8 weeks and weighing 20 to 25 g were implanted (s.c) in the back right flank with different concentrations of tumor cells. The size of the tumors was measured with a caliper twice or three times a week and the volume was calculated according the following formulae: A 2 x B/2 (were A is the width and B is the length). To evaluate the BPA uptake, animals

  7. Clinical results of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Nagahiro, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of BSH-based intra-operative BNCT (IO-BNCT) and BSH and BPA-based non-operative BNCT (NO-BNCT). We have treated 23 glioblastoma patients with BNCT without any additional chemotherapy since 1998. The median survival time (MST) of BNCT was 19.5 months, and 2-year, 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 26.1%, 17.4% and 5.8%, respectively. This clinical result of BNCT in patients with GBM is superior to that of single treatment of conventional radiotherapy compared with historical data of conventional treatment. - Highlights: ► In this study, we evaluate the clinical outcome of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant brain tumors. ► We have treated 23 glioblastoma (GBM) patients with BNCT without any additional chemotherapy. ► Clinical results of BNCT in patients with GBM are superior to that of single treatment of conventional radiotherapy compared with historical data of conventional treatment.

  8. Employment of MCNP in the study of TLDS 600 and 700 seeking the implementation of radiation beam characterization of BNCT facility at IEA-R1; Emprego do MCNP no estudo dos TLDS 600 e 700 visando a implementacao da caracterizacao do feixe de irradiacao da instalacao de BNCT do IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, Tassio Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT, is a bimodal radiotherapy procedure for cancer treatment. Its useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction driven by impinging thermal neutron upon Boron 10 atoms. A BNCT research facility has been constructed in IPEN at the IEA-R1 reactor, to develop studies in this area. One of its prime experimental parameter is the beam dosimetry which is nowadays made by using activation foils, for neutron measurements, and TLD 400, for gamma dosimetry. For mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, recommends the use of pair of detectors with distinct responses to the field components. The TLD 600/ TLD 700 pair meets this criteria, as the amount of {sup 6}Li, a nuclide with high thermal neutron cross section, greatly differs in their composition. This work presents a series of experiments and simulations performed in order to implement the mixed field dosimetry based on the use of TLD 600/TLD 700 pair. It also intended to compare this mixed field dosimetric methodology to the one so far used by the BNCT research group of IPEN. The response of all TLDs were studied under irradiations in different irradiation fields and simulations, underwent by MCNP, were run in order to evaluate the dose contribution from each field component. Series of repeated irradiations under pure gamma field and mixed field neutron/gamma field showed differences in the TLD individual responses which led to the adoption of a Normalization Factor. It has allowed to overcome TLD selection. TLD responses due to different field components and spectra were studied. It has shown to be possible to evaluate the relative gamma/neutron fluxes from the relative responses observed in the two Regions of Interest, ROIs, from TLD 600 and TLD 700. It has also been possible to observe the TLD 700 response to neutron, which leads to a gamma dose overestimation when one follows the ICRU recommended mixed field dosimetric procedure. Dose

  9. Cross talk experiment with two-element CdTe detector and collimator for BNCT-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, Masanobu; Ohya, Ryosuke; Saraue, Nobuhide; Sato, Fuminobu; Murata, Isao [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a new radiation therapy. In BNCT, there exists some very critical problems that should be solved. One of the severest problems is that the treatment effect cannot be known during BNCT in real time. We are now developing a SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) system (BNCT-SPECT), with a cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detector. BNCT-SPECT can obtain the BNCT treatment effect by measuring 478 keV gamma-rays emitted from the excited state of 7Li nucleus created by 10B(n,α) 7Li reaction. In the previous studies, we investigated the feasibility of the BNCT-SPECT system. As a result, the S/N ratio did not meet the criterion of S/N >1 because deterioration of the S/N ratio occurred caused by the influence of Compton scattering especially due to capture gamma-rays of hydrogen. We thus produced an arrayed detector with two CdTe crystals to test cross talk phenomenon and to examine an anti-coincidence detection possibility. For more precise analysis for the anti-coincidence detection, we designed and made a collimator having a similar performance to the real BNCT-SPECT. We carried out experiments with the collimator to examine the effect of cross talk of scattering gamma-rays between CdTe elements more practically. As a result of measurement the coincidence events were successfully extracted. We are now planning to carry out evaluation of coincidence rate from the measurement and comparison of it with the numerical calculations.

  10. A clinical trial protocol for second line treatment of malignant brain tumors with BNCT at University of Tsukuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiyama, H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K., E-mail: knakai@Neurosurg-tsukuba.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyouku (Japan); Kumada, H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishikawa, E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Isobe, T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    We have evaluated the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor using a new protocol. One of the two patients enrolled in this trial is a man with recurrent glioblastoma and the other is a woman with anaplastic meningioma. Both are still alive and no severe adverse events have been observed. Our findings suggest that NCT will be safe as a palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cases with recurrent glioblastoma and anaplastic meningioma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No severe adverse events have been observed using BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BNCT has a possibility of a safe palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors.

  11. First clinical results on the finnish study on BPA-mediated BNCT in glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanranta, L.; Seppaelae, T.; Kallio, M.

    2000-01-01

    An open phase I dose-escalation boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) study on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was initiated at the BNCT facility FiR 1, Espoo, Finland, in May 1999. The aim of the study is to investigate the safety of boronophenylalanine (BPA)-mediated BNCT. Ten GBM patients were treated with a 2-field treatment plan using one fraction. BPA-F was used as the 10 B carrier infused as a fructose solution 290 mg BPA/kg over 2-hours prior to irradiation with epithermal neutrons. Average doses to the normal brain, contrast enhancing tumour, and the target ranged from 3.0 to 5.6 Gy (W), from 35.1 to 66.7 Gy (W), and from 29.6 to 53.6 Gy (W), respectively. BNCT was associated with acceptable toxicity. The median follow-up is 9 months (range, 3 to 16 months) post diagnosis in July 2000. Seven of the 10 patients have recurrent or persistent GBM, and the median time to progression is 8 months. Only one patient has died, and the estimated 1-year overall survival is 86%. Five of the recurrent tumours were treated with external beam photon radiation therapy to the total dose of 30-40 Gy with few acute side-effects. These preliminary findings suggest that acute toxicity of BPA-mediated BNCT is acceptable when average brain doses of 5.6 Gy (W) or less are used. The followup time is too short to evaluate survival, but the estimated 1-year survival of 86% achieved with BNCT followed by conventional photon irradiation at the time of tumour progression is encouraging and emphasises the need of further investigation of BPA-mediated BNCT. (author)

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIMODAL MONTE CARLO BASED TREATMENT PLANNING SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Takada, Kenta; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Minoru; Takata, Takushi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Akira; Sakae, Takeji

    2017-10-26

    To establish boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), the University of Tsukuba is developing a treatment device and peripheral devices required in BNCT, such as a treatment planning system. We are developing a new multimodal Monte Carlo based treatment planning system (developing code: Tsukuba Plan). Tsukuba Plan allows for dose estimation in proton therapy, X-ray therapy and heavy ion therapy in addition to BNCT because the system employs PHITS as the Monte Carlo dose calculation engine. Regarding BNCT, several verifications of the system are being carried out for its practical usage. The verification results demonstrate that Tsukuba Plan allows for accurate estimation of thermal neutron flux and gamma-ray dose as fundamental radiations of dosimetry in BNCT. In addition to the practical use of Tsukuba Plan in BNCT, we are investigating its application to other radiation therapies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Tumor control and normal tissue complications in BNCT treatment of nodular melanoma: A search for predictive quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, S.J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: srgonzal@cnea.gov.ar; Casal, M. [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Av. San Martin 5481, (1417) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pereira, M.D. [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Av. San Martin 5481, (1417) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Agencia Nacional de Promocion Cientifica y Tecnologica, PAV 22393 (Argentina); Santa Cruz, G.A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carando, D.G. [CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dpto. de Matematica, Pab. I Ciudad Universitaria, UBA, (1428) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Blaumann, H. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bonomi, M. [CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Calzetta Larrieu, O.; Feld, D.; Fernandez, C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gossio, S. [FCEyN, Pab. II Ciudad Universitaria, UBA, (1428) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jimenez Rebagliatti, R.; Kessler, J.; Longhino, J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Menendez, P. [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Av. San Martin 5481, (1417) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nievas, S. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roth, B.M.C [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Av. San Martin 5481, (1417) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Liberman, S.J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    A previous work concerning tumor control and skin damage in cutaneous melanoma treatments with BNCT has been extended to include doses, volumes and responses of 104 subcutaneous lesions from all patients treated in Argentina. Acute skin reactions were also scored for these patients, and cumulative dose-area histograms and dose-based figures of merit for skin were calculated. Broadening the tumor response analysis with the latest data showed that the (minimum or mean) tumor dose is not a good predictor of the observed clinical outcome by itself. However, when the tumor volume was included in the model as second explicative variable, the dose increases its significance and becomes a critical variable jointly with the volume (p-values<0.05). A preliminary analysis to estimate control doses for two groups of tumor sizes revealed that for small tumor volumes (< 0.1 cm{sup 3}) doses greater than 20 Gy-Eq produce a high tumor control (> 80%). However, when tumor volumes are larger than 0.1 cm{sup 3}, control is moderate (< 40%) even for minimum doses up to 40 Gy-Eq. Some quantities based on skin doses, areas and complication probabilities were proposed as candidates for predicting the severity of the early skin reactions. With the current data, all the evaluated figures of merit derived similar results: ulceration is present among the cases for which these quantities take the highest values.

  14. Tumor control and normal tissue complications in BNCT treatment of nodular melanoma: A search for predictive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.J.; Casal, M.; Pereira, M.D.; Santa Cruz, G.A.; Carando, D.G.; Blaumann, H.; Bonomi, M.; Calzetta Larrieu, O.; Feld, D.; Fernandez, C.; Gossio, S.; Jimenez Rebagliatti, R.; Kessler, J.; Longhino, J.; Menendez, P.; Nievas, S.; Roth, B.M.C; Liberman, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    A previous work concerning tumor control and skin damage in cutaneous melanoma treatments with BNCT has been extended to include doses, volumes and responses of 104 subcutaneous lesions from all patients treated in Argentina. Acute skin reactions were also scored for these patients, and cumulative dose-area histograms and dose-based figures of merit for skin were calculated. Broadening the tumor response analysis with the latest data showed that the (minimum or mean) tumor dose is not a good predictor of the observed clinical outcome by itself. However, when the tumor volume was included in the model as second explicative variable, the dose increases its significance and becomes a critical variable jointly with the volume (p-values 3 ) doses greater than 20 Gy-Eq produce a high tumor control (> 80%). However, when tumor volumes are larger than 0.1 cm 3 , control is moderate (< 40%) even for minimum doses up to 40 Gy-Eq. Some quantities based on skin doses, areas and complication probabilities were proposed as candidates for predicting the severity of the early skin reactions. With the current data, all the evaluated figures of merit derived similar results: ulceration is present among the cases for which these quantities take the highest values.

  15. Radiobiology studies for the evaluation of epithermal neutron beams used for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, S.; Jones, B.; Mill, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines our plans for a study to establish the radiobiological effectiveness of the various mixes of radiation components present in an epithermal neutron beam designed for BNCT and to incorporate these data into clinical protocols for the treatment of malignant glioma. This is a description of work which is funded and just now beginning in Birmingham so no results can be presented. Our project will involve a combination of experimental measurements carried out in Birmingham and in Boston and mathematical modelling carried out in Birmingham. Despite all the extant in-vitro and in-vivo work, there is no widely accepted method to determine biological effect by accounting for variations in beam component mix, dose rate and treatment fractionation for disparate from the various BNCT centres. The objectives of this study are: To develop a cell-based radiobiology protocol to provide essential data on safety and efficacy of beams for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in advance of clinical trials. To exploit the facilities at Massachusetts Institute of Technology for variable dose-rate epithermal irradiations to validate the above protocol. To develop mathematical models of this radiobiological system that can be used to inform decisions on dose selection, fractionation schedules, BNCT use as supplementary boosts or for re-treatment of recurrent cancers. To provide fundamental data relevant to the understanding of the radiobiology of simultaneous mixed high-and low-LET radiations over a clinically relevant dose-range. (author)

  16. The use of positron emission tomography in BNCT treatment planning for metastatic malignant melanoma and glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.; Nichols, T.; Smith, G.; Miller, L.; Kahn, M.

    2000-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) evaluations of six glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and one metastatic melanoma (MM) patient have been carried out utilizing fluorine-18 labeled p-boronophenylalanine. Four of the GBM patients were imaged both prior to and post BNCT. In one GBM patient, biopsy derived boron distribution data compared favorably to the PET derived data. The PET data have been used as input to dosimetry calculations and the results vary from those obtained using current protocols. In addition, PET images of the thorax would indicate that the utility of PET for staging tumors for BNCT may extend beyond the brain. However, higher than anticipated levels of activity in the lungs (as also seen in salivary glands) indicate the more effective BNCT agents will be required. (author)

  17. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented.

  18. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented

  19. Neutron beams implemented at nuclear research reactors for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, E.; Kasesaz, Y.; Wagner, F. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a survey of neutron beams which were or are in use at 56 Nuclear Research Reactors (NRRs) in order to be used for BNCT, either for treatment or research purposes in aspects of various combinations of materials that were used in their Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) design, use of fission converters and optimized beam parameters. All our knowledge about BNCT is indebted to researches that have been done in NRRs. The results of about 60 years research in BNCT and also the successes of this method in medical treatment of tumors show that, for the development of BNCT as a routine cancer therapy method, hospital-based neutron sources are needed. Achieving a physical data collection on BNCT neutron beams based on NRRs will be helpful for beam designers in developing a non-reactor based neutron beam.

  20. Neutron-photon mixed field dosimetry by TLD-700 glow curve analysis and its implementation in dose monitoring for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boggio, E. F.; Longhino, J. M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Departamento de Fisica de Reactores y Radiaciones / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Andres, P. A., E-mail: efboggio@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Division Proteccion Radiologica / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    BNCT is a cancerous cells selective, non-conventional radiotherapy modality to treat malignant tumors such as glioblastoma, melanoma and recurrent head and neck cancer. It consists of a two-step procedure: first, the patient is injected with a tumor localizing drug containing a non-radioactive isotope (Boron-10) with high slow neutron capture cross-section. In a second step, the patient is irradiated with neutrons, which are absorbed by the Boron-10 agent with the subsequently nuclear reaction B- 10(n,a)Li-7, thereby resulting in dose at cellular level due to the high-Let particles. The neutron fields suitable for BNCT are characterized by high neutron fluxes and low gamma dose. Determination of each component is not an easy task, especially when the volume of measurement is quite small or inaccessible for a miniature ionization chamber, for example. A method of measuring the photon and slow neutron dose(mainly by N-14 and B-10) from the glow curve (GC) analysis of a single {sup 7}LiF thermoluminescence detector is evaluated. This method was suggested by the group headed by Dr. Grazia Gambarini. The dosemeters used were TLD-600 ({sup 6}LiF:Mg,Ti with 95.6% {sup 6}Li) and TLD-700 ({sup 7}LiF:Mg,Ti with 99.9% {sup 7}LiF) from Harshaw. Photon dose measurement using the GC analysis method with TLD-700 in mixed fields requires the relation of the two main peaks of a TLD-600 GC shape obtained from an exposition to the same neutron field, and a photon calibrated GC with TLD-700. The requirements for slow neutron dose measurements are similar. In order to properly apply the GC analysis method at the Ra-6 Research Reactor BNCT facility, measurements were carried out in a standard water phantom, fully characterized on the BNCT beam by conventional techniques (activation detectors and paired ionization chambers technique). Next, the method was implemented in whole body dose monitoring of a patient undergoing a BNCT treatment, using a Bo MAb (Bottle Manikin Absorption) phantom

  1. Radiation treatment of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, T.; Huebner, G.

    1990-10-01

    In addition to fundamental demands on radiation and safety engineering of irradiation facilities, the necessity arises to optimize irradiation conditions by using facilities to capacity and thus reducing irradiation costs. The following subjects are dealt with in detail: rehabilitation of a pilot plant for radiation treatment of onions; examination of radiation resistance of components and equipment parts of food irradiation facilities; chemical dosimetry; relative measurement of the intensity of radioactive sources; thermo- and chemiluminescence to prove irradiation of foodstuffs; radiation induced sprout inhibition of potatoes; laboratory tests of delayed maturation of tomatoes; radiation treatment of strawberries; radiation treatment of forage; radiation induced sprout inhibition of acid-treated onions; radiation treatment of starch and potatoe products; radiation treatment of cosmetics; the universal radiation source UNI 88/26 for gamma irradiation facilities; microbiological aspects of food irradiation, and introduction of chicken irradiation on an industrial scale. (BBR) [de

  2. The studsvik BNCT project: structure and the proposed protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capala, J.; Stenstam, B.H.; Skoeld, K.; Henriksson, R.; Salford, L.; Carlsson, J.

    2000-01-01

    The BNCT facility at Studsvik is now ready for clinical trials. Scientific operations of the Studsvik BNCT project are overseen by the Scientific Advisory Board comprised of representatives of all major universities in Sweden. Furthermore, special task groups for clinical and preclinical studies have been formed to facilitate collaboration with academia and to assure the quality of the research. Proposed clinical Phase II trials for glioblastoma are sponsored by the Swedish National Neuro-Oncology Group and, initially, will involve two protocols: Protocol no.1. BNCT for glioblastoma patients who have not received any therapy other than surgery (including stereotactic biopsy only). Protocol no.2. BNCT as a palliative treatment for patients with recurrent glioblastoma following conventional therapies or BNCT. In both protocols, BPA, administered by a 6 hour i.v. infusion, will be used as the boron delivery agent. (author)

  3. BNCT Technology Development on HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Jung; Park, Kyung Bae; Whang, Seung Ryul; Kim, Myong Seop

    2007-06-15

    So as to establish the biological effects of BNCT in the HANARO Reactor, biological damages in cells and animals with treatment of boron/neutron were investigated. And 124I-BPA animal PET image, analysis technology of the boron contents in the mouse tissues by ICP-AES was established. A Standard clinical protocol, a toxicity evaluation report and an efficacy investigation report of BNCT has been developed. Based on these data, the primary permission of clinical application was acquired through IRB of our hospital. Three cases of pre-clinical experiment for boron distribution and two cases of medium-sized animal simulation experiment using cat with verifying for 2 months after BNCT was performed and so the clinical demonstration with a patient was prepared. Also neutron flux, fast neutron flux and gamma ray dose of BNCT facility were calculated and these data will be utilized good informations for clinical trials and further BNCT research. For the new synthesis of a boron compound, o-carboranyl ethylamine, o-carboranylenepiperidine, o-carboranyl-THIQ and o-carboranyl-s-triazine derivatives were synthesized. Among them, boron uptake in the cancer cell of the triazine derivative was about 25 times than that of BPA and so these three synthesized methods of new boron compounds were patented.

  4. BNCT Technology Development on HANARO Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ki Jung; Park, Kyung Bae; Whang, Seung Ryul; Kim, Myong Seop

    2007-06-01

    So as to establish the biological effects of BNCT in the HANARO Reactor, biological damages in cells and animals with treatment of boron/neutron were investigated. And 124I-BPA animal PET image, analysis technology of the boron contents in the mouse tissues by ICP-AES was established. A Standard clinical protocol, a toxicity evaluation report and an efficacy investigation report of BNCT has been developed. Based on these data, the primary permission of clinical application was acquired through IRB of our hospital. Three cases of pre-clinical experiment for boron distribution and two cases of medium-sized animal simulation experiment using cat with verifying for 2 months after BNCT was performed and so the clinical demonstration with a patient was prepared. Also neutron flux, fast neutron flux and gamma ray dose of BNCT facility were calculated and these data will be utilized good informations for clinical trials and further BNCT research. For the new synthesis of a boron compound, o-carboranyl ethylamine, o-carboranylenepiperidine, o-carboranyl-THIQ and o-carboranyl-s-triazine derivatives were synthesized. Among them, boron uptake in the cancer cell of the triazine derivative was about 25 times than that of BPA and so these three synthesized methods of new boron compounds were patented

  5. Production of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Bisceglie, E; Colonna, N; Paticchio, V; Santorelli, P; Variale, V

    2002-01-01

    The use of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of deep-seated tumors requires neutron beams of suitable energy and intensity. Simulations indicate the optimal energy to reside in the epithermal region, in particular between 1 and 10 keV. Therapeutic neutron beams with high spectral purity in this energy range could be produced with accelerator-based neutron sources through a suitable neutron-producing reaction. Herein, we report on different solutions that have been investigated as possible sources of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT. The potential use of such sources for a hospital-based therapeutic facility is discussed.

  6. A case of astrocytoma, 19 year history after BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamano, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    A 39-year-old man had received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in 1987 for a Grade II Astrocytoma. He gradually exacerbated and received a second operation in 1994. The mass taken in the second operation is almost competent with radiation necrosis. Following that, he shows no signs of recurrence. Currently, he has returned to full time employment in physical labor. This case suggests effectiveness of BNCT for rather low-grade astrocytomas. (author)

  7. In vivo BNCT in experimental and spontaneous tumors at RA-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Within the search for new applications of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and the basic research oriented towards the study of BNCT radiobiology to optimize its therapeutic gain, we previously proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and showed, for the first time, the success of BNCT to treat oral cancer in an experimental model. The staff of the Ra-1 Reactor (Constituyentes Atomic Center) adapted the thermal beam and physical set-up to perform in vivo BNCT of superficial tumors in small animals. We preformed a preliminary characterization of the thermal beam, performed beam only irradiation of normal and tumor bearing hamsters and in vivo BNCT of experimental oral squamous cell carcinomas in hamsters mediated by boron phenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ). Having demonstrated the absence of radio toxic effects in healthy tissue and a therapeutic effect of in vivo BNCT in hamster cheek pouch tumors employing the Ra-1 thermal beam, we performed a feasibility study of the treatment by BNCT of 3 terminal cases of spontaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in cats following the corresponding biodistribution studies. This was the first treatment of spontaneous tumors by BNCT in our country and the first treatment by BNCT in cats worldwide. This preclinical study in terminal cases showed significant tumor control by BNCT with no damage to normal tissue. (author)

  8. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  9. INEL BNCT Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, A.L.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1991-03-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for March 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, a milestone summary, and animal data charts

  10. INEL BNCT Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-08-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for August 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  11. The therapeutic ratio in BNCT: Assessment using the Rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor and spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Fisher, C.D.; Bywaters, A.; Morris, G.M.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    During any radiation therapy, the therapeutic tumor dose is limited by the tolerance of the surrounding normal tissue within the treatment volume. The short ranges of the products of the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction produced during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) present an opportunity to increase the therapeutic ratio (tumor dose/normal tissue dose) to levels unprecedented in photon radiotherapy. The mixed radiation field produced during BNCT comprises radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) and different relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The short ranges of the two high-LET products of the 'B(n,a)'Li reaction make the microdistribution of the boron relative to target cell nuclei of particular importance. Due to the tissue specific distribution of different boron compounds, the term RBE is inappropriate in defining the biological effectiveness of the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction. To distinguish these differences from true RBEs we have used the term open-quotes compound biological effectivenessclose quotes (CBE) factor. The latter can be defined as the product of the true, geometry-independent, RBE for these particles times a open-quotes boron localization factorclose quotes, which will most likely be different for each particular boron compound. To express the total BNCT dose in a common unit, and to compare BNCT doses with the effects of conventional photon irradiation, multiplicative factors (RBEs and CBEs) are applied to the physical absorbed radiation doses from each high-LET component. The total effective BNCT dose is then expressed as the sum of RBE-corrected physical absorbed doses with the unit Gray-equivalent (Gy-Eq)

  12. Radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques involved in the treatment of food by ionising radiation are explained. Radiation plant design, nutrition, microbiology and standards for irradiated foods are discussed. The potential applications for food irradiation in Australia are in the fields of quarantine control to disinfest fruit from fruit fly or mangoes from seed weevil, and decontamination of dried foods such as spices

  13. Clinical practice in BNCT to the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Our concept of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is to selectively destroy tumour cells using the high LET particles yielded from the 10B(n,α)7Li reactions. The effort of clinical investigators has concentrated on how to escalate the radiation dose at the target point. BNCT in Japan combines thermal neutrons and BSH (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH). The radiation dose is determined by the neutron fluence at the target point and the boron concentration in the tumour tissue. According to the recent analysis, the ratio of boron concentration (BSH) in tumour tissue and blood is nearly stable at around 1.2 to 1.69. Escalation of the radiation dose was carried out by means of improving the penetration of the thermal neutron beam. Since 1968, 175 patients with glioblastoma (n=83), anaplastic astrocytoma (n=44), low grade astrocytoma (n=16) or other types of tumour (n=32) were treated by BNCT at 5 reactors (HTR n=13, JRR-3 n=1, MulTR n=98, KUR n=30, JRR-2 n=33). The retrospective analysis revealed that the important factors related to the clinical results and QOL of the patients were minimum tumour volume radiation dose, more than 18Gy of physical dose and maximum vascular radiation dose (less than 15Gy) in the normal cortex. We have planned several trials to escalate the target radiation dose. One trial makes use of a cavity in the cortex following debulking surgery of the tumour tissue to improve neutron penetration. The other trial is introduction of epithermal neutron. KUR and JRR-4 were reconstructed and developed to be able to irradiate using epithermal neutrons. The new combination of surgical procedure and irradiation using epithermal neutrons should remarkably improve the target volume dose compared to the radiation dose treated by thermal neutrons. (author)

  14. Comparison of three experimental protocols in pre clinical studies for thyroid cancer treatment using sodium butyrate in combination with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, M; Rodriguez, C; Carpano, M; Majdalani E; Nievas, S; Olivera, M; Pisarev, M; Cabrini, R; Juvenal, G; Dagrosa A

    2012-01-01

    Background: We have shown that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could be an alternative for the treatment of poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC). However new strategies are being assayed in order to optimize its application. Histone de acetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I) like sodium butyrate (NaB), are emerging as a new class of chemotherapeutic agents which target the epigenome. Since histone hyper acetylation mediates changes in chromatin conformation, HDAC-I are involved in different epigenetically controlled activities like apoptosis, proliferation, cell differentiation, induction of cell cycle arrest and motility. The purpose of the present studies was to analyze different treatment regimens of combination of NaB and boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake in animals bearing transplants of a human thyroid carcinoma Methods: NIH nude mice of 6-8 weeks were implanted (s.c.) with 10 6 of human follicular thyroid carcinoma cells (WRO). Three regimens were evaluated in 48 animals after 15 days when tumors had a size between 50 and 100 mm 3 . Group 1 (n=10): BPA and NaB (50 mM) via i.p. at a dose of 110 mg/kg b.w. 24 h before boron compound administration; group 2 (n=10): BPA and NaB 3.4% in the water ad libitum during a month after 15 days post-implantation; group 3 (n=10): BPA alone. In all the groups BPA was injected at a dose of 350 mg/Kg b.w. (i.p.) and the animals were sacrificed at 2 h post-administration. Boron measurements in tissues and blood were performed by ICP-OES. A control group without NaB (n=6) for each regimen was included. The tumor growth and the body weight were determined twice a week during a month. Results: The administration of NaB 3.4% during a month previous to BNCT did not modify the body weight of the mice and decreased the tumor growth compared to its control group (p<0.01). The biodistribution studies showed a tumor boron concentration of 32.6 ± 1.4 ppm for group 1 (NaB 50 mM plus BPA), of 16.9 ± 3.7 ppm

  15. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were (1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, (2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, (3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologically achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally (4) that the treatment be safe for the patients

  16. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Thomas, E

    2006-03-14

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were 1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, 2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, 3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologially achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally 4) that the treatment be safe for the patients.

  17. Protocols for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme at Brookhaven: Practical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Joel, D.D.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    In this report we discuss some issues considered in selecting initial protocols for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of human glioblastoma multiforme. First the tolerance of normal tissues, especially the brain, to the radiation field. Radiation doses limits were based on results with human and animal exposures. Estimates of tumor control doses were based on the results of single-fraction photon therapy and single fraction BNCT both in humans and experimental animals. Of the two boron compounds (BSH and BPA), BPA was chosen since a FDA-sanctioned protocol for distribution in humans was in effect at the time the first BNCT protocols were written and therapy studies in experimental animals had shown it to be more effective than BSH.

  18. Optimization of the irradiation beam in the BNCT research facility at IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Vinicius Alexandre de

    2014-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapeutic technique for the treatment of some types of cancer whose useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction that occurs when thermal neutron impinges upon a Boron-10 atom. In Brazil there is a research facility built along the beam hole number 3 of the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN, which was designed to perform BNCT research experiments. For a good performance of the technique, the irradiation beam should be mostly composed of thermal neutrons with a minimum as possible gamma and above thermal neutron components. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the irradiation beam on the sample irradiation position through the use of activation detectors (activation foils) and also to propose, through simulation using the radiation transport code, MCNP, new sets of moderators and filters which shall deliver better irradiation fields at the irradiation sample position In this work, a simulation methodology, based on a MCNP card, known as wwg (weight window generation) was studied, and the neutron energy spectrum has been experimentally discriminated at 5 energy ranges by using a new set o activation foils. It also has been concluded that the BNCT research facility has the required thermal neutron flux to perform studies in the area and it has a great potential for improvement for tailoring the irradiation field. (author)

  19. BNCT irradiation facility at the JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Y.; Kishi, T.; Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Sakurai, F.; Takayanagi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The JRR--4 was modified for fuel enrichment reducing and reactor equipment renewal. And also a medical irradiation facility for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) was installed at the JRR--4 in that time. The medical irradiation facility has been composed of a heavy water tank, a collimator and an irradiation room. The heavy water tank has four layers of heavy water for spectrum shifter and 75cm-thickness aluminum for the shield of fast neutron. The collimator is for collimating thermal neutron and epithermal neutron using polyethylene with lithium-fluoride and shielding gamma ray by bismuth. The irradiation room has sufficient space at exit side of the beam, to accommodate a large working area for setting the patient. Both of the medical treatment room and the patient-monitoring area were prepared adjacent to the irradiation room. The medical irradiation facility in the JRR-4 is designed to permit selection of neutron energies from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron by changing the thickness of heavy water layers. Therefore it is available to continue the same kind of BNCT with thermal neutron used to perform in the JRR-2, as well as to commence the research and development of BNCT with epithermal neutron, which will make the brain tumor treatment possible at a deep part of brain. The full power operation of the JRR-4 was resumed with LEU fuel in October 1998 and currently performing some experiments to measure the neutron fluxes and physical doses for determinate characterization of the medical irradiation facility. The first medical irradiation for BNCT was carried out on 25th October 1999. The patient was treated by Tsukuba University group using thermal neutron beam included epi-thermal neutrons. (author)

  20. BNCT irradiation facility at the JRR-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torii, Y.; Kishi, T.; Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Sakurai, F.; Takayanagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    The JRR--4 was modified for fuel enrichment reducing and reactor equipment renewal. And also a medical irradiation facility for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) was installed at the JRR--4 in that time. The medical irradiation facility has been composed of a heavy water tank, a collimator and an irradiation room. The heavy water tank has four layers of heavy water for spectrum shifter and 75cm-thickness aluminum for the shield of fast neutron. The collimator is for collimating thermal neutron and epithermal neutron using polyethylene with lithium-fluoride and shielding gamma ray by bismuth. The irradiation room has sufficient space at exit side of the beam, to accommodate a large working area for setting the patient. Both of the medical treatment room and the patient-monitoring area were prepared adjacent to the irradiation room. The medical irradiation facility in the JRR-4 is designed to permit selection of neutron energies from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron by changing the thickness of heavy water layers. Therefore it is available to continue the same kind of BNCT with thermal neutron used to perform in the JRR-2, as well as to commence the research and development of BNCT with epithermal neutron, which will make the brain tumor treatment possible at a deep part of brain. The full power operation of the JRR-4 was resumed with LEU fuel in October 1998 and currently performing some experiments to measure the neutron fluxes and physical doses for determinate characterization of the medical irradiation facility. The first medical irradiation for BNCT was carried out on 25th October 1999. The patient was treated by Tsukuba University group using thermal neutron beam included epi-thermal neutrons. (author)

  1. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.F.; Blue, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Protecting the facility personnel and the general public from radiation exposure is a primary safety concern of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility. This work makes an attempt at answering the questions open-quotes How much?close quotes and open-quotes What kind?close quotes of shielding will meet the occupational limits of such a facility. Shielding effectiveness is compared for ordinary and barytes concretes in combination with and without borated polyethylene. A calculational model was developed of a treatment room, patient open-quotes scatterer,close quotes and the epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used to compute the total effective dose equivalent rates at specific points of interest outside of the treatment room. A conservative occupational effective dose rate limit of 0.01 mSv h -1 was the guideline for this study. Conservative Monte Carlo calculations show that constructing the treatment room walls with 1.5 m of ordinary concrete, 1.2 m of barytes concrete, 1.0 m of ordinary concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene, or 0.8 m of barytes concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene will adequately protect facility personnel. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Present status of Accelerator-Based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, Andres Juan; Bergueiro, Javier; Cartelli, Daniel; Baldo, Matias; Castell, Walter; Asoia, Javier Gomez; Padulo, Javier; Suárez Sandín, Juan Carlos; Igarzabal, Marcelo; Erhardt, Julian; Mercuri, Daniel; Valda, Alejandro A; Minsky, Daniel M; Debray, Mario E; Somacal, Hector R; Capoulat, María Eugenia; Herrera, María S; Del Grosso, Mariela F; Gagetti, Leonardo; Anzorena, Manuel Suarez; Canepa, Nicolas; Real, Nicolas; Gun, Marcelo; Tacca, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at giving an updated report of the worldwide status of Accelerator-Based BNCT (AB-BNCT). There is a generalized perception that the availability of accelerators installed in hospitals, as neutron sources, may be crucial for the advancement of BNCT. Accordingly, in recent years a significant effort has started to develop such machines. A variety of possible charged-particle induced nuclear reactions and the characteristics of the resulting neutron spectra are discussed along with the worldwide activity in suitable accelerator development. Endothermic (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be and (9)Be(p,n)(9)B and exothermic (9)Be(d,n)(10)B are compared. In addition to having much better thermo-mechanical properties than Li, Be as a target leads to stable products. This is a significant advantage for a hospital-based facility. (9)Be(p,n)(9)B needs at least 4-5 MeV bombarding energy to have a sufficient yield, while (9)Be(d,n)(10)B can be utilized at about 1.4 MeV, implying the smallest possible accelerator. This reaction operating with a thin target can produce a sufficiently soft spectrum to be viable for AB-BNCT. The machines considered are electrostatic single ended or tandem accelerators or radiofrequency quadrupoles plus drift tube Linacs. (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be provides one of the best solutions for the production of epithermal neutron beams for deep-seated tumors. However, a Li-based target poses significant technological challenges. Hence, Be has been considered as an alternative target, both in combination with (p,n) and (d,n) reactions. (9)Be(d,n)(10)B at 1.4 MeV, with a thin target has been shown to be a realistic option for the treatment of deep-seated lesions.

  3. Tandem electrostatic accelerators for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The development of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) into a viable therapeutic modality will depend, in part, on the availability of suitable neutron sources compatible with installation in a hospital environment. Low-energy accelerator-based intense neutron sources, using electrostatic or radio frequency quadrupole proton accelerators have been suggested for this purpose and are underdevelopment at several laboratories. New advances in tandem electrostatic accelerator technology now allow acceleration of the multi-milliampere proton beams required to produce therapeutic neutron fluxes for BNCT. The relatively compact size, low weight and high power efficiency of these machines make them particularly attractive for installation in a clinical or research facility. The authors will describe the limitations on ion beam current and available neutron flux from tandem accelerators relative to the requirements for BNCT research and therapy. Preliminary designs and shielding requirements for a tandern accelerator-based BNCT research facility will also be presented

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) inhibits tumor development from precancerous tissue: An experimental study that supports a potential new application of BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti Hughes, A.; Heber, E.M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Research and Production Reactors, Ezeiza Atomic Center, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigg, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Calzetta, O.; Blaumann, H.; Longhino, J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Bariloche Atomic Center, CNEA, Rio Negro (Argentina); Nievas, S.I. [Department of Chemistry, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, R.F. [Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Itoiz, M.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Trivillin, V.A. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schwint, A.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2009-07-15

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) and (GB-10+BPA) to control tumors, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity, in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Herein we developed a novel experimental model of field-cancerization and precancerous lesions (globally termed herein precancerous tissue) in the hamster cheek pouch to explore the long-term potential inhibitory effect of the same BNCT protocols on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue. Clinically, second primary tumor recurrences occur in field-cancerized tissue, causing therapeutic failure. We performed boron biodistribution studies followed by in vivo BNCT studies, with 8 months follow-up. All 3 BNCT protocols induced a statistically significant reduction in tumor development from precancerous tissue, reaching a maximum inhibition of 77-100%. The inhibitory effect of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT persisted at 51% at the end of follow-up (8 months), whereas for GB-10-BNCT it faded after 2 months. Likewise, beam-only elicited a significant but transient reduction in tumor development. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was observed. At 8 months post-treatment with BPA-BNCT or (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT, the precancerous pouches that did not develop tumors had regained the macroscopic and histological appearance of normal (non-cancerized) pouches. A potential new clinical application of BNCT would lie in its capacity to inhibit local regional recurrences.

  5. Building of scientific information system for sustainable development of BNCT in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, M.; Ilieva, K.; Apostolov, T.

    2009-01-01

    Building a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility is foreseen within the reconstruction of the Research Reactor IRT (IRT) of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgaria Academy of Sciences (INRNE). The development of BNCT at IRT plays a very significant role in the plan for sustainable application of the reactor. A centralized scientific information system on BNCT is being built at the INRNE with the purpose to collect and sort new information as knowledge accumulated during more than thirty years history of BNCT. This BNCT information system will help the creation and consolidation of a well informed and interconnected interdisciplinary team of physicists, chemists, biologists, and radio-oncologists for establishing BNCT cancer treatment in Bulgaria. It will strengthen more intensive development of the national network as well as its enlargement to the Balkan region countries. Furthermore, to acquaint the public at large with the opportunity for BNCT cancer treatment will be addressed. Human, social, and economics results due to BNCT for many patients from Balkan region are expected.

  6. Design of a beam shaping assembly for an accelerator-based BNCT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stichelbaut, F.; Forton, E.; Jongen, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A complete BNCT system based on a high-intensity proton accelerator is developed by the IBA company. The neutron beam is produced via the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction using a solid lithium target. The neutron energy spectrum is tailored with a beam shaping assembly surrounding the target. This device is the object of an extensive R and D project and is fully designed with the Monte Carlo simulation code MCNPX. The emphasis is put on the treatment quality, notably the radiation dose at the skin level, and the achievable neutron flux. (author)

  7. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1992. Contributions from all the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor targeting compounds, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented, results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are discussed, and predictions for an epithermal-neutron beam at the Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) are shown. Cellular-level boron detection and localization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, low atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy, and alpha track are presented. Boron detection by ICP-AES is discussed in detail. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors with BNCT is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux at BNL and comparison to predictions are shown. Calculations comparing the GTRR and BMRR epithermal-neutron beams are also presented. Individual progress reports described herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  8. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1992. Contributions from all the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor targeting compounds, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented, results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are discussed, and predictions for an epithermal-neutron beam at the Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) are shown. Cellular-level boron detection and localization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, low atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy, and alpha track are presented. Boron detection by ICP-AES is discussed in detail. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors with BNCT is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux at BNL and comparison to predictions are shown. Calculations comparing the GTRR and BMRR epithermal-neutron beams are also presented. Individual progress reports described herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database

  9. Fatal carotid blowout syndrome after BNCT for head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aihara, T.; Hiratsuka, J.; Ishikawa, H.; Kumada, H.; Ohnishi, K.; Kamitani, N.; Suzuki, M.; Sakurai, H.; Harada, T.

    2015-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and tumor-selective radiation that does not cause serious damage to the surrounding normal tissues. BNCT might be effective and safe in patients with inoperable, locally advanced head and neck cancers, even those that recur at previously irradiated sites. However, carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) is a lethal complication resulting from malignant invasion of the carotid artery (CA); thus, the risk of CBS should be carefully assessed in patients with risk factors for CBS after BNCT. Thirty-three patients in our institution who underwent BNCT were analyzed. Two patients developed CBS and experienced widespread skin invasion and recurrence close to the carotid artery after irradiation. Careful attention should be paid to the occurrence of CBS if the tumor is located adjacent to the carotid artery. The presence of skin invasion from recurrent lesions after irradiation is an ominous sign of CBS onset and lethal consequences. - Highlights: • This study is fatal carotid blowout syndrome after BNCT for head and neck cancers. • Thirty-three patients in our institution who underwent BNCT were analyzed. • Two patients (2/33) developed CBS. • The presence of skin invasion from recurrent lesions after irradiation is an ominous sign of CBS. • We must be aware of these signs to perform BNCT safely.

  10. Follow up of glioblastoma patients treated with BNCT using spectroscopic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanranta, L.; Haekkinen, A.M.; Kivisaari, L.; Lundbom, N.; Joensuu, H.; Seppaelae, T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the metabolite changes of BPA-mediated BNCT on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and on brain white matter with proton magnetic spectroscopic imaging ( 1 H-MRSI). Four glioblastoma patients treated with BNCT were been examined with both MRI and 1 H-MRSI before BNCT and at 3-month intervals following BNCT. We found no change in the choline (Cho) of the tumors of 2 patients 3 months after BNCT, but at 6 months the choline increased in agreement with clinically observed progression of glioblastomas. No N-acetylaspartate (NAA) changes were found in the normal appearing white matter in 3 patients. Unexpectedly, choline changes were seen in both ipsi- and contralateral white matter regions. The small number of patients studied prevents making firm conclusions, but 1 H-MRSI may be a useful method in follow-up of patients treated with BNCT and deserves further study. Presence of only minimal NAA changes in some patients treated with BNCT is intriguing, and may suggest absence of marked neuronal damage within the first 6 months following BNCT treatment when average brain doses <5.2 Gy (W) are used. (author)

  11. Radiation treatment of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNicola, A.J.; Galambos, A.F.; Wolkowicz, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Structural changes in polypropylene resulting from high energy electron beam irradiation have been examined. Polymer irradiated in a nitrogen atmosphere is characterized as containing long chain branch structures. A branching index, defined as the ratio of intrinsic viscosity of irradiated polymer to the intrinsic viscosity of linear polymer of equivalent molecular weight, is used to quantify the extent of branching. Polymer crystallization and solution properties undergo significant changes as a result of radiation treatment. Treated polypropylene is highly nucleated. Nucleation density is several orders of magnitude greater than linear polypropylene. Temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF) indicates that the long-chain branched structure contributes to increasing the solubility of polypropylene without greatly reducing the crystallizability and melting point of the solubilized fractions. The presence of long chain branching has a pronounced effect on the polymers extensional rheology in the molten state. Radiation treated polymer exhibits strain hardening elongational viscosity

  12. Antiproliferative effect and apoptosis induction in melanoma treatment by boron neutron capture therapy (BCNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiao-Flores, Fernanda; Coelho, Paulo; Arruda-Neto, Joao; Maria, Durvanei [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiotherapy where a compound having {sup 10}B is administered to cancer patients and is accumulated in tumor tissues. Thus, the tumor is irradiated with thermal neutrons, {sup 10}B absorbs and destroys them, producing alpha radiation. Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is the agent responsible for delivering boron to the tumor tissue. After BPA administration, BNCT is used as a localized radiotherapy for many tumors treatment, mainly melanoma, which has a high mortality rate among all types of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antiproliferative and antitumor effects of BNCT application in human melanoma treatment. Materials and Methods: MEWO cells (human melanoma) were cultured and treated with different concentrations of BPA (8.36 to 0.52 mg/ml). After 90 minutes, they were irradiated with thermal neutron flux up to a dose of 8.4 Gy. The parameters analyzed were free radical production, cell cycle progression, cell death signaling pathways, cycling D1, caspase-3 and extracellular matrix synthesis produced, beyond the mitochondrial electric potential analysis. Results: After BNCT treatment, MEWO cells showed an amount of free radical increase about 10 times. Still, there was a significant decrease of cyclin D1, G0/G1 proliferation, synthesis and G2/M cell cycle phases. BNCT induced a mitochondrial electrical potential decrease, as well as fibrillar proteins of extracellular matrix. BNCT had a significant number of dead cell increase, mainly by necrosis. However, BNCT induced phosphorylated caspase 3 increase. Discussion/Conclusion: BNCT induced cell death increase by necrosis, mitochondrial electric potential decrease and free radical production increase. BNCT is cytotoxic to melanoma cells. Besides necrosis, phosphorylated caspase 3 increase was observed, accompanied by a proliferative response decrease regulated by the G1/S checkpoint and matrix extracellular synthesis

  13. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capala, J.; Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M.

    1997-01-01

    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains

  14. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M. [Univ. Hospital, State Univ. of New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains.

  15. Neutron therapy coupling brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Iara Ferreira.

    1994-12-01

    In the present dissertation, neutron radiation techniques applied into organs of the human body are investigated as oncologic radiation therapy. The proposal treatment consists on connecting two distinct techniques: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and irradiation by discrete sources of neutrons, through the brachytherapy conception. Biological and radio-dosimetrical aspects of the two techniques are considered. Nuclear aspects are discussed, presenting the nuclear reactions occurred in tumoral region, and describing the forms of evaluating the dose curves. Methods for estimating radiation transmission are reviewed through the solution of the neutron transport equation, Monte Carlo methodology, and simplified analytical calculation based on diffusion equation and numerical integration. The last is computational developed and presented as a quickly way to neutron transport evaluation in homogeneous medium. The computational evaluation of the doses for distinct hypothetical situations is presented, applying the coupled techniques BNTC and brachytherapy as an possible oncologic treatment. (author). 78 refs., 61 figs., 21 tabs

  16. Long-survivors of glioblatoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Nagahiro, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation dose between long-survivors and non-long-survivors in patients with glioblatoma (GBM) treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Among 23 GBM patients treated with BNCT, there were five patients who survived more than three years after diagnosis. The physical and weighted dose of the minimum gross tumor volume (GTV) of long-survivors was much higher than that of non-long survivors with significant statistical differences.

  17. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... novel targeted therapies can act as radiosensitizers. Systemic Radiation Therapy Certain cancers may be treated with radioactive drugs ... intravenous). This type of treatment is called systemic radiation therapy because the medicine goes to the entire body. ...

  18. Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Joel, D.D.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Micca, P.L. [and others

    1996-12-31

    For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of {sup 10}B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 {mu}g B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses.

