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Sample records for bnct filter design

  1. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of suitable neutron sources and neutron beam is critical to the success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In this work a compact system designed for BNCT is presented. The system consists of 252Cf fission neutron source and a moderator/reflector/filter/shield assembly. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimized to maximize the epithermal neutron component which is useful for BNCT treatment of deep seated tumors with the suitably low level of beam contamination. The MCMP5 code has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons, secondary gamma rays originating from 252Cf source and the primary gamma rays emitted directly by this source at the exit face of the compact system. The fluence rate distributions of such particles were also computed along the central axis of a human head phantom

  2. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassoun, J. [EPRA, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, B.P. 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)], E-mail: ghassoun@ucam.ac.ma; Chkillou, B.; Jehouani, A. [EPRA, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, B.P. 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)

    2009-04-15

    The development of suitable neutron sources and neutron beam is critical to the success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In this work a compact system designed for BNCT is presented. The system consists of {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source and a moderator/reflector/filter/shield assembly. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimized to maximize the epithermal neutron component which is useful for BNCT treatment of deep seated tumors with the suitably low level of beam contamination. The MCMP5 code has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons, secondary gamma rays originating from {sup 252}Cf source and the primary gamma rays emitted directly by this source at the exit face of the compact system. The fluence rate distributions of such particles were also computed along the central axis of a human head phantom.

  3. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassoun, J; Chkillou, B; Jehouani, A

    2009-04-01

    The development of suitable neutron sources and neutron beam is critical to the success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In this work a compact system designed for BNCT is presented. The system consists of (252)Cf fission neutron source and a moderator/reflector/filter/shield assembly. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimized to maximize the epithermal neutron component which is useful for BNCT treatment of deep seated tumors with the suitably low level of beam contamination. The MCMP5 code has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons, secondary gamma rays originating from (252)Cf source and the primary gamma rays emitted directly by this source at the exit face of the compact system. The fluence rate distributions of such particles were also computed along the central axis of a human head phantom. PMID:19168369

  4. Spectral performance of a composite single-crystal filtered thermal neutron beam for BNCT research at the University of Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, J; Nigg, D W; Hawthorne, M F; McKibben, C

    2009-07-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and initial neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline to be used for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The calculated and measured thermal neutron fluxes produced at the irradiation location are 9.6 x 10(8) and 8.8 x 10(8)neutrons/cm(2)s, respectively. Calculated and measured cadmium ratios (Au foils) are 217 and 132. These results indicate a well-thermalized neutron spectrum with sufficient thermal neutron flux for a variety of small animal BNCT studies.

  5. Investigation on the reflector/moderator geometry and its effect on the neutron beam design in BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasesaz, Y; Rahmani, F; Khalafi, H

    2015-12-01

    In order to provide an appropriate neutron beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), a special Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) must be designed based on the neutron source specifications. A typical BSA includes moderator, reflector, collimator, thermal neutron filter, and gamma filter. In common BSA, the reflector is considered as a layer which covers the sides of the moderator materials. In this paper, new reflector/moderator geometries including multi-layer and hexagonal lattice have been suggested and the effect of them has been investigated by MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. It was found that the proposed configurations have a significant effect to improve the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio which is an important neutron beam parameter.

  6. A feasibility design study on a neutron spectrometer for BNCT with liquid moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, S; Sato, F; Murata, I

    2015-12-01

    Neutrons generated by accelerators have various energy spectra. However, only limited methods are available to measure the whole neutron energy spectrum, especially when including the epithermal region that is normally used in BNCT. In the present study, we carried out the design study on a new neutron spectrometer that can measure such a neutron spectrum more accurately, precisely and with higher energy resolution, using an unfolding technique and a liquid moderator.

  7. Neutron collimator design of neutron radiography based on the BNCT facility

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, XP.; Yu, BX; Li, YG; Peng, D; Lu, J.; Zhang, GL.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, AW.; Li, CY.; Liu, WJ; Hu, T.; Lv, JG.

    2013-01-01

    For the research of CCD neutron radiography, a neutron collimator was designed based on the exit of thermal neutron of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) reactor. Based on the Geant4 simulations, the preliminary choice of the size of the collimator was determined. The materials were selected according to the literature data. Then, a collimator was constructed and tested on site. The results of experiment and simulation show that the thermal neutron flux at the end of theneutron collimat...

  8. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included

  9. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  10. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: ► Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. ► Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. ► Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. ► Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. ► Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  11. Neutron collimator design of neutron radiography based on the BNCT facility

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, XP; Li, YG; Peng, D; Lu, J; Zhang, GL; Zhao, H; Zhang, AW; Li, CY; Liu, WJ; Hu, T; Lv, JG

    2013-01-01

    For the research of CCD neutron radiography, a neutron collimator was designed based on the exit of thermal neutron of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) reactor. Based on the Geant4 simulations, the preliminary choice of the size of the collimator was determined. The materials were selected according to the literature data. Then, a collimator was constructed and tested on site. The results of experiment and simulation show that the thermal neutron flux at the end of theneutron collimator is greater than 10^6 n/cm^2/s, the maximum collimation ratio (L/D) is 58, the Cd-ratio(Mn) is 160 and the diameter of collimator end is 10 cm. This neutron collimator is considered to be applicable for neutron radiography.

