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Sample records for bnct radiation treatment

  1. BNCT-RTPE: BNCT radiation treatment planning environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessol, D.E.; Wheeler, F.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Fall, ID (United States); Babcock, R.S. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Several improvements have been developed for the BNCT radiation treatment planning environment (BNCT-Rtpe) during 1994. These improvements have been incorporated into Version 1.0 of BNCT-Rtpe which is currently installed at the INEL, BNL, Japanese Research Center (JRC), and Finland`s Technical Research Center. Platforms supported by this software include Hewlett-Packard (HP), SUN, International Business Machines (IBM), and Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI). A draft version of the BNCT-Rtpe user manual is available. Version 1.1 of BNCT-Rtpe is scheduled for release in March 1995. It is anticipated that Version 2.x of BNCT-Rtpe, which includes the nonproprietary NURBS library and data structures, will be released in September 1995.

  2. Radiation Dosimetry in the BNCT Patient Treatment Room at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BMRR was a 3 MW light water reactor that had an epithermal neutron beam that was used to perform clinical trials on patients with malignant brain tumors. A series of measurements and calculations had been performed in the treatment room both prior to the trials and during the trials. The details of the measurements and the Monte Carlo calculations are presented and compared.

  3. Voxel model in BNCT treatment planning: performance analysis and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sara J.; Carando, Daniel G.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Zamenhof, Robert G.

    2005-02-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been made to study the performance of treatment planning systems in deriving an accurate dosimetry of the complex radiation fields involved in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The computational model of the patient's anatomy is one of the main factors involved in this subject. This work presents a detailed analysis of the performance of the 1 cm based voxel reconstruction approach. First, a new and improved material assignment algorithm implemented in NCTPlan treatment planning system for BNCT is described. Based on previous works, the performances of the 1 cm based voxel methods used in the MacNCTPlan and NCTPlan treatment planning systems are compared by standard simulation tests. In addition, the NCTPlan voxel model is benchmarked against in-phantom physical dosimetry of the RA-6 reactor of Argentina. This investigation shows the 1 cm resolution to be accurate enough for all reported tests, even in the extreme cases such as a parallelepiped phantom irradiated through one of its sharp edges. This accuracy can be degraded at very shallow depths in which, to improve the estimates, the anatomy images need to be positioned in a suitable way. Rules for this positioning are presented. The skin is considered one of the organs at risk in all BNCT treatments and, in the particular case of cutaneous melanoma of extremities, limits the delivered dose to the patient. Therefore, the performance of the voxel technique is deeply analysed in these shallow regions. A theoretical analysis is carried out to assess the distortion caused by homogenization and material percentage rounding processes. Then, a new strategy for the treatment of surface voxels is proposed and tested using two different irradiation problems. For a parallelepiped phantom perpendicularly irradiated with a 5 keV neutron source, the large thermal neutron fluence deviation present at shallow depths (from 54% at 0 mm depth to 5% at 4 mm depth) is reduced to 2% on average

  4. Computational dosimetry of a simulated combined standard X-Rays and BNCT treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, M.R., E-mail: mcasal@cnea.gov.ar [Instituto de Oncologia ' Angel H. Roffo' , Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. San Martin 5481, Bs.As. (Argentina)] [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Herrera, M.S., E-mail: mariettaherrera@gmail.com [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad de General San Martin, 25 de Mayo and M. de Irigoyen, San Martin (Argentina); Gonzalez, S.J., E-mail: srgonzal@cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    There has been increasing interest in combining Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) with standard radiotherapy, either concomitantly or as a BNCT treatment of a recurrent tumor that was previously irradiated with a medical electron linear accelerator (LINAC). In this work we report the simulated dosimetry of treatments combining X-rays and BNCT

  5. Postoperative treatment of glioblastoma with BNCT at the Petten Irradiation Facility (EORTC Protocol 11961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron neutron capture therapy is based on the reaction occurring between the isotope 10B and thermal neutrons. A low energy neutron is captured by the nucleus and it disintegrates into two densely ionising particles, Li nucleus and He nucleus (α particle), with high biological effectiveness. On the basis of comprehensive preclinical investigations in the frame of the European Collaboration with Na2B12H11SH (BSH), as boron delivery agent, the first European phase I, clinical trial was designed at the only available epithermal beam in Europe, at the High Flux Reactor, Petten, in the Netherland. The goal of this study is to establish the safe BNCT dose for cranial tumors under defined conditions. BNCT is applied as postoperative radiotherapy in 4 fractions, after removal of the tumor for a group of patients suffering from glioblastoma, who would have no benefit from conventional treatment, but have sufficient life expectancy to detect late radiation morbidity due to BNCT. The starting dose is set at 80% of the dose where neurological effects occured in preclinical large animal experiments following a single fraction. The radiation dose will be escalated, by constant boron concentration in blood, in 4 steps for cohorts of ten patients, after an observation period of at least 6 months after the end of BNCT of the last patient of a cohort. The adverse events on healthy tissues due to BSH and due to the radiotherapy will be analysed in order to establish the maximal tolerated dose and dose limiting toxicity. Besides of the primary aim of this study the survival will be recorded. The first patient was treated in October 1997, and further four patients have been irradiated to date. The protocol design proved to be well applicable, establishing the basis for scientific evaluation, for performance of safe patient treatment in a very complex situation and for opening the possibility to perform further clinical research work on BNCT. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of dose rate scaling factors used in NCTPlan treatment planning code for the BNCT beam of THOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsing Hua open-pool reactor (THOR) at Tsing Hua University in Taiwan has been used to investigate the feasibility and to enhance the technology of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for years. A rebuilt epithermal beam port for BNCT at THOR was finished in the summer of 2004, and then researches and experiments were performed to hasten the first clinical treatment case of BNCT in Taiwan in the near future. NCTPlan, a Monte Carlo-based clinical treatment planning code, was used to calculate the dose-rate distributions of BNCT in this work. A self-made Snyder head phantom with a servo-motor control system was irradiated in front of the THOR BNCT beam exit. The phantom was made from a 3 mm shell of quartz wool impregnated with acrylic casting resin mounted on an acrylic base, and was filled with water. Gold foils (bare and cadmium-covered) and paired ion chambers (one with graphite wall and filled with CO2 gas, another with A-150 plastic tissue equivalent wall and filled with tissue equivalent gas) were placed inside the Snyder phantom to measure and estimate the depth-dose distributions in the central axis of the beam. Dose components include the contribution of thermal neutrons, fast neutrons, photons and emitted α particles from 10B(n,α)7Li reaction. Comparison and analysis between computed and measured results of depth-dose distributions were made in this work. Dose rate scaling factors (DRSFs) were defined as normalization factors derived individually for each dose component in the BNCT in-phantom radiation field that provide the best agreement between measured and computed data. This paper reports the in-phantom calculated and experimental dosimetry and the determined DRSFs used in NCTPlan code for the BNCT beam of THOR.

  7. Radiation-induced meningiomas after BNCT in patients with malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageji, T; Sogabe, S; Mizobichi, Y; Nakajima, K; Shinji, N; Nakagawa, Y

    2015-12-01

    Of the 180 patients with malignant brain tumors whom we treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) since 1968, only one (0.56%) developed multiple radiation-induced meningiomas. The parasagittal meningioma that had received 42 Gy (w) for BNCT showed more rapid growth on Gd-enhanced MRI scans and more atypical features on histopathologic studies than the temporal convexity tumor that had received 20 Gy (w). Long-term follow up MRI studies are necessary in long-survivors of malignant brain tumors treated by BNCT. PMID:26122975

  8. Correlation of clinical outcome to the estimated radiation dose from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadha, M. [Beth Israel Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A phase I/II trial delivering a single fraction of BNCT using p-Boronophenylalanine-Fructose and epithermal neutrons at the the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was initiated in September 1994. The primary endpiont of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a given BNCT dose. The clinical outcome of the disease was a secondary endpoint of the study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the correlation of the clinical outcome of patients to the estimated radiation dose from BNCT.

  9. Radiation field characterization of a BNCT research facility using Monte Carlo method - code MCNP-4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - BNCT - is a selective cancer treatment and arises as an alternative therapy to treat cancer when usual techniques - surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy - show no satisfactory results. The main proposal of this work is to project a facility to BNCT studies. This facility relies on the use of an Am Be neutron source and on a set of moderators, filters and shielding which will provide the best neutron/gamma beam characteristic for these Becton studies, i.e., high intensity thermal and/or epithermal neutron fluxes and with the minimum feasible gamma rays and fast neutrons contaminants. A computational model of the experiment was used to obtain the radiation field in the sample irradiation position. The calculations have been performed with the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo Code and the results obtained can be regarded as satisfactory, i.e., a thermal neutron fluencyNT = 1,35x108 n/cm , a fast neutron dose of 5,86x10-10 Gy/NT and a gamma ray dose of 8,30x10-14 Gy/NT. (author)

  10. Comparison of the radiobiological effects of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and conventional Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT is an experimental radiotherapeutic modality that uses the capacity of the isotope 10B to capture thermal neutrons leading to the production of 4He and 7Li, particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). The aim was to evaluate and compare in vitro the mechanisms of response to the radiation arising of BNCT and conventional gamma therapy. We measured the survival cell fraction as a function of the total physical dose and analyzed the expression of p27/Kip1 and p53 by Western blotting in cells of colon cancer (ARO81-1). Exponentially growing cells were distributed into the following groups: 1) BPA (10 ppm 10B) + neutrons; 2) BOPP (10 ppm 10B) + neutrons; 3) neutrons alone; 4) gamma-rays. A control group without irradiation for each treatment was added. The cells were irradiated in the thermal neutron beam of the RA-3 (flux= 7.5 109 n/cm2 sec) or with 60Co (1Gy/min) during different times in order to obtain total physical dose between 1-5 Gy (±10 %). A decrease in the survival fraction as a function of the physical dose was observed for all the treatments. We also observed that neutrons and neutrons + BOPP did not differ significantly and that BPA was the more effective compound. Protein extracts of irradiated cells (3Gy) were isolated to 24 h and 48 h post radiation exposure. The irradiation with neutrons in presence of 10BPA or 10BOPP produced an increase of p53 at 24 h maintain until 48 h. On the contrary, in the groups irradiated with neutrons alone or gamma the peak was observed at 48 hr. The level of expression of p27/Kip1 showed a reduction of this protein in all the groups irradiated with neutrons (neutrons alone or neutrons plus boron compound), being more marked at 24 h. These preliminary results suggest different radiobiological response for high and low let radiation. Future studies will permit establish the role of cell cycle in the tumor radio sensibility to BNCT. (author)

  11. TIDBIT - the INEL database of BNCT information and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, C.A.

    1995-11-01

    The INEL Database of BNCT Information and Treatment (TIDBIT) has been under development for several years. Late in 1993, a new software development team took over the project and did and assessment of the current implementation status, and determined that the user interface was unsatisfactory for the expected users and that the data structures were out of step with the current state of reality. The team evaluated several tools that would improve the user interface to make the system easier to use. Uniface turned out to be the product of choice. During 1994, TIDBIT got its name, underwent a complete change of appearance, had a major overhaul to the data structures that support the application, and system documentation was begun. A prototype of the system was demonstrated in September 1994.

  12. Investigation of development and management of treatment planning systems for BNCT at foreign facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A new computational dosimetry system for BNCT: JCDS is developed by JAERI in order to carry out BNCT with epithermal neutron beam at present. The development and management situation of computational dosimetry system, which are developed and are used in BNCT facilities in foreign countries, were investigated in order to accurately grasp functions necessary for preparation of the treatment planning and its future subjects. In present state, 'SERA', which are developed by Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is used in many BNCT facilities. Followings are necessary for development and management of the treatment planning system. (1) Reliability confirmation of system performance by verification as comparison examination of calculated value with actual experimental measured value. (2) Confirmation systems such as periodic maintenance for retention of the system quality. (3) The improvement system, which always considered relative merits and demerits with other computational dosimetry system. (4) The development of integrated system with patient setting. (author)

  13. Photoneutron source for in-hospital BNCT treatment. Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some recent studies in Italy have focused on the possibility of exploiting high energy electron linear accelerators, normally used in gamma radiotherapy, as photo-neutrons source for in-hospital medical applications. Neutrons are produced by Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) reactions from high energy photons on high Z targets; by proper material and geometry optimization, interesting fluence rates of thermalized neutrons can be made available, with minimized fast neutron and gamma backgrounds, for a fractionated type of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) devoted to external treatment of some specific tumors. A photoneutron converter, constituted by high Z core and surrounded by Low Z materials, is shaped to produce thermal beam inside an irradiation cavity. A feasibility study on Beam Shaping Assembly using MCNPGN simulation code is performed on various geometrical shapes and material selection. A first prototype of the photoconverter has been realized and tested at some hospital high energy medical LINAC facilities. In this paper the preliminary experimental results of neutron fluence rate and neutron spectra produced by the photoconverter prototype are compared to the simulation data. (author)

  14. Correlation between radiation dose and histopathological findings in patients with gliblastoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between the radiation dose and histopathological findings in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Histopathological studies were performed on specimens from 8 patients, 3 had undergone salvage surgery and 5 were autopsied. For histopathological cure of GBM at the primary site, the optimal minimal dose to the gross tumor volume (GTV) and the clinical target volume (CTV) were 68 Gy(w) and 44 Gy(w), respectively. - Highlights: • It is very important to determine the curable BNCT radiation dose on histopathological aspect in BNCT. • Of 23 patients with GBM treated with BNCT, autopsy was performed in 5, salvage surgery in 3, and histopathological study in 8. • To achieve the histopathological cure of GBM at the primary site, the optimal minimal dose to the GTV and CTV was 68 Gy(w) and 44 Gy(w), respectively

  15. A treatment planning comparison of BPA- or BSH-based BNCT of malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J.; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Accurate delivery of the prescribed dose during clinical BNCT requires knowledge (or reasonably valid assumptions) about the boron concentrations in tumor and normal tissues. For conversion of physical dose (Gy) into photon-equivalent dose (Gy-Eq), relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and/or compound-adjusted biological effectiveness (CBE) factors are required for each tissue. The BNCT treatment planning software requires input of the following values: the boron concentration in blood and tumor, RBEs in brain, tumor and skin for the high-LET beam components, the CBE factors for brain, tumor, and skin, and the RBE for the gamma component.

  16. Design of epithermal neutron beam for clinical BNCT treatment at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maucec, Marko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Division, Lubljana (Slovenia). E-mail: marko.mauce@ijs.si

    1999-07-01

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials on Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter for the purpose of enhancement of neutron beam, as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The simulation results prove that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in the thermalizing column of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients. (author)

  17. Design of epithermal neutron beam for clinical BNCT treatment at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials on Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter for the purpose of enhancement of neutron beam, as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The simulation results prove that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in the thermalizing column of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients. (author)

  18. Effective dose evaluation for BNCT brain tumor treatment based on voxel phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeng-Ning; Lee, Kuo-Wei; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2014-06-01

    For BNCT treatments, in addition to tumor target doses, non-negligible doses will result in all the remaining organs of the body. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose as well as the average absorbed doses of each of organs of patients with brain tumor treated in the BNCT epithermal neutron beam at THOR. The effective doses were evaluated according to the definitions of ICRP Publications 60 and 103 for the reference male and female computational phantoms developed in ICRP Publication 110 by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code with the THOR-Y09 beam source. The effective dose acquired in this work was compared with the results of our previous work calculated for an adult hermaphrodite mathematical phantom. It was found that the effective dose for the female voxel phantom is larger than that for the male voxel phantom by a factor of 1.2-1.5 and the effective dose for the voxel phantom is larger than that for the mathematical phantom by a factor of 1.3-1.6. For a typical brain tumor BNCT, the effective dose was calculated to be 1.51Sv and the average absorbed dose for eye lenses was 1.07Gy.

  19. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: ► Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. ► Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. ► Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. ► Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. ► Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  20. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included

  1. Experimental approach to the BNCT treatment of human liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program named Taormina, is concerned with an attempt to set up a method to use Boron neutron capture therapy for liver metastases in diffused tumours. According to our project, the liver will be explanted, treated with a solution of organic Boron compound, then irradiated in a thermal neutron field. Such modalities give the significant advantage to preserve the remaining patient organs from damage. A collaboration including nuclear physicists and surgeons of the University of Pavia planned the original research project. Researchers in the fields of chemistry and anatomy gave contributions during the experiment in their particular fields of competence. The conditions which must be satisfied to get a safe neutron treatment are given. The Thermal Column (TC) of the reactor Triga Mark II of the University of Pavia was modified to reach the objectives. The possibility to get useful values of T parameter by searching the modalities to take the greatest possible advantage from the so called blood-brain barrier is investigated. Such a barrier effect, due to the particular metabolism of tumour cells, produces Boron accumulation into tumour tissues while Boron solutions are circulating inside the blood channels. The results of processing of 24 rats are given. The rather poor statistics do not allow meaningful conclusions but only some optimistic hope

  2. Dosimetric feasibility study for an extracorporeal BNCT application on liver metastases at the TRIGA Mainz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaickner, M; Kratz, J V; Minouchehr, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L; Wortmann, B; Hampel, G

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the dosimetric feasibility of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of explanted livers in the thermal column of the research reactor in Mainz. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 is used to calculate the biologically weighted dose for different ratios of the (10)B-concentration in tumour to normal liver tissue. The simulation results show that dosimetric goals are only partially met. To guarantee effective BNCT treatment the organ has to be better shielded from all gamma radiation. PMID:21872481

  3. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlon, A.A.; Girola, S. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Valda, A.A., E-mail: valda@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Minsky, D.M.; Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanchez, G. [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  4. BDTPS The BNCT Treatment Planning System jointly developed at DIMNP and JRC/IE

    CERN Document Server

    Daquino, G G; Mazzini, M; Moss, R; Muzi, L; International Workshop on "Neutron Capture Therapy: State of the art"

    2003-01-01

    The idea to couple the Treatment Planning System (TPS) to the information on the real boron distribution in the patient is the main added value of the new methodology set-up at DIMNP of University of Pisa, in collaboration with the JRC of Petten (NL). The methodology has been implemented in the new TPS, called BDTPS (Boron Distribution Treatment Planning System), which takes into account the actual boron distribution in the patient brain, while the standard TPS assumes a uniform boron distribution, absolutely far from the reality. Nowadays, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is able to provide this in vivo information. The new TPS, based on the Monte Carlo technique, has been validated comparing the main BNCT parameters (thermal flux, boron dose, etc.) as measured during the irradiation of a special heterogeneous boron phantom (HEBOM), ad hoc designed, as calculated by the BDTPS and by the standard TPS SERA. An evident SERA overestimation of the thermal neutron flux, as well as the boron dose, has been detect...

  5. Employment of MCNP in the study of TLDS 600 and 700 seeking the implementation of radiation beam characterization of BNCT facility at IEA-R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT, is a bimodal radiotherapy procedure for cancer treatment. Its useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction driven by impinging thermal neutron upon Boron 10 atoms. A BNCT research facility has been constructed in IPEN at the IEA-R1 reactor, to develop studies in this area. One of its prime experimental parameter is the beam dosimetry which is nowadays made by using activation foils, for neutron measurements, and TLD 400, for gamma dosimetry. For mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, recommends the use of pair of detectors with distinct responses to the field components. The TLD 600/ TLD 700 pair meets this criteria, as the amount of 6Li, a nuclide with high thermal neutron cross section, greatly differs in their composition. This work presents a series of experiments and simulations performed in order to implement the mixed field dosimetry based on the use of TLD 600/TLD 700 pair. It also intended to compare this mixed field dosimetric methodology to the one so far used by the BNCT research group of IPEN. The response of all TLDs were studied under irradiations in different irradiation fields and simulations, underwent by MCNP, were run in order to evaluate the dose contribution from each field component. Series of repeated irradiations under pure gamma field and mixed field neutron/gamma field showed differences in the TLD individual responses which led to the adoption of a Normalization Factor. It has allowed to overcome TLD selection. TLD responses due to different field components and spectra were studied. It has shown to be possible to evaluate the relative gamma/neutron fluxes from the relative responses observed in the two Regions of Interest, ROIs, from TLD 600 and TLD 700. It has also been possible to observe the TLD 700 response to neutron, which leads to a gamma dose overestimation when one follows the ICRU recommended mixed field dosimetric procedure. Dose

  6. INEEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report, CY-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2001-03-01

    This report is a summary of the activities conducted in conjunction with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 2000. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, neutron source design and demonstration, and support the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National BNCT Program goals are the goals of this Program. Contributions from the individual contributors about their projects are included, specifically described are the following, chemistry: analysis of biological samples and an infrared blood-boron analyzer, and physics: progress in the patient treatment planning software, measurement of neutron spectra for the Argentina RA-6 reactor, and recalculation of the Finnish research reactor FiR 1 neutron spectra, BNCT accelerator technology, and modification to the research reactor at Washington State University for an epithermal-neutron beam.

  7. Liposome and co-spray-dried PVP / o-carborane formulations for BNCT treatment of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Olusanya, Temidayo; Stich, Theresia; Higgins, Samantha Caroline; Lloyd, Rhiannon Eleanor Iris; Pilkington, Geoffrey John; Fatouros, Dimitrios; Calabrese, Gianpiero; Smith, James Richard; Tsibouklis, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a method for selectively destroying malignant (normally glioma) cells whilst sparing normal tissue. Irradiation of 10B (large neutron capture cross-section) with thermal neutrons effects the nuclear fission reaction: 10B + 1n → → 7Li+ + α + γ; where the penetration of α-particles and 7Li+ is only 8 and 5 µm, respectively, i.e., within a single cell thickness. Poor selectivity is the main reason why BNCT has not become a mainstream cancer therap...

  8. BNCT of canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dog was diagnosed with osteosarcoma (8x6x5cm) in the right wing of ilium by radiography, radionuclide scintigraphy and histological study of biopsy material. The treatment plan was as follows: γ-therapy in combination with chemotherapy; prevention of hematogenous pulmonary metastases by the transfusion of 130 ml of allogenic marrow from a healthy donor; administration of 11.4g 10B-boronphenylalanine into the right iliac artery; resection of the right iliac wing with the osteosarcoma lesion; neutron irradiation (MEPhI Reactor) of the bone fragment (dose on healthy osteocytes - 15±4 Gy (W), on tumor - 50±9 Gy (W); reimplantation and fixation of the fragment; three courses of adjuvant chemotherapy. The doses were determined in full-scale calculations of the reactor radiation fields with a model of the bone under the code RADUGA. The 10B concentration (μg/g) in the bone was: normal tissue - 9±3, tumor - 28±5. In 24 hours post operation the dog was able to walk using the treated limb, and 6 months later it moved freely. The patient has been under observation for 30 months. The results of the research demonstrate complete cure. The use of similar treatment plans improves the therapeutic efficiency of BNCT. (author)

  9. BNCT and dose fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some portion of the radiation dose received by a patient during BNCT consists of primary and secondary gammas. The biological effect of that portion of the dose will depend upon the time history of the delivered dose. The well-known models for relating time-dose effects to clinical experience, are of questionable value in understanding dose effects in the time regime of a few hours, and for doses of less than tolerance. In order to examine the time-dose effect in the regime of interest to BNCT a simple phenomenological model was developed and normalized to the accepted body of clinical experience. The model has been applied to the question of fractionation of BNCT and the results are presented. The model is simply a linear healing model with two time constants. In other words, a first hit of radiation is assumed to wound (or potentiate) a cell. Given time, the cell will fully repair itself. If a second hit occurs before the cell has healed, the cell is killed. Apparently, there are two kinds of healing, one which occurs in 30 to 60 minutes, the other in two to four days. A small fraction of the cells will die on the first hit

  10. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. BNCT and Targeted Radiotherapy (TRT) developments in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of treatment modalities for cancer including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. However, these treatments are not always effective. The search for new and more efficient ways to combat cancer has opened new perspectives. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a new approach in cancer treatment that has been proposed to combat glioblastomas of the brain, neck cancer and malignant melanomas, tumors that are resistant to traditional cancer therapies. BNCT is based on the 10B(n,α)7Li nuclear reaction, which can potentially deliver a very high and fatal radiation dose to cancerous cells by concentrating boron in them. It is a promising, though complicated treatment. This type of therapy offers a number of potentially significant advantages compared to traditional radiation therapy. Treatment is better targeted to cancerous cells so that when a tumour is irradiated with neutrons, the damage to normal tissue is respectively less. It is also less demanding for the patient as treatment is only one to two sessions, compared to conventional radiation therapy where patients can be treated up to 30 times. It provides an excellent example of the importance of innovation in the search for a cure to cancer. The recent developments in BNCT in Romania as well as the major drawbacks will be presented. (authors)

  12. Depth-dose evaluation for lung and pancreas cancer treatment by BNCT using an epithermal neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth-dose distributions were evaluated for possible treatment of both lung and pancreas cancers using an epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP calculations showed that physical dose in tumors were 6 and 7 Gy/h, respectively, for lung and pancreas, attaining an epithermal neutron flux of 5x108 ncm-2s-1. The boron concentrations were assumed at 100 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively, for lung and pancreas tumors and normal tissues contains 1/10 tumor concentrations. The dose ratios of tumor to normal tissue were 2.5 and 2.4, respectively, for lung and pancreas. The dose evaluation suggests that BNCT could be applied for both lung and pancreas cancer treatment. (author)

  13. The relationship between boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and positron emission tomography (PET) for malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a particle irradiation therapy that is theoretically available for selective radiation of tumor cells. Boronophenylalanine-positron emission tomography (18F-BPA-PET) was used in this study. Boron is used as a tracer compound for the neutron capture reaction and has been particularly useful for the recent noncraniotomy BNCT. In this report, we introduce this type of PET as a principal axis in BNCT and relationship with PET. We calculated the drug accumulation to the tumor before neutron irradiation to individualize the treatment. We decided the indication for BNCT on the basis of a PET study and are now expanding the indications to other systemic cancers, including head and neck, lung, and liver cancers. In addition, other irradiation modalities have developed a radiation plan on the basis of a PET study, and several studies attempted improving the results; however, the lesion is exposed to high radiation doses and appear as high accumulation on BPA-PET during BNCT. We determined the neutron exposure time from the dosage for normal tissue in the actual treatment, but the lesion/normal tissue ratio obtained from BPA-PET is for evaluating the tumor dose and following the treatment plan. We also found that a PET study was useful in the follow-up stage to aid in diagnosis of pathologic conditions such as increase in tumor volume, recurrence, or radiation necrosis and for patients who had already been treated for malignant brain tumor. (author)

  14. Employment of MCNP in the study of TLDS 600 and 700 seeking the implementation of radiation beam characterization of BNCT facility at IEA-R1; Emprego do MCNP no estudo dos TLDS 600 e 700 visando a implementacao da caracterizacao do feixe de irradiacao da instalacao de BNCT do IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, Tassio Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT, is a bimodal radiotherapy procedure for cancer treatment. Its useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction driven by impinging thermal neutron upon Boron 10 atoms. A BNCT research facility has been constructed in IPEN at the IEA-R1 reactor, to develop studies in this area. One of its prime experimental parameter is the beam dosimetry which is nowadays made by using activation foils, for neutron measurements, and TLD 400, for gamma dosimetry. For mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, recommends the use of pair of detectors with distinct responses to the field components. The TLD 600/ TLD 700 pair meets this criteria, as the amount of {sup 6}Li, a nuclide with high thermal neutron cross section, greatly differs in their composition. This work presents a series of experiments and simulations performed in order to implement the mixed field dosimetry based on the use of TLD 600/TLD 700 pair. It also intended to compare this mixed field dosimetric methodology to the one so far used by the BNCT research group of IPEN. The response of all TLDs were studied under irradiations in different irradiation fields and simulations, underwent by MCNP, were run in order to evaluate the dose contribution from each field component. Series of repeated irradiations under pure gamma field and mixed field neutron/gamma field showed differences in the TLD individual responses which led to the adoption of a Normalization Factor. It has allowed to overcome TLD selection. TLD responses due to different field components and spectra were studied. It has shown to be possible to evaluate the relative gamma/neutron fluxes from the relative responses observed in the two Regions of Interest, ROIs, from TLD 600 and TLD 700. It has also been possible to observe the TLD 700 response to neutron, which leads to a gamma dose overestimation when one follows the ICRU recommended mixed field dosimetric procedure. Dose

  15. A clinical trial protocol for second line treatment of malignant brain tumors with BNCT at University of Tsukuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiyama, H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K., E-mail: knakai@Neurosurg-tsukuba.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyouku (Japan); Kumada, H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishikawa, E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Isobe, T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    We have evaluated the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor using a new protocol. One of the two patients enrolled in this trial is a man with recurrent glioblastoma and the other is a woman with anaplastic meningioma. Both are still alive and no severe adverse events have been observed. Our findings suggest that NCT will be safe as a palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cases with recurrent glioblastoma and anaplastic meningioma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No severe adverse events have been observed using BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BNCT has a possibility of a safe palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors.

  16. First clinical results on the finnish study on BPA-mediated BNCT in glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanranta, L. [Helsinki University Hospital, Dept. of Oncology, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaelae, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Kallio, M. [Helsinki University Hospital, Dept. of Neurology, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    2000-10-01

    An open phase I dose-escalation boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) study on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was initiated at the BNCT facility FiR 1, Espoo, Finland, in May 1999. The aim of the study is to investigate the safety of boronophenylalanine (BPA)-mediated BNCT. Ten GBM patients were treated with a 2-field treatment plan using one fraction. BPA-F was used as the {sup 10}B carrier infused as a fructose solution 290 mg BPA/kg over 2-hours prior to irradiation with epithermal neutrons. Average doses to the normal brain, contrast enhancing tumour, and the target ranged from 3.0 to 5.6 Gy (W), from 35.1 to 66.7 Gy (W), and from 29.6 to 53.6 Gy (W), respectively. BNCT was associated with acceptable toxicity. The median follow-up is 9 months (range, 3 to 16 months) post diagnosis in July 2000. Seven of the 10 patients have recurrent or persistent GBM, and the median time to progression is 8 months. Only one patient has died, and the estimated 1-year overall survival is 86%. Five of the recurrent tumours were treated with external beam photon radiation therapy to the total dose of 30-40 Gy with few acute side-effects. These preliminary findings suggest that acute toxicity of BPA-mediated BNCT is acceptable when average brain doses of 5.6 Gy (W) or less are used. The followup time is too short to evaluate survival, but the estimated 1-year survival of 86% achieved with BNCT followed by conventional photon irradiation at the time of tumour progression is encouraging and emphasises the need of further investigation of BPA-mediated BNCT. (author)

  17. Boron determination in liver tissue by combining quantitative neutron capture radiography (QNCR) and histological analysis for BNCT treatment planning at the TRIGA Mainz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, C; Brochhausen, C; Altieri, S; Bartholomew, K; Bortolussi, S; Enzmann, F; Gabel, D; Hampel, G; Kirkpatrick, C J; Kratz, J V; Minouchehr, S; Schmidberger, H; Otto, G

    2011-09-01

    The typical primary malignancies of the liver are hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, whereas colorectal liver metastases are the most frequently occurring secondary tumors. In many cases, only palliative treatment is possible. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) represents a technique that potentially destroys tumor tissue selectively by use of externally induced, locally confined secondary particle irradiation. In 2001 and 2003, BNCT was applied to two patients with colorectal liver metastases in Pavia, Italy. To scrutinize the rationale of BNCT, a clinical pilot study on patients with colorectal liver metastases was carried out at the University of Mainz. The distribution of the (10)B carrier (p-borono-phenylalanine) in the liver and its uptake in cancerous and tumor-free tissue were determined, focusing on a potential correlation between the uptake of p-borono-phenylalanine and the biological characteristics of cancerous tissue. Samples were analyzed using quantitative neutron capture radiography of cryosections combined with histological analysis. Methodological aspects of the combination of these techniques and results from four patients enrolled in the study are presented that indicate that the uptake of p-borono-phenylalanine strongly depends on the metabolic activity of cells. PMID:21692653

  18. Suitability of boron carriers for BNCT: Accumulation of boron in malignant and normal liver cells after treatment with BPA, BSH and BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, F.I. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw; Chung, H.P.; Liu, H.M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Chi, C.W. [Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Lui, W.Y. [Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China)

    2009-07-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma remains widely prevalent in tropical Africa and south-east Asia. At present, there are no effective treatments for hepatoma and its prognosis is extremely poor unless the tumor was diagnosed in an early stage and resected before metastasis. Therefore, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide an alternative therapy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the intracellular concentrations of L-boronophenylalanine (BPA), sodium borocaptate (BSH) and boric acid (BA) were examined in human hepatoma HepG2 and liver Clone 9 cell cultures. With the use of 25 {mu}g B/mL media of BPA, BSH and BA, the intracellular uptake of boron in HepG2 and Clone 9 cells was compared. The suitability of BPA, BSH and BA were further evaluated on the basis of organ-specific boron distribution in normal rat tissues. BPA, BSH and BA were administered via intraperitoneal injection into rats with corresponding boron concentrations of 7, 25, and 25 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The accumulation rates of BPA, BSH and BA in HepG2 cells were higher than that of Clone 9 cells. Boron concentration in BPA, BSH and BA treated HepG2 cells were 1.8, 1.5, and 1.6-fold of Clone 9 cells at 4 h, respectively. In both HepG2 and Clone 9 cells, although the concentration of boron in BPA-treated cells exceeded that in BA-treated ones, however, cells treated with BPA had similar surviving fraction as those treated with BA after neutron irradiation. The accumulation ratios of boron in liver, pancreas and kidney to boron in blood were 0.83, 4.16 and 2.47, respectively, in BPA treated rats, and 0.75, 0.35 and 2.89, respectively, in BSH treated rats at 3 h after treatment. However, boron does not appear to accumulate specifically in soft tissues in BA treated rats. For in situ BNCT of hepatoma, normal organs with high boron concentration and adjacent to liver may be damaged in neutron irradiation. BPA showed high retention in pancreas and may not be a good drug for

  19. A D-D/D-T fusion reaction based neutron generator system for liver tumor BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunoro, H.; Lou, T.P.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.

    2003-04-02

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation treatment modality used for highly malignant tumor treatments. Prior to irradiation with low energetic neutrons, a 10B compound is located selectively in the tumor cells. The effect of the treatment is based on the high LET radiation released in the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction with thermal neutrons. BNCT has been used experimentally for brain tumor and melanoma treatments. Lately applications of other severe tumor type treatments have been introduced. Results have shown that liver tumors can also be treated by BNCT. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, various compact neutron generators based on D-D or D-T fusion reactions are being developed. The earlier theoretical studies of the D-D or D-T fusion reaction based neutron generators have shown that the optimal moderator and reflector configuration for brain tumor BNCT can be created. In this work, the applicability of 2.5 MeV neutrons for liver tumor BNCT application was studied. The optimal neutron energy for external liver treatments is not known. Neutron beams of different energies (1eV < E < 100 keV) were simulated and the dose distribution in the liver was calculated with the MCNP simulation code. In order to obtain the optimal neutron energy spectrum with the D-D neutrons, various moderator designs were performed using MCNP simulations. In this article the neutron spectrum and the optimized beam shaping assembly for liver tumor treatments is presented.

  20. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented

  1. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented.

  2. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.); Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-08-01

    This report discusses monthly progress in the Power Boron Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program for Cancer Treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during August 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantitative determination, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support and PBF operations.

  3. Neutron-photon mixed field dosimetry by TLD-700 glow curve analysis and its implementation in dose monitoring for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT is a cancerous cells selective, non-conventional radiotherapy modality to treat malignant tumors such as glioblastoma, melanoma and recurrent head and neck cancer. It consists of a two-step procedure: first, the patient is injected with a tumor localizing drug containing a non-radioactive isotope (Boron-10) with high slow neutron capture cross-section. In a second step, the patient is irradiated with neutrons, which are absorbed by the Boron-10 agent with the subsequently nuclear reaction B- 10(n,a)Li-7, thereby resulting in dose at cellular level due to the high-Let particles. The neutron fields suitable for BNCT are characterized by high neutron fluxes and low gamma dose. Determination of each component is not an easy task, especially when the volume of measurement is quite small or inaccessible for a miniature ionization chamber, for example. A method of measuring the photon and slow neutron dose(mainly by N-14 and B-10) from the glow curve (GC) analysis of a single 7LiF thermoluminescence detector is evaluated. This method was suggested by the group headed by Dr. Grazia Gambarini. The dosemeters used were TLD-600 (6LiF:Mg,Ti with 95.6% 6Li) and TLD-700 (7LiF:Mg,Ti with 99.9% 7LiF) from Harshaw. Photon dose measurement using the GC analysis method with TLD-700 in mixed fields requires the relation of the two main peaks of a TLD-600 GC shape obtained from an exposition to the same neutron field, and a photon calibrated GC with TLD-700. The requirements for slow neutron dose measurements are similar. In order to properly apply the GC analysis method at the Ra-6 Research Reactor BNCT facility, measurements were carried out in a standard water phantom, fully characterized on the BNCT beam by conventional techniques (activation detectors and paired ionization chambers technique). Next, the method was implemented in whole body dose monitoring of a patient undergoing a BNCT treatment, using a Bo MAb (Bottle Manikin Absorption) phantom, with representative

  4. Neutron-photon mixed field dosimetry by TLD-700 glow curve analysis and its implementation in dose monitoring for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boggio, E. F.; Longhino, J. M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Departamento de Fisica de Reactores y Radiaciones / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Andres, P. A., E-mail: efboggio@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Division Proteccion Radiologica / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    BNCT is a cancerous cells selective, non-conventional radiotherapy modality to treat malignant tumors such as glioblastoma, melanoma and recurrent head and neck cancer. It consists of a two-step procedure: first, the patient is injected with a tumor localizing drug containing a non-radioactive isotope (Boron-10) with high slow neutron capture cross-section. In a second step, the patient is irradiated with neutrons, which are absorbed by the Boron-10 agent with the subsequently nuclear reaction B- 10(n,a)Li-7, thereby resulting in dose at cellular level due to the high-Let particles. The neutron fields suitable for BNCT are characterized by high neutron fluxes and low gamma dose. Determination of each component is not an easy task, especially when the volume of measurement is quite small or inaccessible for a miniature ionization chamber, for example. A method of measuring the photon and slow neutron dose(mainly by N-14 and B-10) from the glow curve (GC) analysis of a single {sup 7}LiF thermoluminescence detector is evaluated. This method was suggested by the group headed by Dr. Grazia Gambarini. The dosemeters used were TLD-600 ({sup 6}LiF:Mg,Ti with 95.6% {sup 6}Li) and TLD-700 ({sup 7}LiF:Mg,Ti with 99.9% {sup 7}LiF) from Harshaw. Photon dose measurement using the GC analysis method with TLD-700 in mixed fields requires the relation of the two main peaks of a TLD-600 GC shape obtained from an exposition to the same neutron field, and a photon calibrated GC with TLD-700. The requirements for slow neutron dose measurements are similar. In order to properly apply the GC analysis method at the Ra-6 Research Reactor BNCT facility, measurements were carried out in a standard water phantom, fully characterized on the BNCT beam by conventional techniques (activation detectors and paired ionization chambers technique). Next, the method was implemented in whole body dose monitoring of a patient undergoing a BNCT treatment, using a Bo MAb (Bottle Manikin Absorption) phantom

  5. The studsvik BNCT project: structure and the proposed protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BNCT facility at Studsvik is now ready for clinical trials. Scientific operations of the Studsvik BNCT project are overseen by the Scientific Advisory Board comprised of representatives of all major universities in Sweden. Furthermore, special task groups for clinical and preclinical studies have been formed to facilitate collaboration with academia and to assure the quality of the research. Proposed clinical Phase II trials for glioblastoma are sponsored by the Swedish National Neuro-Oncology Group and, initially, will involve two protocols: Protocol no.1. BNCT for glioblastoma patients who have not received any therapy other than surgery (including stereotactic biopsy only). Protocol no.2. BNCT as a palliative treatment for patients with recurrent glioblastoma following conventional therapies or BNCT. In both protocols, BPA, administered by a 6 hour i.v. infusion, will be used as the boron delivery agent. (author)

  6. BNCT Technology Development on HANARO Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So as to establish the biological effects of BNCT in the HANARO Reactor, biological damages in cells and animals with treatment of boron/neutron were investigated. And 124I-BPA animal PET image, analysis technology of the boron contents in the mouse tissues by ICP-AES was established. A Standard clinical protocol, a toxicity evaluation report and an efficacy investigation report of BNCT has been developed. Based on these data, the primary permission of clinical application was acquired through IRB of our hospital. Three cases of pre-clinical experiment for boron distribution and two cases of medium-sized animal simulation experiment using cat with verifying for 2 months after BNCT was performed and so the clinical demonstration with a patient was prepared. Also neutron flux, fast neutron flux and gamma ray dose of BNCT facility were calculated and these data will be utilized good informations for clinical trials and further BNCT research. For the new synthesis of a boron compound, o-carboranyl ethylamine, o-carboranylenepiperidine, o-carboranyl-THIQ and o-carboranyl-s-triazine derivatives were synthesized. Among them, boron uptake in the cancer cell of the triazine derivative was about 25 times than that of BPA and so these three synthesized methods of new boron compounds were patented

  7. BNCT Technology Development on HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Jung; Park, Kyung Bae; Whang, Seung Ryul; Kim, Myong Seop

    2007-06-15

    So as to establish the biological effects of BNCT in the HANARO Reactor, biological damages in cells and animals with treatment of boron/neutron were investigated. And 124I-BPA animal PET image, analysis technology of the boron contents in the mouse tissues by ICP-AES was established. A Standard clinical protocol, a toxicity evaluation report and an efficacy investigation report of BNCT has been developed. Based on these data, the primary permission of clinical application was acquired through IRB of our hospital. Three cases of pre-clinical experiment for boron distribution and two cases of medium-sized animal simulation experiment using cat with verifying for 2 months after BNCT was performed and so the clinical demonstration with a patient was prepared. Also neutron flux, fast neutron flux and gamma ray dose of BNCT facility were calculated and these data will be utilized good informations for clinical trials and further BNCT research. For the new synthesis of a boron compound, o-carboranyl ethylamine, o-carboranylenepiperidine, o-carboranyl-THIQ and o-carboranyl-s-triazine derivatives were synthesized. Among them, boron uptake in the cancer cell of the triazine derivative was about 25 times than that of BPA and so these three synthesized methods of new boron compounds were patented.

  8. BNCT. Computational Analysis; BNCT. Analisis computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.

    2004-07-01

    The BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) is a new oncologic radiotherapy technique in the process of research which consists of injecting a non-poisonous pharmacovector into an ill patient in such a way that the tumor receives isotope boron-10, so that the tumoral area can later be bombarded with a beam of neutrons, many of which are captured the isotope in question. (Author)

  9. Production of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Bisceglie, E; Colonna, N; Paticchio, V; Santorelli, P; Variale, V

    2002-01-01

    The use of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of deep-seated tumors requires neutron beams of suitable energy and intensity. Simulations indicate the optimal energy to reside in the epithermal region, in particular between 1 and 10 keV. Therapeutic neutron beams with high spectral purity in this energy range could be produced with accelerator-based neutron sources through a suitable neutron-producing reaction. Herein, we report on different solutions that have been investigated as possible sources of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT. The potential use of such sources for a hospital-based therapeutic facility is discussed.

  10. A case of astrocytoma, 19 year history after BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 39-year-old man had received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in 1987 for a Grade II Astrocytoma. He gradually exacerbated and received a second operation in 1994. The mass taken in the second operation is almost competent with radiation necrosis. Following that, he shows no signs of recurrence. Currently, he has returned to full time employment in physical labor. This case suggests effectiveness of BNCT for rather low-grade astrocytomas. (author)

  11. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  12. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine (10BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina (10BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 106 MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of 10B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R2 = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R2 = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT treatment for each individual

  13. The therapeutic ratio in BNCT: Assessment using the Rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor and spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During any radiation therapy, the therapeutic tumor dose is limited by the tolerance of the surrounding normal tissue within the treatment volume. The short ranges of the products of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction produced during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) present an opportunity to increase the therapeutic ratio (tumor dose/normal tissue dose) to levels unprecedented in photon radiotherapy. The mixed radiation field produced during BNCT comprises radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) and different relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The short ranges of the two high-LET products of the 'B(n,a)'Li reaction make the microdistribution of the boron relative to target cell nuclei of particular importance. Due to the tissue specific distribution of different boron compounds, the term RBE is inappropriate in defining the biological effectiveness of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction. To distinguish these differences from true RBEs we have used the term open-quotes compound biological effectivenessclose quotes (CBE) factor. The latter can be defined as the product of the true, geometry-independent, RBE for these particles times a open-quotes boron localization factorclose quotes, which will most likely be different for each particular boron compound. To express the total BNCT dose in a common unit, and to compare BNCT doses with the effects of conventional photon irradiation, multiplicative factors (RBEs and CBEs) are applied to the physical absorbed radiation doses from each high-LET component. The total effective BNCT dose is then expressed as the sum of RBE-corrected physical absorbed doses with the unit Gray-equivalent (Gy-Eq)

  14. BNCT-Project at the Finnish TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epithermal neutron irradiation station for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) will be constructed in the thermal column of the Finnish Triga reactor. The first target of the BNCT at FiR 1 is the treatment of malignant brain tumors. The epithermal neutrons have the capability to penetrate deep into the brain tissue thermalizing at the same time. The thermal neutrons are captured by 10B-nuclei situated ideally in the tumor cells only and thus the reaction products destroy selectively only the tumor cells. The graphite filling of the thermal column will be replaced by a special moderator material: Al+AlF3. The moderator material and its thickness has been chosen so that the system produces as much as possible epithermal neutrons with low fast neutron and gamma contamination. Both fast neutrons and gamma radiation are harmful for the patient. To reduce the gamma radiation there is a lead-bismuth gamma shield at the outer end of the moderator block. In spite of the low power (250 kW) of the reactor the needed epithermal neutron dose to destroy the tumor will be accumulated in a reasonable time e.g. 0.5 to 1.5 h. This is possible because of the rather short distance between the reactor core and the irradiation target. (author)

  15. INEL BNCT Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-08-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for August 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  16. Cationized gelatin-HVJ envelope with sodium borocaptate improved the BNCT efficacy for liver tumors in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cell-selective radiation therapy that uses the alpha particles and lithium nuclei produced by the boron neutron capture reaction. BNCT is a relatively safe tool for treating multiple or diffuse malignant tumors with little injury to normal tissue. The success or failure of BNCT depends upon the 10B compound accumulation within tumor cells and the proximity of the tumor cells to the body surface. To extend the therapeutic use of BNCT from surface tumors to visceral tumors will require 10B compounds that accumulate strongly in tumor cells without significant accumulation in normal cells, and an appropriate delivery method for deeper tissues. Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan Envelope (HVJ-E) is used as a vehicle for gene delivery because of its high ability to fuse with cells. However, its strong hemagglutination activity makes HVJ-E unsuitable for systemic administration. In this study, we developed a novel vector for 10B (sodium borocaptate: BSH) delivery using HVJ-E and cationized gelatin for treating multiple liver tumors with BNCT without severe adverse events. We developed cationized gelatin conjugate HVJ-E combined with BSH (CG-HVJ-E-BSH), and evaluated its characteristics (toxicity, affinity for tumor cells, accumulation and retention in tumor cells, boron-carrying capacity to multiple liver tumors in vivo, and bio-distribution) and effectiveness in BNCT therapy in a murine model of multiple liver tumors. CG-HVJ-E reduced hemagglutination activity by half and was significantly less toxic in mice than HVJ-E. Higher 10B concentrations in murine osteosarcoma cells (LM8G5) were achieved with CG-HVJ-E-BSH than with BSH. When administered into mice bearing multiple LM8G5 liver tumors, the tumor/normal liver ratios of CG-HVJ-E-BSH were significantly higher than those of BSH for the first 48 hours (p < 0.05). In suppressing the spread of tumor cells in mice, BNCT treatment was as effective with CG-HVJ-E-BSH as with BSH

  17. New EORTC clinical trials for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to ethical reasons, a separated optimization of the two components of BNCT in the frame of clinical investigations can only be performed applying the whole binary system. The ongoing trial at HFR (High Flux Reactor Petten) has proven the feasibility of BNCT under defined conditions. On that basis the European Commission supported a comprehensive research project on boron imaging including three further clinical studies. In the first trial the boron uptake related to the blood boron concentration and surrounding normal tissue in various solid tumours will be examined using BSH (Sodiumborocaptate), BPA (Boronophenylalanine) or both in order to explore tumour entities, which may gain benefit from BNCT. The major objectives of the second trial are to define the maximum tolerated single and cumulative dose, and the dose limiting toxicity of BSH. The third clinical trial, a phase II study is designed to evaluate the anti-tumour effect of fractionated BNCT at the Petten treatment facility against cerebral metastasis of malignant melanoma using BPA. (author)

  18. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Thomas, E

    2006-03-14

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were 1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, 2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, 3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologially achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally 4) that the treatment be safe for the patients.

  19. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were (1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, (2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, (3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologically achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally (4) that the treatment be safe for the patients

  20. Protocols for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme at Brookhaven: Practical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Joel, D.D.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    In this report we discuss some issues considered in selecting initial protocols for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of human glioblastoma multiforme. First the tolerance of normal tissues, especially the brain, to the radiation field. Radiation doses limits were based on results with human and animal exposures. Estimates of tumor control doses were based on the results of single-fraction photon therapy and single fraction BNCT both in humans and experimental animals. Of the two boron compounds (BSH and BPA), BPA was chosen since a FDA-sanctioned protocol for distribution in humans was in effect at the time the first BNCT protocols were written and therapy studies in experimental animals had shown it to be more effective than BSH.

  1. Radiation treatment of keloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme of external beam therapy with different schedules for the treatment of keloid has been presented. The basic correlation of activity of the Keloid, as the guidelines of alloting a schedule appears reasonable in this regional experience. The combination with surgery and intratumoral drug application is not included in this study, nor the brachytherapy used in the clinical material. It is suggested that further observations on the activity of fibroblasts morphologically and the exploration of the dose-fractionation would open up newer dimension in the radiation treatment of keloid. (auth.)

  2. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protecting the facility personnel and the general public from radiation exposure is a primary safety concern of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility. This work makes an attempt at answering the questions open-quotes How much?close quotes and open-quotes What kind?close quotes of shielding will meet the occupational limits of such a facility. Shielding effectiveness is compared for ordinary and barytes concretes in combination with and without borated polyethylene. A calculational model was developed of a treatment room, patient open-quotes scatterer,close quotes and the epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used to compute the total effective dose equivalent rates at specific points of interest outside of the treatment room. A conservative occupational effective dose rate limit of 0.01 mSv h-1 was the guideline for this study. Conservative Monte Carlo calculations show that constructing the treatment room walls with 1.5 m of ordinary concrete, 1.2 m of barytes concrete, 1.0 m of ordinary concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene, or 0.8 m of barytes concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene will adequately protect facility personnel. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Radiation treatment of benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with an estimation of the volume of radiation treatment of benign diseases in Norway and gives a survey of the subjective opinion of patients regarding the result of the treatment. Reported subjective recovery after radiation treatment seems to be at the same level as recovery without treatment. For an indication of the objective effect of radiation treatment of benign diseases, the subjective effect of this treatment has to be compared with objective findings

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy applied to advanced breast cancers: Engineering simulation and feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, Manuel Leonardo

    This dissertation describes a novel Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) application for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 positive (HER2+) breast cancers. The original contribution of the dissertation is the development of the engineering simulation and the feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol for this novel combination of BNCT and HER2+ breast cancer treatment. This new concept of BNCT, representing a radiation binary targeted treatment, consists of the combination of two approaches never used in a synergism before. This combination may offer realistic hope for relapsed and/or metastasized breast cancers. This treatment assumes that the boronated anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (MABs) are administrated to the patient and accumulate preferentially in the tumor. Then the tumor is destroyed when is exposed to neutron irradiation. Since the use of anti-HER2 MABs yields good and promising results, the proposed concept is expected to amplify the known effect and be considered as a possible additional treatment approach to the most severe breast cancers for patients with metastasized cancer for which the current protocol is not successful and for patients refusing to have the standard treatment protocol. This dissertation makes an original contribution with an integral numerical approach and proves feasible the combination of the aforementioned therapy and disease. With these goals, the dissertation describes the theoretical analysis of the proposed concept providing an integral engineering simulation study of the treatment protocol. An extensive analysis of the potential limitations, capabilities and optimization factors are well studied using simplified models, models based on real CT patients' images, cellular models, and Monte Carlo (MCNP5/X) transport codes. One of the outcomes of the integral dosimetry assessment originally developed for the proposed treatment of advanced breast cancers is the implementation of BNCT

  5. BNCT irradiation facility at the JRR-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torii, Y.; Kishi, T.; Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Sakurai, F.; Takayanagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    The JRR--4 was modified for fuel enrichment reducing and reactor equipment renewal. And also a medical irradiation facility for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) was installed at the JRR--4 in that time. The medical irradiation facility has been composed of a heavy water tank, a collimator and an irradiation room. The heavy water tank has four layers of heavy water for spectrum shifter and 75cm-thickness aluminum for the shield of fast neutron. The collimator is for collimating thermal neutron and epithermal neutron using polyethylene with lithium-fluoride and shielding gamma ray by bismuth. The irradiation room has sufficient space at exit side of the beam, to accommodate a large working area for setting the patient. Both of the medical treatment room and the patient-monitoring area were prepared adjacent to the irradiation room. The medical irradiation facility in the JRR-4 is designed to permit selection of neutron energies from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron by changing the thickness of heavy water layers. Therefore it is available to continue the same kind of BNCT with thermal neutron used to perform in the JRR-2, as well as to commence the research and development of BNCT with epithermal neutron, which will make the brain tumor treatment possible at a deep part of brain. The full power operation of the JRR-4 was resumed with LEU fuel in October 1998 and currently performing some experiments to measure the neutron fluxes and physical doses for determinate characterization of the medical irradiation facility. The first medical irradiation for BNCT was carried out on 25th October 1999. The patient was treated by Tsukuba University group using thermal neutron beam included epi-thermal neutrons. (author)

  6. Summary of recent BNCT Polish programme and future plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryziński, M A; Maciak, M; Wielgosz, M

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present Polish achievements on the ground of BNCT research. Starting from preliminary built therapeutic stand at MARIA reactor going through designing of unique detectors for in-phantom and in-beam measurements for mixed radiation fields and finally coming to boron carriers synthesizing and examination in cellular and animal models. Now it is planned to restart research on boron compounds in specially designed BIMA line, to set up epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT research and education and to improve recombination detectors for neutron beams characterisation. PMID:26293009

  7. Determination of the irradiation field at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, S; Hampel, G; Kratz, J V; Aguilar, A L; Minouchehr, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L; Wortmann, B

    2009-07-01

    For the application of the BNCT for the excorporal treatment of organs at the TRIGA Mainz, the basic characteristics of the radiation field in the thermal column as beam geometry, neutron and gamma ray energies, angular distributions, neutron flux, as well as absorbed gamma and neutron doses must be determined in a reproducible way. To determine the mixed irradiation field thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) made of CaF(2):Tm with a newly developed energy-compensation filter system and LiF:Mg,Ti materials with different (6)Li concentrations and different thicknesses as well as thin gold foils were used. PMID:19380234

  8. Radiation treatment of brain tumors: Concepts and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, J.E. (Loyola Univ. of Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has demonstrated clinical value for a multitude of CNS tumors. Application of the different physical modalities available has made it possible for the radiotherapist to concentrate the radiation in the region of the tumor with relative sparing of the surrounding normal tissues. Correlation of radiation dose with effect on cranial soft tissues, normal brain, and tumor has shown increasing effect with increasing dose. By using different physical modalities to alter the distribution of radiation dose, it is possible to increase the dose to the tumor and reduce the dose to the normal tissues. Alteration of the volume irradiated and the dose delivered to cranial soft tissues, normal brain, and tumor are strategies that have been effective in improving survival and decreasing complications. The quest for therapeutic gain using hyperbaric oxygen, neutrons, radiation sensitizers, chemotherapeutic agents, and BNCT has met with limited success. Both neoplastic and normal cells are affected simultaneously by all modalities of treatment, including ionizing radiation. Consequently, one is unable to totally depopulate a tumor without irreversibly damaging the normal tissues. In the case of radiation, it is the brain that limits delivery of curative doses, and in the case of chemical additives, it is other organ systems, such as bone marrow, liver, lung, kidneys, and peripheral nerves. Thus, the major obstacle in the treatment of malignant gliomas is our inability to preferentially affect the tumor with the modalities available. Until it is possible to directly target the neoplastic cell without affecting so many of the adjacent normal cells, the quest for therapeutic gain will go unrealized.72 references.