  19. Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Michiko; Joel, D.D.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of 10 B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 μg B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses

  20. In vitro studies of the cellular response to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C; Carpano, M; Perona, M; Thorp, S; Curotto, P; Pozzi, E; Casal, M; Juvenal, G; Pisarev, M; Dagrosa, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previously, we have started to study the mechanisms of DNA damage and repair induced by BNCT in thyroid carcinoma some years ago. We have shown different genotoxic patterns for tumor cells irradiated with gamma rays, neutrons alone or neutrons plus different compounds, boronophenylalanine (BPA) or α, β - dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX (BOPP). In the present study we analyzed the expression of Ku70, Rad51 and Rad54 components of non homologous end-joing (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathways, respectively, induced by BNCT in human cells of thyroid carcinoma. Methods: A human cell line of follicular thyroid carcinoma (WRO) in exponential growth phase was distributed into the following groups: 1) Gamma Radiation, 2) Radiation with neutrons beam (NCT), 3) Radiation with n th in presence of BPA (BNCT). A control group for each treatment was added. The cells were irradiated in the thermal column facility of the RA-3 reactor (flux= 1.10 10 n/cm 2 sec) or with a source of 60 Co. The irradiations were performed during different lapses in order to obtain a total physical dose of 3 Gy (±10%). The mRNA expressions of Ku70, Rad 51 and Rad 54 were analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at different times post irradiation (2, 4, 6, 24 and 48 h). DNA damage was evaluated by immunofluorescence using an antibody against the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, which indicates double strand breaks in the DNA. Results: The expression of Rad51 increased at 2 h post-irradiation and it lasted until 6 h only in the neutron and neutron + BPA groups (p<0.05). Rad54 showed an up-regulation from 2 to 24 h in both groups irradiated with the neutron beam (with and without BPA) (p<0.05). On the other hand, Ku70 mRNA did not show a modification of its expression in the irradiated groups respect to the control group. Conclusion: these results would indicate an activation of the HRR pathway in the thyroid carcinoma cells treated by

  1. Monte Carlo based protocol for cell survival and tumour control probability in BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S J

    1999-02-01

    A mathematical model to calculate the theoretical cell survival probability (nominally, the cell survival fraction) is developed to evaluate preclinical treatment conditions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A treatment condition is characterized by the neutron beam spectra, single or bilateral exposure, and the choice of boron carrier drug (boronophenylalanine (BPA) or boron sulfhydryl hydride (BSH)). The cell survival probability defined from Poisson statistics is expressed with the cell-killing yield, the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction density, and the tolerable neutron fluence. The radiation transport calculation from the neutron source to tumours is carried out using Monte Carlo methods: (i) reactor-based BNCT facility modelling to yield the neutron beam library at an irradiation port; (ii) dosimetry to limit the neutron fluence below a tolerance dose (10.5 Gy-Eq); (iii) calculation of the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction density in tumours. A shallow surface tumour could be effectively treated by single exposure producing an average cell survival probability of 10(-3)-10(-5) for probable ranges of the cell-killing yield for the two drugs, while a deep tumour will require bilateral exposure to achieve comparable cell kills at depth. With very pure epithermal beams eliminating thermal, low epithermal and fast neutrons, the cell survival can be decreased by factors of 2-10 compared with the unmodified neutron spectrum. A dominant effect of cell-killing yield on tumour cell survival demonstrates the importance of choice of boron carrier drug. However, these calculations do not indicate an unambiguous preference for one drug, due to the large overlap of tumour cell survival in the probable ranges of the cell-killing yield for the two drugs. The cell survival value averaged over a bulky tumour volume is used to predict the overall BNCT therapeutic efficacy, using a simple model of tumour control probability (TCP).

  2. Radiation treatment of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantine, D.S.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation treatment of waste water is reviewed. The aspects considered are: effect on chemical oxygen demand or biochemical oxygen demand; effect on specific pollutants; effect on sewage sludge; disinfection. The basic radiation interactions are given. Potential radiation sources -accelerators or radioisotopes - are considered, and operating pilot plant systems are described. (U.K.)

  3. Successful BNCT for patients with cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. Report of 4 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Norimasa; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kuwabara, Chiaki; Aihara, Teruhito; Harada, Tamotsu; Imajo, Yoshinari; Ono, Koji; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kumada, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003 we have conducted BNCT clinical trials on melanomas at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) and Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4). We report 4 patients given BNCT for malignant melanomas: 2 with superficial spreading types on the heel, 1 with mucosal melanoma in the nasal cavity, and 1 with a melanoma on the vulva and in the vagina. The two cutaneous melanomas and the nasal cavity mucosal melanoma showed a complete response (CR) by 6 months after BNCT. The residual melanoma showed a partial response (PR) by 3 months after treatment and no regrowth since then. Although two patients experienced normal-tissue damage that exceeded the tolerance level, all the participants were cured within a few months of treatment. BNCT was shown to be a promising treatment for mucosal, as well as for cutaneous, melanomas. (author)

  4. Calculation of neutron flux distributions in BNCT using removal-diffusion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemkiewicz, J.; Blue, T.E.; Gupta, N.

    1994-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is under investigation as a treatment modality for brain tumors. Successful routine use of BNCT will require a knowledge of the radiation dose distribution in a patient`s head prior to treatment. This will allow optimization of the treatment to fit the needs of individual patients. Determination of the dose distribution begins with calculation of the neutron flux distribution in the head. Most efforts to date have relied on Monte Carlo or discrete ordinates techniques to calculate this flux distribution. Use of removal-diffusion theory has the advantage of a relatively short computer time to complete a calculation. Previous work by our group has shown good agreement between neutron flux distributions calculated using removal-diffusion theory and Monte Carlo methods for parallel incident neutrons and a rectangular parallelepiped water phantom. This work compares neutron flux distributions calculated using removal-diffusion theory and Monte Carlo methods for a homogeneous ellipsoidal water phantom that models the human head.

  5. Calculational evaluations of the proposal for a reference dosimetric phantom for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjugg, H.; Seppaelae, T.; Auterinen, I.; Kotiluoto, P.; Savolainen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Standard dosimetric phantoms are used in radiotherapy to compare irradiations under standard conditions. They provide volumes of tissue substitute for the measurement of absorbed dose and are large enough to ensure that full contribution to the absorbed dose from scattered radiation is received at the point of measurement. Aim of this study was to find out a recommendation for the boundary values of size of a reference phantom. These reference conditions for the reference measurement methods are created for 'A code of practise for dosimetry, of BNCT in Europe' project. The major objective of the project is to prepare detailed guidelines for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams to be used for treatment of cancer patients by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at European research reactors and accelerators. For this objective Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out with MCNP 4B code in three different cubic phantoms for studying effect of different phantom sizes in important radiation components. These three phantoms are the proposed reference (measurement) phantom (20*20*20 cm), a phantom that was assumed to model an infinite phantom, and a smaller (15*15*15 cm) cubic phantom which exists in Petten BNCT facility in Netherlands. Function of the smallest phantom was to study acceptable lower limit to the phantom size to still reach the reference conditions. All the simulated phantoms were cubic water phantoms with one 0.5 cm thick (beam side) wall and three 1 cm thick walls of PMMA (polymethyl-methacrylate). The comparisons were done with calculations of the thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluence rates in analogous points. The source specification of the MCNP runs were accordance of 250 kW FiR 1 research reactor neutron beam with 14 cm beam aperture. In order to minimise the statistical error of the Monte Carlo calculations, over 60*106 source particles were simulated for infinite and reference phantom cases. Calculation results were in good

  6. Radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlackova, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation and electron radiation on foodstuffs, and the required radiation doses for different purposes are discussed. Chemical and biological changes take place during the irradiation of foods. A detailed description is presented of chemical changes in amino acids, proteins, enzymes, saccharides, lipids and vitamins, also described are the effects of radiation on viruses, bacteria, insects and parasites. Some legislative provisions enacted in recent years are referred to and a table is published listing irradiation sources for foods on a world scale. Examples are given of existing industrial irradiation plants in the world. (M.D.)

  7. The BNCT project in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burian, J.; Marek, M.; Rataj, J.; Honova, H.; Petruzelka, L.; Prokes, K.; Tovarys, F.; Dbaly, V.; Honzatko, J.; Tomandl, I.

    2000-01-01

    The start of clinical trials is expected before NCT Osaka 2000. The experiences from different part of project are presented. The BNCT facility at LVR-15 reactor of NRI consists of epithermal neutron beam with improved construction (6.98 x 10 8 /cm 2 s with acceptable background of fast neutrons and gammas) and irradiation and control rooms equipped by appropriate devices. Internationally-recognized software MacNCTPLAN is utilized for computational dosimetry and treatment planning. In the part of protocol the following parameters have been assessed: patient selection, BSH dosage, fractionation, starting dose, dose escalation steps. At the LVR-15, at horizontal channel, a prompt gamma ray analysis (PGRA) system has been developed and is operated for BNCT purposes. Some human blood samples were analyzed and compared with classical ICP method. During the process of licensing the experience was obtained, some notes are discussed in the paper. The first results were received for the study of biological effect of the LVR source for small animal model. (author)

  8. Feasibility study to develop BNCT facility at the Indonesian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastowo, H.

    2001-01-01

    A survey on the Indonesian research reactors and its supporting facilities has been done in order to check the possibility to install BNCT facility. Oncologists from several hospitals have been informing about the BNCT treatment for tumours and they give a positive response to support utilisation of the BNCT facility. Several aspects required to support the BNCT treatment have also been identified and related activities on that matter soon will be initiated. The interim result in our survey indicated that utilisation of the 30 MW Multipurpose reactor would not be possible from the technical point of view. Further study will be concentrated on the TRIGA reactor and an epithermal neutron beam facility at the thermal column of this reactor will be designed for further work. (author)

  9. Application of HVJ envelope system to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Kei; Kurooka, Masaaki; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Asano, Tomoyuki

    2006-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been used clinically for the treatment of malignant tumors. Two drugs, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sulfhydral borane (BSH), have been used as boron delivery agents. These drugs seem to be taken up preferentially in solid tumors, but it is uncertain whether therapeutic quantities of boron atoms are taken up by micro-invasive or distant tumor cells. High accumulation and high selective delivery of boron into tumor tissues are the most important requirements to achieve efficient BNCT for malignant tumor. The HVJ envelope (HVJ-E) vector system is a novel fusion-mediated gene delivery system based on inactivated hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; Sendai virus). Although we developed this vector system for gene transfer, it can also deliver proteins, synthetic oligonucleotides, and drugs. HVJ-liposome, which is liposome fused with HVJ-E, has higher boron trapping efficiency than HVJ-E alone. We report the boron delivery into cultured cells with HVJ-liposome systems. The cellular 10 B concentration after 60 min incubation with HVJ-E containing BSH was 24.9 μg/g cell pellet for BHK-21 cells (baby hamster kidney cells) and 19.4 μg/g cell pellet for SCC VII cells (murine squamous cell carcinoma). These concentrations are higher than that of 60 min incubated cells with BSH containing (100μg 10 B/ml) medium. These results indicate the HVJ-E fused with tumor cell membrane and rapidly delivered boron agents, and that the HVJ-E-mediated delivery system could be applicable to BNCT. Plans are underway to begin neutron radiation experiments in vivo and in vitro. (author)

  10. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, Manjeet; Capala, Jacek; Coderre, Jeffrey A.; Elowitz, Eric H.; Joel, Darrel D.; Hungyuan, B. Liu; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Chanana, Arjun D.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: BNCT is a binary treatment modality based on the nuclear reactions that occur when boron ( 10 B) is exposed to thermal neutrons. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA)-based BNCT. The objective of the Phase I/II trial was to evaluate BPA-fructose (BPA-F) as a boron delivery agent for GBM and to study the feasibility and safety of a single-fraction of BNCT. Materials and Methods: The trial design required i) a BPA-F biodistribution study performed at the time of craniotomy; and ii) BNCT within 4 weeks of the craniotomy. From September 94 to July 95, 10 patients with biopsy proven GBM were treated. All but 1 patient underwent a biodistribution study receiving IV BPA-F at the time of craniotomy. Multiple tissue samples and concurrent blood and urine samples were collected for evaluation of the boron concentration and clearance kinetics. For BNCT all patients received 250 mg/kgm of BPA-F (IV infusion over 2 hrs) followed by neutron irradiation. The blood 10 B concentration during irradiation was used to calculate the time of neutron exposure. The 3D treatment planning was done using the BNCT treatment planning software developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The BNCT dose is expressed as the sum of the physical dose components corrected for both the RBE and the 10 B localization factor with the unit Gy-Eq. The photon-equivalent dose, where the thermal neutron fluence reaches a maximum, is the peak-dose equivalent. A single-fraction of BNCT was delivered prescribing 10.5 Gy-Eq (9 patients) and 13.8 Gy-Eq (1 patient) as the peak dose-equivalent to the normal brain. The peak dose rate was kept below 27 cGy-Eq/min. Results: Biodistribution data: The maximum blood 10 B concentration was observed at the end of the infusion and scaled as a linear function of the administered dose. The 10 B concentration in the scalp and in the GBM tissue was higher than in blood by 1.5 x and at least 3.5 x

  11. INEEL BNCT research program. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1996. Contributions from the individual investigators about their projects are included, specifically, physics: treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry, measurement of the Finnish research reactor epithermal neutron spectrum, BNCT accelerator technology; and chemistry: analysis of biological samples and preparation of 10 B enriched decaborane

  12. INEEL BNCT research program. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1997-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1996. Contributions from the individual investigators about their projects are included, specifically, physics: treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry, measurement of the Finnish research reactor epithermal neutron spectrum, BNCT accelerator technology; and chemistry: analysis of biological samples and preparation of {sup 10}B enriched decaborane.

  13. Neutron field characterization in the installation for BNCT study in the IEA-R1 reactor; Caracterizacao do campo de neutrons na instalacao para estudo em BNCT no reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro Junior, Valdeci

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the mixed neutron and gamma field, in the sample irradiation position, in a research installation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in the IPEN IEA-R1 reactor. The BNCT technique has been studied as a safe and selective option in the treatment of resistant cancerigenous tumors or considered non-curable by the conventional techniques, for example, the Glioblastoma Multiform - a brain cancerigenous tumor. Neutron flux measurements were carried out: thermal, resonance and fast, as well as neutron and gamma rays doses, in the sample position, using activation foils detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters. For the determination of the neutron spectrum and intensity, a set of different threshold activation foils and gold foils covered and uncovered with cadmium irradiated in the installation was used, analyzed by a high Pure Germanium semiconductor detector, coupled to an electronic system suitable for gamma spectrometry. The results were processed with the SAND-BP code. The doses due to gamma and neutron rays were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 400 and TLD 700 sensitive to gamma and TLD 600, sensitive to neutrons. The TLDs were selected and used for obtaining the calibration curves - dosimeter answer versus dose - from each of the TLD three types, which were necessary to calculate the doses due to neutron and gamma, in the sample position. The radiation field, in the sample irradiation position, was characterized flux for thermal neutrons of 1.39.10{sup 8} {+-} 0,12.10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}s the doses due to thermal neutrons are three times higher than those due to gamma radiation and confirm the reproducibility and consistency of the experimental findings obtained. Considering these results, the neutron field and gamma radiation showed to be appropriated for research in BNCT. (author)

  14. 2-O-α-glucopytanosyl L-ascorbic acid reduced mutagenicity at HPRT locus of mouse splenocytes following BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinashi, Yuko; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Suzuki, Minoru; Nagata, Kanji; Ono, Koji

    2006-01-01

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), normal tissue surrounding the tumor cells sometimes take up boron compounds resulting in radiation-induced damage to normal tissue. We have previously reported the evidence for increased the mutagenicity of thermal neutron in the presence of boron. In addition, we described the biological radio-protective effects of the ascorbic acid for mutation induction following BNCT in vitro. Here, we investigated these radio-protective effects of ascorbic acid for mutation induction in mouse splenocytes on HPRT locus following a BNCT study in vivo. (author)

  15. Photon iso-effective dose for cancer treatment with mixed field radiation based on dose-response assessment from human and an animal model: clinical application to boron neutron capture therapy for head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, S. J.; Pozzi, E. C. C.; Monti Hughes, A.; Provenzano, L.; Koivunoro, H.; Carando, D. G.; Thorp, S. I.; Casal, M. R.; Bortolussi, S.; Trivillin, V. A.; Garabalino, M. A.; Curotto, P.; Heber, E. M.; Santa Cruz, G. A.; Kankaanranta, L.; Joensuu, H.; Schwint, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a treatment modality that combines different radiation qualities. Since the severity of biological damage following irradiation depends on the radiation type, a quantity different from absorbed dose is required to explain the effects observed in the clinical BNCT in terms of outcome compared with conventional photon radiation therapy. A new approach for calculating photon iso-effective doses in BNCT was introduced previously. The present work extends this model to include information from dose-response assessments in animal models and humans. Parameters of the model were determined for tumour and precancerous tissue using dose-response curves obtained from BNCT and photon studies performed in the hamster cheek pouch in vivo models of oral cancer and/or pre-cancer, and from head and neck cancer radiotherapy data with photons. To this end, suitable expressions of the dose-limiting Normal Tissue Complication and Tumour Control Probabilities for the reference radiation and for the mixed field BNCT radiation were developed. Pearson’s correlation coefficients and p-values showed that TCP and NTCP models agreed with experimental data (with r  >  0.87 and p-values  >0.57). The photon iso-effective dose model was applied retrospectively to evaluate the dosimetry in tumours and mucosa for head and neck cancer patients treated with BNCT in Finland. Photon iso-effective doses in tumour were lower than those obtained with the standard RBE-weighted model (between 10% to 45%). The results also suggested that the probabilities of tumour control derived from photon iso-effective doses are more adequate to explain the clinical responses than those obtained with the RBE-weighted values. The dosimetry in the mucosa revealed that the photon iso-effective doses were about 30% to 50% higher than the corresponding RBE-weighted values. While the RBE-weighted doses are unable to predict mucosa toxicity, predictions based on the proposed

  16. Therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of a single and double application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A; Pozzi, E C C; Thorp, S; Garabalino, M A; Farias, R O; Gonzalez, S J; Heber, E M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Molinari, A J; Miller, M; Nigg, D W; Curotto, P; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    Tumor development from tissue with potentially malignant disorders (PMD) gives rise to second primary tumors. We previously demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect on tumor development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) mediated by the boron compounds BPA (boronophenylalanine) and decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) in a hamster pouch oral precancer model. Seeking to optimize BNCT, the aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of BNCT radiobiology for oral precancer and assess new BNCT protocols in terms of inhibition of tumor development and radiotoxicity. Groups of cancerized hamsters were locally exposed to single or double applications (2 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 8Gy to tissue with PMD; to a single application of BPA-BNCT at 6Gy and to a double application (4 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy. Cancerized, sham-irradiated hamsters served as controls. Clinical status, tumor development from tissue with PMD and mucositis were followed for 8 months. The marked therapeutic efficacy of single applications of BNCT at 6 and 8Gy were associated to severe radiotoxicity. Dose fractionation into 2 applications reduced mucositis but also reduced therapeutic efficacy, depending on dose and interval between applications. A double application (4 weeks apart) of (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy rendered the best therapeutic advantage, i.e. 63% - 100% inhibition of tumor development with only slight mucositis in 67% of cases. The data reported herein show that issues such as dose levels and dose fractionation, interval between applications, and choice of boron compounds are pivotal to therapeutic advantage and must be tailored for a particular pathology and anatomic site. The present study determined treatment conditions that would contribute to optimize BNCT for precancer and that would warrant cautious assessment in a clinical scenario (author)

  17. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Kumada, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue. However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells. We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years. Among 183 patients with brain tumors treated by our group using BSH-based intra-operative BNCT, 23 patients were under 15 years. They included 4 patients under 3 years. There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma. All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth. All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor. Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence. BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation. Although it can achieve the local control in the primary site, it cannot prevent CSF dissemination in patients with glioblastoma.

  18. Development of local radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed.

  19. Development of local radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed

  20. BNCT with linac, feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfuraih, A.; Ma, A.; Spyrou, N.M.; Awotwi-Pratt, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    High energy photon beams from Medical Linear Accelerators (linacs) which are used in radiotherapy produce undesirable neutrons, beside the clinically useful electron and photon beams. Neutrons are produced from the photonuclear reaction (γ,n) of high energy photons with high Z-materials which compose the accelerator head. In this paper the possible use of these undesirable neutrons for BNCT is investigated, making use of high energy linacs already installed in hospitals, primarily for high energy electron and photon therapy and applying them in the context of BNCT. The photoneutron components emitted by the accelerator is the source for Monte Carlo simulations of the interactions that take place within the head of a voxel-based phantom. The neutron flux across the phantom head is calculated using different moderator arrangements and different techniques in the aim of increasing the thermal neutron flux at the targeted site. Also, we shall test different configurations of the linac head to maximize the exposure of high-Z materials to the photon beam, including the removal of the flattening filter, so as to boost the photoneutron production in the linac head. Experimental work will be conducted in hospitals to validate the Monte Carlo simulations. To make use of linacs for BNCT will be advantageous in the sense that the setting in a hospital department is much more acceptable by the public than a reactor installation. This will mean less complications regarding patient positioning and movement with respect to the beams, additional patient transportation and management will be more cost effective. (author)

  1. Computerized radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laarse, R. van der.

    1981-01-01

    Following a general introduction, a chain consisting of three computer programs which has been developed for treatment planning of external beam radiotherapy without manual intervention is described. New score functions used for determination of optimal incidence directions are presented and the calculation of the position of the isocentre for each optimum combination of incidence directions is explained. A description of how a set of applicators, covering fields with dimensions of 4 to 20 cm, for the 6 to 20 MeV electron beams of a MEL SL75-20 linear accelerator was developed, is given. A computer program for three dimensional electron beam treatment planning is presented. A microprocessor based treatment planning system for the Selectron remote controlled afterloading system for intracavitary radiotherapy is described. The main differences in treatment planning procedures for external beam therapy with neutrons instead of photons is discussed. A microprocessor based densitometer for plotting isodensity lines in film dosimetry is described. A computer program for dose planning of brachytherapy is presented. Finally a general discussion about the different aspects of computerized treatment planning as presented in this thesis is given. (Auth.)

  2. Current treatments for radiation retinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliari, Gian Paolo; Simpson, E. Rand (Princess Margaret Hospital, Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Toronto (Canada)), e-mail: gpgiuliari@gmail.com; Sadaka, Ama (Schepens Eye Research Inst., Boston, MA (United States)); Hinkle, David M. (Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution, Cambridge, MA (United States))

    2011-01-15

    Background. To review the currently available therapeutic modalities for radiation retinopathy (RR), including newer investigational interventions directed towards specific aspects of the pathophysiology of this refractory complication. Methods. A review of the literature encompassing the pathogenesis of RR and the current therapeutic modalities available was performed. Results. RR is a chronic and progressive condition that results from exposure to any source of radiation. It might be secondary to radiation treatment of intraocular tumors such as choroidal melanomas, retinoblastomas, and choroidal metastasis, or from unavoidable exposure to excessive radiation from the treatment of extraocular tumors like cephalic, nasopharyngeal, orbital, and paranasal malignancies. After the results of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, most of the choroidal melanomas are being treated with plaque brachytherapy increasing by that the incidence of this radiation complication. RR has been reported to occur in as many as 60% of eyes treated with plaque radiation, with higher rates associated with larger tumors. Initially, the condition manifests as a radiation vasculopathy clinically seen as microaneurysms and telangiectasis, with posterior development of retinal hard exudates and hemorrhages, macular edema, neovascularization and tractional retinal detachment. Regrettably, the management of these eyes remains limited. Photodynamic therapy, laser photocoagulation, oral pentoxyphylline and hyperbaric oxygen have been attempted as treatment modalities with inconclusive results. Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor such as bevacizumab, ranibizumab and pegaptanib sodium have been recently used, also with variable results. Discussion. RR is a common vision threatening complication following radiation therapy. The available therapeutic options are limited and show unsatisfactory results. Further large investigative studies are required for developing

  3. Current treatments for radiation retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliari, Gian Paolo; Simpson, E. Rand; Sadaka, Ama; Hinkle, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. To review the currently available therapeutic modalities for radiation retinopathy (RR), including newer investigational interventions directed towards specific aspects of the pathophysiology of this refractory complication. Methods. A review of the literature encompassing the pathogenesis of RR and the current therapeutic modalities available was performed. Results. RR is a chronic and progressive condition that results from exposure to any source of radiation. It might be secondary to radiation treatment of intraocular tumors such as choroidal melanomas, retinoblastomas, and choroidal metastasis, or from unavoidable exposure to excessive radiation from the treatment of extraocular tumors like cephalic, nasopharyngeal, orbital, and paranasal malignancies. After the results of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, most of the choroidal melanomas are being treated with plaque brachytherapy increasing by that the incidence of this radiation complication. RR has been reported to occur in as many as 60% of eyes treated with plaque radiation, with higher rates associated with larger tumors. Initially, the condition manifests as a radiation vasculopathy clinically seen as microaneurysms and telangiectasis, with posterior development of retinal hard exudates and hemorrhages, macular edema, neovascularization and tractional retinal detachment. Regrettably, the management of these eyes remains limited. Photodynamic therapy, laser photocoagulation, oral pentoxyphylline and hyperbaric oxygen have been attempted as treatment modalities with inconclusive results. Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor such as bevacizumab, ranibizumab and pegaptanib sodium have been recently used, also with variable results. Discussion. RR is a common vision threatening complication following radiation therapy. The available therapeutic options are limited and show unsatisfactory results. Further large investigative studies are required for developing

  4. Towards a new therapy protocol for liver metastases. Effect of boron compounds and BNCT on normal liver regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Jorge E.; Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.

    2006-01-01

    The Taormina project developed a new method for BNCT treatment of multifocal unresectable liver metastases based on whole liver autograft. The Roffo Institute liver surgeons propose a new technique based on partial liver autograft that would pose less risk to the patient but would require significant healthy liver regeneration following BNCT. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of BPA, GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and (GB-10 + BPA) and of BNCT mediated by these boron compounds on normal liver regeneration in the Wistar rat. Normal liver regeneration, body weight, hemogram, liver and kidney function were assessed following partial hepatectomy post administration of BPA, GB-10 or (GB-10 + BPA) and post in vivo BNCT at the RA-6 Reactor. These end-points were evaluated 9 days following partial hepatectomy, the time at which complete liver regeneration occurs in untreated controls. The corresponding biodistribution studies were conducted to perform dosimetric calculations. BPA, GB-10 and (GB-10 + PBA) and in vivo BNCT mediated by these boron compounds in dose ranges compatible with therapy did not cause alterations in the outcome of normal liver regeneration, and did not induce alterations in body weight, hemogram, liver or kidney function. The experimental data available to date support the development of a new BNCT protocol for the treatment of liver metastases that requires the regeneration of normal liver past-BNCT. (author)

  5. Multibeam radiation therapy treatment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manens, J.P.; Le Gall, G.; Chenal, C.; Ben Hassel, M.; Fresne, F.; Barillot, C.; Gibaud, B.; Lemoine, D.; Bouliou, A.; Scarabin, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A software package has been developed for multibeam radiation therapy treatment application. We present in this study a computer-assisted dosimetric planning procedure which includes: i), an analytical stage for setting up the large volume via 2D and 3D displays; ii), a planning stage for issue of a treatment strategy including dosimetric simulations; and iii), a treatment stage to drive the target volume to the radiation unit isocenter. The combined use of stereotactic methods and multimodality imagery ensures spatial coherence and makes target definition and cognition of structure environment more accurate. The dosimetric planning suited to the spatial reference (the stereotactic frame) guarantees optimal distribution of the dose, computed by the original 3D volumetric algorithm. A computer-driven chair-framework cluster was designed to position the target volume at the radiation unit isocenter [fr

  6. Nuclear engineering aspects of glioma BNCT research in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, G.; Mazzini, M.

    1998-01-01

    A research project on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCZ) of gliomas has been set up in Italy, with the participation of Departments of Oncology and Mechanical and Nuclear Construction (DCMN) of the University of Pisa, as well as the Neuroscience and Physics Departments of the Universities of Roma. The specific objective of DCMN Research Unit is the study of the physical-engineering aspects related to BNCT. The paper outlines the research lines in progress at DCMN: Monte Carlo calculations of neutron dose distribution for BNCT treatment planning; measurements of neutron fluxes, spectra and doses by neutron detectors specifically set up; design of modifications to the nuclear reactors of ENEA Casaccia Center. In particular, the paper emphasizes the most original contributions on dosimetric aspects, both from informatic and experimental points of view.(author)

  7. Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Hallman, Guy J.

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation is a viable quarantine disinfestation treatment which has been studied for 40 years although it has received very little commercial use. Two principal obstacles to commercial application, 1) the fact that insects are not killed immediately, and 2) consumer opposition to irradiation, have been allayed to some extent, but the remaining impediment to large-scale commercial use is development of approved protocols by government regulatory agencies in importing countries. The United St...

  8. In vitro biological models in order to study BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Kreimann, Erica L.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Farias, Silvia S.; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Batistoni, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) lacks an effective treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of 10 B-boronated compounds by some tumours, followed by irradiation with an appropriate neutron beam. The radioactive boron originated ( 11 B) decays releasing 7 Li, gamma rays and alpha particles, and these latter will destroy the tumour. In order to explore the possibility of applying BNCT to UTC we have studied the biodistribution of BPA. In vitro studies: the uptake of p- 10 borophenylalanine (BPA) by the UTC cell line ARO, primary cultures of normal bovine thyroid cells (BT) and human follicular adenoma (FA) thyroid was studied. No difference in BPA uptake was observed between proliferating and quiescent ARO cells. The uptake by quiescent ARO, BT and FA showed that the ARO/BT and ARO/FA ratios were 4 and 5, respectively (p< 0.001). The present experimental results open the possibility of applying BNCT for the treatment of UTC. (author)

  9. Measurement and simulation of the TRR BNCT beam parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavarnegin, Elham [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadremomtaz, Alireza [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalafi, Hossein [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kasesaz, Yaser, E-mail: ykasesaz@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golshanian, Mohadeseh; Ghods, Hossein; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Haddadi, Mohammad [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-11

    Recently, the configuration of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) thermal column has been modified and a proper thermal neutron beam for preclinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been obtained. In this study, simulations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the BNCT beam parameters including the beam uniformity, the distribution of the thermal neutron dose, boron dose, gamma dose in a phantom and also the Therapeutic Gain (TG). To do this, the entire TRR structure including the reactor core, pool, the thermal column and beam tubes have been modeled using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. To measure in-phantom dose distribution a special head phantom has been constructed and foil activation techniques and TLD700 dosimeter have been used. The results show that there is enough uniformity in TRR thermal BNCT beam. TG parameter has the maximum value of 5.7 at the depth of 1 cm from the surface of the phantom, confirming that TRR thermal neutron beam has potential for being used in treatment of superficial brain tumors. For the purpose of a clinical trial, more modifications need to be done at the reactor, as, for example design, and construction of a treatment room at the beam exit which is our plan for future. To date, this beam is usable for biological studies and animal trials. There is a relatively good agreement between simulation and measurement especially within a diameter of 10 cm which is the dimension of usual BNCT beam ports. This relatively good agreement enables a more precise prediction of the irradiation conditions needed for future experiments.

  10. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, M.J.; Frazee, R.C. (Department of General Surgery, Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Temple TX (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting.

  11. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, M.J.; Frazee, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting

  12. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Schwint, Amanda E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Curotto, Paula [Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Research and Production Reactors, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Colombo, Lucas L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia I.; Farias, Ruben O. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, Sara J. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carando, Daniel G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm{sup 3}. In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm{sup 3}. The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect. (orig.)

  13. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Schwint, Amanda E.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Curotto, Paula; Colombo, Lucas L.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Farias, Ruben O.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Carando, Daniel G.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 x 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm 3 . In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm 3 . The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect. (orig.)

  14. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, V.A.; Garabalino, M.A.; Colombo, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats Introduction: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on selective tumor uptake of boron compounds, followed by neutron irradiation. BNCT was proposed for the treatment of unresectable, diffuse lung metastases. The aim of the present study was to perform BNCT studies in an experimental model of lung metastases. Materials and Methods: 3 x 106/0.5 ml colon carcinoma cells (DHD/K12/TRb) were injected iv in syngeneic BDIX rats. Three weeks post-inoculation, rats with diffuse lung metastases were used for in vivo BNCT studies in the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Based on previous biodistribution studies and computational dosimetry with Monte Carlo simulation, 2 doses were prescribed, i.e. 4 Gy and 8 Gy minimum absorbed dose to tumor. The animals were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n= 4 to 8) at each dose level: T0 (euthanized pre-treatment), BPA-BNCT, Comb-BNCT (BPA+GB-10), Beam only (background dose) and Sham (same manipulation, no treatment). Boron concentration was measured in a blood sample taken pre-irradiation to verify that the value was in the range established in previous biodistribution studies. The animals were followed clinically for 2 weeks after neutron irradiation and then euthanized to assess the response of tumor and normal lung, macroscopically and histologically. To date we have evaluated the end-point weight of lung (normal lung + metastases) and % lung weight/body weight as an indicator of tumor growth. Results: The statistical analysis (ANOVA) of % lung weight/body weight showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between groups T0 (0.79 ± 0.38) and Sham (1.87 ± 0.91). No statistically significant differences were observed between the Beam only groups (at both dose levels) and Sham. Similar and statistically significant tumor control was induced in the groups BPA-BNCT Low dose (LD) (0.56 ± 0.11), BPA-BNCT High dose (HD) (0.80 ± 0.16), Comb-BNCT

  15. A Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, A.J.; Kwan, J.W.; Burlon, A.A.; Di Paolo, H.; Henestroza, E.; Minsky, D.M.; Valda, A.A.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.

    2007-01-01

    A project to develop a Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded Tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT

  16. Medical setup of intraoperative BNCT at JRR-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Matsumura, A. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    2000-10-01

    Since October 1999, we have been performing clinical trials of intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT) using a mixed thermal-epithermal beam at the Japan Research Reactor No. 4 (JRR-4). For immediate pre-BNCT care, including administration of a boron compound as well as post-BNCT care, a collaborating neurosurgical department of the University of Tsukuba was prepared in the vicinity of JRR-4. Following craniotomy in the treatment room, anesthetized patients were transported into the irradiation room for BNCT. The boron concentration in tissue was measured by the PGA and ICP-AES methods. The long-term follow-up was done at the University of Tsukuba Hospital. IOBNCT is a complex clinical procedure, which requires sophisticated operating team and co-medical staffs and also cooperation with physicist team. IOBNCT is a complex clinical procedure requiring a high level of cooperation among the operating team, co-medical staff, and physicists. For the safe and successful performance of IOBNCT, we have made the program including critical pathway and prepared various equipments for IOBNCT. To ensure the safe and successful performance of IOBNCT, we developed a critical pathway for use during the procedure, and prepared various apparatus for IOBNCT. (author)

  17. Gemstone enhancement by radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Shripal N.

    1998-01-01

    Since the discovery of radioactivity, investigations on the effects of atomic rays on precious stones began and Crookes established that alpha rays from radium produced green colour in diamonds. Gamma rays, x-rays, electrons, neutrons, protons etc. are effective in producing colour in precious stone like topaz and corundum. Some of these also produce considerable amount of radioactivity which is not acceptable if the radioactivity exceeds permissible limits. Colour enhancement by radiation treatment, different radiations, safety of irradiated gem stones and market related aspects are discussed. (author)

  18. The Idaho Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, R.V. III; Griebenow, M.L.; Ackermann, A.L.; Miller, L.G.; Miller, D.L.; Wheeler, F.J.; Bradshaw, K.M.; Wessol, D.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Nigg, D.W.; Randolph, P.D.; Bauer, W.F.; Gavin, P.R.; Richards, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program has been funded since 1988 to evaluate brain tumor treatment using Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH (borocaptate sodium or BSH) and epithermal neutrons. The PBF/BNCT Program pursues this goal as a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, multiorganizational endeavor applying modern program management techniques. The initial focus was to: (1) establish a representative large animal model and (2) develop the generic analytical and measurement capabilities require to control treatment repeatability and determine critical treatment parameters independent of tumor type and body location. This paper will identify the PBF/BNCT Program elements and summarize the status of some of the developed capabilities

  19. Microwave digestion techniques applied to determination of boron by ICP-AES in BNCT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Silvia S.; Di Santo, Norberto R.; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Pucci, Gladys N.; Batistoni, Daniel A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has merged as an interesting option for the treatment of some kind of tumors where established therapies show no success. A molecular boronated species, enriched in 10 B is administrated to the subject; it localizes in malignant tissues depending the kind of tumor and localization. Therefore, a very important fact in BNCT research is the detection of boron at trace or ultra trace levels precisely and accurately. This is extremely necessary as boronated species do localize in tumoral tissue and also localize in liver, kidney, spleen, skin, membranes. By this way, before testing a boronated species, it is mandatory to determine its biodistribution in a statistically meaning population, that is related with managing of a great number of samples. In the other hand, it is necessary to exactly predict when to begin the irradiation and to determine the magnitude of radiation to obtain the desired radiological dose for a specified mean boron concentration. This involves the determination of boron in whole blood, which is related with boron concentration in the tumor object of treatment. The methodology selected for the analysis of boron in whole blood and tissues must join certain characteristics: it must not be dependant of the chemical form of boron, it has to be fast and capable to determine boron accurately and precisely in a wide range of concentrations. The design and validation of experimental models involving animals in BNCT studies and the determination of boron in blood of animals and subjects upon treatment require reliable analytical procedures to determine boron quantitatively in those biologic materials. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using pneumatic nebulization is one of the most promising methods for boron analysis, but the sample must be liquid and have low solid concentration. In our case, biological tissues and blood, it is mandatory to mineralize and/or dilute samples

  20. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Tamura, Yoji; Kawabata, Shinji

    2006-01-01

    Malignant meningiomas is difficult pathology to be controlled as well as GBM. Since June of 2005, we applied BNCT for 7 cases of malignancy related meningiomas with 13 times neutron irradiation. Five were anaplastic, one was atypical meningiomas and one was sarcoma transformed from meningioma with cervical lymph node metastasis. All cases were introduced after repetitive surgeries and XRT or SRS. Follow-up images were available for 6 cases with observation duration between 2 to 9 months. We applied F-BPA-PET before BNCT in 6 out of 7 cases. One case was received methionine-PET. Five out of 6 cases who received BPA-PET study showed good BPA uptake more than 3 of T/N ratio. One atypical meningiomas cases showed 2.0 of T/N ratio. Original tumor sizes were between 9.2 to 92.7 ml. Two out of 5 anaplastic meningiomas showed CR and all six cases showed radiographic improvements. Clinical symptoms before BNCT such as hemiparesis and facial pain were improved after BNCT, except one case. An huge atypical meningiomas which arisen from tentorium and extended bilateral occipital lobes and brain stem, visual problems were worsened after repetitive BNCT with increase of peritumoral edema. Malignant meningiomas are seemed to be good candidate for BNCT. (author)

  1. Biocompatibility of functionalized boron phosphate (BPO4) nanoparticles for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Cesare; Grandi, Stefania; Ciana, Annarita; Guidetti, Gianni F; Malara, Alessandro; Abbonante, Vittorio; Cansolino, Laura; Tomasi, Corrado; Balduini, Alessandra; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Merli, Daniele; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Canobbio, Ilaria; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2014-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy treatment based on the accumulation in the tumor of a (10)B-containing drug and subsequent irradiation with low energy neutrons, which bring about the decay of (10)B to (7)Li and an α particle, causing the death of the neoplastic cell. The effectiveness of BNCT is limited by the low delivery and accumulation of the used boron-containing compounds. Here we report the development and the characterization of BPO4 nanoparticles (NPs) as a novel possible alternative drug for BNCT. An extensive analysis of BPO4 NP biocompatibility was performed using both mature blood cells (erythrocytes, neutrophils and platelets) and a model of hematopoietic progenitor cells. A time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity study was performed on neoplastic coloncarcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines. BPO4 functionalization with folic acid, introduced to improve the uptake by tumor cells, appeared to effectively limit the unwanted effects of NPs on the analyzed blood components. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy treatment modality based on the accumulation of a (10)B-containing drug and subsequent irradiation with low energy neutrons, inducing the decay of (10)B to (7)Li and an α particle, causing neoplastic cell death. This team of authors reports on a folic acid functionalized BPO4 nanoparticle with improved characteristics compared with conventional BNCT approaches, as demonstrated in tumor cell lines, and hopefully to be followed by translational human studies. © 2014.

  2. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal wastewater is the effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plant. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in effluent were decomposed. The COD values decreased and the light brown color faded with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. Recent attention has been given to the disadvantages of using chlorine as a disinfectant of municipal wastewater effluents. It has been shown that the chlorination of organic substances in water may produce chlorinated hydrocarbons with carcinogenic properties. So a development of the effective sterilization method for the effluent has been needed instead of chlorine. The radiation sterilization of coliforms and total bacteria in primary effluent, secondary effluent and rapid sand filtered effluent were studied. Coliforms were very sensitive to radiation treatment in comparison with total bacteria. Especially, coliforms in secondary and rapid sand filtered effluents were disinfected to 10 % of initial at 0.1 kGy. (author)

  3. Treatment charts in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macia, M.; De Blas, R.; Monfa, C.; Bonet, A.; Rubio, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The radiotherapy treatment chart (dose prescription, set-up parameters, dose computation and daily dose recording form) represents an important working tool in radiotherapy, not only as a compilation of data, but also as a method of communication among physicians, physicists and technicians. In addition to administrative and medical data, physical and simulation data that are indispensable for the daily accurate reproduction of the therapy procedures should be recorded, as well as accurate daily entries of the fractional and cumulative absorbed doses. Moreover, any radiation therapy quality assurance programme must rely on the accessibility of the radiation treatment history and a correct record of the therapy protocol in order to be verifiable. We have analysed the treatment charts of 92 European Departments of Radiation Oncology, with the aim of identifying their salient characteristics and data recorded. The study shows strong differences among the charts analysed, not only in the amount of information recorded, but also in the kind of data and concepts used. (author) 6 refs., 1 fig

  4. Accelerator based-boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)-clinical QA and QC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Yong, Liu; Kashino, Genro; Kinashi, Yuko; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-particle and recoil Li atom yielded by the reaction ( 10 B, n), due to their high LET properties, efficiently and specifically kill the cancer cell that has incorporated the boron. Efficacy of this boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been demonstrated mainly in the treatment of recurrent head/neck and malignant brain cancers in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). As the clinical trial of BNCT is to start from 2009 based on an accelerator (not on the Reactor), this paper describes the tentative outline of the standard operation procedure of BNCT for its quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) along the flow of its clinical practice. Personnel concerned in the practice involve the attending physician, multiple physicians in charge of BNCT, medical physicists, nurses and reactor stuff. The flow order of the actual BNCT is as follows: Pre-therapeutic evaluation mainly including informed consent and confirmation of the prescription; Therapeutic planning including setting of therapy volume, and of irradiation axes followed by meeting for stuffs' agreement, decision of irradiating field in the irradiation room leading to final decision of the axis, CT for the planning, decision of the final therapeutic plan according to Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) and meeting of all related personnel for the final confirmation of therapeutic plan; and BNCT including the transport of patient to KUR, dripping of boronophenylalanine, setting up of the patient on the machine, blood sampling for pharmacokinetics, boron level measurement for decision of irradiating time, switch on/off of the accelerator, confirmation of patient's movement in the irradiated field after the neutron irradiation, blood sampling for confirmation of the boron level, and patient's leave from the room. The QA/QC check is principally to be conducted with the two-person rule. The purpose of the clinical trial is to establish the usefulness of BNCT

  5. Radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms are presented. The results of combined (surgical and radiation) treatment of tumors are studied. On the whole it is noted that radiation treatment of initial spinal cord tumours is not practised on a large scale because of low radiostability of spinal cord

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Veronica A. Trivilin; Lucas L. Colombo; Andrea Monti Hughes; Silvia I. Thorp; Jorge E. Cardoso; Marcel A. Garabalino; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Paula Curotto; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 +/- 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 +/- 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 +/- 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 +/- 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 +/- 480 mg for Sham, 960 +/- 620 mg for Beam only, 380 +/- 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 +/- 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  7. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; D'Errico, F; Nath, R; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in sup 1 sup 0 B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast ...

  8. SERA - an advanced treatment planning system for neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, F.J.; Wessol, D.E.; Wemple, C.A.; Nigg, D.W.; Albright, C.L.; Cohen, M.T.; Frandsen, M.W.; Harkin, G.J.; Rossmeier, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    The technology for computational dosimetry and treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has advanced significantly over the past few years. Because of the more complex nature of the problem, the computational methods that work well for treatment planning in photon radiotherapy are not applicable to BNCT. The necessary methods have, however, been developed and have been successfully employed both for research applications as well as human trials. Computational geometry for BNCT applications can be constructed directly from tomographic medical imagery and computed radiation dose distributions can be readily displayed in formats that are familiar to the radiotherapy community. The SERA system represents a significant advance in several areas for treatment planning. However further improvements in speed and results presentation are still needed for routine clinical applications, particularly when optimization of dose pattern is required. (author)

  9. SERA - An Advanced Treatment Planning System for Neutron Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wemple, C. A.; Albright, C. L.; Nigg, D. W.; Wessol, D. W.; Wheeler, F. J.; Harkin, G. J.; Rossmeirer, M. B.; Cohen, M. T.; Frandsen, M. W.

    1999-01-01

    The technology for computational dosimetry and treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has advanced significantly over the past few years. Because of the more complex nature of the problem, the computational methods that work well for treatment planning in photon radiotherapy are not applicable to BNCT. The necessary methods have, however, been developed and have been successfully employed both for research applications as well as human trials. Computational geometry for BNCT applications can be constructed directly from tomographic medical imagery and computed radiation dose distributions can be readily displayed in formats that are familiar to the radiotherapy community. The SERA system represents a significant advance in several areas for treatment planning. However further improvements in speed and results presentation are still needed for routine clinical applications, particularly when optimizations of dose pattern is required

  10. SERA - An Advanced Treatment Planning System for Neutron Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A. Wemple; C. L. Albright; D. W. Nigg; D. W. Wessol; F. J. Wheeler; G. J. Harkin; M. B. Rossmeirer; M. T. Cohen; M. W. Frandsen

    1999-06-01

    The technology for computational dosimetry and treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has advanced significantly over the past few years. Because of the more complex nature of the problem, the computational methods that work well for treatment planning in photon radiotherapy are not applicable to BNCT. The necessary methods have, however, been developed and have been successfully employed both for research applications as well as human trials. Computational geometry for BNCT applications can be constructed directly from tomographic medical imagery and computed radiation dose distributions can be readily displayed in formats that are familiar to the radiotherapy community. The SERA system represents a significant advance in several areas for treatment planning. However further improvements in speed and results presentation are still needed for routine clinical applications, particularly when optimizations of dose pattern is required.