  12. Neutron collimator design of neutron radiography based on the BNCT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the research of CCD neutron radiography, a neutron collimator was designed based on the exit of thermal neutron of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) reactor. Based on the Geant4 simulations, the preliminary choice of the size of the collimator was determined. The materials were selected according to the literature data. Then, a collimator was constructed and tested on site. The results of experiment and simulation show that the thermal neutron flux at the end of the neutron collimator is greater than 1.0×106 n/cm2/s, the maximum collimation ratio (L/D) is 58, the Cd-ratio(Mn) is 160 and the diameter of collimator end is 10 cm. This neutron collimator is considered to be applicable for neutron radiography. (authors)

  13. Enhanced Optical Filter Design

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, David

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a supplement to the classic texts by Angus Macleod and Philip Baumeister, taking an intuitive approach to the enhancement of optical coating (or filter) performance. Drawing from 40 years of experience in thin film design, Cushing introduces the basics of thin films, the commonly used materials and their deposition, the major coatings and their applications, and improvement methods for each.

  14. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlon, A.A.; Girola, S. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Valda, A.A., E-mail: valda@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Minsky, D.M.; Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanchez, G. [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  15. Conceptual design of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT in the thermalizing column of TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of the epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials in thermalising column (TC) of TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The results prove, that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in TC/DC of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients.(author)

  16. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  18. Design of epithermal neutron beam for clinical BNCT treatment at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maucec, Marko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Division, Lubljana (Slovenia). E-mail: marko.mauce@ijs.si

    1999-07-01

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials on Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter for the purpose of enhancement of neutron beam, as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The simulation results prove that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in the thermalizing column of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients. (author)

  19. Design of epithermal neutron beam for clinical BNCT treatment at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials on Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter for the purpose of enhancement of neutron beam, as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The simulation results prove that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in the thermalizing column of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients. (author)

  20. Evaluation of D(d,n)3 He reaction neutron source models for BNCT irradiation system design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ze'en; LUO Peng; Tooru KOBAYASHI; Gerard BENGUA

    2007-01-01

    A mathematical method was developed to calculatc the yield.energy spectrum and angular distribution of neutrons from D(d,n)3 He(D-D)reaction in a thick deuterium-titanium target for incident deuterons in energies lower than 1.0MeV.The data of energy spectrum and angular distribution wefe applied to set up the neutron source model for the beam-shaping-assembly(BSA)design of Boron-Neutron-Capture-Therapy(BNCT)using MCNP-4C code.Three cases of D-D neutron source corresponding to incident deuteron energy of 1000.400 and 150 kaV were investigated.The neutron beam characteristics were compared with the model of a 2.45 MeV mono-energetic and isotropic neutron source using an example BSA designed for BNCT irradiation.The results show significant differences in the neutron beam characteristics,particularly the fast neutron component and fast neutron dose in air,between the non-isotropic neutron source model and the 2.5 MeV mono-energetic and isotropic neutron source model.

  1. Robust fault detection filter design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Randal Kirk

    The detection filter is a specially tuned linear observer that forms the residual generation part of an analytical redundancy system designed for model-based fault detection and identification. The detection filter has an invariant state subspace structure that produces a residual with known and fixed directional characteristics in response to a known design fault direction. In addition to a parameterization of the detection filter gain, three methods are given for improving performance in the presence of system disturbances, sensor noise, model mismatch and sensitivity to small parameter variations. First, it is shown that by solving a modified algebraic Riccati equation, a stabilizing detection filter gain is found that bounds the H-infinity norm of the transfer matrix from system disturbances and sensor noise to the detection filter residual. Second, a specially chosen expanded-order detection filter is formed with fault detection properties identical to a set of independent reduced-order filters that have no structural constraints. This result is important to the practitioner because the difficult problem of finding a detection filter insensitive to disturbances and sensor noise is converted to the easier problem of finding a set of uncoupled noise insensitive filters. Furthermore, the statistical properties of the reduced-order filter residuals are easier to find than the statistical properties of the structurally constrained detection filter residual. Third, an interpretation of the detection filter as a special case of the dual of the restricted decoupling problem leads to a new detection filter eigenstructure assignment algorithm. The new algorithm places detection filter left eigenvectors, which annihilate the detection spaces, rather than right eigenvectors, which span the detection spaces. This allows for a more flexible observer based fault detection system structure that could not be formulated as a detection filter. Furthermore, the link to the dual

  2. LCL Interface Filter Design for Shunt Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRICEANU, M.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on finding the parameters of a second order interface filter connected between the power system and the shunt active filter based on switching frequency of the active filter. Many publications on power active filters include various design methods for the interface inductive filter which take into account the injected current and its dynamic. Compared to these ones, the approach presented in this paper is oriented toward the design of the interface filter starting from filter transfer functions by imposing the performances of the filter.

  3. Collimator and shielding design for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility at TRIGA MARK II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geometry of reactor core, thermal column, collimator and shielding system for BNCT application of TRIGA MARK II Reactor were simulated with MCNP5 code. Neutron particle lethargy and dose were calculated with MCNPX code. Neutron flux in a sample located at the end of collimator after normalized to measured value (Eid Mahmoud Eid Abdel Munem, 2007) at 1 MW power was 1.06 x 108 n/ cm2/ s. According to IAEA (2001) flux of 1.00 x 109 n/ cm2/ s requires three hours of treatment. Few modifications were needed to get higher flux. (Author)