  9. Antiproliferative effect and apoptosis induction in melanoma treatment by boron neutron capture therapy (BCNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiao-Flores, Fernanda; Coelho, Paulo; Arruda-Neto, Joao; Maria, Durvanei [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiotherapy where a compound having {sup 10}B is administered to cancer patients and is accumulated in tumor tissues. Thus, the tumor is irradiated with thermal neutrons, {sup 10}B absorbs and destroys them, producing alpha radiation. Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is the agent responsible for delivering boron to the tumor tissue. After BPA administration, BNCT is used as a localized radiotherapy for many tumors treatment, mainly melanoma, which has a high mortality rate among all types of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antiproliferative and antitumor effects of BNCT application in human melanoma treatment. Materials and Methods: MEWO cells (human melanoma) were cultured and treated with different concentrations of BPA (8.36 to 0.52 mg/ml). After 90 minutes, they were irradiated with thermal neutron flux up to a dose of 8.4 Gy. The parameters analyzed were free radical production, cell cycle progression, cell death signaling pathways, cycling D1, caspase-3 and extracellular matrix synthesis produced, beyond the mitochondrial electric potential analysis. Results: After BNCT treatment, MEWO cells showed an amount of free radical increase about 10 times. Still, there was a significant decrease of cyclin D1, G0/G1 proliferation, synthesis and G2/M cell cycle phases. BNCT induced a mitochondrial electrical potential decrease, as well as fibrillar proteins of extracellular matrix. BNCT had a significant number of dead cell increase, mainly by necrosis. However, BNCT induced phosphorylated caspase 3 increase. Discussion/Conclusion: BNCT induced cell death increase by necrosis, mitochondrial electric potential decrease and free radical production increase. BNCT is cytotoxic to melanoma cells. Besides necrosis, phosphorylated caspase 3 increase was observed, accompanied by a proliferative response decrease regulated by the G1/S checkpoint and matrix extracellular synthesis

  10. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1992. Contributions from all the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor targeting compounds, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented, results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are discussed, and predictions for an epithermal-neutron beam at the Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) are shown. Cellular-level boron detection and localization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, low atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy, and alpha track are presented. Boron detection by ICP-AES is discussed in detail. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors with BNCT is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux at BNL and comparison to predictions are shown. Calculations comparing the GTRR and BMRR epithermal-neutron beams are also presented. Individual progress reports described herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database

  11. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1992. Contributions from all the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor targeting compounds, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented, results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are discussed, and predictions for an epithermal-neutron beam at the Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) are shown. Cellular-level boron detection and localization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, low atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy, and alpha track are presented. Boron detection by ICP-AES is discussed in detail. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors with BNCT is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux at BNL and comparison to predictions are shown. Calculations comparing the GTRR and BMRR epithermal-neutron beams are also presented. Individual progress reports described herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  12. Preliminary Design of LEU MNSR for BNCT with Excellent Epithermal Neutron Flux Treatment Beam%高额超热中子束流治疗孔道低浓化BNCT堆初步设计方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛; 钱金栋; 谢金森

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) with high enrichment uranium (HEU) fuel and accordance with the requirements of BNCT, the 19.5% of enriched fuel UO2 fuel core for BNCT with epithermal neutron treatment beam was primary designed, the reactor core parameters such as epithermal neutron flux density,epithermal neutron flux unit of fast neutron dose rate,epithermal neutron flux unit photon dose rate of γ,epithermal neutron flux ratio of thermal neutron flux, neutron spectrum were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the design program was an excellent epithermal neutron treatment beam.%根据硼中子俘获治疗( BNCT)中子源的要求,在高浓铀为燃料的微型反应堆(MNSR)的基础上,以富集度19.5%的UO2为燃料,将其堆芯低浓化并且添加水平超热中子束流治疗孔道,开展超热中子束流BNCT堆堆芯低浓化初步设计.计算BNCT堆的超热中子注量率、单位超热中子注量的快中子剂量率、单位超热中子注量的γ光子剂量率、超热中子注量与热中子的注量之比、中子束流能谱等关键参数.结果表明,该设计可以得到优良的超热中子束流.

  13. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M. [Univ. Hospital, State Univ. of New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains.

  14. Extra-corporeal liver BNCT for the treatment of diffuse metastases: What was learned and what is still to be learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonta, A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: aris.zonta@pv.infn.it; Pinelli, T. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy); Prati, U.; Roveda, L. [Oncologic Surgery, Cancer Center of Excellence Fond. ' T. Campanella' , Catanzaro (Italy); Ferrari, C.; Clerici, A.M.; Zonta, C. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Mazzini, G. [Department of Animal Biol., IGM-CNR Histochemistry and Cytometry Section, Pavia (Italy); Dionigi, P. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Fossati, F. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Almost eight years ago, in December 2001, we performed for the first time in the world thermal neutron irradiation on an isolated liver of a patient. The organ was affected by diffuse metastases of a colon carcinoma and had been previously loaded with a {sup 10}B compound. In July 2003, the same procedure was applied again on a patient for the treatment of unresectable and incurable hepatic metastases of a carcinoma of the rectum. Both patients are dead at present. Now we can analyze in depth the clinical history of these patients and evaluate the effectiveness of this therapy. From this exciting experience we learned much, and we also found out about complications till then unknown, which need to be studied and addressed experimentally. Unfortunately we can base our conclusions just on the experience we had with these two patients. We could have been much more detailed and firm in our statements if the number of clinical cases was larger. The BNCT Pavia project has been suspended, but it is more than likely to resume in a short time. Good findings were many. The procedure is feasible; the original concept of complete immersion of the diseased liver in a homogeneous neutron field proved effective and winning. The tumor masses resulted completely necrotic and unknown metastases too appeared radically treated; healthy hepatic tissue was preserved from both morphological and functional points of view; no symptoms of cirrhosis appeared even four years after treatment. For the long term surviving patient, quality of life was excellent. Other findings require to be tackled in depth. The 'post-irradiation syndrome' we observed in both patients, with identical symptoms and biochemical derangements, creates a dramatic-even though totally reversible-clinical condition, that is the probable cause of death for our second patient, suffering from cardiomyopathy, 33 days after treatment. For the first patient, recurrences were a late yet fatal complication, for which

  15. Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Joel, D.D.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Micca, P.L. [and others

    1996-12-31

    For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of {sup 10}B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 {mu}g B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses.

  16. Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of 10B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 μg B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses

  17. Positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]BPA: A perspective application to assess tumour extraction of boron in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichetti, L. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: luca.menichetti@ifc.cnr.it; Cionini, L. [Unit of Radiotherapy, AOUP-University Hospital, Pisa (Italy); Sauerwein, W.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Duisburg-Essen, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Altieri, S. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear Physics, Pavia (Italy); Solin, O.; Minn, H. [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku (Finland); Salvadori, P.A. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a key imaging tool in clinical practice and biomedical research to quantify and study biochemical processes in vivo. Physiologically active compounds are tagged with positron emitters (e.g. {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 124}I) while maintaining their biological properties, and are administered intravenously in tracer amounts (10{sup -9}-10{sup -12} M quantities). The recent physical integration of PET and computed tomography (CT) in hybrid PET/CT scanners allows a combined anatomical and functional imaging: nowadays PET molecular imaging is emerging as powerful pharmacological tool in oncology, neurology and for treatment planning as guidance for radiation therapy. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of boron carrier for BNCT and the quantification of {sup 10}B in living tissue were performed by PET in the late nineties using compartmental models based on PET data. Nowadays PET and PET/CT have been used to address the issue of pharmacokinetic, metabolism and accumulation of BPA in target tissue. The added value of the use of L-[{sup 18}F]FBPA and PET/CT in BNCT is to provide key data on the tumour extraction of {sup 10}B-BPA versus normal tissue and to predict the efficacy of the treatment based on a single-study patient analysis. Due to the complexity of a binary treatment like BNCT, the role of PET/CT is currently to design new criteria for patient enrolment in treatment protocols: the L-[{sup 18}F]BPA/PET methodology could be considered as an important tool in newly designed clinical trials to better estimate the concentration ratio of BPA in the tumour as compared to neighbouring normal tissues. Based on these values for individual patients the decision could be made whether BNCT treatment could be advantageous due to a selective accumulation of BPA in an individual tumour. This approach, applicable in different tumour entities like melanoma, glioblastoma and head and neck malignancies, make this methodology as reliable

  18. Successful BNCT for patients with cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. Report of 4 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 we have conducted BNCT clinical trials on melanomas at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) and Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4). We report 4 patients given BNCT for malignant melanomas: 2 with superficial spreading types on the heel, 1 with mucosal melanoma in the nasal cavity, and 1 with a melanoma on the vulva and in the vagina. The two cutaneous melanomas and the nasal cavity mucosal melanoma showed a complete response (CR) by 6 months after BNCT. The residual melanoma showed a partial response (PR) by 3 months after treatment and no regrowth since then. Although two patients experienced normal-tissue damage that exceeded the tolerance level, all the participants were cured within a few months of treatment. BNCT was shown to be a promising treatment for mucosal, as well as for cutaneous, melanomas. (author)

  19. FiR 1 Reactor in Service for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose to run the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Although BNCT dominates the current utilization of the reactor, it also has an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics, etc. with isotope produc- tion and activation analysis services. The whole reactor building has been renovated, creating a dedicated clinical BNCT facility at the reactor. Close to 30 patients have been treated since May 1999, when the licence for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization. The treatment organization has a close connection to the Helsinki University Central Hospital. (author)

  20. Application of HVJ envelope system to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been used clinically for the treatment of malignant tumors. Two drugs, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sulfhydral borane (BSH), have been used as boron delivery agents. These drugs seem to be taken up preferentially in solid tumors, but it is uncertain whether therapeutic quantities of boron atoms are taken up by micro-invasive or distant tumor cells. High accumulation and high selective delivery of boron into tumor tissues are the most important requirements to achieve efficient BNCT for malignant tumor. The HVJ envelope (HVJ-E) vector system is a novel fusion-mediated gene delivery system based on inactivated hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; Sendai virus). Although we developed this vector system for gene transfer, it can also deliver proteins, synthetic oligonucleotides, and drugs. HVJ-liposome, which is liposome fused with HVJ-E, has higher boron trapping efficiency than HVJ-E alone. We report the boron delivery into cultured cells with HVJ-liposome systems. The cellular 10B concentration after 60 min incubation with HVJ-E containing BSH was 24.9 μg/g cell pellet for BHK-21 cells (baby hamster kidney cells) and 19.4 μg/g cell pellet for SCC VII cells (murine squamous cell carcinoma). These concentrations are higher than that of 60 min incubated cells with BSH containing (100μg 10B/ml) medium. These results indicate the HVJ-E fused with tumor cell membrane and rapidly delivered boron agents, and that the HVJ-E-mediated delivery system could be applicable to BNCT. Plans are underway to begin neutron radiation experiments in vivo and in vitro. (author)

  1. Feasibility of BNCT radiobiological experiments at the HYTHOR facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, J.; Ceballos, C.; Soncin, M.; Fabris, C.; Friso, E.; Moro, D.; Colautti, P.; Jori, G.; Rosi, G.; Nava, E.

    2008-06-01

    HYTHOR (HYbrid Thermal spectrum sHifter tapirO Reactor) is a new thermal-neutron irradiation facility, which was installed and became operative in mid 2005 at the TAPIRO (TAratura PIla Rapida potenza 0) fast reactor, in the Casaccia research centre (near Rome) of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie Energia ed Ambiente). The facility has been designed for in vivo radiobiological studies. In HYTHOR irradiation cavity, 1-6 mice can be simultaneously irradiated to study skin melanoma treatments with the BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy). The therapeutic effects of HYTHOR radiation field on mouse melanoma has been studied as a preliminary investigation before studying the tumour local control due to boron neutron capture effect after boronated molecule injection. The method to properly irradiate small animals has been precisely defined. Results show that HYTHOR radiation field is by itself effective in reducing the tumour-growth rate. This finding has to be taken into account in studying the effectiveness of new 10B carriers. A method to properly measure the reduction of the tumour-growth rate is reported and discussed.

  2. The BNCT project in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The start of clinical trials is expected before NCT Osaka 2000. The experiences from different part of project are presented. The BNCT facility at LVR-15 reactor of NRI consists of epithermal neutron beam with improved construction (6.98 x 108/cm2s with acceptable background of fast neutrons and gammas) and irradiation and control rooms equipped by appropriate devices. Internationally-recognized software MacNCTPLAN is utilized for computational dosimetry and treatment planning. In the part of protocol the following parameters have been assessed: patient selection, BSH dosage, fractionation, starting dose, dose escalation steps. At the LVR-15, at horizontal channel, a prompt gamma ray analysis (PGRA) system has been developed and is operated for BNCT purposes. Some human blood samples were analyzed and compared with classical ICP method. During the process of licensing the experience was obtained, some notes are discussed in the paper. The first results were received for the study of biological effect of the LVR source for small animal model. (author)

  3. INEEL BNCT research program. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1996. Contributions from the individual investigators about their projects are included, specifically, physics: treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry, measurement of the Finnish research reactor epithermal neutron spectrum, BNCT accelerator technology; and chemistry: analysis of biological samples and preparation of 10B enriched decaborane

  4. Effect of different BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissues in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported the therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in the treatment of oral cancer, employing the hamster cheek pouch model. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissue in this model and assess the potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue. The data are relevant to potential control of field cancerized tissue and tolerance of normal tissue. We evaluated DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal pouch tissue 1-30 days post-BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or BPA + GB-10 employing incorporation of bromo-deoxyuridine as an end-point. The BNCT-induced potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue was monitored. A drastic, statistically significant reduction in DNA synthesis occurred in pacancerous tissue as early as 1 day post-BNCT and was sustained at virtually all time points until 30 days post-BNCT for all protocols. The histological categories evaluated individually within precancerous tissue (dysplasia, hyperplasia and NUMF [no unusual microscopic features]) responded similarly. DNA synthesis in normal tissue treated with BNCT oscillated around the very low pre-treatment values. A BNCT-induced lag in the development of second primary tumors was observed. BNCT induced a drastic fall in DNA synthesis in precancerous tissue that would be associated to the observed lag in the development of second primary tumors. The minimum variations in DNA synthesis in BNCT-treated normal tissue would correlate with the absence of normal tissue radiotoxicity. The present data would contribute to optimize therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of field-cancerized areas. (author)

  5. Current treatments for radiation retinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliari, Gian Paolo; Simpson, E. Rand (Princess Margaret Hospital, Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Toronto (Canada)), e-mail: gpgiuliari@gmail.com; Sadaka, Ama (Schepens Eye Research Inst., Boston, MA (United States)); Hinkle, David M. (Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution, Cambridge, MA (United States))

    2011-01-15

    Background. To review the currently available therapeutic modalities for radiation retinopathy (RR), including newer investigational interventions directed towards specific aspects of the pathophysiology of this refractory complication. Methods. A review of the literature encompassing the pathogenesis of RR and the current therapeutic modalities available was performed. Results. RR is a chronic and progressive condition that results from exposure to any source of radiation. It might be secondary to radiation treatment of intraocular tumors such as choroidal melanomas, retinoblastomas, and choroidal metastasis, or from unavoidable exposure to excessive radiation from the treatment of extraocular tumors like cephalic, nasopharyngeal, orbital, and paranasal malignancies. After the results of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, most of the choroidal melanomas are being treated with plaque brachytherapy increasing by that the incidence of this radiation complication. RR has been reported to occur in as many as 60% of eyes treated with plaque radiation, with higher rates associated with larger tumors. Initially, the condition manifests as a radiation vasculopathy clinically seen as microaneurysms and telangiectasis, with posterior development of retinal hard exudates and hemorrhages, macular edema, neovascularization and tractional retinal detachment. Regrettably, the management of these eyes remains limited. Photodynamic therapy, laser photocoagulation, oral pentoxyphylline and hyperbaric oxygen have been attempted as treatment modalities with inconclusive results. Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor such as bevacizumab, ranibizumab and pegaptanib sodium have been recently used, also with variable results. Discussion. RR is a common vision threatening complication following radiation therapy. The available therapeutic options are limited and show unsatisfactory results. Further large investigative studies are required for developing

  6. Radiation treatment of molasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molasses are a by-product of the sugar industry. Their annual production in Mexico is around 1 million tons and they are mainly used as a complement for animal feeding and for the production of alcohols. Their value is relatively low compared with other chemicals. When molasses are irradiated with gamma radiation or accelerated electrons in the presence of nitric acid and oxygen, oxalic acid and several polymeric compounds are obtained. The same products are obtained in both cases, but the yield is greater with electrons. The effect of dose and dose rate on the yields has been studied. As example, when mixtures of molasses-nitric acid, with an initial concentration of 26% of total sugar reductors, are irradiated with 1.0 MeV electrons, in a continuous flow reactor, at 0.11 Gy/sec to a total dose of 30 KGy, the oxalic acid yield is around 44% of the total chemical reductors used. The separations of the radiolytic products were made by successive decantations and concentrations, and purified by recrystallizations. From the analytical information, the minimal formulae were calculated for the acid product and the polymeric compounds. (author)

  7. Neutron field characterization in the installation for BNCT study in the IEA-R1 reactor; Caracterizacao do campo de neutrons na instalacao para estudo em BNCT no reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro Junior, Valdeci

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the mixed neutron and gamma field, in the sample irradiation position, in a research installation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in the IPEN IEA-R1 reactor. The BNCT technique has been studied as a safe and selective option in the treatment of resistant cancerigenous tumors or considered non-curable by the conventional techniques, for example, the Glioblastoma Multiform - a brain cancerigenous tumor. Neutron flux measurements were carried out: thermal, resonance and fast, as well as neutron and gamma rays doses, in the sample position, using activation foils detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters. For the determination of the neutron spectrum and intensity, a set of different threshold activation foils and gold foils covered and uncovered with cadmium irradiated in the installation was used, analyzed by a high Pure Germanium semiconductor detector, coupled to an electronic system suitable for gamma spectrometry. The results were processed with the SAND-BP code. The doses due to gamma and neutron rays were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 400 and TLD 700 sensitive to gamma and TLD 600, sensitive to neutrons. The TLDs were selected and used for obtaining the calibration curves - dosimeter answer versus dose - from each of the TLD three types, which were necessary to calculate the doses due to neutron and gamma, in the sample position. The radiation field, in the sample irradiation position, was characterized flux for thermal neutrons of 1.39.10{sup 8} {+-} 0,12.10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}s the doses due to thermal neutrons are three times higher than those due to gamma radiation and confirm the reproducibility and consistency of the experimental findings obtained. Considering these results, the neutron field and gamma radiation showed to be appropriated for research in BNCT. (author)

  8. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting

  9. Development of local radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed.

  10. Cell death following BNCT: a theoretical approach based on Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, F; Bakeine, J; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Cansolino, L; Clerici, A M; Ferrari, C; Protti, N; Stella, S; Zonta, A; Zonta, C; Altieri, S

    2011-12-01

    In parallel to boron measurements and animal studies, investigations on radiation-induced cell death are also in progress in Pavia, with the aim of better characterisation of the effects of a BNCT treatment down to the cellular level. Such studies are being carried out not only experimentally but also theoretically, based on a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code. Such model assumes that: (1) only clustered DNA strand breaks can lead to chromosome aberrations; (2) only chromosome fragments within a certain threshold distance can undergo misrejoining; (3) the so-called "lethal aberrations" (dicentrics, rings and large deletions) lead to cell death. After applying the model to normal cells exposed to monochromatic fields of different radiation types, the irradiation section of the code was purposely extended to mimic the cell exposure to a mixed radiation field produced by the (10)B(n,α) (7)Li reaction, which gives rise to alpha particles and Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness, and by the (14)N(n,p)(14)C reaction, which produces 0.58 MeV protons. Very good agreement between model predictions and literature data was found for human and animal cells exposed to X- or gamma-rays, protons and alpha particles, thus allowing to validate the model for cell death induced by monochromatic radiation fields. The model predictions showed good agreement also with experimental data obtained by our group exposing DHD cells to thermal neutrons in the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the University of Pavia; this allowed to validate the model also for a BNCT exposure scenario, providing a useful predictive tool to bridge the gap between irradiation and cell death. PMID:21481595

  11. Towards a new therapy protocol for liver metastases. Effect of boron compounds and BNCT on normal liver regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Taormina project developed a new method for BNCT treatment of multifocal unresectable liver metastases based on whole liver autograft. The Roffo Institute liver surgeons propose a new technique based on partial liver autograft that would pose less risk to the patient but would require significant healthy liver regeneration following BNCT. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of BPA, GB-10 (Na210B10H10) and (GB-10 + BPA) and of BNCT mediated by these boron compounds on normal liver regeneration in the Wistar rat. Normal liver regeneration, body weight, hemogram, liver and kidney function were assessed following partial hepatectomy post administration of BPA, GB-10 or (GB-10 + BPA) and post in vivo BNCT at the RA-6 Reactor. These end-points were evaluated 9 days following partial hepatectomy, the time at which complete liver regeneration occurs in untreated controls. The corresponding biodistribution studies were conducted to perform dosimetric calculations. BPA, GB-10 and (GB-10 + PBA) and in vivo BNCT mediated by these boron compounds in dose ranges compatible with therapy did not cause alterations in the outcome of normal liver regeneration, and did not induce alterations in body weight, hemogram, liver or kidney function. The experimental data available to date support the development of a new BNCT protocol for the treatment of liver metastases that requires the regeneration of normal liver past-BNCT. (author)

  12. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [Department of Neurosurgery, Kagawa National Children' s Hospital, Kagawa 765-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: ynakagawa0517@yahoo.co.jp; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Department of Research Reactor, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaragi 319-1195 (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshiaki [Department of Medical Informatics, Post Graduated School, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue. However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells. We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years. Among 183 patients with brain tumors treated by our group using BSH-based intra-operative BNCT, 23 patients were under 15 years. They included 4 patients under 3 years. There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma. All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth. All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor. Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence. BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation. Although it can achieve the local control in the primary site, it cannot prevent CSF dissemination in patients with glioblastoma.

  13. BNCT with linac, feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy photon beams from Medical Linear Accelerators (linacs) which are used in radiotherapy produce undesirable neutrons, beside the clinically useful electron and photon beams. Neutrons are produced from the photonuclear reaction (γ,n) of high energy photons with high Z-materials which compose the accelerator head. In this paper the possible use of these undesirable neutrons for BNCT is investigated, making use of high energy linacs already installed in hospitals, primarily for high energy electron and photon therapy and applying them in the context of BNCT. The photoneutron components emitted by the accelerator is the source for Monte Carlo simulations of the interactions that take place within the head of a voxel-based phantom. The neutron flux across the phantom head is calculated using different moderator arrangements and different techniques in the aim of increasing the thermal neutron flux at the targeted site. Also, we shall test different configurations of the linac head to maximize the exposure of high-Z materials to the photon beam, including the removal of the flattening filter, so as to boost the photoneutron production in the linac head. Experimental work will be conducted in hospitals to validate the Monte Carlo simulations. To make use of linacs for BNCT will be advantageous in the sense that the setting in a hospital department is much more acceptable by the public than a reactor installation. This will mean less complications regarding patient positioning and movement with respect to the beams, additional patient transportation and management will be more cost effective. (author)

  14. Measurement and simulation of the TRR BNCT beam parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Sadremomtaz, Alireza; Khalafi, Hossein; Kasesaz, Yaser; Golshanian, Mohadeseh; Ghods, Hossein; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Haddadi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the configuration of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) thermal column has been modified and a proper thermal neutron beam for preclinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been obtained. In this study, simulations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the BNCT beam parameters including the beam uniformity, the distribution of the thermal neutron dose, boron dose, gamma dose in a phantom and also the Therapeutic Gain (TG). To do this, the entire TRR structure including the reactor core, pool, the thermal column and beam tubes have been modeled using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. To measure in-phantom dose distribution a special head phantom has been constructed and foil activation techniques and TLD700 dosimeter have been used. The results show that there is enough uniformity in TRR thermal BNCT beam. TG parameter has the maximum value of 5.7 at the depth of 1 cm from the surface of the phantom, confirming that TRR thermal neutron beam has potential for being used in treatment of superficial brain tumors. For the purpose of a clinical trial, more modifications need to be done at the reactor, as, for example design, and construction of a treatment room at the beam exit which is our plan for future. To date, this beam is usable for biological studies and animal trials. There is a relatively good agreement between simulation and measurement especially within a diameter of 10 cm which is the dimension of usual BNCT beam ports. This relatively good agreement enables a more precise prediction of the irradiation conditions needed for future experiments.

  15. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats Introduction: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on selective tumor uptake of boron compounds, followed by neutron irradiation. BNCT was proposed for the treatment of unresectable, diffuse lung metastases. The aim of the present study was to perform BNCT studies in an experimental model of lung metastases. Materials and Methods: 3 x 106/0.5 ml colon carcinoma cells (DHD/K12/TRb) were injected iv in syngeneic BDIX rats. Three weeks post-inoculation, rats with diffuse lung metastases were used for in vivo BNCT studies in the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Based on previous biodistribution studies and computational dosimetry with Monte Carlo simulation, 2 doses were prescribed, i.e. 4 Gy and 8 Gy minimum absorbed dose to tumor. The animals were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n= 4 to 8) at each dose level: T0 (euthanized pre-treatment), BPA-BNCT, Comb-BNCT (BPA+GB-10), Beam only (background dose) and Sham (same manipulation, no treatment). Boron concentration was measured in a blood sample taken pre-irradiation to verify that the value was in the range established in previous biodistribution studies. The animals were followed clinically for 2 weeks after neutron irradiation and then euthanized to assess the response of tumor and normal lung, macroscopically and histologically. To date we have evaluated the end-point weight of lung (normal lung + metastases) and % lung weight/body weight as an indicator of tumor growth. Results: The statistical analysis (ANOVA) of % lung weight/body weight showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between groups T0 (0.79 ± 0.38) and Sham (1.87 ± 0.91). No statistically significant differences were observed between the Beam only groups (at both dose levels) and Sham. Similar and statistically significant tumor control was induced in the groups BPA-BNCT Low dose (LD) (0.56 ± 0.11), BPA-BNCT High dose (HD) (0.80 ± 0.16), Comb-BNCT

  16. BNCT dosimetry performed with a mini twin tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, D; Colautti, P; Lollo, M; Esposito, J; Conte, V; De Nardo, L; Ferretti, A; Ceballos, C

    2009-07-01

    The BNCT radiation field is complex because different beam components are mixed, each one having different relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Microdosimetry with tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) has proven to be an ideal dosimetric technique for mixed radiation fields, because it is able both to measure the absorbed dose and to assess the radiation field relative biological effectiveness with good accuracy. An ideal detector for BNCT should contain two TEPCs, one detector loaded with, while the other one without (10)B in order to record all beam components with a unique measurement. Moreover, such a detector should be of tiny size in order to be able to measure in the intense BNCT radiation fields without significant pile-up effects. TEPCs have been shown to be pretty good dosimeters for mixed radiation fields. In this paper the first mini twin TEPC counter for BNCT is presented, as well as first measurement at the new HYTHOR thermal irradiation facility at TAPIRO nuclear reactor and comparison with related Monte Carlo calculations.

  17. A Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project to develop a Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded Tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT

  18. Tandem-ESQ for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ElectroStatic Quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the '7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT. (author)

  19. Microwave digestion techniques applied to determination of boron by ICP-AES in BNCT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has merged as an interesting option for the treatment of some kind of tumors where established therapies show no success. A molecular boronated species, enriched in 10B is administrated to the subject; it localizes in malignant tissues depending the kind of tumor and localization. Therefore, a very important fact in BNCT research is the detection of boron at trace or ultra trace levels precisely and accurately. This is extremely necessary as boronated species do localize in tumoral tissue and also localize in liver, kidney, spleen, skin, membranes. By this way, before testing a boronated species, it is mandatory to determine its biodistribution in a statistically meaning population, that is related with managing of a great number of samples. In the other hand, it is necessary to exactly predict when to begin the irradiation and to determine the magnitude of radiation to obtain the desired radiological dose for a specified mean boron concentration. This involves the determination of boron in whole blood, which is related with boron concentration in the tumor object of treatment. The methodology selected for the analysis of boron in whole blood and tissues must join certain characteristics: it must not be dependant of the chemical form of boron, it has to be fast and capable to determine boron accurately and precisely in a wide range of concentrations. The design and validation of experimental models involving animals in BNCT studies and the determination of boron in blood of animals and subjects upon treatment require reliable analytical procedures to determine boron quantitatively in those biologic materials. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using pneumatic nebulization is one of the most promising methods for boron analysis, but the sample must be liquid and have low solid concentration. In our case, biological tissues and blood, it is mandatory to mineralize and/or dilute samples

  20. BNCT activities at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that satisfactory thermal/epithermal neutron beams for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) could be designed at TRIGA research reactors These reactors are generally perceived as being safe to install and operate in populated areas. This contribution presents the most recent BNCT research activities on the 'Jozef Stefan' Institute, where epithermal neutron beam for 'in-vitro' irradiation has been developed and experimentally verified. Furthermore, The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of the epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials of human patients in thermalising column (TC) of TRIGA reactor has been carried out. The simulation results prove, that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beam throughout the world, could be installed in TC of the TRIGA reactor. (author)

  1. Feasibility study of using laser-generated neutron beam for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using a laser-accelerated proton beam to produce a neutron source, via (p,n) reaction, for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) applications has been studied by MCNPX Monte Carlo code. After optimization of the target material and its thickness, a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) has been designed and optimized to provide appropriate neutron beam according to the recommended criteria by International Atomic Energy Agency. It was found that the considered laser-accelerated proton beam can provide epithermal neutron flux of ∼2×106 n/cm2 shot. To achieve an appropriate epithermal neutron flux for BNCT treatment, the laser must operate at repetition rates of 1 kHz, which is rather ambitious at this moment. But it can be used in some BNCT researches field such as biological research. - Highlights: • Feasibility of using laser-accelerated proton beam for BNCT has been investigated. • The considered beam can provide epithermal neutron flux of ~2×106 (n/cm2.shot). • For BNCT treatment, the laser must operate at repetition rates of 1 kHz

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Veronica A. Trivilin; Lucas L. Colombo; Andrea Monti Hughes; Silvia I. Thorp; Jorge E. Cardoso; Marcel A. Garabalino; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Paula Curotto; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 +/- 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 +/- 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 +/- 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 +/- 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 +/- 480 mg for Sham, 960 +/- 620 mg for Beam only, 380 +/- 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 +/- 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  3. Accelerator based-boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)-clinical QA and QC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-particle and recoil Li atom yielded by the reaction (10B, n), due to their high LET properties, efficiently and specifically kill the cancer cell that has incorporated the boron. Efficacy of this boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been demonstrated mainly in the treatment of recurrent head/neck and malignant brain cancers in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). As the clinical trial of BNCT is to start from 2009 based on an accelerator (not on the Reactor), this paper describes the tentative outline of the standard operation procedure of BNCT for its quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) along the flow of its clinical practice. Personnel concerned in the practice involve the attending physician, multiple physicians in charge of BNCT, medical physicists, nurses and reactor stuff. The flow order of the actual BNCT is as follows: Pre-therapeutic evaluation mainly including informed consent and confirmation of the prescription; Therapeutic planning including setting of therapy volume, and of irradiation axes followed by meeting for stuffs' agreement, decision of irradiating field in the irradiation room leading to final decision of the axis, CT for the planning, decision of the final therapeutic plan according to Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) and meeting of all related personnel for the final confirmation of therapeutic plan; and BNCT including the transport of patient to KUR, dripping of boronophenylalanine, setting up of the patient on the machine, blood sampling for pharmacokinetics, boron level measurement for decision of irradiating time, switch on/off of the accelerator, confirmation of patient's movement in the irradiated field after the neutron irradiation, blood sampling for confirmation of the boron level, and patient's leave from the room. The QA/QC check is principally to be conducted with the two-person rule. The purpose of the clinical trial is to establish the usefulness of BNCT, and

  4. Biomedical Engineering 2008. New methods for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanninen, J.; Koskelainen, A.; Ilmoniemi, R.J. (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The report consists of 11 student papers presented in 2008 at the Seminar on Biomedical Engineering at Helsinki University of Technology (Finland). The topics of the seminar included: cancer risk factors and diagnosis, radiation therapy, boron neutron capture treatment (BNCT), chemotherapy, cooling and heating therapy, immunotherapy, angiogenesis inhibition approaches, gene therapy and ablation therapy of liver cancer

  5. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of suitable neutron sources and neutron beam is critical to the success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In this work a compact system designed for BNCT is presented. The system consists of 252Cf fission neutron source and a moderator/reflector/filter/shield assembly. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimized to maximize the epithermal neutron component which is useful for BNCT treatment of deep seated tumors with the suitably low level of beam contamination. The MCMP5 code has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons, secondary gamma rays originating from 252Cf source and the primary gamma rays emitted directly by this source at the exit face of the compact system. The fluence rate distributions of such particles were also computed along the central axis of a human head phantom

  6. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassoun, J. [EPRA, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, B.P. 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)], E-mail: ghassoun@ucam.ac.ma; Chkillou, B.; Jehouani, A. [EPRA, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, B.P. 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)

    2009-04-15

    The development of suitable neutron sources and neutron beam is critical to the success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In this work a compact system designed for BNCT is presented. The system consists of {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source and a moderator/reflector/filter/shield assembly. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimized to maximize the epithermal neutron component which is useful for BNCT treatment of deep seated tumors with the suitably low level of beam contamination. The MCMP5 code has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons, secondary gamma rays originating from {sup 252}Cf source and the primary gamma rays emitted directly by this source at the exit face of the compact system. The fluence rate distributions of such particles were also computed along the central axis of a human head phantom.

  7. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassoun, J; Chkillou, B; Jehouani, A

    2009-04-01

    The development of suitable neutron sources and neutron beam is critical to the success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In this work a compact system designed for BNCT is presented. The system consists of (252)Cf fission neutron source and a moderator/reflector/filter/shield assembly. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimized to maximize the epithermal neutron component which is useful for BNCT treatment of deep seated tumors with the suitably low level of beam contamination. The MCMP5 code has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons, secondary gamma rays originating from (252)Cf source and the primary gamma rays emitted directly by this source at the exit face of the compact system. The fluence rate distributions of such particles were also computed along the central axis of a human head phantom. PMID:19168369

  8. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; D'Errico, F; Nath, R; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in sup 1 sup 0 B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast ...

  9. Conceptual design of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT in the thermalizing column of TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of the epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials in thermalising column (TC) of TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The results prove, that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in TC/DC of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients.(author)

  10. Progress on the accelerator based SPES-BNCT project at INFN Legnaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisent, A [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Colautti, P [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Esposito, J [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Nardo, L De [Physics Department, Padova University (Italy); Conte, V [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Agosteo, D [Nuclear Engineering Department, Milano Polytechnic (Italy); Jori, G [Biology Department, Padova University (Italy); Posocco, P A [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Tecchio, L B [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Tinti, R [ENEA - FIS-NUC, Bologna (Italy); Rosi, G [ENEA - FIS-ION, Rome (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    In the framework of an advanced Exotic Ion Beam facility project, named SPES (Study and Production of Exotic Species), that will allow a frontier program in Nuclear and Interdisciplinary Physics, an intense thermal neutron beam facility, devoted to perform Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) experimental treatments on skin melanoma tumor is currently under construction based on the SPES proton driver. A vast radiobiological investigation in vitro and in vivo has started with the new {sup 10}B carriers developed. Special microdosimetric detectors have been constructed to properly measure all the BNCT dose components and their qualities. Both microdosimetric and radiobiological measurements are being performed at the Enea-Casaccia TAPIRO reactor.

  11. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  12. Might iodomethyl-α-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with 10B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that 10B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing 18F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron 18F (T1/2 = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of 123I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT

  13. Might iodomethyl-{alpha}-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with {sup 10}B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that {sup 10}B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing {sup 18}F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron {sup 18}F (T{sub 1/2} = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of {sup 123}I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT.

  14. First tomographic image of neutron capture rate in a BNCT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work discusses the development of online dosimetry of the boron dose via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) during a BNCT treatment irradiation. Such a system will allow the online computation of boron dose maps without the large current uncertainties in the assessment of the boron concentration in different tissues. The first tomographic boron dose image with a SPECT prototype is shown.

  15. First tomographic image of neutron capture rate in a BNCT facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsky, D.M., E-mail: minsky@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Green, S.; Wojnecki, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2 TT (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom); Ghani, Z. [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    This work discusses the development of online dosimetry of the boron dose via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) during a BNCT treatment irradiation. Such a system will allow the online computation of boron dose maps without the large current uncertainties in the assessment of the boron concentration in different tissues. The first tomographic boron dose image with a SPECT prototype is shown.

  16. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schütz, C.;

    2011-01-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed at Pavia (Italy) a few...

  17. Enhanced blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortesniemi, M. E-mail: mika.kortesniemi@hus.fi; Seppaelae, T.; Auterinen, I.; Savolainen, S

    2004-11-01

    The blood boron concentration regulates directly the BNCT irradiation time in which the prescribed dose to the patient is delivered. Therefore a proper estimation of the blood boron concentration for the treatment field based on the measured blood samples before irradiation is required. The bi-exponential model fit using Levenberg-Marquardt method was implemented for this purpose to provide the blood boron concentration estimates directly to the treatment data flow during the BNCT procedure. The harmonic mean bi-exponential decay half-lives of the studied patient data (n=28) were 15{+-}8 and 320{+-}70 min for the faster and slower half-life. The model uncertainty (n=28) was reasonably low, 0.7{+-}0.1 {mu}g/g (about 5%). The implemented algorithm provides a robust method for temporal blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT. Utilization of the infusion data improves the reliability of the estimate. The overall data flow during the treatment fulfills the practical requirements concerning the BNCT procedure.

  18. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Samia de Freitas Brandao; Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de Campos

    2013-01-01

    Objective Comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and Methods Simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted int...

  19. Treatment Planning for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María S.; González, Sara J.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andrés J.

    2010-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma are frequent brain tumors in adults and presently still incurable diseases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising alternative for this kind of pathologies. Accelerators have been proposed for BNCT as a way to circumvent the problem of siting reactors in hospitals and for their relative simplicity and lower cost among other advantages. Considerable effort is going into the development of accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources in Argentina. Epithermal neutron beams will be produced through appropriate proton-induced nuclear reactions and optimized beam shaping assemblies. Using these sources, computational dose distributions were evaluated in a real patient with diagnosed glioblastoma treated with BNCT. The simulated irradiation was delivered in order to optimize dose to the tumors within the normal tissue constraints. Using Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, dose distributions were generated for brain, skin and tumor. Also, the dosimetry was studied by computing cumulative dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest. The results suggest acceptable skin average dose and a significant dose delivered to tumor with low average whole brain dose for irradiation times less than 60 minutes, indicating a good performance of an accelerator-based BNCT treatment.

  20. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  1. Radiation treatment and radiation reactions in dermatology. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizzon, Renato G. [Univ. Hospital CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Dermatology; Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich (ed.) [Strahlenzentrum Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Explains the use of radiation treatment in the full range of skin cancers and precancerous lesions. Covers physical and radiobiological principles, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. Revised and updated edition that includes new chapters and numerous additional figures. In this book, leading experts in the dermatological and oncological field describe the use of radiation therapy for the treatment of the full range of dermatological malignancies - including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, cutaneous lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell tumor - as well as those precancerous lesions and non-malignant dermatological disorders which are amenable to radiation therapy. In each case the specific indications for the use of radiotherapy and its application are clearly explained with the aid of numerous high-quality illustrations. In addition, the book provides a concise introduction to physical and radiobiological principles, selection of radiation factors, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. The new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect advances in practical knowledge and clinical practice. It will be an invaluable source of information on the management of skin tumors and related non-malignant disorders for both dermatologists, oncologists and radiation oncologists.

  2. Radiation treatment and radiation reactions in dermatology. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explains the use of radiation treatment in the full range of skin cancers and precancerous lesions. Covers physical and radiobiological principles, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. Revised and updated edition that includes new chapters and numerous additional figures. In this book, leading experts in the dermatological and oncological field describe the use of radiation therapy for the treatment of the full range of dermatological malignancies - including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, cutaneous lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell tumor - as well as those precancerous lesions and non-malignant dermatological disorders which are amenable to radiation therapy. In each case the specific indications for the use of radiotherapy and its application are clearly explained with the aid of numerous high-quality illustrations. In addition, the book provides a concise introduction to physical and radiobiological principles, selection of radiation factors, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. The new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect advances in practical knowledge and clinical practice. It will be an invaluable source of information on the management of skin tumors and related non-malignant disorders for both dermatologists, oncologists and radiation oncologists.

  3. The BNCT facility at the HFR Petten: Quality assurance for reactor facilities in clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first clinical trial in Europe of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of glioblastoma was opened in July 1997. The trial is a Phase I study with the principal aim to establish the maximum tolerated radiation dose and the dose limiting toxicity under defined conditions. It is the first time that a clinical application could be realised on a completely multi-national scale. The treatment takes place at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, the Netherlands, is operated by an international team of experts under the leadership of a German radiotherapist, and treats patients coming from different European countries. It has therefore been necessary to create a very specialised organisation and contractual structure with the support of administrations from different countries, who had to find and adapt solutions within existing laws that had never foreseen such a situation. Furthermore, the treatment does not take place in an hospital environment and even more so, the facility is at a nuclear research reactor. Hence, special efforts were made on quality assurance, in order that the set-up at the facility and the personnel involved complied, as closely as possible, with similar practices in conventional radiotherapy departments. (author)

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of boron folates for Boron-Neutron-Capture-Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettenbach, Kathrin; Schieferstein, Hanno; Grunewald, Catrin; Hampel, Gabriele; Schuetz, Christian L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Iffland, Dorothee; Bings, Nicolas H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry; Reffert, Laura M. [Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry; Ross, Tobias L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) employs {sup 10}B-pharmaceuticals administered for the treatment of malignancies, and subsequently irradiated with thermal neutrons. So far, clinical established pharmaceuticals like boron phenylalanine (BPA) or sodium boron mercaptate (BSH) use imperfect (BPA) or passive (BSH) targeting for accumulation at target sites. Due to the need of a selective transportation of boron drugs into cancer cells and sparing healthy tissues, we combined the BNCT approach with the specific and effective folate receptor (FR) targeting concept. The FR is overexpressed on many human carcinomas and provides a selective and specific target for molecular imaging as well as for tumor therapy. We synthesized and characterized a carborane-folate as well as a BSH-folate to study their in vitro characteristics and their potential as new boron-carriers for BNCT. Uptake studies were carried out using human KB cells showing a significant increase of the boron content in cells and demonstrating the successful combination of active FR-targeting and BNCT.

  5. Retrospective review of the clinical BNCT trial at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A.Z.; Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Ma, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Department, Upton, NY (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The primary objective of the phase I/II dose escalation studies was to evaluate the safety of the boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in subjects with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A secondary objective was to retrospectively assess the palliation of GBM by BNCT. Fifty-three subjects with GBM were treated under multiple dose escalation protocols at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). Twenty-six subjects were treated using one field, 17 subjects were treated using 2 fields and 10 subjects were treated using 3 fields. BPA-F related toxicity was not observed. The maximum radiation dose to a volume of approximately 1 cc of the normal brain varied from 8.9 to 15.9 gray-equivalent (Gy-Eq). The volume-weighted average radiation dose to normal brain varied from 1.9 to 9.5 Gy-Eq. Six RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) grade 3 or 4 toxicities were attributed to BNCT. Four of the 53 subjects are still alive with 3 of them free of recurrent disease with over two years follow-up. The median times to progression and median survival time from diagnosis were 28.4 weeks and 12.8 months respectively. (author)

  6. Guidelines for treatment naming in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Travis R; Shields, Lisa B E; Hahl, Michael; Maudlin, Casey; Bassett, Mark; Spalding, Aaron C

    2016-01-01

    Safety concerns may arise from a lack of standardization and ambiguity during the treatment planning and delivery process in radiation therapy. A standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention in radiation therapy was developed by a task force comprised of several Radiation Oncology Societies. We present a nested-survey approach in a community setting to determine the methodology for radiation oncology departments to standardize their practice. Our Institution's continuous quality improvement (CQI) committee recognized that, due to growth from one to three centers, significant variability existed within plan parameters specific to patients' treatment. A multidiscipline, multiclinical site consortium was established to create a guideline for standard naming. Input was gathered using anonymous, electronic surveys from physicians, physicists, dosimetrists, chief therapists, and nurse managers. Surveys consisted of several primary areas of interest: anatomical sites, course naming, treatment plan naming, and treatment field naming. Additional concepts included capitalization, specification of laterality, course naming in the event of multiple sites being treated within the same course of treatment, primary versus boost planning, the use of bolus, revisions for plans, image-guidance field naming, forbidden characters, and standard units for commonly used physical quantities in radiation oncology practice. Guidelines for standard treatment naming were developed that could be readily adopted. This multidisciplinary study provides a clear, straightforward, and easily implemented protocol for the radiotherapy treatment process. Standard nomenclature facilitates the safe means of communication between team members in radiation oncology. The guidelines presented in this work serve as a model for radiation oncology clinics to standardize their practices. PMID:27074449

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for haemorrhagic radiation cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevers, R.F.M.; Kurth, K.H. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Academic Medical Center; Bakker, D.J. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Depts. of Urology and Surgery

    1995-09-23

    Radiation-induced severe haemorrhagic cystitis is difficult to treat. Conventional treatments may decrease haematuria but do not affect the radiocystitis itself. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment has been reported to do both. We report the results of a prospective study of hyperbaric oxygen (20 sessions of 100% oxygen inhalation at 3 bar for 90 min in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber) to 40 patients with biopsy-proven radiation cystitis and severe haematuria. Haematuria disappeared completely or improved in 37 patients after treatment. Mean follow-up was 23.1 months (range 1-74); and the recurrence rate was 0.12/year. There were no adverse effects. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment should be considered for patients with severe radiation-induced haematuria. (author).

  8. Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mouth Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth Main Content Are You Being Treated With Radiation ... How Does Head and Neck Radiation Affect the Mouth? Doctors use head and neck radiation to treat ...

  9. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of glyemas and gluoblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment the levels of Na210B12H11SH must be known in several compartiments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumine was established. This method is simple, reprodutible and adequate sensitivity for this control. (author)

  10. Radiation treatment of drugs, biochemicals and vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60Co and to a lesser extent by 137Cs, 182Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs

  11. Manufacturing of thin films of boron for the measurement of the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7} Li reaction used in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilgys, Barbara; Oliveira, Sandro Guedes de; Hadler Neto, Julio Cesar; Vellame, Igor Alencar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Soares, Cleber Jose; Salim, Leonardo Alfredo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Coelho, Paulo Rogerio Pinto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is considered to be a possible treatment for different types of aggressive cancers located in areas of difficult access or which already have metastasis. The working principle of this therapy is the selective delivery of a greater amount of boron to the tumor cells than to the healthy ones, followed by the neutron irradiation that will induce the emission of {alpha} particles through the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7} Li reaction used in BNCT reaction. The high energy deposition of the product particles causes the death of the cells and this therapy becomes much effective if the healthy tissue is less exposed to this radiation. The objective of this work is to develop a method for measuring the rate of this reaction by using thin films of boron. We have manufactured thin films with different concentrations of boron deposited on mica and the thin films were exposed to different irradiation time intervals at the reactor IEA-R1 located at IPEN, Sao Paulo. Here we show our first results on the density and uniformity of the thin films, where the detection of the particles is made using plastic track detectors (CR-39) which have their structures damaged by the passage of ions. (author)

  12. Combined TL and 10B-alanine ESR dosimetry for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, A; D'Oca, M C; Lo Giudice, B; Brai, M; Borio, R; Forini, N; Salvadori, P; Manera, S

    2004-01-01

    The dosimetric technique described in this paper is based on electron spin resonance (ESR) detectors using an alanine-boric compound acid enriched with (10)B, and beryllium oxide thermoluminescent (TL) detectors; with this combined dosimetry, it is possible to discriminate the doses due to thermal neutrons and gamma radiation in a mixed field. Irradiations were carried out inside the thermal column of a TRIGA MARK II water-pool-type research nuclear reactor, also used for Boron Neutron Capture therapy (BNCT) applications, with thermal neutron fluence from 10(9) to 10(14) nth cm(-2). The ESR dosemeters using the alanine-boron compound indicated ESR signals about 30-fold stronger than those using only alanine. Moreover, a negligible correction for the gamma contribution, measured with TL detectors, almost insensitive to thermal neutrons, was necessary. Therefore, a simultaneous analysis of our TL and ESR detectors allows discrimination between thermal neutron and gamma doses, as required in BNCT. PMID:15353720

  13. Radiation treatment of superior sulcus lung carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.; Ball, D.; Worotniuk, V.; Smith, J.; Crennan, E.; Bishop, M. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Inst., East Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    The survival of patients with superior sulcus lung carcinoma and the effects of treatment were reviewed. From a prospective database of 4123 consecutive new patients with lung carcinoma, 131 (3.2%) cases of superior sulcus lung carcinoma were identified. Seventy-four patients were planned to receive radiation with palliative intent, 53 radical radiotherapy and one was observed only. The remaining three patients, with small-cell carcinoma, were treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Of the 53 radically treated patients, nine were treated with pre-operative radiation prior to intended radical resection. Analysis was carried out on the effect on survival of performance status, nodal involvement, weight loss, vertebral body or rib involvement, treatment intent and radical combined modality treatment compared with radical radiation alone. The estimated median survival for the whole group was 7.6 months; for those treated radically it was 18.3 months, while for the palliatively treated patients it was 3.7 months. Radically treated patients with no initial nodal involvement had an estimated median survival of 22 months, while radically treated patients with nodal involvement had an estimated median survival of 8.4 months (P = 0.003). There were no statistically significant differences in survival between radically treated patients grouped according to initial weight loss, performance status, or vertebral body and rib involvement. Patients treated with pre-operative radiation did not survive significantly longer than patients treated with radiation alone, although the numbers are small. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. Development of Radiation Technique for Environmental Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Kuk, Il Hiun; Jin, Joon Ha (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this research is to development of technologies for 1) the removal of toxic organic chemicals in sewage sludges and the volume reduction of the sewage sludge 2) the recycling/reuse of sewage sludge 3) the reconvey of resource from fishery waste by using radiation technologies. This research project focused on the study of treatment, disposal, and recycling/reuse of sewage sludge by radiation technology, and recovery of highly value-added resources from the wastes. As basic studies with a radiation technology, an enhancement of dewaterbilities of sewage sludge, development of dewatering conditioner, reduction of trace toxic organic chemicals, and the toxicities of the byproducts were studied. Based on the basic experimental results, we developed the pilot-scale system with the continuous e-beam and dewatering unit and the advanced treatment system with the use of carbon source recovered from sewage sludge.