  11. Study of the potential of using 9B(p,n) for BNCT clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.; Bleuel, D.; Donahue, R.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Chu, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of using a 30-MeV proton accelerator utilizing the 9 Be(p,n) 9 B reaction as a neutron source for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) was investigated. MCNPX (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon-transport code X) was used to calculated neutron spectra and yields for comparison against existing experimental data and for the moderator optimization. Moderator performance was assessed using MCNPX and clinical efficacy was assessed using BNCT-RTPE to estimate in-phantom dose distributions and neutron fluences. The optimized source and moderator gave comparable tumor doses and treatment times to the clinical trials recently completed at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). (author)

  12. Radiation treatment for breast cancer. Recent advances.

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Edward

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review recent advances in radiation therapy in treatment of breast cancer. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE and CANCERLIT were searched using the MeSH words breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and postmastectomy radiation. Randomized studies have shown the efficacy of radiation treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and for invasive breast cancer. MAIN MESSAGE: Lumpectomy followed by radiation is effective treatment for DCIS. In early breast c...

  13. Neutron generator for BNCT based on high current ECR ion source with gyrotron plasma heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalyga, V; Izotov, I; Golubev, S; Razin, S; Sidorov, A; Maslennikova, A; Volovecky, A; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O

    2015-12-01

    BNCT development nowadays is constrained by a progress in neutron sources design. Creation of a cheap and compact intense neutron source would significantly simplify trial treatments avoiding use of expensive and complicated nuclear reactors and accelerators. D-D or D-T neutron generator is one of alternative types of such sources for. A so-called high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source with plasma heating by millimeter wave gyrotron radiation is suggested to be used in a scheme of D-D neutron generator in the present work. Ion source of that type was developed in the Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia). It can produce deuteron ion beams with current density up to 700-800 mA/cm(2). Generation of the neutron flux with density at the level of 7-8·10(10) s(-1) cm(-2) at the target surface could be obtained in case of TiD2 target bombardment with deuteron beam accelerated to 100 keV. Estimations show that it is enough for formation of epithermal neutron flux with density higher than 10(9) s(-1) cm(-2) suitable for BNCT. Important advantage of described approach is absence of Tritium in the scheme. First experiments performed in pulsed regime with 300 mA, 45 kV deuteron beam directed to D2O target demonstrated 10(9) s(-1) neutron flux. This value corresponds to theoretical estimations and proofs prospects of neutron generator development based on high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomedical Engineering 2008. New methods for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanninen, J.; Koskelainen, A.; Ilmoniemi, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    The report consists of 11 student papers presented in 2008 at the Seminar on Biomedical Engineering at Helsinki University of Technology (Finland). The topics of the seminar included: cancer risk factors and diagnosis, radiation therapy, boron neutron capture treatment (BNCT), chemotherapy, cooling and heating therapy, immunotherapy, angiogenesis inhibition approaches, gene therapy and ablation therapy of liver cancer

  15. Might iodomethyl-{alpha}-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with {sup 10}B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that {sup 10}B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing {sup 18}F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron {sup 18}F (T{sub 1/2} = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of {sup 123}I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT.

  16. Might iodomethyl-α-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with 10 B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that 10 B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing 18 F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron 18 F (T 1/2 = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of 123 I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT

  17. First tomographic image of neutron capture rate in a BNCT facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsky, D.M., E-mail: minsky@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Green, S.; Wojnecki, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2 TT (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom); Ghani, Z. [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    This work discusses the development of online dosimetry of the boron dose via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) during a BNCT treatment irradiation. Such a system will allow the online computation of boron dose maps without the large current uncertainties in the assessment of the boron concentration in different tissues. The first tomographic boron dose image with a SPECT prototype is shown.

  18. The physics of radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.

    1998-01-01

    X-rays are routinely used to diagnose and treat disease, and researchers are now developing new techniques that will make X-ray treatment more effective than ever before. Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays over 100 years ago in Wuerzberg, Germany. Like many contemporary physicists, he was studying what happened when energetic electrons were made to hit a target inside a vacuum tube. While Roentgen himself coined the ''X'' for unknown, the mysteries of these ''Roentgen rays'' were quickly unravelled and harnessed for medical purposes. Imaging the human body with X-rays is now one of a suite of methods used to detect disease, and, specifically, to identify malignant disease or cancerous tumours. Generations have now benefited from the ability to see inside the human body effortlessly, painlessly and at least in more recent years almost instantaneously. As well as detecting disease, X-rays also provide the means for treatment: radiotherapy. Both X-ray imaging and radiotherapy have evolved steadily over the past century, interspersed with several significant breakthroughs. Recently innovations in therapeutic radiology aim to improve the way in which X-rays are delivered to diseased tissue, in the hope of treating a greater range of tumours more effectively than ever before. In this article the author presents a new form of cancer treatment known as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. (UK)

  19. Tumor control induced by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) as a function of dose in an experimental model of liver metastases at 5 weeks follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, E C C; Trivillin, V A; Colombo, L L; Monti Hughes, A; Thorp, S; Cardoso, J E; Garabalino, M A; Molinari, A J; Heber, E M; Curotto, Paula; Miller, M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Nigg, D W; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    BNCT has been proposed for the treatment of multifocal, non-resectable, bilobar colorectal liver metastases that do not respond to chemotherapy. We recently reported that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) induced significant remission of experimental colorectal tumor nodules in rat liver at 3 weeks follow-up with no contributory liver toxicity (Pozzi et al.,2012). The aim of the present study was to evaluate tumor control and potential liver toxicity of BPA-BNCT at 5 weeks follow-up. Prescribed dose was retrospectively evaluated based on blood boron values, allowing for assessment of response over a range of delivered dose values (author)

  20. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  1. Logic Estimation of the Optimum Source Neutron Energy for BNCT of Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorrah, M.A.; Gaber, F.A.; Abd Elwahab, M.A.; Kotb, M.A.; Mohammed, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    BNCT is very complicated technique; primarily due to the complexity of element composition of the brain. Moreover; numerous components contributes to the over all radiation dose both to normal brain and to tumor. Simple algebraic summation cannot be applied to these dose components, since each component should at first be weighed by its relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value. Unfortunately, there is no worldwide agreement on these RBE values. For that reason, the parameters required for accurate planning of BNCT of brain tumors located at different depths in brain remained obscure. The most important of these parameters is; the source neutron energy. Thermal neutrons were formerly employed for BNCT, but they failed to prove therapeutic efficacy. Later on; epithermal neutrons were suggested proposing that they would be enough thermalized while transporting in the brain tissues. However; debate aroused regarding the source neutrons energy appropriate for treating brain tumors located at different depths in brain. Again, the insufficient knowledge regarding the RBE values of the different dose components was a major obstacle. A new concept was adopted for estimating the optimum source neutrons energy appropriate for different circumstances of BNCT. Four postulations on the optimum source neutrons energy were worked out, almost entirely independent of the RBE values of the different dose components. Four corresponding condition on the optimum source neutrons energy were deduced. An energy escalation study was carried out investigating 65 different source neutron energies, between 0.01 eV and 13.2 MeV. MCNP4B Monte C arlo neutron transport code was utilized to study the behavior of neutrons in the brain. The deduced four conditions were applied to the results of the 65 steps of the neutron energy escalation study. A source neutron energy range of few electron volts (eV) to about 30 keV was estimated to be the most appropriate for BNCT of brain tumors located at

  2. Treatment optimisation using external beam radiation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of patients with gynaecological cancers present with advanced stages in which external beam radiation forms a major component of the treatment. These patients undergo simulation for treatment planning prior to radiation. Currently the lower extent of the disease is evaluated by vaginal examination and ...

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) translational studies in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration of the RA-6 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti Hughes, Andrea; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Longhino, Juan; Boggio, Esteban [Bariloche Atomic Center, CNEA, Department of Nuclear Engineering, San Carlos de Bariloche, Province Rio Negro (Argentina); Medina, Vanina A.; Martinel Lamas, Diego J. [National Research Council (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina (UCA), Laboratory of Tumoral Biology and Inflammation, School of Medical Sciences, Institute for Biomedical Research (BIOMED CONICET-UCA), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); Itoiz, Maria E. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); UBA, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, Romina F. [UBA, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigg, David W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of B-10 carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We demonstrated, in 2001, the therapeutic effect of BNCT mediated by BPA (boronophenylalanine) in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer, at the RA-6 nuclear reactor. Between 2007 and 2011, the RA-6 was upgraded, leading to an improvement in the performance of the BNCT beam (B2 configuration). Our aim was to evaluate BPA-BNCT radiotoxicity and tumor control in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration. We also evaluated, for the first time in the oral cancer model, the radioprotective effect of histamine against mucositis in precancerous tissue as the dose-limiting tissue. Cancerized pouches were exposed to: BPA-BNCT; BPA-BNCT + histamine; BO: Beam only; BO + histamine; CONTROL: cancerized, no-treatment. BNCT induced severe mucositis, with an incidence that was slightly higher than in ''B1'' experiments (86 vs 67%, respectively). BO induced low/moderate mucositis. Histamine slightly reduced the incidence of severe mucositis induced by BPA-BNCT (75 vs 86%) and prevented mucositis altogether in BO animals. Tumor overall response was significantly higher in BNCT (94-96%) than in control (16%) and BO groups (9-38%), and did not differ significantly from the ''B1'' results (91%). Histamine did not compromise BNCT therapeutic efficacy. BNCT radiotoxicity and therapeutic effect at the B1 and B2 configurations of RA-6 were consistent. Histamine slightly reduced mucositis in precancerous tissue even in this overly aggressive oral cancer model, without compromising tumor control. (orig.)

  4. The BNCT facility at the HFR Petten: Quality assurance for reactor facilities in clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, R.; Watkins, P.; Vroegindeweij, C.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.; Huiskamp, R.; Ravensberg, K.; Appelman, K.; Sauerwein, W.; Hideghety, K.; Gabel, D.

    2001-01-01

    The first clinical trial in Europe of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of glioblastoma was opened in July 1997. The trial is a Phase I study with the principal aim to establish the maximum tolerated radiation dose and the dose limiting toxicity under defined conditions. It is the first time that a clinical application could be realised on a completely multi-national scale. The treatment takes place at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, the Netherlands, is operated by an international team of experts under the leadership of a German radiotherapist, and treats patients coming from different European countries. It has therefore been necessary to create a very specialised organisation and contractual structure with the support of administrations from different countries, who had to find and adapt solutions within existing laws that had never foreseen such a situation. Furthermore, the treatment does not take place in an hospital environment and even more so, the facility is at a nuclear research reactor. Hence, special efforts were made on quality assurance, in order that the set-up at the facility and the personnel involved complied, as closely as possible, with similar practices in conventional radiotherapy departments. (author)

  5. Retrospective review of the clinical BNCT trial at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.Z.; Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Ma, R.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the phase I/II dose escalation studies was to evaluate the safety of the boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in subjects with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A secondary objective was to retrospectively assess the palliation of GBM by BNCT. Fifty-three subjects with GBM were treated under multiple dose escalation protocols at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). Twenty-six subjects were treated using one field, 17 subjects were treated using 2 fields and 10 subjects were treated using 3 fields. BPA-F related toxicity was not observed. The maximum radiation dose to a volume of approximately 1 cc of the normal brain varied from 8.9 to 15.9 gray-equivalent (Gy-Eq). The volume-weighted average radiation dose to normal brain varied from 1.9 to 9.5 Gy-Eq. Six RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) grade 3 or 4 toxicities were attributed to BNCT. Four of the 53 subjects are still alive with 3 of them free of recurrent disease with over two years follow-up. The median times to progression and median survival time from diagnosis were 28.4 weeks and 12.8 months respectively. (author)

  6. First evaluation of the biologic effectiveness factors of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a human colon carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Crivello, Martín; Perona, Marina; Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto; Pozzi, Emiliano; Casal, Mariana; Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo; Kahl, Steven; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Pisarev, Mario Alberto

    2011-01-01

    DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ((10)BPA) and for 2,4-bis (α,β-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ((10)BOPP). Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm (10)B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm (10)B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ((60)Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy (±10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10(9) n/cm(2) sec). The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 ± 1.1 and 2.4 ± 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 ± 2.2 and 2.0 ± 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 ± 3.7 and 3.5 ± 1.3. BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a biologic model and could be useful for future experimental studies for the application of BNCT to colon carcinoma

  7. BNCT treatment planning for superficial and deep-seated tumors: Experience from clinical trial of recurrent head and neck cancer at THOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yen-Wan Hsueh; Chang, Chih-Ting; Yeh, Lan-Yun; Wang, Ling-Wei; Lin, Tzung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Under the collaboration between National Tsing Hua University and Taipei Veterans General Hospital, clinical trial of recurrent head-and-neck cancer by Boron neutron capture therapy at Tsing Hua open-pool reactor started on August 11, 2010. Up to January 2014, 17 patients were treated. Based on the treatment planning experiences of clinical trials using in-house designed THORplan, different setups should be used for superficial and deep-seated tumors. Superficial tumor treatment gains benefits from the use of patient collimator, while direct irradiation is a better choice for deep-seated tumor. - Highlights: • Different setups should be used for superficial and deep-seated tumors. • Superficial tumor treatment gains benefits from the use of patient collimator. • Direct irradiation is a better choice for deep-seated tumor.

  8. A preclinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of spontaneous tumors in cats at RA-6 in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Calzetta, Osvaldo A.; Blaumann, Hernan R.; Longhino, J.; Rao, Monica; Cantarelli, Maria de los A.

    2005-01-01

    BNCT is a binary treatment modality that combines irradiation with a thermal or epithermal neutron beam with tumor-seeking, boron containing drugs to produce selective irradiation of tumor tissue. Having demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) induced control of experimental squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the hamster cheek pouch mucosa with no damage to normal tissue we explored the feasibility and safety of treating spontaneous head and neck tumors, with particular focus on SCC, of terminal feline patients with low dose BPA-BNCT employing the thermal beam of RA-1. Having demonstrated partial tumor control with no radio toxic effects, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of BPA-BNCT on tumor and normal tissue in 3 cases of spontaneous SCC in feline patients employing a higher neutron fluence than in the previous study. The present study was performed at RA-6 with the thermalized epithermal neutron beam. All three irradiations were successful. Except for an initial, moderate and reversible mucositis, no significant radio toxic effects were observed in terms of clinical follow-up, histological examination, biochemical analysis and assessment of autopsy material. Partial tumor control was evidenced in terms of growth inhibition and partial necrosis and improvement in the quality of life during the survival period. Optimization of the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT would require improvement in boron tumor targeting and strategies to increase in-depth dose in large tumors. (author)

  9. Development of cancer therapy facility of Hanaro and medical research in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Byung Jin; Kim, M. S.; Kim, M. J.; Park, S. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C. H.; Kwack, H. S.; Kim, M. S. [Korea Inst. of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Park, S. H.; Shin, C. H. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    In order to support the domestic research on the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT) which is a promising treatment method for tumor in principle, a neutron irradiation facility and a Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) equipment for the boron concentration measurement are developed and installed at Hanaro. Meanwhile basic research has been performed to develop BNCT medical technology using above Hanaro facilities when they are ready. The Hanaro BNCT facility gives almost pure thermal neutron beam, it can be applied to all level of BNCT research from the cell culture and animal study to clinical trials by focussed irradiation, and its use does not cause any interference with other utilization. It can also be used for other purposes such as standard thermal neutron field and a dynamic neutron radiography with excellent features. The PGNAA equipment will be used not only for the boron concentration measurement but also for the general multi-element simultaneous analyses. The medical research for BNCT covers basic research on dose evaluation, boron compound behaviour and new compound development. Technologies for neutron and gamma transport calculation and their measurement, and micro dosimetry are developed. While import of a dose planning program has been pushed, domestic development of the program has been tried. Imaging technologies for boron distribution using SPECT or PET are developed by labeling I-123 or F-18 to BPA. Data for the BPA accumulation into the brain tumor are produced by clinical trials of the technology. A general and versatile method for the synthesis of o-carborane clusters containing of their important biological activities as neurotransmitter, antipsychotic or anticancer is developed. We found three promising compounds of which accumulation into B-16 melanoma cell is about 10 times of BPA.

  10. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the Treatment of Recurrent Laryngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapaniemi, Aaro, E-mail: aaro.haapaniemi@hus.fi [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Kankaanranta, Leena [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Saat, Riste [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Koivunoro, Hanna; Saarilahti, Kauko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a larynx-preserving treatment option for patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Six patients with locally recurrent squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma and 3 patients with persistent laryngeal cancer after prior treatment were treated with BNCT at the FiR1 facility (Espoo, Finland) in 2006 to 2012. The patients had received prior radiation therapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy to a cumulative median dose of 66 Gy. The median tumor diameter was 2.9 cm (range, 1.4-10.9 cm) before BNCT. Boron neutron capture therapy was offered on a compassionate basis to patients who either refused laryngectomy (n=7) or had an inoperable tumor (n=2). Boronophenylalanine-fructose (400 mg/kg) was used as the boron carrier and was infused over 2 hours intravenously before neutron irradiation. Results: Six patients received BNCT once and 3 twice. The estimated average gross tumor volume dose ranged from 22 to 38 Gy (W) (mean; 29 Gy [W]). Six of the 8 evaluable patients responded to BNCT; 2 achieved complete and 4 partial response. One patient died early and was not evaluable for response. Most common side effects were stomatitis, fatigue, and oral pain. No life-threatening or grade 4 toxicity was observed. The median time to progression within the target volume was 6.6 months, and the median overall survival time 13.3 months after BNCT. One patient with complete response is alive and disease-free with a functioning larynx 60 months after BNCT. Conclusions: Boron neutron capture therapy given after prior external beam radiation therapy is well tolerated. Most patients responded to BNCT, but long-term survival with larynx preservation was infrequent owing to cancer progression. Selected patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer may benefit from BNCT.

  11. Radiation treatment of toxic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Jung, I.H.; Jo, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were commercially produced from 1920s as complex mixtures containing multiple isomers for a variety of applications. They are very toxic, chemically stable and resist microbial, photochemical, chemical, and thermal degradation. The public, legal, and scientific concerns about PCBs arose from research indicating they were environmental contaminants that had a potential to adversely impact the environment, and, therefore, were undesirable as commercial products. Eventually, most producers reduced or stopped production of PCBs in the 1970s. Stockholm convention on POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants), which was effective on May 2004 and 151 nations including Korea were joined on June 2005, asked to dispose of PCBs by 2028 with environmental friendly methods. Korean government also has declared to conduct by 2015. According to the Environmental law of Korea, over 2 ppm of PCBs has to be decomposed by legal methods of incineration and thermal destruction. But those are inapplicable owing to the environmental groups. KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has recently developed a remarkable technology for radiation treatment of toxic chemicals including chlorides using an electron beam accelerator. Electron beam accelerator of 2.5 MeV energy and 100 kW power capacity was used to decompose of PCBs having been used as a commercial transformer oil for more than 30 years. The oil were irradiated with ∼ 0.1 percent of TEA (Triethyl Amin) to make chloride ion aparted off from the PCBs into precipitate at the conditions of normal temperature and pressure. The concentrations of PCBs were measured by GC (Gas Chromatography) with ECD (Electron Capture Detector) following the KS (Korean Standard) test procedure. Electron beam should be a useful tool for environmental conservation. Residual concentrations of PCBs after irradiation were depended on the absorption dose of electron beam energy. Advantages comparing to other methods such as

  12. Monte Carlo simulations of the cellular S-value, lineal energy and RBE for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chingsheng; Tung Chuanjong

    2006-01-01

    Due to the non-uniform uptake of boron-containing pharmaceuticals in cells and the short-ranged alpha and lithium particles, microdosimetry provides useful information on the cellular dose and response of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Radiation dose and quality in BNCT may be expressed in terms of the cellular S-value and the lineal energy spectrum. In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate these microdosimetric parameters for different source-target configurations and sizes in cells. The effective relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) epithermal neutron beam was evaluated using biological weighting functions that depended on the lineal energy. RBE changes with source-target configurations and sizes were analyzed. (author)

  13. Radiation treatment and radiation reactions in dermatology. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizzon, Renato G. [Univ. Hospital CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Dermatology; Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich (ed.) [Strahlenzentrum Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Explains the use of radiation treatment in the full range of skin cancers and precancerous lesions. Covers physical and radiobiological principles, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. Revised and updated edition that includes new chapters and numerous additional figures. In this book, leading experts in the dermatological and oncological field describe the use of radiation therapy for the treatment of the full range of dermatological malignancies - including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, cutaneous lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell tumor - as well as those precancerous lesions and non-malignant dermatological disorders which are amenable to radiation therapy. In each case the specific indications for the use of radiotherapy and its application are clearly explained with the aid of numerous high-quality illustrations. In addition, the book provides a concise introduction to physical and radiobiological principles, selection of radiation factors, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. The new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect advances in practical knowledge and clinical practice. It will be an invaluable source of information on the management of skin tumors and related non-malignant disorders for both dermatologists, oncologists and radiation oncologists.

  14. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo, M.A.P.; Tomac Junior, U.

    1990-01-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of glyemas and gluoblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment the levels of Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 SH must be known in several compartiments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumine was established. This method is simple, reprodutible and adequate sensitivity for this control. (author) [pt

  15. Manufacturing of thin films of boron for the measurement of the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7} Li reaction used in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilgys, Barbara; Oliveira, Sandro Guedes de; Hadler Neto, Julio Cesar; Vellame, Igor Alencar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Soares, Cleber Jose; Salim, Leonardo Alfredo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Coelho, Paulo Rogerio Pinto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is considered to be a possible treatment for different types of aggressive cancers located in areas of difficult access or which already have metastasis. The working principle of this therapy is the selective delivery of a greater amount of boron to the tumor cells than to the healthy ones, followed by the neutron irradiation that will induce the emission of {alpha} particles through the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7} Li reaction used in BNCT reaction. The high energy deposition of the product particles causes the death of the cells and this therapy becomes much effective if the healthy tissue is less exposed to this radiation. The objective of this work is to develop a method for measuring the rate of this reaction by using thin films of boron. We have manufactured thin films with different concentrations of boron deposited on mica and the thin films were exposed to different irradiation time intervals at the reactor IEA-R1 located at IPEN, Sao Paulo. Here we show our first results on the density and uniformity of the thin films, where the detection of the particles is made using plastic track detectors (CR-39) which have their structures damaged by the passage of ions. (author)

  16. Early phase II study on BNCT in metastatic malignant melanoma using the boron carrier BPA (EORTC protocol 11011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, Andrea; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Moss, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the trial is to examine the clinical response of metastatic melanoma following BNCT with BPA. The trial contains an optional biodistribution sub-study, which is done if operable metastases are removed prior BNCT. BNCT is applied in 2 fractions at the HFR in Petten. In cases of diffuse brain metastases the whole brain is irradiated homogeneously using 5 irradiation beams from different directions. Up to now 4 patients suffering from multiple brain metastases (more than 20) have been included. In all cases we observed a partial response or no change in the irradiated volume. However, none of the patients survived more than 3 months. The pharmacokinetic of the BPA can be predicted very precisely using a two-compartment model. The treatment can be performed safety. (author)

  17. RADIATION SYNOVECTOMY: TREATMENT OPTION FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... haematology and radiation medicine journals, as well as conference presentations of .... Injection of the radiopharceutical into the joint is usually carried out by the musculoskeletal or nuclear medicine physician. Physiotherapy and nursing care ... reactions associated with rapidly decaying isotopes. (35).

  18. Nonsurgical treatment for cancer using radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    The number of people who are dying from cancer has been increasing in association with population aging. Radiation therapy is now one of the three major cancer treatment methods, along with surgery and chemotherapy. People used to consider radiation therapy only as a ''noninvasive cancer treatment''; however, with the ceaseless effort by medical experts and corporations, different radiation therapy types and techniques including the latest technical advances have come out one after another, and the improvements in radiation therapies have provided treatments that are not only less traumatizing to patients but also as effective and therapeutic as surgery in certain body regions. The importance of radiation therapy has become and will become even greater in the society with more elderly cancer patients who do not have the physical strength to undergo surgery. In this article, the history of radiation therapy, rapidly developed high-precision radiation therapy techniques, and unsolved issues are discussed, and then, ''MHI vero4DRT'', which is the high-precision image-guided radiation therapy equipment developed for solving such issues, is introduced. (author)

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalci, D.; Doerter, G.; Gueclue, I.

    2005-01-01

    This publication is the translation of IAEA Safety Reports Series No.2 ,Diagnosis and Treatment of Radiation Injuries. This report is directed at medical professionals who may be involved in the management of radiation injuries starting from the first few hours or days after an exposure of undefined severity. The principal aim of this publication is to provide guidelines to enable medical professionals to carry out prompt diagnostic measure and to offer emergency treatment. This report provides information in tabulated form on clinical criteria for dose assesment. Additionally, it discusses the appropriate dose-effect relationship in cases of external radiation involving either total body or local exposures, as well as internal contamination

  20. Cutaneous reaction to radiation and their treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shoji

    1989-01-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis were reported of iridium 172 under poor administration which radiated locally on the skin of hands and fingers of oil company workers. Atomic bomb over Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed many people by total body skin exposure. Many workers and firemen were radiated by beta and gamma rays in the Chernobyl' accident, where 19 of 28 death cases died by radiation burn. 8 patients with 60-100% burn area died in 15-24 days after the explosion. Of 12 patients with 30-60% burn area, 6 died by burn. 21 cases of 30% burn area did not die in spite of mild or severe bone marrow depression. In all these cases, areas of skin ulcers epithelized with dry and wet scales till 50-60 days after the explosion, except large area (20-25cm 2 ) transplanted. In this accident, severe radiation burn due to the beta ray irradiation occured with endogeneous intoxication, renal disturbance, blood biochemical changes and bleeding. Oral, pharyngeal and intestinal membrane were irradiated by beta ray and were ulcerated so they could hardly eat. The treatment of these cases with acute radiation dermatitis should be performed by the procedure of treatment of burn, locally and systematically. Local treatment should be performed by topical application of antibiotic ointment or adrenocortical steroid ointment with antibiotics. In severe burn, systemic treatment with plasma and other fluids for burn shock should be performed, corresponding to the area and depth of radiation burn. (A.Y.)

  1. Dosimetric study of varying aperture-surface distance at the Finnish BNCT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Seppaelae, Tiina; Nieminen, Katja; Kotiluoto, Petri; Seren, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro; Kortesniemi, Mika; Savolainen, Sauli

    2006-01-01

    Comparison of experimental and calculated dosimetric values in a water phantom was performed at the Finnish BNCT facility at the FiR 1 research reactor. The purpose was to study the effect of changing aperture to surface distance (ASD) to radiation dose and to verify the accuracy of the treatment planning and to provide data for comparison of the methods. A magnesium ionisation chamber flushed with argon gas was used to measure absorbed photon dose rate. Diluted manganese (Mn) and gold (Au) foils and Mn wires were used to determine Mn and Au activation reaction rates. Computer simulations with both SERA and MCNP programs were used to independently calculate the corresponding values. Photon dose and activation reaction rate depth profiles at beam central axis an axial profiles at 2.5 and 6 cm depths were measured and calculated for 11 and 14 and 17 cm diameter apertures. Depth profiles for activation reaction rates were determined for the clinically used 11 and 14 cm diameter apertures for 0, 5, and 10 cm ASD. In addition, the optional 17 cm beam was characterised at 0 and 5 cm ASD. The beam intensity decreases by approximately 20% and 40% when ASD is increased to 5 cm or 10 cm, respectively. The shape of the 55 Mn activation reaction rate depth profile and photon depth radial profile did not vary more than 5% for the 14 cm beam when the ASD was increased from 0 cm to 10 cm. (author)

  2. Improving sewage wastewater characteristics using radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.; Sabry, A.; El-Ammari, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Raw and treated sewage wastewater, collected from El-Gabal El-Asfar wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), irradiated and non-irradiated, were tested in order to determine the lethal radiation dose for total coliform and the effect of radiation on biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Various gamma radiation and electron beam doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 KGy) were used in this study. A negative relationship between the radiation dose and the total coliform population was recorded. The increase in the radiation dose was accompanied by a decrease in total coliform count. The lethal doses of gamma radiation for total coliform in raw and treated sewage wastewater were 1.5 and 1.0 KGy, respectively, whereas the lethal doses of the electron beam for total coliform in raw and treated sewage wastewater were 3.0 and 2.0 KGy, respectively. Gamma radiation resulted in a reduction of BOD and COD by about 70% whereas the electron beam resulted in 55% reduction in BOD and COD at a dose of 4 KGy. The different sources of radiation (gamma and electron beam) used in this study caused variations in the magnitude of total coliform elimination. At any radiation dose received, gamma radiation proved to be more efficient than electron beam in total coliform elimination

  3. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  4. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  5. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  6. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  7. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  8. INEL BNCT Research Program, March/April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murino screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronopheoylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  9. The radiation biology of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) produces a complex mixture of high and low-LET radiations in tissue. Using data on the biological effectiveness of these various dose components, derived primarily in small animals irradiated with thermal neutrons, it has been possible to express clinical BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units. The accuracy of these calculated doses in normal tissue and tumor will be reviewed. Clinical trials are underway at a number of centers. There are differences in the neutron beams at these centers, and differences in the details of the clinical protocols. Ideally, data from all centers using similar boron compounds and treatment protocols should be compared and combined, if appropriate, in a multi-institutional study in order to strengthen statistical analysis. An international dosimetry exchange is underway that will allow the physical doses from the various treatment centers to be quantitatively compared. As a first step towards the comparison of the clinical data, the normal brain tolerance data from the patients treated in the initial Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Harvard/MIT BNCT clinical trials have been compared. The data provide a good estimate of the normal brain tolerance for a somnolence syndrome endpoint, and provide guidance for setting normal brain tolerance limits in ongoing and future clinical trials. Escalation of the dose in BNCT can be accomplished by increasing the amount of the boron compound administered, increasing the duration of the neutron exposure, or both. The dose escalations that have been carried out to date at the various treatment centers will be compared and contrasted. Possible future clinical trials using BNCT in combination with other modalities will be discussed

  10. FiR 1 reactor in service for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auterinen, I.; Salmenhaara, S.E.J. . Author

    2004-01-01

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose for the existence of the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), but FiR 1 has also an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics etc. with isotope production and activation analysis services. In the 1990's a BNCT treatment facility was built at the FiR 1 reactor located at Technical Research Centre of Finland. A special new neutron moderator material Fluental TM (Al+AlF3+Li) developed at VTT ensures the superior quality of the neutron beam. Also the treatment environment is of world top quality after a major renovation of the whole reactor building in 1997. Recently the lithiated polyethylene neutron shielding of the beam aperture was modified to ease the positioning of the patient close to the beam aperture. Increasing the reactor power to 500 kW would allow positioning of the patient further away from the beam aperture. Possibilities to accomplish a safety analysis for this is currently under considerations. Over thirty patients have been treated at FiR 1 since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization, Boneca Corporation. Currently three clinical trial protocols for tumours in the brain as well as in the head and neck region are recruiting patients. (author)

  11. Recombination chambers for BNCT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulik, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    Parallel plate recombination ionization chambers are known as the detectors which can be used for determination of gamma and high-LET dose components and for characterization of radiation quality of mixed radiation fields. Specially designed chambers can operate correctly even at dose rates of therapeutic beams. In this work the investigations were extended to a set of cylindrical chambers including a TE chamber and three graphite chambers filled with different gases - CO 2 , N 2 and 10 BF 3 , in order to determine the thermal neutrons, 14 N capture, gamma, and fast neutron dose components. The separation of the dose components is based on differences of the shape of the saturation curve, in dependence on LET spectrum of the investigated radiation. The measurements using all the chambers and a parallel plate recombination chamber were performed in a reactor beam of NRI Rez (Czech Republic). The gamma component was determined with accuracy of about 5%, while the variations of its value could be monitored with accuracy of about 0.5%. Relative changes of the beam components could be detected with accuracy of about 5% using the parallel plate chamber. The use of the chambers filled with different gases considerably improved the resolution of the method. (author)

  12. Tumor development in field-cancerized tissue is inhibited by a double application of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without exceeding radio-tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, Andrea; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Molinari, Ana J.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Aromando, Romina F.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of a 'single' application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-1(Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) or (GB-10+BPA) to treat hamster cheek pouch tumors with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Based on these results, we developed a model of precancerous tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies. Employing this model we evaluated the long-term potential inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue and eventual radiotoxicity of a single application of BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or (GB-10+BPA), in the RA-6. The clinical rationale of this study was to search for a BNCT protocol that is therapeutic for tumor, not radio-toxic for the normal tissue that lies in the neutron beam path, and exerts the desired inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors, without exceeding the radio-tolerance of precancerous tissue, the dose limiting tissue in this case. Second primary tumors that arise in precancerous tissue (also called locoregional recurrences) are a frequent cause of therapeutic failure in head and neck tumors. Aim: Evaluate the radiotoxicity and inhibitory effect of a 'double' application of the same BNCT protocols that were proved therapeutically successful for tumor and precancerous tissue, with a long term follow up (8 months). A 'double' application of BNCT is a potentially useful strategy for the treatment of tumors, in particular the larger ones, but the cost in terms of side-effects in dose-limiting tissues might preclude its application and requires cautious evaluation. Materials and methods: We performed a double application of 1) BPA-BNCT; 2) (GB

  13. Radiation treatment of drugs, biochemicals and vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordheim, W.; Braeuniger, S.; Kirsch, B.; Kotowski, H.; Teupel, D.

    1984-12-01

    The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60 Co and to a lesser extent by 137 Cs, 182 Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs

  14. Optimization of beam shaping assembly based on D-T neutron generator and dose evaluation for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Hamza; Chen, Chaobin; Zheng, Huaqing; Song, Jing

    2017-04-01

    The feasibility of developing an epithermal neutron beam for a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility based on a high intensity D-T fusion neutron generator (HINEG) and using the Monte Carlo code SuperMC (Super Monte Carlo simulation program for nuclear and radiation process) is proposed in this study. The Monte Carlo code SuperMC is used to determine and optimize the final configuration of the beam shaping assembly (BSA). The optimal BSA design in a cylindrical geometry which consists of a natural uranium sphere (14 cm) as a neutron multiplier, AlF3 and TiF3 as moderators (20 cm each), Cd (1 mm) as a thermal neutron filter, Bi (5 cm) as a gamma shield, and Pb as a reflector and collimator to guide neutrons towards the exit window. The epithermal neutron beam flux of the proposed model is 5.73 × 109 n/cm2s, and other dosimetric parameters for the BNCT reported by IAEA-TECDOC-1223 have been verified. The phantom dose analysis shows that the designed BSA is accurate, efficient and suitable for BNCT applications. Thus, the Monte Carlo code SuperMC is concluded to be capable of simulating the BSA and the dose calculation for BNCT, and high epithermal flux can be achieved using proposed BSA.

  15. Towards the final BSA modeling for the accelerator-driven BNCT facility at INFN LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceballos, C. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnlogicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, 5ta y30, Miramar, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Esposito, J., E-mail: juan.esposito@lnl.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Colautti, P.; Conte, V.; Moro, D. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Some remarkable advances have been made in the last years on the SPES-BNCT project of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) towards the development of the accelerator-driven thermal neutron beam facility at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL), aimed at the BNCT experimental treatment of extended skin melanoma. The compact neutron source will be produced via the {sup 9}Be(p,xn) reactions using the 5 MeV, 30 mA beam driven by the RFQ accelerator, whose modules construction has been recently completed, into a thick beryllium target prototype already available. The Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) final modeling, using both neutron converter and the new, detailed, Be(p,xn) neutron yield spectra at 5 MeV energy recently measured at the CN Van de Graaff accelerator at LNL, is summarized here.

  16. Four cases of facial melanoma treated by BNCT with {sup 10}B-p-boronophenylalanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H. [Tohoku Univ., IDAC, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Mishima, Y. [Mishima Institute for Dermatological Research, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Hiratsuka, J. [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Karashima, H. [Mitsubishi Ind. Co. Ltd. (Japan); Yoshino, K. [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan); Tsuru, K.; Araki, K.; Ichihashi, M. [Kobe Univ., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    We treated four cases of facial melanoma by BNCT with {sup 10}B-paraboronophenylalanine {center_dot} fructose complex (BPA). The patients received 180 to 200 mg BPA/kg-BW intravenously for 3 to 5 hours. One to two hours after the end of BPA administration, they were irradiated with a thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). The local control of the tumors was good and complete regression was achieved in all cases. The acute and subacute skin reactions ranged from dry desquamation to erosion and were within tolerable limits. After 2 to 3 months, the skin recovered from damage with slight pigmentation or depigmentation and without serious functional or cosmetic problems. Our results indicate BNCT of facial melanoma is promising not only for tumor cure but also for good QOL of the patients, although surgery is the standard and first choice for the treatment of malignant melanoma. (author)

  17. Boron analysis and boron imaging in biological materials for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Andrea; Michel, Jean; Moss, Raymond L; Stecher-Rasmussen, Finn; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F; Bendel, Peter; Mauri, Pier Luigi; Altieri, Saverio; Hilger, Ralf; Salvadori, Piero A; Menichetti, Luca; Zamenhof, Robert; Sauerwein, Wolfgang A G

    2008-10-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on the ability of the stable isotope 10B to capture neutrons, which leads to a nuclear reaction producing an alpha- and a 7Li-particle, both having a high biological effectiveness and a very short range in tissue, being limited to approximately one cell diameter. This opens the possibility for a highly selective cancer therapy. BNCT strongly depends on the selective uptake of 10B in tumor cells and on its distribution inside the cells. The chemical properties of boron and the need to discriminate different isotopes make the investigation of the concentration and distribution of 10B a challenging task. The most advanced techniques to measure and image boron are described, both invasive and non-invasive. The most promising approach for further investigation will be the complementary use of the different techniques to obtain the information that is mandatory for the future of this innovative treatment modality.

  18. Residual water treatment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of residual water by means of gamma radiation for its use in agricultural irrigation is evaluated. Measurements of physical, chemical, biological and microbiological contamination indicators were performed. For that, samples from the treatment center of residual water of San Juan de Miraflores were irradiated up to a 52.5 kGy dose. The study concludes that gamma radiation is effective to remove parasites and bacteria, but not for removal of the organic and inorganic matter. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Quality assurance for BNCT at nuclear facilities. A necessary burden or the unavoidable seal of approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, R.; Morrissey, J.; Sauerwein, W.; Hideghety, K.; Rassow, J.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.

    2000-01-01

    The BNCT clinical trial at the HFR Petten is performed on a completely multi-national basis. The irradiation facility is located in one country (The Netherlands), is operated by an international team of experts under the leadership of a radiotherapist from another country (Germany) and treats patients coming from different European countries. In gaining the necessary approval, it became apparent, especially in the many discussions with the (Dutch) Health authorities that Quality Assurance (QA) would be and is a critical aspect. This is even more so, in the case of BNCT, where it was not only a (relatively) new experimental treatment (in 1996/97) about to be performed for the first time in Europe, but it was to be performed in a non-hospital environment and furthermore in a nuclear research reactor. It was necessary therefore to comply, as closely as possible, with similarly accepted practices in conventional radiotherapy. Despite QA being a sometimes burdensome task, this paper nevertheless raises the issue as to whether it is necessary or whether it is the seal of approval for BNCT as an acceptable mode of treatment in mainstream radiotherapy. (author)

  20. An accelerator neutron source for BNCT. Technical progress report, 1 June 1993--31 May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue, T.E.; Vafai, K.

    1994-02-01

    This is the progress report for the project entitled, ''An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT.'' The progress report is for the period from July 1, 1993 to date. The overall objective of our research project is to develop an Accelerator Epithermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (AENIF) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The AENIF consists of a 2.5 MeV high current proton accelerator, a lithium target to produce source neutrons, and a moderator/reflector assembly to obtain from the energetic source neutrons an epithermal neutron field suitable for BNCT treatments. Our project goals are to develop the non-accelerator components of the AENIF, and to specifically include in our development: (1) design, numerical simulation, and experimental verification of a target assembly which is capable of removing 75 kW of beam power; (2) re-optimization of the moderator assembly design based on in-phantom dose assessments using neutron spectra calculated in phantom and an energy-dependent neutron Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE); (3) construction of a prototype moderator assembly and confirmation of its design by measurements; (4) design of the shielding of the accelerator and treatment rooms for an AENIF; and (5) design of a high energy beam transport system which is compatible with the shielding design and the thermal-hydraulic design

  1. Monitoring total boron in blood for BNCT by a novel atomic emission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, J.; Kulvik, M.; Ruokonen, I.; Vaehaetalo, J.; Faerkkilae, M.; Kallio, M.; Zilliacus, R.

    2000-01-01

    In BNCT the duration and timing of the is adjusted by 10 B concentrations in whole blood. Time-frame for determinations is less than 20 minutes. Therefore fast and accurate boron determinations are a prerequisite for BNCT. We present a method based on ICP-AES instrument for whole blood and plasma boron determinations with protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid as sample pre-treatment and beryllium as an internal standard. The method was compared to established but tedious ICP-mass spectrometric method with wet ashing as a sample pre-treatment. The ICP-AES method is in good agreement (correlation coefficient 0.99) the ICP-MS. Within-day and between-day imprecisions were less than 3,5% CV for whole blood samples. Samples taken during and after BPA-F infusion (290 mg/kg) revealed an uneven distribution between plasma and erythrocytes. The present method is feasible and one of the fastest currently available for BNCT. Our results indicate that BPA-F or its metabolites do not seem to be tightly bound to plasma proteins. It also seems that determination of boron in plasma sample may be preferable than measuring boron in whole blood. (author)

  2. Radioprotective agents to reduce BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) induced mucositis in the hamster cheek pouch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Thorp, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer and pre cancer model. Despite therapeutic efficacy, mucositis induced in premalignant tissue was dose limiting and favored, in some cases, tumor development. In a clinical scenario, oral mucositis limits the dose administered to head and neck tumors. Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the administration of different radioprotective agents, seeking to reduce BNCT-induced mucositis to acceptable levels in dose-limiting premalignant tissue; without compromising therapeutic effect evaluated as inhibition on tumor development in premalignant tissue; without systemic or local side effects; and without negative effects on the biodistribution of the boron compound used for treatment. Materials and methods: Cancerized hamsters with DMBA (dimethylbenzanthracene) were treated with BPA-BNCT 5 Gy total absorbed dose to premalignant tissue, at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor, divided into different groups: 1-treated with FLUNIXIN; 2- ATORVASTATIN; 3-THALIDOMIDE; 4-HISTAMINE (two concentrations: Low -1 mg/ml- and High -5 mg/ml-); 5-JNJ7777120; 6-JNJ10191584; 7-SALINE (vehicle). Cancerized animals without any treatment (neither BNCT nor radioprotective therapy) were also analyzed. We followed the animals during one month and evaluated the percentage of animals with unacceptable/severe mucositis, clinical status and percentage of animals with new tumors post treatment. We also performed a preliminary biodistribution study of BPA + Histamine “low” concentration to evaluate the potential effect of the radioprotector on BPA biodistribution. Results: Histamine

  3. American brain tumor patients treated with BNCT in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laramore, G.E.; Griffin, B.R.; Spence, A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish and maintain a database for patients from the United States who have received BNCT in Japan for malignant gliomas of the brain. This database will serve as a resource for the DOE to aid in decisions relating to BNCT research in the United States, as well as assisting the design and implementation of clinical trials of BNCT for brain cancer patients in this country. The database will also serve as an information resource for patients with brain tumors and their families who are considering this form of therapy

  4. Three-dimensional radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.

    1989-01-01

    A major aim of radiation therapy is to deliver sufficient dose to the tumour volume to kill the cancer cells while sparing the nearby health organs to prevent complications. With the introduction of devices such as CT and MR scanners, radiation therapy treatment planners have access to full three-dimensional anatomical information to define, simulate, and evaluate treatments. There are a limited number of prototype software systems that allow 3D treatment planning currently in use. In addition, there are more advanced tools under development or still in the planning stages. They require sophisticated graphics and computation equipment, complex physical and mathematical algorithms, and new radiation treatment machines that deliver dose very precisely under computer control. Components of these systems include programs for the identification and delineation of the anatomy and tumour, the definition of radiation beams, the calculation of dose distribution patterns, the display of dose on 2D images and as three dimensional surfaces, and the generation of computer images to verify proper patient positioning in treatment. Some of these functions can be performed more quickly and accurately if artificial intelligence or expert systems techniques are employed. 28 refs., figs

  5. Development of Radiation Technique for Environmental Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Kuk, Il Hiun; Jin, Joon Ha

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to development of technologies for 1) the removal of toxic organic chemicals in sewage sludges and the volume reduction of the sewage sludge 2) the recycling/reuse of sewage sludge 3) the reconvey of resource from fishery waste by using radiation technologies. This research project focused on the study of treatment, disposal, and recycling/reuse of sewage sludge by radiation technology, and recovery of highly value-added resources from the wastes. As basic studies with a radiation technology, an enhancement of dewaterbilities of sewage sludge, development of dewatering conditioner, reduction of trace toxic organic chemicals, and the toxicities of the byproducts were studied. Based on the basic experimental results, we developed the pilot-scale system with the continuous e-beam and dewatering unit and the advanced treatment system with the use of carbon source recovered from sewage sludge

  6. Development of Radiation Technique for Environmental Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Kuk, Il Hiun; Jin, Joon Ha (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this research is to development of technologies for 1) the removal of toxic organic chemicals in sewage sludges and the volume reduction of the sewage sludge 2) the recycling/reuse of sewage sludge 3) the reconvey of resource from fishery waste by using radiation technologies. This research project focused on the study of treatment, disposal, and recycling/reuse of sewage sludge by radiation technology, and recovery of highly value-added resources from the wastes. As basic studies with a radiation technology, an enhancement of dewaterbilities of sewage sludge, development of dewatering conditioner, reduction of trace toxic organic chemicals, and the toxicities of the byproducts were studied. Based on the basic experimental results, we developed the pilot-scale system with the continuous e-beam and dewatering unit and the advanced treatment system with the use of carbon source recovered from sewage sludge.