  4. Design of a SPECT tomographic image system for online dosimetry in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here a numerical analysis of a projected tomographic image system for online dose measurements in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. In 94% of neutron capture reactions in boron, the 7Li ion is emitted in an excited state which decays through a characteristic 478 keV prompt gamma ray. In BNCT a large fraction of this radiation escapes from the patient body. Its detection is thus attractive for a noninvasive boron dose measurement and an online absorbed dose evaluation. For this purpose we have proposed a dedicated SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) imaging system. The proposed system can obtain images of 21x21cm2 divided in 1x1cm2 pixels by measuring 20 projections with 41 bins each, with 8% uncertainties in reconstructed dose. (author)

  5. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1992. Contributions from all the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor targeting compounds, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented, results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are discussed, and predictions for an epithermal-neutron beam at the Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) are shown. Cellular-level boron detection and localization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, low atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy, and alpha track are presented. Boron detection by ICP-AES is discussed in detail. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors with BNCT is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux at BNL and comparison to predictions are shown. Calculations comparing the GTRR and BMRR epithermal-neutron beams are also presented. Individual progress reports described herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database

  6. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1992. Contributions from all the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor targeting compounds, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented, results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are discussed, and predictions for an epithermal-neutron beam at the Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) are shown. Cellular-level boron detection and localization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, low atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy, and alpha track are presented. Boron detection by ICP-AES is discussed in detail. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors with BNCT is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux at BNL and comparison to predictions are shown. Calculations comparing the GTRR and BMRR epithermal-neutron beams are also presented. Individual progress reports described herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  7. HF filter design and computer simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rhea, Randall W

    1994-01-01

    A book for engineers who design and build filters of all types, including lumped element, coaxial, helical, dielectric resonator, stripline and microstrip types. A thorough review of classic and modern filter design techniques, containing extensive practical design information of passband characteristics, topologies and transformations, component effects and matching. An excellent text for the design and construction of microstrip filters.

  8. BNCT activities at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that satisfactory thermal/epithermal neutron beams for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) could be designed at TRIGA research reactors These reactors are generally perceived as being safe to install and operate in populated areas. This contribution presents the most recent BNCT research activities on the 'Jozef Stefan' Institute, where epithermal neutron beam for 'in-vitro' irradiation has been developed and experimentally verified. Furthermore, The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of the epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials of human patients in thermalising column (TC) of TRIGA reactor has been carried out. The simulation results prove, that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beam throughout the world, could be installed in TC of the TRIGA reactor. (author)

  9. Theory and design of microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Ian

    2000-01-01

    This is a thorough, graduate-level text which provides a single source for filter design including basic circuit theory, network synthesis and the design of a variety of microwave filter structures. The aim is to present design theories followed by specific examples with numerical simulations of the designs, with pictures of real devices wherever possible. The book is aimed at designers, engineers and researchers working in microwave electronics who need to design or specify filters.

  10. Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Active resistance capacitance filter design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    Filters, formed by combinations of distributed RC elements with positive-feedback voltage amplifiers, provide transfer functions similar to those the heavier LC filters ordinarily employ. They also provide signal amplification.

  12. Satisfactory Optimization Design of IIR Digital Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Weidong; Zhang Gexiang; Zhao Duo

    2005-01-01

    A new method called satisfactory optimization method is proposed to design IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) digital filters, and the satisfactory optimization model is presented. The detailed algorithm of designing IIR digital filters using satisfactory optimization method is described. By using quantum genetic algorithm characterized by rapid convergence and good global search capability, the satisfying solutions are achieved in the experiment of designing lowpass and bandpass IIR digital filters. Experimental results show that the performances of IIR filters designed by the introduced method are better than those by traditional methods.

  13. FPGA design and implementation of Gaussian filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhou, Gang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper , we choose four different variances of 1,3,6 and 12 to conduct FPGA design with three kinds of Gaussian filtering algorithm ,they are implementing Gaussian filter with a Gaussian filter template, Gaussian filter approximation with mean filtering and Gaussian filter approximation with IIR filtering. By waveform simulation and synthesis, we get the processing results on the experimental image and the consumption of FPGA resources of the three methods. We set the result of Gaussian filter used in matlab as standard to get the result error. By comparing the FPGA resources and the error of FPGA implementation methods, we get the best FPGA design to achieve a Gaussian filter. Conclusions can be drawn based on the results we have already got. When the variance is small, the FPGA resources is enough for the algorithm to implement Gaussian filter with a Gaussian filter template which is the best choice. But when the variance is so large that there is no more FPGA resources, we can chose the mean to approximate Gaussian filter with IIR filtering.

  14. Design Procedure for Compact Folded Waveguide Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yunfeng; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy;

    Waveguide filters are widely used in communication systems due to low losses and high power handling capabilities. One drawback of the conventional waveguide filters is their large size, especially for low-frequency and high-order realizations. It has been shown that the footprint of conventional...... waveguide resonators can be reduced to one quarter by folding the electric and magnetic fields inside the cavity (J. S. Hong, Microwave Symposium Digest, 2004, Vol. 1, pp. 213-216). This paper presents a novel systematic procedure for designing compact low-loss bandpass filters by using folded waveguide...... resonators. As a design example, a scaled version of a filter specified for a TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) system has been considered. The folded waveguide filter is designed to fulfil specific requirements, and the design procedure can be easily applied to other folded waveguide filter designs...