  15. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  16. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  17. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  18. INEL BNCT research program, July--August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  19. INEL BNCT Research Program, March/April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murino screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronopheoylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  20. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  1. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  2. Classification and treatment of radiation maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, Noel

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiation maculopathy is a sight-limiting consequence of radiotherapy in the management of uveal melanoma and other intraocular tumors. In this review, we consider clinical, fluorescein angiographic and optical coherence tomographic findings, propose a classification for radiation maculopathy and discuss the management of this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Radiation macular edema (RME) can be classified by optical coherence tomography into noncystoid or cystoid edema, with foveolar or extrafoveolar involvement. Optical coherence tomographic grading of RME has been found to correlate with visual acuity. Focal argon laser might have some limited benefit in the treatment of RME. Intravitreal triamcinolone and intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor agents can be of short-term benefit in the treatment of RME. In a randomized controlled trial, periocular triamcinolone significantly reduced rates of RME and vision loss up to 18 months following plaque radiotherapy for uveal melanoma. SUMMARY: Currently, there is no proven treatment for established RME, though periocular triamcinolone has been shown to have a preventive benefit. An accepted classification system for radiation maculopathy would be of benefit in planning and comparing future treatment trials.

  3. FiR 1 reactor in service for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose for the existence of the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), but FiR 1 has also an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics etc. with isotope production and activation analysis services. In the 1990's a BNCT treatment facility was built at the FiR 1 reactor located at Technical Research Centre of Finland. A special new neutron moderator material FluentalTM (Al+AlF3+Li) developed at VTT ensures the superior quality of the neutron beam. Also the treatment environment is of world top quality after a major renovation of the whole reactor building in 1997. Recently the lithiated polyethylene neutron shielding of the beam aperture was modified to ease the positioning of the patient close to the beam aperture. Increasing the reactor power to 500 kW would allow positioning of the patient further away from the beam aperture. Possibilities to accomplish a safety analysis for this is currently under considerations. Over thirty patients have been treated at FiR 1 since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization, Boneca Corporation. Currently three clinical trial protocols for tumours in the brain as well as in the head and neck region are recruiting patients. (author)

  4. A toolkit for epithermal neutron beam characterisation in BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auterinen, Iiro; Serén, Tom; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Kosunen, Antti; Savolainen, Sauli

    2004-01-01

    Methods for dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been developed and utilised within the Finnish BNCT project as well as within a European project for a code of practise for the dosimetry of BNCT. One outcome has been a travelling toolkit for BNCT dosimetry. It consists of activation detectors and ionisation chambers. The free-beam neutron spectrum is measured with a set of activation foils of different isotopes irradiated both in a Cd-capsule and without it. Neutron flux (thermal and epithermal) distribution in phantoms is measured using activation of Mn and Au foils, and Cu wire. Ionisation chamber (IC) measurements are performed both in-free-beam and in-phantom for determination of the neutron and gamma dose components. This toolkit has also been used at other BNCT facilities in Europe, the USA, Argentina and Japan.

  5. Discrimination of various contributions to the absorbed dose in BNCT: Fricke-gel imaging and intercomparison with other experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G. E-mail: grazia.gambarini@mi.infn.it; Agosteo, S.; Marchesi, P.; Nava, E.; Palazzi, P.; Pecci, A.; Rosi, G.; Tinti, R

    2000-11-15

    A method is described for the 3D measurements of absorbed dose in a ferrous sulphate gel phantom, exposed in the thermal column of a nuclear reactor. The method, studied for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) purposes, allows absorbed dose imaging and profiling, with the separation of different contributions coming from different secondary radiations, generated from thermal neutrons. In fact, the biological effectiveness of the different radiations is different. Tests with conventional dosimeters were performed too.

  6. Volume visualization in radiation treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzari, C A; Chen, G T

    2000-12-01

    Radiation treatment planning (RTP), historically an image-intensive discipline and one of the first areas in which 3D information from imaging was clinically applied, has become even more critically dependent on accurate 3D definition of target and non-target structures in recent years with the advent of conformal radiation therapy. In addition to the interactive display of wireframe or shaded surface models of anatomic objects, proposed radiation beams, beam modifying devices, and calculated dose distributions, recently significant use has been made of direct visualization of relevant anatomy from image data. Dedicated systems are commercially available for the purpose of geometrically optimizing beam placement, implementing in virtual reality the functionality of standard radiation therapy simulators. Such "CT simulation" systems rely heavily on 3D visualization and on reprojection of image data to produce simulated radiographs for comparison with either diagnostic-quality radiographs made on a simulator or megavoltage images made using the therapeutic beams themselves. Although calculation and analysis of dose distributions is an important component of radiation treatment design, geometric targeting with optimization based on 3D anatomic information is frequently performed as a separate step independent of dose calculations.

  7. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loiudice, T.A.; Lang, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response.

  8. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiudice, T A; Lang, J A

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response. PMID:6410908

  9. Tumor development in field-cancerized tissue is inhibited by a double application of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without exceeding radio-tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of a 'single' application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-1(Na210B10H10) or (GB-10+BPA) to treat hamster cheek pouch tumors with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Based on these results, we developed a model of precancerous tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies. Employing this model we evaluated the long-term potential inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue and eventual radiotoxicity of a single application of BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or (GB-10+BPA), in the RA-6. The clinical rationale of this study was to search for a BNCT protocol that is therapeutic for tumor, not radio-toxic for the normal tissue that lies in the neutron beam path, and exerts the desired inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors, without exceeding the radio-tolerance of precancerous tissue, the dose limiting tissue in this case. Second primary tumors that arise in precancerous tissue (also called locoregional recurrences) are a frequent cause of therapeutic failure in head and neck tumors. Aim: Evaluate the radiotoxicity and inhibitory effect of a 'double' application of the same BNCT protocols that were proved therapeutically successful for tumor and precancerous tissue, with a long term follow up (8 months). A 'double' application of BNCT is a potentially useful strategy for the treatment of tumors, in particular the larger ones, but the cost in terms of side-effects in dose-limiting tissues might preclude its application and requires cautious evaluation. Materials and methods: We performed a double application of 1) BPA-BNCT; 2) (GB- 10+BPA)-BNCT

  10. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m3 day-1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  11. Feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma from a viewpoint of dose distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from a viewpoint of dose distribution analysis using Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications (SERA), a currently available BNCT treatment planning system. Methods and Materials: The BNCT treatment plans were constructed for 3 patients with MPM using the SERA system, with 2 opposed anterior-posterior beams. The 1B concentrations in the tumor and normal lung in this study were assumed to be 84 and 24 ppm, respectively, and were derived from data observed in clinical trials. The maximum, mean, and minimum doses to the tumors and the normal lung were assessed for each plan. The doses delivered to 5% and 95% of the tumor volume, D05 and D95, were adopted as the representative dose for the maximum and minimum dose, respectively. Results: When the D05 to the normal ipsilateral lung was 5 Gy-Eq, the D95 and mean doses delivered to the normal lung were 2.2-3.6 and 3.5-4.2 Gy-Eq, respectively. The mean doses delivered to the tumors were 22.4-27.2 Gy-Eq. The D05 and D95 doses to the tumors were 9.6-15.0 and 31.5-39.5 Gy-Eq, respectively. Conclusions: From a viewpoint of the dose-distribution analysis, BNCT has the possibility to be a promising treatment for MPM patients who are inoperable because of age and other medical illnesses

  12. Towards the final BSA modeling for the accelerator-driven BNCT facility at INFN LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceballos, C. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnlogicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, 5ta y30, Miramar, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Esposito, J., E-mail: juan.esposito@lnl.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Colautti, P.; Conte, V.; Moro, D. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Some remarkable advances have been made in the last years on the SPES-BNCT project of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) towards the development of the accelerator-driven thermal neutron beam facility at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL), aimed at the BNCT experimental treatment of extended skin melanoma. The compact neutron source will be produced via the {sup 9}Be(p,xn) reactions using the 5 MeV, 30 mA beam driven by the RFQ accelerator, whose modules construction has been recently completed, into a thick beryllium target prototype already available. The Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) final modeling, using both neutron converter and the new, detailed, Be(p,xn) neutron yield spectra at 5 MeV energy recently measured at the CN Van de Graaff accelerator at LNL, is summarized here.

  13. Radiation Treatment of Primary Orbital Lymphoid Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hyun Suk [Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-06-15

    Primary lymphoid tumors of orbit are rare. Sometimes they pose difficulty in differentiating malignant Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the orbit from benign lymphoid hyperplasia or pseudotumor of the orbit by growth characteristics and histologic examination of a biopsy specimen. Consequently, systemic work-up for staging of the disease before the initiation of treatment is essential. All lymphoid tumors of the orbit are radiosensitive and the response to radiotherapy is rapid and complete. Radiation dose for permanent control varies from 2,400 to 4,500rads in 2.5-4 weeks depending on extent and location of the disease. A case of localized lymphoma of the orbit was treated with radiotherapy. For the following 15 months, the patient was clinically free of disease without any evidence of side effects of radiation treatment.

  14. In-phantom dosimetry for BNCT with Fricke and normoxic-polymer gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, G.; Agosteo, S.; Carrara, M.; Gay, S.; Mariani, M.; Pirola, L.; Vanossi, E.

    2006-05-01

    Measurements of in-phantom dose distributions and images are important for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy treatment planning. The method for spatial determination of absorbed doses in thermal or epithermal neutron fields, based on Fricke-xylenol-orange-infused gel dosimeters in form of layers, has revealed to be very reliable, as gel layer dosimeters give the possibility of obtaining spatial dose distributions and measurements of each dose contribution in neutron fields, by means of a properly studied procedure. Quite recently, BNCT has been applied to treat liver metastases; in this work the results of in-phantom dosimetry for explanted liver in BNCT treatments are described. Moreover, polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeters in which a polymerization process appears as a consequence of absorbed dose, have been recently tested, because of their characteristic absence of diffusion. In fact, due to the diffusion of ferric ions, Fricke-gel dosimeters require prompt analysis after exposure to avoid spatial information loss. In this work the preliminary results of a study about the reliability of polymer gel in BNCT dosimetry are also discussed. Gel layers have been irradiated in a phantom exposed in the thermal column of the TRIGA MARK II reactor (Pavia). The results obtained with the two kinds of gel dosimeter have been compared.

  15. Quality assurance for BNCT at nuclear facilities. A necessary burden or the unavoidable seal of approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BNCT clinical trial at the HFR Petten is performed on a completely multi-national basis. The irradiation facility is located in one country (The Netherlands), is operated by an international team of experts under the leadership of a radiotherapist from another country (Germany) and treats patients coming from different European countries. In gaining the necessary approval, it became apparent, especially in the many discussions with the (Dutch) Health authorities that Quality Assurance (QA) would be and is a critical aspect. This is even more so, in the case of BNCT, where it was not only a (relatively) new experimental treatment (in 1996/97) about to be performed for the first time in Europe, but it was to be performed in a non-hospital environment and furthermore in a nuclear research reactor. It was necessary therefore to comply, as closely as possible, with similarly accepted practices in conventional radiotherapy. Despite QA being a sometimes burdensome task, this paper nevertheless raises the issue as to whether it is necessary or whether it is the seal of approval for BNCT as an acceptable mode of treatment in mainstream radiotherapy. (author)

  16. American brain tumor patients treated with BNCT in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laramore, G.E.; Griffin, B.R.; Spence, A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish and maintain a database for patients from the United States who have received BNCT in Japan for malignant gliomas of the brain. This database will serve as a resource for the DOE to aid in decisions relating to BNCT research in the United States, as well as assisting the design and implementation of clinical trials of BNCT for brain cancer patients in this country. The database will also serve as an information resource for patients with brain tumors and their families who are considering this form of therapy.

  17. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D.W.; Mitchell, H.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Therapeutically-useful epithermal-neutron beams for BNCT are currently generated by nuclear reactors. Various accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT have been proposed and some low intensity prototypes of such sources, generally featuring the use of proton beams and beryllium or lithium targets have been constructed. This paper describes an alternate approach to the realization of a clinically useful accelerator-based source of epithermal neutrons for BNCT that reconciles the often conflicting objectives of target cooling, neutron beam intensity, and neutron beam spectral purity via a two stage photoneutron production process.

  18. Current clinical results of the Tsukuba BNCT trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Matsumura, A. E-mail: matsumur@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Nakai, K.; Shibata, Y.; Endo, K.; Sakurai, F.; Kishi, T.; Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Torii, Y

    2004-11-01

    Nine high grade gliomas (5 glioblastomas and 4 anaplastic astrocytomas) were treated with BSH-based intaoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT). BSH (100 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected, followed by single fraction irradiation using the mixed thermal/epithermal beam of Japan Research Reactor 4. The blood boron level at the time of irradiation averaged 29.9 (18.8-39.5) {mu}g/g. The peak thermal neutron flux as determined by post-irradiation measurements varied from 1.99 to 2.77x10{sup 9} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. No serious BSH-related toxicity was observed in this series. The interim survival data in this study showed median survival times of 23.2 months for glioblastoma and 25.9 months for anaplastic astrocytoma, results which are consistent with the current conventional radiotherapy with/without boost radiation. Of the 4 residual tumors, 2 showed complete response (CR) and 2 showed partial response (PR) within 6 months following BNCT. No linear correlation was proved between the dose and the occurrence of early neurological events. The maximum boron dose of 11.7-12.2 Gy in the brain related to the occurrence of radiation necrosis. The clinical application of a mixed thermal/epithermal beam and JRR-4 facilities on BSH-based IOBNCT proved to be safe and effective in this series.

  19. Use of fluorine-18-BPA PET images and image registration to enhance radiation treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Khurram

    The Monte-Carlo based simulation environment for radiation therapy (SERA) software is used to simulate the dose administered to a patient undergoing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Point sampling of tumor tissue results in an estimate of a uniform boron concentration scaling factor of 3.5. Under conventional treatment protocols, this factor is used to scale the boron component of the dose linearly and homogenously within the tumor and target volumes. The average dose to the tumor cells by such a method could be improved by better methods of quantifying the in-vivo 10B biodistribution. A better method includes radiolabeling para-Boronophenylalanine (p-BPA) with 18F and imaging the pharmaceutical using positron emission tomography (PET). This biodistribution of 18F-BPA can then be used to better predict the average dose delivered to the tumor regions. This work uses registered 18F-BPA PET images to incorporate the in-vivo boron biodistribution within current treatment planning. The registered 18F-BPA PET images are then coupled in a new computer software, PET2MRI.m, to linearly scale the boron component of the dose. A qualititative and quantitative assessment of the dose contours is presented using the two approaches. Tumor volume, tumor axial extent, and target locations are compared between using MRI or PET images to define the tumor volume. In addition, peak-to-normal brain value at tumor axial center is determined for pre and post surgery patients using 18F-BPA PET images. The differences noted between the registered GBM tumor volumes (range: 34.04--136.36%), tumor axial extent (range: 20--150%), and the beam target location (1.27--4.29 cm) are significantly different. The peak-to-normal brain values are also determined at the tumor axial center using the 18F-BPA PET images. The peak-to-normal brain values using the last frame of the pre-surgery study for the GBM patients ranged from 2.05--3.4. For post surgery time weighted PET data, the peak

  20. Concept of a BNCT line with in-pool fission converter at MARIA reactor in Swierk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Krzysztof; Andrzejewski, Krzysztof; Golnik, Natalia; Osko, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    BNCT facility in the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk is under construction at the horizontal channel H2 of the research reactor MARIA. Measurements of the neutron energy spectrum performed at the front of the H2 experimental channel, have shown that flux of epithermal neutrons (above 10 keV) at the BNCT irradiation port was below 109 n cm-2 s-1 i.e. it was too low to be directly used for the BNCT treatment. Therefore, a fission converter will be placed between the reactor core and the periphery of the graphite reflector of MARIA reactor. The uranium converter will be powered by the densely packed EK-10 fuel elements with 10% enrichment. Preliminary calculations have shown that the total neutron flux in the converter will be about 1013 n cm-2 s-1 and flux of epithermal neutrons at the entrance to the filter/moderator of the beam will be about 2·1013 n cm-2 s-1.

  1. Present status of BNCT at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, we have two facilities for BNCT such as a reactor-based and an accelerator-based neutron source. In this article, we will present the characteristics overview of both facilities. (author)

  2. Application of radiation for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam processing of wastewater is non-chemical, and uses fast formation of short-lived reactive radicals that can interact with a wide range of pollutants. Such reactive radicals are strong oxidizing or reducing agents that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. The first studies on the radiation treatment of wastes were carried out in the 1950s principally for disinfection. In the 1960s, these studies were extended to the purification of water and wastewater. After some laboratory research on industrial wastewaters and polluted groundwater in 1970s and 1980s, several pilot plants were built for extended research in the 1990s. The first full-scale application was reported for the purification of wastewater at the Voronezh synthetic rubber plant in Russia. Two accelerators (50 kW each) were used to convert the non-biodegradable emulsifier, 'nekal', present in the wastewater to a biodegradable form . The installation treats up to 2000 m3 of effluent per day. A pilot plant of 1000 m3/d for treating textile-dyeing wastewater has been constructed in Daegu, Korea with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. High-energy irradiation produces instantaneous radiolytical transformations by energy transfer from accelerated electrons to orbital electrons of water molecules. Absorbed energy disturbs the electron system of the molecule and results in breakage of inter-atomic bonds. Hydrated electron eaq, H atom, .OH and HO2. radicals and hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and H2 are the most important products of the primary interactions (radiolysis products). Generally, radiation processing of wastewater has maximum efficiency at pollutant concentration less than 10-3 mol/L (∼100 ppm). The treatment of such wastewater is simple, requires low dose (about 1 kGy or less) and gives almost complete elimination of odor, color, taste and turbidity. The radiation processing of polluted water containing specific contaminants may require creation of special conditions to achieve

  3. Biodistribution of Boron compounds in an experimental model of liver metastases for Boron Neutron Capture (BNCT) Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that involves the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumors followed by irradiation with thermal or epithermal neutrons. The high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling 7Li nuclei emitted during the capture of a thermal neutron by a 10B nucleus have a short range and a high biological effectiveness. Thus, BNCT would potentially target neoplastic tissue selectively. In previous studies we demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different BNCT protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. More recently we performed experimental studies in normal rat liver that evidenced the feasibility of treating liver metastases employing a novel BNCT protocol proposed by JEC based on ex-situ treatment and partial liver auto-transplant. The aim of the present study was to perform biodistribution studies with different boron compounds and different administration protocols to determine the protocols that would be therapeutically useful in 'in vivo' BNCT studies at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Materials and Methods. A total of 70 BDIX rats (Charles River Lab., MA, USA) were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DH/DK12/TRb (ECACC, UK) to induce the development of subcapsular metastatic nodules. 15 days post-inoculation the animals were used for biodistribution studies. A total of 11 protocols were evaluated employing the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na210B1-0H10), alone or combined employing different doses and administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by ICP-OES. Results. Several protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue, i.e. BPA 15.5 mg 10B/kg iv + GB-10 50 mg 10B/kg iv; BPA 46.5 mg 10B/kg ip; BPA 46.5 mg 10B/kg ip + iv; BPA 46

  4. Preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of sepsis development increases when thermal burns and other trauma occur in combination with exposure to radiation. Only surgical correction of the life-threatening state recommends within 48 hours after irradiation. All other arrangements have to carry out when hemopoiesis recovery will complete. However exposed patients with combined injuries (CI) die during the first two or three weeks mainly due to sepsis. Therefore prophylaxis and preventive therapy of infectious complications are need early. Actual difficulties in choice of valid treatment procedure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) exhibit additional aggravation under CI. The available facts prove decreasing early therapy efficiency for rather high dose exposure and wound trauma occurrence. The own results showed that bacterial polysaccharide pyrogenal, glycopin (synthetic analogue of muramil-dipeptide), thymus preparations (thymozin, thymotropin, thymogen), tuftsin, heterologic human and bovine immunoglobulins did not modify the low values of 30-day survival under CI (irradiation + thermal burn). Single injection of prodigiozan, zymozan and some other yeast polysaccharides in 1 hr after CI resulted at moderate increasing of survival. The main purpose of this study, which bases upon our understanding of CI pathogenesis, was search more effective means for preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries. Two groups of remedies were under study. The first group included so called 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). These agents may increase host defences to infection, macrophage's activity and hemopoietic growth factor's secretion. The second group included antibiotics that should be directed against the potential gram-negative as well as gram-positive pathogens and simultaneously be useful for selective decontamination of gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  5. The treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dermatitis is often seen and is often a complication of radiation therapy of tumors. It is characterized by poor healing, stubborn relapse, and carcinogenesis.. The treatment include drug, physical therapy and surgery. This article describes the treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure. (authors)

  6. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung. - Highlights: • We performed experimental boron biodistribution studies for lung metastases. • 3 protocols employing BPA and GB-10 would be therapeutically useful. • BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic for experimental lung metastases

  7. On radiation treatment of pharmaceutical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress made in the GDR over the past decade in the field of radiosterilization of products of the medical industry, has naturally raised the question of radiosterilization in pharmaceutics. However, because of the diversity and complicated nature of pharmaceutical products and, consequently, longer periods of time required for preliminary studies, their radiosterilization has not yet been applied on an industrial scale, in contrast to the situation in the medical industry. The studies carried out so far have been mainly concerned with ascertaining the permissibility and effectiveness of radiosterilization of individual products under particular conditions rather than with laying down a broad theoretical basis. Accordingly, the present paper does not describe results of special studies but presents a brief rewiev of some studies on radiation treatment of pharmaceutical products undertaken in the GDR. (author)

  8. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung.

  9. Radiation-induced proctitis: Symptoms, pathophysiology and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is a major treatment of pelvic tumours. It exposes to the risk of acute and long-term side effects, such as radiation proctitis. Radiation proctitis is a complex disease requiring support ranging from initial contact with the patient until several years after completion of radiotherapy. This care includes preventive measures (clinical and dosimetric factors), detection and medical and surgical treatments. This article aims to make a review of radiation proctitis induced during the treatment of pelvic cancers. (authors)

  10. A multigroup treatment of radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-group radiation package is outlined which will accurately handle radiation transfer problems in laser-produced plasmas. Bremsstrahlung, recombination and line radiation are included as well as fast electron Bremsstrahlung radiation. The entire radiation field is divided into a large number of groups (typically 20), which diffuse radiation energy in real space as well as in energy space, the latter occurring via electron-radiation interaction. Using this model a radiation transport code will be developed to be incorporated into MEDUSA. This modified version of MEDUSA will be used to study radiative preheat effects in laser-compression experiments at the Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Laboratory. The model is also relevant to heavy ion fusion studies. (author)

  11. Gamma residual radioactivity measurements on rats and mice irradiated in the thermal column of a TRIGA Mark II reactor for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Nicoletta; Manera, Sergio; Prata, Michele; Alloni, Daniele; Ballarini, Francesca; di Tigliole, Andrea Borio; Bortolussi, Silva; Bruschi, Piero; Cagnazzo, Marcella; Garioni, Maria; Postuma, Ian; Reversi, Luca; Salvini, Andrea; Altieri, Saverio

    2014-12-01

    The current Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) experiments performed at the University of Pavia, Italy, are focusing on the in vivo irradiations of small animals (rats and mice) in order to evaluate the effectiveness of BNCT in the treatment of diffused lung tumors. After the irradiation, the animals are manipulated, which requires an evaluation of the residual radioactivity induced by neutron activation and the relative radiological risk assessment to guarantee the radiation protection of the workers. The induced activity in the irradiated animals was measured by high-resolution open geometry gamma spectroscopy and compared with values obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. After an irradiation time of 15 min in a position where the in-air thermal flux is about 1.2 × 10(10) cm(-2) s(-1), the specific activity induced in the body of the animal is mainly due to 24Na, 38Cl, 42K, 56Mn, 27Mg and 49Ca; it is approximately 540 Bq g(-1) in the rat and around 2,050 Bq g(-1) in the mouse. During the irradiation, the animal body (except the lung region) is housed in a 95% enriched 6Li shield; the primary radioisotopes produced inside the shield by the neutron irradiation are 3H by the 6Li capture reaction and 18F by the reaction sequence 6Li(n,α)3H → 16O(t,n)18F. The specific activities of these products are 3.3 kBq g(-1) and 880 Bq g(-1), respectively. PMID:25353239

  12. Collimator and shielding design for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility at TRIGA MARK II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geometry of reactor core, thermal column, collimator and shielding system for BNCT application of TRIGA MARK II Reactor were simulated with MCNP5 code. Neutron particle lethargy and dose were calculated with MCNPX code. Neutron flux in a sample located at the end of collimator after normalized to measured value (Eid Mahmoud Eid Abdel Munem, 2007) at 1 MW power was 1.06 x 108 n/ cm2/ s. According to IAEA (2001) flux of 1.00 x 109 n/ cm2/ s requires three hours of treatment. Few modifications were needed to get higher flux. (Author)

  13. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6Li2CO3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author)

  14. Dosimetric analysis of BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - coupled to 252Cf brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of brain tumors is increasing in world population; however, the treatments employed in this type of tumor have a high rate of failure and in some cases have been considered palliative, depending on histology and staging of tumor. Its necessary to achieve the control tumor dose without the spread irradiation cause damage in the brain, affecting patient neurological function. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a technique that achieves this; nevertheless, other techniques that can be used on the brain tumor control must be developed, in order to guarantee lower dose on health surroundings tissues other techniques must be developing. The 252Cf brachytherapy applied to brain tumors has already been suggested, showing promising results in comparison to photon source, since the active source is placed into the tumor, providing greater dose deposition, while more distant regions are spared. BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - is another technique that is in developing to brain tumors control, showing theoretical superiority on the rules of conventional treatments, due to a selective irradiation of neoplasics cells, after the patient receives a borate compound infusion and be subjected to a epithermal neutrons beam. This work presents dosimetric studies of the coupling techniques: BNCT with 252Cf brachytherapy, conducted through computer simulation in MCNP5 code, using a precise and well discretized voxel model of human head, which was incorporated a representative Glioblastoma Multiform tumor. The dosimetric results from MCNP5 code were exported to SISCODES program, which generated isodose curves representing absorbed dose rate in the brain. Isodose curves, neutron fluency, and dose components from BNCT and 252Cf brachytherapy are presented in this paper. (author)

  15. Proceedings of neutron irradiation technical meeting on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The 'Neutron Irradiation Technical Meeting for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)' was held on March 13, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment. The Meeting is aimed to introduce the neutron beam facility for medical irradiation at JRR-4 to Japanese researchers widely, as well as providing an opportunity for young researchers, engineers, medical representatives such surgeons and doctors of pharmacology to present their research activities and to exchange valuable information. JAERI researcher presented the performance and the irradiation technology in the JRR-4 neutron beam facility, while external researchers made various and beneficial presentations containing such accelerator-based BNCT, spectrum-shifter, biological effect, pharmacological development and so on. In this meeting, a special lecture titled 'The Dawn of BNCT and Its Development.' was given by MD, Prof. Takashi Minobe, an executive director of Japan Foundation for Emergency Medicine. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  16. Radiation treatment for newly diagnosed esophageal cancer with prior radiation to the thoracic cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponseller, Patricia, E-mail: sponselp@uw.edu [University of Wisconsin at La Crosse, La Crosse, WI (United States); Lenards, Nishele [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kusano, Aaron; Patel, Shilpen [University of Wisconsin at La Crosse, La Crosse, WI (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to communicate the use of single-positron emission computed tomography scan in planning radiation treatments for patients with a history of radiation to the thoracic cavity. A patient presented with obstructive esophageal cancer, having previously received chemotherapy and radiation therapy to the mediastinum for non-Hodgkin lymphoma 11 years earlier. Owing to a number of comorbidities, the patient was not a surgical candidate and was referred to the University of Washington Medical Center for radiation therapy. Prior dose to the spinal cord and lung were taken into account before designing the radiation treatment plan.

  17. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. E-mail: stefano.agosteo@polimi.it; Curzio, G.; D' Errico, F.; Nath, R.; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in {sup 10}B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast neutron beam, generated by 7 MeV deuterons impinging on a thick target of beryllium. The neutron field was characterized at several deuteron energies (3.0-6.5 MeV) in an experimental structure installed at the Van De Graaff accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, in Italy. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluences were measured with activation techniques and fast neutron spectra were determined with superheated drop detectors (SDD). These neutron spectrometry and dosimetry studies indicated that the fast neutron dose is unacceptably high in the current design. Modifications to the current design to overcome this problem are presented.

  18. SBNCT plan: A 3-dimensional treatment planning system for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for accurate and comprehensive 3-dimensional treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been debated for the past several years. Although many argue against the need for elaborate and expensive treatment planning programs which mimic conventional radiotherapy planning systems, it is clear that in order to realize significant gains over conventional fractionated radiation therapy, patients must be treated to the edge of normal tissue tolerance. Just how close to this edge is dictated by the uncertainties in dosimetry. Hence the focus of BNCT planning is the determination of dose distribution throughout normal tissue volumes. Although precise geometric manipulation of the epithermal neutron beam is not achievable, the following variables play an important role in BNCT optimization: patient orientation, dose fractionation, number of fields, megawatt-minutes per fraction, use of surface bolus, and use of collimation. Other variables which are not as easily adjustable and would not, therefore, be part of treatment planning optimization, include external patient contour, internal patient heterogeneities, boron compound distributions, and RBE's. The boron neutron capture therapy planning system developed at SUNY Stony Brook (SBNCT-Plan) was designed as an interactive graphic tool to assist the radiation oncologist in generating the optimum plan for a neutron capture treatment

  19. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies; Consideracoes sobre o estudo da BNCT (terapia de captura neutronica por boro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria Gaspar, P. de

    1994-12-31

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps.

  20. Potential applications of synchrotron radiation to the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although conventional radiotherapy remains to be one of the most useful treatments for cancer, it is not the best strategy to maximize the effects on the tumors and minimize the damage to the surrounding tissues due to its physical and biological characteristics. Synchrotron radiation (SR) with uniquely physical and biological advantages may represent an innovative approach for cancer treatment. In recent years, SR-based photon activation therapy, stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy and micro-beam radiation treatment have been developed, and the results of in vitro and in vivo experiments are very promising. It is necessary to understand the physical and radiobiological principle of those novel strategies before the approach is applied to the clinic. In this paper, we summarize the advances of SR in terms of physical, radiobiological advantages and its potential clinical applications. With the successful operation of shanghai synchrotron radiation, good opportunities in China have been provided for investigations on the treatment of cancer with synchrotron radiation. (authors)

  1. Hodgkin lymphoma: Evolution and dilemma in radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple new developments in the treatments of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma have occurred in the last 10 years. Radiation treatments have become extremely precise in localized Hodgkin lymphomas, on the other hand, they have almost completely disappeared in advanced stages. For patients with refractory or recurrent disease, it is strongly advocated, whenever feasible, to deliver a mantle field radiation treatment after an autologous stem cell transplant to avoid any further recurrence of the disease. (authors)

  2. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia de Freitas Brandao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and Methods Simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results Intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the I 1 and I 2 tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the I 1 and I 2 infiltration zones. Conclusion Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones.

  3. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and methods: simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results: intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the /1 and /2 tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the /1 and /2 infiltration zones. Conclusion: Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones. (author)

  4. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Samia de Freitas, E-mail: samiabrandao@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and methods: simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results: intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} infiltration zones. Conclusion: Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones. (author)

  5. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an Oral Precancer Model: Therapeutic Benefits and Potential Toxicity of a Double Application of BNCT with a Six-Week Interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the clinical relevance of locoregional recurrences in head and neck cancer, we developed a novel experimental model of premalignant tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies and demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect of a single application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on tumor development from premalignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a double application of BNCT with a 6 week interval in terms of inhibitory effect on tumor development, toxicity and DNA synthesis. We performed a double application, 6 weeks apart, of (1) BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT); (2) BNCT mediated by the combined application of decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and BPA ((GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT) or (3) beam-only, at RA-3 nuclear reactor and followed the animals for 8 months. The control group was cancerized and sham-irradiated. BPA-BNCT, (GB- 10 + BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from premalignant tissue that persisted until 8, 3, and 2 months respectively. An early maximum inhibition of 100% was observed for all 3 protocols. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was detected. Reversible mucositis was observed in premalignant tissue, peaking at 1 week and resolving by the third week after each irradiation. Mucositis after the second application was not exacerbated by the first application. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in premalignant tissue 8 months post-BNCT. A double application of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT, 6 weeks apart, could be used therapeutically at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues.

  6. Feasibility of the Utilization of BNCT in the Fast Neutron Therapy Beam at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Katja; Lennox, Arlene J.; Kroc, Thomas K.; DeLuca, Jr., Paul M.

    2000-06-01

    The Neutron Therapy Facility at Fermilab has treated cancer patients since 1976. Since then more than 2,300 patients have been treated and a wealth of clinical information accumulated. The therapeutic neutron beam at Fermilab is produced by bombarding a beryllium target with 66 MeV protons. The resulting continuous neutron spectrum ranges from thermal to 66 MeV in neutron energy. It is clear that this spectrum is not well suited for the treatment of tumors with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) only However, since this spectrum contains thermal and epithermal components the authors are investigating whether BNCT can be used in this beam to boost the tumor dose. There are clinical scenarios in which a selective tumor dose boost of 10 - 15% could be clinically significant. For these cases the principal treatment would still be fast neutron therapy but a tumor boost could be used either to deliver a higher dose to the tumor tissue or to reduce the dose to the normal healthy tissue while maintaining the absorbed dose level in the tumor tissue.

  7. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9. Bulletin, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  8. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  9. BNCT dose calculation in irregular fields using the sector integration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaumann, H.R. E-mail: blaumann@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Sanz, D.E.; Longhino, J.M.; Larrieu, O.A. Calzetta

    2004-11-01

    Irregular fields for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been already proposed to spare normal tissue in the treatment of superficial tumors. This added dependence would require custom measurements and/or to have a secondary calculation system. As a first step, we implemented the sector-integration method for irregular field calculation in a homogeneous medium and on the central beam axis. The dosimetric responses (fast neutron and photon dose and thermal neutron flux), are calculated by sector integrating the measured responses of circular fields over the field boundary. The measurements were carried out at our BNCT facility, the RA-6 reactor (Argentina). The input data were dosimetric responses for circular fields measured at different depths in a water phantom using ionisation and activation techniques. Circular fields were formed by shielding the beam with two plates: borated polyethilene plus lead. As a test, the dosimetric responses of a 7x4 cm{sup 2} rectangular field, were measured and compared to calculations, yielding differences less than 3% in equivalent dose at any depth indicating that the tool is suitable for redundant calculations.

  10. BNCT dose calculation in irregular fields using the sector integration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaumann, H R; Sanz, D E; Longhino, J M; Larrieu, O A Calzetta

    2004-11-01

    Irregular fields for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been already proposed to spare normal tissue in the treatment of superficial tumors. This added dependence would require custom measurements and/or to have a secondary calculation system. As a first step, we implemented the sector-integration method for irregular field calculation in a homogeneous medium and on the central beam axis. The dosimetric responses (fast neutron and photon dose and thermal neutron flux), are calculated by sector integrating the measured responses of circular fields over the field boundary. The measurements were carried out at our BNCT facility, the RA-6 reactor (Argentina). The input data were dosimetric responses for circular fields measured at different depths in a water phantom using ionisation and activation techniques. Circular fields were formed by shielding the beam with two plates: borated polyethilene plus lead. As a test, the dosimetric responses of a 7x4 cm(2) rectangular field, were measured and compared to calculations, yielding differences less than 3% in equivalent dose at any depth indicating that the tool is suitable for redundant calculations.

  11. Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Ahluwalia, Manmeet S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Barnett, Gene H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stevens, Glen H.J. [Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, Erin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stockham, Abigail L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Shiue, Kevin [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in radiation reactions; Hyperbar oksygenbehandling ved straalereaksjoner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aanderud, Leif; Thorsen, Einar; Bratteboe, Guttorm; Forland, Martha; Kristensen, Gunnar

    2000-07-01

    Background: A national hyperbaric centre was established in 1994 at Haukeland Hospital with responsibility of all hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment in Norway. In hypoxic tissues with symptomatic radiation reactions, hyperbaric oxygen induces the formation of collagen and angiogenesis resulting in permanently improved local microcirculation. Material and method: 234 patients received elective HBO treatment at Haukeland Hospital in 12997 with total of 4048 treatments. All 47 patients treated for radiation reactions in the pelvic area in 1997 received a questionnaire 3-15 months after HBO therapy, 81% reported. Results: Rectal bleeding and haematuria were reported as much improved in 61% and 55% respectively, while bladder incontinence was much improved in 46%. Interpretation: this treatment modality may be an alternative in symptomatic radiation reactions at the urinary bladder and the bowel when conventional treatment has given unsatisfactory results.

  13. Design of a SPECT tomographic image system for online dosimetry in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here a numerical analysis of a projected tomographic image system for online dose measurements in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. In 94% of neutron capture reactions in boron, the 7Li ion is emitted in an excited state which decays through a characteristic 478 keV prompt gamma ray. In BNCT a large fraction of this radiation escapes from the patient body. Its detection is thus attractive for a noninvasive boron dose measurement and an online absorbed dose evaluation. For this purpose we have proposed a dedicated SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) imaging system. The proposed system can obtain images of 21x21cm2 divided in 1x1cm2 pixels by measuring 20 projections with 41 bins each, with 8% uncertainties in reconstructed dose. (author)

  14. Analytical signals from cancer patients following radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer patients are treated with high energy (8 to 30 MeV) gamma radiation. This treatment modality provides better depth dose distribution than more conventional low-energy gamma treatments, in particular for deeply located tumors. A by-product of the high-energy treatment is gamma-induced activity in the treatment volume following photonuclear reactions. These reactions are endogenic and require that the gamma radiation energy be above threshold value in order for the reaction to take place. For most elements, the threshold value is above 8 MeV; however, for low Z elements, this threshold may reach 18 MeV as is the case for oxygen. The cross sections for the (γ, n) reactions are few millibarns for low Z elements and increases up to few hundreds of millibarns for the heavy elements. The radionuclides resulting from photonuclear reaction are typically positron emitter or decay by electron capture. Thus, it is possible to monitor either the annihilation radiation (511 KeV) or the characteristic gamma radiation. The present work demonstrates that the activity induced in cancer patients following a single treatment (300 rad) enables the monitoring of nitrogen and phosphorus in the irradiated volume. The results from measurements in phantom, cadavers, and cancer patients from different regions in the body are presented. The hypothesis to be tested is whether there are local changes in these two elements during the course of radiation treatment which might correlate with the efficacy of the treatment

  15. Insights from radiation treatment for benign disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleehen, N.M.

    1987-08-29

    This note compares mortality figures for patients treated with low dose ionizing radiation for benign conditions between the 1920's and 1950's with figures available from the Japanese A-bomb survivors. X radiation for ringworm, ankylosing spondylitis and post-partum mastitis are considered. Figures for leukemia are roughly comparable between radiotherapy groups and A-bomb survivors. Figures for the increased relative risk of breast cancer in spondylitis patients were in marked contrast to bomb survivors who received comparable doses, but compatible with the increase among women given x-rays for acute post-partum mastitis in the 1940's and 1950's. This study also suggests the possibility of different time patterns of risk between different cancers. (U.K.).

  16. Insights from radiation treatment for benign disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note compares mortality figures for patients treated with low dose ionizing radiation for benign conditions between the 1920's and 1950's with figures available from the Japanese A-bomb survivors. X radiation for ringworm, ankylosing spondylitis and post-partum mastitis are considered. Figures for leukemia are roughly comparable between radiotherapy groups and A-bomb survivors. Figures for the increased relative risk of breast cancer in spondylitis patients were in marked contrast to bomb survivors who received comparable doses, but compatible with the increase among women given x-rays for acute post-partum mastitis in the 1940's and 1950's. This study also suggests the possibility of different time patterns of risk between different cancers. (U.K.)

  17. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  18. Status of radiation treatment of liquid sample in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the wastewater treatment, electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of wastewater from 60,000 m3/day of total dyeing wastewater was constructed and has been successfully operated. In addition to this pilot plant study, construction of commercial scale plant for treatment of dyeing wastewater is being done under TC project organized by IAEA together with E-B Tech. Co., Ltd., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and dye wastewater treatment station in Korea. On the other hand, several studies using radiation are being carried out in the field of treatment of polluted groundwater, advanced treatment of sewage, sterilization of discharged water from sewage treatment plants. Many researches on water and wastewater treatment using radiation will be carried out under support of long term basis nuclear R and D program by government. (author)

  19. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the Treatment of Locally Recurred Head-and-Neck Cancer: Final Analysis of a Phase I/II Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanranta, Leena [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaelae, Tiina; Koivunoro, Hanna [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boneca Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Saarilahti, Kauko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Atula, Timo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Collan, Juhani [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Salli, Eero; Kortesniemi, Mika [Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Uusi-Simola, Jouni [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Vaelimaeki, Petteri [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boneca Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Maekitie, Antti [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaenen, Marko [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Minn, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Revitzer, Hannu [Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Esopo (Finland); Kouri, Mauri [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kotiluoto, Petri; Seren, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Joensuu, Heikki, E-mail: heikki.joensuu@hus.fi [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of inoperable head-and-neck cancers that recur locally after conventional photon radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: In this prospective, single-center Phase I/II study, 30 patients with inoperable, locally recurred head-and-neck cancer (29 carcinomas and 1 sarcoma) were treated with BNCT. Prior treatments consisted of surgery and conventionally fractionated photon irradiation to a cumulative dose of 50 to 98 Gy administered with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Tumor responses were assessed by use of the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) and adverse effects by use of the National Cancer Institute common terminology criteria version 3.0. Intravenously administered L-boronophenylalanine-fructose (400 mg/kg) was administered as the boron carrier. Each patient was scheduled to be treated twice with BNCT. Results: Twenty-six patients received BNCT twice; four were treated once. Of the 29 evaluable patients, 22 (76%) responded to BNCT, 6 (21%) had tumor growth stabilization for 5.1 and 20.3 months, and 1 (3%) progressed. The median progression-free survival time was 7.5 months (95% confidence interval, 5.4-9.6 months). Two-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 20% and 30%, respectively, and 27% of the patients survived for 2 years without locoregional recurrence. The most common acute Grade 3 adverse effects were mucositis (54% of patients), oral pain (54%), and fatigue (32%). Three patients were diagnosed with osteoradionecrosis (each Grade 3) and one patient with soft-tissue necrosis (Grade 4). Late Grade 3 xerostomia was present in 3 of the 15 evaluable patients (20%). Conclusions: Most patients who have inoperable, locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma that has recurred at a previously irradiated site respond to boronophenylalanine-mediated BNCT, but cancer recurrence after BNCT remains frequent. Toxicity was

  20. A study of computational dosimetry and boron biodistribution for ex – situ lung BNCT at RA-3 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the context of the preclinical ex-situ BNCT Project for the treatment of diffuse lung metastases, we performed boron biodistribution studies in a sheep model and computational dosimetry studies in human lung to evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy of the proposed technique. Herein we report preliminary data that supports the use of the sheep model as an adequate human surrogate in terms of boron kinetics and uptake in clinically relevant tissues. Furthermore, the estimation of the potential therapeutic efficacy of the proposed treatment in humans, based on boron uptake values in the large animal model, yields promising tumor control probability values even in the most conservative scenario considered. (author)

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer for BNCT studies separately. We herein report the first evidence of the usefulness of BNCT for the treatment of oral cancer in an experimental model. We assessed the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal oral tissue to BPA-mediated BNCT employing the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. BNCT leads to complete remission by 15 days post-treatment in 78% of tumors and partial remission in a further 13% of tumors with virtually no damage to normal tissue. (author)

  2. Wastewater treatment by radiation grafted lignocellulosic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced graft copolymerization of acrylamide/acrylic acid (AAm/AAc) binary monomers system onto pulped bagasse and rice straw has been performed. The surface and structure morphology of the pulped bagasse and rice straw were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). the factors affecting the abilities of the prepared materials for removing heavy metal ions and dyes from aqueous solution were studied. It was found that the maximum metal uptake is ordered in the sequence of Pb2+> Cu2+>Ni2+. Also the adsorption was found to be increased with the Ph of the feeding solution. The possibility of the removal of four dyes: acid blue 7 (xylene blue), wegocet yellow 4 Gl (direct yellow 44), congo red (direct red 28) and romacryl blue 3 G (blue 3) were investigated. The adsorption capacity of such investigated dyes was found to be remarkably affected by Ph of the feed solution

  3. Radiation treatment for endocrine disrupters in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-induced decomposition of a trace amount of 17 β-estradiol (E2) in water was studied as a function of the dose of 60Co γ-rays. Concentration of both E2 and E2 activity were estimated by LC-MS and ELISA, and decreased with an increase in the dose of γ-rays. E2 at 1.8-nM in water was degraded almost completely by irradiation at 10 Gy (=J/kg), but the E2 activity of the same sample still remained, and decreased by 30 Gy to be lower than the threshold level of contamination to induce some estrogenic effects on the environmental ecology. (author)

  4. Optimization of the application of BNCT to undifferentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible increase in BNCT efficacy for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) using BPA plus BOPP and nicotinamide (NA) as a radiosensitizer on the BNCT reaction was analyzed. In these studies nude mice were transplanted with the ARO cells and after 14 days they were treated as follows: 1) Control; 2) NCT (neutrons alone); 3) NCT plus NA (100 mg/kg bw/day for 3 days); 4) BPA (350 mg/kg bw) + neutrons; 5) BPA+ NA+ neutrons; 6) BPA+BOPP (60 mg/kg bw) + neutrons. The flux of hyperthermal neutrons was 2.8 108 during 85 min. Neutrons alone or with NA caused some tumor growth delay, while in the BPA, BPA+NA and BPA+BOPP groups a 100% halt of tumor growth was observed. When the initial tumor volume was 50 mm3 or less a complete cure was found in BPA+NA (2/2); BPA (1/4); BPA+BOPP (7/7). After 90 days of complete regression, recurrence of tumor was observed in 2/2 BPA/NA (2/2) and BPA+BOPP (1/7). Caspase 3 activity was increased in BPA+NA (p<0.05 vs controls). BPA plus NA increased tumor apoptosis but only the combination of BPA+BOPP increased significantly BNCT efficiency. (author)

  5. Superficial Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Sean; Minni, John; Herold, David

    2015-12-01

    Superficial radiation therapy has become more widely available to dermatologists. With the advent of more portable machines, it has become more convenient for dermatology practices to employ in an office-based setting. The goal of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the role of superficial radiation therapy in dermatology practice and to review the current literature surrounding its use in the treatment of both basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

  6. Epithermal neutron beam adoption for liver cancer treatment by boron and gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative evaluation was made on depth-dose distribution in boron neutron capture therapy (B-NCT) and gadolinium one (Gd-NCT) for the treatments of liver cancers. At present, epithermal neutron beam is expected to be applicable to the treatment of deep and widespread tumors. ICRU computational model of ADAM and EVA was used as a liver phantom loading a tumor at depth of 6 cm in its central region. Epithermal neutron beam of Musashi reactor was used as the primary neutron beam for the depth-dose calculation. Calculation was conducted using the three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The doses observed in both NCTs were bumped over the tumor region but the dose for Gd-NCT was not so tumor-specific compared with that for BNCT because radiation in Gd-NCT was due to γ-ray. The mean physical dose was 4 Gy/h for boron 30 ppm and 5 Gy/h for Gd 1000 ppm when exposed to an epithermal neutron flux of 5x108 n/cm-2/sec and the dose ratio of tumor-to normal tissue was 2.7 for boron and 2.5 for Gd. The lethal dose of 50 Gy for the liver can be accomplished under conditions where the dose has not reached 25 Gy, the tolerance dose of the normal tissue. This seems very encouraging and indicating that both B-NCT and Gd-NCT are applicable for the treatment for liver cancer. However, if normal tissue contain 1/4 of the tumor concentration of boron or Gd, the BNCT would still possible when considering a large RBE value for 10B(n, α) reaction but the Gd-NCT would impossible for deep liver treatment. (M.N.)

  7. Epithermal neutron beam adoption for liver cancer treatment by boron and gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuo [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Lab

    2001-06-01

    Comparative evaluation was made on depth-dose distribution in boron neutron capture therapy (B-NCT) and gadolinium one (Gd-NCT) for the treatments of liver cancers. At present, epithermal neutron beam is expected to be applicable to the treatment of deep and widespread tumors. ICRU computational model of ADAM and EVA was used as a liver phantom loading a tumor at depth of 6 cm in its central region. Epithermal neutron beam of Musashi reactor was used as the primary neutron beam for the depth-dose calculation. Calculation was conducted using the three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The doses observed in both NCTs were bumped over the tumor region but the dose for Gd-NCT was not so tumor-specific compared with that for BNCT because radiation in Gd-NCT was due to {gamma}-ray. The mean physical dose was 4 Gy/h for boron 30 ppm and 5 Gy/h for Gd 1000 ppm when exposed to an epithermal neutron flux of 5x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup -2}/sec and the dose ratio of tumor-to normal tissue was 2.7 for boron and 2.5 for Gd. The lethal dose of 50 Gy for the liver can be accomplished under conditions where the dose has not reached 25 Gy, the tolerance dose of the normal tissue. This seems very encouraging and indicating that both B-NCT and Gd-NCT are applicable for the treatment for liver cancer. However, if normal tissue contain 1/4 of the tumor concentration of boron or Gd, the BNCT would still possible when considering a large RBE value for {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}) reaction but the Gd-NCT would impossible for deep liver treatment. (M.N.)

  8. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. 1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. 2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. 3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author)

  9. Radiation Treatment of Wastewater Containing Pharmaceutical Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy ionizing radiation induced degradation of maleic acid, fumaric acid and 20 aromatic molecules was investigated in air saturated aqueous solutions. Hydroxyl radicals were generated water radiolysis. The decomposition was followed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon content (TOC) measurements. Up to ∼50% decrease of COD the dose dependence was linear. By the ratio of the decrease of COD and the amount of reactive radiolysis intermediates introduced into the solution the oxidation efficiencies were calculated. Efficiencies around 0.5-1 (O2 molecule built in products/OH) found for most of the compounds show that the one-electron-oxidant OH induces 2-4 electron oxidations. The high oxidation rates were explained by OH addition to unsaturated bonds and subsequent reactions of the dissolved O2 with organic radicals. In amino substituted molecules or in Acid Red 1 azo dye, O2 cannot compete efficiently with the unimolecular transformation of organic radicals and the efficiency is lower (0.2-0.5). (author)

  10. Boron neutron capture therapy as new treatment for clear cell sarcoma: Trial on different animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In our previous study, the tumor disappeared under boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on subcutaneously-transplanted CCS-bearing animals. In the present study, the tumor disappeared under this therapy on model mice intramuscularly implanted with three different human CCS cells. BNCT led to the suppression of tumor-growth in each of the different model mice, suggesting its potentiality as an alternative to, or integrative option for, the treatment of CCS. - Highlights: • BNCT with the use of L-BPA was applied for three human clear cell sarcoma (CCS) cell lines. • BNCT trial was performed on a newly established intramuscularly CCS-bearing animal model. • A significant decrease of the tumor-volume was seen by single BNCT with the use of L-BPA. • A multiple BNCT application would be required for controlling the growth of any residual tumors

  11. Confirmation of a realistic reactor model for BNCT dosimetry at the TRIGA Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegner, Markus, E-mail: Markus.Ziegner.fl@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna A-1220, Austria and Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1020 (Austria); Schmitz, Tobias; Hampel, Gabriele [Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz DE-55128 (Germany); Khan, Rustam [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad PK-44000 (Pakistan); Blaickner, Matthias [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna A-1220 (Austria); Palmans, Hugo [Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW, United Kingdom and Medical Physics Group, EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt A-2700 (Austria); Sharpe, Peter [Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Böck, Helmuth [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1020 (Austria)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In order to build up a reliable dose monitoring system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the TRIGA reactor in Mainz, a computer model for the entire reactor was established, simulating the radiation field by means of the Monte Carlo method. The impact of different source definition techniques was compared and the model was validated by experimental fluence and dose determinations. Methods: The depletion calculation code ORIGEN2 was used to compute the burn-up and relevant material composition of each burned fuel element from the day of first reactor operation to its current core. The material composition of the current core was used in a MCNP5 model of the initial core developed earlier. To perform calculations for the region outside the reactor core, the model was expanded to include the thermal column and compared with the previously established ATTILA model. Subsequently, the computational model is simplified in order to reduce the calculation time. Both simulation models are validated by experiments with different setups using alanine dosimetry and gold activation measurements with two different types of phantoms. Results: The MCNP5 simulated neutron spectrum and source strength are found to be in good agreement with the previous ATTILA model whereas the photon production is much lower. Both MCNP5 simulation models predict all experimental dose values with an accuracy of about 5%. The simulations reveal that a Teflon environment favorably reduces the gamma dose component as compared to a polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Conclusions: A computer model for BNCT dosimetry was established, allowing the prediction of dosimetric quantities without further calibration and within a reasonable computation time for clinical applications. The good agreement between the MCNP5 simulations and experiments demonstrates that the ATTILA model overestimates the gamma dose contribution. The detailed model can be used for the planning of structural

  12. Application of Ionizing Radiation on the Cork Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the CRP on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” Portuguese team is been developed studies on the implementation of ionizing radiation technology as a complementary treatment for industrial effluents and increase the added value of these wastewaters. Based on these assumptions, preliminary studies of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water were carried out. Radiation studies were performed by using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 kGy/h and 2.4 kGy/h. The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The antioxidant activity was measured by Ferric Reducing Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was studied by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results point out that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. By the other hand, the radiolytic degradation by ionizing radiation of gallic acid and esculetin as models for recalcitrants were studied. The objective of this study was to find out if radiolytic degradation, followed by microbial degradation could increase the treatment efficiency. A natural cork wastewater bacterium was selected from the irradiated wastewater at 9 kGy. The applied methodology was based on the evaluation of growth kinetics of the selected bacteria by turbidimetry and colony forming units, in minimal salt medium with non-irradiated and irradiated phenolic as substrate. The overall obtained results highlights the potential of this technology for increase the add value of cork waters and raised some issues to explain by new methodological setup on biodegradation studies. (author)

  13. Quality control in radiotherapy treatment: Radiation induced myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct injury of the spinal cord has been reported many times, particularly in cases of overexposures with radiotherapy of neoplasm that occurred outside the Central Nervous System. Permanent damage to the spinal cord is the most feared complication of radiation therapy treatments and one of the relatively common causes of litigation for medical malpractice in the context of cancer treatment. We have learned from clinical experience, data from randomized trials and animal experimentation, the dose tolerance as well as the interfraction interval for hyperfractionation regimes. We are still lacking precious clinical information, in particular the dose tolerance in combined modality treatments that represent the vast majority of modern treatments. (author)

  14. A new NEDO research project towards hospital based accelerator BNCT using advanced DDS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new national project of developing a hospital based accelerator for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with advanced drug delivery system (DDS) has been started in 2005. In this paper, the outline of the new project will be introduced. The project includes two main topics: 1) a hospital based accelerator for BNCT will be developed by a research consortium of Universities and companies. A fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) type of accelerator with internal target is planned. 2) New boronated DDS using different methods including porphyrins, virus envelope vector, and liposome are planned. BNCT may become a first line charged particle therapy if the hospital based accelerator become feasible due to broadening the opportunity to use the neutron source. Due to such clinical convenience, there will be also possibility to spread the indication of BNCT for the diseases (cancer and other diseases) which has not been the candidate for BNCT in the nuclear-reactor era. (author)

  15. The status of Tsukuba BNCT trial: BPA-based boron neutron capture therapy combined with X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T., E-mail: tetsu_tsukuba@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, H.; Okumura, T.; Mizumoto, M.; Tsuboi, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Zaboronok, A.; Ishikawa, E.; Aiyama, H.; Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The phase II trial has been prepared to assess the effectiveness of BPA (250 mg/kg)-based NCT combined with X-ray irradiation and temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) for the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM. BPA uptake is determined by {sup 18}F-BPA-PET and/or {sup 11}C-MET-PET, and a tumor with the lesion to normal ratio of 2 or more is indicated for BNCT. The maximum normal brain point dose prescribed was limited to 13.0 Gy or less. Primary end point is overall survival.