  7. Treatment of coffee wastewater by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Y.; Consuegra, R.; Rapado, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation energy can be an important resource in the treatment of wastewaters from different industries both directly and in combination with other processes to improve economics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ionizing radiation on coffee wastewater in order to decompose chemical organic refractory substances which cannot be degradated by biological treatment. One of the approaches employed in the survey was the chemical treatment followed by the irradiation of the samples since no nuclear changes of the coagulant solution or wastewater samples were expected. Irradiation is a high cost treatment although it has increased its applications nowadays. The method is safe, fast and effective and it does not generate any pollution

  8. Classification and treatment of radiation maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, Noel

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiation maculopathy is a sight-limiting consequence of radiotherapy in the management of uveal melanoma and other intraocular tumors. In this review, we consider clinical, fluorescein angiographic and optical coherence tomographic findings, propose a classification for radiation maculopathy and discuss the management of this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Radiation macular edema (RME) can be classified by optical coherence tomography into noncystoid or cystoid edema, with foveolar or extrafoveolar involvement. Optical coherence tomographic grading of RME has been found to correlate with visual acuity. Focal argon laser might have some limited benefit in the treatment of RME. Intravitreal triamcinolone and intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor agents can be of short-term benefit in the treatment of RME. In a randomized controlled trial, periocular triamcinolone significantly reduced rates of RME and vision loss up to 18 months following plaque radiotherapy for uveal melanoma. SUMMARY: Currently, there is no proven treatment for established RME, though periocular triamcinolone has been shown to have a preventive benefit. An accepted classification system for radiation maculopathy would be of benefit in planning and comparing future treatment trials.

  9. High energy radiation in cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Certain basic recommendations on the use of supervoltage radiation and radioisotope teletherapy in the treatment of malignant growths have been made by an expert study group which met in Vienna in August this y ear. The group, convened jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, was composed of 20 radiotherapists and radiation physicists from 12 countries. High energy radiation, used in the treatment of malignant tumours, can be either in the form of gamma- or X-rays or in the form of beams of accelerated electrons. The source of radiation is kept at a certain distance from the patient. The study group was agreed on the value of supervoltage radiotherapy, including gamma-ray and high voltage x-ray therapy as well as electron beam therapy. The required gamma radiation can be obtained from large sources of radioactive materials like cobalt 60 or caesium 137, while electron beams are produced by high voltage accelerators. The experts considered the sources in four broad categories: large supervoltage units, intermediate units, small isotope units and units of electron beams or very high energy x-rays. Each group of source was described including its usage. The experts made it clear that while supervoltage radiation should be a part of an organized radiotherapy department, the radiation facilities at any particular establishment should not be of the supervoltage type alone. The high energy facilities could be fruitfully used only when there was a background of general radiotherapy. The group emphasized that supervoltage radiotherapy, in common with other forms of radiotherapy, should be conducted only by adequately trained and qualified personnel, including radiation physicists, and specified the training and qualifications required of such personnel. It was felt that specialized training was one of the main requirements at the present stage and the training programmes of IAEA and WHO should be utilized extensively for this

  10. Volume visualization in radiation treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzari, C A; Chen, G T

    2000-12-01

    Radiation treatment planning (RTP), historically an image-intensive discipline and one of the first areas in which 3D information from imaging was clinically applied, has become even more critically dependent on accurate 3D definition of target and non-target structures in recent years with the advent of conformal radiation therapy. In addition to the interactive display of wireframe or shaded surface models of anatomic objects, proposed radiation beams, beam modifying devices, and calculated dose distributions, recently significant use has been made of direct visualization of relevant anatomy from image data. Dedicated systems are commercially available for the purpose of geometrically optimizing beam placement, implementing in virtual reality the functionality of standard radiation therapy simulators. Such "CT simulation" systems rely heavily on 3D visualization and on reprojection of image data to produce simulated radiographs for comparison with either diagnostic-quality radiographs made on a simulator or megavoltage images made using the therapeutic beams themselves. Although calculation and analysis of dose distributions is an important component of radiation treatment design, geometric targeting with optimization based on 3D anatomic information is frequently performed as a separate step independent of dose calculations.

  11. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiudice, T.A.; Lang, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response

  12. Radiation in the treatment of meningeal leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    At the present time, a successful regimen for the eradication of occult meningeal leukemia is the combination of cranial radiotherapy in a dose of 1800 rads in 10 fractions in 12 to 14 days with six doses of intrathecal methotrexate. This regimen, when given with prednisone and vincristine can be expected to give a relapse rate for isolated meningeal leukemia of approximately 5% during the first 2 years of follow-up. A modification of this regimen utilizing craniospinal radiation with prior and concurrent intrathecal methotrexate is given for the treatment of overt meningeal leukemia at diagnosis or for an isolated first relapse with meningeal leukemia. Radiation technique and morbidity are discussed

  13. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m 3 day -1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  14. Dosimetry studies during breast cancer radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. O. M.

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies indicated that breast cancer is wildly spread especially in women as compared to men. It is increased after an age of thirty five years in women so it is important to study the effect of exposure to the radiation on the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer. In this work the scattered doses for the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer were measured and also the probability of inducing cancer in it is also discussed. The study was performed for a group of patients composed of twenty five females. Also the backscattered doses to the intact breast were measured for thirteen female patients. During the treatment using gamma rays from Co-60 source the two tangential fields (lateral and medial) were selected for the measurements. The results of exposure to gamma radiation for the lateral and medial fields showed that the mean scattered and backscattered doses to the intact breast were (241.26 cGY,47.49 cGY) and (371.6 cGY,385.4 cGY), respectively. Beside that the somatic risk of induced cancer to the intact breast was found to be (6 .1X10 -3 ,1.2X10 -3 ) and (9.29X10 -3 , 9.63X10 -3 ), respectively. From the results obtained it was concluded that the intact breast received small amounts of radiation doses which may lead to breast cancer for the healthy breast. The recommendations from the present study are to take care of radiation protection to the patient, and also to take care of the patient treatment conditions like temperature, pressure and humidity during the radiation exposure.(Author)

  15. Biodistribution of Boron compounds in an experimental model of liver metastases for Boron Neutron Capture (BNCT) Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, Marcela A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Molinari, Ana J.; Heber, Elisa M.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nievas, Susana; Aromando, Romina F.

    2009-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that involves the selective accumulation of 10 B carriers in tumors followed by irradiation with thermal or epithermal neutrons. The high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling 7 Li nuclei emitted during the capture of a thermal neutron by a 10 B nucleus have a short range and a high biological effectiveness. Thus, BNCT would potentially target neoplastic tissue selectively. In previous studies we demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different BNCT protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. More recently we performed experimental studies in normal rat liver that evidenced the feasibility of treating liver metastases employing a novel BNCT protocol proposed by JEC based on ex-situ treatment and partial liver auto-transplant. The aim of the present study was to perform biodistribution studies with different boron compounds and different administration protocols to determine the protocols that would be therapeutically useful in 'in vivo' BNCT studies at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Materials and Methods. A total of 70 BDIX rats (Charles River Lab., MA, USA) were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DH/DK12/TRb (ECACC, UK) to induce the development of subcapsular metastatic nodules. 15 days post-inoculation the animals were used for biodistribution studies. A total of 11 protocols were evaluated employing the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 1 -0H 10 ), alone or combined employing different doses and administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by ICP-OES. Results. Several protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue, i.e. BPA 15.5 mg 10 B/kg iv + GB-10 50 mg 10 B/kg iv; BPA 46.5 mg 10 B/kg ip; BPA 46.5 mg 10 B/kg ip

  16. Delayed radiation effects of the skin - malignization and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardychev, M.S. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)

    1982-01-01

    44 cases of radiation cancer are analyzed. The malignization is related to late radiation ulcera and other radiation-induced changes such as fibrosis and dermatitis. The types of malignization are described and treatment plans are discussed.

  17. Radiation treatment of secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Yoon, J.-H.; Chung, H.-H.; Lee, M.-J.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation treatment using gamma-rays was investigated in order to reclaim the secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant. The radiation treatment reduced BOD by 85% irrespective of absorbed dose, and the removals of COD, TOC and color were up to 64%, 34% and 88%, respectively, at a dose of 15 kGy. Gamma-rays effectively disinfected microorganisms and completely removed them at a dose of 0.3 kGy. The combination of gamma-rays and titanium dioxide significantly improved the treatment process. The increases of COD, TOC and color removals were 40%, 10% and 20%, respectively. As confirmed by EPR and the spin-trapping method, this increase was partly caused by the increase of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of titanium dioxide

  18. Simulation and radiation treatment in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, E.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that in order to obtain a uniform dose in the treated volume as defined in ICRU 50, there should be a 10% maximum difference between maximum and minimum dose values in treatment planning. Clinical target volume (CTV) should be related to external areas of body sections where tumour is located. These areas are important because different radiation beams enter through them. Therefore, verification of the planning target volume (PTV) through the external areas is highly significant. In this work we point out the importance of controlling that PTV is irradiated as planned considering some error sources usually found in radiotherapy practice with equipment that has been intensively used for a long time. Moreover, I think this experience will be helpful for those centers around the world where radiation treatment is carried out with reconditioned units. (author)

  19. Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology

  20. Compatibilization of recycled polymers through radiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czvikovszky, T.; Hargitai, H.

    1999-08-01

    The use of compatibilizers is crucial in composites of apolar polymer matrix such as PP, and fibrous, polar reinforcement such as viscose, flax, hemp and similar fibers. Radiation treatment using small EB dose of 8 kGy may enhance the effect of reactive compatibilizers of acrylic oligomer type, involving both matrix and reinforcement into a chemically attached system. In the present work we applied by-products of the textile industry as reinforcing additives for polypropylene reprocessed from recollected car-bumpers.

  1. Stereotactic radiation therapy combined with immunotherapy: augmenting the role of radiation in local and systemic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Andrew B; Tran, Phuoc T; Lim, Michael; Drake, Charles G; Deweese, Theodore L

    2015-05-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy are two contemporary radiation modalities that can treat tumors in any area of the body using highly focused radiation. Recently, immunotherapy has established itself as a viable and powerful anticancer treatment. In this review we detail the rationale supporting a combination of immunotherapy and stereotactic radiation. Additionally, we discuss the evidence for the immune stimulatory effects of focused radiation and the role that radiation may play in enhancing the systemic treatment effects of immunotherapy.

  2. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years has increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal waste water is an effective mean of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plants. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in the effluent were decomposed and the COD values decreased with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in the effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. In this paper we studied on the fading color and the reducing of order of sewage effluent. (author)

  3. Capability of NIPAM polymer gel in recording dose from the interaction of 10B and thermal neutron in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajeali, Azim; Reza Farajollahi, Ali; Kasesaz, Yaser; Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Khalili, Assef; Naseri, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The capability of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel to record the dose resulting from boron neutron capture reaction in BNCT was determined. In this regard, three compositions of the gel with different concentrations of 10 B were prepared and exposed to gamma radiation and thermal neutrons. Unlike irradiation with gamma rays, the boron-loaded gels irradiated by neutron exhibited sensitivity enhancement compared with the gels without 10 B. It was also found that the neutron sensitivity of the gel increased by the increase of concentration of 10 B. It can be concluded that NIPAM gel might be suitable for the measurement of the absorbed dose enhancement due to 10 B and thermal neutron reaction in BNCT. - Highlights: • Three compositions of NIPAM gel with different concentration of 10 B have been exposed by gamma and thermal neutron. • The vials containing NIPAM gel have been irradiated by an automatic system capable of providing for dose uniformity. • Suitability of NIPAM polymer gel in measuring radiation doses in BNCT has been investigated.

  4. Novel tracer for radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenboeck, S.; Krause, B.J.; Herrmann, K.; Gaertner, F.; Souvatzoglou, M.; Klaesner, B.

    2011-01-01

    PET and PET/CT with innovative tracers gain increasing importance in diagnosis and therapy management, and radiation treatment planning in radio-oncology besides the widely established FDG. The introduction of [ 18 F]Fluorothymidine ([ 18 F]FLT) as marker of proliferation, [ 18 F]Fluoromisonidazole ([ 18 F]FMISO) and [ 18 F]Fluoroazomycin-Arabinoside ([ 18 F]FAZA) as tracer of hypoxia, [ 18 F]Fluoroethyltyrosine ([ 18 F]FET) and [ 11 C]Methionine for brain tumour imaging, [ 68 Ga]DOTATOC for somatostatin receptor imaging, [ 18 F]FDOPA for dopamine synthesis and radioactively labeled choline derivatives for imaging phospholipid metabolism have opened novel approaches to tumour imaging. Some of these tracers have already been implemented into radio-oncology: Amino acid PET and PET/CT have the potential to optimise radiation treatment planning of brain tumours through accurate delineation of tumour tissue from normal tissue, necrosis and edema. Hypoxia represents a major therapeutic problem in radiation therapy. Hypoxia imaging is very attractive as it may allow to increase the dose in hypoxic tumours potentially allowing for a better tumour control. Advances in hybrid imaging, i.e. the introduction of MR/PET, may also have an impact in radio-oncology through synergies related to the combination of molecular signals of PET and a high soft tissue contrast of MRI as well as functional MRI capabilities. (orig.)

  5. Definition of treatment geometry in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.

    1996-01-01

    When accurate systems for quality assurance and treatment optimization are employed, a precise system for fixation and dosimetric and portal verification are as important as a continued and standardized code of practice for dosimetry and patient follow-up, including registration of tumour responses and acute and late normal tissue reactions. To improve the accuracy of existing dose response relations in order to improve future therapy the treatment geometry and dose delivery concepts have to be accurately defined and uniformly employed. A Nordic working group was set up in 1991 (by Nordic Association of Clinica Physics) to standardize the concepts and quantities used during the whole radiotherapy process in the Nordic countries. Now the group is finalizing its report ''Specification of Dose Delivery in Radiation Therapy''. The report emphasizes that the treatment geometry shall be consistent with the geometry used during the diagnostic work up. The patient fixation is of importance early in the diagnostic phase to ensure that the same reference points and patients position will be used both during the diagnostic work up, simulation and treatment execution. Reference Coordinate System of the patient is a concept based on defined anatomic reference points. This Patient Reference System is a local system which has validity for the tissues, organs and volumes defined during radiotherapy. The reference points of the Patient Reference System should in turn be used for beam set-up. The treatment geometry is then defined by using different concepts describing tissues which are mobile in the Patient Reference System, and finally, volumes which are fixed in this coordinate system. A Set-up Margin has to be considered for movements of the volumes defined in the Reference Coordinate System of the Patient in relation to the radiation beam. The Set-up Margin is dependent on the treatment technique and it is needed in the treatment planning procedure to ensure that the prescribed

  6. High neutronic efficiency, low current targets for accelerator-based BNCT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1998-01-01

    The neutronic efficiency of target/filters for accelerator-based BNCT applications is measured by the proton current required to achieve a desirable neutron current at the treatment port (10 9 n/cm 2 /s). In this paper the authors describe two possible targeyt/filter concepts wihch minimize the required current. Both concepts are based on the Li-7 (p,n)Be-7 reaction. Targets that operate near the threshold energy generate neutrons that are close tothe desired energy for BNCT treatment. Thus, the filter can be extremely thin (∼ 5 cm iron). However, this approach has an extremely low neutron yield (n/p ∼ 1.0(-6)), thus requiring a high proton current. The proposed solutino is to design a target consisting of multiple extremely thin targets (proton energy loss per target ∼ 10 keV), and re-accelerate the protons between each target. Targets operating at ihgher proton energies (∼ 2.5 MeV) have a much higher yield (n/p ∼ 1.0(-4)). However, at these energies the maximum neutron energy is approximately 800 keV, and thus a neutron filter is required to degrade the average neutron energy to the range of interest for BNCT (10--20 keV). A neutron filter consisting of fluorine compounds and iron has been investigated for this case. Typically a proton current of approximately 5 mA is required to generate the desired neutron current at the treatment port. The efficiency of these filter designs can be further increased by incorporating neutron reflectors that are co-axial with the neutron source. These reflectors are made of materials which have high scattering cross sections in the range 0.1--1.0 MeV

  7. Proceedings of neutron irradiation technical meeting on BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    The 'Neutron Irradiation Technical Meeting for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)' was held on March 13, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment. The Meeting is aimed to introduce the neutron beam facility for medical irradiation at JRR-4 to Japanese researchers widely, as well as providing an opportunity for young researchers, engineers, medical representatives such surgeons and doctors of pharmacology to present their research activities and to exchange valuable information. JAERI researcher presented the performance and the irradiation technology in the JRR-4 neutron beam facility, while external researchers made various and beneficial presentations containing such accelerator-based BNCT, spectrum-shifter, biological effect, pharmacological development and so on. In this meeting, a special lecture titled 'The Dawn of BNCT and Its Development.' was given by MD, Prof. Takashi Minobe, an executive director of Japan Foundation for Emergency Medicine. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Proceedings of neutron irradiation technical meeting on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The 'Neutron Irradiation Technical Meeting for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)' was held on March 13, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment. The Meeting is aimed to introduce the neutron beam facility for medical irradiation at JRR-4 to Japanese researchers widely, as well as providing an opportunity for young researchers, engineers, medical representatives such surgeons and doctors of pharmacology to present their research activities and to exchange valuable information. JAERI researcher presented the performance and the irradiation technology in the JRR-4 neutron beam facility, while external researchers made various and beneficial presentations containing such accelerator-based BNCT, spectrum-shifter, biological effect, pharmacological development and so on. In this meeting, a special lecture titled 'The Dawn of BNCT and Its Development.' was given by MD, Prof. Takashi Minobe, an executive director of Japan Foundation for Emergency Medicine. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. Collimator and shielding design for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility at TRIGA MARK II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rafi Mohd Solleh; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin; Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Eid Mahmoud Eid Abdel Munem; Mohamad Hairie Rabir; Julia Abdul Karim; Yoshiaki, Kiyanagi

    2011-01-01

    The geometry of reactor core, thermal column, collimator and shielding system for BNCT application of TRIGA MARK II Reactor were simulated with MCNP5 code. Neutron particle lethargy and dose were calculated with MCNPX code. Neutron flux in a sample located at the end of collimator after normalized to measured value (Eid Mahmoud Eid Abdel Munem, 2007) at 1 MW power was 1.06 x 10 8 n/ cm 2 / s. According to IAEA (2001) flux of 1.00 x 10 9 n/ cm 2 / s requires three hours of treatment. Few modifications were needed to get higher flux. (Author)

  10. Development of the patient setting system for BNCT at JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Torii, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A new treatment planning software: Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) is in progress its development for BNCT with epithermal neutron beam in JAERI. Irradiation conditions such as beam angle to a patient are calculated by JCDS. In order to implement these conditions, it is necessary to precisely set the patient to actual irradiation position simulated by JCDS beforehand. Therefore, the Patient Setting System, which accurately and quickly sets the patient to the irradiation position, is being developed with JCDS concurrently. In this report, the current status of the development of JCDS and the Patient Setting System in JAERI will be described. (author)

  11. Intra-operative radiation treatment of cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.B.; Joyeux, H.; Solassol, C.; Pujol, H.

    1986-01-01

    Intra-operative radiation treatment (I.O.R.T.) is concerning the treatment either of an unresectable tumor or of tumor bed after complete excision of a primary tumor and its first draining lymph nodes. We describe X-ray and electrons techniques and we discuss the delivered doses according to experimental and clinical data. According to the residual disease (macroscopic or microscopic), to the healthy tissues in the target volume, and the histological type, single doses from 20 Gy to 40 Gy can be delivered. Our preliminary results are reported: 25 patients with resectable tumors of the cardia, the stomach and the pancreas, 5 patients with pelvic recurrences of colon and rectum carcinomas. Therapeutic results of the I.O.R.T. providing from the literature are discussed. The I.O.R.T. indications are defined as palliative (unresectable tumors) and curative (irradiation of tumor bed after complete excision of the tumor) [fr

  12. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05< p<0.10). Following establishment of defunctioning colostomy on account of rectovaginal fistulae in 25 patients, eight patients developed new fistulae, Significantly more patients with fistulae died of recurrence as compared with patients with other lesions (p<0.01). Defunctioning colostomy in the treatment of rectal fistula is a reasonable form of treatment in elderly patients and in case of recurrence. Younger patients should be assessed in a special department in view of the possibility of a sphincter-preserving procedure following resection of the rectum and restorative anastomosis. (author)

  13. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05treatment of rectal fistula is a reasonable form of treatment in elderly patients and in case of recurrence. Younger patients should be assessed in a special department in view of the possibility of a sphincter-preserving procedure following resection of the rectum and restorative anastomosis. 11 refs.

  14. Dosimetric analysis of BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - coupled to 252Cf brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Samia F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of brain tumors is increasing in world population; however, the treatments employed in this type of tumor have a high rate of failure and in some cases have been considered palliative, depending on histology and staging of tumor. Its necessary to achieve the control tumor dose without the spread irradiation cause damage in the brain, affecting patient neurological function. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a technique that achieves this; nevertheless, other techniques that can be used on the brain tumor control must be developed, in order to guarantee lower dose on health surroundings tissues other techniques must be developing. The 252 Cf brachytherapy applied to brain tumors has already been suggested, showing promising results in comparison to photon source, since the active source is placed into the tumor, providing greater dose deposition, while more distant regions are spared. BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - is another technique that is in developing to brain tumors control, showing theoretical superiority on the rules of conventional treatments, due to a selective irradiation of neoplasics cells, after the patient receives a borate compound infusion and be subjected to a epithermal neutrons beam. This work presents dosimetric studies of the coupling techniques: BNCT with 252 Cf brachytherapy, conducted through computer simulation in MCNP5 code, using a precise and well discretized voxel model of human head, which was incorporated a representative Glioblastoma Multiform tumor. The dosimetric results from MCNP5 code were exported to SISCODES program, which generated isodose curves representing absorbed dose rate in the brain. Isodose curves, neutron fluency, and dose components from BNCT and 252 Cf brachytherapy are presented in this paper. (author)

  15. Development of a tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole accelerator facility for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, A J; Thatar Vento, V; Levinas, P; Bergueiro, J; Di Paolo, H; Burlon, A A; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Minsky, D M; Estrada, L; Hazarabedian, A; Johann, F; Suarez Sandin, J C; Castell, W; Davidson, J; Davidson, M; Giboudot, Y; Repetto, M; Obligado, M; Nery, J P; Huck, H; Igarzabal, M; Fernandez Salares, A

    2009-07-01

    In this work we describe the present status of an ongoing project to develop a tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for accelerator-based (AB) BNCT at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina in Buenos Aires. The project final goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. An electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT. The machine being designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a high-voltage terminal at 1.2 MV intended to work in air. Such a machine is conceptually shown to be capable of transporting and accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.4 MeV. The general geometric layout, its associated electrostatic fields, and the acceleration tube are simulated using a 3D finite element procedure. The design and construction of the ESQ modules is discussed and their electrostatic fields are investigated. Beam transport calculations through the accelerator are briefly mentioned. Likewise, work related to neutron production targets, strippers, beam shaping assembly and patient treatment room is briefly described.

  16. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Emiliano; Miller, Marcelo; Thorp, Silvia I.; Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Zarza, Leandro; Estryk, Guillermo; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7 Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6 Li 2 CO 3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author) [es

  17. Radiation treatment of polymers containing isobutylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurpik, A.

    1976-01-01

    Homopolymers of isobutylene and copolymers thereof with isoprene (butyl rubber) are subjected to high energy ionizing radiation in the presence of halogenated hydrocarbon radiation catalysts. 5 claims

  18. IRT-Sofia BNCT beam tube optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, S; Mitev, M; Ilieva, K; Riley, K; Harling, O

    2011-12-01

    An optimization study of IRT-Sofia BNCT beam tube is presented. In the study we used the MIT/FCB experience. The enlarging of filter/moderator cross section dimensions and the decreasing of collimator length within the limits of the IRT-Sofia reactor design were analyzed. The influence of beam and reactor core axes non-coincidence on the beam properties was also evaluated. The irradiation resistance of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon(®)) was also evaluated. The results provide information for making decisions on the IRT-Sofia BNCT beam construction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation chemical studies on the treatment of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakumoto, Akihisa; Miyata, Teijiro; Arai, Michimasa; Arai, Hidehiko

    1982-10-01

    The radiation induced reaction in aqueous solution was studied to develope the radiation treatment as a new technique for waste water and to elevate the effectiveness of radiation. The effectiveness of radiation was enhanced by combination of radiation induced reaction with conventional methods such as biological treatment and coagulation treatment. The synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was studied by using phenol and ethylene glycol. The chain reaction was observed in the radiation induced oxidation. The combination of radiation and ozone is considered to be one of the most useful method. In this report, the mechanism of each reaction and the applicability of the reaction to the treatment of waste water are discussed. (author)

  20. Effects of radiation treatment on foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehne, L.; Boegl, W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss and compile methods and results of irradiation experiments carried out on 54 plant and animal foodstuffs in order to obtain a survey on chemical changes, in particular as regards the reduction of nutritional value and savoriness of irradiated foodstuffs. According to this task, microbiological aspects as well as an interpretation of the experimental results as to the physiology of nutrition and toxicology were not included. The results published by the authors of the original papers were compiled in a kind of dictionary which contains all relevant information such as radiation sources, irradiation conditions, investigation methods, results of chemical or organoleptical changes etc. The most important results were summarized in tables and can be found at the end of this study. Because of the abundance of existing literature the series 'Effects of radiation treatment on foodstuffs' will be continued in Part IV, and the final discussion of the results will be published separately after further data have been included. (orig.) [de

  1. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Reiriz, Alejandro; Magallanes, Jorge; Zupan, Jure; Líberman, Sara

    2011-01-01

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: ► We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. ► Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. ► The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. ► It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. ► The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  2. Method of radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodes, L.

    1976-01-01

    A technique of radiation therapy treatment planning designed to allow the assignment of dosage limits directly to chosen points in the computer-displayed cross-section of the patient. These dosage limits are used as constraints in a linear programming attempt to solve for beam strengths, minimizing integral dosage. If a feasible plan exists, the optimized plan will be displayed for approval as an isodose pattern. If there is no feasible plan, the operator/therapist can designate some of the point dosage constraints as ''relaxed.'' Linear programming will then optimize for minimum deviation at the relaxed points. This process can be iterated and new points selected until an acceptable plan is realized. In this manner the plan is optimized for uniformity as well as overall low dosage. 6 claims, 6 drawing figures

  3. Intracavitary radiation treatment planning and dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.L.; Masterson, M.E.; Nori, D.

    1987-01-01

    Intracavitary radiation therapy with encapsulated radionuclide sources has generally involved, since the advent of afterloading techniques, inserting the sources in tubing previously positioned within a body cavity near the region to be treated. Because of the constraints on source locations relative to the target region, the functions of treatment planning and dose evaluation, usually clearly separable in interstitial brachytherapy, tend to merge in intracavitary therapy. Dose evaluation is typically performed for multiple source-strength configurations in the process of planning and thus may be regarded as complete when a particular configuration has been selected. The input data for each dose evaluation, of course, must include reliable dose distribution information for the source-applicator combinations used. Ultimately, the goal is to discover the source-strength configuration that results in the closest possible approach to the dose distribution desired

  4. Radiation treatment planning using a microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsqui, A.R.; Calil, S.J.; Rocha, J.R.O.; Alexandre, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation treatment planning requires a lenght manipulation of data from isodose charts to obtain the best irradiation technique. Over the past 25 years this tedious operation has been replaced by computerized methods. These can reduce the working time by at least 20 times. It is being developed at the Biomedical Engineering Center a software to generate a polychromatic image of dose distribution. By means of a digitizing board, the patient contour and the beam data are transfered to the computer and stored as polinomial and Fourier series respectively. To calculate the dose distribution, the irradiated region is represented by a variable size bidimensional dot matrix. The dose at each point is calculated by correcting and adding the stored data for each beam. An algorithm for color definition according to the dose intensity was developed to display on a computer monitor the resultant matrix. A hard copy can be obtained be means of a six color plotter. (author)

  5. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies; Consideracoes sobre o estudo da BNCT (terapia de captura neutronica por boro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria Gaspar, P. de

    1994-12-31

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps.

  6. Boron Neutron Capture Therapty (BNCT) in an Oral Precancer Model: Therapeutic Benefits and Potential Toxicity of a Double Application of BNCT with a Six-Week Interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea Monti Hughes; Emiliano C.C. Pozzi; Elisa M. Heber; Silvia Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; Ana J. Molinari; Marcela A. Garabalino; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-11-01

    Given the clinical relevance of locoregional recurrences in head and neck cancer, we developed a novel experimental model of premalignant tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies and demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect of a single application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on tumor development from premalignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a double application of BNCT with a 6 week interval in terms of inhibitory effect on tumor development, toxicity and DNA synthesis. We performed a double application, 6 weeks apart, of (1) BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT); (2) BNCT mediated by the combined application of decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and BPA [(GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT] or (3) beam-only, at RA-3 nuclear reactor and followed the animals for 8 months. The control group was cancerized and sham-irradiated. BPA-BNCT, (GB- 10 + BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from premalignant tissue that persisted until 8, 3, and 2 months respectively. An early maximum inhibition of 100% was observed for all 3 protocols. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was detected. Reversible mucositis was observed in premalignant tissue, peaking at 1 week and resolving by the third week after each irradiation. Mucositis after the second application was not exacerbated by the first application. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in premalignant tissue 8 months post-BNCT. A double application of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT, 6 weeks apart, could be used therapeutically at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues.

  7. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9. Bulletin, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  8. Neutron Flux Measurement Produced by BNCT Target using Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Yong Kyun; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2005-01-01

    We are investigating neutron production target system performance for boron captured neutron therapy (BNCT). The epithermal neutron is useful for this therapy and in present study we performed a simple method to measure neutron flux and energy, which are important for the accurate cancer therapy. The simple method and result of neutron flux and energy measurement experiment are presented

  9. Methodologies in the modeling of combined chemo-radiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, C.; Paganetti, H.

    2016-11-01

    The variety of treatment options for cancer patients has increased significantly in recent years. Not only do we combine radiation with surgery and chemotherapy, new therapeutic approaches such as immunotherapy and targeted therapies are starting to play a bigger role. Physics has made significant contributions to radiation therapy treatment planning and delivery. In particular, treatment plan optimization using inverse planning techniques has improved dose conformity considerably. Furthermore, medical physics is often the driving force behind tumor control and normal tissue complication modeling. While treatment optimization and outcome modeling does focus mainly on the effects of radiation, treatment modalities such as chemotherapy are treated independently or are even neglected entirely. This review summarizes the published efforts to model combined modality treatments combining radiation and chemotherapy. These models will play an increasing role in optimizing cancer therapy not only from a radiation and drug dosage standpoint, but also in terms of spatial and temporal optimization of treatment schedules.

  10. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia de Freitas Brandao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and Methods Simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results Intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the I 1 and I 2 tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the I 1 and I 2 infiltration zones. Conclusion Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones.

  11. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Samia de Freitas, E-mail: samiabrandao@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and methods: simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results: intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} infiltration zones. Conclusion: Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones. (author)

  12. Current problems of prevention diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Causes of increasing interest to the problems of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness are presented. On the basis of recent publications some new aspects as quantitative criteria in radiobiology, organization problems of medical aid at radiation incidents estimation of efficiency of preventive medicine and radiation sickness therapy, theoretical development of radiotherapy of different organs et al., are characterized

  13. Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

  14. Neutron medical treatment of tumours — a survey of facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F. M.; Loeper-Kabasakal, B.; Breitkreutz, H.

    2012-03-01

    Neutron therapy has two branches: Fast Neutron Therapy (FNT) and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The mean neutron energies used for FNT range from 2 MeV to 25 MeV whereas the maximum energy for BNCT is about 10 keV. Neutron generators for FNT have been cyclotrons, accelerators and reactors, whereas BNCT is so far bound to reactors. Both therapies use the effects of high-LET radiation (secondary recoil protons and alpha particles, respectively) and can attack otherwise radioresistant tumours, however, with the hazard of adverse effects for irradiated healthy tissue. FNT has been administered to about 30,000 patients world-wide. From formerly 40 facilities, only eight are operational or stand-by today. The reasons for this development have been, on the one hand, related to technical and economical conditions; on the other hand, strong side effects and insufficient proof of clinical results in the early years as well as increasing competition with new clinical methods have reduced patient numbers. In fact, strict observations of indications, appropriate therapy-planning including low-LET radiation, and consequent treatment of side effects have lead to remarkable results in the meantime. BNCT initially was developed for the treatment of extremely aggressive forms of brain tumour, taking advantage of the action of the blood-brain-barrier which allows for a boronated compound to be selectively enriched in tumour cells. Meanwhile, also malignant melanoma (MM) and Head-and-Neck (H&T) tumours are treated because of their relative radioresistance. At present, epithermal beams with sufficient flux are available only at two facilities. Existing research reactors were indispensable in the development of BNCT, but are to be replaced by hospital-based epithermal neutron sources. Clinical results indicate significantly increased survival times, but the number of patients ever treated is still below 1,000. 3D-dose calculation systems have been developed at several facilities

  15. Radiation Recall Pneumonitis During Systemic Treatment With Everolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Douglas; Gauchan, Dron; Ramaekers, Ryan; Norvell, Max; Copur, Mehmet Sitki

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall syndrome is an acute inflammatory reaction developing at anatomical sites of previously irradiated tissue, weeks to months after the completion of radiation therapy. The distribution pattern of inflammation typically involves, and remains limited to, the boundaries of prior radiation treatment fields. Several classical chemotherapy drugs have been reported to have the potential for causing radiation recall syndrome. With the increasing availability and expanding use of novel biologic and targeted therapy anticancer drugs, isolated reports of radiation recall syndrome secondary to this class of agents are starting to appear in the literature. We describe a case of everolimus-induced radiation recall pneumonitis in a patient with metastatic renal cell cancer.

  16. SBNCT plan: A 3-dimensional treatment planning system for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinstein, L.E.; Ramsay, E.B.; Gajewski, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Meek, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    The need for accurate and comprehensive 3-dimensional treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been debated for the past several years. Although many argue against the need for elaborate and expensive treatment planning programs which mimic conventional radiotherapy planning systems, it is clear that in order to realize significant gains over conventional fractionated radiation therapy, patients must be treated to the edge of normal tissue tolerance. Just how close to this edge is dictated by the uncertainties in dosimetry. Hence the focus of BNCT planning is the determination of dose distribution throughout normal tissue volumes. Although precise geometric manipulation of the epithermal neutron beam is not achievable, the following variables play an important role in BNCT optimization: patient orientation, dose fractionation, number of fields, megawatt-minutes per fraction, use of surface bolus, and use of collimation. Other variables which are not as easily adjustable and would not, therefore, be part of treatment planning optimization, include external patient contour, internal patient heterogeneities, boron compound distributions, and RBE's. The boron neutron capture therapy planning system developed at SUNY Stony Brook (SBNCT-Plan) was designed as an interactive graphic tool to assist the radiation oncologist in generating the optimum plan for a neutron capture treatment

  17. Truffles decontamination treatment by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, M.; Capitani, D.; Mannina, L.; Cristinzio, M.; Ragni, P.; Tata, A.; Coppola, R.

    2004-09-01

    A research project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and the European Union, is in progress aimed to develop processes to enhance, by irradiation, the safety and the wholesomeness of fresh products relevant for Italian food industry. Irradiation was performed on truffles, since the bacterial contamination impairs their trade in foreign countries. The microbial population and the shelf life under refrigeration were studied either on samples untreated or on samples submitted to γ-rays in a 1-2.5 kGy dose range. The effect of the treatment was monitored by UV and NMR techniques. Total microbial population and the shelf life prolongation were investigated. The synergistic effect of the dose, the packaging under vacuum and the storage/irradiation temperature resulted in a direct effect on the microbial load, spoilage and shelf life. After the irradiation, small variations in the intensity of some NMR resonances due to aromatic compounds and other unassigned compounds were observed. As confirmed by UV spectrophotometric data, these phenomena seemed to originate from a small degradation of polyphenols; the induced growth of soluble phenols suggested that the 1.5 kGy dose can be considered as the radiation dose threshold beyond which clear chemical modifications on truffles appear.

  18. Compatibilization of recycled polymers through radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.; Hargitai, H.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The use of compatibilizers is crucial in composites of apolar, synthetic matrix such as PP and fibrous, polar, natural reinforcement. Radiation treatment using small EB- or gamma dose of about 8 kGy - may enhance the effect of reactive compatibilizer, involving both matrix and reinforcement into a chemically attached system. In the present work we applied byproducts of textile- and woodworking industry as reinforcing additives for polypropylene (PP), reprocessed from waste car-bumpers and recollected bottle-caps. Hemp fibers and waste-wood fibers can be mixed into the PP on a continuously operating twin-screw extruder. Various additives have been tries out in our laboratory including maleic acid anhydride, acrylic-acid grafted compatibilizers, unsaturated oligomers and vinylsilanes. The effect of different compatibilizing methods have been evaluated by comparing mechanical properties (tensile- and flexural strength, modulus of elasticity etc.), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and rheological properties. The ensemble of properties is clearly enhanced by the efficient compatibilization. The reinforced - recycled products can be applied in advanced sandwich molding processing technologies of coextrusion and co-injection molding, where the dark coloured, recycled product forms the inner core of the product, covered on both side with virgin thermoplastic

  19. Truffles decontamination treatment by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, M.; Capitani, D.; Mannina, L.; Cristinzio, M.; Ragni, P.; Tata, A.; Coppola, R.

    2004-01-01

    A research project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and the European Union, is in progress aimed to develop processes to enhance, by irradiation, the safety and the wholesomeness of fresh products relevant for Italian food industry. Irradiation was performed on truffles, since the bacterial contamination impairs their trade in foreign countries. The microbial population and the shelf life under refrigeration were studied either on samples untreated or on samples submitted to γ-rays in a 1-2.5 kGy dose range. The effect of the treatment was monitored by UV and NMR techniques. Total microbial population and the shelf life prolongation were investigated. The synergistic effect of the dose, the packaging under vacuum and the storage/irradiation temperature resulted in a direct effect on the microbial load, spoilage and shelf life. After the irradiation, small variations in the intensity of some NMR resonances due to aromatic compounds and other unassigned compounds were observed. As confirmed by UV spectrophotometric data, these phenomena seemed to originate from a small degradation of polyphenols; the induced growth of soluble phenols suggested that the 1.5 kGy dose can be considered as the radiation dose threshold beyond which clear chemical modifications on truffles appear

  20. Truffles decontamination treatment by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, M.; Capitani, D.; Mannina, L.; Cristinzio, M.; Ragni, P. E-mail: pietro.ragni@imc.cnr.it; Tata, A.; Coppola, R

    2004-10-01

    A research project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and the European Union, is in progress aimed to develop processes to enhance, by irradiation, the safety and the wholesomeness of fresh products relevant for Italian food industry. Irradiation was performed on truffles, since the bacterial contamination impairs their trade in foreign countries. The microbial population and the shelf life under refrigeration were studied either on samples untreated or on samples submitted to {gamma}-rays in a 1-2.5 kGy dose range. The effect of the treatment was monitored by UV and NMR techniques. Total microbial population and the shelf life prolongation were investigated. The synergistic effect of the dose, the packaging under vacuum and the storage/irradiation temperature resulted in a direct effect on the microbial load, spoilage and shelf life. After the irradiation, small variations in the intensity of some NMR resonances due to aromatic compounds and other unassigned compounds were observed. As confirmed by UV spectrophotometric data, these phenomena seemed to originate from a small degradation of polyphenols; the induced growth of soluble phenols suggested that the 1.5 kGy dose can be considered as the radiation dose threshold beyond which clear chemical modifications on truffles appear.

  1. A comprehensive centralized control system for radiation waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive centralized control system is designed for the radiation waste treatment facility that lacking of coordinated operational mechanism for the radiation waste treatment. The centralized control and alarm linkage of various systems is implemented to ensure effectively the safety of nuclear facility and materials, improve the integral control ability through advanced informatization ways. (author)

  2. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the TRIGA Mark II of Pavia, Italy - The BNCT of the diffuse tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S.; Bruschi, P.; Gadan, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The selectivity based on the B distribution rather than on the irradiation field makes Boron neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) a valid option for the treatment of the disseminated tumours. As the range of the high LET particles is shorter than a cell diameter, the normal cells around the tumour are not damaged by the reactions occurring in the tumoral cells. PAVIA 2001: first treatment of multiple hepatic metastases from colon ca by BNCT and auto-transplantation technique: TAOrMINA project. The liver was extracted after BPA infusion, irradiated in the Thermal Column of the Pavia TRIGA Mark II reactor, and re-implanted in the patient. Two patients were treated, demonstrating the feasibility of the therapy and the efficacy in destroying the tumoral nodules sparing the healthy tissues. In the last years, the possibility of applying BNCT to the lung tumours using epithermal collimated neutron beams and without explanting the organ, is being explored. The principal obtained results of the BNCT research are presented, with particular emphasis on the following aspects: a) the project of a new thermal column configuration to make the thermal neutron flux more uniform inside the explanted liver, b) the Monte Carlo study by means of the MCNP code of the thermal neutron flux distribution inside a patient's thorax irradiated with epithermal neutrons, and c) the measurement of the boron concentration in tissues by (n,α) spectroscopy and neutron autoradiography. The dose distribution in the thorax are simulated using MCNP and the anthropomorphic model ADAM. To have a good thermal flux distribution inside the lung epithermal neutrons must be used, which thermalize crossing the first tissue layers. Thermal neutrons do not penetrate and the obtained uniformity is poor. In the future, the construction of a PGNAA facility using a horizontal channel of the TRIGA Mark II is planned. With this method the B concentration can be measured also in liquid samples (blood, urine) and in those

  3. Dynamic infrared imaging of cutaneous melanoma and normal skin in patients treated with BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa Cruz, G.A. [Dpto. de Instrumentacion y Control, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250 (1429), Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: santacr@cnea.gov.ar; Bertotti, J.; Marin, J. [Universidad Favaloro, Solis 453 (1078), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, S.J. [Dpto. de Instrumentacion y Control, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250 (1429), Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gossio, S. [FCEyN, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, D. [Fundacion Favaloro, Av. Belgrano 1746 (1093), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roth, B.M.C.; Menendez, P. [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Av. San Martin 5481 (1417), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pereira, M.D. [Agencia Nacional de Promocion Cientifica y Tecnologica, PAV 22393 (Argentina); Albero, M.; Cubau, L.; Orellano, P. [INVAP S.E., F.P. Moreno 1089 (R8400AMU), S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Liberman, S.J. [Dpto. de Instrumentacion y Control, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250 (1429), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    We recently initiated a program aimed to investigate the suitability of dynamic infrared imaging for following-up nodular melanoma patients treated with BNCT. The reason that makes infrared imaging attractive is the fact that it constitutes a functional and non-invasive imaging method, providing information on the normal and abnormal physiologic response of the nervous and vascular systems, as well as the local metabolic rate and inflammatory processes that ultimately appear as differences in the skin temperature. An infrared camera, with a focal plane array of 320x240 uncooled ferroelectric detectors is employed, which provides a video stream of the infrared emission in the 7-14 {mu}m wavelength band. A double blackbody is used as reference for absolute temperature calibration. After following a protocol for patient preparation and acclimatization, a basal study is performed. Subsequently, the anatomic region of interest is subjected to a provocation test (a cold stimulus), which induces an autonomic vasoconstriction reflex in normal structures, thus enhancing the thermal contrast due to the differences in the vasculature of the different skin regions. Radiation erythema reactions and melanoma nodules possess typically a faster temperature recovery than healthy, non-irradiated skin. However, some other non-pathological structures are also detectable by infrared imaging, (e.g. scars, vessels, arteriovenous anastomoses and injuries), thus requiring a multi-study comparison in order to discriminate the tumor signal. Besides the superficial nodules, which are readily noticeable by infrared imaging, we have detected thermal signals that are coincident with the location of non-palpable nodules, which are observable by CT and ultrasound. Diffuse regions of fast temperature recovery after a cold stimulus were observed between the third and sixth weeks post-BNCT, concurrent with the clinical manifestation of radiation erythema. The location of the erythematous visible and

  4. Dynamic infrared imaging of cutaneous melanoma and normal skin in patients treated with BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Cruz, G.A.; Bertotti, J.; Marin, J.; Gonzalez, S.J.; Gossio, S.; Alvarez, D.; Roth, B.M.C.; Menendez, P.; Pereira, M.D.; Albero, M.; Cubau, L.; Orellano, P.; Liberman, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    We recently initiated a program aimed to investigate the suitability of dynamic infrared imaging for following-up nodular melanoma patients treated with BNCT. The reason that makes infrared imaging attractive is the fact that it constitutes a functional and non-invasive imaging method, providing information on the normal and abnormal physiologic response of the nervous and vascular systems, as well as the local metabolic rate and inflammatory processes that ultimately appear as differences in the skin temperature. An infrared camera, with a focal plane array of 320x240 uncooled ferroelectric detectors is employed, which provides a video stream of the infrared emission in the 7-14 μm wavelength band. A double blackbody is used as reference for absolute temperature calibration. After following a protocol for patient preparation and acclimatization, a basal study is performed. Subsequently, the anatomic region of interest is subjected to a provocation test (a cold stimulus), which induces an autonomic vasoconstriction reflex in normal structures, thus enhancing the thermal contrast due to the differences in the vasculature of the different skin regions. Radiation erythema reactions and melanoma nodules possess typically a faster temperature recovery than healthy, non-irradiated skin. However, some other non-pathological structures are also detectable by infrared imaging, (e.g. scars, vessels, arteriovenous anastomoses and injuries), thus requiring a multi-study comparison in order to discriminate the tumor signal. Besides the superficial nodules, which are readily noticeable by infrared imaging, we have detected thermal signals that are coincident with the location of non-palpable nodules, which are observable by CT and ultrasound. Diffuse regions of fast temperature recovery after a cold stimulus were observed between the third and sixth weeks post-BNCT, concurrent with the clinical manifestation of radiation erythema. The location of the erythematous visible and

  5. [Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    This is a renewal proposal for an on-going project of the Department of Energy (DOE)/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The objective of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of radiation-cloud in GCMs so that reliable predictions of the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and regional responses can be made. The ARM Program supports two research areas: (I) The modeling and analysis of data related to the parameterization of clouds and radiation in general circulation models (GCMs); and (II) the development of advanced instrumentation for both mapping the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere and high accuracy/precision radiometric observations. The present project conducts research in area (I) and focuses on GCM treatment of cloud life cycle, optical properties, and vertical overlapping. The project has two tasks: (1) Development and Refinement of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment Using ARM Data; and (2) Validation of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment

  6. Hodgkin lymphoma: Evolution and dilemma in radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, T.; Ghalibafian, M.; Paumier, A.; Ghalibafian, M.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple new developments in the treatments of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma have occurred in the last 10 years. Radiation treatments have become extremely precise in localized Hodgkin lymphomas, on the other hand, they have almost completely disappeared in advanced stages. For patients with refractory or recurrent disease, it is strongly advocated, whenever feasible, to deliver a mantle field radiation treatment after an autologous stem cell transplant to avoid any further recurrence of the disease. (authors)

  7. [Medical prevention and treatment of radiation-induced pulmonary complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallard, A; Rancoule, C; Le Floch, H; Guy, J-B; Espenel, S; Le Péchoux, C; Deutsch, É; Magné, N; Chargari, C

    2017-08-01

    Radiation-induced lung injuries mainly include the (acute or sub-acute) radiation pneumonitis, the lung fibrosis and the bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). The present review aims at describing the diagnostic process, the current physiopathological knowledge, and the available (non dosimetric) preventive and curative treatments. Radiation-induced lung injury is a diagnosis of exclusion, since clinical, radiological, or biological pathognomonic evidences do not exist. Investigations should necessarily include a thoracic high resolution CT-scan and lung function tests with a diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. No treatment ever really showed efficacy to prevent acute radiation-induced lung injury, or to treat radiation-induced lung fibrosis. The most promising drugs in order to prevent radiation-induced lung injury are amifostine, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and pentoxifylline. Inhibitors of collagen synthesis are currently tested at a pre-clinical stage to limit the radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Regarding available treatments of radiation-induced pneumonitis, corticoids can be considered the cornerstone. However, no standardized program or guidelines concerning the initial dose and the gradual tapering have been scientifically established. Alternative treatments can be prescribed, based on clinical cases reporting on the efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs. Such data highlight the major role of the lung dosimetric protection in order to efficiently prevent radiation-induced lung injury. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of neutron irradiation field of research reactors for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Otohiko

    1992-01-01

    The modification of research reactors for an improvement of the irradiation field for BNCT has been investigated in comparison with the field characteristics of the 'old' configuration at the Musashi reactor. The new point of this study is that the evaluation has been done by using an arrangement including both the facility structure and a whole-body phantom, and also by considering the whole-body absorbed dose. (author)

  9. Thermal hydraulic design features for the BNCT application. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, T.E.; Vafai, K.