  15. Labelled compounds of interest as antitumour agents. Pt. 4: Deuteration and tritiation of a nitroimidazole-carborane designed for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenching the anion generated from a 2-(ω-carboranylalkyl)dithiane with 2H2O at -78oC and at 0oC introduced deuterium exclusively at C-2 of the carborane. Extension of this model reaction to a bioreductively-targetted carborane allowed the synthesis of 2-[2H]- and 2-[3H]-isotopomers of a nitroimidazole-carborane which is of interest in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer. (author)

  16. BNCT with linac, feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy photon beams from Medical Linear Accelerators (linacs) which are used in radiotherapy produce undesirable neutrons, beside the clinically useful electron and photon beams. Neutrons are produced from the photonuclear reaction (γ,n) of high energy photons with high Z-materials which compose the accelerator head. In this paper the possible use of these undesirable neutrons for BNCT is investigated, making use of high energy linacs already installed in hospitals, primarily for high energy electron and photon therapy and applying them in the context of BNCT. The photoneutron components emitted by the accelerator is the source for Monte Carlo simulations of the interactions that take place within the head of a voxel-based phantom. The neutron flux across the phantom head is calculated using different moderator arrangements and different techniques in the aim of increasing the thermal neutron flux at the targeted site. Also, we shall test different configurations of the linac head to maximize the exposure of high-Z materials to the photon beam, including the removal of the flattening filter, so as to boost the photoneutron production in the linac head. Experimental work will be conducted in hospitals to validate the Monte Carlo simulations. To make use of linacs for BNCT will be advantageous in the sense that the setting in a hospital department is much more acceptable by the public than a reactor installation. This will mean less complications regarding patient positioning and movement with respect to the beams, additional patient transportation and management will be more cost effective. (author)

  17. Design of Kalman filters for mobile robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Dall; Hansen, Karsten L.; Andersen, Nils Axel;

    1999-01-01

    Kalman filters have for a long time been widely used on mobile robots as a location estimator. Many different Kalman filter designs have been proposed, using models of various complexity. In this paper, two different design methods are evaluated and compared. Focus is put on the common setup where...... estimates. The Kalman filter normally consists of a time update followed by one or more data updates. However, it is shown that when using the kinematic filter, the encoder measurements should be fused prior to the time update for better performance....

  18. Analog Electronic Filters Theory, Design and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Hercules G

    2012-01-01

    Filters are essential subsystems in a huge variety of electronic systems. Filter applications are innumerable; they are used for noise reduction, demodulation, signal detection, multiplexing, sampling, sound and speech processing, transmission line equalization and image processing, to name just a few. In practice, no electronic system can exist without filters. They can be found in everything from power supplies to mobile phones and hard disk drives and from loudspeakers and MP3 players to home cinema systems and broadband Internet connections. This textbook introduces basic concepts and methods and the associated mathematical and computational tools employed in electronic filter theory, synthesis and design.  This book can be used as an integral part of undergraduate courses on analog electronic filters. Includes numerous, solved examples, applied examples and exercises for each chapter. Includes detailed coverage of active and passive filters in an independent but correlated manner. Emphasizes real filter...

  19. BNCT. Computational Analysis; BNCT. Analisis computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.

    2004-07-01

    The BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) is a new oncologic radiotherapy technique in the process of research which consists of injecting a non-poisonous pharmacovector into an ill patient in such a way that the tumor receives isotope boron-10, so that the tumoral area can later be bombarded with a beam of neutrons, many of which are captured the isotope in question. (Author)

  20. Design of New SAW DQPSK Matched Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new surface acoustic wave differential quadraphase shift key(SAW DQPSK) spread spectrum(SS) signal matched filter based on the fusion of SS and differential modulation is reported. The design of multi-phase coded SAW matched filter is proposed rather than another design of SAW DQPSK filter, which can cut in a half of the delay time of SAW DQPSK matched filter and SAW fixed delay line(FDL) used for differential demodulation. This breakthrough is made the system largely reduce a size and process much easily. This method can also be feasible in other SAW MPSK matched filter design especially when the modulation phase number is larger than 4. The design example and its experimental results are given.

  1. Design of active N-path filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darvishi, Milad; Zee, van der Ronan; Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    A design methodology for synthesis of active N-path bandpass filters is introduced. Based on this methodology, a 0.1-to-1.2 GHz tunable 6th-order N-path channel-select filter in 65 nm LP CMOS is introduced. It is based on coupling N-path filters with gyrators, achieving a “flat” passband shape and h

  2. Moisture reduction of filter cake by improved filter design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, D.A.; Davis, S.S.; Garlick, L.D.

    1983-10-01

    With the redesign of the Agidisc filter, several improvements have been achieved as follows: Internal velocities of filtrate and air have been greatly reduced in the PIPPED sectors, ferrules, internal channels and filter valve. This will maximize pressure drop across the cake resulting in lower moistures and decreased wear. The PIPPED sector achieves better cake discharge because of the flexing action while increasing bag life. Moisture content reduction for the PIPPED sectors alone appear to have the potential for about 1 1/2 percentage points lower then redwood sectors. By indexing the two halves of the disc filter so each half discharges separately, shock wear on the cake conveyor should be reduced. More air volume will also go to less sectors resulting in better discharge. Using a sudden blow with a low pressure blower for cake discharge, energy consumption is reduced. Overall maintenance costs for the new design should be reduced through less wear due to appreciably reduced velocities.

  3. American brain tumor patients treated with BNCT in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laramore, G.E.; Griffin, B.R.; Spence, A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish and maintain a database for patients from the United States who have received BNCT in Japan for malignant gliomas of the brain. This database will serve as a resource for the DOE to aid in decisions relating to BNCT research in the United States, as well as assisting the design and implementation of clinical trials of BNCT for brain cancer patients in this country. The database will also serve as an information resource for patients with brain tumors and their families who are considering this form of therapy.