  16. Numerical chromosomal instability mediates susceptibility to radiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Samuel F.; Kabeche, Lilian; Wood, Matthew D.; Laucius, Christopher D.; Qu, Dian; Laughney, Ashley M.; Reynolds, Gloria E.; Louie, Raymond J.; Phillips, Joanna; Chan, Denise A.; Zaki, Bassem I.; Murnane, John P.; Petritsch, Claudia; Compton, Duane A.

    2015-01-01

    The exquisite sensitivity of mitotic cancer cells to ionizing radiation (IR) underlies an important rationale for the widely used fractionated radiation therapy. However, the mechanism for this cell cycle-dependent vulnerability is unknown. Here we show that treatment with IR leads to mitotic chromosome segregation errors in vivo and long-lasting aneuploidy in tumour-derived cell lines. These mitotic errors generate an abundance of micronuclei that predispose chromosomes to subsequent catastrophic pulverization thereby independently amplifying radiation-induced genome damage. Experimentally suppressing whole-chromosome missegregation reduces downstream chromosomal defects and significantly increases the viability of irradiated mitotic cells. Further, orthotopically transplanted human glioblastoma tumours in which chromosome missegregation rates have been reduced are rendered markedly more resistant to IR, exhibiting diminished markers of cell death in response to treatment. This work identifies a novel mitotic pathway for radiation-induced genome damage, which occurs outside of the primary nucleus and augments chromosomal breaks. This relationship between radiation treatment and whole-chromosome missegregation can be exploited to modulate therapeutic response in a clinically relevant manner. PMID:25606712

  17. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1999-03-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase 1/2 clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra, alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  18. ANALYSIS OF ACCELERATOR BASED NEUTRON SPECTRA FOR BNCT USING PROTON RECOIL SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIELOPOLSKI,L.; LUDEWIG,H.; POWELL,J.R.; RAPARIA,D.; ALESSI,J.G.; LOWENSTEIN,D.I.

    1998-11-06

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase I/II clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  19. Slaughterhouse sewage treatment using gamma radiation - economical feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rita; Botelho, M. Luisa [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: ritamelo@itn.pt; mlb@itn.pt; Branco, Joaquim [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: jbranco@itn.pt

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a financial viability study for the implementation of gamma radiation technology on a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment industry. Five scenarios were studied, including the current practice, representing different types of treatments and goals, e.g.: water reuse and/or sludge add value as agriculture fertilizers. Cost-benefit analysis, including the net present value (NPV) of each scenario, was used as a technique to compare the relative value of various strategies. Taking in account that the initial investment is amortized after 20 years, the implementation of Co-60 treatment with 20% water reuse and sludge application as agriculture fertilizers represents the most profitable project with the highest NPV. Therefore, the implementation of gamma radiation technology on a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment industry is not only technically viable as well as economically feasible. (author)

  20. 21 CFR 179.39 - Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and..., PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.39 Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food. Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food may...

  1. Demonstration of the importance of a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system for BNCT facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Der-Sheng; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    The neutron beam monitoring system is indispensable to BNCT facility in order to achieve an accurate patient dose delivery. The neutron beam monitoring of a reactor-based BNCT (RB-BNCT) facility can be implemented through the instrumentation and control system of a reactor provided that the reactor power level remains constant during reactor operation. However, since the neutron flux in reactor core is highly correlative to complicated reactor kinetics resulting from such as fuel depletion, poison production, and control blade movement, some extent of variation may occur in the spatial distribution of neutron flux in reactor core. Therefore, a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system is needed to be installed in the vicinity of the beam path close to the beam exit of the RB-BNCT facility, where it can measure the BNCT beam intensity as closely as possible and be free from the influence of the objects present around the beam exit. In this study, in order to demonstrate the importance of a dedicated BNCT neutron beam monitoring system, the signals originating from the two in-core neutron detectors installed at THOR were extracted and compared with the three dedicated neutron beam monitors of the THOR BNCT facility. The correlation of the readings between the in-core neutron detectors and the BNCT neutron beam monitors was established to evaluate the improvable quality of the beam intensity measurement inferred by the in-core neutron detectors. In 29 sampled intervals within 16 days of measurement, the fluctuations in the mean value of the normalized ratios between readings of the three BNCT neutron beam monitors lay within 0.2%. However, the normalized ratios of readings of the two in-core neutron detectors to one of the BNCT neutron beam monitors show great fluctuations of 5.9% and 17.5%, respectively. PMID:26595774

  2. Backgrounds of computer-assisted treatment planning in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of ionising radiation and living materials causes biological damage of tempory or permanent nature. In radiation therapy this phenomenon is used in a controlled fashion in order to stop the proliferation of malignant cells, while at the same time limiting the permanent damage to healthy tissues and organs to at least tolerable levels. Because of the often relatively small differences in response of malignant growths and normal tissues, the margins between tolerable and intolerable are so small that the greatest precision in treatment planning and execution is required. The nature of this treatment agent implies that the radiation therapist has to rely very much on instrumentally obtained and processed information, in all phases of this medical activities around the patient. In this paper a description is given of the backgrounds of computer-assisted methods which have enabled modern individualised and optimised planning for therapy with high energy X- and gamma beams. (orig.)

  3. Radiation treatment of the ceramic and polymer implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeynikov, M. V.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Bezuglov, V. V.; Shtarklev, E. A.; Vlasov, A. Yu; Voronin, L. A.; Tkachenko, V. O.

    2016-02-01

    Implants are used in medical practice during decades. The ceramic implants are the new trend in medicine. The polymer implants are used for many years, and they are mainly sterilized by the radiation treatment. The article describes the new ceramic and polymer implants that were treated in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics.

  4. Computer calculations in interstitial seed therapy: I. Radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interstitial seed therapy computers can be used for radiation treatment planning and for dose control after implantation. In interstitial therapy with radioactive seeds there are much greater differences between planning and carrying out radiation treatment than in teletherapy with cobalt-60 or X-rays. Because of the short distance between radioactive sources and tumour tissue, even slight deviations from the planned implantation geometry cause considerable dose deviations. Furthermore, the distribution of seeds in an actual implant is inhomogeneous. During implantation the spatial distribution of seeds cannot be examined exactly, though X-rays are used to control the operation. The afterloading technique of Henschke allows a more exact implantation geometry, but I have no experience of this method. In spite of the technical difficulty of achieving optimum geometry, interstitial therapy still has certain advantages when compared with teletherapy: the dose in the treated volume can be kept smaller than in teletherapy, the radiation can be better concentrated in the tumour volume, the treatment can be restricted to one or two operations, and localized inoperable tumours may be cured more easily. The latter may depend on an optimal treatment time, a relatively high tumour dose and a continuous exponentially decreasing dose rate during the treatment time. A disadvantage of interstitial therapy is the high personnel dose, which may be reduced by the afterloading technique of Henschke (1956). However, the afterloading method requires much greater personnel and instrumental expense than free implantation of radiogold seeds and causes greater trauma for the patient

  5. USC-ABC ATMnet for radiation treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Prakash N.; Petrovich, Zbigniew P.; Boswell, William D., Jr.; George, Frederick W., III; Chow, Edward T.

    1996-05-01

    Three dimensional visualization of tumor and normal tissues are often valuable in precision treatment planning for radiation therapy of cancer. This is often not possible in many remote treatment facilities because of the high cost of imaging and computer equipment. At the University of Southern California, School of Medicine we are developing and testing a high speed, wide area, computer communications network to provide access to such resources from remote locations. In this paper, we present our concept of a Virtual Academic Medical Center, our network design and report on initial evaluations of effectiveness and clinical acceptability of 3D, CT simulation and treatment planning from a distance.

  6. Radiation therapy in the treatment of aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, K D; Suit, H D

    1984-11-15

    Twenty-five patients with aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid tumors) have been treated or followed in the Department of Radiation Medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1972 and 1982. Seventeen patients were treated by radiation, 4 for primary and 13 for recurrent disease. Seven patients were treated in conjunction with surgery. Partial or complete regression was achieved in 76%, and 59% are without evidence of disease (NED) at 9 to 94 months follow-up. Eight of ten patients treated primarily with radiation have achieved complete response without an attempt at resection (five) or have achieved stabilization (three) of their disease after some regression. Consistent complete control was seen with doses above 60 Gy. Periods to 27 months were required to observe complete responses. Only three failures within the radiation field were observed, two after low doses (22 and 24 Gy, respectively). Eight patients were seen after resection but with uncertain or histologically minimum positive margins, and were followed regularly and not treated. One patient has failed to date and is NED after resection. Radiation therapy is recommended in those situations where wide-field resection without significant morbidity is not possible for gross local disease. If minimally positive margins exist after resection in a patient who may be followed carefully, frequent follow-up and prompt treatment at recurrence may be an effective alternative to immediate radiation therapy.

  7. INEL BNCT research program publications, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a collection of the published reports describing research supporting the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research Program for calendar year 1993. Contributions from the principal investigators are included, covering chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (tissue and efficacy studies of small and large animal models). These reports have previously appeared in the book: Advances in Neutron Capture Therapy, edited by A. H. Soloway, R. F. Barth, D. E. Carpenter, Plenum Press, 1993. Reports have also appeared in three journals: Angewandte Chemie, Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, and Nuclear Science and Engineering. This individual papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  8. 3D volume visualization in remote radiation treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, David Y.; Garcia, Hong-Mei C.; Mun, Seong K.; Rogers, James E.; Tohme, Walid G.; Carlson, Wayne E.; May, Stephen; Yagel, Roni

    1996-03-01

    This paper reports a novel applications of 3D visualization in an ARPA-funded remote radiation treatment planning (RTP) experiment, utilizing supercomputer 3D volumetric modeling power and NASA ACTS (Advanced Communication Technology Satellite) communication bandwidths at the Ka-band range. The objective of radiation treatment is to deliver a tumorcidal dose of radiation to a tumor volume while minimizing doses to surrounding normal tissues. High performance graphics computers are required to allow physicians to view a 3D anatomy, specify proposed radiation beams, and evaluate the dose distribution around the tumor. Supercomputing power is needed to compute and even optimize dose distribution according to pre-specified requirements. High speed communications offer possibilities for sharing scarce and expensive computing resources (e.g., hardware, software, personnel, etc.) as well as medical expertise for 3D treatment planning among hospitals. This paper provides initial technical insights into the feasibility of such resource sharing. The overall deployment of the RTP experiment, visualization procedures, and parallel volume rendering in support of remote interactive 3D volume visualization will be described.

  9. Radiation-induced xerostomia: pathophysiology, clinical course and supportive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guchelaar, H J; Vermes, A; Meerwaldt, J H

    1997-07-01

    Xerostomia, or oral dryness, is one of the most common complaints experienced by patients who have had radiotherapy of the oral cavity and neck region. The hallmarks of radiation-induced damage are acinar atrophy and chronic inflammation of the salivary glands. The early response, resulting in atrophy of the secretory cells without inflammation might be due to radiation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, the late response with inflammation could be a result of radiation-induced necrosis. The subjective complaint of a dry mouth appears to be poorly correlated with objective findings of salivary gland dysfunction. Xerostomia, with secondary symptoms of increased dental caries, difficulty in chewing, swallowing and speaking, and an increased incidence of oral candidiasis, can have a significant effect on the quality of life. At present there is no causal treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia. Temporary symptomatic relief can be offered by moistening agents and saliva substitutes, and is the only option for patients without residual salivary function. In patients with residual salivary function, oral administration of pilocarpine 5-10 mg three times a day is effective in increasing salivary flow and improving the symptoms of xerostomia, and this therapy should be considered as the treatment of choice. Effectiveness of sialogogue treatment requires residual salivary function, which emphasizes the potential benefit from sparing normal tissue during irradiation. The hypothesis concerning the existence of early apoptotic and late necrotic effects of irradiation on the salivary glands theoretically offers a way of achieving this goal.

  10. Spectrum shaping of accelerator-based neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Montagnini, B; Esposito, J; Giusti, V; Mattioda, F; Varone, R

    2002-01-01

    We describe Monte Carlo simulations of three facilities for the production of epithermal neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and examine general aspects and problems of designing the spectrum-shaping assemblies to be used with these neutron sources. The first facility is based on an accelerator-driven low-power subcritical reactor, operating as a neutron amplifier. The other two facilities have no amplifier and rely entirely on their primary sources, a D-T fusion reaction device and a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a Li target, respectively.

  11. INEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research Program for calendar year 1993. Contributions from all the principal investigators are included, covering chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, boron drug analysis), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (tissue and efficacy studies of small and large animal models). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented. Results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with boron neutron capture therapy at the Brookhaven National Laboratory are updated. Boron-containing drug purity verification is discussed in some detail. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging of boron in vivo are discussed. Several boron-carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux of the Petten (The Netherlands) High Flux Reactor beam (HFB11B), and comparison to predictions are shown.

  12. Design of compact electromagnetic impulse radiating antenna for melanoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiasamy, Petrishia; Mohan, Sasikala

    2016-01-01

    Cancer therapy is one of the several new applications which use nanosecond and subnanosecond high voltage pulses. New treatment based on electromagnetic (EM) fields have been developed as non-surgical and minimally invasive treatments of tumors. In particular, subnanosecond pulses can introduce important non-thermal changes in cell biology, especially the permeabilization of the cell membrane. The motivation behind this work is to launch intense subnanosecond pulses to the target (tumors) non-invasively. This works focuses on the design of a compact intense pulsed EM radiating antenna. In tense EM waves radiated at the first focal point of the Prolate Spheroidal Reflector (PSR) are focused at the second focal point where the target (tumor) is present. Two antennas with PSR but fed with different compact wave radiator are designed to focus pulsed field at the second focal point. The PSR with modified bicone antenna feed and PSR with elliptically tapered horn antenna feed are designed. The design parameters and radiation performance are discussed. PMID:25651405

  13. Bone marrow transplantation for treatment of radiation disease. Problems involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transplantation of bone marrow cells still is one of the major means available for treatment of radiation injuries. The decisive indication is the diagnostic of irreversible damage to the hemopoietic stem cells, which becomes manifest about 5 or 6 days after exposure, by severe granulocytopenia and simultaneous, progressive thrombopenia. The radiation dose provoking such severe injury is estimated to be at least 9-10 Gy of homogeneous whole-body irradiation. Preparatory measures for transplantation include proof of tissue compatibility of donor and patient, sufficient immunosuppression prior to and/or after irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. The donor's marrow should be free of T-cells. In spite of preparatory treatment, complications such as immunological reactions or disturbance of organ functions are to be very probable. These are treated according to therapy protocols. (orig./MG)

  14. Acupuncture treatment of patients with radiation-induced xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, M.; Dawidson, I.; Johnson, G.; Angmar-Maansson, B. [Karolinska Inst., Huddinge (Sweden). Dept. of Cardiology; Fernberg, J.-O. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of General Oncology

    1996-05-01

    Xerostomia is a common and usually irreversible side effect in patients receiving radiation therapy (>50 Gy) for head and neck cancer. Of 38 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, 20 in the experimental group were treated with classical acupuncture and 18 patients in the control group received superficial acupuncture as placebo. Within both groups the patients showed significantly increased salivary flow rates after the acupuncture treatment. In the experimental group 68% and in the control group 50% of the patients had increased salivary flow rates at the end of the observation period. Among those patients who had had all their salivary glands irradiated, 50% in both groups showed increased salivary flow rates (>20%) by the end of the observation period of 1 year. The study indicates that among the patients who had increased salivary flow rates already after the first 12 acupuncture sessions, the majority had high probability of continual improvement after the completion of acupuncture treatment. (Author).

  15. Radiation-induced hemorrhagic duodenitis associated with sorafenib treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Shunichi; Nakamura, Shotaro; Ooho, Aritsune; Nakamura, Shigeo; Esaki, Motohiro; Azuma, Koichi; Kitazono, Takanari; Matsumoto, Takayuki

    2015-06-01

    Sorafenib, an oral inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinase receptors, has been widely used as a standard medical treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we report a 66-year-old male patient who developed gastrointestinal bleeding due to radiation-induced hemorrhagic duodenitis associated with sorafenib treatment. We started oral administration of sorafenib because of the recurrence of HCC with lung metastases. The patient had been treated by radiotherapy for para-aortic lymph node metastases from HCC 4 months before the bleeding. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed edematous reddish mucosa with friability and telangiectasia in the second portion of the duodenum. Computed tomography and capsule endoscopy revealed that the hemorrhagic lesions were located in the distal duodenum. After discontinuation of sorafenib, the bleeding disappeared and a follow-up EGD confirmed improvement of duodenitis. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of radiation-induced hemorrhagic duodenitis associated with sorafenib was made. PMID:25832768

  16. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Rita; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Branco, Joaquim; Botelho, M. Luisa

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h -1. A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment.

  17. Image-guided radiation therapy for treatment delivery and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Leah Kayomi

    Target conformity and normal tissue sparing provided by modern radiation therapy techniques often result in steep dose gradients, which increase the need for more accurate patient setup and treatment delivery. Image guidance is starting to play a major role in determining the accuracy of treatment setup. A typical objective of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is to minimize differences between planned and delivered treatment by imaging the patient prior to delivery. This step verifies and corrects for patient setup and is referred to as setup verification. This dissertation evaluates the efficacy of daily imaging for setup verification and investigates new uses of IGRT for potential improvements in treatment delivery. The necessity of daily imaging can first be determined by assessing differences in setup corrections between patient groups. Therefore, the first objective of this investigation was to evaluate the application of IGRT for setup verification by quantifying differences in patient positioning for several anatomical disease sites. Detailed analysis of setup corrections for brain, head and neck, lung, and prostate treatments is presented. In this analysis, large setup errors were observed for prostate treatments. Further assessment of prostate treatments was performed, and patient-specific causes of setup errors investigated. Setup corrections are applied via rigid shifts or rotations of the patient or machine, but anatomical deformations occur for which rigid shifts cannot correct. Fortunately, IGRT provides images on which anatomical changes occurring throughout the course of treatment can be detected. From those images, the efficacy of IGRT in ensuring accurate treatment delivery can be evaluated and improved by determining delivered doses and adapting the plan during treatment. The second objective of this dissertation was to explore new applications of IGRT to further improve treatment. By utilizing daily IGRT images, a retrospective analysis of

  18. Therapeutic effect of beta radiation on onychomycosis: An innovative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Onychomycosis is the most frequent cause of nail disease and the most prevalent type of dermatophytosis in Bangladesh. The humid and warm climate of this tropical country is congenial for the growth of fungi. Therapeutic limitations of conventional antimycotic agents in respect of low cure rates, high relapse rate, inherent side effects, long duration of treatment and high cost in treating onychomycosis have provided clear incentives to explore alternative forms of treatment procedure. The objectives of the present thesis work were: (i) To use beta radiation as a curative therapy for Onychomycosis, optimisation of its dosages and to promote an innovative clinical development in the field of therapeutic application of nuclear medicine; (ii) To assess the efficacy of beta radiation either alone or in combination with conventional antifungal therapy; and (iii) To reduce the duration of drug exposure and cost of treatment for onychomycosis. This is a PhD research work under the University of Dhaka and was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Information and Communication Technology, Government of the people's republic of Bangladesh. This study is an open, randomised and controlled trial to verify the efficacy of beta radiation in patients with onychomycosis. Using the appropriate statistical formula, sample size of the study population was determined and in each group 92 patients were assigned. With an assumption of patients drop out and for better statistical analysis, a total of 330 patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criterion having diagnosed to have onychomycosis clinically and mycological were randomly allocated to enter in therapeutic regimen. Study population was randomised in three groups. Group A (n =110) received griseofulvin orally 500 mg once daily for 12-16 weeks; Group B (n=110) received beta radiation, 500 rads bi-weekly for 3 weeks (total 2500 rads); and Group C (n=110) received combined beta radiation (total 2500 rads in 3 weeks) and

  19. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  20. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models

  1. Gene transfer-applied BNCT (g-BNCT) for amelanotic melanoma in brain. Further upregulation of 10B uptake by cell modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our success in eradicating melanoma by single BNCT with BPA led to the next urgent theme, i.e. application of such BNCT for currently uncurable melanoma metastasis in brain. In order to establish 10B-BPA-BNCT for melanoma in brain, we have investigated the pharmacokinetics of BPA which is most critical factor for successful BNCT, in melanotic and amelanotic and further tyrosinase gene-transfected amelanotic melanoma proliferating in brain having blood-brain-barrier, as compared to melanoma proliferating in skin. We have established three implanted models for melanoma in brain: 1) A1059 cells, amelanotic melanoma, 2) B16B15b cells, melanotic melanoma cells, highly metastatic to brain, and 3) TA1059 cells, with active melanogenesis induced by tyrosinase gene transfection. We would like to report the results of comparative analysis of the BPA uptake ability in these melanoma cells in both brain and skin. Based on these findings, we are further investigating to enhance 10B-BPA uptake by not only g-BNCT but also by additional melanogenesis upregulating cell modulation. (author)

  2. Present state of the combined treatment with radiation and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of malignancies in which the results have been markedly improved by combined treatment with radiation and chemicals for the past decade, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma localized in head and neck and intra-oral carcinoma are presented. In the management of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the authors stressed the following: 1) Rappaport's classification has been a help to evaluate the prognosis; 2) lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring should not be included in nodal lymphoma, and also it should be separated from extranodal lymphoma as well, because of different prognosis; 3) It seems that some kinds of chemotherapy would have a role in improving the results of radiotherapy in the management of radiotherapy, even in localized cases. In some types of intra-oral carcinomas, bleomycin was found to be useful in the combined treatment with radiation as follows: 1) A minimum required dose for local control of intra-oral carcinomas could be a combination of 30Gy in 3 weeks and 100mg bleomycin during the same period. 2) Although the end results of patients with carcinoma of tongue or floor of mouth have not been improved by this approach, there was marked improvement in patients with carcinoma of the lower gum. 3) For the treatment, the side effect as limiting factor was mucositis, and none of the cases of the series developed pulmonary complication. In the cases controlled by initial combined treatment, no one developed troubles of the mandible, in the follow-up study for the past 10 years. (author)

  3. Pilocarpine and carbacholine in treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four patients with radiation-related xerostomia were treated with oral pilocarpine solution 6 mg t.i.d., and after a 4-week drug-free period 16 of these patients were treated with carbacholine 2 mg tablets t.i.d. Basal and stimulated whole saliva flow rates were measured before commencing the drug treatment, and after 1 and 12 weeks on treatment. On a subjective linear scale both pilocarpine (p=0.01) and carbacholine (p=0.02) improved mouth moistness. Only 2 of the 8 patients with no basal or stimulated saliva flow reported some subjective benefit from the drug treatment, whereas all 8 patients with less severe xerostomia improved (p=0.007). However, the salivary flow rates measured 12 h after the last drug dose did not improve with either drug. Both drugs were generally well tolerated. It is concluded that both drugs may be useful in the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with residual salivary function. (author). 6 refs., tabs

  4. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea, College of medicine, Department of biomedical engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  5. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  6. Alpha-amino alcohol of para-boronophenylalanine, BPAol, as a potential boron carrier for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    α amino alcohol of boronophenylalanine BPAol in which -COOH group is replaced with hydrophilic group of -OH of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has been synthesized and its BNCT effect on experimental tumor models have been investigated. Tumor cell killing effect of BPAol on C6 gliosarcoma cells was very high 4.4 times as that of BPA, since it was actively accumulated into tumor cells in 4-5 times as that of BPA. Carboxylic group of BPA might not play as an essential role in uptake of BPA into tumor cells. BPAol-based BNCT strongly inhibited the tumor growth of Green's melanotic melanoma hamsters even under therapeutic dose of BPA-based BNCT. These preliminary findings strongly warrant further extensive pre-clinical study for BPAol as a boron carrier for BNCT. (author)

  7. [Treatment of extensive acute radiation burn and its complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye-yang; Wang, Jin-lun; Li, Gang; Lin, Wei-hua; Liang, Min; Huang, Jun; Sun, Jing-en

    2013-06-01

    This article reports the treatment of a patient suffered from acute radiation burn covering 41% TBSA, with deep partial-thickness and full-thickness injury, produced by exposure to a large-scale industrial electron accelerator. An open wound began to appear and enlarged gradually 10 weeks after the exposure. Serious wound infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pneumonia, respiratory failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, nephropathy and hypoproteinemia developed successively since 3 weeks after the wound formation. Skin grafts failed to survive, resulting in enlargement of the wound. After being treated with proper measures, including parenteral nutrition, respiratory support with a ventilator, appropriate antibiotics, steroid administration for nephropathy, deep debridement for wounds followed by skin grafting, the patient was cured and discharged after undergoing 15 operations in 500 days. The clinical condition of an extensive acute radiation burn is complicated. We should pay close attention to the changes in functions of organs, and strengthen the therapeutic strategies to support the function of organs to reduce the incidence of systemic complications. The control of the infection and the timely and effective repair of the wound are still the key points of the treatment of an extensive local radiation injury.

  8. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Reiriz, Alejandro, E-mail: garciareiriz@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario Institute of Chemistry (IQUIR-CONICET), Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Magallanes, Jorge [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zupan, Jure [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SLO-1000 Ljubljana, Eslovenia (Slovenia); Liberman, Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  9. The treatment of late radiation effects with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plafki, C. [Center for Hyperbaric Medicine, Luebeck (Germany); Carl, U.M.; Glag, M.; Hartmann, K.A. [Department for Radiotherapy, University Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Late radiation injuries may impose a negative influence on the quality of life in the affected patients. In several entities, standardized treatment protocols are lacking. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of late radiation sequelae. Material and methods: The basic principles of HBO are reviewed as well as clinical issues. Current study protocols are presented. Results: During HBO-therapy the patient breathes pure oxygen at pressures above 100 kPa. The oxygen solubility within the fluid phase of the blood is largely increased. Biological effects include an increased oxygen diffusibility, improved collagen synthesis and neoangiogenesis as well as an enhancement of antimicrobial defenses. By decreasing the capillary filtration pressure a reduction of edema becomes possible. HBO has been shown to prevent complications following surgery in irradiated tissues. Its efficacy as an adjunct in the treatment of osteonecroses in radiation patients could be demonstrated. In addition, the loss of osseointegrated implants in the maxillofacial bones of these patients could be significantly reduced. Further indications include soft tissue necroses, hemorrhagic cystitis and proctitis in tumor patients that have been treated by radiotherapy as part of a multimodality approach. Conclusions: HBO in the treatment of late radiation effects is still subject of investigation, but remarkable results have been reported. Optimized treatment protocols need to be determined in various entities. The rate of side effects is acceptable low. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Radiogene Spaeteffekte koennen die Lebensqualitaet der betroffenen Patienten erheblich beeintraechtigen. Bei vielen Erscheinungsformen fehlen standardisierte Therapieschemata. Die hyperbare Sauerstofftherapie (HBO) hat sich als hilfreiche Methode in der Behandlung radiogener Spaeteffekte erwiesen. Material und Methode: Die wesentlichen Grundlagen und klinischen

  10. Amelioration of radiation damage by pentoxifylline treatment in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a methylxanthine derivative used to treat vascular diseases. It has antioxidant properties, an anti- tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) effect, increase erythrocyte flexibility and vasodilatation. An agent that increases blood flow and tissue oxygen content may contribute to enhanced healing of soft tissue, and inhibit inflammatory reactions. The mechanism of action of the anti-oxidant effect of pentoxifylline is not yet clear and it is an interesting field to explore. This study has investigated the antioxidant pathways through which PTX treatment (1200 mg/ l in drinking water) exerts its effect on radiation-induced changes. Blood reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and serum catalase (CAT), MDA, xanthine oxidase (XO) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), total protein, albumin, uric acid, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ascorbyl radical (AsR) were measured in female rats. Animals were divided into: Group 1: control, Group 2: administrated PTX for 8 days. Group 3: Exposed to fractionated radiation at the dose level of 4 Gy (2 Gy every 4 days) for 8 days and Group 4: received PTX two h post the onset of irradiation (4 Gy fractionated) till the end of the experiment. All animals were inspected after 8 days from the beginning of the experiment. Fractionated 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation induced oxidative damage manifested in the significant decreases in blood GSH content, GSH-PX and CAT activities, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and XDH. Conversely, significant elevations were detected in plasma MDA, AOPP and AsR contents as well as XO activity. PTX treatment ameliorated radiation induced oxidative damage through its antioxidant properties and free radical scavenging ability that is partially mediated through inhibition of xanthine oxidase thus could play a role in regulating radiation complications.

  11. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, J.; Peperzeel, H.A. van (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Tan, K.E.W.P. (Royal Dutch Eye Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands)

    1985-02-01

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9), 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy.

  12. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9,) 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy. (Auth.)

  13. New developments in the treatment of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation accidents associated with the use of nuclear power, radiation devices and industrial applications have resulted in a number of individuals with significant partial or total body exposures, in a limited number with lethal outcome. Such exposures generally result in life-threatening suppression of bone marrow and immune functions and may be accompanied by high doses to the skin and underlying tissues. In recent years, new methods of diagnosis and treatment of such patients have entered development, while experience with relatively large-scale accidents, such as the Chernobyl cases, have clearly demonstrated the limitations of previous approaches. In particular bone marrow transplantation has met with limited success, mostly due to the inhomogeneous nature of accidental exposures as well as the frequent occurrence of other injuries other man bone marrow damage. Present day technology allows for direct estimates of the number of residual bone marrow stem cells to enable a rapid decision on the type of treatment indicated, while some twenty-five recombinant hemopoietic growth factors are under investigation to accelerate the recovery of white blood cells and platelets, as well as immune functions. If applied appropriately, such growth factor treatment will successfully replace bone marrow transplantation in the majority of accident cases. Advances in hemopoietic stem cell biology, both in terms of source of stem cells as well as their isolation, will on the other hand make stem cell infusion a much less risky operation than bone marrow transplantation has been in the past

  14. The management of radiation treatment error through incident learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess efficacy of an incident learning system in the management of error in radiation treatment. Materials and methods: We report an incident learning system implementation customized for radiation therapy where any 'unwanted or unexpected change from normal system behaviour that causes or has the potential to cause an adverse effect to persons or equipment' is reported, investigated and learned from. This system thus captures near-miss (potential) and actual events. Incidents are categorized according to severity, type and origin. Results: Our analysis spans a period of 3 years with an average accrual of 11.6 incidents per week. We found a significant reduction in actual incidents of 28% and 47% in the second and third year when compared to the first year (p < 0.001), which we attribute to the many interventions prompted by the analysis of incidents reported. We also saw a similar significant reduction in incidents generated at the treatment unit correlating with the introduction of direct treatment parameter transfer and electronic imaging (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Implementation of an incident learning system has helped us to establish a just environment where all staff members report deviations from normal system behaviour and thus generate evidence to initiate safety improvements.

  15. Spectral performance of a composite single-crystal filtered thermal neutron beam for BNCT research at the University of Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, J; Nigg, D W; Hawthorne, M F; McKibben, C

    2009-07-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and initial neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline to be used for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The calculated and measured thermal neutron fluxes produced at the irradiation location are 9.6 x 10(8) and 8.8 x 10(8)neutrons/cm(2)s, respectively. Calculated and measured cadmium ratios (Au foils) are 217 and 132. These results indicate a well-thermalized neutron spectrum with sufficient thermal neutron flux for a variety of small animal BNCT studies.

  16. Dose estimation of animal experiments at the THOR BNCT beam by NCTPlan and Xplan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose estimation of animal experiments affects many subsequent derived quantities, such as RBE and CBE values. It is important to ensure the trustiness of calculated dose of the irradiated animals. However, the dose estimation was normally calculated using simplified geometries and tissue compositions, which led to rough results. This paper introduces the use of treatment planning systems NCTplan and Xplan for the dose estimation. A mouse was taken as an example and it was brought to hospital for micro-PET/CT scan. It was found that the critical organ doses of an irradiated mouse calculated by simplified model were unreliable in comparison to Xplan voxel model. The difference could reach the extent of several tenths percent. It is recommended that a treatment planning system should be introduced to future animal experiments to upgrade the data quality. - Highlights: • This study presents the new BNCT treatment planning system Xplan for animal experiments. • Xplan is based on a pixel-to-pixel conversion which has the same resolution as the CT images. • NCTplan and a simplified geometry for rat were used for the sake of comparison. • The spatial resolution applied in calculation is crucial to the reliability of estimated dose

  17. Process of coping with intracavity radiation treatment for gynecologic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nail, L.M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the process of coping with the experience of receiving intracavity radiation treatment (ICR) for gynecologic cancer. Data were collected on the outcomes of coping, emotion (Profile of Mood States) and level of function (Sickness Impact Profile), and symptom severity and upset the evening before, during, the day after, and 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The subjects (N = 28) had a mean age of 52 years, 39% were employed full-time, 56% had occupations as manual workers, 57% had completed 12 or more years of education, and 68% were married or widowed. The treatment required the subjects to be hospitalized on complete bedrest with radiation precautions for an average of 48 hours. Intrauterine devices were used to treat 18 subjects and vaginal applications were used to treat 10 subjects. Negative mood and level of disruption in function were generally low. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no change in negative mood over time while the change in function was attributable to the increase in disruption during treatment. Utilization of affective coping strategies and problem-oriented coping strategies was positively correlated with negative mood and disruption in function over the points of measurement. The results indicate that subjects tolerated ICR well and rapidly resumed usual function following discharge from the hospital, despite the persistence of some symptoms 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The positive association between the utilization of coping strategies and negative outcomes of coping suggests a need to examine the measurement of coping strategies and consider the possibility that these actions represent a response to a stressful situation rather than a method of dealing with the situation.

  18. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rita [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: ritamelo@itn.pt; Cabo Verde, Sandra [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Branco, Joaquim [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Botelho, M. Luisa [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h{sup -1}. A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment.

  19. Radiation recall dermatitis after docetaxel chemotherapy. Treatment by antioxidant ointment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an acute skin toxicity caused by different anticancer or antibiotic drugs within a former completely healed irradiation field. Predictive factors for RRD are not known and its mechanisms are not completely understood. A case of RRD induced by docetaxel and successfully treated by an antioxidant ointment (Mapisal registered) is presented here. Such an ointment might be useful not only in RRD therapy, but also in the treatment of high-grade dermatitis induced by radiotherapy and thus may contribute to the improvement of patients' quality of life and to the scheduled completion of cancer therapies. (orig.)

  20. Treatment of radiation proctitis with hyperbaric oxygen: what is the optimal number of HBO treatments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl, U.M.; Schmitt, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Peusch-Dreyer, D. [Zentrum fuer Tauch- und Ueberdruckmedizin (ZUETUM), Bremen (Germany); Frieling, T. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Gastroenterology; Hartmann, K.A. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    1998-09-01

    Aim: Our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) in the treatment of radiation proctitis. The current literature was reviewed with regard to the necessary number of HBO treatments. Patients and Methods: Two patients with proctitis after pelvic irradiation were treated with 40 and 38 HBO treatments, respectively. Hyperbaric oxygenation was delivered at 240 kPa over 90 min. Results: In one patient, proctosigmoidoscopy showed a significant improvement after 40 HBO sessions. The other patient interrupted therapy after 38 HBO treatments without subjective change. The reported number of HBO sessions for a succesful treatment of radiation proctitis ranges from 12 to 90. Conclusion: HBO should be considered before more invasive treatment modalities are performed for radiation proctitis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Die Effektivitaet hyperbarer Oxygenation (HBO) zur Behandlung der Strahlenproktitis wurde untersucht. Literaturdaten wurden unter der Fragestellung zusammengestellt, wie viele HBO-Therapien fuer einen Behandlungserfolg notwendig sind. Patienten und Methode: Zwei Patienten mit radiogener Proktitis nach Beckenbestrahlung erhielten 40 bzw. 38 HBO-Therapien. Die hyperbare Oxygenation dauerte pro Sitzung 90 Minuten bei 240 kPa. Ergebnisse: Bei einer Patientin zeigte sich bei der proktoskopischen Verlaufsuntersuchung nach 40 HBO-Behandlungen eine deutliche Besserung der Strahlenproktitis. Der andere Patient brach die Therapie nach 38 HBO-Behandlungen ohne subjektive Befundbesserung ab. In der Literatur zur Behandlung der Strahlenproktitis mit HBO schwankt die Anzahl der notwendigen Behandlungen von 12 bis 90. Schlussfolgerung: HBO sollte als Behandlungsalternative in Erwaegung gezogen werden, bevor invasivere Therapieverfahren zur Behandlung einer Strahlenproktitis angewendet werden. (orig.)

  1. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  2. SOS switch system (SSS) in the radiation treatment room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We applied patient's self-breath hold irradiation system to a device to declare the patient's intentions (SOS switch system: SSS) in the radiation room and examined a utility for problem recognition and improvement of risk management during radiation therapy by induction of SSS. Between May 2005 and October 2006, we used SSS with 65 patients. The study involved 32 men and 33 women with a median age of 65 (range, 26-88) years. The reason for using SSS was as a shell in 57, a history of laryngectomy in 2, a cough in 6, convulsions in 1, and anxiety in 3. The treatment with SSS was performed 1,120 times. The hand switch was pushed 11 times. The reasons the switch was pushed were for nausea, aspiration, pain, and cough one time each. For the others, the reasons were unclear, and it was thought due to the clouding of consciousness from brain metastases. No problems were observed with the use of SSS. SSS was a useful device for improvement of risk management during the radiation therapy. (author)

  3. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5 kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60 min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2 V/cm for 2-2.5 min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans

  4. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashfaq A.; Khan, Hasan M.; Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2V/cm for 2-2.5min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans.

  5. Diagnosis and operative treatment of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路来金; 宫旭; 刘志刚; 王东生; 张志新

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnosis and operative treatment of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy. Methods: Nine cases of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy were divided into two groups, 4 cases undergoing neurolysis of brachial plexus as Group A and 5 cases undergoing transfer of myocutaneous flaps after neurolysis as Group B. In Group B, 4 cases were treated with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps (about 20 cm×20 cm) and 1 case with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (about 8 cm×6 cm). Results: All the 9 cases of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy were followed up for a period of 2 to 5 years, with an average of 2.3 years. As far as pain relief and function recovery were concerned, the results of Group B were better than those of Group A.Conclusions: Based on the results of Group B in the series, we suggest that the procedure of covering the wounds with transferred myocutaneous flaps after neurolysis of the brachial plexus should be performed to those advanced patients. The procedure may improve the blood supply of the fibrotic brachial plexus by reestablishing a good nerve bed.

  6. Bone marrow transplantation and other treatment after radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review deals mainly with current concepts about bone marrow transplantation as therapy for serious radiation injury. Such injury can be classified according to the following broadly defined dose ranges: (1) the supralethal range, leading mainly to the cerebral and intestinal syndromes; (2) the potentially lethal or therapeutic range which causes the bone marrow syndrome, and (3) the sublethal range which rarely leads to injury requiring therapy. The bone marrow syndrome of man and animals is discussed in detail. The optimal therapy for this syndrome is bone marrow transplantation in conjunction with conventional supportive treatment. The principal complications of such therapy are Graft versus Host Disease and a slow recovery of the recipient's immune system. Concerted research activities in a number of institutions have led to considerable progress in the field of bone marrow transplantation. Improved donor selection, new techniques for stem-cell separation and preservation, as well as effective barrier-nursing and antibiotic decontamination, have made bone marrow transplantation an accepted therapy for marrow depression, including the aplasia caused by excessive exposure to radiation. The review also contains a number of guidelines for the handling of serious radiation accidents. (Auth.)

  7. Functional and histological assessment of the radiobiology of normal rat lung in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the radiobiology and sensitivity of the normal rat lung to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) radiation. Rat thorax irradiations were carried out with x-rays or with neutrons in the presence or absence of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Lung damage were assessed functionally with breathing rate measurement up to 180 days after irradiation and then histologically. Breathing rates 20% (∼3 σ) above the control group (sham-irradiated rats) mean were considered as positive responses to lung radiation damage. Though most responding animals demonstrated radiation induced pneumonitis (≤110 days) as well as pulmonary fibrosis (>110 days), some animals receiving neutrons plus BPA showed only the latter. The breathing rate dose response data were fit using probit analysis. The ED50 values measured for x-rays, neutron beam only, and neutrons plus BPA were 11.5±0.4 Gy, 9.2±0.5 Gy, and 6.7±0.4 Gy, respectively. The biological weighting factors for the neutron beam (n+γ), the thermal neutron dose component, and the 10B dose component were determined to be 1.2±0.1, 2.2±0.4, and 2.3±0.3, respectively. The histological dose response curves were linear. Consistent with the functional assay, the weighting factors measured histologically were 1.2±0.1 for the thermal neutron beam and 1.9±0.2 for the 10B dose component. (author)

  8. The role of radiation therapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of patients with malignant tumors. Radiation pathological stand point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimations suggest that about 60% of all cancer patients will require some form of radiation therapy during their lifetime. Although 40 to 50% of cancer patients in Europe and the United States receive radiation therapy, only about 20% of patients with cancer in Japan undergo such treatment. This is largely due to the lack of understanding of the role of radiation therapy by many medical personnel in Japan, as well as to ''''radiation allergy'''' among many of the general population in Japan, a country that has been undergone atomic bombing. From our perspective as specialists in radiation therapy, the chronic shortage of radiation oncologist also poses a serious problem. Although there are approximately 700 hospitals throughout Japan where radiation therapy is available, no more than half this number of medical facilities have a full-time radiation oncologist. Perhaps the reason for this is that radiation therapy is perceived as unnecessary in Japan. However, it is absolutely essential. In our experience, the 5-year relative survival rate of patients with malignant tumors who have undergone radiation therapy in our clinic is 65 percent. Thus, radiation therapy has proven very useful in the treatment of malignant tumors. Moreover, better estimates of prognosis of cancer patients treated with radiation therapy are becoming possible. This article discusses the role of radiation therapy, from a radiation pathological perspective, in a multidisciplinary approach to treatment of cancer patients. I also emphasize the critical importance of training radiation oncologists who can function as part of multidisciplinary teams that care for patients with malignant tumors. (author). 50 refs

  9. Decision tools for radiation oncology. Prognosis, treatment response and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Carsten [Tromso Univ., Bodo (Norway). Dept. of Oncology; Gaspar, Laurie E. (ed.) [Colorado Univ., Aurora, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive overview of prognostic and predictive models for radiation oncology, stratified by disease site. Identification of models' limits and caveats. Excellent aid to decision making in daily clinical practice. A look at the recent oncology literature or a search of one of the common databases reveals a steadily increasing number of nomograms and other prognostic models, some of which are also available in the form of web-based tools. These models may predict the risk of relapse, lymphatic spread of a given malignancy, toxicity, survival, etc. Pathology information, gene signatures, and clinical data may all be used to compute the models. This trend reflects increasingly individualized treatment concepts and also the need for approaches that achieve a favorable balance between effectiveness and side-effects. Moreover, optimal resource utilization requires prognostic knowledge, for example to avoid lengthy and aggressive treatment courses in patients with a short survival expectation. In order to avoid misuse, it is important to understand the limits and caveats of prognostic and predictive models. This book provides a comprehensive overview of such decision tools for radiation oncology, stratified by disease site, which will enable readers to make informed choices in daily clinical practice and to critically follow the future development of new tools in the field.

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation-induced burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of radioactive sources in medicine, industry and research is associated with a probability of accidental overexposures to ionizing radiation, among which localized irradiation are the most frequent events. Moreover, between 5 and 8 % of the patients undergoing therapeutical irradiations could exhibit a higher individual radiosensitivity which could account for severe skin reactions. Localized overexposures may damage not only epidermis and dermis but also deeper connective tissue, vessels, muscles and even bones. Within the framework of a cooperation agreement between the Buenos Aires Burn Hospital and the National Board of Nuclear Regulation, a Radio pathology Committee has been established in 1997 with the purpose of carrying out a collaborative project concerning diagnosis and treatment of radiological burns. The present document particularly considers radiological burns form the point of view of their physiopathology, physical and biological dosimetry, diagnosis prognosis and treatment. It also includes basic concepts of radiation biology and radio pathology. It could be an useful tool for training medical practitioners and also a practical guidance for organizing medical response in accidental overexposures. (author)

  11. Radiation treatment in recurrent squamous cell cancer of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the treatment and outcome of recurrent vulvar cancer. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective review of 26 women referred to the Department of Radiation Oncology between 1982 and 1995, patient records were analyzed with respect to the findings at original surgery, the time to locoregional recurrence, the location of the recurrence, and the subsequent management and outcome. Results: Sixteen recurrences were managed with a combination of surgery and radiotherapy, and the remainder with radiation treatment, combined with chemotherapy in some cases. The overall survival for the entire cohort at 5 years was 22%. The 5-year survival for those with recurrence confined to the vulva (n = 13) was 46%, compared with 0% for those women with a recurrence located or extending beyond the vulva (p = 0.002). The local control rate was 34.6%. Conclusion: Our results confirm the poor overall prognosis for this condition. In particular, they highlight the importance of the location of the recurrence as a prognostic indicator. Based on this review, we conclude that radiotherapy fields should encompass the region at risk if the intent is curative. Finally, low-dose palliation for groin node recurrence is ineffectual

  12. Radiation to the breast. Complications amenable to surgical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, J.; Stevenson, T.R.; Nahai, F.; Hester, T.R.; Coleman, J.J.; Jurkiewicz, M.J.

    1984-10-01

    Major complications of radiation directed to the breast, axilla, and mediastinum were treated in 54 patients from 1974 to 1983. A classification of these complications facilitates both an understanding of the pattern of injury and the development of a treatment plan. Classification: I. Breast necrosis; II. Radionecrosis and Chest Wall Ulceration; III. Accelerated Coronary Atherosclerosis with Median Sternotomy Wound Failure After Coronary Revascularization; IV. Brachial Plexus Pain and Paresis; V. Lymphedema and Axillary Cicatrix; VI. Radiation-induced Neoplasia. The treatment has evolved during the 10-year study period to excision of the necrotic wound, including any tumor, and closure with a transposed muscle or musculocutaneous flap of latissimus dorsi (II, III, V) or rectus abdominis (I, II, VI). This strategy reflects a change from primary use of the omentum during the first years of the study. The vascularity, oxygen and antibiotic delivery of these muscle and musculocutaneous flaps promote wound healing, usually with one operation. The transfer of these muscles has not caused significant functional deficits.

  13. Current state of methodological and decisions for radiation treatment of blood, its components and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeev A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents currently used blood transfusion media — components and blood products, therapeutic effects, reactions and complications of blood transfusion, use of radiation treatment for blood transfusion fluids. There had been discussed in detail the practice of radiation processing of blood components and for the prevention of reaction "graft versus host" and studies of plasma radiation treatment for its infectious safety. There was presented the current state of techniques and technical solutions of radiation treatment of transfusion-transmissible environments. There were also considered an alternative to radiation treatment of blood.

  14. A comparison of neutron beams for BNCT based on in-phantom neutron field assessment parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper our in-phantom neutron field assessment parameters, T and DTumor, were used to evaluate several neutron sources for use in BNCT. Specifically, neutron fields from The Ohio State University (OSU) Accelerator-Based Neutron Source (ABNS) design, two alternative ABNS designs from the literature (the Al/AlF3-Al2O3 ABNS and the 7LiF-Al2O3 ABNS), a fission-convertor plate concept based on the 500-kW OSU Research Reactor (OSURR), and the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) facility were evaluated. In order to facilitate a comparison of the various neutron fields, values of T and DTumor were calculated in a 14 cmx14 cmx14 cm lucite cube phantom located in the treatment port of each neutron source. All of the other relevant factors, such as phantom materials, kerma factors, and treatment parameters, were kept the same. The treatment times for the OSURR, the 7LiF-Al2O3 ABNS operating at a beam current of 10 mA, and the BMRR were calculated to be comparable and acceptable, with a treatment time per fraction of approximately 25 min for a four fraction treatment scheme. The treatment time per fraction for the OSU ABNS and the Al/AlF3-Al2O3 ABNS can be reduced to below 30 min per fraction for four fractions, if the proton beam current is made greater than approximately 20 mA. DTumor was calculated along the beam centerline for tumor depths in the phantom ranging from 0 to 14 cm. For tumor depths ranging from 0 to approximately 1.5 cm, the value of DTumor for the OSURR is largest, while for tumor depths ranging from 1.5 to approximately 14 cm, the value of DTumor for the OSU-ABNS is the largest

  15. Immobilization for the radiation therapy treatment of the pelvic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, F.; De Beukeleer, M.; Nys, F.; Bijdekerke, P.; Robberechts, M.; Van Cauwenbergh, R. [Brussels Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    Previous experience with the treatment of the pelvic region has shown that geometric setup errors are considerable in extent and incidence. A proposal to alleviate this problem is the introduction of immobilization devices in analogy with head and neck treatment. The practicality and efficacy of such a technique is investigated and compared with an earlier proposed technique using interactive adjustment and Electronic Portal Imaging (EPI). A group of 13 patients treated in the pelvic region using external radiation therapy was immobilized using an Orfit-like cast. Every fraction for every patients was imaged using an EPID. Immediately after obtaining an image it was compared to a digitized simulation image using the in-house developed OPIDUM system. Patient position was adjusted when an error in one of the main directions (transversal or longitudinal) exceeded 5 mm. Time measurements were carried out in order to asses the impact of the immobilization procedure on the patient throughput. In 68% of the cases a corrective action was necessary. The fraction of total treatment time was 50% for 26% of the fields. The range of errors measured in the longitudinal direction was between 29 and -22 mm. In the transversal direction the range was from -7 to 60 mm. A full analysis 13 patients yielding statistics for more than 200 fields is presented. Special attention has been paid to the determination of the nature of the errors (random or systematic) and the impact on patient throughput.