    1993-06-01

    This project report is based on our investigations for thermal design of a heat pipe for removing generated heat resulting from Proton bombardments of a Lithium target for a BNCT application. In our investigation, an integral analysis was employed to investigate the vapor an liquid flow in a flat plate heat pipe heated asymmetrically for removal of the 75 kW generated from the BNCT application. The flat plate heat pipe configuration will be used for removing the heat which is generated as a result of proton bombardment of the lithium target. The working fluid in the heat pipe occurs in two phase namely liquid and vapor. The wick contains all the liquid phase and the vapor phase is mainly in the core region. Heat is applied by an external source at the evaporator section which vaporizes the working fluid in this section. This results in a pressure difference which drives the vapor to the condenser section where condenses and releases latent heat of vaporization to a heat sink in the condense section. Due to the vaporization of liquid in the evaporator, the liquid-vapor interface enters into the wick surface and hence capillary pressure is developed there. This capillary pressure causes the condensed liquid in the condenser to be pumped back to the evaporator again. The results of our investigation have enabled us to correlate such diverse information as; the thickness of the wick, the diameter of the heat pipe, the wetting angle, the capillary radius, the surface tension, the latent heat of evaporation, the permeability and porosity of the chosen wick, the length of the heat pipe, and the viscosity and density of the two phases; with the heat removal capabilities of the heat pipe. Expressions for the pressure and velocity distributions are obtained and discussed in relation to our application to BNCT. The present design clearly shows that it is possible to attain temperatures well below the melting temperature of the lithium in the BNCT application.

  10. Optimization of the application of BNCT to undifferentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, M.A.; Thomasz, L.; Longhino, J.

    2006-01-01

    The possible increase in BNCT efficacy for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) using BPA plus BOPP and nicotinamide (NA) as a radiosensitizer on the BNCT reaction was analyzed. In these studies nude mice were transplanted with the ARO cells and after 14 days they were treated as follows: 1) Control; 2) NCT (neutrons alone); 3) NCT plus NA (100 mg/kg bw/day for 3 days); 4) BPA (350 mg/kg bw) + neutrons; 5) BPA+ NA+ neutrons; 6) BPA+BOPP (60 mg/kg bw) + neutrons. The flux of hyperthermal neutrons was 2.8 10 8 during 85 min. Neutrons alone or with NA caused some tumor growth delay, while in the BPA, BPA+NA and BPA+BOPP groups a 100% halt of tumor growth was observed. When the initial tumor volume was 50 mm 3 or less a complete cure was found in BPA+NA (2/2); BPA (1/4); BPA+BOPP (7/7). After 90 days of complete regression, recurrence of tumor was observed in 2/2 BPA/NA (2/2) and BPA+BOPP (1/7). Caspase 3 activity was increased in BPA+NA (p<0.05 vs controls). BPA plus NA increased tumor apoptosis but only the combination of BPA+BOPP increased significantly BNCT efficiency. (author)

  11. Clinical treatment planning for subjects undergoing boron neutron capture therapy at Harvard-MIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, R.G.; Palmer, M.R.; Buse, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Treatment planning is a crucial component of the Harvard-MIT boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) clinical trials. Treatment planning can be divided into five stages: (1) pre-planning, based on CT and MRI scans obtained when the subject arrives at the hospital and on assumed boron-10 distribution parameters; (2) subject set-up, or simulation, in the MITR-II medical therapy room to determine the boundary conditions for possible set-up configurations; (3) re-planning, following the subject simulation; (4) final localization of the subject in the medical therapy room for BNCT; and (5) final post facto recalculation of the doses delivered based on firm knowledge of the blood boron-10 concentration profiles and the neutron flux histories from precise online monitoring. The computer-assisted treatment planning is done using a specially written BNCT treatment planning code called MacNCTPLAN. The code uses the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Monte Carlo n-particle radiation transport code MCNPv.4b as the dose calculation engine and advanced anatomical model simulation based on an automatic evaluation of CT scan data. Results are displayed as isodose contours and dose-volume histograms, the latter correlated precisely with corresponding anatomical CT or MRI image planes. Examples of typical treatment planning scenarios will be presented. (author)

  12. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  13. Use of ionizing radiation in waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of methods and possibilities of applying ionizing radiation in industrial waste water treatment. The most frequently used radiation sources include the 60 Co and 137 Cs isotopes and the 90 Sr- 90 Y combined source. The results are reported and the methods used are described of waste water treatment by sedimenting impurities and decomposing organic and inorganic compounds by ionizing radiation. It was found that waste water irradiation accelerated sedimentation and decomposition processes. The doses used varied between 50 and 500 krads. Ionizing radiation may also be used in waste water disinfection in which the effects are used of radiation on microorganisms and of the synthesis of ozone which does not smell like normally used chlorine. The described methods are still controversial from the economic point of view but the cost of waste water treatment by irradiation will significantly be reduced by the use of spent fuel elements. (J.B.)

  14. A study of computational dosimetry and boron biodistribution for ex – situ lung BNCT at RA-3 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M.A.; Trivillin, V. A.; Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Thorp, S.; Curotto, P; Miller, M.; Santa Cruz, G.A.; Saint Martin, G.; Schwint, A.E.; González, S.J.; Farías, R.O; Portu, A.; Ferraris, S.; Santa María, J.; Lange, F.; Bortolussi, S.; Altieri, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within the context of the preclinical ex-situ BNCT Project for the treatment of diffuse lung metastases, we performed boron biodistribution studies in a sheep model and computational dosimetry studies in human lung to evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy of the proposed technique. Herein we report preliminary data that supports the use of the sheep model as an adequate human surrogate in terms of boron kinetics and uptake in clinically relevant tissues. Furthermore, the estimation of the potential therapeutic efficacy of the proposed treatment in humans, based on boron uptake values in the large animal model, yields promising tumor control probability values even in the most conservative scenario considered. (author)

  15. Related radiation effects on the intestine and their treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardychev, M.S.; Kurpeshcheva, A.K.; Kaplan, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Late radiation injuries of the intestine are frequent after radiation therapy of malignant tumours of female genitalia and some other tumours due to which the intestine gets into the irradiation field. On the basis of the analysis of 80 patients with late radiation injuries of intestine which developed at remote terms after radiation therapy of cervix uteri cancer and corpus uteri (65 patients) and other tumours, peculiarities of the clinical course and treatment of radiation enterocolitis, rectosigmoidites and rectites are discussed. In 39 patients these injuries were concomitant with late radiation injuries of the skin and subcutaneous soft tissues. The clinical course of radiation unjuries of the intestine was defined by the character of the pathological process in the intestine and was more sharply marked in patients suffering from radiation enterocolites. It was established that one of the pathogenetic mechanisms of late radiation injuries of the intestine was a disorder of the absorption function of the intestine. Local treatment of radiation injuries of the intestine should be combined with a general one the important component of which is a parenteral diet

  16. Progresses in studies on radiation treatment of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Min; Shen Zhongqun; Yang Ruiyuan; Ma Hongjuan; Zhao Jun; Wang Wenfeng

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives a review on recent progresses in E-beam purification of flue gases, radiation degra- dation of volatile organic compounds, and radiation treatment of sewerage and industrial wastewater. And research activities in this area at Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics are given in particular details. (authors)

  17. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the Treatment of Locally Recurred Head-and-Neck Cancer: Final Analysis of a Phase I/II Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanranta, Leena [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaelae, Tiina; Koivunoro, Hanna [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boneca Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Saarilahti, Kauko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Atula, Timo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Collan, Juhani [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Salli, Eero; Kortesniemi, Mika [Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Uusi-Simola, Jouni [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Vaelimaeki, Petteri [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boneca Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Maekitie, Antti [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaenen, Marko [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Minn, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Revitzer, Hannu [Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Esopo (Finland); Kouri, Mauri [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kotiluoto, Petri; Seren, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Joensuu, Heikki, E-mail: heikki.joensuu@hus.fi [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of inoperable head-and-neck cancers that recur locally after conventional photon radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: In this prospective, single-center Phase I/II study, 30 patients with inoperable, locally recurred head-and-neck cancer (29 carcinomas and 1 sarcoma) were treated with BNCT. Prior treatments consisted of surgery and conventionally fractionated photon irradiation to a cumulative dose of 50 to 98 Gy administered with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Tumor responses were assessed by use of the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) and adverse effects by use of the National Cancer Institute common terminology criteria version 3.0. Intravenously administered L-boronophenylalanine-fructose (400 mg/kg) was administered as the boron carrier. Each patient was scheduled to be treated twice with BNCT. Results: Twenty-six patients received BNCT twice; four were treated once. Of the 29 evaluable patients, 22 (76%) responded to BNCT, 6 (21%) had tumor growth stabilization for 5.1 and 20.3 months, and 1 (3%) progressed. The median progression-free survival time was 7.5 months (95% confidence interval, 5.4-9.6 months). Two-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 20% and 30%, respectively, and 27% of the patients survived for 2 years without locoregional recurrence. The most common acute Grade 3 adverse effects were mucositis (54% of patients), oral pain (54%), and fatigue (32%). Three patients were diagnosed with osteoradionecrosis (each Grade 3) and one patient with soft-tissue necrosis (Grade 4). Late Grade 3 xerostomia was present in 3 of the 15 evaluable patients (20%). Conclusions: Most patients who have inoperable, locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma that has recurred at a previously irradiated site respond to boronophenylalanine-mediated BNCT, but cancer recurrence after BNCT remains frequent. Toxicity was

  18. Radiation processing technology for industrial waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation sterilization technology, cross-linked polymers and curing, food and environmental applications of the radiation is widely used for many years. At the same time, drinking water and wastewater treatment are the part of the radiation technology applications. For this purpose, drinking water and wastewater treatment plants in various countries has been established. In this project, gamma / electron beam radiation treatment is intended to be used for the treatment of alkaloid, textiles and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wastewater. In this regard, the chemical characterization of wastewater, the interaction with radiation, biological treatment and determination of toxicological properties are the laboratory studies milestones. After laboratory studies, the establishment of a pilot scale treatment plant has been planned. Within the framework of the project a series of dye used in textile industry were examined. Besides the irradiation, the changes in treatment efficiency were investigated by using of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with the irradiation. Same working methods were implemented in the wastewater treatment of Bolvadin Opium Alkaloid Factory as well. In addition to chemical analysis in this study, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment process also have been applied. Standard reference materials has been used for the marine sediment study contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls.

  19. Confirmation of a realistic reactor model for BNCT dosimetry at the TRIGA Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegner, Markus, E-mail: Markus.Ziegner.fl@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna A-1220, Austria and Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1020 (Austria); Schmitz, Tobias; Hampel, Gabriele [Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz DE-55128 (Germany); Khan, Rustam [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad PK-44000 (Pakistan); Blaickner, Matthias [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna A-1220 (Austria); Palmans, Hugo [Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW, United Kingdom and Medical Physics Group, EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt A-2700 (Austria); Sharpe, Peter [Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Böck, Helmuth [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1020 (Austria)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In order to build up a reliable dose monitoring system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the TRIGA reactor in Mainz, a computer model for the entire reactor was established, simulating the radiation field by means of the Monte Carlo method. The impact of different source definition techniques was compared and the model was validated by experimental fluence and dose determinations. Methods: The depletion calculation code ORIGEN2 was used to compute the burn-up and relevant material composition of each burned fuel element from the day of first reactor operation to its current core. The material composition of the current core was used in a MCNP5 model of the initial core developed earlier. To perform calculations for the region outside the reactor core, the model was expanded to include the thermal column and compared with the previously established ATTILA model. Subsequently, the computational model is simplified in order to reduce the calculation time. Both simulation models are validated by experiments with different setups using alanine dosimetry and gold activation measurements with two different types of phantoms. Results: The MCNP5 simulated neutron spectrum and source strength are found to be in good agreement with the previous ATTILA model whereas the photon production is much lower. Both MCNP5 simulation models predict all experimental dose values with an accuracy of about 5%. The simulations reveal that a Teflon environment favorably reduces the gamma dose component as compared to a polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Conclusions: A computer model for BNCT dosimetry was established, allowing the prediction of dosimetric quantities without further calibration and within a reasonable computation time for clinical applications. The good agreement between the MCNP5 simulations and experiments demonstrates that the ATTILA model overestimates the gamma dose contribution. The detailed model can be used for the planning of structural

  20. Radiation synovectomy: treatment option for haemophilia patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Papers from reputable haematology and radiation medicine journals, as well as conference presentations of the World Federation of Hemophilia were also included. Data selection: The searches for papers, abstracts and reviews were limited to English language, haemophilia, haemarthrosis, synovectomy, RS, ...

  1. Coordination systems for three-dimension radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dailun; Wu Zhangwen; Luo Zhengming

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the coordination systems of a three dimension radiation treatment plan. The coordination systems refer to the body coordination, the isocenter coordination and the beam coordination. The authors have derived the analytical equations for coordination transforms, indicated the applications of the coordination systems, and provided corresponding treating means. With strict construction and perfect structure, the systems have an important significance for increasing the whole capability of a three dimension radiation treatment plan, and can be extensively and flexibly used. (authors)

  2. Intracellular targeting of mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate (BSH) to malignant glioma by transferrin-PEG liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Atsushi; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Iida, Kyouko

    2006-01-01

    Malignant glioma is one of the most difficult tumor to control with usual therapies. In our institute, we select boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as an adjuvant radiation therapy after surgical resection. This therapy requires the selective delivery of high concentration of 10 B to malignant tumor tissue. In this study, we focused on a tumor-targeting 10 B delivery system (BDS) for BNCT that uses transferrin-conjugated polyethylene-glycol liposome encapsulating BSH (TF-PEG liposome-BSH) and compared 10 B uptake of the tumor among BSH, PEG liposome-BSH and TF-PEG liposome-BSH. In vitro, we analyzed 10 B concentration of the cultured human U87Δ glioma cells incubated in medium containing 20 μg 10 B/ml derived from each BDS by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In vivo, human U87Δ glioma-bearing nude mice were administered with each BDS (35mg 10 B/kg) intravenously. We analyzed 10 B concentration of tumor, normal brain and blood by ICP-AES. The TF-PEG liposome-BSH showed higher absolute concentration more than the other BDS. Moreover, TF-PEG liposome-BSH decreased 10 B concentration in blood and normal tissue while it maintained high 10 B concentration in tumor tissue for a couple of days. This showed the TF-PEG liposome-BSH caused the selective delivery of high concentration of 10 B to malignant tumor tissue. The TF-PEG liposome-BSH is more potent BDS for BNCT to obtain absolute high 10 B concentration and good contrast between tumor and normal tissue than BSH and PEG liposome-BSH. (author)

  3. Main trends of radiation application for food stuff treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The methods of radiation treatment of food stuff using γ, X-rays and electrons are presented. Radiation doses of various products permitted by the Expert Committee of WHO and other international organizations are presented. The problem of grain disinfestation permitted irradiation doses are in the interval between 50 and 100 krad is stiudied. The harmless effect of these doses for products is shown. The experience of raw fish, fish products, raw meat, meat and vegetable products radappertization is reviewed. The intensification of technological processes of food production using radiation treatment is also considered. The advantages and disadvantages of radiation devices with different radiation sources are shown. It is shown that the choice of this or that type should be primarily determined by the parameter of irradiated objects, the periodicity of their coming to the device and conditions of treating these objects [ru

  4. [Symptoms and treatment of radiation-induced reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Anna; Idziak, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek; Mazurkiewicz, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main methods of cancer treatment alone or in combination with chemotherapy. It is applied in about 60% of oncological patients. However, in spite of its clinical usefulness, radiotherapy is associated with a high risk of radiation-induced side effects, including dermatitis, enteritis, cystitis, pericarditis, pneumonia or depression, sexual function disorders, cardiomiopathy, coronary heart disease, anomalies of heart valves and development of second malignant tumor. The early diagnosis and proper treatment of radiation-induced side effects have a major impact on patients` quality of life and future prognosis. Radiation reactions can be categorized as acute or late, occurring before and after six months after radiotherapy. Among the most common acute reactions there were observed: skin rash, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, fever and radiation pneumonitis. Within reference to the late complications, we distinguish for instance fibrosis of organs, a radiation necrosis of bone, ulcers, fistulas, sexual dysfunction and the development of second malignant carcinomas. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  5. Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Ahluwalia, Manmeet S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Barnett, Gene H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stevens, Glen H.J. [Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, Erin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stockham, Abigail L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Shiue, Kevin [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimann, Erica L.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Longhino, Juan; Blaumann, Herman; Calzetta, Osvaldo

    2003-01-01

    We have proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer for BNCT studies separately. We herein report the first evidence of the usefulness of BNCT for the treatment of oral cancer in an experimental model. We assessed the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal oral tissue to BPA-mediated BNCT employing the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. BNCT leads to complete remission by 15 days post-treatment in 78% of tumors and partial remission in a further 13% of tumors with virtually no damage to normal tissue. (author)

  7. Treatment of arterial lesions after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, D.; Jonsson, K.; Nilsson, M.; Takolander, R.

    1987-01-01

    Of 1,724 patients who underwent peripheral vascular operation, 12 (0.7 per cent) underwent radiation therapy of the areas including the relevant arteries one and one-half to 28 years (a mean of 15 years) previously; one patient had carcinoma of the breast, three had tumors of the neck and eight patients had malignant gynecologic disease. One patient with an occluded carotid artery was not actively treated, two underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and the remaining patients underwent different types of vascular reconstructions. These patients frequently have other radiation lesions as well with involvement of the skin, bladder or intestine, which may make them problematic from a surgical point of view. Extra-anatomic reconstructions or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty can be recommended. One patient died of malignant disease three years after arterial operation. Otherwise, the results of follow-up study for these patients did not differ from other patients who underwent arterial reconstruction

  8. Insights from radiation treatment for benign disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleehen, N.M.

    1987-08-29

    This note compares mortality figures for patients treated with low dose ionizing radiation for benign conditions between the 1920's and 1950's with figures available from the Japanese A-bomb survivors. X radiation for ringworm, ankylosing spondylitis and post-partum mastitis are considered. Figures for leukemia are roughly comparable between radiotherapy groups and A-bomb survivors. Figures for the increased relative risk of breast cancer in spondylitis patients were in marked contrast to bomb survivors who received comparable doses, but compatible with the increase among women given x-rays for acute post-partum mastitis in the 1940's and 1950's. This study also suggests the possibility of different time patterns of risk between different cancers. (U.K.).

  9. PhoNeS: A novel approach to BNCT with conventional radiotherapy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, R.; Giannini, G.; Calligaris, F.; Fontanarosa, D.; Longo, F.; Scian, G.; Totaro, P.; Vittor, K.; Vallazza, E.; Severgnini, M.; Vidimari, R.; Bartesaghi, G.; Conti, V.; Mascagna, V.; Perboni, C.; Prest, M.; Gambarini, G.; Gay, S.; Valente, M.A.; Mozzanica, A.; Monti, A.; Ostinelli, A.; Azario, L.; Fidanzio, A.; Piermattei, A.; Borla, O.; Elisabetta Durisi; Fasolo, F.; Nastasi, U.; Perosino, E.; Zanini, A.; Tommasino, L.

    2007-01-01

    PhoNeS (Photo Neutron Source) is an INFN project devoted to the optimization of the neutron production and moderation in radiotherapy linear accelerators. LinAcs producing high energy (15-25MeV) photon beams are becoming widespread. At this energy neutron photo-production is unavoidable and the neutron dose must be controlled and reduced during normal radiotherapy. A technique known as BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) uses neutrons for radiotherapic treatments: the cells are given a drug containing B10 which undergoes fission after neutron capture, inducing heavy damages to the DNA of the cell itself. This paper will describe the moderator developed by PhoNeS and the results in terms of neutron flux and spectrum and photon contamination of the measurements performed on several radiotherapy accelerators

  10. Radiation treatment of herb tea for the reduction of microbial contamination (Flores chamomillae). [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katusin-Razem, B.; Razem, D.; Dvornik, I. (Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)); Matic, S. (Institute of Public Health of Croatia, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

    1983-01-01

    A survey of microbiological contamination of dried chamomile flowers indicates the presence of thermophilic bacteria up to the level of 10/sup 4/ per gram. This material often contains insecticides which have been used to reduce post-harvest losses. This work was undertaken in order to study the feasibility of radiation treatment of dried chamomile flowers as the only acceptable process for reduction of microbial contamination and as an alternative to chemical treatment. The main microbial contaminants were identified and typical contamination levels established. Survival curves of the irradiated microflora were obtained as a function of gamma radiation dose. Chemical composition of chamomile oil was followed by spectroscopy, thin layer and gas chromatography. No untoward effects of radiation treatment on active components were found, which indicates the usefulness of radiation treatment of dry flowers.

  11. Sexuality in gynecological patients undergoing radiation therapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The gynecology patient undergoing radiation therapy treatments may experience physiological and psychological problems related to sexuality. The needs of this group must be met by the radiation oncology staff by their being informed, interested, and experienced in dealing with sexual problems created by radiation therapy treatments. Opportunities to obtain information and for discussion about how the disease and its treatments will affect sexual functioning must be provided for the patient and partner. It is important to remember that the ability to seek and preserve gratifying sexual function is of great importance to almost all women, regardless of age. The patient may feel much personal distress related to the disease, the treatments, and how they affect the way she feels as a sexual human being. Opportunities must be provided to share the feelings created by the treatment process and trained therapists should be available when intensive sexual counseling is needed

  12. Rapid and Decentralized Human Waste Treatment by Microwave Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tu Anh; Babel, Sandhya; Boonyarattanakalin, Siwarutt; Koottatep, Thammarat

    2017-07-01

      This study evaluates the technical feasibility of using microwave radiation for the rapid treatment of human feces. Human feces of 1000 g were radiated with a commercially available household microwave oven (with rotation) at different exposure time lengths (30, 50, 60, 70, and 75 mins) and powers (600, 800, and 1000 W). Volume reduction over 90% occurred after 1000 W microwave radiation for 75 mins. Pathogen eradiation performances of six log units or more at a high range of microwave powers were achieved. Treatments with the same energy input of 1000 Wh, but at lower powers with prolonged exposure times, significantly enhanced moisture removal and volume reduction. Microwave radiation caused carbonization and resulted in a more stable end product. The energy content of the samples after microwave treatment at 1000 W and 75 mins is 3517 ± 8.85 calories/g of dried sample, and the product can also be used as compost.

  13. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  14. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1998-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by 10 B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase I/II clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark experiments

  15. 2.5 MeV CW 4-vane RFQ accelerator design for BNCT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaowen; Wang, Hu; Lu, Yuanrong; Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Kun; Zou, Yubin; Guo, Zhiyu

    2018-03-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) promises a bright future in cancer therapy for its highly selective destruction of cancer cells, using the 10B +n→7Li +4 He reaction. It offers a more satisfactory therapeutic effect than traditional methods for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, head and neck cancer, melanoma, liver cancer and so on. A CW 4-vane RFQ, operating at 162.5 MHz, provides acceleration of a 20 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV, bombarding a liquid lithium target for neutron production with a soft neutron energy spectrum. The fast neutron yield is about 1.73×1013 n/s. We preliminarily develop and optimize a beam shaping assembly design for the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction with a 2.5 MeV proton beam. The epithermal neutron flux simulated at the beam port will reach up to 1 . 575 ×109 n/s/cm2. The beam dynamics design, simulation and benchmark for 2.5 MeV BNCT RFQ have been performed with both ParmteqM (V3.05) and Toutatis, with a transmission efficiency higher than 99.6% at 20 mA. To ease the thermal management in the CW RFQ operation, we adopt a modest inter-vane voltage design (U = 65 kV), though this does increase the accelerator length (reaching 5.2 m). Using the well-developed 3D electromagnetic codes, CST MWS and ANSYS HFSS, we are able to deal with the complexity of the BNCT RFQ, taking the contribution of each component in the RF volume into consideration. This allows us to optimize the longitudinal field distribution in a full-length model. Also, the parametric modeling technique is of great benefit to extensive modifications and simulations. In addition, the resonant frequency tuning of this RFQ is studied, giving the tuning sensitivities of vane channel and wall channel as -16.3 kHz/°C and 12.4 kHz/°C, respectively. Finally, both the multipacting level of this RFQ and multipacting suppressing in the coaxial coupler are investigated.

  16. Analytical signals from cancer patients following radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Meek, A.G.; Reinstein, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer patients are treated with high energy (8 to 30 MeV) gamma radiation. This treatment modality provides better depth dose distribution than more conventional low-energy gamma treatments, in particular for deeply located tumors. A by-product of the high-energy treatment is gamma-induced activity in the treatment volume following photonuclear reactions. These reactions are endogenic and require that the gamma radiation energy be above threshold value in order for the reaction to take place. For most elements, the threshold value is above 8 MeV; however, for low Z elements, this threshold may reach 18 MeV as is the case for oxygen. The cross sections for the (γ, n) reactions are few millibarns for low Z elements and increases up to few hundreds of millibarns for the heavy elements. The radionuclides resulting from photonuclear reaction are typically positron emitter or decay by electron capture. Thus, it is possible to monitor either the annihilation radiation (511 KeV) or the characteristic gamma radiation. The present work demonstrates that the activity induced in cancer patients following a single treatment (300 rad) enables the monitoring of nitrogen and phosphorus in the irradiated volume. The results from measurements in phantom, cadavers, and cancer patients from different regions in the body are presented. The hypothesis to be tested is whether there are local changes in these two elements during the course of radiation treatment which might correlate with the efficacy of the treatment

  17. New modalities in radiation therapy for treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases characterized by rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining parts of the body and spread to other organs. Cancer mortality is the second and most common cause of death in the USA and in most European countries. In India, it is the fourth leading disease and the major cause of death. Cancer remains one of the most dreadful disease and approximately ten million cases of cancer occur in the world every year. The course of cancer treatment depends on the type of cancer, its location, and its state of advancement. Cancer is treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, biological therapy and targeted therapy. Radiation therapy is an important an affordable modality for cancer treatment with minimal side effects. Radiation kills cancer cells with high-energy rays targeted directly to the tumor. Radiation therapy works by damaging the DNA and preventing its replication: therefore, it preferentially kills cancer cells, which rapidly divides. Radiation therapy is used for cure, control, and palliation of cancers in more than 60% of cancer patients. The goal of radiotherapy is to treat the cancer and spare the normal tissue as much as possible. Advances have been made in radiotherapy that allow delivery of higher doses of radiation to the tumor while sparing a greater amount of surrounding tissue, thus achieving more cures and fewer acute and long-term side effects. Technological advances and research are being continued to result in improvements in the field. Several new devices and techniques are used these days in radiotherapy for accurate treatment of cancer. Teletherapy (external radiation therapy) used focused radiation beams targeting well defined tumor through extremely detailed imaging scans. Conventional external beam radiation therapy (2DXRT) is delivered via two-dimensional beams using linear accelerator machines (X

  18. Design and development of an integral high-resolution radiation dosimetry system for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedelago, J; Valente, M.

    2013-01-01

    Requirements for overall high performance of dosimetry systems increases due to the growing complexity of medical treatments. Non conventional treatment modalities like Boron Neutron Capture Treatment (BNCT) and hadron therapy, as well as conventional modern methods like IMRT, Tomotherapy might significantly improve diseases control. The Fricke gel dosimetry is a valuable method for in-phantom dose measurements in complex irradiation modalities like IMRT and BNCT. Implementation of this technique requires dedicated instruments capable of measuring and further analysis immediately in situ at the radiation facility. This work presents a novel and integral dosimetry system aimed to attain portability requirements. It is based on Fricke gel dosimeter optically analyzed offering several specific advantages like tissue-equivalence and continuos 3D dose mapping. Moreover, the versatilities of Fricke gel dosimetry about different chemical and isotopic compositions allows its application on different high performance conventional and non conventional radiation procedures. Specific radiation transport models were developed with the aim of enabling relative simple optical technique for sample analysis. Theoretical approaches are supported by analytical solution of Boltzmann s equation of radiation transport. Instrumentations design and construction were completely realized at the facilities of the Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X - LIIFAMIR ).The developed integral dosimetry system includes dedicated software for data acquisition and further processing in order to employ the system set up for direct in situ measurements for routine clinical scopes

  19. INEL BNCT research program publications, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This document is a collection of the published reports describing research supporting the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research Program for calendar year 1993. Contributions from the principal investigators are included, covering chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (tissue and efficacy studies of small and large animal models). These reports have previously appeared in the book: Advances in Neutron Capture Therapy, edited by A. H. Soloway, R. F. Barth, D. E. Carpenter, Plenum Press, 1993. Reports have also appeared in three journals: Angewandte Chemie, Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, and Nuclear Science and Engineering. This individual papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  20. Status of radiation treatment of liquid sample in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun-Joo

    2003-01-01

    For the wastewater treatment, electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from 60,000 m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater was constructed and has been successfully operated. In addition to this pilot plant study, construction of commercial scale plant for treatment of dyeing wastewater is being done under TC project organized by IAEA together with E-B Tech. Co., Ltd., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and dye wastewater treatment station in Korea. On the other hand, several studies using radiation are being carried out in the field of treatment of polluted groundwater, advanced treatment of sewage, sterilization of discharged water from sewage treatment plants. Many researches on water and wastewater treatment using radiation will be carried out under support of long term basis nuclear R and D program by government. (author)

  1. 21 CFR 179.26 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ionizing radiation for the treatment of food. 179... HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.26 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of food. Ionizing radiation for treatment of foods may be safely used under the following conditions: (a) Energy...

  2. 21 CFR 579.22 - Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets..., AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 579.22 Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets. Ionizing radiation for treatment of complete diets for animals may be...

  3. Alleviation of acute radiation damages by post-irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, A.; Ono, T.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages in mice were tried to alleviate experimentally by post-treatment. Combined treatment of OK-432 and aztreonam clearly prevented the radiation induced sepsis and elevated the survival rate in mice; the survival was 80% in the OK-432 plus aztreonam group while it was 55% in the group treated with OK-432 alone and 0% with saline. Irsogladine maleate, an anti-ulcer drug, increased the survival rate of jejunal crypt stem cells with a clear dose-related trend. The D 0 for irsogladine maleate was 2.8 Gy although it was 2.3 Gy for saline, These findings suggest that some conventional drugs are effective for radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages and the possibility that they can be applied for people exposed to radiation accidentally. (author)

  4. Radiation treatment for endocrine disrupters in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2003-01-01

    The radiation-induced decomposition of a trace amount of 17 β-estradiol (E2) in water was studied as a function of the dose of 60Co γ-rays. Concentration of both E2 and E2 activity were estimated by LC-MS and ELISA, and decreased with an increase in the dose of γ-rays. E2 at 1.8-nM in water was degraded almost completely by irradiation at 10 Gy (=J/kg), but the E2 activity of the same sample still remained, and decreased by 30 Gy to be lower than the threshold level of contamination to induce some estrogenic effects on the environmental ecology. (author)

  5. Spectrum shaping of accelerator-based neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Montagnini, B; Esposito, J; Giusti, V; Mattioda, F; Varone, R

    2002-01-01

    We describe Monte Carlo simulations of three facilities for the production of epithermal neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and examine general aspects and problems of designing the spectrum-shaping assemblies to be used with these neutron sources. The first facility is based on an accelerator-driven low-power subcritical reactor, operating as a neutron amplifier. The other two facilities have no amplifier and rely entirely on their primary sources, a D-T fusion reaction device and a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a Li target, respectively.

  6. Radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit K.; Mai Weiyan; McGary, John E.; Grant, Walter H.; Butler, E. Brian; Teh, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compile and review data on radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer with respect to epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, risk factors, and treatment. Methods: Medical literature databases including PubMed and Medline were screened for pertinent reports, and critically analyzed for relevance in the scope of our purpose. Results: Rectal toxicity as a complication of radiotherapy has received attention over the past decade, especially with the advent of dose-escalation in prostate cancer treatment. A number of clinical criteria help to define acute and chronic radiation proctopathy, but lack of a unified grading scale makes comparing studies difficult. A variety of risk factors, related to either radiation delivery or patient, are the subject of intense study. Also, a variety of treatment options, including medical therapy, endoscopic treatments, and surgery have shown varied results, but a lack of large randomized trials evaluating their efficacy prevents forming concrete recommendations. Conclusion: Radiation proctopathy should be an important consideration for the clinician in the treatment of prostate cancer especially with dose escalation. With further study of possible risk factors, the advent of a standardized grading scale, and more randomized trials to evaluate treatments, patients and physicians will be better armed to make appropriate management decisions

  7. Radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit K; Mai, Wei-Yuan; McGary, John E; Grant, Walter H; Butler, E Brian; Teh, Bin S

    2006-12-01

    To compile and review data on radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer with respect to epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, risk factors, and treatment. Medical literature databases including PubMed and Medline were screened for pertinent reports, and critically analyzed for relevance in the scope of our purpose. Rectal toxicity as a complication of radiotherapy has received attention over the past decade, especially with the advent of dose-escalation in prostate cancer treatment. A number of clinical criteria help to define acute and chronic radiation proctopathy, but lack of a unified grading scale makes comparing studies difficult. A variety of risk factors, related to either radiation delivery or patient, are the subject of intense study. Also, a variety of treatment options, including medical therapy, endoscopic treatments, and surgery have shown varied results, but a lack of large randomized trials evaluating their efficacy prevents forming concrete recommendations. Radiation proctopathy should be an important consideration for the clinician in the treatment of prostate cancer especially with dose escalation. With further study of possible risk factors, the advent of a standardized grading scale, and more randomized trials to evaluate treatments, patients and physicians will be better armed to make appropriate management decisions.

  8. Meeting the challenge of homogenous boron targeting of heterogeneous tumors for effective boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Rebagliati, J. Raul; Batistoni, Daniel; Kreimann, Erica L.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.; Gonzalez, Beatriz N.

    2006-01-01

    BNCT is a tumor cell targeted radiation therapy. Inadequately boron targeted tumor populations jeopardize tumor control. Meeting the to date unresolved challenge of homogeneous targeting of heterogeneous tumors with effective boron carriers would contribute to therapeutic efficacy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degree of variation in boron content delivered by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and the combined administration of (BPA+GB-10) in different portions of tumor, precancerous tissue around tumor and normal pouch tissue in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Boron content was evaluated by ICP-AES. The degree of homogeneity in boron targeting was assessed in terms of the coefficient of variation ([S.D./Mean]x100) of boron values. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by one-way ANOVA and the least significant difference test. GB-10 and GB-10 plus BPA achieved respectively a statistically significant 1.8-fold and 3.3-fold increase in targeting homogeneity over BPA. The combined boron compound administration protocol contributes to homogeneous targeting of heterogeneous tumors and would increase therapeutic efficacy of BNCT by exposing all tumor populations to neutron capture reactions in boron. (author)

  9. Radiation Induced Treatment of Organic Pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergun, E.; Öztürk, Ş.; Kantoğlu, Ö.

    2012-01-01

    In this period of the research, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, characterization of alkaloids present and radiolysis products formed after irradiation, under different conditions of ambient and additives, optimization of dose to achieve desired end characteristics for discharge of waste water were aimed. In this regard, unirradiated and irradiated wastewaters were subjected to aerobic and anaerobic digestions. Substrate removal efficiencies of unirradiated and irradiated wastewater with various initial COD values were determined with SBR aerobic digestion treatment method. On the other hand Fenton’s advanced oxidation treatment method was also applied for pre-treatment. BMP tests of anaerobic digestion were also completed. LC/MS studies were carried out on unirradiated and irradiated alkaloid standard solutions of morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine to determine the degradation mechanisms and byproducts. Dose optimization studies were completed and found to be a lower dose of 5 kGy rather than 40 kGy for ambient irradiation conditions. (author)

  10. INEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research Program for calendar year 1993. Contributions from all the principal investigators are included, covering chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, boron drug analysis), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (tissue and efficacy studies of small and large animal models). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented. Results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with boron neutron capture therapy at the Brookhaven National Laboratory are updated. Boron-containing drug purity verification is discussed in some detail. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging of boron in vivo are discussed. Several boron-carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux of the Petten (The Netherlands) High Flux Reactor beam (HFB11B), and comparison to predictions are shown.

  11. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Hisashi; Park, Tae Bun; Hasegawa, Masato

    1993-01-01

    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. 1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. 2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. 3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author)

  12. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Hisashi; Park, Tae Bun; Hasegawa, Masato (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1993-12-01

    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. (1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. (2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. (3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author).

  13. Radiation Treatment of Wastewater Containing Pharmaceutical Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takács, E.; Wojnárovits, L.; Homlok, R.; Illés, E.; Csay, T.; Szabó, L.; Rácz, G.

    2012-01-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation induced degradation of maleic acid, fumaric acid and 20 aromatic molecules was investigated in air saturated aqueous solutions. Hydroxyl radicals were generated water radiolysis. The decomposition was followed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon content (TOC) measurements. Up to ∼50% decrease of COD the dose dependence was linear. By the ratio of the decrease of COD and the amount of reactive radiolysis intermediates introduced into the solution the oxidation efficiencies were calculated. Efficiencies around 0.5-1 (O 2 molecule built in products/OH) found for most of the compounds show that the one-electron-oxidant OH induces 2-4 electron oxidations. The high oxidation rates were explained by OH addition to unsaturated bonds and subsequent reactions of the dissolved O 2 with organic radicals. In amino substituted molecules or in Acid Red 1 azo dye, O 2 cannot compete efficiently with the unimolecular transformation of organic radicals and the efficiency is lower (0.2-0.5). (author)

  14. Application of Ionizing Radiation on the Cork Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, R.; Madureira, J.; Verde, S. Cabo; Nunes, I.; Santos, P.M.P.; Silva, T.; Leal, J.P.; Botelho, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the CRP on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” Portuguese team is been developed studies on the implementation of ionizing radiation technology as a complementary treatment for industrial effluents and increase the added value of these wastewaters. Based on these assumptions, preliminary studies of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water were carried out. Radiation studies were performed by using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 kGy/h and 2.4 kGy/h. The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The antioxidant activity was measured by Ferric Reducing Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was studied by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results point out that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. By the other hand, the radiolytic degradation by ionizing radiation of gallic acid and esculetin as models for recalcitrants were studied. The objective of this study was to find out if radiolytic degradation, followed by microbial degradation could increase the treatment efficiency. A natural cork wastewater bacterium was selected from the irradiated wastewater at 9 kGy. The applied methodology was based on the evaluation of growth kinetics of the selected bacteria by turbidimetry and colony forming units, in minimal salt medium with non-irradiated and irradiated phenolic as substrate. The overall obtained results highlights the potential of this technology for increase the add value of cork waters and raised some issues to explain by new methodological setup on biodegradation studies. (author)

  15. Selective enhancement of boron accumulation with boron-entrapped water-in-oil-water emulsion in VX-2 rabbit hepatic cancer model for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Shushi; Ikushima, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Tumor cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10 B and thermal neutrons. It is necessary for effective BNCT therapy to accumulate 10 B atoms in the tumor cells without affecting adjacent healthy cells. Water-in-oil-water (WOW) emulsion was used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on arterial injections in clinical cancer treatment. In this study, we prepared 10 BSH entrapped WOW emulsion for selective arterial infusion for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. WOW emulsion was administrated by arterial injections via proper hepatic artery. The anti-tumor activity of the emulsion was compared with 10 BSH-Lipiodol mix emulsion or 10 BSH solutions on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumor models. The 10 B concentrations in VX-2 tumor on delivery with WOW emulsion was superior to those by conventional lipiodol mix emulsion. Electro-microscopic figures of WOW emulsion delineated the accumulation of fat droplets of WOW emulsion in the tumor site, but there was no accumulation of fat droplets in lipiodol emulsion. These results indicate that 10 B entrapped WOW emulsion is most useful carrier for arterial delivery of boron agents on BNCT to cancer. (author)

  16. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Missiry, M.A.; Shehata, G.; Roushdy, H.M; Fayed, Th.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  17. Treatment of radiation-induced vesicovaginal fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parm Ulhoei, B.; rosgaard, A.; Harling, H.

    1994-01-01

    The records of 23 patients with vesicovaginal fistulae (VVF) probably caused by irradiation treatment for cancer of the uterine cervix were analyzed. The median latency between irradiation and fistula formation was 17 years. Ten patients had histologically verified cancer recurrence besides a VVF. In addition, nine patients had a rectovaginal- and one an ileovaginal fistula. Twelve patients were treated primarily with ureteroileocutaneostomy a.m. Bricker. Six had bladder drainage, and four of these had ureteroileocutaneostomy performed at a later stage. Four patients initially underwent percutaneous nephrostomy. One patients had a unilateral ureteroileocutaneostomy performed. Eight patients are alive today (median observation time 2.5 years), and all of these had had ureteroileocutaneostomy performed. Three of these patients (39%) were completely relieved of symptoms while the rest occasionally experienced pain, vaginal discharge and bladder empyema. We conclude that ureteroilocutaneostomy a.m. Bricker is a satisfactory procedure for vesicovaginal fistulae because the socially incapacitating symptoms disappear or are considerably diminished. (au) (9 refs.)

  18. Quality control in radiotherapy treatment: Radiation induced myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Vicioso, E.; Ruiz-Cruces, R.

    2001-01-01

    Direct injury of the spinal cord has been reported many times, particularly in cases of overexposures with radiotherapy of neoplasm that occurred outside the Central Nervous System. Permanent damage to the spinal cord is the most feared complication of radiation therapy treatments and one of the relatively common causes of litigation for medical malpractice in the context of cancer treatment. We have learned from clinical experience, data from randomized trials and animal experimentation, the dose tolerance as well as the interfraction interval for hyperfractionation regimes. We are still lacking precious clinical information, in particular the dose tolerance in combined modality treatments that represent the vast majority of modern treatments. (author)

  19. Slaughterhouse sewage treatment using gamma radiation - economical feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rita; Botelho, M. Luisa [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: ritamelo@itn.pt; mlb@itn.pt; Branco, Joaquim [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: jbranco@itn.pt

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a financial viability study for the implementation of gamma radiation technology on a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment industry. Five scenarios were studied, including the current practice, representing different types of treatments and goals, e.g.: water reuse and/or sludge add value as agriculture fertilizers. Cost-benefit analysis, including the net present value (NPV) of each scenario, was used as a technique to compare the relative value of various strategies. Taking in account that the initial investment is amortized after 20 years, the implementation of Co-60 treatment with 20% water reuse and sludge application as agriculture fertilizers represents the most profitable project with the highest NPV. Therefore, the implementation of gamma radiation technology on a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment industry is not only technically viable as well as economically feasible. (author)

  20. Reducing Toxicity of Radiation Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Specifically, the administration of a brief course of RTA 408 treatment beginning 24 h after bone marrow lethal doses of radiation significantly increased...the synthetic triterpenoid, RTA 408. The administration of a brief course of RTA 408 treatment beginning 24 h after bone marrow lethal doses of...water. Recipient mice received 7.5 Gy in a single fraction using an RS2000 Xray irradiator (Rad Source, Alpharetta, Georgia) with a dose rate of ~1.36

  1. Gene transfer-applied BNCT (g-BNCT) for amelanotic melanoma in brain. Further upregulation of {sup 10}B uptake by cell modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakura, M.; Tamaki, N. [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kondoh, H.; Mishima, Y. [Mishima Inst. for Dermatol. Res., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Hiratsuka, J. [Kawasaki Medical School, Dept. Radiation Oncol., Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Our success in eradicating melanoma by single BNCT with BPA led to the next urgent theme, i.e. application of such BNCT for currently uncurable melanoma metastasis in brain. In order to establish {sup 10}B-BPA-BNCT for melanoma in brain, we have investigated the pharmacokinetics of BPA which is most critical factor for successful BNCT, in melanotic and amelanotic and further tyrosinase gene-transfected amelanotic melanoma proliferating in brain having blood-brain-barrier, as compared to melanoma proliferating in skin. We have established three implanted models for melanoma in brain: 1) A1059 cells, amelanotic melanoma, 2) B16B15b cells, melanotic melanoma cells, highly metastatic to brain, and 3) TA1059 cells, with active melanogenesis induced by tyrosinase gene transfection. We would like to report the results of comparative analysis of the BPA uptake ability in these melanoma cells in both brain and skin. Based on these findings, we are further investigating to enhance {sup 10}B-BPA uptake by not only g-BNCT but also by additional melanogenesis upregulating cell modulation. (author)

  2. Gene transfer-applied BNCT (g-BNCT) for amelanotic melanoma in brain. Further upregulation of 10B uptake by cell modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakura, M.; Tamaki, N.; Hiratsuka, J.