  4. Design rules for dislocation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of strained layer threading dislocation filter structures in single crystal epitaxial layers is evaluated using numerical modeling for (001) face-centred cubic materials, such as GaAs or Si1−xGex, and (0001) hexagonal materials such as GaN. We find that threading dislocation densities decay exponentially as a function of the strain relieved, irrespective of the fraction of threading dislocations that are mobile. Reactions between threading dislocations tend to produce a population that is a balanced mixture of mobile and sessile in (001) cubic materials. In contrast, mobile threading dislocations tend to be lost very rapidly in (0001) GaN, often with little or no reduction in the immobile dislocation density. The capture radius for threading dislocation interactions is estimated to be approximately 40 nm using cross section transmission electron microscopy of dislocation filtering structures in GaAs monolithically grown on Si. We find that the minimum threading dislocation density that can be obtained in any given structure is likely to be limited by kinetic effects to approximately 104–105 cm−2

  5. Design rules for dislocation filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, T.; Sánchez, A. M.; Beanland, R., E-mail: r.beanland@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tang, M.; Wu, J.; Liu, H. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Dunstan, D. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-14

    The efficacy of strained layer threading dislocation filter structures in single crystal epitaxial layers is evaluated using numerical modeling for (001) face-centred cubic materials, such as GaAs or Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}, and (0001) hexagonal materials such as GaN. We find that threading dislocation densities decay exponentially as a function of the strain relieved, irrespective of the fraction of threading dislocations that are mobile. Reactions between threading dislocations tend to produce a population that is a balanced mixture of mobile and sessile in (001) cubic materials. In contrast, mobile threading dislocations tend to be lost very rapidly in (0001) GaN, often with little or no reduction in the immobile dislocation density. The capture radius for threading dislocation interactions is estimated to be approximately 40 nm using cross section transmission electron microscopy of dislocation filtering structures in GaAs monolithically grown on Si. We find that the minimum threading dislocation density that can be obtained in any given structure is likely to be limited by kinetic effects to approximately 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5 }cm{sup −2}.

  6. Polychromator filter design with genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostics, polychromators are equipped with several optical band-pass filters which cover the spectral region where the radiation from the incident laser beam is expected to be Doppler shifted. The spectral location of the transmission band of individual filters has a strong influence on the measured electron temperature (Te) since the latter is derived from a previously computed lookup table including the spectral specifications of the filters. Here, we present the design of the set of polychromator filters through genetic algorithms (GAs). We examine the developed algorithm under two specific target conditions, and optimized filter sets covering the wavelength region longer than the wavelength of the incident laser seem to be more effective in improving the accuracy of the Te calculations provided by the diagnostic. (paper)

  7. INEL BNCT Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-08-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for August 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  8. BNCT-RTPE: BNCT radiation treatment planning environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessol, D.E.; Wheeler, F.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Fall, ID (United States); Babcock, R.S. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Several improvements have been developed for the BNCT radiation treatment planning environment (BNCT-Rtpe) during 1994. These improvements have been incorporated into Version 1.0 of BNCT-Rtpe which is currently installed at the INEL, BNL, Japanese Research Center (JRC), and Finland`s Technical Research Center. Platforms supported by this software include Hewlett-Packard (HP), SUN, International Business Machines (IBM), and Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI). A draft version of the BNCT-Rtpe user manual is available. Version 1.1 of BNCT-Rtpe is scheduled for release in March 1995. It is anticipated that Version 2.x of BNCT-Rtpe, which includes the nonproprietary NURBS library and data structures, will be released in September 1995.

  9. New EORTC clinical trials for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to ethical reasons, a separated optimization of the two components of BNCT in the frame of clinical investigations can only be performed applying the whole binary system. The ongoing trial at HFR (High Flux Reactor Petten) has proven the feasibility of BNCT under defined conditions. On that basis the European Commission supported a comprehensive research project on boron imaging including three further clinical studies. In the first trial the boron uptake related to the blood boron concentration and surrounding normal tissue in various solid tumours will be examined using BSH (Sodiumborocaptate), BPA (Boronophenylalanine) or both in order to explore tumour entities, which may gain benefit from BNCT. The major objectives of the second trial are to define the maximum tolerated single and cumulative dose, and the dose limiting toxicity of BSH. The third clinical trial, a phase II study is designed to evaluate the anti-tumour effect of fractionated BNCT at the Petten treatment facility against cerebral metastasis of malignant melanoma using BPA. (author)

  10. BNCT and dose fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some portion of the radiation dose received by a patient during BNCT consists of primary and secondary gammas. The biological effect of that portion of the dose will depend upon the time history of the delivered dose. The well-known models for relating time-dose effects to clinical experience, are of questionable value in understanding dose effects in the time regime of a few hours, and for doses of less than tolerance. In order to examine the time-dose effect in the regime of interest to BNCT a simple phenomenological model was developed and normalized to the accepted body of clinical experience. The model has been applied to the question of fractionation of BNCT and the results are presented. The model is simply a linear healing model with two time constants. In other words, a first hit of radiation is assumed to wound (or potentiate) a cell. Given time, the cell will fully repair itself. If a second hit occurs before the cell has healed, the cell is killed. Apparently, there are two kinds of healing, one which occurs in 30 to 60 minutes, the other in two to four days. A small fraction of the cells will die on the first hit

  11. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Thomas, E

    2006-03-14

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were 1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, 2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, 3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologially achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally 4) that the treatment be safe for the patients.