  16. Radiation injury of the rectum: Evaluation of surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred four patients, 80 women and 24 men, with radiation injury of the rectum following treatment for gynecologic and urologic malignancy were studied. In 50 patients, the rectal injury was treated surgically; 54 patients were treated conservatively. The age and sex distributions were the same in each group. In 63 patients, symptoms developed one month to one year after radiotherapy. The longest latent interval was 17 years. Of the 50 surgical patients, 23 had associated small bowel injury. The indications for surgery for the rectal injury were 1) proctitis unresponsive to conservative measures in 14 patients, 2) rectal stricture or fistula or both in 32, and 3) rectosigmoid perforation in four. Forty-one patients had external diversions. Eleven had intestinal continuity restored; six of the 11 had required the stoma for proctitis unresponsive to medical measures. Nineteen patients did not undergo colostomy closure, although symptoms were greatly improved. Diversion alone was insufficient treatment in the remaining 11 patients. Twenty-six patients died. The 12 deaths in the surgical group comprised four due to residual malignancy, four from post-operative complications, and four from unrelated causes. Of the 14 deaths in the nonsurgical group, 11 died of the primary malignancy and three of unrelated causes. Diversion is considered the safest form of treatment for rectovaginal fistulae, rectal strictures, and proctitis unresponsive to medical measures. Intestinal resection resulted in a sharp rise in the morbidity and mortality rates

  17. Radiation injury of the rectum: evaluation of surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred four patients, 80 women and 24 men, with radiation injury of the rectum following treatment for gynecologic and urologic malignancy were studied. In 50 patients, the rectal injury was treated surgically; 54 patients were treated conservatively. The age and sex distributions were the same in each group. In 63 patients, symptoms developed one month to one year after radiotherapy. The longest latent interval was 17 years. Of the 50 surgical patients, 23 had associated small bowel injury. The indications for surgery for the rectal injury were 1) proctitis unresponsive to conservative measures in 14 patients, 2) rectal stricture or fistula or both in 32, and 3) rectosigmoid perforation in four. Forty-one patients had external diversions. Eleven had intestinal continuity restored; six of the 11 had required the stoma for proctitis unresponsive to medical measures. Nineteen patients did not undergo colostomy closure, although symptoms wer greatly improved. Diversion alone was insufficient treatment in the remaining 11 patients. Twenty-six patients died. The 12 deaths in the surgical group comprised four due to residual malignancy, four from postoperative complications, and four from unrelated causes. Of the 14 deaths in the nonsurgical group, 11 died of the primary malignancy and three of unrelated causes. Diversion is considered the safest form of treatment for rectovaginal fistulae, rectal strictures, and proctitis unresponsive to medical measures. Intestinal resection resulted in sharp rise in the morbidity and mortality rates

  18. Treatment of advanced head and neck cancer: multiple daily dose fractionated radiation therapy and sequential multimodal treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, M; Browde, S; Bezwoda, W R; de Moor, N G; Derman, D P

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with advanced head and neck cancer were entered into a randomised trial comparing chemotherapy (DDP + bleomycin) alone, multiple daily fractionated radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy consisting of chemotherapy plus multiple fractionated radiation therapy. Multimodal therapy gave a significantly higher response rate (69%) than either single-treatment modality. The use of a multiple daily dose fractionation allowed radiation therapy to be completed over 10 treatment days, and the addition of chemotherapy to the radiation treatment did not significantly increase toxicity. Patients receiving multimodal therapy also survived significantly longer (median 50 weeks) than those receiving single-modality therapy (median 24 weeks).

  19. Photocoagulation treatment for clinically significant radiation macular oedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinyoun, J.L.; Zamber, R.W.; Lawrence, B.S.; Barlow, W.E.; Arnold, A.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Macular oedema is a leading cause of vision loss in patients with radiation retinopathy. In an effort to find an effective treatment for this vision threatening complication, 12 eyes (eight patients) were treated with photocoagulation for clinically significant radiation macular oedema (CSRMO) defined as central macular thickening, exudates threatening the macular centre, or one disc area of thickening in the macula. Median visual acuity improved from 20/100 pre-operatively to 20/90 at the initial post-operative examination (mean follow up 5 months) and to 20/75 at the final post-operative examination (mean follow up 39 months). At the final post-operative examination, visual acuity had improved in eight (67%) eyes and six (50%) eyes had complete resolution of the CSRMO; two (17%) other eyes had improved anatomically in that fewer CSRMO criteria were present. These results suggest that macular photocoagulation is effective in decreasing macular oedema and improving vision in eyes with CSRMO. (author).

  20. Organisation and management of the first clinical trial of BNCT in Europe (EORTC Protocol 11961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is based on the ability of the isotope 10B to capture thermal neutrons and to disintegrate instantaneously producing high LET particles. The only neutron beam available in Europe for such a treatment is based at the European High Flux Reactor HFR at Petten (The Netherlands). The European Commission, owners of the reactor, decided that the potential benefit of the facility should be opened to all European citizens and therefore insisted on a multinational approach to perform the first clinical trial in Europe on BNCT. This precondition had to be respected as well as the national laws and regulations. Together with the Dutch authorities actions were undertaken to overcome the obvious legal problems. Furthermore, the clinical trial at Petten takes place in a nuclear research reactor, which apart from being conducted in a non-hospital environment, is per se known to be dangerous. It was therefore of the utmost importance that special attention is given to safety, beyond normal rules, and to the training of staff. In itself, the trial is an unusual Phase I study, introducing a new drug with a new irradiation modality, with really an unknown dose-effect relationship. This trial must follow optimal procedures, which underscore the quality and qualified manner of performance. (orig.)

  1. 21 CFR 579.22 - Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets... for treatment of animal diets. Ionizing radiation for treatment of complete diets for animals may be... Bagged complete diets, packaged feeds, feed ingredients, bulk feeds, animal treats and chews...

  2. A feasibility study of the Tehran research reactor as a neutron source for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasesaz, Yaser; Khalafi, Hossein; Rahmani, Faezeh; Ezati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Hossnirokh, Ashkan; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Monshizadeh, Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    Investigation on the use of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) as a neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been performed by calculating and measuring energy spectrum and the spatial distribution of neutrons in all external irradiation facilities, including six beam tubes, thermal column, and the medical room. Activation methods with multiple foils and a copper wire have been used for the mentioned measurements. The results show that (1) the small diameter and long length beam tubes cannot provide sufficient neutron flux for BNCT; (2) in order to use the medical room, the TRR core should be placed in the open pool position, in this situation the distance between the core and patient position is about 400 cm, so neutron flux cannot be sufficient for BNCT; and (3) the best facility which can be adapted for BNCT application is the thermal column, if all graphite blocks can be removed. The epithermal and fast neutron flux at the beginning of this empty column are 4.12×10(9) and 1.21×10(9) n/cm(2)/s, respectively, which can provide an appropriate neutron beam for BNCT by designing and constructing a proper Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) structure.

  3. Optimizing global liver function in radiation therapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Victor W.; Epelman, Marina A.; Wang, Hesheng; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Feng, Mary; Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Matuszak, Martha M.

    2016-09-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients differ in both pre-treatment liver function (e.g. due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatment) and radiosensitivity, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work investigates three treatment planning optimization models that minimize risk of toxicity: two consider both voxel-based pre-treatment liver function and local-function-based radiosensitivity with dose; one considers only dose. Each model optimizes different objective functions (varying in complexity of capturing the influence of dose on liver function) subject to the same dose constraints and are tested on 2D synthesized and 3D clinical cases. The normal-liver-based objective functions are the linearized equivalent uniform dose (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) (conventional ‘\\ell \\text{EUD} model’), the so-called perfusion-weighted \\ell \\text{EUD} (\\text{fEUD} ) (proposed ‘fEUD model’), and post-treatment global liver function (GLF) (proposed ‘GLF model’), predicted by a new liver-perfusion-based dose-response model. The resulting \\ell \\text{EUD} , fEUD, and GLF plans delivering the same target \\ell \\text{EUD} are compared with respect to their post-treatment function and various dose-based metrics. Voxel-based portal venous liver perfusion, used as a measure of local function, is computed using DCE-MRI. In cases used in our experiments, the GLF plan preserves up to 4.6 % ≤ft(7.5 % \\right) more liver function than the fEUD (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) plan does in 2D cases, and up to 4.5 % ≤ft(5.6 % \\right) in 3D cases. The GLF and fEUD plans worsen in \\ell \\text{EUD} of functional liver on average by 1.0 Gy and 0.5 Gy in 2D and 3D cases, respectively. Liver perfusion information can be used during treatment planning to minimize the risk of toxicity by improving expected GLF; the degree of benefit varies with perfusion pattern. Although fEUD model optimization is computationally inexpensive and

  4. Palliative radiation treatment of cutaneous mycosis fungoides - a dose response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotter, G.W.; Baglan, R.J.; Wasserman, T.H.; Mill, W.

    1983-10-01

    Between 1966 and 1981, 20 patients (191 lesions) underwent palliative radiation therapy for control of biopsy-proven cutaneous mycosis fungoides. Six patients (47 lesions) and an additional 34 lesions from the remaining 14 patients with complete response to treatment were excluded from the study because of follow-up of less than one year. Included in the remaining 110 lesions were all recurrences and all partial responses. The modalities for treatment included superficial X rays, Cobalt-60 or electron beam irradiation. The total tumor doses employed ranged from 600-4000 cGy. The 110 lesions (14 patients) were retrospectively analyzed to determine the dose required for local control of the lesions. Fifty-three percent of the lesions were classified as plaques, 20% as tumors less than or equal to 3 cm in diameter, and 27% as tumors > 3 cm in diameter. Complete response to treatment was observed in 95% of the plaque lesions, 95% of the tumors less than or equal to 3 cm in diameter and 93% of tumor > 3 cm in diameter. A complete response to treatment was noted in all lesions receiving greater than 2000 cGy. In the total population of lesions having a complete response, a local infield recurrence rate of 42% was noted in the group receiving less than or equal to 1000 cGy, 32% in those receiving 1001-2000 cGy, 21% in those receiving 2001-3000 cGy, and 0% in the group receiving > 3000 cGy. The data from this study indicate that tumor doses equivalent to at least 3000 cGy at 200 cGy per fraction, five fractions per week (TDF greater than or equal to) are needed for adquate local control of cutaneous mycosis fungoides lesions.

  5. Radiation pneumonitis after selective internal radiation treatment with intraarterial 90yttrium-microspheres for inoperable hepatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical, histopathological, and radiological features of radiation pneumonitis arising as a complication of selective internal radiation treatment for liver tumors. To correlate the development of radiation pneumonitis with the degree of lung shunting as assessed by 99mTechnetium-labeled macroaggregated albumin (Tc-MAA) scan. Methods and Materials: Five out of 80 patients who had inoperable hepatic tumors and underwent treatment with intraarterial 90Yttrium- (90Y)-microspheres, developed progressive restrictive ventilatory dysfunction without an infective or cardiovascular cause. Histopathological evidence of a pneumonitis and the presence of microspheres in the lung tissue suggested a diagnosis of radiation pneumonitis. The clinical course, radiological and histopathological findings, percentage tumor shunting to the lungs (lung shunting, as predicted by gamma camera scanning after intraarterial Tc-MAA), and the estimated radiation dose to the lungs were analyzed. In an attempt to reduce pulmonary shunting of the microspheres, three patients received partial hepatic embolization with inert particles before selective internal radiation therapy. Results: In the five patients who developed radiation pneumonitis, lung shunting percentages (as predicted by Tc-MAA scan) ranged from 13.1 to 45.6% (median 23.7%). The estimated whole lung radiation dose ranged from 10.43 Gy to 36.44 Gy (median 25.04 Gy). Among 75 patients who did not develop radiation pneumonitis, the percentage lung shunting ranged from less than 1% to 15% (median 6%). Nine patients had lung shunting greater than 13% and five of them developed radiation pneumonitis, whereas this developed in none of those in whom shunting was below 13%. The onset of radiation pneumonitis ranged from 1 to 6 months after internal radiation treatment. All five patients exhibited characteristic plain radiographic and computerized tomographic changes comprising extensive consolidation with well

  6. Investigating a multi-purpose target for electron linac based photoneutron sources for BNCT of deep-seated tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoudi, S. Farhad, E-mail: masoudi@kntu.ac.ir; Rasouli, Fatemeh S.

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies in BNCT have focused on investigating appropriate neutron sources as alternatives for nuclear reactors. As the most prominent facilities, the electron linac based photoneutron sources benefit from two consecutive reactions, (e, γ) and (γ, n). The photoneutron sources designed so far are composed of bipartite targets which involve practical problems and are far from the objective of achieving an optimized neutron source. This simulation study deals with designing a compact, optimized, and geometrically simple target for a photoneutron source based on an electron linac. Based on a set of MCNPX simulations, tungsten is found to have the potential of utilizing as both photon converter and photoneutron target. Besides, it is shown that an optimized dimension for such a target slows-down the produced neutrons toward the desired energy range while keeping them economy, which makes achieving the recommended criteria for BNCT of deep-tumors more available. This multi-purpose target does not involve complicated designing, and can be considered as a significant step toward finding application of photoneutron sources for in-hospital treatments. In order to shape the neutron beam emitted from such a target, the beam is planned to pass through an optimized arrangement of materials composed of moderators, filters, reflector, and collimator. By assessment with the recommended in-air parameters, it is shown that the designed beam provides high intensity of desired neutrons, as well as low background contamination. The last section of this study is devoted to investigate the performance of the resultant beam in deep tissue. A typical simulated liver tumor, located within a phantom of human body, was subjected to the irradiation of the designed spectrum. The dosimetric results, including evaluated depth-dose curves and carried out in-phantom parameters show that the proposed configuration establishes acceptable agreement between the appropriate neutron intensity, and

  7. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantril, S.T. (Children' s Hospital of San Francisco, CA); Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N/sub 0/ patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease.

  8. Economic evaluation of radiation processing in urban solid wastes treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.

    During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.

  9. Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols. Material and methods: cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I-II studies of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. The rationale of these combinations, early efficacy and toxicity data, and possible molecular predictors for tumor response are reviewed. Computerized bibliographic searches of Pubmed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO and ASTRO meetings. Results: the combination of cetuximab and CRT can be safely applied without dose compromises of the respective treatment components. Disappointingly low rates of pathologic complete remission have been noted in several phase II studies. The K-ras mutation status and the gene copy number of EGFR may predict tumor response. The toxicity pattern (radiation-induced enteritis, perforations) and surgical complications (wound healing, fistula, bleeding) observed in at least some of the clinical studies with bevacizumab and CRT warrant further investigations. Conclusion: longer follow-up (and, finally, randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates, and toxicity associated with these novel treatment approaches. (orig.)

  10. Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, Friederike; Roedel, Franz; Capalbo, Gianni; Weiss, Christian; Roedel, Claus [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Background: EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols. Material and methods: cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I-II studies of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. The rationale of these combinations, early efficacy and toxicity data, and possible molecular predictors for tumor response are reviewed. Computerized bibliographic searches of Pubmed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO and ASTRO meetings. Results: the combination of cetuximab and CRT can be safely applied without dose compromises of the respective treatment components. Disappointingly low rates of pathologic complete remission have been noted in several phase II studies. The K-ras mutation status and the gene copy number of EGFR may predict tumor response. The toxicity pattern (radiation-induced enteritis, perforations) and surgical complications (wound healing, fistula, bleeding) observed in at least some of the clinical studies with bevacizumab and CRT warrant further investigations. Conclusion: longer follow-up (and, finally, randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates, and toxicity associated with these novel treatment approaches. (orig.)

  11. Subcellular boron and fluorine distributions with SIMS ion microscopy in BNCT and cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Chandra

    2008-05-30

    The development of a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of Ion Microscopy in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was the main goal of this project, so that one can study the subcellular location of boron-10 atoms and their partitioning between the normal and cancerous tissue. This information is fundamental for the screening of boronated drugs appropriate for neutron capture therapy of cancer. Our studies at Cornell concentrated mainly on studies of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The early years of the grant were dedicated to the development of cryogenic methods and correlative microscopic approaches so that a reliable subcellular analysis of boron-10 atoms can be made with SIMS. In later years SIMS was applied to animal models and human tissues of GBM for studying the efficacy of potential boronated agents in BNCT. Under this grant the SIMS program at Cornell attained a new level of excellence and collaborative SIMS studies were published with leading BNCT researchers in the U.S.

  12. BNCT of 3 cases of spontaneous head and neck cancer in feline patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M.; Trivillin, V.A.; Heber, E.M.; Angeles Cantarelli, Maria de los; Itoiz, M.E.; Nigg, D.W.; Rebagliati, R.J.; Batistoni, Daniel; Schwint, A.E. E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2004-11-01

    Having demonstrated BPA-BNCT induced control of experimental squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the hamster cheek pouch mucosa with no damage to normal tissue we explored the feasibility and safety of treating spontaneous head and neck tumors, with particular focus on SCC, of terminal feline patients with low dose BPA-BNCT employing the thermal beam of the RA-1 Reactor within a preclinical context. The biodistribution studies showed that, in all three cases evaluated, BPA delivered absolute boron values to tumor in the range that proved therapeutically useful in the experimental model of SCC. BPA-BNCT studies showed no radiotoxic effects, partial tumor control in terms of impaired growth and partial necrosis, an improvement in clinical condition and prolonged survival beyond the terminal condition of the feline patients at the time of recruitment.

  13. INEL BNCT Program: Bulletin, Volume 5, No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-07-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for June, 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and animal data charts. Specific highlights include: final-dosage-form BSH samples were analyzed for purity, with the sample from Centronic Ltd the most free from contamination and oxidation products; MRI spectroscopy will be upgraded to provide a potential for boron resolution of 0.75 cm/pixel; neutron and gamma measurements were made for the HFR epithermal neutron beam; the current status of six spontaneous brain-tumor dogs; production of MoAbs against the pituitary CRF receptor; growth of BL6 in low Phe/Tyr medium; an altered synthetic pathway for carboranyl alanine; and encapsulation of {ital i}-B{sub 20}H{sub 18}{sup 2-} into liposomes for baseline murine studies. 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

  14. Plastic and reconstructive surgical treatment of the radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven cases of radiation injury are reported. Three of them were relatively superficial ''radiation dermatitis''. They received radical excision and free skin-grafting to the cosmetic and functional satisfaction. Eight patients had deeper injury, ''radiation ulcer''. Six cases were treated by ''local flap''. The local flap technique is the simplest and the most effective way to treat the radiation ulcer. The reason is 1) it is a one stage operation, 2) it has a permanent pedicle supplying good blood flow, 3) it has very close texture and color match to the area. However, a skin-grafting performed on one patient of radiation ulcer ended up with failure. The indication of the skin-grafting and the local flap was discussed from the point of the stage or degree of radiation injuries and the recommendable method is the skin-grafting to the radiation dermatitis and the local flap to the radiation ulcer. (auth.)

  15. The role of PET/CT in radiation treatment planning for cancer patient treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and, more recently, integrated positron emission tomography/X ray computed tomography (PET/CT) have appeared as significant diagnostic imaging systems in clinical medicine. Accurate recognition of cancers in patients by means of PET scanning with Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) has illustrated a need to determine a mode of therapy to achieve better prognoses. The clinical management of cancer patients has improved dramatically with the introduction of clinical PET. For treatment of cancer patients, on the other hand, radiation therapy (RT) plays an important role as a non-invasive therapy. It is crucial that cancers are encompassed by high dose irradiation, particularly in cases of curative RT. Irradiation should precisely target the entire tumour and aim to minimise the size of microscopic extensions of the cancer, as well as minimize radiation damage to normal tissues. A new imaging technique has therefore been sought to allow precise delineation of the cancer target to be irradiated. Clinical PET, combined with utilization of 18F-FDG, may have an important role in radiation treatment planning (RTP) in lung cancer. In addition to determining if RT is appropriate and whether therapy will be given with curative or palliative intent, 18F-FDG-PET is useful for determining therapy ports. It can be used both to limit ports to spare normal tissue and to include additional involved regions. Several studies have shown that PET has an impact on RTP in an important proportion of patients. It is to be hoped that treatment plans that include all the 18F-FDG-avid lesions or the 18F-FDG-avid portions of a complex mass will result in more effective local control with less unnecessary tissue being treated. The IAEA has placed emphasis on the issue of application of clinical PET for radiation treatment planning in various cancer patients. Two consultants meetings were held in 2006 and their results are summarized into this IAEA

  16. Proton Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouw, Kent W. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sethi, Roshan V.; Yeap, Beow Y.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.; Munzenrider, John E.; Adams, Judith [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Grabowski, Eric [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mukai, Shizuo [Retina Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate long-term disease and toxicity outcomes for pediatric retinoblastoma patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT). Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective analysis of 49 retinoblastoma patients (60 eyes) treated with PRT between 1986 and 2012. Results: The majority (84%) of patients had bilateral disease, and nearly half (45%) had received prior chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 8 years (range, 1-24 years), no patients died of retinoblastoma or developed metastatic disease. The post-PRT enucleation rate was low (18%), especially in patients with early-stage disease (11% for patients with International Classification for Intraocular Retinoblastoma [ICIR] stage A-B disease vs 23% for patients with ICIR stage C-D disease). Post-PRT ophthalmologic follow-up was available for 61% of the preserved eyes (30 of 49): 14 of 30 eyes (47%) had 20/40 visual acuity or better, 7 of 30 (23%) had moderate visual acuity (20/40-20/600), and 9 of 30 (30%) had little or no useful vision (worse than 20/600). Twelve of 60 treated eyes (20%) experienced a post-PRT event requiring intervention, with cataracts the most common (4 eyes). No patients developed an in-field second malignancy. Conclusions: Long-term follow-up of retinoblastoma patients treated with PRT demonstrates that PRT can achieve high local control rates, even in advanced cases, and many patients retain useful vision in the treated eye. Treatment-related ocular side effects were uncommon, and no radiation-associated malignancies were observed.

  17. Volumetric Spectroscopic Imaging of Glioblastoma Multiforme Radiation Treatment Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) are used almost exclusively in radiation therapy planning of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), despite their well-recognized limitations. MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can identify biochemical patterns associated with normal brain and tumor, predominantly by observation of choline (Cho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) distributions. In this study, volumetric 3-dimensional MRSI was used to map these compounds over a wide region of the brain and to evaluate metabolite-defined treatment targets (metabolic tumor volumes [MTV]). Methods and Materials: Volumetric MRSI with effective voxel size of ∼1.0 mL and standard clinical MR images were obtained from 19 GBM patients. Gross tumor volumes and edema were manually outlined, and clinical target volumes (CTVs) receiving 46 and 60 Gy were defined (CTV46 and CTV60, respectively). MTVCho and MTVNAA were constructed based on volumes with high Cho and low NAA relative to values estimated from normal-appearing tissue. Results: The MRSI coverage of the brain was between 70% and 76%. The MTVNAA were almost entirely contained within the edema, and the correlation between the 2 volumes was significant (r=0.68, P=.001). In contrast, a considerable fraction of MTVCho was outside of the edema (median, 33%) and for some patients it was also outside of the CTV46 and CTV60. These untreated volumes were greater than 10% for 7 patients (37%) in the study, and on average more than one-third (34.3%) of the MTVCho for these patients were outside of CTV60. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of whole-brain MRSI for radiation therapy planning of GBM and revealed that areas of metabolically active tumor are not covered by standard RT volumes. The described integration of MTV into the RT system will pave the way to future clinical trials investigating outcomes in patients treated based on metabolic information

  18. Reducing the Human Burden of Breast Cancer: Advanced Radiation Therapy Yields Improved Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, Adam D; Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy R; Wilson, J Frank

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important modality in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. While its efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer was known shortly after the discovery of x-rays, significant advances in radiation delivery over the past 20 years have resulted in improved patient outcomes. With the development of improved systemic therapy, optimizing local control has become increasingly important and has been shown to improve survival. Better understanding of the magnitude of treatment benefit, as well as patient and biological factors that confer an increased recurrence risk, have allowed radiation oncologists to better tailor treatment decisions to individual patients. Furthermore, significant technological advances have occurred that have reduced the acute and long-term toxicity of radiation treatment. These advances continue to reduce the human burden of breast cancer. It is important for radiation oncologists and nonradiation oncologists to understand these advances, so that patients are appropriately educated about the risks and benefits of this important treatment modality.

  19. Radiation safety issues in the water treatment plant - Indoor radon and gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantsikene, A.; Kiisk, M.; Suursoo, S.; Koch, R. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In order to reduce the indicative dose from drinking water consumption in Viimsi parish, Estonia, a new water treatment plant was launched in 2012 serving about 15 000 consumers. The promising new technology for groundwater purification consists of air injector, oxidation tank, patented venturi-type centrifugal degassing separation unit GDT and two-stage filtration in open filter columns. In each of the five parallel lines, approximately 95 tons of catalytic (FMH and sand) and 45 tons of non-catalytic (zeolite) filter materials were used. These filter materials proved to be very effective adsorbents of incoming radium isotopes. As a result, the columns emit direct gamma radiation. Moreover, columns' exposure to indoor air makes them radon generators that affect all rooms in the building. During the study period of two years the filter materials were not replaced and their lifespan has not been estimated yet. In order to minimize radiation risks for the workers inside the water treatment plant, a complex study and a long-term monitoring is needed. For the measurements of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentrations in water and in solid filter materials gamma-ray spectroscopy was used. According to the results, the annual input of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra is 325 MBq and 420 MBq, respectively. The average incoming concentration of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra isotopes is 0.5 Bq/L and 0.6 Bq/L, respectively, and the radium content in the output water is below the limit of detection (about 10-15 mBq/L). This means strong accumulation of radium isotopes in the filter materials, thus causing an increase of {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the outgoing treated water. External dose rates throughout the length of the filter columns were measured with the portable dosimeter to estimate the {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra depth distribution. The results showed that distribution of these radionuclides is uneven with the maximum of 0.5 μSv/h for the first stage and 3 μSv/h for

  20. Biomechanical based image registration for head and neck radiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mayah, Adil; Moseley, Joanne; Hunter, Shannon; Velec, Mike; Chau, Lily; Breen, Stephen; Brock, Kristy

    2010-02-01

    Deformable image registration of four head and neck cancer patients was conducted using biomechanical based model. Patient specific 3D finite element models have been developed using CT and cone beam CT image data of the planning and a radiation treatment session. The model consists of seven vertebrae (C1 to C7), mandible, larynx, left and right parotid glands, tumor and body. Different combinations of boundary conditions are applied in the model in order to find the configuration with a minimum registration error. Each vertebra in the planning session is individually aligned with its correspondence in the treatment session. Rigid alignment is used for each individual vertebra and to the mandible since deformation is not expected in the bones. In addition, the effect of morphological differences in external body between the two image sessions is investigated. The accuracy of the registration is evaluated using the tumor, and left and right parotid glands by comparing the calculated Dice similarity index of these structures following deformation in relation to their true surface defined in the image of the second session. The registration improves when the vertebrae and mandible are aligned in the two sessions with the highest Dice index of 0.86+/-0.08, 0.84+/-0.11, and 0.89+/-0.04 for the tumor, left and right parotid glands, respectively. The accuracy of the center of mass location of tumor and parotid glands is also improved by deformable image registration where the error in the tumor and parotid glands decreases from 4.0+/-1.1, 3.4+/-1.5, and 3.8+/-0.9 mm using rigid registration to 2.3+/-1.0, 2.5+/-0.8 and 2.0+/-0.9 mm in the deformable image registration when alignment of vertebrae and mandible is conducted in addition to the surface projection of the body.

  1. The progress in research on the mechanism, prevention and treatment of radiation-induced lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During radiotherapy of chest tumor,many patients often develop radiation-induced lung injury (including radiation induced interstitial pneumonia or pulmonary fibrosis), which significantly affects their quality of life. Therefore, it is very important to study the mechanism, prevention, and treatment of radiation-induced lung injury. Herein a review of recent research advances in radiation-induced lung injury is made, in order to provide theoretical basis for further research. (authors)

  2. Radiation recall dermatitis after docetaxel chemotherapy. Treatment by antioxidant ointment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Freund, Ulrich; Momm, Felix [Ortenau-Klinikum Offenburg-Gengenbach Lehrkrankenhaus der Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg i. Br., Radio-Onkologie, Offenburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an acute skin toxicity caused by different anticancer or antibiotic drugs within a former completely healed irradiation field. Predictive factors for RRD are not known and its mechanisms are not completely understood. A case of RRD induced by docetaxel and successfully treated by an antioxidant ointment (Mapisal {sup registered}) is presented here. Such an ointment might be useful not only in RRD therapy, but also in the treatment of high-grade dermatitis induced by radiotherapy and thus may contribute to the improvement of patients' quality of life and to the scheduled completion of cancer therapies. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlen-Recall-Dermatitis (RRD) ist eine akute Hauttoxizitaet, die durch verschiedene Chemotherapeutika oder Antibiotika innerhalb eines frueheren, komplett abgeheilten Bestrahlungsfelds hervorgerufen wird. Praediktive Faktoren fuer die RRD sind nicht bekannt und ihr Mechanismus ist nicht vollstaendig geklaert. Es wird ein Fallbericht einer durch Docetaxel induzierten RRD dargestellt, die erfolgreich mit einer antioxidativen Salbe (Mapisal {sup registered}) behandelt wurde. Solche Salben koennten nicht nur zur Therapie der RRD, sondern auch bei der Behandlung einer akuten Dermatitis waehrend der Strahlentherapie nuetzlich sein und damit zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualitaet der Patienten und zur planmaessigen Durchfuehrung der Tumortherapie beitragen. (orig.)

  3. Palliative or curative treatment intent affects communication in radiation therapy consultations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, L.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Leer, J.W.H.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether communication in radiotherapy consultations is affected by palliative or curative treatment intent. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study involved 160 patients and 8 radiation oncologists. Eighty patients visited the radiation oncologist (RO) for palliative treatment and 80 fo

  4. Prophylaxis and treatment of acute radiation ulcers in rats with low-power infrared laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursova, Larisa V.; Kaplan, Michael A.; Nikitina, Rosa G.; Maligina, Antonina I.

    1999-12-01

    Exposure of radiation ulcers in rats to low-power infrared laser radiation (LPLR) (wavelength--890 nm, pulse power--6 W, frequency--150 and 300 Hz, irradiation time--10 min) noticeably accelerates their healing, reduces exudative processes, increases number of specialized cells in wound. Application of LPLR prior to radiation damage decreases ulcer dimensions.

  5. Radiation therapy in the multimodal treatment approach of pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [Klinik am Eichert, Goeppingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology and Radiation Therapy; Radiooncologic Univ. Clinic, Tuebingen (Germany); Kocher, M.; Mueller, R.P. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Radiation Therapy; Kortmann, R.D.; Paulsen, F.; Jeremic, B.; Bamberg, M. [Radiooncologic Univ. Clinic, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, literature will be reviewed to assess the role of modern radiotherapy and radiosurgery in the management of pituitary adenomas. Material and Methods: Nowadays, magnetic resonance imaging for the definition of the target volume and a real three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning with field conformation and the possibility for non-coplanar irradiation has to be recommended. Most groups irradiate these benign tumors with single doses of 1.8-2.0 Gy up to a total dose of 45 Gy or 50.4 Gy in extensive parasellar adenomas. Adenomas are mostly small, well circumscribed lesions, and have, therefore, attracted the use of stereotactically guided high-precision irradiation techniques which allow extreme focussing and provide steep dose gradients with selective treatment of the target and optimal protection of the surrounding brain tissue. Results: Radiation therapy controls tumor growth in 80-98% of patients with non-secreting adenomas and 67-89% for endocrine active tumors. Reviewing the recent literature including endocrine active and non-secreting adenomas, irradiated postoperatively or in case of recurrence the 5-, 10- and 15-year local control rates amount 92%, 89% and 79%. In cases of microprolactinoma primary therapy consists of dopamine agonists. Irradiation should be preferred in patients with macroprolactinomas, when drug therapy and/or surgery failed or for patients medically unsuitable for surgery. Reduction and control of prolactin secretion can be achieved in 44-70% of patients. After radiotherapy in acromegaly patients somatomedin-C and growth hormone concentrations decrease to normal levels in 70-90%, with a decrease rate of 10-30% per year. Hypercortisolism is controlled in 50-83% of adults and 80% of children with Cushing's disease, generally in less than 9 months. Hypopituitarism is the most common side effect of pituitary irradiation with an incidence of 13-56%. Long-term overall risk for brain necrosis in a total of 1,388 analyzed

  6. Radiation therapy in the multimodal treatment approach of pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, literature will be reviewed to assess the role of modern radiotherapy and radiosurgery in the management of pituitary adenomas. Material and Methods: Nowadays, magnetic resonance imaging for the definition of the target volume and a real three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning with field conformation and the possibility for non-coplanar irradiation has to be recommended. Most groups irradiate these benign tumors with single doses of 1.8-2.0 Gy up to a total dose of 45 Gy or 50.4 Gy in extensive parasellar adenomas. Adenomas are mostly small, well circumscribed lesions, and have, therefore, attracted the use of stereotactically guided high-precision irradiation techniques which allow extreme focussing and provide steep dose gradients with selective treatment of the target and optimal protection of the surrounding brain tissue. Results: Radiation therapy controls tumor growth in 80-98% of patients with non-secreting adenomas and 67-89% for endocrine active tumors. Reviewing the recent literature including endocrine active and non-secreting adenomas, irradiated postoperatively or in case of recurrence the 5-, 10- and 15-year local control rates amount 92%, 89% and 79%. In cases of microprolactinoma primary therapy consists of dopamine agonists. Irradiation should be preferred in patients with macroprolactinomas, when drug therapy and/or surgery failed or for patients medically unsuitable for surgery. Reduction and control of prolactin secretion can be achieved in 44-70% of patients. After radiotherapy in acromegaly patients somatomedin-C and growth hormone concentrations decrease to normal levels in 70-90%, with a decrease rate of 10-30% per year. Hypercortisolism is controlled in 50-83% of adults and 80% of children with Cushing's disease, generally in less than 9 months. Hypopituitarism is the most common side effect of pituitary irradiation with an incidence of 13-56%. Long-term overall risk for brain necrosis in a total of 1,388 analyzed patients

  7. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: emerging cancer treatment technology

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Hong; Ritter, M. A.; Tomé, W. A.; Harari, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is rapidly advancing in the field of radiation oncology. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy allows for improved dose conformality, thereby affording the potential to decrease the spectrum of normal tissue toxicities associated with IMRT. Preliminary results with IMRT are quite promising; however, the clinical data is relatively immature and overall patient numbers remain small. High-quality IMRT requires intensive physics support and ...

  8. Features of technological calculation of apparatuses for radiation sewage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process of radiation-flotation purification of sewage, containing surfactants (alkylbenzenesulphonate, alkylnaphthalenesulphonate, hydroxyethylated alcohols and others) is considered. Foam has been irradiated by electrons with the energy up to 0.6 MeV and power in the beam about 0.17 kW or by γ-radiation. The results of investigating the process kinetics are presented. Values of radiation-chemical yields, obtained during irradiation under different conditions, are presented

  9. Volumetric Spectroscopic Imaging of Glioblastoma Multiforme Radiation Treatment Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, N. Andres [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Maudsley, Andrew A. [Department of Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Gupta, Rakesh K. [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Ishkanian, Fazilat; Huang, Kris [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Walker, Gail R. [Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Core Resource, Sylvester Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Padgett, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Roy, Bhaswati [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Panoff, Joseph; Markoe, Arnold [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Stoyanova, Radka, E-mail: RStoyanova@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) are used almost exclusively in radiation therapy planning of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), despite their well-recognized limitations. MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can identify biochemical patterns associated with normal brain and tumor, predominantly by observation of choline (Cho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) distributions. In this study, volumetric 3-dimensional MRSI was used to map these compounds over a wide region of the brain and to evaluate metabolite-defined treatment targets (metabolic tumor volumes [MTV]). Methods and Materials: Volumetric MRSI with effective voxel size of ∼1.0 mL and standard clinical MR images were obtained from 19 GBM patients. Gross tumor volumes and edema were manually outlined, and clinical target volumes (CTVs) receiving 46 and 60 Gy were defined (CTV{sub 46} and CTV{sub 60}, respectively). MTV{sub Cho} and MTV{sub NAA} were constructed based on volumes with high Cho and low NAA relative to values estimated from normal-appearing tissue. Results: The MRSI coverage of the brain was between 70% and 76%. The MTV{sub NAA} were almost entirely contained within the edema, and the correlation between the 2 volumes was significant (r=0.68, P=.001). In contrast, a considerable fraction of MTV{sub Cho} was outside of the edema (median, 33%) and for some patients it was also outside of the CTV{sub 46} and CTV{sub 60}. These untreated volumes were greater than 10% for 7 patients (37%) in the study, and on average more than one-third (34.3%) of the MTV{sub Cho} for these patients were outside of CTV{sub 60}. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of whole-brain MRSI for radiation therapy planning of GBM and revealed that areas of metabolically active tumor are not covered by standard RT volumes. The described integration of MTV into the RT system will pave the way to future clinical trials investigating outcomes in patients treated based on

  10. Health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain: The legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Royal Decree 1566/1998 of July 17th establishes the criteria on quality in radiation therapy and is a cornerstone in Spanish regulation of this medical field. The Royal Decree gives some rules that, from a medical point of view, are considered as a good practice. Radiation protection of patients is necessary to achieve a high quality radiation oncology treatments. That is the reason why Royal decree 1566/1998 is titled 'quality criteria in radiation therapy'. A quality control program must be tailored to every single radiation oncology department and, for this reason, its standardization is difficult. Nevertheless, some medical procedures are defined by the royal decree and such procedures are the minimum criteria that all the departments must follow in the development of its own quality control program. The authors make some reflections about health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain, pointing out that a legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer due to application of the legislative rules may occur. The social and medical cost of rigid bureaucratic procedures is pointed out. A large amount of equipment controls and measurements takes time that could be used in treating patients. This is more important in an environment of limited technical and human resources. (author)

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the successful treatment of two cases of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Akihito; Ohkubo, Yuhei; Takashima, Rikiya; Furugen, Nobuaki; Tochimoto, Masato; Tsuchiya, Akira (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan). Kasumigaura Hospital)

    1994-08-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis resulting from radiation to pelvic visceral malignant lesions often might be incurable and there have been established no definitive treatment. We experienced 2 cases of radiation-induced severe hemorrhagic cystitis refractory to conventional therapy. The treatment with hyperbaric oxygen to control hematuria was performed and obtained successful results. Gross hematuria was disappeared and cystoscopic figure was remarkably improved. No remarkable side-effect was observed in both patients. This experience suggested that hyperbaric oxygen could be considered as the primary treatment for patient with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis instead of usual treatment. (author).

  12. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a (60)Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Yang, Min;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating (60)Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. METHODS AND MATERIALS......: The ViewRay treatment planning system (Oakwood Village, OH) was used to create (60)Co IMRT treatment plans for 33 cancer patients with disease in the abdominal, pelvic, thorax, and head and neck regions using physician-specified patient-specific target coverage and organ at risk (OAR) objectives. Backup...... plans using a third-party linear accelerator (linac)-based planning system were also created. Plans were evaluated by attending physicians and approved for treatment. The (60)Co and linac plans were compared by evaluating conformity numbers (CN) with 100% and 95% of prescription reference doses...

  13. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  14. Malignant mesothelioma after radiation treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Burgers, Jacobus A; Baas, Paul;

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a relatively uncommon malignancy. Although the pathogenesis is primarily related to asbestos, the disease may be associated with radiation exposure. Recently, increased risks for second primary mesothelioma after radiation for lymphoma have been reported. Because these f...... should be kept in mind whenever related symptoms arise in patients who had previous irradiation....

  15. Elimination of Listeria monocytogenes in sausage meat by combination treatment: Radiation and radiation-resistant bacteriocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, Mélanie; Stotz, Viviane; Dupont, Claude; Salmieri, Stéphane; Khan, Ruhul A.; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-08-01

    Two new bacteria were isolated from human feces and were designated MT 104 and MT 162. They were able to produce bacteriocins that are active against five strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocins produced by these isolated strains had 100% and 82.35% residual activity when they were treated by gamma radiation at doses of 4 and 40 kGy, respectively. A reduction of 1.0, 1.5 and 3 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes was observed in sausage meat when treated with bacteriocins from MT 104, MT 162, and nisin, respectively. For synergic effect, the D10 value in presence of the bacteriocins produced by MT 104 showed a 1.08 fold increased relative sensitivity of L. monocytogenes as compared to control after 5 days. The highest synergic effect was observed in presence of nisin which led to 1.61 fold increased relative sensitivity. Combined treatments with nisin and γ-irradiation showed a synergic antimicrobial effect in meat after 24 h and 5 days of storage. A synergic effect was observed only after 5 days at 4 °C for the bacteriocin from MT 104, as compared to the bacteriocin produced by MT 162 that had only an additive antimicrobial effect in all conditions.

  16. Elimination of Listeria monocytogenes in sausage meat by combination treatment: Radiation and radiation-resistant bacteriocins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new bacteria were isolated from human feces and were designated MT 104 and MT 162. They were able to produce bacteriocins that are active against five strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocins produced by these isolated strains had 100% and 82.35% residual activity when they were treated by gamma radiation at doses of 4 and 40 kGy, respectively. A reduction of 1.0, 1.5 and 3 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes was observed in sausage meat when treated with bacteriocins from MT 104, MT 162, and nisin, respectively. For synergic effect, the D10 value in presence of the bacteriocins produced by MT 104 showed a 1.08 fold increased relative sensitivity of L. monocytogenes as compared to control after 5 days. The highest synergic effect was observed in presence of nisin which led to 1.61 fold increased relative sensitivity. Combined treatments with nisin and γ-irradiation showed a synergic antimicrobial effect in meat after 24 h and 5 days of storage. A synergic effect was observed only after 5 days at 4 °C for the bacteriocin from MT 104, as compared to the bacteriocin produced by MT 162 that had only an additive antimicrobial effect in all conditions.

  17. Acquired-resistance of bevacizumab treatment for radiation brain necrosis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dayong; Bian, Jianliang; Chang, Joe Y.; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The case study reported on acquired bevacizumab resistance in one patient receiving re-treatment with bevacizumab following radiation brain necrosis progression after bevacizumab was discontinued. This case offers novel and additional insight for bevacizumab treatment. Low-dose bevacizumab is effective for radiation brain necrosis, and radiation brain necrosis may progress after bevacizumab discontinuation, whereas too many cycles of bevacizumab treatment may induce drug-resistance and re-treatment failure following the progression. Therefore, more rational administration for radiation brain necrosis with bevacizumab may include three aspects: short-course treatment, timely discontinuation upon obtaining satisfactory effects (to prevent long-term medication associated resistance) and re-treatment after brain necrosis progression. PMID:26933810

  18. Radiobiology of BNCT mediated by GB-10 and GB-10+BPA in experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Nigg, David; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan; Schwint, Amanda E. E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2004-11-01

    We previously reported biodistribution and pharmacokinetic data for GB-10 (Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) and the combined administration of GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) as boron delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to assess, for the first time, the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal tissue to BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BPA administered jointly using the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. GB-10 exerted 75.5% tumor control (partial+complete remission) with no damage to precancerous tissue around tumor or to normal tissue. Thus, GB-10 proved to be a therapeutically efficient boron agent in this model despite the fact that it is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue. GB-10 exerted a selective effect on tumor blood vessels leading to significant tumor control with a sparing effect on normal tissue. BNCT mediated by the combined administration of GB-10 and BPA resulted in a reduction in the dose to normal tissue and would thus allow for significant escalation of dose to tumor without exceeding normal tissue tolerance.

  19. Multiphysics Analysis of the 2.5 MeV BNCT RFQ Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaowen, Zhu; Kun, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), is an advanced cancer therapy that destroys the cancer tumors using the well-known Li(p,n)Be . Because of the highly selectively reaction between a boron and a neutron, BNCT is effective for rapidly spreading cancer, invasive carcinoma, such as head and neck cancer, melanoma, malignant brain tumors and so on. The PKU RFQ group proposes an RFQ based neutron source for BNCT application. The 162.5 MHz four-vane RFQ will accelerate 20-mA H+ from 35.0 keV to 2.50 MeV in CW mode, and delivers a neutron yield of 1.73*10^13 n/sec/cm^2. The thermal management will become the most important issues. The detailed multiphysics analysis of the BNCT RFQ will be studied, and the RFQ frequency shift during nominal operating condition is also predicted. The multiphysics analysis is performed by using the CST Multiphysics Model and verified with ANSYS Multiphysics.

  20. An international dosimetry exchange for BNCT part II: computational dosimetry normalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K J; Binns, P J; Harling, O K; Albritton, J R; Kiger, W S; Rezaei, A; Sköld, K; Seppälä, T; Savolainen, S; Auterinen, I; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Nievaart, V A; Moss, R L

    2008-12-01

    The meaningful sharing and combining of clinical results from different centers in the world performing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires improved precision in dose specification between programs. To this end absorbed dose normalizations were performed for the European clinical centers at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Petten (The Netherlands), Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic), VTT, Espoo (Finland), and Studsvik, Nyköping (Sweden). Each European group prepared a treatment plan calculation that was bench-marked against Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) dosimetry performed in a large, water-filled phantom to uniformly evaluate dose specifications with an estimated precision of +/-2%-3%. These normalizations were compared with those derived from an earlier exchange between Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and MIT in the USA. Neglecting the uncertainties related to biological weighting factors, large variations between calculated and measured dose are apparent that depend upon the 10B uptake in tissue. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) in normal tissue, differences in the evaluated maximum dose to brain for the same nominal specification of 10 Gy(w) at the different facilities range between 7.6 and 13.2 Gy(w) in the trials using boronophenylalanine (BPA) as the boron delivery compound and between 8.9 and 11.1 Gy(w) in the two boron sulfhydryl (BSH) studies. Most notably, the value for the same specified dose of 10 Gy(w) determined at the different participating centers using BPA is significantly higher than at BNL by 32% (MIT), 43% (VTT), 49% (JRC), and 74% (Studsvik). Conversion of dose specification is now possible between all active participants and should be incorporated into future multi-center patient analyses. PMID:19175101

  1. Dosimetric requirements and protocols for in vivo breast imaging with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesari, V.; Colautti, P.; Conte, V.; Esposito, J. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali, Legnaro (Italy); De Nardo, L.; Tornielli, G. [Padova Univ., Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    The BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) is a cancer treatment technique which could be the best one for those skin tumours (melanomas) which are nowadays resistant to ordinary therapy. It makes use of thermal or epithermal neutrons to irradiate tumours previously loaded with {sup 10}B. Thermal neutron adsorption on the {sup 10}B nucleus gives rise to the production of two particles, {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li, whose ranges in tissue are as short as the diameter of a cell nucleolus. Because of such short ranges, all the energy is released inside the tumour cell, which is killed with high probability, while the neighbouring cells are not damaged. However, dosimetry for BNCT is complex. The radiation field can be divided in two parts. The first one is caused by the products of the BNC reaction and depends on the concentration of {sup 10}B atoms in the irradiated cell and on the neutron thermal flux. The second part is due to residual fast neutrons, slow neutrons and gamma rays produced by the neutron source and by the moderating facility. Therefore it is necessary to perform an accurate monitoring providing the relative doses of all these components. The only instrument which can satisfy these needs with a single measurement is the TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter). Moreover TEPCs, loaded with and without {sup 10}B, can also used to estimate the thermal neutron flux and to predict the RBE for cells loaded with and without {sup 10}B.

  2. Argon plasma coagulation for treatment of hemorrhagic radiation gastroduodenitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Shu-Ji; Aoyama, Nobuo; Shirasaka, Daisuke; Inoue, Takashi; Kuroda, Kohei; Ebara, Shigeyuki; Tamura, Takao; Miyamoto, Masaki; Kasuga, Masato [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    A 79-year-old man who had received radiotherapy for portal vein thrombosis due to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) 5 months earlier, showed progressive anemia and melena. Endoscopy on admission revealed diffuse bleeding from multiple telangiectasias on the anterior wall of the antrum and bulbus. We treated this patient with a new non-contact hemostatic method: the argon plasma coagulator (APC). The melena stopped after the first session and the hemoglobin level remained stable for 7 months. No delayed complications have been observed. Gastrointestinal bleeding from chronic radiation gastroduodenitis is rarely reported compared with radiation proctitis. This case demonstrates that APC is effective for hemostasis of diffuse bleeding from radiation gastroduodenitis, just as for radiation protitis. (author)

  3. Cancer Treatment with Gene Therapy and Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliberov, Sergey A.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy methods have evolved remarkably in recent years which have resulted in more effective local tumor control with negligible toxicity of surrounding normal tissues. However, local recurrence and distant metastasis often occur following radiation therapy mostly due to the development of radioresistance through the deregulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and inhibition of DNA damage repair mechanisms. Over the last decade, extensive progress in radiotherapy and gene therapy co...

  4. Treatment of Municipal and Industrial Waste by Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years the effort in science and technology is shifting from conventional technologies preventing the pollution of air, water and soil, towards processing by gamma or by electron beam (EB) irradiation in order to prevent pollution, rather than curing the problems caused by production processes, which are not optimized with regard to pollution control. Radiation processing may help to improve the environmental situation in two aspects : It provides alternatives to conventional technologies for the cleaning of air, flue gases and water,...etc, and it also helps to realize clean processes for preventing pollution in the first place. This paper will outline the basic principles of radiation processing for waste streams of environmental relevance, will summarize the state-of -the-art in environmental applications of radiation processing to show both the advantages and the limitations of the radiation processing of waste streams, and to highlight the environmental and economic benefits of clean processes made possible by radiation processing applied to municipal and industrial waste. Reference is made to gamma and EB radiation sources, and description of new technologies is presented

  5. Radiation treatment of materials - elaboration bases of radiation technology; Obrobka radiacyjna materialow - zasady opracowywania technologii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panta, P.P. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The basic rules in design of radiation technologies have been presented and discussed. The recommendations for achieving of assigned goal in respect of obliged regulations have been done and explained on the example of radiation technology of adhesive materials and glue production.

  6. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy. - Highlights: • We study the biodistribution of BPA+BSH for BNCT in experimental oral cancer. • The 3 BPA+BSH protocols assayed are potentially therapeutic. • Different proportions of B compounds with different CBE factors will affect response

  7. Calculation of Absorbed Dose in Target Tissue and Equivalent Dose in Sensitive Tissues of Patients Treated by BNCT Using MCNP4C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Kasesaz, Y.; Khalafi, H.; Pooya, S. M. Hosseini

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is used for treatment of many diseases, including brain tumors, in many medical centers. In this method, a target area (e.g., head of patient) is irradiated by some optimized and suitable neutron fields such as research nuclear reactors. Aiming at protection of healthy tissues which are located in the vicinity of irradiated tissue, and based on the ALARA principle, it is required to prevent unnecessary exposure of these vital organs. In this study, by using numerical simulation method (MCNP4C Code), the absorbed dose in target tissue and the equiavalent dose in different sensitive tissues of a patiant treated by BNCT, are calculated. For this purpose, we have used the parameters of MIRD Standard Phantom. Equiavelent dose in 11 sensitive organs, located in the vicinity of target, and total equivalent dose in whole body, have been calculated. The results show that the absorbed dose in tumor and normal tissue of brain equal to 30.35 Gy and 0.19 Gy, respectively. Also, total equivalent dose in 11 sensitive organs, other than tumor and normal tissue of brain, is equal to 14 mGy. The maximum equivalent doses in organs, other than brain and tumor, appear to the tissues of lungs and thyroid and are equal to 7.35 mSv and 3.00 mSv, respectively.

  8. Radiation therapy in the treatment of aggressive fibromatoses. [X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goebel, R.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Greenberger, J.S.; Chaffey, J.T.; Cassady, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    Twelve patients with aggressive but histologically benign connective tissue tumors (nine desmoids and three neurofibromas) were treated with either radiation or radiation plus surgery. Long term local control was accomplished in eight of nine desmoid tumors and 2 of 3 neurofibromas. In the successfully treated patients, local control was obtained with minimal long term complications when compared with radical surgical procedures that would have been necessary for cure. Complications of radiotherapy are discussed along with details of radiation treatment.

  9. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department

  10. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Jotham [Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  11. Radiation protection in brachytherapic treatment of prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannino, G.; Bona, R.; Occhipinti, A. [Catania Univ. Hospital, ' Vittorio Emanuele, Ferrarotto e Santo Bambino' (Italy); Testagrossa, B.; Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G. [Messina Univ., Dept. of Protezionistica Ambientale, Sanitaria, Sociale ed Industriale (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate absorbed doses for medical staff and general public deriving from prostate brachytherapy with I-125 seeds. Methods And Materials: Radiation exposure measurements were made for staff and on a subset of 64 patients of the 100 trans perineal I-125 implanted seeds implants at the Vittorio Emanuele, Ferrarotto e Santo Bambino Universitary Hospital. Results: Absorbed doses for operators are very low when using radiation safety devices. The exposure rate at the anterior skin surface due to I-125 implanted seeds ranged from 32 to 120 {mu}Sv/hour. Conclusions: The evaluation of dose measurements shows that radiation risk associated to this practice is very low, both for staff that for critical group of population, if they follow the specific radioprotection statements supplied by health physicists. (authors)

  12. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedláček, M.

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.