    2000-01-01

    Our success in eradicating melanoma by single BNCT with BPA led to the next urgent theme, i.e. application of such BNCT for currently uncurable melanoma metastasis in brain. In order to establish 10 B-BPA-BNCT for melanoma in brain, we have investigated the pharmacokinetics of BPA which is most critical factor for successful BNCT, in melanotic and amelanotic and further tyrosinase gene-transfected amelanotic melanoma proliferating in brain having blood-brain-barrier, as compared to melanoma proliferating in skin. We have established three implanted models for melanoma in brain: 1) A1059 cells, amelanotic melanoma, 2) B16B15b cells, melanotic melanoma cells, highly metastatic to brain, and 3) TA1059 cells, with active melanogenesis induced by tyrosinase gene transfection. We would like to report the results of comparative analysis of the BPA uptake ability in these melanoma cells in both brain and skin. Based on these findings, we are further investigating to enhance 10 B-BPA uptake by not only g-BNCT but also by additional melanogenesis upregulating cell modulation. (author)

  3. Radiation injuries to the skeleton and their orthopedic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, R.; Rahnfeld, R.

    1978-01-01

    70 patients subjected to orthopedic treatment and radiotherapy for skeletal tumors have been examined. It was found that serious radiation injuries frequently occurred. Above all there were contractures, disordered healing of wounds, ulcerations, and scolioses and kyphoses of the growing skeleton. Therefore, in the case of diseases of the skeleton, it is recommended to restrain radiotherapy. It has to be rejected in child's age

  4. Radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.

    1987-01-01

    The success of radiotherapy in dealing with cancer of the cervix lies in the understanding of its natural history and staging as well as the major forms of treatment. It is, therefore, imperative that all gynecological and radiation oncologists have at their command a thorough understanding of carcinoma of the cervix

  5. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  6. Development, Implementation and Compliance of Treatment Pathways in Radiation Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis ePotters

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While much emphasis on safety in the radiation oncology clinic is placed on process, there remains considerable opportunity to increase safety, enhance outcomes and avoid ad-hoc care by instituting detailed treatment pathways. The purpose of this study was to review the process of developing evidence and consensus-based, outcomes-oriented treatment pathways that standardize treatment and patient management in a large multicenter radiation oncology practice. Further, we reviewed our compliance in incorporating these directives into our day-to-day clinical practice. METHODS: Using the Institute of Medicine guideline for developing treatment pathways, 87 disease specific pathways were developed and incorporated into the electronic medical system in our multi-facility radiation oncology department. Compliance in incorporating treatment pathways was assessed by mining our EMR data from January 1, 2010 through February 2012 for patients with breast and prostate cancer. RESULTS: This retrospective analysis of data from electronic medical records found overall compliance to breast and prostate cancer treatment pathways to be 97% and 99%, respectively. The reason for non-compliance proved to be either a failure to complete the prescribed care based on grade II or III toxicity (n=1 breast, 3 prostate or patient elected discontinuance of care (n=1 prostate or the physician chose a higher dose for positive/close margins (n=3 breast. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that consensus and evidence-based treatment pathways can be developed and implemented in a multi-center department of radiation oncology. And that for prostate and breast cancer there was a high degree of compliance using these directives. The development and implementation of these pathways serve as a key component of our safety program, most notably in our effort to facilitate consistent decision-making and reducing variation between physicians.

  7. Use of continuous infusion pumps during radiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Kate; Gutierrez, Eric; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Sharpe, Michael; Green, Esther; Costa, Sarah; Hertz, Sherrie; Kaizer, Leonard; Whitton, Anthtony; Warde, Padraig

    2013-03-01

    Despite increasing chemoradiotherapy treatment, there is a paucity of information regarding the effects of radiation exposure on ambulatory infusion pumps used to deliver chemotherapy or other essential medications. The aim of this overview is to present the available evidence on this subject, heighten awareness within the clinical community, provide considerations for minimizing possible negative effects on patient care, and encourage the monitoring of infusion devices after exposure to radiation or electromagnetic interference. Published literature was systematically searched using MEDLINE and EMBASE; gray literature was searched using Google and an environmental scan of relevant Web sites. A multidisciplinary working group reviewed the compiled evidence, and a draft of the document was sent to health professionals from various disciplines for an external review. Four reports and three manufacturer device alerts were identified that suggest a risk of pump malfunction as a result of radiation exposure. The estimated cumulative dose at which pump failure has been reported ranges from 28.5 to 42 Gy; however, additional clinical investigations should be undertaken. Pump relocation, pump shielding, and assessment of the pump after radiation exposure are most commonly suggested to minimize pump malfunction related to radiation exposure. A list of additional considerations is offered for those developing institution specific policies and procedures based on the available evidence and expert consensus. The varied and unpredictable results of radiation exposure on infusion devices suggest that additional testing should be carried out to determine the limits of dose exposure and to raise awareness around this patient safety issue.

  8. Physics of epi-thermal boron neutron capture therapy (epi-thermal BNCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Ryoichi; Wakisaka, Yushi; Morimoto, Nami; Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Toki, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2017-12-01

    The physics of epi-thermal neutrons in the human body is discussed in the effort to clarify the nature of the unique radiologic properties of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). This discussion leads to the computational method of Monte Carlo simulation in BNCT. The method is discussed through two examples based on model phantoms. The physics is kept at an introductory level in the discussion in this tutorial review.

  9. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Reiriz, Alejandro, E-mail: garciareiriz@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario Institute of Chemistry (IQUIR-CONICET), Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Magallanes, Jorge [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zupan, Jure [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SLO-1000 Ljubljana, Eslovenia (Slovenia); Liberman, Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  10. An accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) facility based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio González, Elizabeth; Martín Hernández, Guido

    2017-09-01

    BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) is a therapeutic modality used to irradiate tumors cells previously loaded with the stable isotope 10B, with thermal or epithermal neutrons. This technique is capable of delivering a high dose to the tumor cells while the healthy surrounding tissue receive a much lower dose depending on the 10B biodistribution. In this study, therapeutic gain and tumor dose per target power, as parameters to evaluate the treatment quality, were calculated. The common neutron-producing reaction 7Li(p,n)7Be for accelerator-based BNCT, having a reaction threshold of 1880.4 keV, was considered as the primary source of neutrons. Energies near the reaction threshold for deep-seated brain tumors were employed. These calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. A simple but effective beam shaping assembly (BSA) was calculated producing a high therapeutic gain compared to previously proposed facilities with the same nuclear reaction.

  11. Role of Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Victor J

    2017-06-01

    Radiation therapy has historically been the pillar of curative treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). With improved efficacy of systemic therapy and the ever-increasing recognition of treatment-related morbidity in long-term survivors, the role of radiotherapy has evolved significantly. Modern combined modality therapy (CMT) with multi-agent chemotherapy followed by involved site radiation therapy (ISRT) to initially involved sites of disease remains the gold standard for the majority of patients with HL. Reduction of long-term treatment-related toxicity has become the major driver in clinical trial design for early-stage HL while improved disease-specific survival remains the goal in patients with more advanced and unfavorable disease. This review will address the data supporting the use of radiotherapy in HL as well as specific methods for reducing late toxicity from radiotherapy.

  12. Treatment and Recycling Process for Biosolids by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Yoo, D. H.; Lee, B. J.; Park, C. K.; Lee, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The volume of sludge is increasing rapidly on a yearly basis in Korea. Liquid sewage sludge generated in Korea has been treated as reuse (7%), landfill (5%), incineration (12%) and ocean dump (72%) in 2003 [1]. Ocean dump is the main treatment of sewage sludge up to date but incineration and landfill will be increased because Korean government will restrict ocean dump in the near future. Desirable treatment of sewage sludge is still a sensitive issue though many scientists have vigorously studied the safe and environmentally sound treatment of sewage sludge and reducing sludge cake. Therefore reduction of moisture content in sludge and recycling by radiation is the main objective in this work. Here we studied the radiation technique as a pretreatment process to enhance sludge dewaterability, to disinfect micro-organisms, and to remove the toxic organics in sewage sludge simultaneously. The improvement of sludge compost after irradiation was also observed to develop the method for recycling of sludge

  13. Present and future prospects of external radiation cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valuckas, K. P.; Aleknavicius, E.; Grybauskas, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the most applicable method in the treatment of cancer patients. Rapid advances in radiotherapy and imaging techniques allow improvement in definition of target margins, volumes, and organs at risk. Conformal radiotherapy using multileaf collimator was introduced towards the end of the 1980s. Further improvements in dose distribution were possible through intensity modulation radiation therapy based on the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators for creating the desired dose variation inside a radiation field. The dose of definite radiotherapy is limited by dose tolerance of organs or tissues at risk near the target. In the last 50 years radiotherapy modalities achieved rapid developments, particularly in field of treatment planning and dose distribution. The main goal of that development is to apply definite radiotherapy dose to target and minimize normal tissue irradiation, leaving the patient free of treatment related morbidity. (author)

  14. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models

  15. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  16. Complexion of Boric Acid with 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (DG) as a novel boron carrier for BNCT

    OpenAIRE

    Akan, Zafer; Demiroglu, Hasan; Avcibasi, Ugur; Oto, Gokhan; Ozdemir, Hulya; Deniz, Sabahattin; Basak, Ali Sadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an intensive research area for cancer researchers. Especially the side effects and inabilities of conventional therapies in some cases, directs researchers to find out a new cancer therapy methods such as BNCT. One of three important problem of BNCT is targeting of boron to tumor tissue. Borono Phenyl Alanine (BPA) and Borono Sodium Borocaptate (BSH) are already using in clinical studies as boron carriers. New boron carriers are searching fo...

  17. 3-D conformal radiation therapy - Part I: Treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageras, Gikas S.

    1996-01-01

    Conformal radiation therapy shapes the high-dose volume so as to conform to the target volume while minamizing the dose to surrounding normal tissues. The advances that have been achieved in conformal therapy are in part due to the development of 3-dimensional treatment planning, which in turn has capitalized on 3-D imaging for tumor and normal tissue localization, as well as on available computational power for the calculation of 3-D dose distributions, visualization of anatomical and dose volumes, and numerical evaluation of treatment plans. The objective of this course is to give an overview of how 3-D conformal treatments are designed and transferred to the patient. Topics will include: 1) description of the major components of a 3-D treatment planning system, 2) techniques for designing treatments, 3) evaluation of treatment plans using dose distribution displays, dose-volume histograms and normal tissue complication probabilities, 4) implementation of treatments using shaped blocks and multileaf collimators, 5) verification of treatment delivery using portal films and electronic portal imaging devices. We will also discuss some future trends in 3D treatment planning, such as computerized treatment plan optimization, including the use of nonuniform beam profiles (intensity modulation), and incorporating treatment uncertainties due to patient positioning errors and organ motion into the treatment planning process

  18. Radiation treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Tomoko; Mandai, Michiko; Honjo, Megumi; Matsuda, Naoko; Miyamoto, Hideki; Takahashi, Masayo; Ogura, Yuichiro; Sasai, Keisuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-11-01

    Fifteen eyes of age-related macular degeneration were treated by low-dose radiation. All the affected eyes had subfoveal neovascular membrane. Seventeen nontreated eyes with similar macular lesion served as control. Radiation was performed using photon beam at 6MV. Each eye received daily dose of 2 Gy for 5 consecutive days. When evaluated 9 to 12 months after treatment, the size of neovascular membrane had decreased in 47% of treated eyes and 7% of control eyes. The visual acuity improved by 2 lines or more in 13% of treated eyes and in none of control eyes. When the initial neovascular membrane was less than 1.5 disc diameter in size, the visual acuity had improved or remained stationary in 90% of treated eyes and in 36% of control eyes. The findings show the potential beneficial effect of radiation for age-related macular degeneration. (author)

  19. An automated method for breathing frequency determination for rat lung radiobiology in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiger, J.L.; Coderre, J.A.; Kiger, W.S. III

    2006-01-01

    Whole-body plethysmography was used to the measure the breathing rate in rats as a functional indication of radiation-induced lung damage, either weekly or bi-weekly for a period of 180 days following thorax irradiations in a BNCT radiobiology study. A three-minute digital breathing signal was collected in each measurement. Software has been developed to automatically discriminate against large-amplitude noise due to animal movement. After segmenting the signal into consecutive, overlapping and circular blocks, the mean frequency spectrum of the processed signal was calculated using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The breathing rate was defined as the primary frequency of the spectrum and the standard deviation was estimated using the bootstrap method. The mean standard deviation of all measurements in the data set (n=4269) was 2.4%. The improved accuracy with low standard deviation of the measurements ensures good sensitivity and a low threshold for detection of responding animals; breathing rates more than 20% (∼3 σ) above the control mean were considered responding. (author)

  20. Effects on radiation oncology treatments involving various neuromodulation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossman, Michael S; Paralikar, Kunal J; Hebb, Adam O; Wilkinson, Jeffrey D; Graves-Calhoun, Alison R; Lawson, Raymond C; Lopez, Jeffrey P; Powell, James S

    2011-01-01

    Where no society-based or manufacturer guidance on radiation limits to neuromodulation devices is available, this research provides the groundwork for neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists who rely on the computerized treatment plan clinically for cancer patients. The focus of the article is to characterize radiation parameters of attenuation and scatter when an incident therapeutic x-ray beam is directed upon them. At the time of this writing, manufacturers of Neuromodulation products do not recommend direct exposure of the device in the beam nor provide guidance for the maximum dose for these devices. Ten neuromodulation models were chosen to represent the finite class of devices marketed by Medtronic before 2011. CT simulations permitted computer treatment modeling for dose distribution analysis as used routinely in radiation oncology for patients. Phantom case results were directly compared to actual clinical patient cases. Radiation detection measurements were then correlated to computational results. Where the x-ray beam passes through the device and is attenuated, dose reduction was identified with Varian Eclipse computer modeling for these posterior locations. Although the computer algorithm did not identify physical processes of side-scatter and back-scatter, these phenomena were proven by radiation measurement to occur. In general, the computer results underestimated the level of change seen by measurement. For these implantable neurostimulators, the spread in dose changes were found to be -6.2% to -12.5% by attenuation, +1.7% to +3.8% by side-scatter, and +1.1% to +3.1% by back-scatter at 6 MV. At 18 MV, these findings were observed to be -1.4% to -7.0% by attenuation, +1.8% to 5.7% by side-scatter, and 0.8% to 2.7% by back-scatter. No pattern for the behavior of these phenomena was deduced to be a direct consequence of device size.

  1. The application of ionising radiation in industrial wastewater treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos, L.; Perkowski, J.; Ledakowicz, S.

    2003-01-01

    An attempt was made to apply radiation techniques in the treatment of industrial wastewater from a dairy, brewery and sugar factory. For degradation of pollutants present in the wastewater, the following methods were used: irradiation, irradiation combined with aeration, ozonation, and combined irradiation and ozonation. For all three types of wastewater, the best method among these listed above appeared to be the method of irradiation combined with ozonation. Most degradable was the wastewater produced in sugar factories, and the least biodegradable appeared to be dairy wastewater. Depending on the dose of ozone and radiation, a maximum 60% reduction of COD was obtained. No effect of the wastewater aeration on its degradation by radiation was found. Changes in the content of mineral compounds were observed in none of the cases. The process of biological treatment of wastewater was carried out in a low-loaded, wetted bed. Pretreatment of the wastewater had no significant effect on the improvement of the biological step operation. Some effect was observed only in the case of the wastewater coming from a sugar factory. For medium concentrated wastewater from food industry, it is not economically justified to apply the pretreatment with the use of ionising radiation. (orig.)

  2. Recent developments in radiation therapy planning and treatment optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahne, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation therapy of cancer is today going through a very dynamic development with the introduction of a large number of new treatment principles, new types of treatment units and new radiobiologically based optimization algorithms for treatment planning. All of these make use of the recent developments in three dimensional tumor diagnostics, molecular biology of cancer, the fractionation sensitivity of different tissues and most recently predictive assays of radiation sensitivity. The most efficient but also least developed area of treatment optimization is to use a few non uniform radiation beams directed towards the tumor. Today patient individual collimation with beam blocks or multi leaf collimators protect organs at risk laterally outside the tumor volume. Non uniform dose delivery also allows protection of normal tissues anterior, posterior and even inside the target volume by shaping the isodoses tightly around the tumor tissues and thereby also allowing longitudinal protection of normal tissues. Some of the most advanced new algorithms are even treating therapy optimization as an inverse problem where the optimal incident beam shapes are determined directly from the location of gross disease, presumed microscopic tumor spread and organs at risk. The optimization is then performed such that the probability, P+, to eradicate all clonogenic tumor cells without severely damaging healthy normal tissues is as high as possible. Already with a few non uniform beams the treatment outcome is within a few percent of what can be achieved with infinitely many co-planar beams in a dynamic mood. With such optimized non uniform treatments it should be possible to improve the treatment outcome by as much as 20% and more, particularly in patients with a local complex spread of the disease or several organs at risk. 78 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  3. Functional and histological assessment of the radiobiology of normal rat lung in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiger, J.L.; Riley, K.J.; Binns, P.J.; Harling, O.K.; Coderre, J.A.; Kiger, W.S. III; Patel, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the radiobiology and sensitivity of the normal rat lung to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) radiation. Rat thorax irradiations were carried out with x-rays or with neutrons in the presence or absence of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Lung damage were assessed functionally with breathing rate measurement up to 180 days after irradiation and then histologically. Breathing rates 20% (∼3 σ) above the control group (sham-irradiated rats) mean were considered as positive responses to lung radiation damage. Though most responding animals demonstrated radiation induced pneumonitis (≤110 days) as well as pulmonary fibrosis (>110 days), some animals receiving neutrons plus BPA showed only the latter. The breathing rate dose response data were fit using probit analysis. The ED 50 values measured for x-rays, neutron beam only, and neutrons plus BPA were 11.5±0.4 Gy, 9.2±0.5 Gy, and 6.7±0.4 Gy, respectively. The biological weighting factors for the neutron beam (n+γ), the thermal neutron dose component, and the 10 B dose component were determined to be 1.2±0.1, 2.2±0.4, and 2.3±0.3, respectively. The histological dose response curves were linear. Consistent with the functional assay, the weighting factors measured histologically were 1.2±0.1 for the thermal neutron beam and 1.9±0.2 for the 10 B dose component. (author)

  4. Acupuncture treatment of patients with radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.; Dawidson, I.; Johnson, G.; Angmar-Maansson, B.; Fernberg, J.-O.

    1996-01-01

    Xerostomia is a common and usually irreversible side effect in patients receiving radiation therapy (>50 Gy) for head and neck cancer. Of 38 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, 20 in the experimental group were treated with classical acupuncture and 18 patients in the control group received superficial acupuncture as placebo. Within both groups the patients showed significantly increased salivary flow rates after the acupuncture treatment. In the experimental group 68% and in the control group 50% of the patients had increased salivary flow rates at the end of the observation period. Among those patients who had had all their salivary glands irradiated, 50% in both groups showed increased salivary flow rates (>20%) by the end of the observation period of 1 year. The study indicates that among the patients who had increased salivary flow rates already after the first 12 acupuncture sessions, the majority had high probability of continual improvement after the completion of acupuncture treatment. (Author)

  5. Acupuncture treatment of patients with radiation-induced xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, M.; Dawidson, I.; Johnson, G.; Angmar-Maansson, B. [Karolinska Inst., Huddinge (Sweden). Dept. of Cardiology; Fernberg, J.-O. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of General Oncology

    1996-05-01

    Xerostomia is a common and usually irreversible side effect in patients receiving radiation therapy (>50 Gy) for head and neck cancer. Of 38 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, 20 in the experimental group were treated with classical acupuncture and 18 patients in the control group received superficial acupuncture as placebo. Within both groups the patients showed significantly increased salivary flow rates after the acupuncture treatment. In the experimental group 68% and in the control group 50% of the patients had increased salivary flow rates at the end of the observation period. Among those patients who had had all their salivary glands irradiated, 50% in both groups showed increased salivary flow rates (>20%) by the end of the observation period of 1 year. The study indicates that among the patients who had increased salivary flow rates already after the first 12 acupuncture sessions, the majority had high probability of continual improvement after the completion of acupuncture treatment. (Author).

  6. Treatment of radiation- and chemotherapy-induced stomatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnel, S.B.; Blakeslee, D.B.; Oswald, S.G.; Barnes, M. (Fitzsimons Army Medical Center, Aurora, CO (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Severe stomatitis is a common problem encountered during either radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Most therapeutic regimens are empirical, with no scientific basis. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of various topical solutions in the treatment of radiation- or chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. Eighteen patients were entered into a prospective double-blinded study to test several topical solutions: (1) viscous lidocaine with 1% cocaine; (2) dyclonine hydrochloride 1.0% (Dyclone); (3) kaolin-pectin solution, diphenhydramine plus saline (KBS); and (4) a placebo solution. Degree of pain relief, duration of relief, side effects, and palatability were evaluated. The results showed that Dyclone provided the most pain relief. Dyclone and viscous lidocaine with 1% cocaine provided the longest pain relief, which averaged 50 minutes This study provides objective data and defines useful guidelines for treatment of stomatitis.

  7. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Rita; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Branco, Joaquim; Botelho, M. Luisa

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h -1 . A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment

  8. Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K(nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11) in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K(nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11) in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na3 (ae-B20H17NH3), administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 ± 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 ± 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  9. Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg

    2012-05-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na3 [ae-B20H17NH3], administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 {+-} 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 {+-} 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  10. Sucralfate for the treatment of radiation induced mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belka, C.; Hoffmann, W.; Paulsen, F.; Bamberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy, a cornerstone in the management of head and neck cancer, pelvic cancer, and esophageal cancer is associated with a marked mucosal toxicity. Pain, malnutrition and diarrhea are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of radiation induced mucosal damage. Because there is no known way to obviate radiation mucositis all efforts to prevent aggravation and accelerate healing of mucosal changes are of great importance. Numerous agents including antimicrobials, local and systemic analgesics, antiinflammatory drugs, antidiarrheal drugs, in combination with intensive dietetic care are used to relieve symptoms. Recently coating agents like the polyaluminum-sucrose complex sucralfate were suggested for the prevention and treatment of mucosal reactions. Since sucralfate protects ulcerated epithelium by coating, liberates protective prostaglandins and increases the local availability of protective factors this drug might directly interact with the pathogenesis of mucositis. Patients and Method: The results of available studies are analysed and discussed. Results: The results of several studies indicate that sucralfate treatment especially during radiotherapy for pelvic cancer leads to a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and morphological changes. An application of sucralfate during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer reveals only limited benefits in most studies performed. Conclusion: Nevertheless sucralfate is a save, cheap and active drug for the prevention and treatment of radiation mucositis especially in patients with pelvic irradiation. (orig.) [de

  11. Palliative or curative treatment intent affects communication in radiation therapy consultations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, L.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Leer, J.W.H.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether communication in radiotherapy consultations is affected by palliative or curative treatment intent. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study involved 160 patients and 8 radiation oncologists. Eighty patients visited the radiation oncologist (RO) for palliative treatment and 80

  12. Therapeutic effect of beta radiation on onychomycosis: An innovative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroz, S.; Islam, N.; Rashid, H.; Shahidullah, M.; Ali, S.; Islam, S.K.M.; Hossain, S.; Ali, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Onychomycosis is the most frequent cause of nail disease and the most prevalent type of dermatophytosis in Bangladesh. The humid and warm climate of this tropical country is congenial for the growth of fungi. Therapeutic limitations of conventional antimycotic agents in respect of low cure rates, high relapse rate, inherent side effects, long duration of treatment and high cost in treating onychomycosis have provided clear incentives to explore alternative forms of treatment procedure. The objectives of the present thesis work were: (i) To use beta radiation as a curative therapy for Onychomycosis, optimisation of its dosages and to promote an innovative clinical development in the field of therapeutic application of nuclear medicine; (ii) To assess the efficacy of beta radiation either alone or in combination with conventional antifungal therapy; and (iii) To reduce the duration of drug exposure and cost of treatment for onychomycosis. This is a PhD research work under the University of Dhaka and was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Information and Communication Technology, Government of the people's republic of Bangladesh. This study is an open, randomised and controlled trial to verify the efficacy of beta radiation in patients with onychomycosis. Using the appropriate statistical formula, sample size of the study population was determined and in each group 92 patients were assigned. With an assumption of patients drop out and for better statistical analysis, a total of 330 patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criterion having diagnosed to have onychomycosis clinically and mycological were randomly allocated to enter in therapeutic regimen. Study population was randomised in three groups. Group A (n =110) received griseofulvin orally 500 mg once daily for 12-16 weeks; Group B (n=110) received beta radiation, 500 rads bi-weekly for 3 weeks (total 2500 rads); and Group C (n=110) received combined beta radiation (total 2500 rads in 3 weeks) and

  13. Usefulness of radiation treatment planning allpied respiration factor for streotatic body radiation therapy in the lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Hyung; So, Woon Young; Back, Geum Mun [Dept. of Medical Health Science, Graduate School, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We are evaluated the usefulness of radiation treatment planning applied respiration factor for stereotactic body radiation therapy in the lung cancer. Four dimensional computed tomography images were obtained in 10 patients with lung cancer. The radiation treatment plans were established total lung volume according to respiration images (new method) and conventional method. We was analyzed in the lung volume, radiation absorbed dose of lung and main organs (ribs, tracheobronchus, esophagus, spinal cord) around the tumor, respectively. We were confirmed that lung volume and radiation absorbed dose of lung and main organs around the tumor deference according to applied respiration. In conclusion, radiation treatment planning applied respiration factor seems to be useful for stereotactic body radiation therapy in the lung cancer.

  14. Treatment of radiation-induced normal tissue lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvani, M.

    2003-01-01

    Normal tissue damage is the most important limiting factor in radiotherapy. It must be possible, at least theoretically, to eradicate a localised tumour if a large enough dose of radiation could be delivered to tumour, however, practically, there is always the danger of damaging normal tissues adjacent to the tumour. Factors such as the total radiation dose, overall treatment time, dose per fraction, dose-rate and the effects of changing the irradicated volume of the spinal cord have been examined in order to improve therapeutic ratio in radiotherapy. The majority of these studies have concentrated on optimizing dose fractionation schedules. Only recently have attempts been made to modify this effect by the administration of therapeutic agents after irradiation but before the development of the lesion. Despite this interest the problem still exists. At present there is no effective clinically applied treatment towards radiation-induced normal tissue injury, however, some symptoms for example swelling or pain during inflammatory phase may respond to corticosteroids. There are a number of agents, which have been used experimentally, some clinically, to alleviate radiation damage. The results of these studies are reviewed. A number of substances, generally named Biological Response Modifiers, with diverse mode of actions have been used in post irradiation modification of normal tissue reactions. The effect and mode of action of a number of these treatments are discussed. Classical radioprotectors, that are mainly thiol-containing substances such as Amifostine, are used for prophylaxis and should be administered before or at the time of irradiation. These substances have been deliberately excluded in this article

  15. Gamma radiation treatment activates glucomoringin synthesis in Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsifhiwa Ramabulana

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants are a very rich source of pharmacologically relevant metabolites. However, the relative concentrations of these compounds are subject to the genetic make-up, the physiological state of the plant as well as environmental effects. Recently, metabolic perturbations through the use of abiotic stressors have proven to be a valuable strategy for increasing the levels of these compounds. Oxidative stress-associated stressors, including ionizing radiation, have also been reported to induce metabolites with various biological activities in plants. Hence, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the induction of purported anti-cancerous metabolites, glucomoringin and its derivatives, in Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae. Here, an UHPLC-qTOF-MS-based targeted metabolic fingerprinting approach was used to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation treatment on the afore-mentioned health-beneficial secondary metabolites of M. oleifera. Following radiation, an increase in glucomoringin and three acylated derivatives was noted. As such, these molecules can be regarded as components of the inducible defense mechanism of M. oleifera as opposed to being constitutive components as it has previously been assumed. This might be an indication of a possible, yet unexplored role of moringin against the effects of oxidative stress in M. oleifera plants. The results also suggest that plants undergoing photo-oxidative stress could accumulate higher amounts of glucomoringin and related molecules.

  16. Pilocarpine and carbacholine in treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensuu, H.; Bostroem, P.; Makkonen, T.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with radiation-related xerostomia were treated with oral pilocarpine solution 6 mg t.i.d., and after a 4-week drug-free period 16 of these patients were treated with carbacholine 2 mg tablets t.i.d. Basal and stimulated whole saliva flow rates were measured before commencing the drug treatment, and after 1 and 12 weeks on treatment. On a subjective linear scale both pilocarpine (p=0.01) and carbacholine (p=0.02) improved mouth moistness. Only 2 of the 8 patients with no basal or stimulated saliva flow reported some subjective benefit from the drug treatment, whereas all 8 patients with less severe xerostomia improved (p=0.007). However, the salivary flow rates measured 12 h after the last drug dose did not improve with either drug. Both drugs were generally well tolerated. It is concluded that both drugs may be useful in the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with residual salivary function. (author). 6 refs., tabs

  17. Clinician and therapist perceptions on radiation therapist-led treatment reviews in radiation oncology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Joanna; Cox, Jennifer; Atyeo, John; Loh, Yvonne; Choung, Wong Lea; Back, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine whether radiation therapists (RTTs) and radiation oncologists (ROs) believe RTTs can lead patient treatment reviews. Materials and methods: Phase 1 involved the construction of a checklist of the procedures followed during RO treatment reviews. Phase 2 employed the checklist to monitor the frequency of review procedures. From these data, questionnaires regarding RTTs' ability to carry out these procedures to be used in Phase 3 were developed. The questionnaires were distributed to RTTs and ROs at two large public cancer centres. Results: The majority of RTTs and ROs believed that RTTs could provide assurance and answer questions about side effects, treatment techniques, cancer, nutrition and logistics. ROs and RTTs agreed that RTTs were not capable of recommending medication or answering medical questions. Most RTTs thought they could decide if a patient should take a break from treatment if a standard protocol existed, but the ROs disagreed (P < 0.01). ROs believed that RTTs were capable of using the Common Toxicity Criteria system to grade side effects, but RTTs disagreed (P < 0.01). Concerns were raised about training, legalities, workloads, logistics, cost, patients' perspectives and remuneration. Conclusion: RTTs and ROs believed RTTs could lead treatment reviews with training, and support this role development

  18. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a (60)Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating (60)Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. METHODS AND MATERIALS...

  19. Radiation-beam technologies of structural materials treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Considered in the paper are the most advanced and prospective radiation-beam technologies (RBT) for treatment of structural materials, as applied to modifying the structural-phase state in the surface layers of half-finished products and articles with the purpose to improve their service properties. Ion-beam, plasma, and ion-plasma, as well as the technologies based on the use of concentrated fluxes of energy, generated by laser radiation, high-power pulsed electron and ion beams, and high-temperature pulsed plasma fluxes are analysed. As applied to improvement of the corrosion and erosion resistance, breaking strength, friction and wear resistance, and crack resistance, the directions of the choice and the use of RBT have been considered for changes of the surface layer state by applying covers and films, and by a change of the surface topography (relief), surface structure and defects, and the element composition and phase state of materials [ru

  20. Pentoxifylline in the treatment of radiation-induced fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunieff, Paul; Augustine, Elizabeth; Hicks, Jeanne E; Cornelison, Terri L; Altemus, Rosemary M; Naydich, Boris G; Ding, Ivan; Huser, Amy K; Abraham, Edward H; Smith, Judith J; Coleman, Norman; Gerber, Lynn H

    2004-06-01

    Fibrotic sequelae remain the most important dose-limiting toxicity of radiation therapy to soft tissue. Functionally, this is reflected in loss of range of motion and muscle strength and the development of limb edema and pain. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which are abnormally elevated in irradiated tissues, may mediate radiation fibrovascular injury. In an open label drug trial, we studied the effects of pentoxifylline (400 mg orally tid for 8 weeks) on 30 patients who displayed late, radiation-induced fibrosis at 1 to 29 years posttreatment (40 to 84 Gy). The primary outcome measurement was change in physical impairments thought to be secondary to radiation, including active and passive range of motion (AROM and PROM), muscle strength, limb edema, and pain. Plasma levels of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and FGF2) also were measured. Twenty-seven patients completed baseline and 8-week assessments, and 24 patients completed baseline, 8-week, and 16-week assessments. After 8 weeks of pentoxifylline intervention, 20 of 23 patients with impaired AROM and 19 of 22 with impaired PROM improved; 11 of 19 patients with muscle weakness showed improved motor strength; five of seven patients with edema had decreased limb girth; and nine of 20 patients had decreased pain. Pretreatment FGF2 levels dropped from an average of 44.9 pg/mL to 24.0 pg/mL after 8 weeks of treatment. Patients receiving pentoxifylline demonstrated improved AROM, PROM, and muscle strength and decreased limb edema and pain. Reversal of these delayed radiation effects was associated with a decrease in circulating FGF2.

  1. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, J.; Peperzeel, H.A. van; Tan, K.E.W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9,) 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy. (Auth.)

  2. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, J.; Peperzeel, H.A. van (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Tan, K.E.W.P. (Royal Dutch Eye Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands)

    1985-02-01

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9), 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy.

  3. Initial Experimental Verification of the Neutron Beam Modeling for the LBNL BNCT Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleuel, D.L.; Chu, W.T.; Donahue, R.J.; Ludewigt, B.A.; McDonald, R.J.; Smith, A.R.; Stone, N.A.; Vuji, J.

    1999-01-01

    In preparation for future clinical BNCT trials, neutron production via the 7Li(p,n) reaction as well as subsequent moderation to produce epithermal neutrons have been studied. Proper design of a moderator and filter assembly is crucial in producing an optimal epithermal neutron spectrum for brain tumor treatments. Based on in-phantom figures-of-merit,desirable assemblies have been identified. Experiments were performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-inch cyclotron to characterize epithermal neutron beams created using several microampere of 2.5 MeV protons on a lithium target. The neutron moderating assembly consisted of Al/AlF3 and Teflon, with a lead reflector to produce an epithermal spectrum strongly peaked at 10-20 keV. The thermal neutron fluence was measured as a function of depth in a cubic lucite head phantom by neutron activation in gold foils. Portions of the neutron spectrum were measured by in-air activation of six cadmium-covered materials (Au, Mn, In, Cu, Co, W) with high epithermal neutron absorption resonances. The results are reasonably reproduced in Monte Carlo computational models, confirming their validity

  4. New developments in the treatment of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemaker, G.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation accidents associated with the use of nuclear power, radiation devices and industrial applications have resulted in a number of individuals with significant partial or total body exposures, in a limited number with lethal outcome. Such exposures generally result in life-threatening suppression of bone marrow and immune functions and may be accompanied by high doses to the skin and underlying tissues. In recent years, new methods of diagnosis and treatment of such patients have entered development, while experience with relatively large-scale accidents, such as the Chernobyl cases, have clearly demonstrated the limitations of previous approaches. In particular bone marrow transplantation has met with limited success, mostly due to the inhomogeneous nature of accidental exposures as well as the frequent occurrence of other injuries other man bone marrow damage. Present day technology allows for direct estimates of the number of residual bone marrow stem cells to enable a rapid decision on the type of treatment indicated, while some twenty-five recombinant hemopoietic growth factors are under investigation to accelerate the recovery of white blood cells and platelets, as well as immune functions. If applied appropriately, such growth factor treatment will successfully replace bone marrow transplantation in the majority of accident cases. Advances in hemopoietic stem cell biology, both in terms of source of stem cells as well as their isolation, will on the other hand make stem cell infusion a much less risky operation than bone marrow transplantation has been in the past

  5. Fission reactor based epithermal neutron irradiation facilities for routine clinical application in BNCT-Hatanaka memorial lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, Otto K.

    2009-01-01

    Based on experience gained in the recent clinical studies at MIT/Harvard, the desirable characteristics of epithermal neutron irradiation facilities for eventual routine clinical BNCT are suggested. A discussion of two approaches to using fission reactors for epithermal neutron BNCT is provided. This is followed by specific suggestions for the performance and features needed for high throughput clinical BNCT. An example of a current state-of-the-art, reactor based facility, suited for routine clinical use is discussed. Some comments are provided on the current status of reactor versus accelerator based epithermal neutron sources for BNCT. This paper concludes with a summary and a few personal observations on BNCT by the author.

  6. Interfractional Uncertainty in the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer With Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayachandran, Priya; Minn, A. Yuriko; Van Dam, Jacques; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the interfractional variation in pancreatic tumor position using bony anatomy and implanted fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: Five consecutively treated patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who received definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Stanford University (Stanford, CA) underwent fiducial seed placement and treatment on the Varian Trilogy system (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) with respiratory gating. Daily orthogonal kilovoltage imaging was performed to verify patient positioning, and isocenter shifts were made initially to match bony anatomy. Next, a final shift to the fiducial seeds was made under fluoroscopic guidance to confirm the location of the pancreatic tumor during the respiratory gated phase. All shifts were measured along three axes, left (+)-right (-), anterior (-)-posterior (+), and superior (+)-inferior (-), and the overall interfractional tumor movement was calculated based on these values. Results: A total of 140 fractions were analyzed. The mean absolute shift to fiducial markers after shifting to bony anatomy was 1.6 mm (95th percentile, 7 mm; range, 0-9 mm), 1.8 mm (95th percentile, 7 mm; range, 0-13 mm), and 4.1 mm (95th percentile, 12 mm; range, 0-19 mm) in the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. The mean interfractional vector shift distance was 5.5 mm (95th percentile, 14.5 mm; range, 0-19.3 mm). In 28 of 140 fractions (20%) no fiducial shift was required after alignment to bony anatomy. Conclusions: There is substantial residual uncertainty after alignment to bony anatomy when radiating pancreatic tumors using respiratory gating. Bony anatomy matched tumor position in only 20% of the radiation treatments. If bony alignment is used in conjunction with respiratory gating without implanted fiducials, treatment margins need to account for this uncertainty.

  7. The role of radiation therapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of patients with malignant tumors. Radiation pathological stand point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibe, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Estimations suggest that about 60% of all cancer patients will require some form of radiation therapy during their lifetime. Although 40 to 50% of cancer patients in Europe and the United States receive radiation therapy, only about 20% of patients with cancer in Japan undergo such treatment. This is largely due to the lack of understanding of the role of radiation therapy by many medical personnel in Japan, as well as to ''''radiation allergy'''' among many of the general population in Japan, a country that has been undergone atomic bombing. From our perspective as specialists in radiation therapy, the chronic shortage of radiation oncologist also poses a serious problem. Although there are approximately 700 hospitals throughout Japan where radiation therapy is available, no more than half this number of medical facilities have a full-time radiation oncologist. Perhaps the reason for this is that radiation therapy is perceived as unnecessary in Japan. However, it is absolutely essential. In our experience, the 5-year relative survival rate of patients with malignant tumors who have undergone radiation therapy in our clinic is 65 percent. Thus, radiation therapy has proven very useful in the treatment of malignant tumors. Moreover, better estimates of prognosis of cancer patients treated with radiation therapy are becoming possible. This article discusses the role of radiation therapy, from a radiation pathological perspective, in a multidisciplinary approach to treatment of cancer patients. I also emphasize the critical importance of training radiation oncologists who can function as part of multidisciplinary teams that care for patients with malignant tumors. (author). 50 refs

  8. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rita [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: ritamelo@itn.pt; Cabo Verde, Sandra [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Branco, Joaquim [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Botelho, M. Luisa [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h{sup -1}. A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment.

  9. Process of coping with intracavity radiation treatment for gynecologic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nail, L.M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the process of coping with the experience of receiving intracavity radiation treatment (ICR) for gynecologic cancer. Data were collected on the outcomes of coping, emotion (Profile of Mood States) and level of function (Sickness Impact Profile), and symptom severity and upset the evening before, during, the day after, and 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The subjects (N = 28) had a mean age of 52 years, 39% were employed full-time, 56% had occupations as manual workers, 57% had completed 12 or more years of education, and 68% were married or widowed. The treatment required the subjects to be hospitalized on complete bedrest with radiation precautions for an average of 48 hours. Intrauterine devices were used to treat 18 subjects and vaginal applications were used to treat 10 subjects. Negative mood and level of disruption in function were generally low. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no change in negative mood over time while the change in function was attributable to the increase in disruption during treatment. Utilization of affective coping strategies and problem-oriented coping strategies was positively correlated with negative mood and disruption in function over the points of measurement. The results indicate that subjects tolerated ICR well and rapidly resumed usual function following discharge from the hospital, despite the persistence of some symptoms 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The positive association between the utilization of coping strategies and negative outcomes of coping suggests a need to examine the measurement of coping strategies and consider the possibility that these actions represent a response to a stressful situation rather than a method of dealing with the situation

  10. Possibility of radiation application to sludge treatment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, Masaaki

    1980-01-01

    Interest in the effective use of sludge, which is generated increasingly with the propagation of sewerage, is being enhanced in Japan. On the other hand, attention is given to the return of sludge to soil in agriculture for the purpose of putting organic material into agricultural land. For this purpose, of course heavy metals and toxic chemicals must not be contained in sludge, but further inactivation of the pathogens, parasite ova and seeds in sludge is considered to be required. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute investigated the radiation disinfection of dehydrated cake forming 80% of the sludge taken out of treatment plants in Japan. As a result of the examination of the change in the number of bacteria by γ irradiation, 0.5 Mrad was decided to be the suitable dose for sanitating sludge regardless of season, at which coliform group decreased greatly. It seems that sludges are required to be composted in Japan. Radiation disinfection has the advantage of composting under the optimum temperature condition for fermentation, because it is not required to keep high temperature during fermentation aiming at the sterilization of pathogens. However, it is desirable to use large output accelerators combining with the radiation process for the purpose of reusing treated water in order to reduce the process cost. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Bone marrow transplantation and other treatment after radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balner, H.

    1977-01-01

    This review deals mainly with current concepts about bone marrow transplantation as therapy for serious radiation injury. Such injury can be classified according to the following broadly defined dose ranges: (1) the supralethal range, leading mainly to the cerebral and intestinal syndromes; (2) the potentially lethal or therapeutic range which causes the bone marrow syndrome, and (3) the sublethal range which rarely leads to injury requiring therapy. The bone marrow syndrome of man and animals is discussed in detail. The optimal therapy for this syndrome is bone marrow transplantation in conjunction with conventional supportive treatment. The principal complications of such therapy are Graft versus Host Disease and a slow recovery of the recipient's immune system. Concerted research activities in a number of institutions have led to considerable progress in the field of bone marrow transplantation. Improved donor selection, new techniques for stem-cell separation and preservation, as well as effective barrier-nursing and antibiotic decontamination, have made bone marrow transplantation an accepted therapy for marrow depression, including the aplasia caused by excessive exposure to radiation. The review also contains a number of guidelines for the handling of serious radiation accidents. (Auth.)

  12. BNCT clinical trials of skin melanoma patients in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Berta M.; Bonomi, Marcelo R.; Gonzalez, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    The clinical outcome of six skin melanoma BNCT irradiations is presented. Three patients (A, B and C), with multiple subcutaneous skin metastases progressed to chemotherapy were infused with ∼14 g/m 2 of boronophenylalanine ( 10 BPA)-fructose and irradiated in the hyperthermal neutron beam of the RA-6 reactor. Patient A received two one fraction irradiations in different areas of the leg, B received one fraction and C was irradiated in three consecutive fields at the calf, heel and foot sole. The maximum prescribed dose to normal skin ranged from 16.5 to 24 Gy-Eq. With a minimum follow-up of 10 months there was a G1 acute epithelitis in A and B and a G3 in C. No late toxicity was observed. Due to the in-field tumor-growth-delay and the absence of severe acute and/or late toxicity observed during the follow-up period, a dose-escalation trial is ongoing. (author)

  13. Liquid Li based neutron source for BNCT and science application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiike, H; Murata, I; Iida, T; Yoshihashi, S; Hoashi, E; Kato, I; Hashimoto, N; Kuri, S; Oshiro, S

    2015-12-01

    Liquid lithium (Li) is a candidate material for a target of intense neutron source, heat transfer medium in space engines and charges stripper. For a medical application of BNCT, epithermal neutrons with least energetic neutrons and γ-ray are required so as to avoid unnecessary doses to a patient. This is enabled by lithium target irradiated by protons at 2.5 MeV range, with utilizing the threshold reaction of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be at 1.88 MeV. In the system, protons at 2.5 MeV penetrate into Li layer by 0.25 mm with dissipating heat load near the surface. To handle it, thin film flow of high velocity is important for stable operation. For the proton accelerator, electrostatic type of the Schnkel or the tandem is planned to be employed. Neutrons generated at 0.6 MeV are gently moderated to epithermal energy while suppressing accompanying γ-ray minimum by the dedicated moderator assembly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating a multi-purpose target for electron linac based photoneutron sources for BNCT of deep-seated tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudi, S. Farhad; Rasouli, Fatemeh S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in BNCT have focused on investigating appropriate neutron sources as alternatives for nuclear reactors. As the most prominent facilities, the electron linac based photoneutron sources benefit from two consecutive reactions, (e, γ) and (γ, n). The photoneutron sources designed so far are composed of bipartite targets which involve practical problems and are far from the objective of achieving an optimized neutron source. This simulation study deals with designing a compact, optimized, and geometrically simple target for a photoneutron source based on an electron linac. Based on a set of MCNPX simulations, tungsten is found to have the potential of utilizing as both photon converter and photoneutron target. Besides, it is shown that an optimized dimension for such a target slows-down the produced neutrons toward the desired energy range while keeping them economy, which makes achieving the recommended criteria for BNCT of deep-tumors more available. This multi-purpose target does not involve complicated designing, and can be considered as a significant step toward finding application of photoneutron sources for in-hospital treatments. In order to shape the neutron beam emitted from such a target, the beam is planned to pass through an optimized arrangement of materials composed of moderators, filters, reflector, and collimator. By assessment with the recommended in-air parameters, it is shown that the designed beam provides high intensity of desired neutrons, as well as low background contamination. The last section of this study is devoted to investigate the performance of the resultant beam in deep tissue. A typical simulated liver tumor, located within a phantom of human body, was subjected to the irradiation of the designed spectrum. The dosimetric results, including evaluated depth-dose curves and carried out in-phantom parameters show that the proposed configuration establishes acceptable agreement between the appropriate neutron intensity, and

  15. Subcellular boron and fluorine distributions with SIMS ion microscopy in BNCT and cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Chandra

    2008-05-30

    The development of a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of Ion Microscopy in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was the main goal of this project, so that one can study the subcellular location of boron-10 atoms and their partitioning between the normal and cancerous tissue. This information is fundamental for the screening of boronated drugs appropriate for neutron capture therapy of cancer. Our studies at Cornell concentrated mainly on studies of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The early years of the grant were dedicated to the development of cryogenic methods and correlative microscopic approaches so that a reliable subcellular analysis of boron-10 atoms can be made with SIMS. In later years SIMS was applied to animal models and human tissues of GBM for studying the efficacy of potential boronated agents in BNCT. Under this grant the SIMS program at Cornell attained a new level of excellence and collaborative SIMS studies were published with leading BNCT researchers in the U.S.