  12. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were (1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, (2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, (3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologically achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally (4) that the treatment be safe for the patients

  13. Integrated Analogic Filter Tuning System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parameters of integrated analog filters can vary due to temperatu-re change, IC process variation and therefore they should have dedicated tuning circuits that compensate these imperfections. A method is proposed that speeds up switched resistor bank design while taking into account the required tuning range and step size. A novel counter structure is used in the tuning circuit that is ba-sed on successive approximation approach. The proposed swit-ched resistor design method and tuning circuit are designed in 0.18 μm CMOS technology and verified. Results are compared to existing tuning circuit designs.

  14. Design and application of finite impulse response digital filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter is a spatial domain filter with a frequency domain representation. The theory of the FIR filter is presented and techniques are described for designing FIR filters with known frequency response characteristics. Rational design principles are emphasized based on characterization of the imaging system using the modulation transfer function and physical properties of the imaged objects. Bandpass, Wiener, and low-pass filters were designed and applied to 201Tl myocardial images. The bandpass filter eliminates low-frequency image components that represent background activity and high-frequency components due to noise. The Wiener, or minimum mean square error filter 'sharpens' the image while also reducing noise. The Wiener filter illustrates the power of the FIR technique to design filters with any desired frequency reponse. The low-pass filter, while of relative limited use, is presented to compare it with a popular elementary 'smoothing' filter. (orig.)

  15. Design of Microwave Multibandpass Filters with Quasilumped Resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Miljanović; Milka Potrebić; Tošić, Dejan V.

    2015-01-01

    Design of RF and microwave filters has always been the challenging engineering field. Modern filter design techniques involve the use of the three-dimensional electromagnetic (3D EM) solvers for predicting filter behavior, yielding the most accurate filter characteristics. However, the 3D EM simulations are time consuming. In this paper, we propose electric-circuit models, instead of 3D EM models, suitable for design of RF and microwave filters with quasilumped coupled resonators. Using the d...

  16. BNCT irradiation facility at the JRR-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torii, Y.; Kishi, T.; Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Sakurai, F.; Takayanagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    The JRR--4 was modified for fuel enrichment reducing and reactor equipment renewal. And also a medical irradiation facility for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) was installed at the JRR--4 in that time. The medical irradiation facility has been composed of a heavy water tank, a collimator and an irradiation room. The heavy water tank has four layers of heavy water for spectrum shifter and 75cm-thickness aluminum for the shield of fast neutron. The collimator is for collimating thermal neutron and epithermal neutron using polyethylene with lithium-fluoride and shielding gamma ray by bismuth. The irradiation room has sufficient space at exit side of the beam, to accommodate a large working area for setting the patient. Both of the medical treatment room and the patient-monitoring area were prepared adjacent to the irradiation room. The medical irradiation facility in the JRR-4 is designed to permit selection of neutron energies from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron by changing the thickness of heavy water layers. Therefore it is available to continue the same kind of BNCT with thermal neutron used to perform in the JRR-2, as well as to commence the research and development of BNCT with epithermal neutron, which will make the brain tumor treatment possible at a deep part of brain. The full power operation of the JRR-4 was resumed with LEU fuel in October 1998 and currently performing some experiments to measure the neutron fluxes and physical doses for determinate characterization of the medical irradiation facility. The first medical irradiation for BNCT was carried out on 25th October 1999. The patient was treated by Tsukuba University group using thermal neutron beam included epi-thermal neutrons. (author)

  17. Summary of recent BNCT Polish programme and future plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryziński, M A; Maciak, M; Wielgosz, M

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present Polish achievements on the ground of BNCT research. Starting from preliminary built therapeutic stand at MARIA reactor going through designing of unique detectors for in-phantom and in-beam measurements for mixed radiation fields and finally coming to boron carriers synthesizing and examination in cellular and animal models. Now it is planned to restart research on boron compounds in specially designed BIMA line, to set up epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT research and education and to improve recombination detectors for neutron beams characterisation. PMID:26293009

  18. Preliminary Design of LEU MNSR for BNCT with Excellent Epithermal Neutron Flux Treatment Beam%高额超热中子束流治疗孔道低浓化BNCT堆初步设计方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛; 钱金栋; 谢金森

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) with high enrichment uranium (HEU) fuel and accordance with the requirements of BNCT, the 19.5% of enriched fuel UO2 fuel core for BNCT with epithermal neutron treatment beam was primary designed, the reactor core parameters such as epithermal neutron flux density,epithermal neutron flux unit of fast neutron dose rate,epithermal neutron flux unit photon dose rate of γ,epithermal neutron flux ratio of thermal neutron flux, neutron spectrum were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the design program was an excellent epithermal neutron treatment beam.%根据硼中子俘获治疗( BNCT)中子源的要求,在高浓铀为燃料的微型反应堆(MNSR)的基础上,以富集度19.5%的UO2为燃料,将其堆芯低浓化并且添加水平超热中子束流治疗孔道,开展超热中子束流BNCT堆堆芯低浓化初步设计.计算BNCT堆的超热中子注量率、单位超热中子注量的快中子剂量率、单位超热中子注量的γ光子剂量率、超热中子注量与热中子的注量之比、中子束流能谱等关键参数.结果表明,该设计可以得到优良的超热中子束流.