  13. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN- concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone, or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation. (author)

  14. Effects of age and radiation treatment on function of extrinsic tongue muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation treatment for head and neck cancer often results in difficulty swallowing. Muscle weakness and fibrosis have been identified clinically as possible etiologies for swallowing problems following radiation. Aging may compound the effects of radiation on swallowing because radiation-induced damage to muscles and other tissues critical for the oropharyngeal swallow is overlaid on a declining sensorimotor system. However, there have been no investigations of the manner in which aging and radiation treatment effects combine to impact tongue muscles, which are critical effectors of the oropharyngeal swallow. Thirty-seven male Fisher 344/Brown Norway rats were divided into four groups; young adults (9 month old), old (32 months old), young radiation (9 months), and old radiation (32 months old). Two fractions of 11 Gy on consecutive days was delivered by external beam radiation to the ventral side of the rat’s body over the anterior portion (20 X 30 mm area) of the anterior digastric muscle. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the effects of age and radiation and their interaction on muscle contractile properties. Post-hoc testing was completed using Fisher’s least significant differences (LSD). Radiation was associated with a significant decrease in tongue force production and reduced speed of tongue muscle contraction. However, radiation treatment did not lead to muscle atrophy and fibrosis formation in the GG muscle. Radiation treatment did not exacerbate atrophic changes observed with aging, or lead to additional fibrosis formation in the GG muscle from that observed in the other groups. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of radiation on muscles of the tongue and to determine whether aging altered the extent of radiation injury to tongue muscles. Radiation was associated with a significant decrease in tongue force production and reduced speed of tongue muscle contraction, and the reduction in the speed of tongue

  15. Radiation therapy in complex treatment for stage III breast cancer with reconstructive plastic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-operative radiation therapy in patients with stage III breast cancer on the third month after reconstructive plastic surgery allows to eliminate scar deformities of the organ and does not aggravate the treatment results when compared with mastectomized patients.

  16. Treatment of wastewater and sludge, and decomposition of endocrine disrupting chemicals with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This country report describes the past and current research activities in Japan on radiation treatment of wastewater and sludge carried out by early 90s, and decomposition of endocrine disrupting chemicals that is going-on. (author)

  17. ET-14OPTIMISATION OF BORONOPHENYLALANINE (BPA) DELIVERY AND LAT1 EXPRESSION FOR THE CLINICAL APPLICATION OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY (BNCT) IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Garth; Detta, Allah; Green, Stuart; Lockyer, Nick; Ngoga, Desire; Ghani, Zahir; Phoenix, Ben

    2014-01-01

    BNCT is a biologically targeted radiotherapy where preferential boron uptake interacts with a neutron beam in cancerous cells causing irreparable alpha DNA damage. This requires the delivery of at least 30 parts per million (ppm) of 10B into tumour tissue and 30ppm boron) indicates potential BNCT targeting after surgery. Tumour boron uptake is governed by LAT-1 behaviour rather than BBB penetration and explains previous variable clinical results, whilst supporting the LAT1 determined selection of patients for BNCT

  18. Non-traditional variant of radiation treatment of locally spread forms of lymphogranulomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe immediate results of treatment of 29 patients with lymphogranulomatosis characterized by location above the diaphragm and large volume of tumour masses. Treatment included irradiation against the background of synchronization of cell cycles of the tumour cells and use of methotrexate and folic acid that allowed to reduce early and remote complications of radiation therapy due to reduction of the integral radiation doses

  19. Application of ionizing radiation in foods and feeds treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 21 papers presented at the seminar which was held in Prague on November 28, 1983. The topic of the papers was current knowledge of ionizing radiation applications for treating foodstuffs and feeds and the confrontation of the applications thereof in Czechoslovakia and elsewhere in the world. (J.P.)

  20. Influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants: A literature study. Pt. 9. Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterilization of medical aid articles (e.g. catheters, one-way syringes) with ionizing radiation is a successful practice in many countries. During recent years, the results from numerous experiments of radiosterillization of pharmaceuticals and adjuvants have likewise been published. Experience has shown that radiation treatment, in many cases, is leading to transformations of the irradiated substances. In the present part IX of the bibliographic study on the influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants the results of experiments on ca. 80 substances from 36 different sources have been evaluated. In all parts of the study results of about 560 experiments on 360 substances from 176 different sources are present. (orig.)

  1. Hypofractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of feline facial squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of hypofractionated radiation protocol for feline facial squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated. Hypofractionated radiation therapy was applied to five cats showing single or multiple facial squamous cell carcinomas, in a total of ten histologically confirmed neoplastic lesions. Of the lesions, two were staged as T1, four as T2, two as T3, and two as T4. The animals were submitted to four radiation fractions from 7.6 to 10 grays each, with one week intervals. The equipment was a linear accelerator with electrons beam. The cats were evaluated weekly during the treatment and 30 and 60 days after the end of the radiation therapy. In this study, 40% of the lesions had complete remission, 40% partial remission, and 20% did not respond to the treatment. Response rates were lower as compared to other protocols previously used. However, hypofractionated radiation protocol was considered safe for feline facial squamous cell carcinoma. (author)

  2. Inhibition of trihalomethane formation in city water by radiation-ozone treatment and rapid composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehisa, M.; Arai, H.; Arai, M.; Miyata, T.; Sakumoto, A.; Hashimoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Watanabe, H.; Kawakami, W.; Kuriyama, I.

    Humic acid and Fulvic acid in natural water are precursors of carcinogenic THM which is formed during chlorine disinfection in city water processing. The radiation-oxidation process in the presence of ozone is effective to remove the precursors. The THM formation was reduced more than the decrease in TOC by the combination treatment. This is mainly due to a change in the chemical structure of the oxidation products. A composting of radiation disinfected sludge cake for agricultural reuse could be achieved within 3 days primary fermentation in a sewage plant. The rapid fermentation with use of radiation is effective to scale down of a fermentor of composting plant and the process reduces a health risk from the workers as well as final users.

  3. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Concise Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hofer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concisely summarizes data on the action of one of the principal and best known growth factors, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, in a mammalian organism exposed to radiation doses inducing acute radiation syndrome. Highlighted are the topics of its real or anticipated use in radiation accident victims, the timing of its administration, the possibilities of combining G-CSF with other drugs, the ability of other agents to stimulate endogenous G-CSF production, as well as of the capability of this growth factor to ameliorate not only the bone marrow radiation syndrome but also the gastrointestinal radiation syndrome. G-CSF is one of the pivotal drugs in the treatment of radiation accident victims and its employment in this indication can be expected to remain or even grow in the future.

  4. Hypofractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of feline facial squamous cell carcinoma; Hypofractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of feline facial squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, S.C.S.; Corgozinho, K.B.; Holguin, P.G.; Ferreira, A.M.R., E-mail: simonecsc@gmail.co [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, L.A.V. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Canary, P.C.; Reisner, M. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, A.N.; Souza, H.J.M. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The efficacy of hypofractionated radiation protocol for feline facial squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated. Hypofractionated radiation therapy was applied to five cats showing single or multiple facial squamous cell carcinomas, in a total of ten histologically confirmed neoplastic lesions. Of the lesions, two were staged as T{sub 1}, four as T{sub 2}, two as T{sub 3}, and two as T{sub 4}. The animals were submitted to four radiation fractions from 7.6 to 10 grays each, with one week intervals. The equipment was a linear accelerator with electrons beam. The cats were evaluated weekly during the treatment and 30 and 60 days after the end of the radiation therapy. In this study, 40% of the lesions had complete remission, 40% partial remission, and 20% did not respond to the treatment. Response rates were lower as compared to other protocols previously used. However, hypofractionated radiation protocol was considered safe for feline facial squamous cell carcinoma. (author)

  5. Radiation safety aspects in CA-thyroid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isolation room in hospital at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi (India) is located on the 6th floor of the ward block with two beds. Effluent from the isolation room flows down to ground floor through an independent ducting line and then directed to the delay tank system through manholes. Routine radiation survey around the isolation room, along the plumbing line from 6th floor to the ground level, along the manholes and around the fencing of the storage delay tank is being done. Measurements in and around the isolation rooms are done daily whereas other measurements are done at least once a week normally on the day of maximum discharge of radioactivity in the effluent. The average radiation dose levels near the patient bed in general ward on 6th floor which is in front of the isolation room is 0.3 to 0.35 μSv/h which is slightly higher than the background level (0.2 μSv/h). Dose levels along the plumbing line from 6th to 1st floor is around 0.6 μSv/h at the sites accessible to public. Radiation level in manhole number 1 to 5 varies from 3 to 0.9 μSv/h whereas manholes from 6 to 10 show the dose rate from 0.5 to 0.4 μSv/h. The radiation dose rate around the fence remains between 0.2-0.3 μSv/h. There is no habitation above manholes 1 to 5 nor that area is accessible to public. There is free passage above manholes 6-8 and again there is no habitation near manhole 9 and 10. Measurements show that the activity release from delay tank and its dilution in the main sewer is within tolerance limits. Mandatory routine measurements have been helpful to maintain our confidence level on radiation safety standards at our centre. (author)

  6. Near threshold ⁷Li(p,n) ⁷Be reaction as neutron source for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2015-12-01

    (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be is an endothermic reaction and working near its threshold (1.88 MeV) has the advantage of neutron spectra with maximum energies of about 100 keV, considerably lower than at higher beam energies, or than using other neutron-producing reactions or as for the uranium fission spectrum, relevant for BNCT based on nuclear reactors. With this primary energy it is much easier to obtain the energies needed for treating deep seated tumors by BNCT (about 10 keV). This work studies bombarding energies up to 2.05 MeV, different beam incidence angles and the effect of the undesirable gamma production via the (7)Li(p,γp') (7)Li reaction.

  7. The Phase I/II BNCT Trials at the Brookhaven medical research reactor: Critical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phase I/II clinical trial of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) was initiated at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 1994. Many critical issues were considered during the design of the first of many sequential dose escalation protocols. These critical issues included patient selection criteria, boron delivery agent, dose limits to the normal brain, dose escalation schemes for both neutron exposure and boron dose, and fractionation. As the clinical protocols progressed and evaluation of the tolerance of the central nervous system (CNS) to BPA-mediated BNCT at the BMRR continued new specifications were adopted. Clinical data reflecting the progression of the protocols will be presented to illustrate the steps taken and the reasons behind their adoption. (author)

  8. The Argonne ACWL, a potential accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THE CWDD (Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator) accelerator was designed to accelerate 80 mA cw of D- to 7.5 MeV. Most of the hardware for the first 2 MeV was installed at Argonne and major subsystems had been commissioned when program funding from the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization ended in October 1993. Renamed the Argonne Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL), we are proposing to complete it to accelerate either deuterons to 2 MeV or protons to 3-3.5 MeV. Equipped with a beryllium or other light-element target, it would make a potent source of neutrons (on the order of 1013 n/s) for BNCT and/or neutron radiography. Project status and proposals for turning ACWL into a neutron source are reviewed, including the results of a computational study that was carried out to design a target/moderator to produce an epithermal neutron beam for BNCT. (orig.)

  9. The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches

  10. The epithermal neutron beam for BNCT under construction at TAPIRO: Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, K W [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Casalini, L [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mondini, D [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione (DIMNP), Universita di Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Nava, E [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Rosi, G [ENEA - Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-ION, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Rome (Italy); Tinti, R [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    A column to provide an epithermal neutron beam suitable for experimental and clinical BNCT is nearing completion at the TAPIRO reactor (ENEA Casaccia, Rome). TAPIRO is a compact, low power (5 kW), helium-cooled, fast reactor. It has a hard neutron spectrum relative even to other fast reactors. In this paper some of the basic physics aspects of designing an epithermal neutron beam are considered, with reference to the TAPIRO beam.

  11. A feasibility design study on a neutron spectrometer for BNCT with liquid moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, S; Sato, F; Murata, I

    2015-12-01

    Neutrons generated by accelerators have various energy spectra. However, only limited methods are available to measure the whole neutron energy spectrum, especially when including the epithermal region that is normally used in BNCT. In the present study, we carried out the design study on a new neutron spectrometer that can measure such a neutron spectrum more accurately, precisely and with higher energy resolution, using an unfolding technique and a liquid moderator.

  12. Neutron collimator design of neutron radiography based on the BNCT facility

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, XP.; Yu, BX; Li, YG; Peng, D; Lu, J.; Zhang, GL.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, AW.; Li, CY.; Liu, WJ; Hu, T.; Lv, JG.

    2013-01-01

    For the research of CCD neutron radiography, a neutron collimator was designed based on the exit of thermal neutron of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) reactor. Based on the Geant4 simulations, the preliminary choice of the size of the collimator was determined. The materials were selected according to the literature data. Then, a collimator was constructed and tested on site. The results of experiment and simulation show that the thermal neutron flux at the end of theneutron collimat...

  13. Treatment results of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Image Guided Radiation Therapy for head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose is to evaluate treatment results of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) for head and neck cancers. Methods and Materials: descriptive cross sectional study on 45 head and neck cancer patients treated by IMRT-IGRT with curative intent at Department of Radiation Oncology, 108 Central Military Hospital from 12/2013 to 3/2015. Results: 100% IMRT plan underwent quality assurance with gamma index ≥ 95%. Mean conformity index of IMRT plans was 1.21 ± 0.13. Patient setup errors in supero-inferior (SI), antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) were ≤ 3 mm. Overall treatment complete response, partial response and stable disease rates were 75.6% and 15.6 % and 8.8%, respectively. There were 42.2 % patients with no xerostomia; 57.8% grade 1 and no grade 2 - 4 xerostomia. Conclusions: Head and neck cancers treatment with IMRT-IGRT showed good tumor response with safety, high accuracy and acceptable side effects. (author)

  14. Neutron radiation therapy: application of advanced technology to the treatment of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Maughan, R L; Kota, C; Burmeister, J; Porter, A T; Forman, J D; Blosser, H G; Blosser, E; Blosser, G

    1999-01-01

    The design and construction of a unique superconducting cyclotron for use in fast neutron radiation therapy is described. The clinical results obtained in the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate with this accelerator are presented. Future use of the boron neutron capture reaction as a means of enhancing fast neutron therapy in the treatment of patients with brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme) is also discussed.

  15. Ultraviolet radiation is feasible alternative for desinfeting of aerobic and anaerobic treatment systems sewage in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This works shows desinfecting results employing ultraviolet radiation to wastes of sewage treatment station on true scales. Wastes of anaerobic, facultative and maturation pools, septic tank and anaerobic reactor were disinfected. It was found a inactive efficiency to coliforms higher than 99.9%. Safe ultraviolet desinfecting is technically applicable to wastes of sewage treatment station applying aerobic or anaerobic process

  16. Characterization of a novel two dimensional diode array the ''magic plate'' as a radiation detector for radiation therapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) utilizes the technology of multileaf collimators to deliver highly modulated and complex radiation treatment. Dosimetric verification of the IMRT treatment requires the verification of the delivered dose distribution. Two dimensional ion chamber or diode arrays are gaining popularity as a dosimeter of choice due to their real time feedback compared to film dosimetry. This paper describes the characterization of a novel 2D diode array, which has been named the ''magic plate'' (MP). It was designed to function as a 2D transmission detector as well as a planar detector for dose distribution measurements in a solid water phantom for the dosimetric verification of IMRT treatment delivery. Methods: The prototype MP is an 11 x 11 detector array based on thin (50 μm) epitaxial diode technology mounted on a 0.6 mm thick Kapton substrate using a proprietary ''drop-in'' technology developed by the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong. A full characterization of the detector was performed, including radiation damage study, dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with CC13 ion chamber and build up characteristics with a parallel plane ion chamber measurements, dose linearity, energy response and angular response. Results: Postirradiated magic plate diodes showed a reproducibility of 2.1%. The MP dose per pulse response decreased at higher dose rates while at lower dose rates the MP appears to be dose rate independent. The depth dose measurement of the MP agrees with ion chamber depth dose measurements to within 0.7% while dose linearity was excellent. MP showed angular response dependency due to the anisotropy of the silicon diode with the maximum variation in angular response of 10.8% at gantry angle 180 deg. Angular dependence was within 3.5% for the gantry angles ± 75 deg. The field size dependence of the MP at isocenter agrees with ion chamber measurement to within 1.1%. In the

  17. [Malignant pleural mesothelioma after radiation treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbos, F; Figueredo, M; Dumon-Gubeno, M-C; Nicolle, I; Tarhini, A; Butori, C; Mouroux, J

    2013-10-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a relatively uncommon malignancy. Although the pathogenesis is primarily related to asbestos, the role of ionizing radiation is more controversial. We report the case of a 41-year-old male who developed pleural mesothelioma. He had both, a prior short asbestos exposure and a thoracic radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease 26years before. The evidence for radiotherapy as cause for mesothelioma is expanding and the diagnosis of mesothelioma in patients who had previous irradiation should be kept in mind. PMID:23796498

  18. Dosimetric comparison of different radiation treatment modalities for acoustic neuromas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Chung, Weon Kuu [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Oh [Kyung Hee Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongho [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The dosimetric differences for intensity-modulatedradiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), proton therapy(PROTON) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patient with acoustic neuroma (AN) were compared by using the dose-volume histogram (DVH). In the present study, we estimated the dosimetric differences for patient with AN who received different treatment modalities. In this study, we found proton therapy is relatively effective treatment techniques than the other.

  19. Development of the high power multi-stage type circulator for BNCT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process for BNCT begins with a pharmaceutical agent that carries a neutron capture agent containing 10B (Boron 10) selectively into tumor cells. Thermal or epi-thermal neutrons then interact with the 10B and produce α and 7Li-particles. So far, BNCT have been provided only by nuclear reactors, because a neutron intensity of 1x109n/cm2/s, with energies between 0.5-eV and 10-keV is required. To realize BNCT using accelerator technologies, one of the big issuer is the high duty rf system, which will be used for 324 MHz, 1.2 MW peak klystron, 1 msec of an rf pulse width and a 200 Hz of cycle. A high power circulator is the most critical component among the waveguide system. It was redesigned from a linear accelerator of J-PARC to meet the 20% of a duty factor using a high saturation magnetization 4piMs has high curie temperature. Also, it was used thin ferrite layer to reduce the temperature rise and to reduce the temperature sensitivity. This paper reports the design work, the manufacture and a low power measurement. (author)

  20. Taste aversion learning produced by combined treatment with subthreshold radiation and lithium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These experiments were designed to determine whether treatment with two subthreshold doses of radiation or lithium chloride, either alone or in combination, could lead to taste aversion learning. The first experiment determined the thresholds for a radiation-induced taste aversion at 15-20 rad and for lithium chloride at 0.30-0.45 mEq/kg. In the second experiment it was shown that exposing rats to two doses of 15 rad separated by up to 3 hr produced a taste aversion. Treatment with two injections of lithium chloride (0.30 mEq/kg) did not produce a significant reduction in preference. Combined treatment with radiation and lithium chloride did produce a taste aversion when the two treatments were administered within 1 hr of each other. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of these findings for understanding the nature of the unconditioned stimuli leading to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion

  1. Investigation of temperature feedback signal parameters during neoplasms treatment by diode laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Gelfond, Mark L.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Semyashkina, Yulia V.

    2016-04-01

    Dynamics of temperature signal in operation area and laser power at nevus, papilloma, and keratoma in vivo removal by a 980+/-10 nm diode laser with "blackened" tip operating in continuous (CW) mode and with temperature feedback (APC) mode are presented. Feedback allows maintaining temperature in the area of laser treatment at a preset level by regulating power of diode laser radiation (automatic power control). Temperature in the area of laser treatment was controlled by measuring the amplitude of thermal radiation, which occurs when tissue is heated by laser radiation. Removal of neoplasm was carried out in CW mode with laser radiation average power of 12.5+/-0.5 W; mean temperature in the area of laser treatment was 900+/-10°C for nevus, 800+/-15°C for papilloma, and 850+/-20°C for keratoma. The same laser radiation maximal power (12.5 W) and targeted temperature (900°C) were set for nevus removal in APC mode. The results of investigation are real time oscillograms of the laser power and temperature in the area of laser treatment at neoplasms removal in two described above modes. Simultaneously with the measurement of laser power and the temperature in the area of laser treatment video recording of surgeon manipulations was carried out. We discuss the correlation between the power of the laser radiation, the temperature in the area of laser treatment and consistency of surgeon manipulation. It is shown that the method of removal (excision with or without traction, scanning) influences the temperature in the area of laser treatment. It was found, that at removal of nevus with temperature feedback (APC) mode to achieve comparable with CW mode temperature in the area of laser treatment (900+/-10°C) 20-50% less laser power is required. Consequently, removing these neoplasms in temperature feedback mode can be less traumatic than the removal in CW mode.

  2. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay

  3. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil [and others

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay.

  4. Treatment of radiation-induced interstitial pneumonia in rats with compound anisodine on pathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interstitial pneumonia is a severe complication of radiation injury. In order to improve the therapeutic efficacy, we used compound anisodine (CA) to prevent and treat the radiation-induced pneumonia in rats. 45 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: radiated group, CA-treated group, and control group. The thoraces of rats in the radiated group and CA-treated group received 30 Gy single exposure dose of 60Co γ-radiation. On 2 days before irradiation, the rats of CA-treated group were injected with CA subcutaneously once a day, until they were killed with other groups on days 15,30,50 after irradiation, respectively. The pathological morphology showed that the rats in the radiated group suffered from typical radiation-induced interstitial pneumonia, while the rats in the CA-treated group had only slight reactions in their lungs and recovered quickly. The experimental results indicate that in the early stage after radiation exposure, treatment and prevention of interstitial pneumonia in rats with CA is effective and CA can protect the lung tissues, prevent and relieve the radiation injury of lungs

  5. Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments against tephritid fruit flies: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae are considered the most important insect pest risk carried by exported fruits worldwide. Fruits suspected of harboring fruit fly eggs and larvae must be treated to control virtually 100% of any tephritids present. Irradiation is unique among quarantine treatments in that it is the only treatment used which does not cause acute mortality; instead, insects are prevented from maturing or are sterilized. Tephritids have been the most studied group of quarantined pests as far as irradiation; minimum absorbed doses confirmed with large-scale testing to provide control to the probit 9 level (99.9968%) have ranged from 50 to 250 Gy. Considerable work has been done with the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), one of the most important quarantined pests worldwide, and doses suggested to provide quarantine security have varied widely. The fact that insects are still alive for some time after irradiation has been one of the major obstacles to its use. Irradiation may be the most widely applicable quarantine treatment from the standpoint of fruit quality. However, some important fruits shipped across quarantine barriers (mangoes, Mangifera indica L., and citrus) may suffer from doses as low as 150 Gy when applied on a commercial scale where much of the fruit load may receive 300 Gy. Fortunately, some of the important tephritids attacking these fruits, such as Anastrepha spp., can be controlled with lower doses. Mainland USA has begun to use irradiation as a quarantine treatment for some fruits imported from Hawaii since April 1995 and remains the only country using irradiation as a quarantine treatment, although on a very limited basis. Irradiation offers some additional risk abatement advantages over other quarantine treatments. © 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. (author)

  6. Neuro-Dynamic Programming for Radiation Treatment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Michael C.; Voelker, Meta M.

    2002-01-01

    In many cases a radiotherapy treatment is delivered as a series of smaller dosages over a period of time. Currently, it is difficult to determine the actual dose that has been delivered at each stage, precluding the use of adaptive treatment plans. However, new generations of machines will give more accurate information of actual dose delivered, allowing a planner to compensate for errors in delivery. We formulate a model of the day-to-day planning problem as a stochastic linear program and e...

  7. Development of a Simple Radioactive marker System to Reduce Positioning Errors in Radiation Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Miller; Dr. Jatinder Palta

    2007-03-19

    The objective of this research is to implement an inexpensive, quick and simple monitor that provides an accurate indication of proper patient position during the treatment of cancer by external beam X-ray radiation and also checks for any significant changes in patient anatomy. It is believed that this system will significantly reduce the treatment margin, provide an additional, independent quality assurance check of positioning accuracy prior to all treatments and reduce the probability of misadministration of therapeutic dose.

  8. Potable and Waste Water Treatment with Polyelectrolytes Obtained by Radiation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaila, Elena N.; Martin, Diana I.; Craciun, Gabriela D.; Ighigeanu, Daniel I.; Matei, Constantin I.; Anton, Anton I.; Vulpasu, Elena D.; Oproiu, Constantin V.; Ighigeanu, Adelina I.

    2007-04-01

    Comparative results obtained for potable and waste water treatment with electrolytes and combined treatment with electrolytes and polyelectrolytes obtained by radiation technologies are presented. These polyelectrolyte mixtures have the capability to provide measurable improvements in potable water quality, especially leading to a considerable decrease of the ``turbidity'' (T < 1 NTU), ``organic matters'' (OM<4 mg KMnO4/l) and ``total organic carbon'' (TOC<4 mg C/l) indicators, as compared with the classical treatments.

  9. Physiological markers in insects indicating treatment with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven markers or tests that can be applied to 3rd instars of the Caribbean fruit fly as indicators of exposure to ionizing radiation are described, including (1) whole body melanization, (2) phenoloxidase spot test, (3) quantitative phenoloxidase measurement, (4) measurement of the ratio between size of the supraesophageal ganglion and the proventriculus, (5) development of imaginal discs, (6) number of hemocytes in one μl of hemolymph, and (7) larval weight. The markers work best and are most definitive when larvae are exposed to at least 50 Gy no later than the first day of the 3rd instar. All of the tests are sensitive enough to be applied to a single 3rd instar larva. Combinations of some of the tests could be used on a single larva. Tests (1) and (2) are easiest to use and require no specific technical training, and seem to have the most potential for practical use in quarantine. (author)

  10. Vacuum-UV radiation at 185 nm in water treatment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoschke, Kristin; Börnick, Hilmar; Worch, Eckhard

    2014-04-01

    The vacuum-UV radiation of water results in the in situ generation of hydroxyl radicals. Low-pressure mercury vapor lamps which emit at 185 nm are potential sources of VUV radiation. The scope of this article is to give an overview of the application of VUV radiation at 185 nm for water treatment including the transformation of inorganic and organic water constituents, and the disinfection efficiency. Another focus is on the generation of ozone by VUV radiation from oxygen or air and the application of the produced ozone in combination with VUV irradiation of water in the VUV/O3 process. The advantages and limitation of the VUV process at 185 nm as well as possible applications in water treatment are outlined.

  11. Radiation therapy, an important mode of treatment for head and neck chemodectomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verniers, D.A. (Dr. Daniel den Hoad Cancer Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)); Keus, R.B.; Schouwenburg, P.F.; Bartelink, H. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1992-05-01

    Between 1970 and 1990, 22 patients with 44 chemodectomas in the head and neck region were seen at the Netherlands Cancer Institute in Amsterdam. All patients were treated with radiation therapy (17 patients with radiation therapy only and 5 in combination with surgery). One patient was treated two times with an interval of 12 years at each side of the neck. Standard dose was 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks. A radiation portal arrangement with oblique fields with paired wedges was used most frequently. The follow-up period ranged from 1 year to 20 years. Two recurrences at 2 and 9 years after treatment were observed. The actuarial local control rate was 88% at 10 years follow-up. Comparison of the results of surgery and radiotherapy demonstrates that radiation therapy is an effective treatment modality without mutilation or severe late morbidity for chemodectomas in the head and neck region. (Author).

  12. Emergency treatment of internal radiation contamination. Principles and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What we know about the general metabolism of radionuclides and their characteristic behaviour by virtue of their nature and physico-chemical state fully justifies urgency in the treatment of internal contamination. ''Urgency'' is here reckoned in terms of minutes elapsing after accidental contamination. It may thus be assumed that the initial treatment should be carried out by the patient himself, on mere supposition of contamination. A person must be considered contaminated if he is present at the point where the release of the nuclides into the air may have resulted in inhalation (tripping of an alarm signal by an atmospheric monitor), contact with a wound (a cut caused by a contaminated object), etc. If these principles are accepted, methods must be devised, first, to ensure immediate treatment at the site of the risk and, second, to provide the doctor likely to receive the contaminated patients with equipment for taking samples that will confirm or not the assumption of contamination. The doctor in question should have, moreover, the drugs necessary for following up the treatment, should such be required. It is for this reason that two kits have been designed with different ends in view - one is called the ''personal kit'' and is intended for use at the site of the risk, while the other, named the ''medical kit'', is for use by the medical service responsible for receiving contaminated persons. The risk covered by these kits is basically the risk associated with fissile elements and the main fission products. (author)

  13. Application of DNA comet assay for detection of radiation treatment of grams and pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Hasan M.; Ashfaq A Khan; Khan, Sanaullah

    2010-01-01

    Several types of whole pulses (green lentils, red lentils, yellow lentils, chickpeas, green peas, cowpeas and yellow peas) and grams (black grams, red grams and white grams) have been investigated for the identification of radiation treatment using microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA comet assay). Pulses and grams were exposed to the radiation doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 5 kGy covering the legalized commercial dose range for protection from insect/pest infestations. All irradiated samples...

  14. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... often are no good treatments for chronic radiation enteritis that is more severe. Medicines such as cholestyramine, ...

  15. Dietary flaxseed administered post thoracic radiation treatment improves survival and mitigates radiation-induced pneumonopathy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arguiri Evguenia

    2011-06-01

    BAL fluid revealed a significant decrease of specific inflammatory cytokines in FS-fed mice. Conclusions Dietary FS given post-XRT mitigates radiation effects by decreasing pulmonary fibrosis, inflammation, cytokine secretion and lung damage while enhancing mouse survival. Dietary supplementation of FS may be a useful adjuvant treatment mitigating adverse effects of radiation in individuals exposed to inhaled radioisotopes or incidental radiation.

  16. Pediatric medulloblastoma: radiation treatment technique and patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In this study factors are analyzed that may potentially influence the site of failure in pediatric medulloblastoma. Patient-related, disease-related, and treatment-related variables are analyzed with a special focus on radiotherapy time-dose and technical factors. Methods and Materials: Eighty-six children and adolescents with a diagnosis of medulloblastoma were treated in Switzerland during the period 1972-1991. Postoperative megavoltage radiotherapy was delivered to all patients. Simulation and portal films of the whole-brain irradiation (WBI) fields were retrospectively reviewed in 77 patients. The distance from the field margin to the cribiform plate and to the floor of the temporal fossa was carefully assessed and correlated with supratentorial failure-free survival. In 19 children the spine was treated with high-energy electron beams, the remainder with megavoltage photons. Simulation and port films of the posterior fossa fields were also reviewed in 72 patients. The field size and the field limits were evaluated and correlated with posterior fossa failure-free survival. Results: In 36 patients (47%) the WBI margins were judged to miss the inferior portion of the frontal and temporal lobes. Twelve patients failed in the supratentorial region and 9 of these patients belonged to the group of 36 children in whom the inferior portion of the brain had been underdosed. On multivariate analysis only field correctness was retained as being significantly correlated with supratentorial failure-free survival (p = 0.049). Neither the total dose to the spinal theca nor the treatment technique (electron vs. photon beams) were significantly correlated with outcome. Posterior fossa failure-free survival was not influenced by total dose, overall treatment time, field size, or field margin correctness. Overall survival was not influenced by any of the radiotherapy-related technical factors. Conclusion: A correlation between WBI field correctness and supratentorial

  17. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of localized prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostatic carcinoma is one of the leading causes of male cancer deaths. However, the routine diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have not yet been established. Although the outcome of surgical and radiotherapeutical approaches has frequently been reported to be comparable, the profile of side effects is different. This could offer the basis for selecting the treatment of choice in individual cases. During the last decade the radiotherapeutical technique has markedly improved, in part due to the achievements in the field of computer assisted tomography planning and conformal technique; the outcome of side-effects has decreased with concurrent increase in the rate of local control. The prescribing, recording and reporting of irradiation have also recently developed, as well as the staging of the disease. Therefore we consider it timely to review progress in this subject and to emphasize the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of localized prostatic cancer. (orig.)

  18. Focal Therapy, Differential Therapy, and Radiation Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Anudh K.; Ennis, Ronald D

    2012-01-01

    Focal and differential therapy represent an approach to improve the therapeutic ratio of prostate cancer treatments. This concept is a shift from treating the whole gland to intensely treating the portion of the gland that contains significant tumor. However, there are many challenges in the move towards focal approaches. Defining which patients are suitable candidates for focal therapy approaches is an area of significant controversy, and it is likely that additional data from imaging or det...

  19. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a {sup 60}Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, H. Omar, E-mail: hwooten@radonc.wustl.edu; Green, Olga; Yang, Min; DeWees, Todd; Kashani, Rojano; Olsen, Jeff; Michalski, Jeff; Yang, Deshan; Tanderup, Kari; Hu, Yanle; Li, H. Harold; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating {sup 60}Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. Methods and Materials: The ViewRay treatment planning system (Oakwood Village, OH) was used to create {sup 60}Co IMRT treatment plans for 33 cancer patients with disease in the abdominal, pelvic, thorax, and head and neck regions using physician-specified patient-specific target coverage and organ at risk (OAR) objectives. Backup plans using a third-party linear accelerator (linac)-based planning system were also created. Plans were evaluated by attending physicians and approved for treatment. The {sup 60}Co and linac plans were compared by evaluating conformity numbers (CN) with 100% and 95% of prescription reference doses and heterogeneity indices (HI) for planning target volumes (PTVs) and maximum, mean, and dose-volume histogram (DVH) values for OARs. Results: All {sup 60}Co IMRT plans achieved PTV coverage and OAR sparing that were similar to linac plans. PTV conformity for {sup 60}Co was within <1% and 3% of linac plans for 100% and 95% prescription reference isodoses, respectively, and heterogeneity was on average 4% greater. Comparisons of OAR mean dose showed generally better sparing with linac plans in the low-dose range <20 Gy, but comparable sparing for organs with mean doses >20 Gy. The mean doses for all {sup 60}Co plan OARs were within clinical tolerances. Conclusions: A commercial {sup 60}Co MR-IGRT device can produce highly conformal IMRT treatment plans similar in quality to linac IMRT for a variety of disease sites. Additional work is in progress to evaluate the clinical benefit of other novel features of this MR-IGRT system.

  20. Status of industrial scale radiation treatment of wastewater and its future. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Providing access to clean water resources is one of the most important objectives of the UN's Millennium Project. Contamination of surface water is a big problem for many, mostly developing countries. The main sources of liquid polluted effluents are municipalities and industry. Effective, mostly biological wastewater technologies for wastewater purification are available nowadays. However, they cannot be applied to solve all existing problems. Destruction of non-biodegradable organic compounds is one problem and biological contamination (caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) of sludge is another. Methods of their purification are sought. Ionizing radiation (gamma or X rays, electron beams) is a very effective form of energy, which can destroy organic or biological contaminants. The IAEA promotes and supports research on radiation treatment of liquid effluents. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Remediation of Polluted Waters and Wastewater by Radiation Processing aims to establish optimal treatment methodologies to disinfect and decontaminate actual samples of drinking water and wastewater by using ionizing radiation. Quite a few technical cooperation (TC) projects concerning radiation treatment of wastewater and sludge are under development. In the frame of one of such TC projects pilot plant for electron beam treatment of textile dyeing complex wastewater was constructed in the Republic of Korea. To discuss developments achieved under these projects and results of the pilot plant operation, the IAEA organized a consultants meeting in Daejon, Republic of Korea, 13-16 October 2003. These proceedings will be of value to research groups working in the field of radiation technology development. Developing Member States with radiation technology programmes will benefit from research in this area. The meeting dealt with advanced radiation processing of wastewater and its technical and economical aspects. It informed about high power accelerators ELV-12

  1. Cognitive defenses and compliance with radiation treatment in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationships between four cognitive defenses and compliance with radiation therapy in cancer patients. The role of accurate self-report of usage of each of the defenses was examined as well. A distinction between direct-action and emotion-focused coping was utilized to conceptualize the possible relationships between compliance and the defenses. Based on the proposals of Heilbrun and Renert (1986) regarding the relative evasiveness of the defenses and available evidence from the compliance literature, it was predicted that noncompliant patients would show more repression, projection, and denial and less rationalization than compliant patients. In addition, based upon the findings of Heilbrun and Pepe (1985) that related self-deception to effectiveness of the defenses in dealing with stress, predictions were also made regarding differences in accuracy of reported defense usage by compliant and noncompliant patients. Noncompliant repressors and projectors and compliant rationalizers were predicted to be less aware of their respective use of these defenses than their compliant counterparts; noncompliant deniers were predicted to be more aware of the use of this defense than compliant deniers

  2. Treatment of radiation syndrome with emphasis on stem cell implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within few years, the possibility that the human body contains cells that can repair and regenerate damaged and diseased tissue has gone from an unlikely proposition to a virtual certainty. Patients who have received doses of radiation in the potentially low to mid-lethal range (2-6 Gy) will have depression in bone-marrow function with cessation of blood-cell production leading to pancytopenia. Selection of cases for stem cell transplantation is based upon clinical signs and symptoms. Hematopoietic stem cell which produces blood cell progeny provides support for hematopoietic and other cells within the marrow, and has also been a focus for possible tissue repair. Another cell type termed mesenchymal or stromal also exists in the marrow. This cell provides support for hematopoietic and other cells within the marrow, and has also been a focus for possible tissue repair. Stem cells are obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood, placental and umbilical cord blood, embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells. These cells have great potential for clinical research due to their potential to regenerate tissue. As well known, the cryo preservation process can store any cell type, particularly blood cells, for an indeterminate time. (author)

  3. Radiation Treatment of Meat Products and Animal By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of radiation in food technology can only be considered as an alternative to existing preservation methods when a higher quality product and/or a cheaper product will result, or in cases where no alternative methods exist. With this view in mind, work performed at the Danish Meat Research Institute on sliced bacon, canned hams, luncheon meat, and animal feeding stuffs, i.e. meat and bone meal and blood meal, is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion drawn from the experimental results is that the formation of off-flavours in irradiated meat products is a very serious problem and the most important obstacle to a successful application of irradiation in meat processing. It is, therefore, essential that future research should concentrate on finding means to reduce the irradiation flavour. A number of approaches to solve this problem are mentioned and the Danish work in this field which has been centred mainly on the use of very high dose-rates and of non-equal dose distribution in cans is reviewed, and the concepts briefly described. (author)

  4. Treatment of radiation exposure and regeneration medicine. Regeneration treatment of blood vessels by transplantation of autologous marrow monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are usefulness and future view of regenerative medicine in the treatment of radiation exposure as exemplified by the vascular regeneration by autologous marrow cell transplantation. Vascular endothelial cells (VEC), possessing a high ability to divide, are known sensitive to radiation, which gives damage of blood vessel to alter its permeability leading to apoptosis of VEC, organ/tissue injuries and final damages in the cerebral blood vessels, central nervous system and skin, the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Authors present successful cases of patients with chronic limb ischemia in the Therapeutic Angiogenesis using Cell Transplantation Trial (TACT), to whom the treatment is conducted with transplantation of autologous marrow monocyte fraction containing endothelial progenitor cells that differentiate to VEC. As well, they touch on a case of the patient encountered in a nuclear accident, mentioning that VEC are found partly derived from the donor after heamatopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Efficacy of HSCT in a literature is reviewed and commented to be an only limited one in 31 patients of various radiation accidents. However, treatment of ARS where stem cells are target, with regenerative medicine will become more useful in future, as basic and clinical researches will provide requisite findings. (T.I.)

  5. Treatment and follow-up of patients suffering from the cutaneous radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hazards of acute radiation exposure are commonly addressed with respect to total body gamma or neutron irradiation, resulting primarily in bone marrow failure as the main clinically relevant aspect of the acute radiation disease. Under conditions of inhomogeneous exposure, as they are characteristic for many accident scenarios, other organ systems, such as the skin may become more important in determining clinical prognosis. This became especially obvious in the two worst radiation accidents since 1945, the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 and the Goiania accident in September 1987. The characteristic chronic sequelae of accidental cutaneous radiation exposure and therapeutic results have been described based on own clinical experience with treating patients with acute and late cutaneous effects after therapeutic irradiation, and a distinct group of patients having survived the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident of April 26, 1986. Apart from clinical examination, histological analysis and high-frequency (20 MHz) ultrasound as well as a variety of functional tests have been used to determine the extent of radiation fibrosis and to exclude malignant transformation of keratoses and ulcers. Treatment included, apart from dermatosurgical procedures and plastic surgery for disabling contractures or ulcers, argon laser treatment of telangiectasias, topical tretinoin 0,005% (Epi-AberelR, Cilag, Frankfurt), etretinate and acitretin (TigasonR, NeotigasonR, Hoffmann LaRoche, Grenzach) for radiation keratoses, partly combined with a novel, nonatrophogenic steroid, Mometasonefuroate (EloconR, Schering-Plough, New Jersey) to antagonize inflammatory reactions, and low-dose interferon-gamma (PolyferonR, Rentschler, Laupheim) for extensive radiation fibrosis. Basic dermatotherapy was performed with an ointment containing linoleic acid (LinolaR, Wolff, Bielefeld). With this combination treatment, transepidermal water loss could be sustained, progression of keratoses and

  6. Importance of pre-treatment radiation absorbed dose estimation for radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma I-131 radioimmunotherapy data were analyzed to determine whether a predictive relationship exists between radiation absorbed doses calculated from biodistribution studies and doses derived from patient size. Radioactivity treatment administrations scaled to patient size (MBq/kg or MBq/m2) or fixed MBq doses do not produce consistent radiation absorbed dose to critical organs. Treatment trials that do not provide dose estimates for critical normal organs are less likely to succeed in identifying a clinical role for radioimmunotherapy

  7. Impact of post-harvest radiation treatment timing on shelf life and quality characteristics of potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaee, Mehdi; ALMASSI, Morteza; MINAEI, Saeed; Paknejad, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation treatment (50 and 100 Gy) on potato tubers irradiated at different days (10th, 30th and 50th) after harvest were studied during 5 months of storage at 10°C using Agria and Marfona varieties. A factorial experiment was done, based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 100 Gy radiation treatments on 10th and 30th days after harvest completely prevented sprouting at both varieties studied but on 50th day only Agria tubers not sprouted. T...

  8. Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Glioblastoma: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amelio, Dante; Amichetti, Maurizio, E-mail: amelio@atrep.it [ATreP-Agenzia Provinciale per la Protonterapia, Via F.lli Perini 181, Trento 38122 (Italy)

    2012-03-07

    Despite the therapeutic advances in neuro-oncology, most patients with glioblastoma ultimately experience local progression/relapse. Re-irradiation has been poorly viewed in the past, mainly due to the overestimated risk of side effects using conventional radiotherapy. To date, thanks to the improvement of several delivery techniques, together with improved imaging capabilities, re-irradiation is a viable salvage treatment option to manage such clinical scenario. A literature overview on the feasibility and efficacy of the different irradiation modalities for recurrent glioblastoma along with considerations on areas of improvement are provided.

  9. Treatment of Head and Neck Paragangliomas With External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, Charles, E-mail: c.dupin@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux (France); Lang, Philippe [Department of Radiotherapy, Pitié Salpétrière, Paris (France); Dessard-Diana, Bernadette [Department of Radiotherapy, Hopital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris (France); Simon, Jean-Marc; Cuenca, Xavier; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Feuvret, Loïc [Department of Radiotherapy, Pitié Salpétrière, Paris (France)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess the outcomes of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck paragangliomas. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2009, 66 patients with 81 head and neck paragangliomas were treated by conventional external beam radiation therapy in 25 fractions at a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 41.4-68 Gy). One case was malignant. The median gross target volume and planning target volume were 30 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.9-243 cm{sup 3}) and 116 cm{sup 3} (range, 24-731 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Median age was 57.4 years (range, 15-84 years). Eleven patients had multicentric lesions, and 8 had family histories of paraganglioma. Paragangliomas were located in the temporal bone, the carotid body, and the glomus vagal in 51, 18, and 10 patients, respectively. Forty-six patients had exclusive radiation therapy, and 20 had salvage radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 4.1 years (range, 0.1-21.2 years). Results: One patient had a recurrence of temporal bone paraganglioma 8 years after treatment. The actuarial local control rates were 100% at 5 years and 98.7% at 10 years. Patients with multifocal tumors and family histories were significantly younger (42 years vs 58 years [P=.002] and 37 years vs 58 years [P=.0003], respectively). The association between family predisposition and multifocality was significant (P<.001). Two patients had cause-specific death within the 6 months after irradiation. During radiation therapy, 9 patients required hospitalization for weight loss, nausea, mucositis, or ophthalmic zoster. Two late vascular complications occurred (middle cerebral artery and carotid stenosis), and 2 late radiation-related meningiomas appeared 15 and 18 years after treatment. Conclusion: Conventional external beam radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment option that achieves excellent local control; it should be considered as a first-line treatment of choice for head and neck paragangliomas.

  10. The breast cancer patient's experience of making radiation therapy treatment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer have many decisions to make during the course of their treatment. The aims of this paper are to describe the women's experience of making radiation therapy treatment decisions for early breast cancer and to explore how women feel about receiving radiation therapy. An in-depth understanding of the women's experience was developed using a qualitative research approach underpinned by hermeneutic phenomenology. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 women who had completed treatment for early breast cancer. The themes that emerged from the data were: being challenged, getting ready, beyond control, regaining a sense of control and getting through it. This study provides health professionals with an initial understanding of the women's perspective of the experience of making radiation therapy treatment decisions for early breast cancer. This study concludes by suggesting that further research needs to be conducted to gain an understanding of how other patients feel about treatment decision making and radiation therapy. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Radiography

  11. Case study of radiation therapy treatment of a patient with a cardiac ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasher, Donette E; Wojcicka, Jadwiga B; Malcom, Ronald; Shears, Lawrence L

    2008-01-01

    A patient with a cardiac ventricular assist device (VAD) with computer-controlled driver presented to our department for radiation therapy. The treatment plan was 4500 cGy to the rectum over 25 fractions with 15MV photon beams. All beams avoided the pump and leads. The response to electromagnetic interference (EMI) was evaluated by observing a duplicate driver in the treatment configuration as the patient's fields were delivered to a solid water equivalent phantom. Pretreatment dose assessment included calculations with Pinnacle treatment planning system, AAPM TG36 data analysis, and MOSFET measurements on the surface of the driver during the phantom irradiation. During the first patient treatment, MOSFETs were placed on the pump and leads, approximately 1cm from the left lateral treatment portal. No additional shielding was applied to the VAD. EMI was absent and the VAD operated normally during the pretreatment test and throughout the treatment course. Radiation to the driver was too low to be detected by the MOSFETS. Cumulative dose estimates to the pump were 425 cGy to 0.1cc (DVH), 368 cGy (TG36), and 158.5 cGy (MOSFET). MOSFET readings to the leads were 70.5 cGy. External beam radiation treatment was safely delivered to a VAD dependent patient. The VAD exhibited no adverse response to EMI and doses up to 425 cGy. Our results are based on one case and further study is encouraged. PMID:19020490

  12. Low-Dose Radiation Therapy (2 Gy × 2) in the Treatment of Orbital Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasola, Carolina E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Jones, Jennifer C. [Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Huang, Derek D. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of California-Los Angeles Olive View, Sylmar, California (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu; Hoppe, Richard T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S., E-mail: sarah2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Low-dose radiation has become increasingly used in the management of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but has not been studied specifically for cases of ocular adnexal involvement. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of low-dose radiation in the treatment of NHL of the ocular adnexa. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 20 NHL patients with 27 sites of ocular adnexal involvement treated with low-dose radiation consisting of 2 successive fractions of 2 Gy at our institution between 2005 and 2011. The primary endpoint of this study is freedom from local relapse (FFLR). Results: At a median follow-up time of 26 months (range 7-92), the overall response rate for the 27 treated sites was 96%, with a complete response (CR) rate of 85% (n=23) and a partial response rate of 11% (n=3). Among all treated sites with CR, the 2-year FFLR was 100%, with no in-treatment field relapses. The 2-year freedom from regional relapse rate was 96% with 1 case of relapse within the ipsilateral orbit (outside of the treatment field). This patient underwent additional treatment with low-dose radiation of 4 Gy to the area of relapse achieving a CR and no evidence of disease at an additional 42 months of follow-up. Orbital radiation was well tolerated with only mild acute side effects (dry eye, conjunctivitis, transient periorbital edema) in 30% of treated sites without any reports of long-term toxicity. Conclusions: Low-dose radiation with 2 Gy × 2 is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of indolent NHL of the ocular adnexa with high response rates and durable local control with the option of reirradiation in the case of locoregional relapse.

  13. Treatment choices in breast cancer: a comparative analysis of mastectomy patients and radiation patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This descriptive-exploratory study identified factors that distinguished women on the basis of the treatment they chose for breast cancer. A semi-structured interview and questionnaire was administered to 30 respondents who received mastectomy and 31 who received lumpectomy with radiation. The variables investigated as potential predictors of treatment choice were (1) participation in treatment planning, (2) knowledge of illness and treatment alternatives, (3) health locus of control, (4) sex-role identification, (5) body image, (6) social support and (7) age. As perceptions of the outcome of treatment influence attitudes about treatment choice, five variables relating to perceived treatment consequences were also examined. These were (1) social support, (2) body image, (3) satisfaction with medical care, (4) satisfaction with treatment and (5) general well-being. The major findings in regard to the predictor variables included a profile of the characteristics of each group. The radiation group had more knowledge, participated in planning to a greater extent, investigated treatment options more often and typically made their own decisions about treatment. The mastectomy group was older, attributed locus of control to chance and demonstrated nonsignificant trends toward locus of control in powerful others and toward a feminine sex-role identification; 50% cited Surgeon's Advice as the basis of their choice

  14. The hamster cheek pouch (HCP) as an experimental model of oral cancer for BNCT: biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreimann, E.; Itoiz, M.E.; Dagrosa, A.; Garavaglia, R.; Farias, S.; Batistoni, D.; Schwint, A.E. [National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentina)

    2000-10-01

    We propose and validate the HCP model of oral cancer for BNCT studies. This model serves to explore new applications of the technique, study the biology of BNCT and assess Boron uptake in clinically relevant oral tissues. Tumors are induced by a process that mimics spontaneous malignant transformation instead of by the growth of implanted tumor cells. Syrian hamsters were submitted to tumor induction with a chemical carcinogenesis protocol and then used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies of BPA. The data reveal selective uptake by tumor and, to a lesser degree, by precancerous tissue. Boron concentration in oral tissues and skin was higher than in blood, an issue of clinical relevance given that these tissues may be dose-limiting. Absolute and relative values of Boron concentration would be potentially therapeutic. Boron concentration exhibited a linear relationship with percentage of viable tissue in HCP tumors. The HCP model would provide a novel, contributory approach to BNCT research. (author)

  15. The hamster cheek pouch (HCP) as an experimental model of oral cancer for BNCT: biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose and validate the HCP model of oral cancer for BNCT studies. This model serves to explore new applications of the technique, study the biology of BNCT and assess Boron uptake in clinically relevant oral tissues. Tumors are induced by a process that mimics spontaneous malignant transformation instead of by the growth of implanted tumor cells. Syrian hamsters were submitted to tumor induction with a chemical carcinogenesis protocol and then used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies of BPA. The data reveal selective uptake by tumor and, to a lesser degree, by precancerous tissue. Boron concentration in oral tissues and skin was higher than in blood, an issue of clinical relevance given that these tissues may be dose-limiting. Absolute and relative values of Boron concentration would be potentially therapeutic. Boron concentration exhibited a linear relationship with percentage of viable tissue in HCP tumors. The HCP model would provide a novel, contributory approach to BNCT research. (author)

  16. Impact of post-harvest radiation treatment timing on shelf life and quality characteristics of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma radiation treatment (50 and 100 Gy) on potato tubers irradiated at different days (10th, 30th and 50th) after harvest were studied during 5 months of storage at 10°C using Agria and Marfona varieties. A factorial experiment was done, based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 100 Gy radiation treatments on 10th and 30th days after harvest completely prevented sprouting at both varieties studied but on 50th day only Agria tubers did not sprout. This study indicated that early irradiation and absorbed radiation doses significantly decreased sprouting, percent weight loss and specific gravity of tubers. Reducing sugar content significantly increased by delay in irradiation and lower dose of radiation while non-reducing sugars did not decrease significantly by delay in irradiation and higher dose of radiation. The least increase in reducing sugars (10.2%) and most decrease in non-reducing sugar (-12.75%) were observed in tubers that irradiated on 10th day after harvest. The content of ascorbic acid was decreased by irradiation with higher dose. Although delay in irradiation caused less loss of ascorbic acid (8.5%) but showed greater metabolic changes as sprouting, weight loss, firmness, and sugars contents. Also, more increased delay in irradiation needed higher radiation doses for sprout inhibition. (author)

  17. Radiation therapy for the treatment of feline advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of radiation therapy for feline advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated. A full course radiation therapy protocol was applied to six cats showing single or multiple facial squamous cell carcinomas, in a total of seven histologically confirmed neoplastic lesions. Of the lesions, one was staged as T1, and six as T4 according to WHO staging system of epidermal tumors. The animals were submitted to twelve radiation fractions of 4 Gy each, on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday schedule, and the equipment used was an orthovoltage unit. Energy used was 120 kV, 15 mA and 2 mm aluminum filter. The cats were evaluated during the treatment and 30 and 60 days after the end of the radiation therapy. In this study, 87% of the lesions had complete remission and 13% partial remission to the treatment. Side effects were considered mild according to Veterinary Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Toxicity criteria, and included erythema, epilation and rhinitis. Radiation Therapy was considered safe for feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, leading to mild side effects and can represent a good therapeutic option. (author)

  18. Impact of post-harvest radiation treatment timing on shelf life and quality characteristics of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mehdi; Almassi, Morteza; Minaei, Saeed; Paknejad, Farzad

    2013-04-01

    The effects of gamma radiation treatment (50 and 100 Gy) on potato tubers irradiated at different days (10th, 30th and 50th) after harvest were studied during 5 months of storage at 10°C using Agria and Marfona varieties. A factorial experiment was done, based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 100 Gy radiation treatments on 10th and 30th days after harvest completely prevented sprouting at both varieties studied but on 50th day only Agria tubers not sprouted. This study indicated that early irradiation and absorbed radiation doses significantly decreased sprouting, percent weight loss and specific gravity of tubers. Reducing sugar content significantly increased by delay in irradiation and lower dose of radiation while non-reducing sugars did not decrease significantly by delay in irradiation and higher dose of radiation. The least increase in reducing sugars (10.2%) and most decrease in non-reducing sugar (-12.75%) were observed in tubers that irradiated on 10th day after harvest. The content of ascorbic acid was decreased by irradiation with higher dose. Although delay in irradiation caused less loss of ascorbic acid (8.5%) but showed greater metabolic changes as sprouting, weight loss, firmness, and sugars contents. Also, more increased delay in irradiation needed higher radiation doses for sprout inhibition. PMID:24425925

  19. Use of high-power electron beam radiation for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the factors impeding the use of ionizing radiation for waste treatment has been the relatively high cost of large radiation sources. This obstacle has been reduced by the recent development of powerful electron beam accelerators that are now being used by many manufacturers to crosslink plastic and rubber compounds, and to sterilize ethical products. The industrial demand for radiation processing equipment has produced a new technology which can be applied to the irradiation of waste materials. Electron accelerators can now provide 150 kW of useful beam power for continuous service. Such machines could process 3.1 MGD(million US gallons daily) of water to an average dose of 0.1 Mrad. The unit cost for the radiation process would be about $0.22 per 1000 gallons. Larger systems delivering up to a megawatt of power could be developed within a few years if needed for large-scale applications. Such equipment would bring the radiation processing cost down still further and would increase the capacity to about 22 MGD. This throughput would be comparable with the waste water effluent of large sewage treatment plants in the New York City area. High-power electron beams may be particularly useful in the treatment of gaseous wastes. The irradiation of stack gases from large electric power stations, a process that is now being investigated in Japan, is a possible application that could justify the development of multi-megawatt electron beam systems. (Author)

  20. Use of activated carbon adsorption in conjunction with radiation treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the potential applications of combined adsorption-irradiation treatment processes. The rationale for the study was to determine whether the cost of radiation treatment could be reduced by concentrating target species on an adsorbent in the radiation field. Several different studies on adsorption-irradiation treatment were identified in the literature, and experimental work was done on both the conversion of sulphur dioxide to elemental sulphur, and the removal of trihalomethanes from water by adsorption on activated carbon and subsequent irradiation. Adsorption-irradiation treatment would appear to be less costly than irradiation alone for radiolytic decomposition of target species at low concentration in liquid streams, in the presence of high-surface-area, electrically insulating adsorbents. 116 refs

  1. Synergistic effect of ionizing radiation on chemical disinfectant treatments for reduction of natural microflora on seafood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjoo; Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Jo, Cheorun; Ha, Sang-Do

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatments would produce synergistic disinfection effects on seafood products such as mussel and squid compared with single treatments. We investigated the bactericidal effects of chlorine and ionizing radiation on the natural microflora of mussel and squid. Total aerobic bacteria initially ranged from 102 to 104 Log CFU/g. More than 100 ppm of chlorine and irradiation at 1 kGy were sufficient to reduce the total aerobic bacteria on mussel and squid to a level lower than detection limit (10 CFU/g). Synergistic effects against natural microflora were observed for all combined treatment. These results suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combine chlorine-ionizing radiation treatment against natural microflora on mussel and squid.