  16. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Junyi; Mart, Christopher; Bayouth, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  17. Decontamination of waste radioactive polluted solutions in radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simova, G.; Boyadzhiev, A.; Mikhajlov, M.G.; Shopov, N.

    1979-01-01

    The decontamination capacity of solutions of the trivial cleaning Bulgarian preparations ''Mipro'', ''Sana'', ''Synthek'' and ''Univer'' for different surfaces (steel, glass, PVC and linoleum) contaminated with cesium-134, strontium-85 or cerium-144 chlorides, was studied. Concentrations from 5 to 15 g/l of the solutions used in this study displayed a degree of cleaning over 90%. Higher concentration of the solution does not improve its cleaning capacity. For evaluation of foam formation by the solutions, the so called ''foam column stability coefficient'' has been adopted. This coefficient represents the ratio between the height of the foam column and the time of its half life, referred to the time for the foam column formation when blown through with a constant air current. On the basis of this index, solutions of the preparation ''Mipro'' proved to be the best ones for decontamination - in the whole investigated concentration span, the foam column stability coefficient for the solutions of this preparation is with two orders lower than the respective coefficient of the other preparations. It was experimentally established that radiation treatment of radio-contaminated solutions reduces the foam column stability coefficient. Radiation treatment should be carried out in a gamma field, realizing at least one megarad within an acceptable for the liquid wastes time period. (A.B.)

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation-induced burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portas, Mercedes; Pomerane, Armando; Genovese, Jorge; Perez, Maria R.; Gisone, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of radioactive sources in medicine, industry and research is associated with a probability of accidental overexposures to ionizing radiation, among which localized irradiation are the most frequent events. Moreover, between 5 and 8 % of the patients undergoing therapeutical irradiations could exhibit a higher individual radiosensitivity which could account for severe skin reactions. Localized overexposures may damage not only epidermis and dermis but also deeper connective tissue, vessels, muscles and even bones. Within the framework of a cooperation agreement between the Buenos Aires Burn Hospital and the National Board of Nuclear Regulation, a Radio pathology Committee has been established in 1997 with the purpose of carrying out a collaborative project concerning diagnosis and treatment of radiological burns. The present document particularly considers radiological burns form the point of view of their physiopathology, physical and biological dosimetry, diagnosis prognosis and treatment. It also includes basic concepts of radiation biology and radio pathology. It could be an useful tool for training medical practitioners and also a practical guidance for organizing medical response in accidental overexposures. (author)

  19. Current state of methodological and decisions for radiation treatment of blood, its components and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeev A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents currently used blood transfusion media — components and blood products, therapeutic effects, reactions and complications of blood transfusion, use of radiation treatment for blood transfusion fluids. There had been discussed in detail the practice of radiation processing of blood components and for the prevention of reaction "graft versus host" and studies of plasma radiation treatment for its infectious safety. There was presented the current state of techniques and technical solutions of radiation treatment of transfusion-transmissible environments. There were also considered an alternative to radiation treatment of blood.

  20. Image registration: An essential part of radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenman, Julian G.; Miller, Elizabeth P.; Tracton, Gregg; Cullip, Tim J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We believe that a three-dimensional (3D) registration of nonplanning (diagnostic) imaging data with the planning computed tomography (CT) offers a substantial improvement in tumor target identification for many radiation therapy patients. The purpose of this article is to review and discuss our experience to date. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts and treatment planning records of all patients that underwent 3D radiation treatment planning in our department from June 1994 to December 1995, to learn which patients had image registration performed and why it was thought they would benefit from this approach. We also measured how much error would have been introduced into the target definition if the nonplanning imaging data had not been available and only the planning CT had been used. Results: Between June 1994 and December 1995, 106 of 246 (43%) of patients undergoing 3D treatment planning had image registration. Four reasons for performing registration were identified. First, some tumor volumes have better definition on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than on CT. Second, a properly contrasted diagnostic CT sometimes can show the tumor target better than can the planning CT. Third, the diagnostic CT or MR may have been preoperative, with the postoperative planning CT no longer showing the tumor. Fourth, the patient may have undergone cytoreductive chemotherapy so that the postchemotherapy planning CT no longer showed the original tumor volume. In patients in whom the planning CT did not show the tumor volume well an analysis was done to determine how the treatment plan was changed with the addition of a better tumor-defining nonplanning CT or MR. We have found that the use of this additional imaging modality changed the tumor location in the treatment plan at least 1.5 cm for half of the patients, and up to 3.0 cm for ((1)/(4)) of the patients. Conclusions: Multimodality and/or sequential imaging can substantially aid in better tumor

  1. Experimental study on the performance of an epithermal neutron flux monitor for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xingcai; Manabe, Masanobu; Tamaki, Shingo; Liu, Shuangtong; Sato, Fuminobu; Murata, Isao; Wang, Tieshan

    2016-07-01

    The performance of an epithermal neutron (0.5eVflux monitor designed for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was experimentally studied by using a prototype monitor in an appropriate neutron field at the intense deuterium-tritium neutron source facility OKTAVIAN of Osaka University, Japan. It was convinced from the experimental results that the developed monitor worked well and the epithermal neutron fluxes in BNCT neutron sources can be measured within 5% by the monitor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Very fast simulated reannealing in radiation therapy treatment plan optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrill, Steven M.; Lam, Kam Shing; Lane, Richard G.; Langer, Mark; Rosen, Isaac I.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Very Fast Simulated Reannealing is a relatively new (1989) and sophisticated algorithm for simulated annealing applications. It offers the advantages of annealing methods while requiring shorter execution times. The purpose of this investigation was to adapt Very Fast Simulated Reannealing to conformal treatment planning optimization. Methods and Materials: We used Very Fast Simulated Reannealing to optimize treatments for three clinical cases with two different cost functions. The first cost function was linear (minimum target dose) with nonlinear dose-volume normal tissue constraints. The second cost function (probability of uncomplicated local control) was a weighted product of normal tissue complication probabilities and the tumor control probability. Results: For the cost functions used in this study, the Very Fast Simulated Reannealing algorithm achieved results within 5-10% of the final solution (100,000 iterations) after 1000 iterations and within 3-5% of the final solution after 5000-10000 iterations. These solutions were superior to those produced by a conventional treatment plan based on an analysis of the resulting dose-volume histograms. However, this technique is a stochastic method and results vary in a statistical manner. Successive solutions may differ by up to 10%. Conclusion: Very Fast Simulated Reannealing, with modifications, is suitable for radiation therapy treatment planning optimization. It produced results within 3-10% of the optimal solution, produced using another optimization algorithm (Mixed Integer Programming), in clinically useful execution times

  3. Radiation and combined treatment of Itsenko -Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkanov, A.I.; Morozov, A.I.; Pirogov, A.I.; Postnikov, D.A.; Shadyeva, M.M.; Roshchina, V.S.; Devyatykh, Yu.N.

    1980-01-01

    The authors made observations of 123 patients with the Itsenko - Cushing disease. The mild form of the disease was diagnosed in 27.7 per cent of the patients; moderate in 52 percent, and severe in 20.3 per cent of the patients. A total of 78 patients underwent tele-gamma-therapy in doses of 40-45 Gy, and 45 patients underwent combined treatment consisting in unilateral adrenalectomy and irradiation with the same doses. Protracted remissions with a reverse development of the symptoms of the disease were reached in 69.2 per cent of the patients who had undergone radiation treatment and in 64.4 per cent of the patients who had undergone combined treatment. Radiotherapy was most effective in patients with mild and moderate forms of Itsenko-Cushing's disease, in case of a severe form combined treatment is indicated. Optimal single focal doses are 1.6-1.8 Gy, and cumulative ones 40-45 Gy

  4. Monte Carlo based treatment planning systems for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in Petten, The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nievaart, V A; Daquino, G G; Moss, R L [JRC European Commission, PO Box 2, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-06-15

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a bimodal form of radiotherapy for the treatment of tumour lesions. Since the cancer cells in the treatment volume are targeted with {sup 10}B, a higher dose is given to these cancer cells due to the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction, in comparison with the surrounding healthy cells. In Petten (The Netherlands), at the High Flux Reactor, a specially tailored neutron beam has been designed and installed. Over 30 patients have been treated with BNCT in 2 clinical protocols: a phase I study for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and a phase II study on the treatment of malignant melanoma. Furthermore, activities concerning the extra-corporal treatment of metastasis in the liver (from colorectal cancer) are in progress. The irradiation beam at the HFR contains both neutrons and gammas that, together with the complex geometries of both patient and beam set-up, demands for very detailed treatment planning calculations. A well designed Treatment Planning System (TPS) should obey the following general scheme: (1) a pre-processing phase (CT and/or MRI scans to create the geometric solid model, cross-section files for neutrons and/or gammas); (2) calculations (3D radiation transport, estimation of neutron and gamma fluences, macroscopic and microscopic dose); (3) post-processing phase (displaying of the results, iso-doses and -fluences). Treatment planning in BNCT is performed making use of Monte Carlo codes incorporated in a framework, which includes also the pre- and post-processing phases. In particular, the glioblastoma multiforme protocol used BNCT{sub r}tpe, while the melanoma metastases protocol uses NCTPlan. In addition, an ad hoc Positron Emission Tomography (PET) based treatment planning system (BDTPS) has been implemented in order to integrate the real macroscopic boron distribution obtained from PET scanning. BDTPS is patented and uses MCNP as the calculation engine. The precision obtained by the Monte Carlo

  5. A sensitivity study on neutron flux variation due to 10B concentration in dose calculation for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sang Hoon

    2006-02-01

    The effects of inclusion of 10 B concentration on neutron flux and dose in dose calculation were studied. In order to provide the quantitative effects of inclusion of 10 B concentrations on depressions of neutron and photon flux and dose, the fluxes and doses with voxel head phantoms for various 10 B concentrations homogeneously distributed were calculated by using MCNPX simulations. A lithium target system and beam shaping assembly, which have been developed at the Hanyang University, were used as epithermal neutron beam. The calculation results show that the neutron flux at the center of the head phantom decreases by approximately 5.4% per 10 ppm of 10 B concentration in comparison with the neutron flux in the case of boron-free. It was also observed that the tissue dose at the center of the head phantom is depressed by approximately 4.7% per 10 ppm of the 10 B concentration and the tumor dose by approximately 5.3% per 10 ppm. According to depth of tumors, it was observed that the depressions of the doses in the tumors are ranged in 3.7 ∼ 9.2%. The dose calculations in the case of boron-free show that it is overestimated in comparison with the dose calculations in the cases of the inclusion of 10 B concentrations for the normal tissue and the tumors. Therefore, in dose calculation for BNCT, the depressions of neutron flux and dose should be considered. The results in this study are available to setting up the depression ratios which can be used for converting neutron and gamma fluxes and doses in phantom with boron free into the fluxes and doses in phantom with inclusion of 10 B concentrations in treatment. It is expected that the depression ratios is practicable to dose evaluation for BNCT

  6. Brain effects observed in the canine healthy tissue tolerance studies for BNCT with borocaptate sodium at the epithermal neutron beam of the HFR, Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefert, A.; Casado, J.; Moss, R.L.; Philipp, K.; Huiskamp, R.; Gavin, P.R.; Duehmke, E.

    1993-01-01

    Before the first clinical trails of BNCT with borocaptate sodium (BSH) on patients suffering from malignant brain tumours can be performed at the epithermal neutron bean of the HFR Petten, the tolerance of healthy tissue exposed to this beam has to be determined. Therefore irradiation experiments are currently being performed on beagle dogs at different mean blood 10 B concentrations. To monitor radiation induced brain damage after irradiation, a method has to be employed which provides sufficient sensitivity for detecting radiation induced damage to tissue. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive method which yields excellent discrimination between grey and white matter. Information on the integrity of the blood-brain-barrier can be obtained by using paramagnetic contrast agents like Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). This paper summarizes the results of the MRI's performed on the irradiated beagle dogs up to August 1992 and compares these results with the findings of histopathology

  7. Radiation treatment planning techniques for lymphoma of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Biancia, Cesar; Hunt, Margie; Furhang, Eli; Wu, Elisa; Yahalom, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Involved-field radiation therapy of the stomach is often used in the curative treatment of gastric lymphoma. Yet, the optimal technique to irradiate the stomach with minimal morbidity has not been well established. This study was designed to evaluate treatment planning alternatives for stomach irradiation, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), to determine which approach resulted in improved dose distribution and to identify patient-specific anatomic factors that might influence a treatment planning choice. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with lymphoma of the stomach (14 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and 1 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) were categorized into 3 types, depending on the geometric relationship between the planning target volume (PTV) and kidneys. AP/PA and 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) plans were generated for each patient. IMRT was planned for 4 patients with challenging geometric relationship between the PTV and the kidneys to determine whether it was advantageous to use IMRT. Results: For type I patients (no overlap between PTV and kidneys), there was essentially no benefit from using 3DCRT over AP/PA. However, for patients with PTVs in close proximity to the kidneys (type II) or with high degree of overlap (type III), the 4-field 3DCRT plans were superior, reducing the kidney V 15Gy by approximately 90% for type II and 50% for type III patients. For type III, the use of a 3DCRT plan rather than an AP/PA plan decreased the V 15Gy by approximately 65% for the right kidney and 45% for the left kidney. In the selected cases, IMRT led to a further decrease in left kidney dose as well as in mean liver dose. Conclusions: The geometric relationship between the target and kidneys has a significant impact on the selection of the optimum beam arrangement. Using 4-field 3DCRT markedly decreases the kidney dose. The addition of IMRT led to further incremental improvements in the left kidney and liver

  8. Radiation treatment parameters for re-irradiation of malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyazi, M.; Soehn, M.; Schwarz, S.B.; Lang, P.; Belka, C.; Ganswindt, U. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-04-15

    Background and purpose: Most patients with malignant glioma ultimately fail locally or loco-regionally after the first treatment, with re-irradiation being a reasonable treatment option. However, only limited data are presently available allowing for a precise selection of patients suitable for re-treatment with regard to safety and efficacy. Material and methods: Using the department database, 39 patients with a second course of radiation were identified. Doses to gross tumor volume (GTV), planning target volume (PTV), and relevant organs at risk (OARs; brainstem, optic chiasm, optic nerves, brain) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated to outcome parameters. Relevant treatment parameters including D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, and volume (ml) were obtained. Equivalent uniform dose (EUD) values were calculated for the tumor and OARs. To address the issue of radiation necrosis/leukoencephalopathy posttherapeutic MRI images were routinely examined every 3 months. Results: Median follow-up was 147 days. The time interval between first and second irradiation was regularly greater than 6 months. Median EUDs to the OARs were 11.9 Gy (range 0.7-27.4 Gy) to the optic chiasm, 17.6 Gy (range 0.7-43.0 Gy) to the brainstem, 4.9/2.1 Gy (range 0.3-24.5 Gy) to the right/left optic nerve, and 29.4 Gy (range 25.2-32.5 Gy) to the brain. No correlation between treated volume and survival was observed. Cold spots and dose did not correlate with survival. Re-irradiated volumes were treated with on average lower doses if they were larger and vice versa. Conclusion: In general, re-irradiation is a safe and feasible re-treatment option. No relevant toxicity was observed after re-irradiation in our patient cohort during follow-up. In this regard, this analysis provides baseline data for the selection of putative patients. EUD values are derived and may serve as reference for further studies, including intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) protocols. (orig.)

  9. Photocoagulation treatment for clinically significant radiation macular oedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinyoun, J.L.; Zamber, R.W.; Lawrence, B.S.; Barlow, W.E.; Arnold, A.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Macular oedema is a leading cause of vision loss in patients with radiation retinopathy. In an effort to find an effective treatment for this vision threatening complication, 12 eyes (eight patients) were treated with photocoagulation for clinically significant radiation macular oedema (CSRMO) defined as central macular thickening, exudates threatening the macular centre, or one disc area of thickening in the macula. Median visual acuity improved from 20/100 pre-operatively to 20/90 at the initial post-operative examination (mean follow up 5 months) and to 20/75 at the final post-operative examination (mean follow up 39 months). At the final post-operative examination, visual acuity had improved in eight (67%) eyes and six (50%) eyes had complete resolution of the CSRMO; two (17%) other eyes had improved anatomically in that fewer CSRMO criteria were present. These results suggest that macular photocoagulation is effective in decreasing macular oedema and improving vision in eyes with CSRMO. (author).

  10. Photocoagulation treatment for clinically significant radiation macular oedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyoun, J.L.; Zamber, R.W.; Lawrence, B.S.; Barlow, W.E.; Arnold, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Macular oedema is a leading cause of vision loss in patients with radiation retinopathy. In an effort to find an effective treatment for this vision threatening complication, 12 eyes (eight patients) were treated with photocoagulation for clinically significant radiation macular oedema (CSRMO) defined as central macular thickening, exudates threatening the macular centre, or one disc area of thickening in the macula. Median visual acuity improved from 20/100 pre-operatively to 20/90 at the initial post-operative examination (mean follow up 5 months) and to 20/75 at the final post-operative examination (mean follow up 39 months). At the final post-operative examination, visual acuity had improved in eight (67%) eyes and six (50%) eyes had complete resolution of the CSRMO; two (17%) other eyes had improved anatomically in that fewer CSRMO criteria were present. These results suggest that macular photocoagulation is effective in decreasing macular oedema and improving vision in eyes with CSRMO. (author)

  11. Radiation induced sarcoma after treatment of glioblastoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Victor Domingos Lisita; Anjos, Caroline Souza dos; Candido, Priscila Barile Marchi; Dias Junior, Antonio Soares; Santos, Evandro Airton Sordi dos; Godoy, Antonio Carlos Cavalcante; Saggioro, Fabiano P.; Carlotti Junior, Carlos Gilberto; Oliveira, Harley Francisco de; Peria, Fernanda Maris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Glioblastoma multiform is the most lethal central nervous system neoplasm, with a median survival of around 13 months and the worst prognosis among all gliomas. The therapeutic approach of glioblastoma consists in neurosurgery with maximum possible resection of tumor volume, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy reduces the risk of tumor recurrence through direct and indirect damage to tumor deoxyribonucleic acid. The long-term effects of radiation therapy include tissue necrosis, vasculopathy, and radiation-induced neoplasia. The most reported secondary intracranial malignant tumors include meningiomas, gliomas, and sarcomas. The latency period between skull radiotherapy and the appearance of radioinduced lesions varies in the literature from six months to 47 years, with an average of 18.7 years. Case report: The present report describes the appearance of high-grade spindle cell sarcoma after ten months in a patient who received glioblastoma treatment at Hospital das Clínicas of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo. Conclusion: The rarity of this association is probably due to the poor survival of patients with glioblastoma, thus limiting the time to development of secondary neoplasia

  12. Immobilization for the radiation therapy treatment of the pelvic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, F.; De Beukeleer, M.; Nys, F.; Bijdekerke, P.; Robberechts, M.; Van Cauwenbergh, R. [Brussels Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    Previous experience with the treatment of the pelvic region has shown that geometric setup errors are considerable in extent and incidence. A proposal to alleviate this problem is the introduction of immobilization devices in analogy with head and neck treatment. The practicality and efficacy of such a technique is investigated and compared with an earlier proposed technique using interactive adjustment and Electronic Portal Imaging (EPI). A group of 13 patients treated in the pelvic region using external radiation therapy was immobilized using an Orfit-like cast. Every fraction for every patients was imaged using an EPID. Immediately after obtaining an image it was compared to a digitized simulation image using the in-house developed OPIDUM system. Patient position was adjusted when an error in one of the main directions (transversal or longitudinal) exceeded 5 mm. Time measurements were carried out in order to asses the impact of the immobilization procedure on the patient throughput. In 68% of the cases a corrective action was necessary. The fraction of total treatment time was 50% for 26% of the fields. The range of errors measured in the longitudinal direction was between 29 and -22 mm. In the transversal direction the range was from -7 to 60 mm. A full analysis 13 patients yielding statistics for more than 200 fields is presented. Special attention has been paid to the determination of the nature of the errors (random or systematic) and the impact on patient throughput.

  13. Immobilization for the radiation therapy treatment of the pelvic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Heuvel, F.; De Beukeleer, M.; Nys, F.; Bijdekerke, P.; Robberechts, M.; Van Cauwenbergh, R.

    1995-01-01

    Previous experience with the treatment of the pelvic region has shown that geometric setup errors are considerable in extent and incidence. A proposal to alleviate this problem is the introduction of immobilization devices in analogy with head and neck treatment. The practicality and efficacy of such a technique is investigated and compared with an earlier proposed technique using interactive adjustment and Electronic Portal Imaging (EPI). A group of 13 patients treated in the pelvic region using external radiation therapy was immobilized using an Orfit-like cast. Every fraction for every patients was imaged using an EPID. Immediately after obtaining an image it was compared to a digitized simulation image using the in-house developed OPIDUM system. Patient position was adjusted when an error in one of the main directions (transversal or longitudinal) exceeded 5 mm. Time measurements were carried out in order to asses the impact of the immobilization procedure on the patient throughput. In 68% of the cases a corrective action was necessary. The fraction of total treatment time was 50% for 26% of the fields. The range of errors measured in the longitudinal direction was between 29 and -22 mm. In the transversal direction the range was from -7 to 60 mm. A full analysis 13 patients yielding statistics for more than 200 fields is presented. Special attention has been paid to the determination of the nature of the errors (random or systematic) and the impact on patient throughput

  14. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M.; Maruyama, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D 1ng , were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg -1 ), respectively. Since the D 1ng of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m -3 . (author)

  15. Surface treatment of CFRP composites using femtosecond laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, V.; Sharma, S. P.; de Moura, M. F. S. F.; Moreira, R. D. F.; Vilar, R.

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, we investigate the surface treatment of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites by laser ablation with femtosecond laser radiation. For this purpose, unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy matrix composites were treated with femtosecond laser pulses of 1024 nm wavelength and 550 fs duration. Laser tracks were inscribed on the material surface using pulse energies and scanning speeds in the range 0.1-0.5 mJ and 0.1-5 mm/s, respectively. The morphology of the laser treated surfaces was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. We show that, by using the appropriate processing parameters, a selective removal of the epoxy resin can be achieved, leaving the carbon fibers exposed. In addition, sub-micron laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are created on the carbon fibers surface, which may be potentially beneficial for the improvement of the fiber to matrix adhesion in adhesive bonds between CFRP parts.

  16. Experimental treatment of gastrointestinal radiation syndrome in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Bingzhi; Chen Dezheng; Liu Zuobin

    1986-01-01

    Gastrointestinal radiation syndrome occurred in 27 mongrel dogs irradiated with 9-12 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays. Six of them received autologous bone marrow transplantation (auto-BMT), 10 animals were treated with symptomatic and supportive measures only, and the remaining 11 dogs served as controls without any treatment. All animals of the latter two groups died between 3 and 11 days after irradiation without any evidence of hematopoietic recovery. Recovery of gastrointestinal injury was found in 7 dogs treated with symptomatic and supportive measures only. Of 6 dogs having received auto-BMT 2 died 15 days after irradiation, 3 survived over 30 days with recovery of gastrointestinal and hematopoietic injury but died of distemper later, and the other one, still alive, has survived for more than 4 years. The results show that the effective measures for gastrointestinal radiatin syndrome are BMT and symptomatic therapy

  17. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Nigg

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

  18. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  19. Acquired-resistance of bevacizumab treatment for radiation brain necrosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Hongqing; Yuan, Xiangkun; Sun, Dayong; Bian, Jianliang; Chang, Joe Y.; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The case study reported on acquired bevacizumab resistance in one patient receiving re-treatment with bevacizumab following radiation brain necrosis progression after bevacizumab was discontinued. This case offers novel and additional insight for bevacizumab treatment. Low-dose bevacizumab is effective for radiation brain necrosis, and radiation brain necrosis may progress after bevacizumab discontinuation, whereas too many cycles of bevacizumab treatment may induce drug-resistance and re-tre...

  20. Time factor of BSH from intravenous infusion to neutron irradiation for BNCT in patients with glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Nagahiro, S.; Kitamura, K.; Nakagawa, Y.; Hatanaka, H.; Haritz, D.; Grochulla, F.; Haselsberger, K.; Gabel, D.

    2000-01-01

    The present report evaluates the time factor of BSH from infusion to irradiation in patients with glioblastoma as a cooperative study in Europe and Japan. For BNCT with BSH after intravenous infusion, this work confirms that the planned neutron irradiation after intravenous BSH infusion appears to be optimal around 12-19 hours after the infusion. (author)

  1. Radiobiology of BNCT mediated by GB-10 and GB-10+BPA in experimental oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Nigg, David; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2004-01-01

    We previously reported biodistribution and pharmacokinetic data for GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and the combined administration of GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) as boron delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to assess, for the first time, the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal tissue to BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BPA administered jointly using the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. GB-10 exerted 75.5% tumor control (partial+complete remission) with no damage to precancerous tissue around tumor or to normal tissue. Thus, GB-10 proved to be a therapeutically efficient boron agent in this model despite the fact that it is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue. GB-10 exerted a selective effect on tumor blood vessels leading to significant tumor control with a sparing effect on normal tissue. BNCT mediated by the combined administration of GB-10 and BPA resulted in a reduction in the dose to normal tissue and would thus allow for significant escalation of dose to tumor without exceeding normal tissue tolerance

  2. Spontaneous canine oral melanoma: A large animal model for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Kraft, S.L.; DeHaan, C.E.; Sande, R.D.; Papageorges, M.; Bauer, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    Oral melanomas in dogs are the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Prevalence has been recorded at 127 per 100,000 dogs/year. There is a predilection for the gingiva of male dogs with heavy pigmentation. The tumors are resistant to treatment with conventional radiation and chemotherapy. The tumors are very aggressive and have generally metastasized to the regional lymph nodes at the time of initial diagnosis. Distant metastases occur in approximately 85% of patients. Metastatic sites include lungs, kidneys, liver, brain, skeleton, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Fifteen (15) dogs with oral lesions biopsied and diagnosed as malignant melanoma were entered in the study. A thorough diagnostic regimen was performed in an attempt to detect the regional spread and distant metastases of the tumor

  3. Design and optimization of a beam-shaping assembly (BSA) for BNCT based on a neutron generator located at CEADEN, Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla Cabal, F.; Martin, G.; Abrahantes, A.

    2007-01-01

    A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study is carried out to determine the most suitable neutron energy for treatment of shallow and deep-seated brain tumors in the context of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Two figures-of-merit, i.e. the absorbed dose for healthy tissue and the absorbed tumor dose at a given depth in the brain are used to measure the neutron beam quality. Also irradiation time, therapeutic gain and the power generated in the target are utilized as beam assessment parameters. Moderators, reflectors and delimiters are designed and optimized to moderate the high-energy neutrons from the fusion reactions 2 H(d;n) 3 He and 3 H(d;n) 4 Hedown to a suitable energy spectrum. Metallic uranium and manganese are successfully tested for fast-to-epithermal neutron moderation as well as Fluental TM for the neutron spectrum shifting. A semi spherical target is proposed in order to dissipate twice the amount of power generated in the target, and decrease all the dimensions of the BSA. The cooling system of the target is also included in the calculations. Calculations are performed using the MCNP code. After the optimization of our beam-shaper a study of the dose distribution in the head had been made. The therapeutic gain is increased in 9% while the current required for one hour treatment is decreased in comparison with the trading prototypes of NG used for BNCT. (Author)

  4. Design and optimization of a beam-shaping assembly (BSA) for BNCT based on a neutron generator located at CEADEN, Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla Cabal, F.; Martin, G; Abrahantes, A.

    2007-01-01

    A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study is carried out to determine the most suitable neutron energy for treatment of shallow and deep-seated brain tumors in the context of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Two figures-of-merit, i.e. the absorbed dose for healthy tissue and the absorbed tumor dose at a given depth in the brain are used to measure the neutron beam quality. Also irradiation time, therapeutic gain and the power generated in the target are utilized as beam assessment parameters. Moderators, reflectors and delimiters are designed and optimized to moderate the high-energy neutrons from the fusion reactions 2 H(d;n) 3 He and 3 H(d;n) 4 He down to a suitable energy spectrum. Metallic uranium and manganese are successfully tested for fast-to-epithermal neutron moderation as well as Fluental TM for the neutron spectrum shifting. A semispherical target is proposed in order to dissipate twice the amount of power generated in the target, and decrease all the dimensions of the BSA. The cooling system of the target is also included in the calculations. Calculations are performed using the MCNP code. After the optimization of our beam-shaper a study of the dose distribution in the head had been made. The therapeutic gain is increased in 9% while the current required for one hour treatment is decreased in comparison with the trading prototypes of NG used for BNCT. (Author)

  5. Malignant mesothelioma after radiation treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Marie L.; Burgers, Jacobus A.; Baas, Paul; van 't Veer, Mars B.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Louwman, Marieke W. J.; Zijlstra, Josée M.; van den Berg, Hendrik; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a relatively uncommon malignancy. Although the pathogenesis is primarily related to asbestos, the disease may be associated with radiation exposure. Recently, increased risks for second primary mesothelioma after radiation for lymphoma have been reported. Because these

  6. How can laparoscopic management assist radiation treatment in cervix carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbaulet, A.; Lartigau, E.; Haie-Meder, C.; Castaigne, D.; Morice, P.; Breton, C.; Pautier, P.; Duvillard, P.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the role of laparoscopic lymphadenectomy (pelvis ± para-aortic nodes) and laparoscopic hysterectomy in cervical cancer compared to 'classic radical surgery' in patients undergoing surgery in comparison with modern imaging in patients treated with radiotherapy alone.Materials and methods: The limitations of modern imaging are presented as well as how complication rates can be increased when classic laparotomy is followed by radiation therapy.Laparoscopic procedures are described with particular emphasis on how to provide information on lymph node metastases with the risk of overlooking microscopic involvement. A number of clinical experiences are cited to illustrate this problem and show how treatment approaches can be adapted.Results: The role of laparoscopy is evaluated according to different clinical situations and treatment protocols emphasizing the possibilities offered by this method to the radiotherapist. Conclusion: When developing laparoscopic techniques for the management of cervical carcinoma, caution must be exercised to ensure that these techniques are not detrimental to the prognosis. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Economic evaluation of radiation processing in urban solid wastes treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.

    During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.

  8. Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, Friederike; Roedel, Franz; Capalbo, Gianni; Weiss, Christian; Roedel, Claus [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Background: EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols. Material and methods: cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I-II studies of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. The rationale of these combinations, early efficacy and toxicity data, and possible molecular predictors for tumor response are reviewed. Computerized bibliographic searches of Pubmed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO and ASTRO meetings. Results: the combination of cetuximab and CRT can be safely applied without dose compromises of the respective treatment components. Disappointingly low rates of pathologic complete remission have been noted in several phase II studies. The K-ras mutation status and the gene copy number of EGFR may predict tumor response. The toxicity pattern (radiation-induced enteritis, perforations) and surgical complications (wound healing, fistula, bleeding) observed in at least some of the clinical studies with bevacizumab and CRT warrant further investigations. Conclusion: longer follow-up (and, finally, randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates, and toxicity associated with these novel treatment approaches. (orig.)

  9. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantril, S.T. (Children' s Hospital of San Francisco, CA); Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N/sub 0/ patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease.

  10. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantril, S.T.; Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N 0 patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease

  11. Proton Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouw, Kent W. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sethi, Roshan V.; Yeap, Beow Y.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.; Munzenrider, John E.; Adams, Judith [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Grabowski, Eric [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mukai, Shizuo [Retina Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate long-term disease and toxicity outcomes for pediatric retinoblastoma patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT). Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective analysis of 49 retinoblastoma patients (60 eyes) treated with PRT between 1986 and 2012. Results: The majority (84%) of patients had bilateral disease, and nearly half (45%) had received prior chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 8 years (range, 1-24 years), no patients died of retinoblastoma or developed metastatic disease. The post-PRT enucleation rate was low (18%), especially in patients with early-stage disease (11% for patients with International Classification for Intraocular Retinoblastoma [ICIR] stage A-B disease vs 23% for patients with ICIR stage C-D disease). Post-PRT ophthalmologic follow-up was available for 61% of the preserved eyes (30 of 49): 14 of 30 eyes (47%) had 20/40 visual acuity or better, 7 of 30 (23%) had moderate visual acuity (20/40-20/600), and 9 of 30 (30%) had little or no useful vision (worse than 20/600). Twelve of 60 treated eyes (20%) experienced a post-PRT event requiring intervention, with cataracts the most common (4 eyes). No patients developed an in-field second malignancy. Conclusions: Long-term follow-up of retinoblastoma patients treated with PRT demonstrates that PRT can achieve high local control rates, even in advanced cases, and many patients retain useful vision in the treated eye. Treatment-related ocular side effects were uncommon, and no radiation-associated malignancies were observed.

  12. The role of PET/CT in radiation treatment planning for cancer patient treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and, more recently, integrated positron emission tomography/X ray computed tomography (PET/CT) have appeared as significant diagnostic imaging systems in clinical medicine. Accurate recognition of cancers in patients by means of PET scanning with Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) has illustrated a need to determine a mode of therapy to achieve better prognoses. The clinical management of cancer patients has improved dramatically with the introduction of clinical PET. For treatment of cancer patients, on the other hand, radiation therapy (RT) plays an important role as a non-invasive therapy. It is crucial that cancers are encompassed by high dose irradiation, particularly in cases of curative RT. Irradiation should precisely target the entire tumour and aim to minimise the size of microscopic extensions of the cancer, as well as minimize radiation damage to normal tissues. A new imaging technique has therefore been sought to allow precise delineation of the cancer target to be irradiated. Clinical PET, combined with utilization of 18 F-FDG, may have an important role in radiation treatment planning (RTP) in lung cancer. In addition to determining if RT is appropriate and whether therapy will be given with curative or palliative intent, 18 F-FDG-PET is useful for determining therapy ports. It can be used both to limit ports to spare normal tissue and to include additional involved regions. Several studies have shown that PET has an impact on RTP in an important proportion of patients. It is to be hoped that treatment plans that include all the 18 F-FDG-avid lesions or the 18 F-FDG-avid portions of a complex mass will result in more effective local control with less unnecessary tissue being treated. The IAEA has placed emphasis on the issue of application of clinical PET for radiation treatment planning in various cancer patients. Two consultants meetings were held in 2006 and their results are summarized into this IAEA

  13. The us of low-energy laser for prevention and treatment of local radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Possibilities for usage of laser biostimulation therapy in medicine were considered. Laser radiation stimulates activity of enzymatic systems. Nucleic acid synthesis increases under the action of laser radiation (LR). Stimulation of LR was observed at tissue level. Low-energy laser therapy was used to cut short early skin radiation injuries during photon radiotherapy of tumors. Efficiency of laser radiation methods for treatment of early and delayed radiation injuries was shown. Lasers of unimpaired intensity are used for prophylaxis of radiation injuries during radiotherapy of malignant tumors

  14. Positron emission tomography in pediatric radiation oncology: integration in the treatment-planning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasin, M.J.; Hudson, M.M.; Kaste, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The application of PET imaging to pediatric radiation oncology allows new approaches to targeting and selection of radiation dose based not only on the size of a tumor, but also on its metabolic activity. In order to integrate PET into treatment planning for radiation oncology, logistical issues regarding patient setup, image fusion, and target selection must be addressed. Through prospective study, the role of PET in pediatric malignancies will be established for diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance. To explore the potential role of PET and its incorporation into treatment planning in pediatric radiation oncology, an example case of pediatric Hodgkin's disease is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Television system for verification and documentation of treatment fields during intraoperative radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, B.A.; Harrington, F.S.; Kinsella, T.J.; Sindelar, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) involves direct treatment of tumors or tumor beds with large single doses of radiation. The verification of the area to be treated before irradiation and the documentation of the treated area are critical for IORT, just as for other types of radiation therapy. A television system which allows the target area to be directly imaged immediately before irradiation has been developed. Verification and documentation of treatment fields has made the IORT television system indispensable

  16. Techniques for Minimizing Radiation Exposure During Evaluation, Surgical Treatment, and Follow-up of Urinary Lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Javier L; Baldwin, D Duane

    2015-07-01

    Patients receive significant radiation exposure during the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of urinary stone disease. This radiation exposure may result in patient harm and is believed to contribute to the risk for malignancy. This review will present current information to allow surgeons to optimize their diagnostic, treatment, and follow-up regimens to allow optimal care of stone disease patients at the lowest radiation dose possible.

  17. Biomechanical based image registration for head and neck radiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mayah, Adil; Moseley, Joanne; Hunter, Shannon; Velec, Mike; Chau, Lily; Breen, Stephen; Brock, Kristy

    2010-02-01

    Deformable image registration of four head and neck cancer patients was conducted using biomechanical based model. Patient specific 3D finite element models have been developed using CT and cone beam CT image data of the planning and a radiation treatment session. The model consists of seven vertebrae (C1 to C7), mandible, larynx, left and right parotid glands, tumor and body. Different combinations of boundary conditions are applied in the model in order to find the configuration with a minimum registration error. Each vertebra in the planning session is individually aligned with its correspondence in the treatment session. Rigid alignment is used for each individual vertebra and to the mandible since deformation is not expected in the bones. In addition, the effect of morphological differences in external body between the two image sessions is investigated. The accuracy of the registration is evaluated using the tumor, and left and right parotid glands by comparing the calculated Dice similarity index of these structures following deformation in relation to their true surface defined in the image of the second session. The registration improves when the vertebrae and mandible are aligned in the two sessions with the highest Dice index of 0.86+/-0.08, 0.84+/-0.11, and 0.89+/-0.04 for the tumor, left and right parotid glands, respectively. The accuracy of the center of mass location of tumor and parotid glands is also improved by deformable image registration where the error in the tumor and parotid glands decreases from 4.0+/-1.1, 3.4+/-1.5, and 3.8+/-0.9 mm using rigid registration to 2.3+/-1.0, 2.5+/-0.8 and 2.0+/-0.9 mm in the deformable image registration when alignment of vertebrae and mandible is conducted in addition to the surface projection of the body.

  18. Radiation recall dermatitis after docetaxel chemotherapy. Treatment by antioxidant ointment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Freund, Ulrich; Momm, Felix [Ortenau-Klinikum Offenburg-Gengenbach Lehrkrankenhaus der Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg i. Br., Radio-Onkologie, Offenburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an acute skin toxicity caused by different anticancer or antibiotic drugs within a former completely healed irradiation field. Predictive factors for RRD are not known and its mechanisms are not completely understood. A case of RRD induced by docetaxel and successfully treated by an antioxidant ointment (Mapisal {sup registered}) is presented here. Such an ointment might be useful not only in RRD therapy, but also in the treatment of high-grade dermatitis induced by radiotherapy and thus may contribute to the improvement of patients' quality of life and to the scheduled completion of cancer therapies. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlen-Recall-Dermatitis (RRD) ist eine akute Hauttoxizitaet, die durch verschiedene Chemotherapeutika oder Antibiotika innerhalb eines frueheren, komplett abgeheilten Bestrahlungsfelds hervorgerufen wird. Praediktive Faktoren fuer die RRD sind nicht bekannt und ihr Mechanismus ist nicht vollstaendig geklaert. Es wird ein Fallbericht einer durch Docetaxel induzierten RRD dargestellt, die erfolgreich mit einer antioxidativen Salbe (Mapisal {sup registered}) behandelt wurde. Solche Salben koennten nicht nur zur Therapie der RRD, sondern auch bei der Behandlung einer akuten Dermatitis waehrend der Strahlentherapie nuetzlich sein und damit zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualitaet der Patienten und zur planmaessigen Durchfuehrung der Tumortherapie beitragen. (orig.)

  19. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Armed Forces Ra ioloy Research Institute Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones, and General...Gnotobiological Isolation Russia State Medical University 19990119 114 Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones...subsyndromes: hematopoietic, gastrointestinal (or GI), and cardiovascular/CNS syndrome. The range for hematopoietic syndrome is considered to be 1-6 Gy, roughly

  20. Health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain: The legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esco, R.; Biete, A.; Pardo, J.; Carceller, J.A.; Veira, C.; Palacios, A.; Vazquez, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The Royal Decree 1566/1998 of July 17th establishes the criteria on quality in radiation therapy and is a cornerstone in Spanish regulation of this medical field. The Royal Decree gives some rules that, from a medical point of view, are considered as a good practice. Radiation protection of patients is necessary to achieve a high quality radiation oncology treatments. That is the reason why Royal decree 1566/1998 is titled 'quality criteria in radiation therapy'. A quality control program must be tailored to every single radiation oncology department and, for this reason, its standardization is difficult. Nevertheless, some medical procedures are defined by the royal decree and such procedures are the minimum criteria that all the departments must follow in the development of its own quality control program. The authors make some reflections about health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain, pointing out that a legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer due to application of the legislative rules may occur. The social and medical cost of rigid bureaucratic procedures is pointed out. A large amount of equipment controls and measurements takes time that could be used in treating patients. This is more important in an environment of limited technical and human resources. (author)

  1. Prediction of boron concentration in blood from low dose infusion for the patients of BNCT at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, T.

    2000-01-01

    It is difficult to measure boron concentration in blood during neutron irradiation in BNCT. We have investigated the predictability of boron concentration in blood from the data at 1st craniotomy after low dose BSH infusion. Two patients entered BNCT at JRR2 in 1995/1996, and 5 patients entered BNCT at JRR4 in 1992/2000. The patients include 2 male and 5 female and their age ranged from 20 to 66. In 5 patients 1 g of BSH was infused before 1st tumor removal operation and boron concentrations in blood were examined around this operation. All patients were infused 100 mg/kg of BSH at 12 hours prior to BNCT and boron concentrations were examined before and after BNCT using prompt gamma ray analysis or ICP-AES. Each results showed biphasic pharmacokinetic profile. Personal variations of the pharmacokinetics of BSH were small. Final and 1 g data were well correlated and final boron concentrations at BNCT were predictable from 1 g studies. (author)

  2. Prediction of boron concentration in blood from low dose infusion for the patients of BNCT at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, T. [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (JP)] [and others

    2000-10-01

    It is difficult to measure boron concentration in blood during neutron irradiation in BNCT. We have investigated the predictability of boron concentration in blood from the data at 1st craniotomy after low dose BSH infusion. Two patients entered BNCT at JRR2 in 1995/1996, and 5 patients entered BNCT at JRR4 in 1992/2000. The patients include 2 male and 5 female and their age ranged from 20 to 66. In 5 patients 1 g of BSH was infused before 1st tumor removal operation and boron concentrations in blood were examined around this operation. All patients were infused 100 mg/kg of BSH at 12 hours prior to BNCT and boron concentrations were examined before and after BNCT using prompt gamma ray analysis or ICP-AES. Each results showed biphasic pharmacokinetic profile. Personal variations of the pharmacokinetics of BSH were small. Final and 1 g data were well correlated and final boron concentrations at BNCT were predictable from 1 g studies. (author)

  3. Gamma radiation and HZE treatment of seedlings in Arabidopsis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plants exhibit a robust transcriptional response to gamma radiation which includes the induction of transcripts required for homologous recombination and the...

  4. Radiation therapy in the multimodal treatment approach of pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [Klinik am Eichert, Goeppingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology and Radiation Therapy; Radiooncologic Univ. Clinic, Tuebingen (Germany); Kocher, M.; Mueller, R.P. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Radiation Therapy; Kortmann, R.D.; Paulsen, F.; Jeremic, B.; Bamberg, M. [Radiooncologic Univ. Clinic, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, literature will be reviewed to assess the role of modern radiotherapy and radiosurgery in the management of pituitary adenomas. Material and Methods: Nowadays, magnetic resonance imaging for the definition of the target volume and a real three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning with field conformation and the possibility for non-coplanar irradiation has to be recommended. Most groups irradiate these benign tumors with single doses of 1.8-2.0 Gy up to a total dose of 45 Gy or 50.4 Gy in extensive parasellar adenomas. Adenomas are mostly small, well circumscribed lesions, and have, therefore, attracted the use of stereotactically guided high-precision irradiation techniques which allow extreme focussing and provide steep dose gradients with selective treatment of the target and optimal protection of the surrounding brain tissue. Results: Radiation therapy controls tumor growth in 80-98% of patients with non-secreting adenomas and 67-89% for endocrine active tumors. Reviewing the recent literature including endocrine active and non-secreting adenomas, irradiated postoperatively or in case of recurrence the 5-, 10- and 15-year local control rates amount 92%, 89% and 79%. In cases of microprolactinoma primary therapy consists of dopamine agonists. Irradiation should be preferred in patients with macroprolactinomas, when drug therapy and/or surgery failed or for patients medically unsuitable for surgery. Reduction and control of prolactin secretion can be achieved in 44-70% of patients. After radiotherapy in acromegaly patients somatomedin-C and growth hormone concentrations decrease to normal levels in 70-90%, with a decrease rate of 10-30% per year. Hypercortisolism is controlled in 50-83% of adults and 80% of children with Cushing's disease, generally in less than 9 months. Hypopituitarism is the most common side effect of pituitary irradiation with an incidence of 13-56%. Long-term overall risk for brain necrosis in a total of 1,388 analyzed

  5. Effects of gamma-radiation treatment in somatic cell culture of indica rice Basmati 370 selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Shaokai; Qi Xiufang; Xiong Zhenmin; Zhao Chengzhang

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Radiation treatment was applied at different doses to germinating embryo, callus, callus with green spots and callus with developing shoots. Results indicate: (1) induction rate of the callus was reduced with increased radiation dose applied to germinating embryos; (2) radiation effect on redifferentiation percentage and/or green plantlets percentage of the callus varied with different treatment dates in the order of callus treatment > treatment of callus with green spots > treatment of callus with developing shoots > treatment of germinating embryo; (3) in vitro irradiation reduced the fertility of regenerated plants, but was able to increase their exerted stigma rate and the frequency of early maturing variation in their progenies; (4) a number of promising mutants including 2 male sterile plants were obtained from the progenies of in vitro irradiation. The radiation treatment with 2.5-5.OkR to callus with green spots or shoots is a method worthy of adoption in rice improvement. (author)

  6. Explanation of application standards of hematopoietic stimulating factors in the treatment of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai; Wang Guilin; Luo Qingliang

    2012-01-01

    Occupational standard of the Ministry of health-Application Standards of Hematopoietic Stimulating Factors in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Sickness has been completed as a draft standard. Based on the wide study and analysis of related animal experimental literature about hematopoietic stimulating factor in the treatment of acute radiation sickness and domestic and foreign clinical reports about application of hematopoietic stimulating factor in radiation accidents in the past decade, the standard was enacted according to the suggestions of International Atomic Energy Agency and the United States Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group and European countries about the application of hematopoietic stimulating factor. It is mainly used for nuclear accident emergency and the treatment of the bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness caused by radiation accidents. It also applies to other hematopoietic failure diseases. In order to implement this standard correctly, the relevant contents of the standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  7. Radiation therapy in the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Jin; Zhai Renyou

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is very rare worldwide. Radical resection is the only prognostic factor for long survival in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Postoperative radiation therapy can improve local control and survival rates for patients with palliative resection, but it remains controversial in patients with radical resection. Biliary drainage can effectively release bile duct obstruction for the majority of patients with locally advanced disease, and may even prolong survival when combined with radiation therapy. Radiation therapy includes extrernal beam therapy alone, external beam therapy with intraluminal brachytheapy and new radiation technique, such as three dimentional conformal therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. The propective randomized clinical study is needed for further investigation in the role of combined modality therapy especially for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. (authors)

  8. Elimination of Listeria monocytogenes in sausage meat by combination treatment: Radiation and radiation-resistant bacteriocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, Mélanie; Stotz, Viviane; Dupont, Claude; Salmieri, Stéphane; Khan, Ruhul A.; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-08-01

    Two new bacteria were isolated from human feces and were designated MT 104 and MT 162. They were able to produce bacteriocins that are active against five strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocins produced by these isolated strains had 100% and 82.35% residual activity when they were treated by gamma radiation at doses of 4 and 40 kGy, respectively. A reduction of 1.0, 1.5 and 3 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes was observed in sausage meat when treated with bacteriocins from MT 104, MT 162, and nisin, respectively. For synergic effect, the D10 value in presence of the bacteriocins produced by MT 104 showed a 1.08 fold increased relative sensitivity of L. monocytogenes as compared to control after 5 days. The highest synergic effect was observed in presence of nisin which led to 1.61 fold increased relative sensitivity. Combined treatments with nisin and γ-irradiation showed a synergic antimicrobial effect in meat after 24 h and 5 days of storage. A synergic effect was observed only after 5 days at 4 °C for the bacteriocin from MT 104, as compared to the bacteriocin produced by MT 162 that had only an additive antimicrobial effect in all conditions.