  19. Algorithm for Design of Digital Notch Filter Using Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Verma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A smooth waveform is generated of low frequency signal can be achieved through the Digital Notch Filter. Noise can be easily eliminated from a speech signal by using a Notch filter. In this paper the design of notch filter using MATLAB has been designed and implemented. The performance and characteristics of the filter has been shown in the waveform in the conclusion part of the paper.

  20. Design of high frequency integrated analogue filters

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yichuang

    2002-01-01

    This book brings together leading researchers to highlight recent advances and identify promising directions for future development. Motivated by the market for mobile and wireless communications, fully integrated analog filters for high-frequency applications are now receiving great interest world-wide. Chapters are dedicated to MOSFET-C and Gm-C filters, current-mode continuous-time filters, log-domain filters, switched-current filters, adaptive filters and on-chip automatic tuning. The topical nature of the book and caliber of the authors ensures that this book will be of wide interest to t

  1. INEEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report, CY-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2001-03-01

    This report is a summary of the activities conducted in conjunction with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 2000. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, neutron source design and demonstration, and support the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National BNCT Program goals are the goals of this Program. Contributions from the individual contributors about their projects are included, specifically described are the following, chemistry: analysis of biological samples and an infrared blood-boron analyzer, and physics: progress in the patient treatment planning software, measurement of neutron spectra for the Argentina RA-6 reactor, and recalculation of the Finnish research reactor FiR 1 neutron spectra, BNCT accelerator technology, and modification to the research reactor at Washington State University for an epithermal-neutron beam.

  2. Design of Digital Synthesis Filters for Hybrid Filter Bank A/D Converters Using Semidefinite Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid filter bank (HFB analog-to-digital systems permit wideband, high frequency conversion. This paper presents mixed norm optimal design of digital synthesis filters of a HFB. The mixed norm is a convex combination of the 2-norm and the Chebyshev norm with a weighting parameter. Robust HFB design method based on worst-case ellipsoidal uncertainty in analog filters errors is also proposed. Both the problems can be solved using semidefinite programming. The proposed mixed norm method allows designers to select the best suitable filters among a family of synthesis filters for specific applications, and the robust design method is more insensitive to analog filters errors than the nominal minimax design

  3. Design of LCL-Filter Based Three-level Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilan Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved design of LCL-Filters for Three-Level Shunt Active power filters (APF. Available design principles are presented to achieve high compensation bandwidth and low switching frequency current. Then, affecitons of different parameters are taken into consideration of constraints on LCL-Filter design with detail analysis of ripple current. A simple and practical design procedure of LCL-Filter for Three-Level APF is subsequently proposed. The first step is to choose the resonant frequency of LCL-Filter according to the highest order harmonic needed to be compensated. Then it is aim to optimize the parameters of the LCL-Filter based on the design principles and constraints. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. BNCT of canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dog was diagnosed with osteosarcoma (8x6x5cm) in the right wing of ilium by radiography, radionuclide scintigraphy and histological study of biopsy material. The treatment plan was as follows: γ-therapy in combination with chemotherapy; prevention of hematogenous pulmonary metastases by the transfusion of 130 ml of allogenic marrow from a healthy donor; administration of 11.4g 10B-boronphenylalanine into the right iliac artery; resection of the right iliac wing with the osteosarcoma lesion; neutron irradiation (MEPhI Reactor) of the bone fragment (dose on healthy osteocytes - 15±4 Gy (W), on tumor - 50±9 Gy (W); reimplantation and fixation of the fragment; three courses of adjuvant chemotherapy. The doses were determined in full-scale calculations of the reactor radiation fields with a model of the bone under the code RADUGA. The 10B concentration (μg/g) in the bone was: normal tissue - 9±3, tumor - 28±5. In 24 hours post operation the dog was able to walk using the treated limb, and 6 months later it moved freely. The patient has been under observation for 30 months. The results of the research demonstrate complete cure. The use of similar treatment plans improves the therapeutic efficiency of BNCT. (author)

  5. Design of Microwave Multibandpass Filters with Quasilumped Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Miljanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of RF and microwave filters has always been the challenging engineering field. Modern filter design techniques involve the use of the three-dimensional electromagnetic (3D EM solvers for predicting filter behavior, yielding the most accurate filter characteristics. However, the 3D EM simulations are time consuming. In this paper, we propose electric-circuit models, instead of 3D EM models, suitable for design of RF and microwave filters with quasilumped coupled resonators. Using the diakoptic approach, the 3D filter structure is decomposed into domains that are modeled by electric networks. The coupling between these domains is modeled by capacitors and coupled inductors. Furthermore, we relate the circuit-element values to the physical dimensions of the 3D filter structure. We propose the filter design procedure that is based on the circuit models and fast circuit-level simulations, yielding the element values from which the physical dimensions can be obtained. The obtained dimensions should be slightly refined for achieving the desired filter characteristics. The mathematical problems encountered in the procedure are solved by numerical and symbolic computations. The procedure is exemplified by designing a triple-bandpass filter and validated by measurements on the fabricated filter. The simulation and experimental results are in good agreement.