  2. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosunen, A

    1999-08-01

    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realisation of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). To achieve the required accuracy of the dose delivered to a patient the quality of all steps in the dosimetry procedure has to be considered. This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionisation chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b) the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S I ?){sup water} {sub air}, in photon beams, (c) the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d) the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that up to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in {sup 60}Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S I ?){sup water} {sub air} can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. The use of %odd(10) requires the elimination of the electron contamination in the photon beam. By a twin ionisation chamber technique the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation

  3. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realisation of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). To achieve the required accuracy of the dose delivered to a patient the quality of all steps in the dosimetry procedure has to be considered. This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionisation chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b) the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S I ?)waterair, in photon beams, (c) the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d) the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that up to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in 60Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S I ?)waterair can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. The use of %odd(10) requires the elimination of the electron contamination in the photon beam. By a twin ionisation chamber technique the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation). To improve the accuracy of

  4. Development of Advanced Multi-Modality Radiation Treatment Planning Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D W; Hartmann Siantar, C

    2002-02-19

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has long been active in development of advanced Monte-Carlo based computational dosimetry and treatment planning methods and software for advanced radiotherapy, with a particular focus on Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Fast-Neutron Therapy. The most recent INEEL software product system of this type is known as SERA, Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications. SERA is at a mature level in its life cycle, it has been licensed for research use worldwide, and it has become well established as a computational tool for research. However, along with its strengths, SERA also has some limitations in its structure and computational methodologies. More specifically, it is optimized only for neutron-based applications. Although photon transport can be computed with SERA, the simplified model that is used is designed primarily for photons produced in the neutron transport process. Thus SERA is not appropriate for applications to, for example, standard external-beam photon radiotherapy, which is by far more commonly used in the clinic than neutron based therapy.

  5. Combined use of some radioprotectors for treatment of radiation burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two groups of rats have been used as experimental models: 1) locally irradiated with a dose of 30 Gy on the skin surface of the lower extremity torus; 2) whole-body X-ray irradiated with 4 Gy before local irradiation. The prophylaxis before whole-body irradiation is carried out with adeturon or betamide in doses 300 and 250 mg/kg respectively. Immediately before local irradiation the preparations dieton and nuclederm have been applied, and as a therapy - daily in the course of 30 days after irradiation. The severity and prolongation of the skin reaction is observed and recorded according to a standard method. All treatment and protection schemes applied at local irradiation reduce the prolongation of the moist desquamation and erythema intensity. The radiodermatitis proceeds more inertly in animals from group 2. In this experimental conditions adeturon and betamid have no effect on the local skin response; inefficient proved also the preparations for local application. Positive effect is observed only in animals protected with adeturon and treated locally with dieton (prophylaxis) and with nuclederm (therapy). 1 tab., 5 refs

  6. Development of a technique for environmental treatment by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Jin, J. H.; Jung, Y. D. and others

    2000-04-01

    This study was carried out for the development of pilot plant which can produce industrial water from effluent of sewage treatment plant by irradiation. As a basic study, the characteristics on decomposition of organic compounds, decoloration and sterilization of bacteria were evaluated. An additive mainly composed by sponge type of TiO{sub 2} was developed for reduction of irradiation dose and enhancement of removal efficiency of organic compounds. The optimum pilot plant was composed of sysem with gamma irradiation/ozone/additive/ion exchange. The effluent with BOD 20 ppm, COD 25 ppm and color 25 ADMI could be treated to less than 5 ppm and 5 ADMI under the irradiation of 5 kGy. The disinfection of microorganism also could be done perfectively under the same irradiation. A small amount of heavy metal ions and inorganic ions, nitrogen, contained in effluent were removed by ion exchanger. From the operation of pilot plant it could be concluded that irradiation technique can be a good method for the produce of industrial water from effluent.

  7. A Realistic Treatment of Geomagnetic Cherenkov Radiation from Cosmic Ray Air Showers

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Klaus; de Vries, Krijn D.; Scholten, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    We present a macroscopic calculation of coherent electro-magnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, based on currents obtained from three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of air showers in a realistic geo-magnetic field. We discuss the importance of a correct treatment of the index of refraction in air, given by the law of Gladstone and Dale, which affects the pulses enormously for certain configurations, compared to a simplified treatment using a const...

  8. Role of the Technical Aspects of Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Treatment of Prostate Cancer: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of moderate (<35 fractions) and extreme (<5 fractions) hypofractionated radiation therapy in prostate cancer is yielding favorable results, both in terms of maintained biochemical response and toxicity. Several hypofractionation (HF) schemes for the treatment of prostate cancer are available, although there is considerable variability in the techniques used to manage intra-/interfraction motion and deliver radiation doses. We performed a review of the published studies on HF regimens as a topic of interest for the Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy working group, which is part of the Italian Association of Medical Physics. Aspects of organ motion management (imaging for contouring, target volume definition, and rectum/bladder preparation) and treatment delivery (prostate localization, image guided radiation therapy strategy and frequency) were evaluated and categorized to assess outcome relative to disease control and toxicity. Despite the heterogeneity of the data, some interesting trends that emerged from the review might be useful in identifying an optimum HF strategy

  9. Application of DNA comet assay for detection of radiation treatment of grams and pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hasan M; Khan, Ashfaq A; Khan, Sanaullah

    2011-12-01

    Several types of whole pulses (green lentils, red lentils, yellow lentils, chickpeas, green peas, cowpeas and yellow peas) and grams (black grams, red grams and white grams) have been investigated for the identification of radiation treatment using microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA comet assay). Pulses and grams were exposed to the radiation doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 5 kGy covering the legalized commercial dose range for protection from insect/pest infestations. All irradiated samples showed comet like stretching of fragmented DNA toward anode, which is expected for irradiated samples. Unirradiated samples showed many intact cells/nuclei in form of round stains or with short faint tails, which is typical for unirradiated food samples. The study shows that DNA comet assay can be used as a rapid, inexpensive and highly effective screening test for the detection of radiation treatment of foods, like pulses and grams. PMID:23572810

  10. Role of the Technical Aspects of Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Treatment of Prostate Cancer: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Stefania, E-mail: clemente_stefania@libero.it [Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Centro di Riferimento Oncologico della Basilicata Rionero in Vulture, Potenza (Italy); Nigro, Roberta [Azienda Sanitaria Locale Rieti, Roma (Italy); Oliviero, Caterina [Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Centro di Riferimento Oncologico della Basilicata Rionero in Vulture, Potenza (Italy); Marchioni, Chiara [Azienda Sanitaria Locale Rieti, Roma (Italy); Esposito, Marco [Azienda Sanitaria, Firenze (Italy); Giglioli, Francesca Romana [Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino (Italy); Mancosu, Pietro [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Marino, Carmelo [Humanitas Centro Catanese di Oncologia, Catania (Italy); Russo, Serenella [Azienda Sanitaria, Firenze (Italy); Stasi, Michele [Azienda Ospedaliera Ordine Mauriziano di Torino, Torino (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Regina Elena, Roma (Italy); Veronese, Ivan [Universita' degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Landoni, Valeria [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Regina Elena, Roma (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of moderate (<35 fractions) and extreme (<5 fractions) hypofractionated radiation therapy in prostate cancer is yielding favorable results, both in terms of maintained biochemical response and toxicity. Several hypofractionation (HF) schemes for the treatment of prostate cancer are available, although there is considerable variability in the techniques used to manage intra-/interfraction motion and deliver radiation doses. We performed a review of the published studies on HF regimens as a topic of interest for the Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy working group, which is part of the Italian Association of Medical Physics. Aspects of organ motion management (imaging for contouring, target volume definition, and rectum/bladder preparation) and treatment delivery (prostate localization, image guided radiation therapy strategy and frequency) were evaluated and categorized to assess outcome relative to disease control and toxicity. Despite the heterogeneity of the data, some interesting trends that emerged from the review might be useful in identifying an optimum HF strategy.

  11. In vitro study of combined cilengitide and radiation treatment in breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastasis from breast cancer poses a major clinical challenge. Integrins play a role in regulating adhesion, growth, motility, and survival, and have been shown to be critical for metastatic growth in the brain in preclinical models. Cilengitide, an αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin inhibitor, has previously been studied as an anti-cancer drug in various tumor types. Previous studies have shown additive effects of cilengitide and radiation in lung cancer and glioblastoma cell lines. The ability of cilengitide to enhance the effects of radiation was examined preclinically in the setting of breast cancer to assess its possible efficacy in the setting of brain metastasis from breast cancer. Our panel of breast cells was composed of four cell lines: T-47D (ER/PR+, Her2-, luminal A), MCF-7 (ER/PR+, Her2-, luminal A), MDA-MB-231 (TNBC, basal B), MDA-MB-468 (TNBC, basal A). The presence of cilengitide targets, β3 and β5 integrin, was first determined. Cell detachment was determined by cell counting, cell proliferation was determined by MTS proliferation assay, and apoptosis was measured by Annexin V staining and flow cytometry. The efficacy of cilengitide treatment alone was analyzed, followed by assessment of combined cilengitide and radiation treatment. Integrin β3 knockdown was performed, followed by cilengitide and radiation treatment to test for incomplete target inhibition by cilengitide, in high β3 expressing cells. We observed that all cell lines examined expressed both β3 and β5 integrin and that cilengitide was able to induce cell detachment and reduced proliferation in our panel. Annexin V assays revealed that a portion of these effects was due to cilengitide-induced apoptosis. Combined treatment with cilengitide and radiation served to further reduce proliferation compared to either treatment alone. Following β3 integrin knockdown, radiosensitization in combination with cilengitide was observed in a previously non-responsive cell line (MDA-MB-231

  12. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Treatment Time Impacts Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Matthew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ojerholm, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roses, Robert E., E-mail: Robert.Roses@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Plastaras, John P.; Metz, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mamtani, Ronac [Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Karakousis, Giorgos C.; Fraker, Douglas L.; Drebin, Jeffrey A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Stripp, Diana; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Datta, Jashodeep [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Prolonged radiation therapy treatment time (RTT) is associated with worse survival in several tumor types. This study investigated whether delays during adjuvant radiation therapy impact overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with resected gastric cancer who received adjuvant radiation therapy with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–recommended doses (45 or 50.4 Gy) between 1998 and 2006. RTT was classified as standard (45 Gy: 33-36 days, 50.4 Gy: 38-41 days) or prolonged (45 Gy: >36 days, 50.4 Gy: >41 days). Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association between the following factors and OS: RTT, interval from surgery to radiation therapy initiation, interval from surgery to radiation therapy completion, radiation therapy dose, demographic/pathologic and operative factors, and other elements of adjuvant multimodality therapy. Results: Of 1591 patients, RTT was delayed in 732 (46%). Factors associated with prolonged RTT were non-private health insurance (OR 1.3, P=.005) and treatment at non-academic facilities (OR 1.2, P=.045). Median OS and 5-year actuarial survival were significantly worse in patients with prolonged RTT compared with standard RTT (36 vs 51 months, P=.001; 39 vs 47%, P=.005); OS worsened with each cumulative week of delay (P<.0004). On multivariable analysis, prolonged RTT was associated with inferior OS (hazard ratio 1.2, P=.002); the intervals from surgery to radiation therapy initiation or completion were not. Prolonged RTT was particularly detrimental in patients with node positivity, inadequate nodal staging (<15 nodes examined), and those undergoing a cycle of chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: Delays during adjuvant radiation therapy appear to negatively impact survival in gastric cancer. Efforts to minimize cumulative interruptions to <7 days should be considered.

  13. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Treatment Time Impacts Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prolonged radiation therapy treatment time (RTT) is associated with worse survival in several tumor types. This study investigated whether delays during adjuvant radiation therapy impact overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with resected gastric cancer who received adjuvant radiation therapy with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–recommended doses (45 or 50.4 Gy) between 1998 and 2006. RTT was classified as standard (45 Gy: 33-36 days, 50.4 Gy: 38-41 days) or prolonged (45 Gy: >36 days, 50.4 Gy: >41 days). Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association between the following factors and OS: RTT, interval from surgery to radiation therapy initiation, interval from surgery to radiation therapy completion, radiation therapy dose, demographic/pathologic and operative factors, and other elements of adjuvant multimodality therapy. Results: Of 1591 patients, RTT was delayed in 732 (46%). Factors associated with prolonged RTT were non-private health insurance (OR 1.3, P=.005) and treatment at non-academic facilities (OR 1.2, P=.045). Median OS and 5-year actuarial survival were significantly worse in patients with prolonged RTT compared with standard RTT (36 vs 51 months, P=.001; 39 vs 47%, P=.005); OS worsened with each cumulative week of delay (P<.0004). On multivariable analysis, prolonged RTT was associated with inferior OS (hazard ratio 1.2, P=.002); the intervals from surgery to radiation therapy initiation or completion were not. Prolonged RTT was particularly detrimental in patients with node positivity, inadequate nodal staging (<15 nodes examined), and those undergoing a cycle of chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: Delays during adjuvant radiation therapy appear to negatively impact survival in gastric cancer. Efforts to minimize cumulative interruptions to <7 days should be considered

  14. Radiation oncology--linking technology and biology in the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, C Norman

    2002-01-01

    Technical advances in radiation oncology including CT-simulation, 3D- conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques, and brachytherapy have allowed greater treatment precision and dose escalation. The ability to intensify treatment requires the identification of the critical targets within the treatment field, recognizing the unique biology of tumor, stroma and normal tissue. Precision is technology based while accuracy is biologically based. Therefore, the intensity of IMRT will undoubtedly mean an increase in both irradiation dose and the use of biological agents, the latter considered in the broadest sense. Radiation oncology has the potential and the opportunity to provide major contributions to the linkage between molecular and functional imaging, molecular profiling and novel therapeutics for the emerging molecular targets for cancer treatment. This process of 'credentialing' of molecular targets will require multi disciplinary imaging teams, clinicians and basic scientists. Future advances will depend on the appropriate integration of biology into the training of residents, continuing post graduate education, participation in innovative clinical research and commitment to the support of basic research as an essential component of the practice of radiation oncology.

  15. Doses of radiation in the environment of patients undergoing treatment of ophthalmic brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results for measures of dose made to different patient undergoing treatment with ophthalmic brachytherapy. The aim of these measures has been, on the one hand, verify assessments relating to radiation protection in the memory of the installation and, on the other hand, experimental measures that can serve to reduce the perception of the radiological risk professionals have. (Author)

  16. Successful radiation treatment of chylous ascites following pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Stefanie; Niemoeller, Olivier M. [University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Liebig, Sylke [Gemeinschaftspraxis Prof. Zwicker and Partner, Konstanz (Germany); Zwicker, Felix [Gemeinschaftspraxis Prof. Zwicker and Partner, Konstanz (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Molecular and Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Lamade, Wolfram [Helios Privatklinik, Allgemein- and Viszeralchirurgie, Ueberlingen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Chylous ascites is a rare complication following pancreaticoduodenectomy. We report on a case of chylous ascites following pancreaticoduodenectomy in a 76-year-old patient diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. There are various known conservative management strategies, including dietary measures or total parenteral nutrition. Unfortunately, conservative treatment - with total parenteral nutrition and fasting over a period of 4 weeks - was not successful in the present case. The daily output volume of chylous ascites was up to 2500 ml/day. Based on clinical experiences with successfully treated lymphocutaneous fistulas, low-dose radiotherapy was initiated. External beam radiotherapy comprising a total dose of 8.0 Gy to the paraaortic lymph node region was administered in daily single fractions of 1.0 Gy (five fractions/week). Throughout the course of external beam radiotherapy, the secretion of abdominal ascites rapidly decreased, resulting in complete resolution after 2 weeks. There was no clinical evidence of chylous ascites on follow-up. As a result of this experience, we believe that external beam radiotherapy should be considered as an alternative therapy in refractory cases of chylous ascites. (orig.) [German] Das Chyloperitoneum ist eine seltene Komplikation nach Pankreatikoduodenektomie. Wir berichten ueber einen 76-jaehrigen Patienten mit Chyloperitoneum nach Resektion eines Pankreaskarzinoms. Die konservativen Therapiestrategien, wie beispielsweise diaetetische Massnahmen oder totale parenterale Ernaehrung, waren im vorliegenden Fall ueber einen Zeitraum von 4 Wochen nicht erfolgreich. Es bestand eine persistierende Sekretion von Chylaszites von bis zu 2500 ml/Tag. Basierend auf den klinischen Erfahrungen bei erfolgreich behandelten lymphokutanen Fisteln, wurde eine perkutane Radiotherapie eingeleitet. Die Bestrahlung des paraaortalen Lymphabflusses ueber ventrodorsale Gegenfelder wurde bis zu einer Gesamtdosis von 8,0 Gy in 1,0 Gy Einzeldosis (5 Fraktionen

  17. The 250 kW FiR 1 TRIGA research reactor - International role in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and regional role in isotope production, education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish TRIGA reactor, FiR 1, has been in operation since 1962. From its early days the reactor created versatile research to support both the national nuclear program as well as generally the industry and health care sector. The volume of neutron activation analysis was impressive in the 70's and 80's. In the 1990's a BNCT treatment facility was build at the FiR 1 reactor. The treatment environment is of world top quality after a major renovation of the whole reactor building in 1997. Over one hundred patient irradiations have been performed since May 1999. FiR 1 is one of the few facilities in the world providing this kind of treatments. Due to the BNCT project FiR 1 has become an important research and education unit for medical physics. Education and training play also a role at FiR 1 in the form of university courses and training of nuclear industry personnel. Isotopes for tracer studies are produced normally twice a week. The reactor is operated by four reactor operators and five shift supervisors; this in addition to their work as research scientists or research engineers. (author)

  18. Treatment Guidelines for Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: Preliminary Consensus of an International Expert Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Elizabeth H., E-mail: ebaldini@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wang, Dian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Haas, Rick L.M. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Catton, Charles N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Indelicato, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Medical Center, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Roberge, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Salerno, Kilian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Deville, Curtiland [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Washington, DC (United States); Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Sullivan, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Le Pechoux, Cecile [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Evidence for external beam radiation therapy (RT) as part of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is limited. Preoperative RT is the subject of a current randomized trial, but the results will not be available for many years. In the meantime, many practitioners use preoperative RT for RPS, and although this approach is used in practice, there are no radiation treatment guidelines. An international expert panel was convened to develop consensus treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Methods and Materials: An expert panel of 15 academic radiation oncologists who specialize in the treatment of sarcoma was assembled. A systematic review of reports related to RT for RPS, RT for extremity sarcoma, and RT-related toxicities for organs at risk was performed. Due to the paucity of high-quality published data on the subject of RT for RPS, consensus recommendations were based largely on expert opinion derived from clinical experience and extrapolation of relevant published reports. It is intended that these clinical practice guidelines be updated as pertinent data become available. Results: Treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS are presented. Conclusions: An international panel of radiation oncologists who specialize in sarcoma reached consensus guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Many of the recommendations are based on expert opinion because of the absence of higher level evidence and, thus, are best regarded as preliminary. We emphasize that the role of preoperative RT for RPS has not been proven, and we await data from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study of preoperative radiotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for patients with RPS. Further data are also anticipated pertaining to normal tissue dose constraints, particularly for bowel tolerance. Nonetheless, as we await these data, the guidelines herein can be used to establish treatment uniformity to aid future assessments of efficacy

  19. Treatment Guidelines for Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: Preliminary Consensus of an International Expert Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evidence for external beam radiation therapy (RT) as part of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is limited. Preoperative RT is the subject of a current randomized trial, but the results will not be available for many years. In the meantime, many practitioners use preoperative RT for RPS, and although this approach is used in practice, there are no radiation treatment guidelines. An international expert panel was convened to develop consensus treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Methods and Materials: An expert panel of 15 academic radiation oncologists who specialize in the treatment of sarcoma was assembled. A systematic review of reports related to RT for RPS, RT for extremity sarcoma, and RT-related toxicities for organs at risk was performed. Due to the paucity of high-quality published data on the subject of RT for RPS, consensus recommendations were based largely on expert opinion derived from clinical experience and extrapolation of relevant published reports. It is intended that these clinical practice guidelines be updated as pertinent data become available. Results: Treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS are presented. Conclusions: An international panel of radiation oncologists who specialize in sarcoma reached consensus guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Many of the recommendations are based on expert opinion because of the absence of higher level evidence and, thus, are best regarded as preliminary. We emphasize that the role of preoperative RT for RPS has not been proven, and we await data from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study of preoperative radiotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for patients with RPS. Further data are also anticipated pertaining to normal tissue dose constraints, particularly for bowel tolerance. Nonetheless, as we await these data, the guidelines herein can be used to establish treatment uniformity to aid future assessments of efficacy

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel liposome containing BPA-peptide conjugate for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakawa, Makoto [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan)], E-mail: m0720347@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yamamto, Tetsuya; Nakai, Kei [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Aburai, Kenichi [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Kawatobi, Sho [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University (Japan); Tsurubuchi, Takao; Yamamoto, Yohei [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yokoyama, Yuusaku; Okuno, Hiroaki [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University (Japan); Matsumura, Akira [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    We aimed at securing sufficient concentrations of {sup 10}B in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by developing a new drug delivery system. We have designed and developed a novel lipid analog and succeeded in using it to develop the new boron component liposome. It consisted of three different kinds of amino acid derivatives and two fatty acids, and could react directly with the peptide synthesized first on resin by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis. In this study, lipid analog conjugated with HIV-TAT peptide (domain of human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) was synthesized and successfully incorporated into liposomes.

  1. Modification of the radial beam port of ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akan, Zafer; Türkmen, Mehmet; Çakir, Tahir; Reyhancan, İskender A; Çolak, Üner; Okka, Muhittin; Kiziltaş, Sahip

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims to describe the modification of the radial beam port of ITU (İstanbul Technical University) TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications. Radial beam port is modified with Polyethylene and Cerrobend collimators. Neutron flux values are measured by neutron activation analysis (Au-Cd foils). Experimental results are verified with Monte Carlo results. The results of neutron/photon spectrum, thermal/epithermal neutron flux, fast group photon fluence and change of the neutron fluxes with the beam port length are presented. PMID:25746919

  2. The optimization study of Bonner sphere in the epi-thermal neutron irradiation field for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Tanaka, H; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K; Sakurai, Y

    2011-12-01

    The optimization study on the Bonner sphere in the epi-thermal neutron irradiation field for BNCT was done for the moderator material, moderator size, and activation foils as a neutron detector in the sphere. The saturated activity for the activation foil was obtained from the calculated response, and the effective energy range for each Bonner sphere was determined from the saturated activity. We can see that boric acid solution moderator is suitable for the spectrum measurement of a epi-thermal neutron irradiation field.

  3. The new hybrid thermal neutron facility at TAPIRO reactor for BNCT radiobiological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, J; Rosi, G; Agosteo, S

    2007-01-01

    A new thermal neutron irradiation facility, devoted to carry out both dosimetric and radiobiological studies on boron carriers, which are being developed in the framework of INFN BNCT project, has been installed at the ENEA Casaccia TAPIRO research fast reactor. The thermal column, based on an original, hybrid, neutron spectrum shifter configuration, has been recently become operative. In spite of its low power (5 kW), the new facility is able to provide a high thermal neutron flux level, uniformly distributed inside the irradiation cavity, with a quite low gamma background. The main features and preliminary benchmark measurements of the Beam-shaping assembly are here presented and discussed.

  4. CT-assisted evaluation of the results of radiation and surgical treatment of paranasal and nasopharyngeal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 40 patients with bening and malignant paranasal sinusal and nasopharyngeal tumors were examined to evaluate the effectiveness of radiation and surgical treatment with the help of computerized tomography (CT). The aim of CT examinations was to reveal CT-findings of radiation pathomorphosis of a tumor mass and contiguous tissue, to determine their CT-structure, and to find residual masses after the treatment. CT-findings of three stages of tumor radiation pathomorphosis were determined. Some criteria of objective assessment of the rsults of radiation and surgical treatment of paranasal sinusal and nasopharyngeal tumors were proposed

  5. Palliative treatment of advanced cancer using multiple nonconfluent pencil beam radiation. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the era of orthovoltage radiation, multiple nonconfluent pencil beam radiation (GRID) therapy was utilized to minimize superficial normal tissue damage while delivering tumorcidal doses at specified depths in tissues. The success of GRID therapy was based on the fact that small volumes of tissues could tolerate high doses of radiation. Since the development of megavoltage radiation and skin sparing, GRID therapy has been abandoned. In a pilot study, the authors adapted the principles of GRID therapy to megavoltage photon beams to treat patients with massive tumors or recurrent tumors after tolerance doses of radiation. Twenty-two patients have been entered in the study. All patients were symptomatic and had exhaustive conventional surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy approaches to treatment. A 50:50 GRID (open to closed areas) was utilized, and a prescribed dose of 1000 to 1500 cGy to the open areas was given using a single photon field. In four patients, a second GRID treated was delivered at a split course interval of 4 weeks. The follow-up in these patients ranges from 1 month to 18 months. The results of treatment have been remarkable with 20 of 22 patients achieving dramatic relief of severe symptoms, and several patients showing significant objective regression. No acute effects have been observed, including those patients having large volumes of the abdomen irradiated. No unusual skin or subcutaneous early or late damage has been observed in follow-up

  6. Advances in 4D Radiation Therapy for Managing Respiration: Part II – 4D Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Mihaela; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    The development of 4D CT imaging technology made possible the creation of patient models that are reflective of respiration-induced anatomical changes by adding a temporal dimension to the conventional 3D, spatial-only, patient description. This had opened a new venue for treatment planning and radiation delivery, aimed at creating a comprehensive 4D radiation therapy process for moving targets. Unlike other breathing motion compensation strategies (e.g. breath-hold and gating techniques), 4D radiotherapy assumes treatment delivery over the entire respiratory cycle – an added bonus for both patient comfort and treatment time efficiency. The time-dependent positional and volumetric information holds the promise for optimal, highly conformal, radiotherapy for targets experiencing movements caused by respiration, with potentially elevated dose prescriptions and therefore higher cure rates, while avoiding the uninvolved nearby structures. In this paper, the current state of the 4D treatment planning is reviewed, from theory to the established practical routine. While the fundamental principles of 4D radiotherapy are well defined, the development of a complete, robust and clinically feasible process still remains a challenge, imposed by limitations in the available treatment planning and radiation delivery systems. PMID:22796324

  7. Clinical, biological, histological features and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oral mucositis is a main side effect of radiotherapy on head and neck, initiating two weeks after the beginning of the treatment. It is characterized by sensation of local burning to intense pain, leading in several cases, to the interruption of the treatment. The purpose of this work is to review the main published studies that discuss the clinical, biological and histopathological features of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and to describe the main approaches recommended to prevent or to treat it. Although the clinical features of mucositis are intensively described in the literature, few studies address the histopathological alterations in oral mucositis and only recently, its biological processes have been investigated. The biological mechanisms involved in the radiation tissue damage have been only recently discussed and there is no consensus among treatment modalities. Yet, the progressive knowledge in the histopathology and biological characteristics of oral mucositis probably will lead to more effective in prevention and control strategies. (author)

  8. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients....

  9. Genotoxicity in earthworm after combined treatment of ionising radiation and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of mercury and radiation on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). The levels of DNA damage and the repair kinetics in the coelomocytes of E. fetida treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and ionising radiation (gamma rays) were analysed by means of the comet assay. For detection of DNA damage and repair, E. fetida was exposed to HgCl2 (0-160 mg kg-1) and irradiated with gamma rays (0-50 Gy) in vivo. The increase in DNA damage depended on the concentration of mercury or dose of radiation. The results showed that the more the oxidative stress induced by mercury and radiation the longer the repair time that was required. When a combination of HgCl2 and gamma rays was applied, the cell damage was much higher than those treated with HgCl2 or radiation alone, which indicated that the genotoxic effects were increased after the combined treatment of mercury and radiation. (authors)

  10. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them. PMID:27390489

  11. External beam radiation for retinoblastoma: Results, patterns of failure, and a proposal for treatment guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze treatment results and patterns of failure following external beam radiation for retinoblastoma and propose treatment guidelines according to specific clinical variables. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 27 patients (34 eyes) with retinoblastoma who received external beam radiation as initial treatment at Hahnemann University Hospital from October 1980 to December 1991 and have been followed for at least 1 year. Of the 34 eyes, 14 were Groups I-II (Reese-Ellsworth classification), 7 were Group III, and 13 were Groups IV-V. Doses ranged from 34.5-49.5 Gy (mean 44.3 Gy, median 45 Gy) in 1.5-2.0 Gy fractions generally delivered through anterior and lateral wedged pair fields. Results: At a mean follow up of 35.2 months (range 12-93 months), local tumor control was obtained in 44% (15 out of 34) of eyes with external beam radiation alone. Salvage therapy (plaque brachytherapy, cryotherapy, and/or photocoagulation) controlled an additional 10 eyes (29.5%), so that overall ocular survival has been 73.5%. Local tumor control with external beam radiotherapy alone was obtained in 78.5% (11 out of 14) of eyes in Groups I-II, but in only 20% (4 out of 20) of eyes in Groups III-V. A total of 67 existing tumors were identified prior to treatment in the 34 treated eyes and local control with external beam radiation alone was obtained in 87% (46 out of 53) of tumors measuring 15 mm or less and in 50% (7 out of 14) of tumors measuring more than 15 mm. When analyzing patterns of failure in the 19 eyes that relapsed, a total of 28 failure sites were identified and consisted of progression of vitreous seeds in seven instances (25% of failure sites) recurrences from previously existing tumors in 10 instances (36% of failure sites) and development of new tumors in previously uninvolved retina in 11 instances (39% of failure sites). Conclusions: 1) We find that external beam radiation to a dose of 45 Gy in fractions of 1.5 to 2.0 Gy provides adequate tumor control

  12. Combination treatment of gamma radiation and paraben in controlling spoilage of poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view of controlling spoilage, combination treatment of poultry meat with gamma radiation and a chemical preservative has been investigated. Raw poultry pieces of about 25 g. weight were dipped in 0.1% propyl-paraben solution for two hours and were given a 0.1 Mrad dose from 60Co gamma radiation. It was found that paraben was not affected by irradiation. The flavour evaluation scores indicated the shelf-life of poultry meat was prolonged by a couple of days as compared to untreated controls in refrigerated storage. (M.G.B.)

  13. Prophylaxis of radiation (chemoradiation) complexes using antioxidant complexes in combined and multimodality treatment of oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the efficiency of radiation and chemoprotective effects of an antioxidant complex of C, E, A vitamins (AC) in combined and multimodality treatment, randomized study of 419 patients with malignant tumors of different localization is carried out. The results of the study have confirmed the recently obtained experimental data on acute chemoprotective AC properties. It is shown that AC application considerably improves resistance of the organism against injuries of ionizing radiation and cytostatics without reduction of their antitumoral effect. It is noted that AC is simple in application and there is no toxic effect on the organism. 4 refs.; 1 tab

  14. Reversal of cerebral radiation necrosis with bevacizumab treatment in 17 Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bevacizumab has been suggested as a new treatment modality for cerebral radiation necrosis due to its ability to block the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in leakage-prone capillaries, though its use still remains controversial in clinical practice. Methods The use of bevacizumab in 17 patients with symptomatic cerebral radiation necrosis poorly controlled with dexamethasone steroid treatments was examined between March 2010 and January 2012. Bevacizumab therapy was administered for a minimum of two cycles (7.5 mg/kg, at two-week interval with a median of four bevacizumab injections. Changes in bi-dimensional measurements of the largest radiation necrosis lesions were observed by gadolinium-enhanced and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Additionally, dexamethasone dosage, Karnofsky performance status (KPS, adverse event occurrence and associated clinical outcomes were recorded for each patient. Results MRI analysis revealed that the average reduction was 54.9% and 48.4% in post-gadolinium and T2-weighted sequence analysis, respectively. Significant clinical neurological improvements were expressed in 10 patients according to KPS values. Dexamethasone reduction was achieved four weeks after initiation of bevacizumab in all patients, with four patients successfully discontinuing dexamethasone treatment. Mild to moderate bevacizumab-related adverse events, such as fatigue, proteinuria and hypertension were observed in three patients. Upon follow-up at 4 to 12 months, 10 patients showed clinical improvement, and 7 patient deaths occurred from tumor progression (5 patients, recurrent necrosis (1 patient, and uncontrolled necrosis-induced edema (1 patient. Conclusions These findings suggest bevacizumab as a promising treatment for cerebral radiation necrosis induced by common radiation therapies, including external beam radiotherapy (EBRT, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS, and fractionated stereotactic

  15. Synergistic effect of ionizing radiation on chemical disinfectant treatments for reduction of natural microflora on seafood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatments would produce synergistic disinfection effects on seafood products such as mussel and squid compared with single treatments. We investigated the bactericidal effects of chlorine and ionizing radiation on the natural microflora of mussel and squid. Total aerobic bacteria initially ranged from 102 to 104 Log CFU/g. More than 100 ppm of chlorine and irradiation at 1 kGy were sufficient to reduce the total aerobic bacteria on mussel and squid to a level lower than detection limit (10 CFU/g). Synergistic effects against natural microflora were observed for all combined treatment. These results suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combine chlorine-ionizing radiation treatment against natural microflora on mussel and squid. - Highlights: ► Synergistic effect of combined treatments of chlorine and irradiation was tested using seafood. ► Synergistic effect against natural microflora was observed for all combined treatments. ► Therefore, it is recommended that industry use the combined treatment for better effect.

  16. Radiation dosage accepted by children during interventional treatment for congenital ventricular septal defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To estimate the radiation dose to which children are exposed during cardiac catheterizations for the treatment of ventricular septal defect, to analyze the factors affecting the radiation dose and to find out the measures to decrease the radiation dose. Methods: From December 2008 to October 2009, transcatheter closure was performed in 30 children with perimembranous ventricular septal defect. During the procedure the radiation doses to the children were estimated by using thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). The TLD chips were calibrated before use and were attached in four measuring points,representing the radiation dose of the crystalline lens, the thyroid, the exposure field and the gonad. Results: The mean entrance dose of the crystalline lens,the thyroid,the exposure field and the gonad was (65.7 ± 48.8)μGy, (2618.2 ± 862.6)μGy, (3376.5 ± 838.4)μGy and (57.0 ± 59.4)μGy, respectively. The mean fluoroscopic time used for interventional procedure was (7.2 ± 3.0) minutes, and the mean angiographic exposures time was (6.1 ± 1.8) seconds. Conclusion: Transcatheter closure therapy for perimembranous ventricular septal defect is safe and effective. The exposure field is the region receiving the largest radiation dose, in the next place was the thyroid.Some more effective protections, such as smaller exposure field, strengthened protection of thyroid region, etc. should be taken in order to decrease the X-ray radiation dosage accepted by children as they are more sensitive to radiation exposure. (authors)

  17. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Ahmad, T.; Barth, R. F.; Kabalka, G. W.

    2014-01-01

    low phenylalanine diet prior to the initiation of BNCT. Since BPA currently is used clinically for BNCT, our observations may have direct relevance to future clinical studies utilizing this agent and provides support for individualized treatment planning regimens rather than the use of fixed BPA infusion protocols. PMID:24684609

  18. Evaluation of BPA uptake in clear cell sarcoma (CCS) in vitro and development of an in vivo model of CCS for BNCT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, T., E-mail: fujitaku@hp.pref.hyogo.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Andoh, T. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Sudo, T. [Section of Translational Research, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fujita, I.; Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Moritake, H. [Division of Pediatrics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Sugimoto, T. [Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Shigaken Hospital, Ritto 520-3046 (Japan); Sakuma, Y. [Department of Pathology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Nangoku 783-8505 (Japan); Sonobe, H. [Department of Pathology, Chugoku Central Hospital, Fukuyama 720-0001 (Japan); Epstein, Alan L. [Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine,University of Southern California, Los Angeles,CA 90033 (United States); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kirihata, M. [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Fukumori, Y.; Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS), a rare malignant tumor with a predilection for young adults, is of poor prognosis. Recently however, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with the use of p-borono-L-phenylalanine (BPA) for malignant melanoma has provided good results. CCS also produces melanin; therefore, the uptake of BPA is the key to the application of BNCT to CCS. We describe, for the first time, the high accumulation of boron in CCS and the CCS tumor-bearing animal model generated for BNCT studies.

  19. Treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic gastritis with prednisolone: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Zhang; Xiao-Ying Xie; Yan Wang; Yan-Hong Wang; Yi Chen; Zheng-Gang Ren

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastritis is an infrequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding.It is a serious complication arising from radiation therapy,and the standard treatment method has not been established.The initial injury is characteristically acute inflammation of gastric mucosa.We presented a 46-year-old male patient with hemorrhagic gastritis induced by external radiotherapy for metastatic retroperitoneal lymph node of hepatocellular carcinoma.The endoscopic examination showed diffuse edematous hyperemicmucosa with telangiectasias in the whole muscosa of the stomach and duodenal bulb.Mlultiple hemorrhagic patches with active oozing were found over the antrum.Anti-secretary therapy was initiated for hemostasis,but melena still occurred off and on.Finally,he was successfully treated by prednisolone therapy.We therefore strongly argue in favor of perdnisolone therapy to effectively treat patients with radiation-induced hemorrhagic gastritis.

  20. Role of radiation therapy in the multi-modal treatment of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of radiation therapy as part of the multi-modal treatment of head and neck cancer appeared to be important with respect to functional and cosmetic morbidity. As for oral cancer, the value of brachytherapy was excellent in cases of localized disease. As far as the latter technique was applicable, patients with tongue cancer at T1, T2 and T3 could be treated by radiation as the initial choice unless palpable neck node metastasis was present. In contrast, cure of the lesion would not be expected from external irradiation alone even when combined with chemotherapy. Accordingly, in such advanced cases, salvage surgery should be applied with or without radiation and/or chemotherapy. As for maxillary cancer, the introduction of ''trimodal therapy'' has improved the local control rate only to a slight degree. After the application of conservative surgery followed by conventional trimodal combination therapy, local control and five-year survival rates have been improved markedly. (author)

  1. Azaboranes (RNH2)B8H11NHR. A new type of boron cluster for possible use in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interesting group of novel, water-soluble (RNH2)B8H11NHR species can be regarded as new boron carriers with potential use in the synthesis of boron-rich compounds for application in BNCT. These azaboranes are synthesized by the reaction of B9H13(SMe2) with primary amines NH2R. (author)

  2. Characterization measurement of a thick CdTe detector for BNCT-SPECT – Detection efficiency and energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Author's group is carrying out development of BNCT-SPECT with CdTe device, which monitors the therapy effect of BNCT in real-time. From the design calculations, the dimensions were fixed to 1.5×2×30 mm3. For the collimator it was confirmed that it would have a good spatial resolution and simultaneously the number of counts would be acceptably large. After producing the CdTe crystal, the characterization measurement was carried out. For the detection efficiency an excellent agreement between calculation and measurement was obtained. Also, the detector has a very good energy resolution so that gamma-rays of 478 keV and 511 keV could be distinguished in the spectrum. - Highlights: • BNCT-SPECT is developed with CdTe device to estimate therapy effect of BNCT. • By design calculations, CdTe dimensions are determined to be 1.5×2×30 mm3. Collimator length is 10 cm with 2 mm diameter hole. • Producing the crystal, efficiency and energy resolution were measured. • Excellent agreement was obtained between measurement and calculation. Discrimination of 478 keV and 511 keV was confirmed in the spectrum

  3. Boron imaging with a microstrip silicon detector for applications in BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, A.; Basilico, F.; Bolognini, D.; Borasio, P.; Cappelletti, P.; Chiari, P.; Conti, V.; Frigerio, M.; Gelosa, S.; Giannini, G.; Hasan, S.; Mascagna, V.; Mauri, P.; Monti, A. F.; Mozzanica, A.; Ostinelli, A.; Prest, M.; Scazzi, S.; Vallazza, E.; Zanini, A.

    2009-06-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapic technique exploiting the α particles produced after the irradiation of the isotope 10 of boron with thermal neutrons in the capture reaction B(n,α)710Li. It is used to treat tumours that for their features (radioresistance, extension, localization near vital organs) cannot be treated through conventional photon-beams radiotherapy. One of the main limitations of this technique is the lack of specificity (i.e. the ability of localizing in tumour cells, saving the healthy tissues) of the compounds used to carry the 10B isotope in the organs to be treated. This work, developed in the framework of the INFN PhoNeS project, describes the possibility of boron imaging performed exploiting the neutrons photoproduced by a linac (the Clinac 2100C/D of the S. Anna Hospital Radiotherapy Unit in Como, Italy) and detecting the α s with a non-depleted microstrip silicon detector: the result is a 1D scan of the boron concentration. Several boron doped samples have been analysed, from solutions of H3BO3 (reaching a minimum detectable amount of 25 ng of 10B) to biological samples of urine containing BPA and BSH (the two molecules currently used for the clinical trials in BNCT) in order to build kinetic curves (showing the absolute 10B concentration as a function of time). Further measurements are under way to test the imaging system with 10BPA-Fructose complex perfused human lung samples.

  4. Resumption of JRR-4 and characteristics of neutron beam for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Horiguchi, H; Kishi, T; Motohashi, J; Sasajima, F; Kumada, H

    2011-12-01

    The clinical trials of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) have been conducted using Japan Research Reactor No. 4 (JRR-4) at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). On December 28th, 2007, a crack of a graphite reflector in the reactor core was found on the weld of the aluminum cladding. For this reason, specifications of graphite reflectors were renewed; dimensions of the graphite were reduced and gaps of water were increased. All existing graphite reflectors of JRR-4 were replaced by new graphite reflectors. In February 2010 the resumption of JRR-4 was carried out with new graphite reflectors. We measured the characteristics of neutron beam at the JRR-4 Neutron Beam Facility. A cylindrical water phantom of 18.6 cm diameter and 24 cm depth was set in front of the beam port with 1cm gap. TLDs and gold wires were inserted within the phantom when the phantom was irradiated. The results of the measured thermal neutron flux and the gamma dose in water were compared with that of MCNP calculation. The neutron energy spectrum of the calculation model with new reflector had little variation compared to that with old reflector, but intensities of the neutron flux and gamma dose with new reflector were rather smaller than those with old reflector. The calculated results showed the same tendency as that of the experimental results. Therefore, the clinical trials of BNCT in JRR-4 could be restarted.

  5. Radiation therapy of malignant melanoma: Experience with high individual treatment doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is a complex tumor, metastasizes early both by lymphatic and blood vessels, and which may invoke a significant host ''immune,'' response. One can imagine a number of potentially useful roles for an effective radiation therapy regimen: 1. Treatment of the primary lesion. For small lesions located on the extremities, surgery may be simpler and obviate the risk of radiation failure. In other areas, e.g., head and neck, which may require more cosmetically or functionally debilitating surgery, a trial of radiation therapy may be worthwhile. 2. Preoperative radiation to the primary lesion before surgical resection in the hope of preventing tumor dissemination. 3. Prophylactic, local and regional lymph node radiation therapy. It has been popular in the past to remove malignant melanoma with wide local excision and dissection of adjacent node areas. It is still an open question whether some or any additional patients will be cured by the more vigorous local and extended treatment. Generally, those procedures have fallen into disfavor because of the associated morbidity. Presumably subclinical amounts of malignant melanoma could be sterilized with doses of radiation smaller than those necessary for bulk tumor. Wide field irradiation to the areas surrounding the primary lesion and the adjacent lymph nodes, to doses causing little morbidity, may well be worth clinical trial. 4. In combination with other forms of therapy, e.g., chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, to reduce the number of malignant cells in localized areas known to contain diseases. This may be particularly important prior to initiation of immunotherapy which may be much more effective in the absence of gross disease

  6. Risk of second bone sarcoma following childhood cancer: role of radiation therapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Boris; Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine; Cléro, Enora; Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Hélène; Munzer, Martine; N'guyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Hawkins, Mike; Winter, David; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima; Bénichou, Jacques; de Vathaire, Florent

    2014-05-01

    Bone sarcoma as a second malignancy is rare but highly fatal. The present knowledge about radiation-absorbed organ dose-response is insufficient to predict the risks induced by radiation therapy techniques. The objective of the present study was to assess the treatment-induced risk for bone sarcoma following a childhood cancer and particularly the related risk of radiotherapy. Therefore, a retrospective cohort of 4,171 survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated between 1942 and 1986 in France and Britain has been followed prospectively. We collected detailed information on treatments received during childhood cancer. Additionally, an innovative methodology has been developed to evaluate the dose-response relationship between bone sarcoma and radiation dose throughout this cohort. The median follow-up was 26 years, and 39 patients had developed bone sarcoma. It was found that the overall incidence was 45-fold higher [standardized incidence ratio 44.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 31.0-59.8] than expected from the general population, and the absolute excess risk was 35.1 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 24.0-47.1). The risk of bone sarcoma increased slowly up to a cumulative radiation organ absorbed dose of 15 Gy [hazard ratio (HR) = 8.2, 95 % CI 1.6-42.9] and then strongly increased for higher radiation doses (HR for 30 Gy or more 117.9, 95 % CI 36.5-380.6), compared with patients not treated with radiotherapy. A linear model with an excess relative risk per Gy of 1.77 (95 % CI 0.6213-5.935) provided a close fit to the data. These findings have important therapeutic implications: Lowering the radiation dose to the bones should reduce the incidence of secondary bone sarcomas. Other therapeutic solutions should be preferred to radiotherapy in bone sarcoma-sensitive areas.

  7. Three-dimensional treatment planning and conformal radiation therapy: preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary clinical results are presented for 209 patients with cancer who had treatment planned on our three-dimensional radiation treatment planning (3-D RTP) system and were treated with external beam conformal radiation therapy. Average times (min) for CT volumetric simulation were: 74 without or 84 with contrast material; 36 for contouring of tumor/target volume and 44 for normal anatomy; 78 for treatment planning; 53 for plan evaluation/optimization; and 58 for verification simulation. Average time of daily treatment sessions with 3-D conformal therapy or standard techniques was comparable for brain, head and neck, thoracic, and hepatobiliary tumors (11.8-14 min and 11.5-12.1, respectively). For prostate cancer patients treated with 3-D conformal technique and Cerrobend blocks, mean treatment time was 19 min; with multileaf collimation it was 14 min and with bilateral arc rotation, 9.8 min. Acute toxicity was comparable to or lower than with standard techniques. Sophisticated 3-D RTP and conformal irradiation can be performed in a significant number of patients at a reasonable cost. Further efforts, including dose-escalation studies, are necessary to develop more versatile and efficient 3-D RTP systems and to enhance the cost benefit of this technology in treatment of patients with cancer

  8. Effects of radiation treatment planning and patient fixation on the results of postoperative radiotherapy of childhood medulloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocsis, B.; Pap, L.; Nemeth, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Szekely, G. [Dept. of Cytogenetics, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)

    2003-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic factors and the benefit of introducing head fixation and CT-assisted radiation treatment planning following postoperative radiotherapy in 83 children with medulloblastoma. Patients and Methods: In 24 children treated between 1986 and 1994, no head fixation was applied and boost irradiation was not based on individual radiation treatment planning. Since 1995, boost irradiation has been assisted by CT-based individual radiation treatment planning and ORFIT head fixation in 59 patients. The influence of various factors including age, sex, tumor location, extent, type of surgery, risk group, radiation dose to posterior fossa and spinal axis, and the effect of head fixation and CT-assisted radiation treatment planning on 5-year relapse-free and 5-year overall survival was investigated. Results: Overall and relapse-free survival rates for all 83 patients were 73.5% and 60.7%. Univariate analysis identified metastatic disease (p = 0.034) and the application of head fixation and individual radiation treatment planning (p = 0.013) as significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Relapse-free survival rates were influenced by metastatic disease (p = 0.028) and the application of head fixation and individual radiation treatment planning (p = 0.009). On multivariate analysis, metastatic disease (p = 0.04) and the application of head fixation and individual radiation treatment planning (p = 0.045) were significant factors for overall and relapse-free survival (p = 0.036 and p = 0.041) as well. Conclusion: Metastatic disease appears to be correlated with a worse prognosis in this analysis. Individual radiation treatment planning and head fixation have a positive impact on survival. For postoperative radiotherapy of the posterior fossa, the application of head fixation and individual CT-based radiation treatment planning is considered indispensable in each case. (orig.)

  9. Radiation Injury Treatment Network®: Preparedness Through a Coalition of Cancer Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Cullen

    2016-08-01

    This article provides an overview of Radiation Injury Treatment Network® (RITN), its preparedness activities and capabilities, including training and educating over 11,500 hospital staff, coordinating over 500 exercises, developing treatment guidelines, developing standard operating procedures, and being recognized by the U.S. federal government as a national response asset. The RITN provides comprehensive evaluation and treatment for victims with marrow toxic injuries. Many of the casualties from the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND) (a.k.a. terrorist nuclear bomb) with only radiation injuries will be salvageable; however, they would require outpatient and/or inpatient care. Recognizing this, the U.S. National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP), U.S. Navy, and American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) collaboratively developed RITN, which comprises medical centers with expertise in the management of bone marrow failure. The medical community will undoubtedly be taxed by the resulting medical surge from an IND despite the well-defined United States emergency medical system, the National Disaster Medical System; however, one area that is unique for radiological disasters is the care for casualties with acute radiation syndrome. Hematologists and oncologists purposefully expose their cancer patients to high doses of radiation and toxic chemicals for chemotherapy as they treat their patients, resulting in symptoms not unlike casualties with exposure to ionizing radiation from a radiological disaster. This makes the staff from cancer centers ideal for the specialized care that will be required for thousands of casualties following a mass casualty radiological incident. The RITN is a model for how a collaborative effort can fill a readiness gap-through its network of 76 hospitals, blood donor centers, and cord blood banks, the RITN is preparing to provide outpatient care and specialized supportive care to up to 63,000 radiological casualties

  10. A multi-target approach to pancreatic cancer treatment using radiation and concurrent dual targeting chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer has a survival rate of less than 5% five years after diagnosis. Treatment for pancreatic cancer consists of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Despite this multimodality approach local regional reoccurrence of pancreatic cancer is common. In many cases pancreatic cancer recurrence is due to the therapeutic resistance of pancreatic cancer cells. While the genetics of pancreatic cancer are highly complex, about 90% of all pancreatic cancers exhibit a constitutively active KRAS oncogene. Common characteristics of this mutation are constitutive activation of the pro-survival transcription factor NF-kB and increased activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. NF-kB controls cell survival, angiogenesis, and invasion while PDH kinase causes the shift commonly seen in cancer metabolism to aerobic glycolysis (Warburg metabolism). We hypothesized that by blocking the pro-survival signals from NF-kB with the inhibitor Dimethylamino-parthenolide (DMAPT) and by shifting the metabolism from Warburg metabolism back to oxidative metabolism by using Dichloroacetate (DCA that we can increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy in treating pancreatic carcinomas clinically). This study examined the effectiveness of Dimethylamino-parthenolide (DMAPT) and Dichloroacetate (DCA) to induce cytotoxicity and increase radiation-induced cell killing in human pancreatic cancer cells MIA PaCa-2, BxPc-3, and AsPc-1. We found that dual treatment of the three pancreatic cancer cell lines: altered Warburg metabolism; decreased cell viability; altered cell cycle distribution; increased population doubling times; and increased radiation-induced cell killing after single and fractionated doses through inhibition of split dose and DNA double strand break repair. In summary, we have established that dual treatment with DMAPT and DCA is not only cytotoxic but also significantly enhances radiation-induced cell killing of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. (author)

  11. Treatment of folliculitis decalvans using intensity-modulated radiation via tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folliculitis decalvans (FD) is a form of primary neutrophilic scarring alopecia that is characterized clinically by chronic suppurative folliculitis and often associated with pruritus or even pain. Treatment of FD is often difficult. Herein, we report a case of recalcitrant and painful folliculitis decalvans refractory to antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapies, which was successfully treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in order to irreversibly eliminate hair follicles that prove to be one etiological trigger. A 45-year-old male patient with a refractory FD presented with a crusting suppurative folliculitis and atrophic scarring patches on the scalp associated with pain and pruritus. We attempted relief of symptoms by reducing scalp inflammation and eliminating hair follicles through radiation. We delivered 11.0 Gy in two radiation series using tomotherapy, 5.0 Gy in 5 equivalent fractions as a first radiation course. The symptoms markedly decreased but did not totally disappear. Therefore, we delivered a second radiation series 4 months later with an additional 6 Gy. This led to almost complete epilation on the scalp and abolished pain and pruritus on the capillitium. The patient was regularly followed up until 26 months after radiotherapy. Draining lesions or exudation did not recur. He only experienced discrete hair regrowth in the occipital region with folliculitis 12 months after radiotherapy. These residual lesions are currently treated with laser epilation therapy. A radical approach to eliminating hair follicles by repeated radiation therapy may induce lasting relief of symptoms in chronic suppurative FD associated with persistent trichodynia. (orig.)