  9. Influence of planning time and treatment complexity on radiation therapy errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensheimer, Michael F; Zeng, Jing; Carlson, Joshua; Spady, Phil; Jordan, Loucille; Kane, Gabrielle; Ford, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Radiation treatment planning is a complex process with potential for error. We hypothesized that shorter time from simulation to treatment would result in rushed work and higher incidence of errors. We examined treatment planning factors predictive for near-miss events. Treatments delivered from March 2012 through October 2014 were analyzed. Near-miss events were prospectively recorded and coded for severity on a 0 to 4 scale; only grade 3-4 (potentially severe/critical) events were studied in this report. For 4 treatment types (3-dimensional conformal, intensity modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT], neutron), logistic regression was performed to test influence of treatment planning time and clinical variables on near-miss events. There were 2257 treatment courses during the study period, with 322 grade 3-4 near-miss events. SBRT treatments had more frequent events than the other 3 treatment types (18% vs 11%, P = .04). For the 3-dimensional conformal group (1354 treatments), univariate analysis showed several factors predictive of near-miss events: longer time from simulation to first treatment (P = .01), treatment of primary site versus metastasis (P < .001), longer treatment course (P < .001), and pediatric versus adult patient (P = .002). However, on multivariate regression only pediatric versus adult patient remained predictive of events (P = 0.02). For the intensity modulated radiation therapy, SBRT, and neutron groups, time between simulation and first treatment was not found to be predictive of near-miss events on univariate or multivariate regression. When controlling for treatment technique and other clinical factors, there was no relationship between time spent in radiation treatment planning and near-miss events. SBRT and pediatric treatments were more error-prone, indicating that clinical and technical complexity of treatments should be taken into account when targeting safety interventions. Copyright © 2015 American

  10. Development of reference problems for neutron capture therapy treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, J.R.; Kiger, W.S. III

    2006-01-01

    Currently, 5 different treatment planning systems (TPSs) are or have been used in clinical trials of Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT): MacNCTPlan, NCTPlan, BNCT Rtpe, SERA, and JCDS. This paper describes work performed to comprehensively test and compare 4 of these NCT treatment planning systems in order to facilitate the pooling of patient data from the different clinical sites for analysis of the clinical results as well as to provide an important quality assurance tool for existing and future TPSs. Two different phantoms were used to evaluate the planning systems: the modified Snyder head phantom and a large water-filled box, similar to that used in the International Dosimetry Exchange for NCT. The comparison of the resulting dose profile, isodose contours, and dose volume histograms to reference calculations performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP5 yielded many interesting differences. Each of the planning systems deviated from the reference calculations, with the newer systems (i.e., SERA and NCTPlan) most often yielding better agreement than their predecessors (i.e., BNCT Rtpe and MacNCTPlan). The combination of simple phantoms and sources with more complicated and realistic planning conditions has produced a well-rounded and useful suite of test problems for NCT treatment planning system analysis. (author)

  11. Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma following treatment for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Y.G.; Reif, R.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with radiation-induced fibrosarcoma following mastectomy and postoperative radiation for bilateral breast carcinoma is described. Only six such cases have been reported in the literature. In this patient erosion of the axillary artery produced massive hemorrhage, and emergency transthoracic ligation of the subclavian artery caused gangrene of the extremity and empyema and sepsis. Interscapulothoracic amputation not only was life-saving but offered the patient a reasonable chance for long-term survival. Only aggressive surgical management can salvage a patient with radiation-induced sarcoma

  12. Symptom management during the radiation oncology treatment course: a practical guide for the oncology clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogh, Shannon; Yom, Sue S

    2014-12-01

    Symptom management during radiation therapy is critical to providing high-quality care for patients receiving treatment. Symptoms are varied and dependent on the site irradiated. Common symptoms associated with radiation therapy include dermatitis, xerostomia, mucositis, and pneumonitis. Treatment strategies include prevention, anticipation, and development of clinical practice enabling rapid identification and management of emerging symptoms. Understanding the spectrum of symptomatology affecting irradiated patients is integral to improved quality of life and treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hyaluronic acid as a potential boron carrier for BNCT: Preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaboronok, A; Yamamoto, T; Nakai, K; Yoshida, F; Uspenskii, S; Selyanin, M; Zelenetskii, A; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a nonimmunogenic, biocompatible polymer found in different biological tissues, has the potential to attach to CD44 receptors on the surface of certain cancer cells, where the receptor is overexpressed compared with normal cells. Boron-hyaluronic acid (BHA) was tested for its feasibility as a potential agent for BNCT. BHA with low-viscosity 30 kDa HA could be administered by intravenous injection. The compound showed a certain degree of cytotoxicity and accumulation in C6 rat glioma cells in vitro. Instability of the chelate bonds between boron and HA and/or insufficient specificity of CD44 receptors on C6 cells to BHA could account for the insufficient in vitro accumulation. To ensure the future eligibility of BHA for BNCT experiments, using alternative tumor cell lines and chemically securing the chelate bonds or synthesizing BHA with boron covalently attached to HA might be required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On line local measurement of thermal neutron flux on BNCT patient using SPND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.E.; Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, M.L.; Gonzalez, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The first on-line neutron flux measurement on a patient using a self-powered neutron detector (SPND) was assessed during the fourth clinical trial of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project carried out at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) and the medical center Angel H. Roffo. The SPND was specially developed and assembled for BNCT by CNEA. Its small size, 1 cm sensible length and 1.9 mm diameter, allowed performing a localized measurement. Since the treated tumors were cutaneous melanomas of nodular type, the SPND was located on the patient's skin. The patient was exposed to three different and consecutive fields and in each of them the SPND was used to measure local thermal neutron fluxes at selected dosimetric reference points. The values of the measured fluxes agreed with the ones estimated by calculation. This trial also demonstrated the usefulness of the SPND for assessing flux on-line. (author)

  15. The Phase I/II BNCT Trials at the Brookhaven medical research reactor: Critical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    A phase I/II clinical trial of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) was initiated at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 1994. Many critical issues were considered during the design of the first of many sequential dose escalation protocols. These critical issues included patient selection criteria, boron delivery agent, dose limits to the normal brain, dose escalation schemes for both neutron exposure and boron dose, and fractionation. As the clinical protocols progressed and evaluation of the tolerance of the central nervous system (CNS) to BPA-mediated BNCT at the BMRR continued new specifications were adopted. Clinical data reflecting the progression of the protocols will be presented to illustrate the steps taken and the reasons behind their adoption. (author)

  16. Thermally optimized lithium neutron producing target design for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park Shane; Joo Hyeong Min; Jang Byeong Ill; Jeun, Gyoodong; Kim Jong Kyung; Chai, Jong Seo

    2006-01-01

    In accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction is prevalently used as a neutron source. However, lithium has a very low melting point and poor thermal conductivity. Thus lithium target needs an efficient cooling. In this study, ways of increasing proton beam diameter and slanting target are proposed to reduce the heat density of lithium target. Thermal analysis on the lithium target design shows that water cooling is feasible if the proton beam diameter and target slopes are in the available range of the contour plots generated from this study. On the basis of the thermal analysis, the prototype of target system was designed and manufactured. Full-model thermal analysis and temperature measuring experiment were subsequently performed. The calculated temperature distribution coincided with the contour plots and the experimental results. These results will be used in the manufacture of the prototype accelerator-based BNCT facility at Hanyang University. (author)

  17. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  18. Radiation treatment of materials - elaboration bases of radiation technology; Obrobka radiacyjna materialow - zasady opracowywania technologii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panta, P.P. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The basic rules in design of radiation technologies have been presented and discussed. The recommendations for achieving of assigned goal in respect of obliged regulations have been done and explained on the example of radiation technology of adhesive materials and glue production.

  19. Treatment of Municipal and Industrial Waste by Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the effort in science and technology is shifting from conventional technologies preventing the pollution of air, water and soil, towards processing by gamma or by electron beam (EB) irradiation in order to prevent pollution, rather than curing the problems caused by production processes, which are not optimized with regard to pollution control. Radiation processing may help to improve the environmental situation in two aspects : It provides alternatives to conventional technologies for the cleaning of air, flue gases and water,...etc, and it also helps to realize clean processes for preventing pollution in the first place. This paper will outline the basic principles of radiation processing for waste streams of environmental relevance, will summarize the state-of -the-art in environmental applications of radiation processing to show both the advantages and the limitations of the radiation processing of waste streams, and to highlight the environmental and economic benefits of clean processes made possible by radiation processing applied to municipal and industrial waste. Reference is made to gamma and EB radiation sources, and description of new technologies is presented

  20. Design of a model for BSA to meet free beam parameters for BNCT based on multiplier system for D–T neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasouli, Fatemeh S.; Farhad Masoudi, S.; Kasesaz, Yaser

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The possibility of using natural uranium as a neutron multiplier for D–T neutron generator is examined. ► To optimize output neutron beam, a moderator/filter/reflector arrangement was designed. ► The MCNP4C code has been used for BSA optimization and other simulations. ► The results show that using this system the BNCT in-air recommended parameters are met. - Abstract: Extensive research has recently been carried out for the development of high-energy D–T neutron generators as neutron sources for BNCT. The energy of these high-energy neutrons must be reduced by designing a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) to make them usable for BNCT. However, the neutron flux decreases drastically as neutrons pass through different materials of BSA. Therefore, it is very important to find ways to treat the neutrons economically. In this paper the possibility of using natural uranium as a neutron multiplier is investigated in order to increase the number of neutrons emitted from D–T neutron generator. According to the simulations and performed calculations, a sphere containing natural uranium as neutron multiplier was used to increase the number of neutrons generated by the D–T neutron generator. The energy of fast neutrons that are generated by D–T fusion reaction and amplified by neutron multiplier system is decreased using proper materials as moderators and fast neutron filters in BSA. The gamma rays which are generated as a result of neutron interaction with moderators are removed from neutron spectrum using bismuth as the gamma filter. Also, a thermal neutron absorber omits undesired low-energy neutrons which lead to a high radiation dose for the skin and soft tissues. The results show that passing neutrons through such a BSA causes the establishment of free beam parameters yet the reduction of the output beam intensity is unavoidable. The neutron spectrum related to our BSA has a proper epithermal flux and the fast and thermal neutron fluxes are

  1. BNCT enhanced fast neutron therapy: in vitro studies for preparing a clinical trial at the Essen cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, A.; Sauerwein, W.; Hideghety, K.; Poeller, F.; Pignol, J.P.; Mueller, W.

    2000-01-01

    At the University Hospital Essen a cyclotron producing d(14)+Be fast neutrons is used routinely for patient treatment. Fast neutrons have demonstrated their potential to sterilize glioblastoma but could not show a clinical benefit because of lethal damages to healthy brain. At depth, fast neutrons are thermalized allowing neutron capture reactions, which can be used to enhance the applied dose. A selective increase of the dose to the tumor cells by BNCT may offer a chance to an effective treatment. In order to prepare a clinical trial in vitro experiments were performed. MeWo cells were irradiated in a tissue equivalent phantom at a depth of 6.5 cm. 91% 10 B enriched BSH was used to generate BNC effects. For a total dose of 1 Gy the thermal fluence rate was 3.4x10 10 cm -2 . An amount of 960 ppm 10 B present in the cell medium during irradiation led to a reduction of the cell survival from 3.6% (neutron alone) to 0.2%. If the irradiation was performed after incubation of the cells in BSH, but in a medium without BSH the survival was 1.6%. The in vitro set up demonstrates the capacity of BSH to considerably increase the biological effects of the neutron irradiation and add arguments for the opening of a clinical trial. (author)

  2. In vivo tyrosinase mini-gene transfer enhances killing effect of BNCT on amelanotic melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, H.; Mishima, Y. [Mishima Institute for Dermatological Research, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Hiratsuka, J. [Kawasaki Medical School, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Iwakura, M. [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    Using accentuated melanogenesis principally occurring within melanoma cells, we have successfully treated human malignant melanoma (Mm) with {sup 10}B-BPA BNCT. Despite this success, there are still remaining issues for poorly melanogenic Mm and further non-pigment cell tumors. We found the selective accumulation of {sup 10}B-BPA to Mm is primarily due to the complex formation of BPA and melanin-monomers activity synthesized within Mm cells. Then, we succeeded in transferring the tyrosinase gene into amelanotic to substantially produce melanin monomers. These cells has demonstrated increased boron accumulation and enhanced killing effect of BNCT. Further, transfection of TRP-2 (DOPAchrome tautomerase) gene into poorly eumelanotic and slightly phenomelanotic Mm cells in culture cell systems also led to increased BPA accumulation. Thereafter, we studied in vivo gene transfer. We transferred the tyrosinase mini-gene by intra-tumor injection into poorly melanotic Mm proliferating subcutaneously in hamster skin, and performed BNCT. Compared to control tumors, gene-transferred tumors showed increased BPA accumulation leading to enhanced killing effect. (author)

  3. Hyaluronic acid as a potential boron carrier for BNCT: Preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaboronok, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakai, K.; Yoshida, F.; Uspenskii, S.; Selyanin, M.; Zelenetskii, A.; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a nonimmunogenic, biocompatible polymer found in different biological tissues, has the potential to attach to CD44 receptors on the surface of certain cancer cells, where the receptor is overexpressed compared with normal cells. Boron–hyaluronic acid (BHA) was tested for its feasibility as a potential agent for BNCT. BHA with low-viscosity 30 kDa HA could be administered by intravenous injection. The compound showed a certain degree of cytotoxicity and accumulation in C6 rat glioma cells in vitro. Instability of the chelate bonds between boron and HA and/or insufficient specificity of CD44 receptors on C6 cells to BHA could account for the insufficient in vitro accumulation. To ensure the future eligibility of BHA for BNCT experiments, using alternative tumor cell lines and chemically securing the chelate bonds or synthesizing BHA with boron covalently attached to HA might be required. - Highlights: • Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a nonimmunogenic, biocompatible polymer. • Boron–HA (BHA) acid can contain a large number of boron atoms for BNCT. • Active targeting can be realized with CD44 and other HA receptors on tumor cells. • BHA showed a certain degree of toxicity against C6 tumor cells and V79 fibroblasts. • BHA was injected into rats via the tail vein, boron was detected in tumors in vivo.

  4. Combination of surgery and radiation in the treatment of cancer. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, D.A.; Thrall, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Although radiation and surgery have been combined for the treatment of cancer in humans and animals since the 1920s, little has been written about the methods of combining radiation and surgery and the efficacy of this combination for the treatment of animal tumors. This article reviews the rationale for combining radiation and surgery for the treatment of cancer and the ways in which these two modalities can be combined with emphasis placed on the advantages and disadvantages of preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy. The role of preoperative and postoperative irradiation for the treatment of various animal tumors is discussed. Directions for future clinical trials are pointed out. Finally, the importance of surgeons and radiation oncologists communicating with each other and participating in cooperative treatment methods is stressed. 36 references

  5. Desain Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA berbasis D-D Neutron Generator 2,45 MeV untuk Uji Fasilitas BNCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desman P. Gulo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT is one of the cancer treatments that are being developed in nowadays. In order to support BNCT treatment for cancer that exists in underneath skin like breast cancer, the facility needs a generator that is able to produce epithermal neutron. One of the generator that is able to produce neutron is D-D neutron generator with 2.45 MeV energy. Based on the calculation of this paper, we found that the total production of neutron per second (neutron yield from Neutron Generator (NG by PSTA-BATAN Yogyakarta is 2.55×1011 n/s. The energy and flux that we found is in the range of quick neutron. Thus, it needs to be moderated to the level of epithermal neutron which is located in the interval energy of 1 eV to 10 KeV with 109 n/cm2s flux. This number is the recommendation standard from IAEA. Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA is needed in order to moderate the quick neutron to the level of epithermal neutron. One part of BSA that has the responsibility in moderating the quick neutron to epithermal neutron is the moderator. The substance of moderator used in this paper is MgF2 and A1F3. The thickness of moderator has been set in in such a way by using MCNPX software in order to fulfill the standard of IAEA. As the result of optimizing BSA moderator, the data obtain epithermal flux with the total number of 4.64×108 n/cm2/s for both of moderators with the thickness of moderator up to 15 cm. At the end of this research, the number of epithermal flux does not follow the standard of IAEA. This is because the flux neutron that is being produced by NG is relatively small. In conclusion, the NG from PSTA-BATAN Yogyakarta is not ready to be used for the BNCT treatment facility for the underneath skin cancer like breast cancer.

  6. A new on-board imaging treatment technique for palliative and emergency treatments in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Mareike

    2016-03-23

    This dissertation focuses on the use of on-board imaging systems as the basis for treatment planning, presenting an additional application for on-board images. A clinical workflow is developed to simulate, plan, and deliver a simple radiation oncology treatment rapidly, using 3D patient scans. The work focuses on an on-line dose planning and delivery process based on on-board images entirely performed with the patient set up on the treatment couch of the linear accelerator. This potentially reduces the time between patient simulation and treatment to about 30 minutes. The basis for correct dose calculation is the accurate image gray scale to tissue density calibration. The gray scale, which is defined in CT Numbers, is dependent on the energy spectrum of the beam. Therefore, an understanding of the physics characteristics of each on-board system is required to evaluate the impact on image quality, especially regarding the underlying cause of image noise, contrast, and non-uniformity. Modern on-board imaging systems, including kV and megavoltage (MV) cone beam (CB) CT as well as MV CT, are characterized in terms of image quality and stability. A library of phantom and patient CT images is used to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy for the on-board images. The dose calculation objective is to stay within 5% local dose differences compared to standard kV CT dose planning. The objective is met in many treatment cases. However, dose calculation accuracy depends on the anatomical treatment site. While on-board CT-based treatments of the head and extremities are predictable within 5% on all systems, lung tissue and air cavities may create local dose discrepancies of more than 5%. The image quality varies between the tested units. Consequently, the CT number-to-density calibration is defined independently for each system. In case of some imaging systems, the CT numbers of the images are dependent on the protocol used for on-board imaging, which defines the imaging dose

  7. Hypo-fractionated radiation, magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia and a viral immunotherapy treatment of spontaneous canine cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, P. Jack; Moodie, Karen L.; Petryk, Alicia A.; Petryk, James D.; Sechrist, Shawntel; Gladstone, David J.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Veliz, Frank A.; Bursey, Alicea A.; Wagner, Robert J.; Rajan, Ashish; Dugat, Danielle; Crary-Burney, Margaret; Fiering, Steven N.

    2017-02-01

    It has recently been shown that cancer treatments such as radiation and hyperthermia, which have conventionally been viewed to have modest immune based anti-cancer effects, may, if used appropriately stimulate a significant and potentially effective local and systemic anti-cancer immune effect (abscopal effect) and improved prognosis. Using eight spontaneous canine cancers (2 oral melanoma, 3 oral amelioblastomas and 1 carcinomas), we have shown that hypofractionated radiation (6 x 6 Gy) and/or magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (2 X 43°C / 45 minutes) and/or an immunogenic virus-like nanoparticle (VLP, 2 x 200 μg) are capable of delivering a highly effective cancer treatment that includes an immunogenic component. Two tumors received all three therapeutic modalities, one tumor received radiation and hyperthermia, two tumors received radiation and VLP, and three tumors received only mNP hyperthermia. The treatment regimen is conducted over a 14-day period. All patients tolerated the treatments without complication and have had local and distant tumor responses that significantly exceed responses observed following conventional therapy (surgery and/or radiation). The results suggest that both hypofractionated radiation and hyperthermia have effective immune responses that are enhanced by the intratumoral VLP treatment. Molecular data from these tumors suggest Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 70/90, calreticulin and CD47 are targets that can be exploited to enhance the local and systemic (abscopal effect) immune potential of radiation and hyperthermia cancer treatment.

  8. Radiation protection in brachytherapic treatment of prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannino, G.; Bona, R.; Occhipinti, A. [Catania Univ. Hospital, ' Vittorio Emanuele, Ferrarotto e Santo Bambino' (Italy); Testagrossa, B.; Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G. [Messina Univ., Dept. of Protezionistica Ambientale, Sanitaria, Sociale ed Industriale (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate absorbed doses for medical staff and general public deriving from prostate brachytherapy with I-125 seeds. Methods And Materials: Radiation exposure measurements were made for staff and on a subset of 64 patients of the 100 trans perineal I-125 implanted seeds implants at the Vittorio Emanuele, Ferrarotto e Santo Bambino Universitary Hospital. Results: Absorbed doses for operators are very low when using radiation safety devices. The exposure rate at the anterior skin surface due to I-125 implanted seeds ranged from 32 to 120 {mu}Sv/hour. Conclusions: The evaluation of dose measurements shows that radiation risk associated to this practice is very low, both for staff that for critical group of population, if they follow the specific radioprotection statements supplied by health physicists. (authors)

  9. Radiation protection in brachytherapic treatment of prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannino, G.; Bona, R.; Occhipinti, A.; Testagrossa, B.; Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate absorbed doses for medical staff and general public deriving from prostate brachytherapy with I-125 seeds. Methods And Materials: Radiation exposure measurements were made for staff and on a subset of 64 patients of the 100 trans perineal I-125 implanted seeds implants at the Vittorio Emanuele, Ferrarotto e Santo Bambino Universitary Hospital. Results: Absorbed doses for operators are very low when using radiation safety devices. The exposure rate at the anterior skin surface due to I-125 implanted seeds ranged from 32 to 120 μSv/hour. Conclusions: The evaluation of dose measurements shows that radiation risk associated to this practice is very low, both for staff that for critical group of population, if they follow the specific radioprotection statements supplied by health physicists. (authors)

  10. Effect of distance to radiation treatment facility on use of radiation therapy after mastectomy in elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punglia, Rinaa S.; Weeks, Jane C.; Neville, Bridget A.; Earle, Craig C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to study the effect of distance to the nearest radiation treatment facility on the use of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in elderly women. Methods and Materials: Using data from the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare (SEER-Medicare) database, we analyzed 19,787 women with Stage I or II breast cancer who received mastectomy as definitive surgery during 1991 to 1999. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of distance with receipt of PMRT after adjusting for clinical and sociodemographic factors. Results: Overall 2,075 patients (10.5%) treated with mastectomy received PMRT. In addition to cancer and patient characteristics, in our primary analysis, increasing distance to the nearest radiation treatment facility was independently associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving PMRT (OR 0.996 per additional mile, p = 0.01). Secondary analyses revealed that the decline in PMRT use appeared at distances of more than 25 miles and was statistically significant for those patients living more than 75 miles from the nearest radiation facility (odds of receiving PMRT of 0.58 [95% CI 0.34-0.99] vs. living within 25 miles of such a facility). The effect of distance on PMRT appeared to be more pronounced with increasing patient age (>75 years). Variation in the effect of distance on radiation use between regions of the country and nodal status was also identified. Conclusions: Oncologists must be cognizant of the potential barrier to quality care that is posed by travel distance, especially for elderly patients; and policy makers should consider this fact in resource allocation decisions about radiation treatment centers

  11. Elementary particle treatment of the radiative muon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmitro, M.; Ovchinnikova, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Radiative nucleon-capture amplitudes have been constructed for the 12 C(O + ) → 12 B(1 + ) and 16 O(O + ) → 16 N(2 - ) transitions using assumptions about the conservation of electromagnetic and weak hadronic currents supplemented by a dynamical hypothesis. The nucleus is treated as an elementary particle and therefore is completely defined by its charge e, magnetic moment μ, spin J and parity π. In this case the radiative amplitude obtained in the framework of perturbation theory with minimal coupling sometimes does not satisfy the CVC and PCAC conditions and it can be even gauge noninvariant. The method considered allows one to overcome these shortcomings. (G.M.)

  12. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Jotham [Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  13. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonett, Jotham

    2015-01-01

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department

  14. Development of liquid-lithium film jet-flow for the target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reactions for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tooru; Miura, Kuniaki; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Aritomi, Masanori

    2014-06-01

    A feasibility study on liquid lithium target in the form of a flowing film was performed to evaluate its potential use as a neutron generation target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction in BNCT. The target is a windowless-type flowing film on a concave wall. Its configuration was adapted for a proton beam which is 30mm in diameter and with energy and current of up to 3MeV and 20mA, respectively. The flowing film of liquid lithium was 0.6mm in thickness, 50mm in width and 50mm in length. The shapes of the nozzle and concave back wall, which create a stable flowing film jet, were decided based on water experiments. A lithium hydrodynamic experiment was performed to observe the stability of liquid lithium flow behavior. The flowing film of liquid lithium was found to be feasible at temperatures below the liquid lithium boiling saturation of 342°C at the surface pressure of 1×10(-3)Pa. Using a proto-type liquid lithium-circulating loop for BNCT, the stability of the film flow was confirmed for velocities up to 30m/s at 220°C and 250°C in vacuum at a pressure lower than 10(-3) Pa. It is expected that for practical use, a flowing liquid lithium target of a windowless type can solve the problem of radiation damage and target cooling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An evaluation of the use of gamma radiation in sewage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhote, P.A.; Clouston, J.G.; Ford, G.W.K.; Gregory, J.N.

    1974-12-01

    Literature evaluating the potential use of gamma radiation for the treatment of sewage is critically reviewed. It is concluded that irradiation treatment cannot contribute significantly to the improvement of conventional processes for sewage water recovery. Irradiation methods at present have no cost or technical advantage, and no proven biological advantage over known treatment systems. (author)

  16. 21 CFR 179.39 - Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... water Without ozone production; coefficient of absorption, 0.19 per cm or less; flow rate, 100 gal/h per... treatment of food. 179.39 Section 179.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... processing and treatment of food. Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food may be...

  17. Intensity modulated radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Treatment technique and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan James Rao, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: IMRT for vulvar cancer is associated with high rates of LRC in the postoperative setting and limited radiation-related toxicity. Durable LRC of disease after definitive IMRT remains challenging, and several refinements to our treatment technique are suggested.

  18. Radiation therapy in complex treatment for stage III breast cancer with reconstructive plastic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baknazarov, Z.P.; Aripkhodzhaeva, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Post-operative radiation therapy in patients with stage III breast cancer on the third month after reconstructive plastic surgery allows to eliminate scar deformities of the organ and does not aggravate the treatment results when compared with mastectomized patients.

  19. Institutional experience in the treatment of colorectal liver metastases with stereotactic body radiation therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Méndez Romero, Alejandra; Keskin-Cambay, Fatma; van Os, Rob M.; Nuyttens, Joost J.; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Ijzermans, Jan N. M.; Verhoef, Cornelis

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the impact of dose escalation in our patient population represented an improvement in local control without increasing treatment related toxicity. A cohort of consecutive patients with colorectal liver metastases treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) between

  20. Radiation treatment of herb tea for the reduction of microbial contamination (Flores chamomillae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katusin-Razem, B.; Razem, D.; Dvornik, I.; Matic, S.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of microbiological contamination of dried chamomile flowers indicates the presence of thermophilic bacteria up to the level of 10 4 per gram. This material often contains insecticides which have been used to reduce post-harvest losses. This work was undertaken in order to study the feasibility of radiation treatment of dried chamomile flowers as the only acceptable process for reduction of microbial contamination and as an alternative to chemical treatment. The main microbial contaminants were identified and typical contamination levels established. Survival curves of the irradiated microflora were obtained as a function of gamma radiation dose. Chemical composition of chamomile oil was followed by spectroscopy, thin layer and gas chromatography. No untoward effects of radiation treatment on active components were found, which indicates the usefulness of radiation treatment of dry flowers. (author)

  1. Radiation treatment of herb tea for the reduction of microbial contamination (Flores chamomillae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katušin-Ražem, B.; Ražem, D.; Dvornik, I.; Matić, S.

    A survey of microbiological contamination of dried chamomile flowers indicates the presence of thermophilic bacteria up to the level of 10 4 per gram. This material often contains insecticides which have been used to reduce post-harvest losses. This work was undertaken in order to study the feasibility of radiation treatment of dried chamomile flowers as the only acceptable process for reduction of microbial contamination and as an alternative to chemical treatment. The main microbial contaminants were identified and typical contamination levels established. Survival curves of the irradiated microflora were obtained as a function of gamma radiation dose. Chemical composition of chamomile oil was followed by spectroscopy, thin layer and gas chromatography. No untoward effects of radiation treatment on active components were found, which indicates the usefulness of radiation treatment of dry flowers.

  2. Experimental injuries to the skin through ionizing radiations and their treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, R.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the author presents work forming part of research initiated treatment of injuries in animals caused by a dose of ionizing radiations using a mucoprotein complex with skin regeneration power. (Author)

  3. Current Status of Treatment of Radiation Injury in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jarrett, D. G; Sedlak, R. G; Dickerson, W. E

    2005-01-01

    ... on i) historical data, ii) animal research, and iii) human results derived from present medical treatment such as the care provided to cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy or chemotherapy...

  4. Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hälg, R A; Besserer, J; Boschung, M; Mayer, S; Lomax, A J; Schneider, U

    2014-05-21

    In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small.

  5. Radiation therapy treatment planning for tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    It is essential to attempt to minimize the effect of radiation on the normal brain and spinal cord in treatment planning. The central nervous system was thought to be resistant to radiation; however, as data have accumulated concerning the late effects of radiation the nervous system has been shown to be more sensitive. Recently the late effects of radiation on the spinal cord have been evaluated and it has been shown the sensitivity of this portion of the nervous system to high doses of radiation and has pointed out the importance of fractionation. It is estimated that the spinal cord increases its sensitivity by 1.6 by increasing the dose per fraction from 2. to 3 Gy. Likewise, the sensitivity of the optic nerve to radiation has been reported particularly when the size of the fraction is greater than 2 Gy. In treatment planning, therefore, the size of the dose given per fraction is important in the initial part of the planning procedure. In order to keep the dose per fraction to a minimum (2 Gy or less), multiple fields may be used to minimize the dose gradient in the high dose area. When treating with multiple fields it is wise to treat each field every day. In planning treatment not only must one consider the normal brain and spinal cord but one must also consider the radiosensitivity of other surrounding organs. The eye, particularly the lens, should be avoided if possible in order to prevent the formation of a radiation cataract. The salivary gland is sensitive to radiation and the ear has recently been reported to have some sensitivity to high doses of radiation. When planning treatment for the spinal cord one must consider the sensitivity of the cord itself and as well as the effect of radiation on the bone marrow in the vertebral bodies adjacent to the spinal cord. The heat, the lungs, and organs in the abdomen must also be considered in planning treatment on the torso

  6. Experimental treatment of radiation pneumonitis with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhu, Chang-zheng; Qiao, Ping; Liu, Jian; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Kui-jie; Zhao, Ting-bao

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate of the curative effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) on rat acute radiation pneumonitis. Fourty rats were randomly divided into control group, radiation group, stem cell prevention group, stem cell treatment group and prednisone treatment group. All rats except those in the control group were radiated with X ray to establish the acute radiation pneumonitis damage model. The hUC-MSCs cultured in vitro was administrated to the rats of the prevention group via tail vein (1×10(6) cells/kg BW) 24 h before the radiation, while the same administration was performed in the rats of the treatment group 24 h after the radiation. After 24 h post the radiation, the rats in the radiation group were given 0.4 mL physiological saline, and those in the prednisone group were given 1 mg/kg prednisone. All rats were observed and executed 72 h after the radiation to detect lung histological changes. After the administration of hUC-MSCs, the survival status of the rats in the prevention group and treatment group was obviously better than that in the control group. As shown by the histological staining, the morphology, proliferation activity and bronchial state of lung tissues were better in the prevention group and treatment group than in the control group. The hUC-MSCs have definite therapeutic effects on acute radiation pneumonitis in rats. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing Toxicity of Radiation Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    focused on exploring the potential of pharmacological inhibitors of NF-κB activity and glycogen synthase kinase(GSK)3 to provide radiation...covalently modify the sulfhydryl groups of free cysteines on proteins (referred to ascysteine modifying agents (CMAs)); these include RTA 408 and

  8. Treatment of onychomycosis using radiation of excimer laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urzová, J.; Jelínek, Miroslav; Mikšovský, Jan; Kymplová, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 647, JAN (2013), s. 636-641 ISSN 1022-6680 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : excimer laser * UV-C radiation * nails * onychomycosis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  9. Successful treatment of radiation cystitis with hyperbaric oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkmans, B. G.; Bakker, D. J.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Kurth, K. H.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the results of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in 10 patients with radiation-induced cystitis. Severe macroscopic hematuria was present in all patients and was resistant to current therapy. Previously 8 patients had been treated for bladder carcinoma and 2 for prostatic carcinoma

  10. The role of radiation therapy in multimodality treatment for renal-cell cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikoz, N.G.; Kudryashov, O.G.; Ponomar'ov, V.V.; Osipenkov, R.A.; Anyishchenko, A.O.; Kudryashova, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the results of multimodality treatment for renal-cell cancer (pT any, N any, M0) using pre- operative large-fraction irradiation. Our findings demonstrate that radiation therapy does not aggravate the conditions for surgery and improves long-term results. The data about efficacy of multimodality treatment (palliative nephrectomy with radiation therapy) in patients with primary metastatic kidney cancer T any, N any, M1) are also reported.

  11. Prospects for use of radiation for metal and alloy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovskij, E.A.; Krasnoshchekov, M.M.; Pereverzev, D.D.

    1978-01-01

    Analyzed were the prospects for electron and neutron irradiation application for metal and alloy heat treatment. Advantages of such treatment are as follows: possibility of local treatments; possibility of production of surface hardened layers with differentiated characteristics; decrease in heat treatment time; improvement of characteristics of diffusion and electrolytic coatings; possibility of metal treatment in gaseous or liquid medium; improvement of strength and antifrictional characteristics of metals etc. These advantages show application prospects for the treatment method with irradiation for the increase of durability of carburized and sulphidized surfaces of pieces, of various electrolytic coatings and non-hardening metal friction surfaces

  12. Application of 10BSH entrapped transferrin-PEG-liposome to boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) for solid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, K.; Ishida, O.; Iwatsuru, M.; Yanagie, H.; Eriguchi, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    2000-01-01

    The successful treatment of cancer by BNCT requires the selective concentration of 10 B within malignant tumor cells. Intracellular targeting ability and cytotoxic effects of 10 B entrapped TF-PEG-liposomes, in which TF is covalently linked to the distal terminal of PEG chains on the external surface of PEG-liposomes, were examined in Colon 26 tumor-bearing mice. TF-PEG-liposomes readily bound to tumor cells in vivo, and were internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis. 10 B-PEG-liposomes and 10 B-TF-PEG-liposomes showed prolonged residence time in the circulation and low RES uptake in tumor-bearing mice, resulting in enhanced extravasation of the liposomes into the solid tumor tissue and reached high level of 10 B content in tumor. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with 10 B-PEG-liposomes or 10 B-TF-PEG-liposome, tumor growth was suppressed relative to controls. These results suggest that intravenous injection of 10 B TF-PEG-liposome can increase the intracellular retention of 10 B atoms, which were introduced by receptor mediated endocytosis after binding, causing tumor growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. (author)

  13. The BNCT resistant fraction of cancer cells. An in vitro morphologic and cytofluorimetric study on a rat coloncarcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, C.; Clerici, A.M.; Mazzini, G.

    2006-01-01

    Given the high efficacy of the BNCT treatment, recurrences reasonably depends on the failure of a cell fraction to uptake and retain adequate levels of boronated compounds. Aim of this study is to identify, quantify and characterize the resistant cell fraction relative to the delivered boron concentration. Experiments were performed on the DHD/K12/TRb line by means of cytofluorimetric DNA analysis, plating efficiency and morphologic observations. Cells were incubated with p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 ppm for 18 h. Following neutron exposure, cells were reseeded for subsequent morphologic observations, counting and DNA analysis. Samples of irradiated cells not BPA enriched and non-irradiated cells with and without boron were compared with them. After 24 hs there were no differences among the four conditions, in terms of number of recovered cells, morphology and cell cycle distribution. Starting from 48 hs and up to 7 days BPA irradiated cells showed growth in dimensions, important cell number reduction and multiclonal DNA profile worsening with time. After 9 days normally sized cell clones appeared confirming the presence of a resistant cell fraction able to restore the original cell population after 21 days. The incidence of surviving cells turned out to be in the range 0,026-0,05%. (author)

  14. Response of the 9L rat brain tumor to combination treatment with radiation and bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Vats, T.S.; Morantz, R.A.; Henderson, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of combined modality treatment with radiation therapy and bleomycin was investigated in rats burdened with the intracerebral 9L bliosarcoma. Both radiation (single or fractioned exposures) and bleomycin (injected intracerebrally directly into the tumor region) are effective in prolonging survival when used as single agents. Bleomycin (1.0 mg/kg/week) combined with low-dose radiation therapy (15.3 By in 6 fractions in 2 weeks) prolonged survival over that of radiation alone, but not to the extent of high-dose radiation therapy (30.6 Gy in the same schedule). Bleomycin was effective whether given simultaneously or following fractionated radiation therapy - the important factor being delivery of radiation therapy early in the disease process. The greatest enhancement in survival caused by combination therapy compared to that by single agent therapy was observed when single exposure radiation therapy (20 Gy) followed single bleomycin administration by 4 hr. These results suggest the possibility of using bleomycin as an adjunct to radiation therapy for the treatment of patients with malignant brain tumors

  15. Treatment of advanced cervical carcinoma with combined radiation therapy and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, J.J.K.; Seong, J.S.; Suh, C.O.; Kim, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    Between May 1985 and December 1987, 36 patients with locally advanced (group 1, N = 21) or recurrent cervical carcinoma after curative surgery (group 2, N = 6) or radiation therapy (group 3, N = 9), who were all thought to be refractory to conventional treatment, were treated with combined radiation therapy and hyperthermia. Eight megahertz radio frequency capacitive type of hyperthermia was used. Temperature was measured by inserting a thermocouple through the vaginal fornix, and an attempt was made to maintain 40 0 C or above for 30-50 minutes. External radiation therapy was combined with a total tumor dose of 54-65 Gy in 32 patients, and high-dose-rate intracavitary radiation was added in some cases. Hyperthermia was given twice a week, with a total of four to ten treatments. Chemotherapy was added in two cases, and chemotherapy and hyperthermia without radiation therapy was given in two cases

  16. Influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants: A literature study. Pt. 9. Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, L.; Schuettler, C.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Sterilization of medical aid articles (e.g. catheters, one-way syringes) with ionizing radiation is a successful practice in many countries. During recent years, the results from numerous experiments of radiosterillization of pharmaceuticals and adjuvants have likewise been published. Experience has shown that radiation treatment, in many cases, is leading to transformations of the irradiated substances. In the present part IX of the bibliographic study on the influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants the results of experiments on ca. 80 substances from 36 different sources have been evaluated. In all parts of the study results of about 560 experiments on 360 substances from 176 different sources are present. (orig.)

  17. Indications for radiation therapy and surgery in the treatment of fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, M.A.; Jennings, L.C.; Efird, J.T.; Mankin, H.J.; Springfield, D.S.; Gebhardt, M.C.; Spiro, I.J.; Rosenberg, A.E.; Suit, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the roles of radiation and surgery in treating fibromatosis (desmoid tumors). Methods and Materials: Records of 92 patients treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1971 and 1992 were analyzed. Treatment consisted of: radiation, 15 tumors; surgery, 37 tumors; radiation plus surgery, 40 tumors. Radiation doses ranged from 10 Gy to 72 Gy, and were delivered as megavoltage external beam, brachytherapy or a combination. Minimum follow up was 1 year (median 6.2 yrs). The margin status of resected specimens included: 14 negative, 11 negative at 18 yrs and 0% for age <18 yrs. Conclusions: Surgery remains the primary treatment of choice for fibromatosis. Radiation therapy, however, is also effective either as a primary treatment or a surgical adjuvent. Additional advantage in recurrence free survival with peri-operative treatment was seen in patients for whom negative margins were not achieved. Thus, radiation might be recommended to these patients, particularly if the lesion is located such that further recurrence and resection could result in a significant functional or cosmetic defect. Radiation would also be recommended as a primary therapy for those in which a primary resection could not be expected without such deficits. It should also be noted when considering the potential consequences of recurrence that these lesions may often fail locally even with negative margins. Of further interest lesions located in the planter or palmer regions appear as a different disease entity, with a very benign course in adults and an extremely aggressive course in children

  18. Malignant mesothelioma after radiation treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Burgers, Jacobus A; Baas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a relatively uncommon malignancy. Although the pathogenesis is primarily related to asbestos, the disease may be associated with radiation exposure. Recently, increased risks for second primary mesothelioma after radiation for lymphoma have been reported. Because...... these findings are based on small numbers of patients, they need to be confirmed. We examined mesothelioma risk in 2567 5-year survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma. The risk was almost 30-fold increased in Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated with irradiation compared with the general population. Although histology...... and survival of the mesothelioma cases were comparable with cases from the general population, asbestos exposure and the proportion of males were lower than expected. The evidence for radiotherapy as cause for mesothelioma independent of exposure to asbestos is expanding, and the diagnosis of mesothelioma...

  19. Hypofractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of feline facial squamous cell carcinoma; Hypofractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of feline facial squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, S.C.S.; Corgozinho, K.B.; Holguin, P.G.; Ferreira, A.M.R., E-mail: simonecsc@gmail.co [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, L.A.V. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Canary, P.C.; Reisner, M. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, A.N.; Souza, H.J.M. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The efficacy of hypofractionated radiation protocol for feline facial squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated. Hypofractionated radiation therapy was applied to five cats showing single or multiple facial squamous cell carcinomas, in a total of ten histologically confirmed neoplastic lesions. Of the lesions, two were staged as T{sub 1}, four as T{sub 2}, two as T{sub 3}, and two as T{sub 4}. The animals were submitted to four radiation fractions from 7.6 to 10 grays each, with one week intervals. The equipment was a linear accelerator with electrons beam. The cats were evaluated weekly during the treatment and 30 and 60 days after the end of the radiation therapy. In this study, 40% of the lesions had complete remission, 40% partial remission, and 20% did not respond to the treatment. Response rates were lower as compared to other protocols previously used. However, hypofractionated radiation protocol was considered safe for feline facial squamous cell carcinoma. (author)

  20. Advancements and Personalization of Breast Cancer Treatment Strategies in Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Meena S

    2018-01-01

    Significant technologic advances in radiation treatment delivery now allow for more personalized delivery considerations which incorporate individual patient characteristics (such as tumor location and patient anatomy) and more precise delivery in the breast conservation or post-mastectomy setting. The combined advancements with other treatment modalities (i.e., systemic therapy, surgical management) have had direct effects on local-regional management and outcomes such that currently, local-regional relapses after definitive treatment for localized disease are now rarely experienced. Recent advances in the radiation therapy field have come from careful patient selection for a variety of three-dimensional treatment delivery techniques and alternatives to conventional tangential radiation. These advances have been demonstrated to diminished acute/long-term toxicity, minimized dose to surrounding normal tissue structures such as the heart and lung, and ultimately result in an improvement in the therapeutic ratio for radiation treatment. This chapter discusses recent radiation innovations and appropriate patient selection for their application, for a more personalized approach to radiation therapy for breast cancer patients.

  1. The hamster cheek pouch (HCP) as an experimental model of oral cancer for BNCT: biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreimann, E.; Itoiz, M.E.; Dagrosa, A.; Garavaglia, R.; Farias, S.; Batistoni, D.; Schwint, A.E. [National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentina)

    2000-10-01

    We propose and validate the HCP model of oral cancer for BNCT studies. This model serves to explore new applications of the technique, study the biology of BNCT and assess Boron uptake in clinically relevant oral tissues. Tumors are induced by a process that mimics spontaneous malignant transformation instead of by the growth of implanted tumor cells. Syrian hamsters were submitted to tumor induction with a chemical carcinogenesis protocol and then used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies of BPA. The data reveal selective uptake by tumor and, to a lesser degree, by precancerous tissue. Boron concentration in oral tissues and skin was higher than in blood, an issue of clinical relevance given that these tissues may be dose-limiting. Absolute and relative values of Boron concentration would be potentially therapeutic. Boron concentration exhibited a linear relationship with percentage of viable tissue in HCP tumors. The HCP model would provide a novel, contributory approach to BNCT research. (author)