  12. Gene therapy delivery of endostatin enhances the treatment efficacy of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To evaluate whether sustained expression of mouse endostatin by adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer can enhance the treatment efficacy of ionizing radiation. Materials and methods: Mouse endostatin was cloned into recombinant AAV (rAAV) under the control of CMV β-actin promoter. Recombinant mouse endostatin expressed via AAV gene transfer was tested for biological activity in endothelial cells. The impact of elevated serum levels of endostatin on tumor-induced angiogenesis was evaluated using an in vivo angiogenesis assay. The anti-tumor efficacy of combining rAAV-mediated endostatin delivery with radiation was evaluated in a human colorectal tumor model (HT29). Results: Recombinant mouse endostatin expressed through an AAV vector (rAAV-mEndo) inhibited endothelial cell proliferation (by 40-45%) and migration (by 22-33%). Intramuscular injection of rAAV-mEndo (1x109 i.u.) led to a sustained serum endostatin level of ∼500 ng/ml. Compared to control animals this endostatin level was sufficient to inhibit tumor cell-induced vessel formation (37 vs. 28.5, P3, 21 vs. 34.5 days, P3 (radiation, 34 days; endostatin plus radiation, 50 days, P<0.05). Conclusion: The delivery of endostatin via rAAV vectors may provide an effective means of enhancing the anti-tumor efficacy of radiation therapy

  13. Treatment of Cerenkov radiation from electric and magnetic charges in dispersive and dissipative media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rigorous treatment of the problem of Cerenkov radiation from fast moving electric and magnetic charges is presented. This is based on the rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations in a general dispersive medium possessing dielectric and magnetic properties and with, and without, dissipation. It is shown that the fields are completely determined by one scalar function. Expressions for the exact fields are obtained. From the asymptotic fields all the relevant properties of Cerenkov radiation are reproduced. In particular, it is shown that in the absence of dissipation the energy in each mode travels with the phase velocity of that mode. For a dissipative medium the electric field develops a longitudinal component and the energy propagates at an angle to the phase velocity. Application to the case of a Tachyon shows that it must emit Cerenkov radiation in vacuum. An estimate is given for the resulting linear density of emitted radiation. Finally, two suggestions are made for the experimental detection of magnetic charges and electric dipole moments of elementary particles based upon the Cerenkov radiation which they would emit in dispersive media. (author)

  14. Androgen Induces Adaptation to Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer: Implications for Treatment with Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehonathan H. Pinthus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is a standard treatment for prostate cancer (PC. The postulated mechanism of action for radiation therapy is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Adjuvant androgen deprivation (AD therapy has been shown to confer a survival advantage over radiation alone in high-risk localized PC. However, the mechanism of this interaction is unclear. We hypothesize that androgens modify the radioresponsiveness of PC through the regulation of cellular oxidative homeostasis. Using androgen receptor (AR+ 22rv1 and AR− PC3 human PC cell lines, we demonstrated that testosterone increased basal reactive oxygen species (bROS levels, resulting in dose-dependent activation of phospho-p38 and pAKT, increased expression of clusterin, catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase. Similar data were obtained in three human PC xenografts; WISH-PC14, WISH-PC23, CWR22, growing in testosterone-supplemented or castrated SCID mice. These effects were reversible through AD or through incubation with a reducing agent. Moreover, testosterone increased the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutases, glutathione reductase. Consequently, AD significantly facilitated the response of AR+ cells to oxidative stress challenge. Thus, testosterone induces a preset cellular adaptation to radiation through the generation of elevated bROS, which is modified by AD. These findings provide a rational for combined hormonal and radiation therapy for localized PC.

  15. Treatment of waste water by a combined technique of radiation and conventional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakumoto, A.; Miyata, T.

    Treatment of waste water by radiation in combination with a conventional method such as biological oxidation, coagulation with Fe 2(SO 4) 3, and ozonation has been studied for reducing necessary dose. Ethylene glycol ethers, polyoxyethylene n-nonyl phenyl ether (NPE), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), ethylene glycol, phenol, and oxalic acid were used as a model pollutant. The combined use of radiation and biological oxidation markedly improved the removal of TOC in aqueous oxygenated solution of ethylene glycol ethers. The combined use of radiation and coagulation has remarkable effects on the reduction of TOC in aqueous deoxygenated solution of NPE or PVA. The simultaneous use of radiation and ozone gave a synergistic effect on oxidative degradation of organic pollutants. The synergistic effect was suggested to arise from chain reactions having a powerful oxidizing agent (OH radical). The rate of TOC removal by the process depended on dose rate. Aqueous solution of 150 mg/l oxalic acid was treated by the combined use of electron beams and ozone using a new type of irradiation vessel to reduce TOC with G(-TOC) of 87 at 2.3 × 10 7 rad/h. The simultaneous use of radiation and ozone is superior to the removal of TOC by other combined methods and can be applied irrespective of the type of organic matter.

  16. Treatment of chronic radiation enteritis and colitis with salicylazosulfapyridine and systemic corticosteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, F.; Khoury, J.; Thornton, J.J.

    1976-03-01

    Four patients with severe chronic radiation enteritis and/or colitis were treated with anti-inflammatory drugs that are used conventionally in the treatment of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. Salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) was used in the treatment of all four patients, while one patient received oral prednisone together with SASP. All four patients were treated and observed for over one year, with follow-up observations now extending to over three years. The four patients showed striking clinical improvement, accompanied by improvement in the radiographic appearance of affected bowel, complete or almost complete in three and incomplete in the fourth patient. The results of this pilot investigation are encouraging and call for wider clinical trials of the same and related drugs in larger groups of patients with chronic radiation enterocolitis, a serious condition that has until now not been successfully treated with drugs.

  17. Low-grade astrocytomas: treatment with unconventionally fractionated external beam stereotactic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen patients with nonoperable low-grade astrocytomas were treated with unconventionally fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. The target volume was defined with computed tomography (CT) performed under stereotactic conditions. The treatment was carried out with a technique producing multiple noncoplanar arc irradiation, with the center of the target volume placed at the isocenter of the linear accelerator. A total dose of 16-50 Gy was administered in either one fraction or two fractions 8 days apart. The concentration of dose within the target volume allowed reduction of dose absorbed by adjacent critical structures of the intact brain. Patients were followed up for 11-48 months. Twelve of 14 patients had a partial or complete response to treatment, as demonstrated by CT. Stereotactic radiation therapy appears to be effective in the control of small radioresistant cerebral neoplasms, without damaging surrounding healthy tissues

  18. Low-grade astrocytomas: treatment with unconventionally fractionated external beam stereotactic radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozza, F.; Colombo, F.; Chierego, G.; Avanzo, R.C.; Marchetti, C.; Benedetti, A.; Casentini, L.; Danieli, D.

    1989-05-01

    Fourteen patients with nonoperable low-grade astrocytomas were treated with unconventionally fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. The target volume was defined with computed tomography (CT) performed under stereotactic conditions. The treatment was carried out with a technique producing multiple noncoplanar arc irradiation, with the center of the target volume placed at the isocenter of the linear accelerator. A total dose of 16-50 Gy was administered in either one fraction or two fractions 8 days apart. The concentration of dose within the target volume allowed reduction of dose absorbed by adjacent critical structures of the intact brain. Patients were followed up for 11-48 months. Twelve of 14 patients had a partial or complete response to treatment, as demonstrated by CT. Stereotactic radiation therapy appears to be effective in the control of small radioresistant cerebral neoplasms, without damaging surrounding healthy tissues.

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen in the radiation treatment of head and neck cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sealy, R. (Mersey Regional Centre for Radiotherapy and Oncology, Merseyside (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    Published report on the use of hyperbaric oxygen in the radiation therapy of head and neck cancer are reviewed. The weight of evidence, from randomized trials, is that it is of clinical value in the control of medium sized head and neck tumours. It is also of value in the treatment of lymph node disease. Four attempts to improve the results of the treatment, by various physiological measures,are reviewed. It is concluded that hyperbaric oxygen may be of use when combined with nitro- imidazoles as a radiation sensitizer and warrants further study when combined with induced anaemia, aimed to reduce the tumour cord and prevent repopulation between fractions. (author). 21 refs.; 2 tabs.

  20. Multimodality treatment by radiation and hyperthermochemotherapy for pulmonary and pleural metastases of breast cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endou, Masaru; Suzuki, Hirotoshi; Nakashima, Yukihiro (St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1992-06-01

    We treated 17 patients with metastatic pulmonary and pleural breast cancer by a combination of radiation, chemotherapy and hyperthermia. Hyperthermia with chemotherapy using adriamycin, farmorubicin, mitomycin C, 5-fluorouracil, tegafur and/or cisplatin in the form of continuous intravenous infusion was given. The thermochemotherapy had only a limited effectiveness. But good responses are seen in postirradiation adjuvant thermochemotherapy. Heating could alleviate some chemotherapeutic side effects in some way by heat reservoir. Fifty percent survival period was 12 months by the Kaplan-Meier method. As severe or serious side effects were not experienced, this treatment was thought available for outpatients. We believe that multimodality treatment by thermochemotherapy with radiation is promising for advanced or recurrent pulmonary metastases of breast cancers. (author).

  1. Compounds of 6Li and natural Li for EPR dosimetry in photon/neutron mixed radiation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, E; Gustafsson, H; Danilczuk, M; Sastry, M D; Lund, A

    2004-05-01

    Formates and dithionates of 6Li, enriched and 7Li in natural composition of Li offer a possibility to measure the absorbed dose from photons and thermal neutrons in a mixed radiation field for instance at a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility. Tests with formates and dithionates of enriched 6Li and lithium compounds with natural composition have been performed at the BNCT facility at Studsvik, Sweden. Irradiations have been performed at 3 cm depth in a Perspex phantom in a fluence rate of thermal neutrons 1.8 x 10(9) n cm(-2) s(-1). The compounds were also irradiated in a pure X-ray field from a 4MV linear accelerator at 5 cm depth in a phantom with accurately determined absorbed doses. The signal intensity and shape was investigated within 3 h after the irradiation. A single line spectrum attributed to the CO2- radical was observed after irradiation of lithium formate. An increase in line width occurring after neutron irradiation in comparison with photon irradiation of the 6Li sample was attributed to dipolar broadening between CO2- radicals trapped in the tracks of the alpha particles. A spectrum due to the SO3- radical anion was observed after irradiation of lithium dithionate. The signal amplitude increased using the 6Li in place of the Li with natural composition of isotopes, in studies with low energy X-ray irradiation. Due to the decreased line width, caused by the difference in g(N) and I between the isotopes, the sensitivity with 6Li dithionate may be enhanced by an order of magnitude compared to alanine dosimetry. After comprehensive examination of the different combinations of compounds with different amounts of 6Li and 7Li regarding dosimetry, radiation chemistry and EPR properties these dosimeter material might be used for dose determinations at BNCT treatments and for biomedical experiments. Interesting properties of the radical formation might be visible due to the large difference in ionization density of neutrons compared to photons.

  2. Hodgkin lymphoma: Evolution and dilemma in radiation treatments; Evolution et dilemmes dans les traitements du lymphome de Hodgkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girinsky, T.; Ghalibafian, M.; Paumier, A. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Dept. des Radiations, 94 - Villejuif (France); Ghalibafian, M. [Hopital Marak, Dept. des radiations, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Multiple new developments in the treatments of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma have occurred in the last 10 years. Radiation treatments have become extremely precise in localized Hodgkin lymphomas, on the other hand, they have almost completely disappeared in advanced stages. For patients with refractory or recurrent disease, it is strongly advocated, whenever feasible, to deliver a mantle field radiation treatment after an autologous stem cell transplant to avoid any further recurrence of the disease. (authors)

  3. Combined treatment using chemical oxidation and radiation for enhancement degradation of chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined treatment using chemical oxidation and radiation has been considered for enhancement of chitosan degradation. The oxidative reagent was chosen to be hydrogen peroxide from heterogeneous reaction. Optimal conditions of concentration, temperature, pH were also determined. Characteristics of chitosan products were investigated by measurements of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR), viscosity average molecular weight (MW), ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  4. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for the primary treatment of localized prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oliai, Caspian; Lanciano, Rachelle; Sprandio, Brian; Yang, Jun; Lamond, John; Arrigo, Steven; Good, Michael; Mooreville, Michael; Garber, Bruce; Brady, Luther W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The low alpha/beta ratio of prostate cancer suggests that hypofractionated schemes of dose-escalated radiotherapy should be advantageous. We report our experience using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the primary treatment of prostate cancer to assess efficacy and toxicity. Methods From 2007 to 2010, 70 patients (51 % low risk, 31 % intermediate risk, and 17 % high risk) with localized prostate cancer were treated with SBRT using the CyberKnife system. One-third of pa...

  5. Probabilistic safety analysis of radiation treatments with linear accelerator (Spanish Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication addresses the issue of accidental exposures of radiotherapy patients and how to avoid them. More proactive approaches are required to anticipate and thus avoid situations that could lead to accidental exposures. In this context, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Ibero American Forum of Radiation and Nuclear and Safety Regulatory Agencies (the FORO) have applied proactive methods, such as probabilistic safety assessment to radiotherapy treatments with accelerators. The methodology and results of this exercise are described in this publication.

  6. Sinonasal Malignancies and Charged Particle Radiation Treatment: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Amichetti; Marco Cianchetti

    2012-01-01

    Background. Paranasal and nasal cavity malignancies are rare tumors that frequently present at advanced stages. Tumor extension and anatomic complexity pose a challenge for their treatment. Due to their peculiar physical and biological properties particle radiation therapy, i.e. protons and ions can have a role in their management. We performed a systematic literature review to gather clinical evidence about their use to treat sinonasal malignancies. Materials and Methods. We searched the bro...

  7. A study of the radiobiological modeling of the conformal radiation therapy in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakuryal, Anil Prasad

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortalities in the world. The precise diagnosis of the disease helps the patients to select the appropriate modality of the treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The physics of X-radiation and the advanced imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the efficient diagnosis and therapeutic treatments in cancer. However, the accuracy of the measurements of the metabolic target volumes (MTVs) in the PET/CT dual-imaging modality is always limited. Similarly the external beam radiation therapy (XRT) such as 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the most common modality in the radiotherapy treatment. These treatments are simulated and evaluated using the XRT plans and the standard methodologies in the commercial planning system. However, the normal organs are always susceptible to the radiation toxicity in these treatments due to lack of knowledge of the appropriate radiobiological models to estimate the clinical outcomes. We explored several methodologies to estimate MTVs by reviewing various techniques of the target volume delineation using the static phantoms in the PET scans. The review suggests that the more precise and practical method of delineating PET MTV should be an intermediate volume between the volume coverage for the standardized uptake value (SUV; 2.5) of glucose and the 50% (40%) threshold of the maximum SUV for the smaller (larger) volume delineations in the radiotherapy applications. Similarly various types of optimal XRT plans were designed using the CT and PET/CT scans for the treatment of various types of cancer patients. The qualities of these plans were assessed using the universal plan-indices. The dose-volume criteria were also examined in the targets and organs by analyzing the conventional dose-volume histograms (DVHs). The biological models such as tumor

  8. Treatment of Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: The Role of Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer remains associated with an extremely poor prognosis. Surgical resection can be curative, but the majority of patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Treatment for patients with locally advanced disease is controversial. Therapeutic options include systemic therapy alone, concurrent chemoradiation, or induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation. We review the evidence to date regarding the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), as well as evolving strategies including the emerging role of targeted therapies. We propose that if radiation is used for patients with LAPC, it should be delivered with concurrent chemotherapy and following a period of induction chemotherapy.

  9. Treatment for infections complications of experimental acute radiation sickness with sulacillin, a combined antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapeutic efficiency of sulacillin (combination of ampicillin antibiotic with beta-lactamase sulbactam inhibitor) used for prevention and treatment of infections complications of the acute radiation disease (ARD) is considered. It is shown that sulacillin antiinfections effect essentially exceeds the activity of ampicillin by treatment of irradiated mice infected with a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Kl pneumoniae. Inclusion of the sulacillin as a principal antibiotic into the ARD therapeutic scheme provides for the 66.6 % survival of dogs at LD90/45

  10. Simultaneous treatment of polymer surface by EUV radiation and ionized nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Budner, Boguslaw; Korczyc, Barbara; Fiedorowicz, Henryk [Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, Warsaw (Poland); Lisowski, Wojciech; Sobczak, Janusz [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper chemical modification of a poly(vinylidene fluoride) surface by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiation in a presence of ionized nitrogen was demonstrated for the first time. Nitrogen gas, injected into an interaction region, was ionized and excited by the EUV radiation from a laser-plasma source. The ionization degree and excited states of nitrogen were investigated using EUV spectrometry and the corresponding spectra are presented. Chemical modification of polymer after combined EUV and ionized nitrogen treatment was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A significant contribution of nitrogen atoms in near-surface layer of the polymer after the treatment was demonstrated. (orig.)

  11. Dose enhancement by synchrotron radiation and heavy atoms for the treatment of gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High grade gliomas are brain tumors of bad prognosis. The standard therapeutic treatment combines surgery, radiotherapy and sometimes use of temozolomide (chemotherapy agent). Healthy tissues radio-sensitivity is a major limitation for radiotherapy treatment. The stereotactic radiotherapy by synchrotron radiation is an innovative technique which combines a low energy radiation (lower 100 keV) with the presence of heavy atoms in the tumoral zone. Such an approach is used to increase the differential of dose deposited in the tumor compared to surrounding healthy tissues. In this study, several compounds containing heavy atoms such as chemotherapy agents: cisplatin/carbo-platin, a DNA base analog: 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR) and gold nano-particles were considered. The dose enhancement factor induced by the presence of these compounds located for some of them in the extracellular medium or inside the cells for others, was determined using in vitro studies. Thereafter, in vivo studies on rats bearing gliomas, were performed to study the toxicity, the kinetic of distribution and the localization of these compounds together with their potential efficacy of treatment combining intracerebral injection with low energy radiation. (author)

  12. SU-C-19A-05: Treatment Chairs for Modern Radiation Therapy Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, L; Fullen, D; Tharp, K; Palmer, J; Ungchusri, G; Reyes, L; Tong, T; Nguyen, S; Phillips, T; Balter, P [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Treating patients in a seated position has potential advantages including improved comfort, increased lung volume, and reduced respiratory motion. We compared chair designs for head and neck, thoracic and breast patients for use with either IGRT linacs or a proposed low-cost fixed horizontal beam-line machine. Methods: Three treatment chairs were designed and constructed. Two of the chairs are based on a massage-chair, with the patient angled slightly forwards and knee rests used to minimize intra-fraction slouch. The third chair design is more conventional; the patient is angled backwards, with indexed positioning devices and the ability to attach thermoplastic masks. Patient geometries, including PTV location and patient sizes, were extracted from 137 CTs of past patients were used to model the probability of collision between the patient and the linac for various seated positions. All chairs were designed around the weight limits for couches on our linacs. At the time of writing we have just received IRB approval for imaging studies to evaluate comfort, and intra- and interfraction reproducibility. Results: The geometric analysis showed that head and neck patients and thoracic patients could be treated without collision. However, there is very limited space between the patient and the treatment/imaging devices, so careful design of the chair is essential. The position of the treatment target and extended arm positioning means that this is a particular concern for thoracic and breast patients. This was demonstrated for one of the prototype chairs designed for breast treatment where the arm holders would collide with the kV detector. The extra clearance of a dedicated fixed-beam linac would overcome these difficulties. Intra- and inter-fraction reproducibility results will be presented at the meeting. Conclusion: To take advantage of the clinical advantages of seated treatments, appropriate treatment chairs are needed. A dedicate fixed-beam linac may

  13. Synergistic effect of green tea EGCG treatment with gamma radiation in leukemia cell necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During cancer therapy, gamma-ray irradiation and treatment of anti-cancer chemicals destroy the normal cells as well as cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of epigallocathechin-gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea, which is known to have anti-cancer and anti-oxident activities, in order to find out the feasible method to protect the normal cells and to kill the cancer cells efficiently. We investigated the effect of EGCG on the leukemia cell growth and cell necrosis, especially when treated along with gamma radiation. The EGCG inhibited the leukemia cell, HL-60, growth at the appropriate concentration while it exhibited no influence on the normal cell growth. More significantly, it enhanced leukemia cell necrosis when its treatment was combined with gamma irradiation. Simultaneous treatment of EGCG and gamma radiation increased leukemia cell necrosis up to 35% compared with separate treatments. These results suggest that drinking of green tea or co-treatment of EGCG during gamma irradiation therapy may result in better prognosis through enhancement of the tumor cell necrosis and protection of the normal cells

  14. Treatment modalities of oral mucositis after radiation of head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute mucositis is common after radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. During the past 3 decades, there was a gradual evolution in the treatment modalities for locally advanced carcinomas (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy). These new strategies are accompanied by an increase in early mucosal reactions. At the present time, there is no widely accepted prophylaxis or effective treatment. Many traditional remedies or new agents seem ineffective (Sucralfate, Chlorhexidine, GM-CSF, Silver nitrate, Prostaglandin, anti-oxidants, Benzydamine hydrochloride), while others seem promising (Povidone-iodine, nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges and anti-fungal, local GM-CSF, Glutamide, Low-energy laser, corticosteroids). Radioprotectors are controversial and should be only used in experimental protocols and not in routine practice. However, some recommendations can be proposed: general prevention and global care before cancer therapy should be systematic (oral hygiene, dental and periodontal treatment, advice to avoid the use of tobacco and alcohol); frequent oral rinsing with a bland mouthwash (Povidone-iodine or others) should be used at the start of treatment because there are significant modifications of the oral microflora increased by a disturbed salivary flow; these mouthwashes could be associated with nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges or anti-fungal topical (bicarbonates, Amphotericine B); Systematic percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy should be decided before any aggressive treatments (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy); pain should be controlled; finally, the radiation technique should be optimized (mucosal sparing block, conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy). (authors)

  15. An exploration of the feasibility of radiation therapist participation in treatment reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As radiation oncologists' (ROs') workload has increased over time, treatment review clinics have become recognized as an area of RO practice into which radiation therapist (RT) practice could extend. There has been limited utilization of RTs in this role in Australia and a paucity of data on the acceptability and opinions regarding RTs practising in this role in an Australian context. The purpose of this audit was to investigate the feasibility of RT participation in review clinics at Calvary Mater Newcastle. Feasibility was determined by two methods: an audit of 200 treatment reviews to determine medical intervention (MI) levels required and a survey of 80 clinical staff to explore attitudes towards RT participation in clinics. Medical intervention was required in 59% (n = 118) of observed reviews, with the lowest being for breast (33%) and prostate (28%) cancers. MI peaked at 73% between fractions 16–20 and was lowest early and late in the treatment period at 48%. There were 60 responses to the staff survey. All but one respondent agreed that RTs would be willing to participate in treatment review clinics, but all five consultant ROs indicated they would not be willing to delegate reviews to RTs. Neither feasibility measure reached acceptable levels to recommend RT participation in treatment review clinics. Further investigation and RT education are required to help meet the future RO workforce shortfall. As MI rates are lowest for breast and prostate cancer RT participation could be targeted to these clinics

  16. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  17. Tumour growth delay and cell survival in rat R-1 tumours after radiation and methotrexate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rat R-1 rhabdomyosarcoma which forms colonies in vitro has been used to investigate the effectiveness of radiochemotherapy. Tumour growth delay data were compared with those on survival of cells derived from tumours treated in situ. Methotrexate (MTX) was administered i.p. in three doses of 10 mg per kg body weight at intervals of 4 h. A dose of 10 Gy of 300 kV X rays was given at different time intervals before or after the MTX treatment. The observed tumour growth delays for the combined treatment for intervals of up to 4 d were less than the sum of those following separate treatments. An excess in growth delay was observed when MTX was given 6 to 8 days after or 5 days before a dose of 10 Gy. The radiation treatment resulted in fractions of surviving cells which remained constant for up to 6 days after treatment. The effectiveness of the MTX treatment could be assessed at 3d after administration of the drug, that of the combined treatments as at least 3 days after the MTX treatment. (Auth.)

  18. Evaluation of planning dose accuracy in case of radiation treatment on inhomogeneous organ structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Yong; Lee, Jae Hee; Kwak, Yong Kook; Ha, Min Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    We are to find out the difference of calculated dose of treatment planning system (TPS) and measured dose in case of inhomogeneous organ structure. Inhomogeneous phantom is made with solid water phantom and cork plate. CT image of inhomogeneous phantom is acquired. Treatment plan is made with TPS (Pinnacle3 9.2. Royal Philips Electronics, Netherlands) and calculated dose of point of interest is acquired. Treatment plan was delivered in the inhomogeneous phantom by ARTISTE (Siemens AG, Germany) measured dose of each point of interest is obtained with Gafchromic EBT2 film (International Specialty Products, US) in the gap between solid water phantom or cork plate. To simulate lung cancer radiation treatment, artificial tumor target of paraffin is inserted in the cork volume of inhomogeneous phantom. Calculated dose and measured dose are acquired as above. In case of inhomogeneous phantom experiment, dose difference of calculated dose and measured dose is about -8.5% at solid water phantom-cork gap and about -7% lower in measured dose at cork-solid water phantom gap. In case of inhomogeneous phantom inserted paraffin target experiment, dose difference is about 5% lower in measured dose at cork-paraffin gap. There is no significant difference at same material gap in both experiments. Radiation dose at the gap between two organs with different electron density is significantly lower than calculated dose with TPS. Therefore, we must be aware of dose calculation error in TPS and great care is suggested in case of radiation treatment planning on inhomogeneous organ structure.

  19. SU-E-J-267: Change in Mean CT Intensity of Lung Tumors During Radiation Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, R; Tennyson, N; Weiss, E; Hugo, G [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate CT intensity change of lung tumors during radiation therapy. Methods: Repeated 4D CT images were acquired on a CT simulator during the course of therapy for 27 lung cancer patients on IRB approved protocols. All subjects received definitive radiation treatment ± chemotherapy. CT scans were completed prior to treatment, and 2–7 times during the treatment course. Primary tumor was delineated by an experienced Radiation Oncologist. Contours were thresholded between −100 HU and 200 HU to remove airways and bone. Correlations between the change in the mean tumor intensity and initial tumor intensity, SUVmax, and tumor volume change rate were investigated. Reproducibility was assessed by evaluating the variation in mean intensity over all phases in 4DCT, for a subgroup of 19 subjects. Results: Reproducibility of tumor intensity between phases as characterized by the root mean square of standard deviation across 19 subjects was 1.8 HU. Subjects had a mean initial tumor intensity of 16.5 ± 11.6 HU and an overall reduction in HU by 10.3 ± 8.5 HU. Evaluation of the changes in tumor intensity during treatment showed a decrease of 0.3 ± 0.3 HU/day for all subjects, except three. No significant correlation was found between change in HU/day and initial HU intensity (p=0.53), initial PET SUVmax (p=0.69), or initial tumor volume (p=0.70). The rate of tumor volume change was weakly correlated (R{sup 2}=0.05) with HU change (p=0.01). Conclusion: Most lung cancer subjects showed a marked trend of decreasing mean tumor CT intensity throughout radiotherapy, including early in the treatment course. Change in HU/day is not correlated with other potential early predictors for response, such as SUV and tumor volume change. This Result supports future studies to evaluate change in tumor intensity on CT as an early predictor of response.

  20. SU-E-J-267: Change in Mean CT Intensity of Lung Tumors During Radiation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate CT intensity change of lung tumors during radiation therapy. Methods: Repeated 4D CT images were acquired on a CT simulator during the course of therapy for 27 lung cancer patients on IRB approved protocols. All subjects received definitive radiation treatment ± chemotherapy. CT scans were completed prior to treatment, and 2–7 times during the treatment course. Primary tumor was delineated by an experienced Radiation Oncologist. Contours were thresholded between −100 HU and 200 HU to remove airways and bone. Correlations between the change in the mean tumor intensity and initial tumor intensity, SUVmax, and tumor volume change rate were investigated. Reproducibility was assessed by evaluating the variation in mean intensity over all phases in 4DCT, for a subgroup of 19 subjects. Results: Reproducibility of tumor intensity between phases as characterized by the root mean square of standard deviation across 19 subjects was 1.8 HU. Subjects had a mean initial tumor intensity of 16.5 ± 11.6 HU and an overall reduction in HU by 10.3 ± 8.5 HU. Evaluation of the changes in tumor intensity during treatment showed a decrease of 0.3 ± 0.3 HU/day for all subjects, except three. No significant correlation was found between change in HU/day and initial HU intensity (p=0.53), initial PET SUVmax (p=0.69), or initial tumor volume (p=0.70). The rate of tumor volume change was weakly correlated (R2=0.05) with HU change (p=0.01). Conclusion: Most lung cancer subjects showed a marked trend of decreasing mean tumor CT intensity throughout radiotherapy, including early in the treatment course. Change in HU/day is not correlated with other potential early predictors for response, such as SUV and tumor volume change. This Result supports future studies to evaluate change in tumor intensity on CT as an early predictor of response

  1. INEL BNCT Research Program, March/April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) modal studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  2. Study of the influence on radiation, chemical and thermic treatment in Cesium and Cobalt absorption in natural zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of radiation and thermic treatment of zeolites from El Piojillo (Villa Clara), Orozco (Pinar del Rio) and Palmarito (Santiago de Cuba) deposits in the absorption of cesium-137 is studied. It was verified that as it generally occurs in zeolites, the thermic treatment influences negatively the absorption and the radiation treatment with dose up to 105 Gy does not affect it. Alternatives to chemical and chemical-thermic treatment for zeolite from El Piojillo are also applied. It was noted that previous treatment with NH4OH at 2000C in the vacuum stove and its contact in dynamic regime with NaNO3 improves its capacity of cobalt absorption

  3. Physics strategies for sparing neural stem cells during whole-brain radiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean; Hwang, Andrew; Barani, Igor J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Currently, there are no successful long-term treatments or preventive strategies for radiation-induced cognitive impairments, and only a few possibilities have been suggested. One such approach involves reducing the dose to neural stem cell compartments (within and outside of the hippocampus) during whole-brain radiation treatments for brain metastases. This study investigates the fundamental physics issues associated with the sparing of neural stem cells during photon radiotherapy for brain metastases. Methods: Several factors influence the stem cell dose: intracranial scattering, collimator leakage, beam energy, and total number of beams. The relative importance of these factors is investigated through a set of radiation therapy plans, which are all variations of an initial 6 MV intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan designed to simultaneously deliver a whole-brain dose of 30 Gy and maximally reduce stem cell compartment dose. Additionally, an in-house leaf segmentation algorithm was developed that utilizes jaw motion to minimize the collimator leakage. Results: The plans are all normalized such that 50% of the PTV receives 30 Gy. For the initial 6 MV IMRT plan, 50% of the stem cells receive a dose greater than 6.3 Gy. Calculations indicate that 3.6 Gy of this dose originates from intracranial scattering. The jaw-tracking segmentation algorithm, used in conjunction with direct machine parameter optimization, reduces the 50% stem cell dose to 4.3 and 3.7 Gy for 6 and 10 MV treatment beams, respectively. Conclusions: Intracranial scattering alone is responsible for a large dose contribution to the stem cell compartment. It is, therefore, important to minimize other contributing factors, particularly the collimator leakage, to maximally reduce dose to these critical structures. The use of collimator jaw tracking in conjunction with modern collimators can minimize this leakage.

  4. Treatment Effects and Sequelae of Radiation Therapy for Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, Masaharu, E-mail: mhata@syd.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Omura, Motoko; Koike, Izumi [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tomita, Naoto [Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhito [Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tayama, Yoshibumi; Odagiri, Kazumasa; Minagawa, Yumiko [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Among extranodal lymphomas, orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively rare presentation. We performed a review to ascertain treatment efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy for orbital MALT lymphoma. We also evaluated changes in visual acuity after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with orbital MALT lymphoma underwent radiation therapy with curative intent. Clinical stages at diagnosis were stage I{sub E}A in 29 patients and stage II{sub E}A in 1 patient. Total doses of 28.8 to 45.8 Gy (median, 30 Gy) in 15 to 26 fractions (median, 16 fractions) were delivered to the tumors. Results: All irradiated tumors were controlled during the follow-up period of 2 to 157 months (median, 35 months) after treatment. Two patients had relapses that arose in the cervical lymph node and the ipsilateral palpebral conjunctiva outside the radiation field at 15 and 67 months after treatment, respectively. The 5-year local progression-free and relapse-free rates were 100% and 96%, respectively. All 30 patients are presently alive; the overall and relapse-free survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 96%, respectively. Although 5 patients developed cataracts of grade 2 at 8 to 45 months after irradiation, they underwent intraocular lens implantation, and their eyesight recovered. Additionally, there was no marked deterioration in the visual acuity of patients due to irradiation, with the exception of cataracts. No therapy-related toxicity of grade 3 or greater was observed. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was effective and safe for patients with orbital MALT lymphoma. Although some patients developed cataracts after irradiation, visual acuity was well preserved.

  5. Optimization of Heart Block in the Left-sided Whole Breast Radiation Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Jeff Yue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blocks have been used to protect heart from potential radiation damage in left-sided breast treatments. Since cardiac motion pattern may not be fully captured on conventional 3DCT or 4DCT simulation scans, this study was intended to investigate the optimization of the heart block design taking the cardiac motion into consideration.Materials and Methods: Whole breast treatment plans using two opposed tangential fields were designed based on 4DCT simulation images for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Using an OBI system equipped to a Varian Linac, beam-eye viewed fluoroscopy images were acquired for each of the treatment beams after patient treatment setup, and the MLC heart blocks were overlaid onto the fluoroscopy images with an in-house software package. A non-rigid image registration and tracking algorithm was utilized to track the cardiac motion on the fluoroscopy images with minimal manual delineation for initialization, and the tracked cardiac motion information was used to optimize the heart block design to minimize the radiation damage to heart while avoiding the over-shielding that may lead to underdosing certain breast tissues. Results: Twenty-three sets of fluoroscopy images were acquired on 23 different days of treatment for the 10 patients. As expected, heart moved under the influences of both respiratory and cardiac motion. It was observed that for 16 out of the 23 treatments heart moved beyond the planed heart block into treatment fields and MLC had to be adjusted to fully block heart. The adjustment was made for all but one patient. The number of the adjusted MLC leaves ranged from 1 to 16 (mean = 10, and the MLC leaf position adjustment ranged from 2 mm to 10 mm (mean = 6 mm. The added heart block areas ranged from 3 mm2 to 1230 mm2 (mean = 331 mm2. Conclusion: In left-sided whole breast radiation treatments, simulation CT (and 4DCT based heart block design may not provide adequate heart protection for all the

  6. Correcting radiation survey data to account for increased leakage during intensity modulated radiotherapy treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kairn, T. [Premion Cancer Care, Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely St, Auchenflower Qld 4066, Australia and Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia); Crowe, S. B.; Trapp, J. V. [Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments require more beam-on time and produce more linac head leakage to deliver similar doses to conventional, unmodulated, radiotherapy treatments. It is necessary to take this increased leakage into account when evaluating the results of radiation surveys around bunkers that are, or will be, used for IMRT. The recommended procedure of applying a monitor-unit based workload correction factor to secondary barrier survey measurements, to account for this increased leakage when evaluating radiation survey measurements around IMRT bunkers, can lead to potentially costly overestimation of the required barrier thickness. This study aims to provide initial guidance on the validity of reducing the value of the correction factor when applied to different radiation barriers (primary barriers, doors, maze walls, and other walls) by evaluating three different bunker designs.Methods: Radiation survey measurements of primary, scattered, and leakage radiation were obtained at each of five survey points around each of three different radiotherapy bunkers and the contribution of leakage to the total measured radiation dose at each point was evaluated. Measurements at each survey point were made with the linac gantry set to 12 equidistant positions from 0° to 330°, to assess the effects of radiation beam direction on the results.Results: For all three bunker designs, less than 0.5% of dose measured at and alongside the primary barriers, less than 25% of the dose measured outside the bunker doors and up to 100% of the dose measured outside other secondary barriers was found to be caused by linac head leakage.Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that IMRT workload corrections are unnecessary, for survey measurements made at and alongside primary barriers. Use of reduced IMRT workload correction factors is recommended when evaluating survey measurements around a bunker door, provided that a subset of the measurements used in

  7. Optimal treatment scheduling of ionizing radiation and sunitinib improves the antitumor activity and allows dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of radiotherapy with sunitinib is clinically hampered by rare but severe side effects and varying results with respect to clinical benefit. We studied different scheduling regimes and dose reduction in sunitinib and radiotherapy in preclinical tumor models to improve potential outcome of this combination treatment strategy. The chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) was used as an angiogenesis in vivo model and as a xenograft model with human tumor cells (HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma, OE19 esophageal adenocarcinoma). Treatment consisted of ionizing radiation (IR) and sunitinib as single therapy or in combination, using different dose-scheduling regimes. Sunitinib potentiated the inhibitory effect of IR (4 Gy) on angiogenesis. In addition, IR (4 Gy) and sunitinib (4 days of 32.5 mg/kg per day) inhibited tumor growth. Ionizing radiation induced tumor cell apoptosis and reduced proliferation, whereas sunitinib decreased tumor angiogenesis and reduced tumor cell proliferation. When IR was applied before sunitinib, this almost completely inhibited tumor growth, whereas concurrent IR was less effective and IR after sunitinib had no additional effect on tumor growth. Moreover, optimal scheduling allowed a 50% dose reduction in sunitinib while maintaining comparable antitumor effects. This study shows that the therapeutic efficacy of combination therapy improves when proper dose-scheduling is applied. More importantly, optimal treatment regimes permit dose reductions in the angiogenesis inhibitor, which will likely reduce the side effects of combination therapy in the clinical setting. Our study provides important leads to optimize combination treatment in the clinical setting

  8. Use of radionuclides at small water purification plants and in industrial waste water treatment by radiation adsorption method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusentseva, S.A.; Egorov, G.F.; Shubin, V.N. [and others

    1993-12-31

    An irradiation technique for potable water treatment is described. Use of radionuclides as a source of radiation allows for the automation of the process. The treatment is considered to be effective in waste water treatment to remove phenols, pesticides, and other toxic compounds.

  9. Omental transposition flap in colorectal carcinoma: adjunctive use in prevention and treatment of radiation complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, J.E. (St. Joseph Hospital, Elgin, IL); Smoron, G.L.; Gagnon, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The versatility of the omentum has led to its use as a surgical adjunct in the total oncological management of primary and recurrent colorectal carcinoma. The omentum is used as a transposition pedicle flap, broadly based on the left gastroepiploic vascular supply. Following abdominoperineal resection or low anterior resection of the rectum, the small bowel is elevated out of the pelvis by the omental bulk. The pelvic defect is reperitonealized and the risk of pelvic small bowel adhesions is diminished. With the increasing use of postoperative radiation to the pelvis for rectal carcinoma, the tolerance to therapy may be improved and the incidence of radiation enteritis and enteropathy should be reduced. Surgical complications such as leakage from low anterior anastomoses and pelvic abscesses, which may delay or contraindicate necessary postoperative radiation, are dramatically decreased. Reconstruction of the perineum with omental flap provides adequate soft tissue bulk and contour when a radical resection has been performed. The omental flap has been used in 24 patients with colorectal carcinoma; one flap was lost as a result of distal omental infarction in a patient with recurrent rectal carcinoma and radionecrosis of the perineum. The safety and ease of this procedure has allowed increased surgical innovation, especcially in the prevention and treatment of radiation complications.

  10. Omental transposition flap in colorectal carcinoma: adjunctive use in prevention and treatment of radiation complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The versatility of the omentum has led to its use as a surgical adjunct in the total oncological management of primary and recurrent colorectal carcinoma. The omentum is used as a transposition pedicle flap, broadly based on the left gastroepiploic vascular supply. Following abdominoperineal resection or low anterior resection of the rectum, the small bowel is elevated out of the pelvis by the omental bulk. The pelvic defect is reperitonealized and the risk of pelvic small bowel adhesions is diminished. With the increasing use of postoperative radiation to the pelvis for rectal carcinoma, the tolerance to therapy may be improved and the incidence of radiation enteritis and enteropathy should be reduced. Surgical complications such as leakage from low anterior anastomoses and pelvic abscesses, which may delay or contraindicate necessary postoperative radiation, are dramatically decreased. Reconstruction of the perineum with omental flap provides adequate soft tissue bulk and contour when a radical resection has been performed. The omental flap has been used in 24 patients with colorectal carcinoma; one flap was lost as a result of distal omental infarction in a patient with recurrent rectal carcinoma and radionecrosis of the perineum. The safety and ease of this procedure has allowed increased surgical innovation, especcially in the prevention and treatment of radiation complications

  11. SU-E-T-208: Incidence Cancer Risk From the Radiation Treatment for Acoustic Neuroma Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D [Kyung Hee University International Med. Serv., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, W [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, D [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the incidence risk of a secondary cancer from therapeutic doses in patients receiving intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their incidnece excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) were estimated using the corresponding therapeutic doses measured at various organs by radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. Results: When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, normal liver, colon, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were measured. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A LAR were estimated that more than 0.03% of AN patients would get radiation-induced cancer. Conclusion: The tyroid was highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN. We found that LAR can be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  12. Comparison of adaptive response to γ-radiation and nickel sulfate treatment in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of the adaptive response to the impact of the γ-irradiation and nickel sulfate treatment in human cells, as the adaptive factors relative to these mutagens in the challenging doses by the cells survival criterium, is carried out. The pretreatment of human fibroblasts (the rhabdomyosarcoma line) with the low dose γ-radiation (10-14 cGy) formed increased viability of human cells to the nickel sulfate high concentrations (10-5-10-3 M). The adaptive response observed was similar to the radioadaptive response in human fibroblasts pretreated with low doses of γ-radiation with subsequent impact of high dose radiation. The pretreatment of human cells with the nickel sulfate low concentrations induced the DNA increased stability by impact of challenging doses of the γ-radiation and stimulated the DNA reparative synthesis by impact of both NiSO4 and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide. These data confirm the existence of the cross-sectional adaptive response in the experiments with the nickel sulfate

  13. Indentification of radiation treatment of frozen chicken and fresh turkey using DNA comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA comet assay was applied to check the detection of radiation treatment of frozen chicken and fresh turkey. The cells from unirradiated and irradiated samples of chicken and turkey were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed for 15 minutes in 2.5 % SDS and subjected to electrophoresis at a rate of 2V/cm for 2 minutes. After silver staining these slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA (due to radiation treatment) stretched towards the anode and cells appear as comets. The density of DNA material in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However in case of unirradiated samples, the large molecule of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; thus cells were round or had very short tails. Therefore, clear discrimination between unirradiated and irradiated food samples is possible. Hence, DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive and quick screening method for several kinds of foods containing DNA including frozen chicken and fresh turkey. (author)

  14. Radiation Treatment for Primary Adenocarcinoma of Bartholin Gland- A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Yong; Whang, In Soon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-06-15

    A patient with primary adenocarcinoma of Bartholin gland is reported and the literatures relevant to this disease reviewed. Not only this disease is very rare but also primary carcinomas of Bartholin gland are misdiagnosed as cysts or abscesses in half of the cases, leading to considerable delay in diagnosis. And so, It was wasted long time before definitive therapy. However, because of a different clinical behavior, cancer of the Bartholin gland should be distinguished from other vulvar carcinomas. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are the most common. Virtually all histologic types of Bartholin gland carcinoma metastasize to lymph node, bone, lung and liver in distant sites. The authors data and a review of the literature support the concept that radical vulvectomy with or without bilateral inguina1-femoral lymphadenectomy is required. On the other hand, except primary radiation treatment for small or medium sized cancers, the results obtained by radiation therapy in carcinoma of the vulva including Bartholin gland are generally discouraging. A role for postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy suggests because of high incidence of positive inguinal-femoral lymph nodes. In the near time, natural history and biological behavior of Bartholin gland cancer must be disclosed in detail. And also optimal treatment modality and prognostic factors shall be determine.

  15. Experimental study of treatment for radiation-damaged mice by transgenic VEGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effect of VEGF gene expression in the treatment of radiation damage, and to explore its molecular mechanism by transferring eukaryotic expression plasmid containing VEGF gene into irradiated mice cells. Methods: Normally Kunming mice were divided randomly into three groups as control group, irradiated group and transferred VEGF gene group. The mice were administered with 8 Gy X-ray exposure after intramuscular injection of VEGF recombinant plasmid in the transgenic group. The animals were killed at different times after X-ray exposure. Their clinical manifestation, mortality rate, pathology of tissues and in situ apoptosis in thymus and splenic cells were observed. Results: VEGF165 gene fragments were amplified from pSP73/HVEGF165 plasmid by PCR method, and then linked with pcDNA3.1 vector after incision by double enzyme. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/VEGF165 was constructed. Electrophoresis and sequencing showed that the recombinant plasmid sequence was exactly the same with the data in GenBank. The mortality of irradiated group and transgenic group 14 d post-irradiation was 64% and 36%, respectively, with the statistical difference (t=3.92, P165 was successfully constructed. Transgenic treatment with recombinant plasmid can remarkably decrease the mortality and apoptosis rate of thymus and spleen cells in mice suffering from severe radiation damage, and improve the pathologic change of immune organs. VEGF transgenic technique is one of the effective methods for treating severe radiation injury. (authors)

  16. [Evaluation of Radiation Dose during Stent-graft Treatment Using a Hybrid Operating Room System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Yoshihiro; Chida, Kouichi; Kaga, Yuji; Saitou, Kazuhisa; Arai, Takeshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Iwaya, Yoshimi; Kumasaka, Eriko; Kataoka, Nozomi; Satou, Naoto; Abe, Mitsuya

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, aortic aneurysm treatment with stent graft grafting in the X-ray fluoroscopy is increasing. This is an endovascular therapy, because it is a treatment which includes the risk of radiation damage, having to deal with radiation damage, to know in advance is important. In this study, in order to grasp the trend of exposure stent graft implantation in a hybrid operating room (OR) system, focusing on clinical data (entrance skin dose and fluoroscopy time), was to count the total. In TEVAR and EVAR, fluoroscopy time became 13.40 ± 7.27 minutes, 23.67 ± 11.76 minutes, ESD became 0.87 ± 0.41 mGy, 1.11 ± 0.57 mGy. (fluoroscopy time of EVAR was 2.0 times than TEVAR. DAP of EVAR was 1.2 times than TEVAR.) When using the device, adapted lesions and usage are different. This means that care changes in exposure-related factors. In this study, exposure trends of the stent graft implantation was able to grasp. It can be a helpful way to reduce/optimize the radiation dose in a hybrid OR system.

  17. Long-term results and complications of preoperative radiation in the treatment of rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, W.P.; Garb, J.L.; Park, W.C.; Stark, A.J.; Chabot, J.R.; Friedmann, P.

    1988-02-01

    A retrospective study of 149 patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1972 and 1979 was undertaken to compare survival, disease-free survival, recurrence sites, and long-term complications of 40 patients who received 4000 to 4500 rads of preoperative adjuvant radiotherapy (radiation group) with those of 109 patients treated by resection alone (control group). After a mean follow-up of 84 months and 99 months, respectively, survival of the irradiated patients was significantly better than that of controls (68% versus 52%, p less than 0.05). Disease-free survival of those patients rendered free of disease by treatment was also superior for the irradiated group (84% versus 57%, p less than 0.005). Local recurrence without signs of distant metastases developed only one-third as often in irradiated patients (6% versus 18%). Distant metastases, alone or in combination with local recurrence, were also less common after radiation (12% versus 27%). Second primary tumors developed in 15% and 10% of the respective groups, a difference that was not statistically significant. When we consider the survival benefit of preoperative radiation therapy, long-term complications were relatively mild. Delayed healing of the perineum was noted in two irradiated patients. Persistent diarrhea was severe enough to warrant treatment in only one case, and one patient required a colostomy for intestinal obstruction from pelvic fibrosis.

  18. Long-term results and complications of preoperative radiation in the treatment of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study of 149 patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1972 and 1979 was undertaken to compare survival, disease-free survival, recurrence sites, and long-term complications of 40 patients who received 4000 to 4500 rads of preoperative adjuvant radiotherapy (radiation group) with those of 109 patients treated by resection alone (control group). After a mean follow-up of 84 months and 99 months, respectively, survival of the irradiated patients was significantly better than that of controls (68% versus 52%, p less than 0.05). Disease-free survival of those patients rendered free of disease by treatment was also superior for the irradiated group (84% versus 57%, p less than 0.005). Local recurrence without signs of distant metastases developed only one-third as often in irradiated patients (6% versus 18%). Distant metastases, alone or in combination with local recurrence, were also less common after radiation (12% versus 27%). Second primary tumors developed in 15% and 10% of the respective groups, a difference that was not statistically significant. When we consider the survival benefit of preoperative radiation therapy, long-term complications were relatively mild. Delayed healing of the perineum was noted in two irradiated patients. Persistent diarrhea was severe enough to warrant treatment in only one case, and one patient required a colostomy for intestinal obstruction from pelvic fibrosis

  19. Evaluation of radiation dose during sent-graft treatment using a hybrid operating room system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, aortic aneurysm treatment with stent graft grafting in the X-ray fluoroscopy is increasing. This is an endovascular therapy, because it is a treatment which includes the risk of radiation damage, having to deal with radiation damage, to know in advance is important. In this study, in order to grasp the trend of exposure stent graft implantation in a hybrid operating room (OR) system, focusing on clinical data (entrance skin dose and fluoroscopy time), was to count the total. In TEVAR and EVAR, fluoroscopy time became 13.40 ± 7.27 minutes, 23.67 ± 11.76 minutes, ESD became 0.87 ± 0.41 mGy, 1.11 ± 0.57 mGy. (fluoroscopy time of EVAR was 2.0 times than TEVAR. DAP of EVAR was 1.2 times than TEVAR). When using the device, adapted lesions and usage are different. This means that care changes in exposure-related factors. In this study, exposure trends of the stent graft implantation was able to grasp. It can be a helpful way to reduce/optimize the radiation dose in a hybrid OR system. (author)

  20. Successful treatment of a case of extensive radiation burns with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeyang; Wang, Jinlun; Li, Gang; Lin, Weihua; Li, Xiaojian; Tong, Renlian

    2013-01-01

    A patient sustained acute third-degree radiation burns over 41% of his body surface. The burns were due to occupational injury caused by an electron accelerator. Most of his wounds appeared and spread gradually during the 10th week after the radiation burn. Subsequently, severe wound infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, severe pneumonia, respiratory failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, nephropathy, and hypoproteinemia had developed 3 months after the radiation injury. Most of the skin grafts could neither survive nor spread on the fresh wound after removing the necrotic tissue. This phenomenon resulted in many more wounds after operations, increasing the risk of wound infection. Parenteral nutrition, respiratory support with a ventilator, antibiotics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, steroid therapeutics for nephropathy, deeper debridement for wounds, and skin grafting were applied for treatment of this patient. The patient recovered gradually and was discharged from the hospital in good condition after 18 months. The authors suggest that deeper excision of necrotic tissue and skin grafting as well as appropriate antibiotics are principal measures to counteract systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Sufficient albumen by vein and steroid should be administered for treatment against nephropathy and for control of infection. Functions of organs should be carefully monitored to fine-tune the therapeutic programs and to minimize complications of organs.