  6. Frequency Weighting Filter Design for Automotive Ride Comfort Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Feng

    2016-01-01

    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low-and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m•s–2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m•s–2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m•s–2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  7. Frequency weighting filter design for automotive ride comfort evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low- and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m • s-2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  8. Frequency weighting filter design for automotive ride comfort evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low- and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m • s-2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  9. Design, development and characterization of multi-functionalized gold nanoparticles for biodetection and targeted boron delivery in BNCT applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandal, S.; Bakeine, G.J.; Krol, S.; Ferrari, C.; Clerici, A.M.; Zonta, C.; Cansolino, L.; Ballarini, F.; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S.; Protti, N.; Bruschi, P.; Altieri, S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to optimize targeted boron delivery to cancer cells and its tracking down to the cellular level. To this end, we describe the design and synthesis of novel nanovectors that double as targeted boron delivery agents and fluorescent imaging probes. Gold nanoparticles were coate

  10. An accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam design for BNCT and dosimetric evaluation using a voxel head phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deok-jae; Han, Chi Young; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2004-01-01

    The beam shaping assembly design has been investigated in order to improve the epithermal neutron beam for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy in intensity and quality, and dosimetric evaluation for the beams has been performed using both mathematical and voxel head phantoms with MCNP runs. The neutron source was assumed to be produced from a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a thick (7)Li target. The results indicate that it is possible to enhance epithermal neutron flux remarkably as well as to embody a good spectrum shaping to epithermal neutrons only with the proper combination of moderator and reflector. It is also found that a larger number of thermal neutrons can reach deeply into the brain and, therefore, can reduce considerably the treatment time for brain tumours. Consequently, the epithermal neutron beams designed in this study can treat more effectively deep-seated brain tumours.

  11. Verification of filter efficiency of horizontal roughing filter by Weglin's design criteria and Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Asis Mazumder; Pankaj Kumar Roy; Rabindra Nath Barman; Biswajit Mukhopadhay; Mrinmoy Majumder

    2008-01-01

    The general objective of this study is to estimate the performance of the Horizontal Roughing Filter (HRF) by using Weglin's design criteria based on 1/3–2/3 filter theory. The main objective of the present study is to validate HRF developed in the laboratory with Slow Sand Filter (SSF) as a pretreatment unit with the help of Weglin's design criteria for HRF with respect to raw water condition and neuro-genetic model developed based on the filter dataset. The results achieved from t...

  12. Noniterative Design of 2-Channel FIR Orthogonal Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez M Elena Domínguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of obtaining an explicit expression of all real FIR paraunitary filters. In this work, we present a general parameterization of 2-channel FIR orthogonal filters. Unlike other approaches which make use of a lattice structure, we show that our technique designs any orthogonal filter directly, with no need of iteration procedures. Moreover, in order to design an -tap 2-channel paraunitary filterbank, it suffices to choose independent parameters, and introduce them in a simple expression which provides the filter coefficients directly. Some examples illustrate how this new approach can be used for designing filters with certain desired properties. Further conditions can be eventually imposed on the parameters so as to design filters for specific applications.

  13. Optimal wavelet filter bank design for image fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Liu; Xueqin Lü; Guohong Huang

    2007-01-01

    A novel optimization-based method for designing wavelet filter banks in image fusion is proposed. The filter bank design is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. The objective function of the optimization problem consists of both the performance metrics of the image fusion, such as the root mean square error (RMSE), and those of individual filters. The optimization problem is solved using simulating annealing.

  14. Design of perfect reconstruction rational sampling filter banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The design of rational sampling filter banks based on a recombination structure can be formulated as a problem with two objective functions to be optimized. A new hybrid optimization method for designing perfectreconstruction rational sampling filter banks is presented, which can be used to solve a class of problems with two objective functions. This method is of good convergence and mezzo calculation cost. Satisfactory results free of aliasing in analysis and synthesis filters can be obtained by the proposed method.

  15. Development of Graphical User Interface For Microwave Filter Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard, Djengomemgoto

    2016-01-01

    This research project aims at developing a low-cost, time-effective and a stand-alone graphical user interface (GUI) that will be used to design microwave filters. Throughout the projects, the main theory behind the technology of microwave filters, their generalized mathematical equations and the analysis of their different circuit topologies have been reviewed. This review helps to extract the necessary information needed for the design of microwave filters. Besides, the guiding principles a...

  16. Design and control of LCL-filter with active damping for Active Power Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guohong; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Ma, L;

    2010-01-01

    In the application of shunt Active Power Filter (APF) to compensate nonlinear load's harmonic, reactive and negative sequence current, it is more effective to use a LCL-filter than an L-filter as an interface between the Voltage Source Converter (VSC) and grid. In this paper, a designing procedure...... or similar inductances, the filter designing become more simple and effective, meanwhile the capacitance requirement is minimized. A pole-zero automatic cancellation phenomenon is discussed in this paper, which can be applied to simplify the current regulator designing. The tuning method is presented, based...... on pole-zero mapping. Some simulation results of APF with LCL-filter are presented to verify the feasibility and stability of the proposed designing method and control strategy....

  17. Tunable Microwave Filter Design Using Thin-Film Ferroelectric Varactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridasan, Vrinda

    Military, space, and consumer-based communication markets alike are moving towards multi-functional, multi-mode, and portable transceiver units. Ferroelectric-based tunable filter designs in RF front-ends are a relatively new area of research that provides a potential solution to support wideband and compact transceiver units. This work presents design methodologies developed to optimize a tunable filter design for system-level integration, and to improve the performance of a ferroelectric-based tunable bandpass filter. An investigative approach to find the origins of high insertion loss exhibited by these filters is also undertaken. A system-aware design guideline and figure of merit for ferroelectric-based tunable band- pass filters is developed. The guideline does not constrain the filter bandwidth as long as it falls within the range of the analog bandwidth of a system's analog to digital converter. A figure of merit (FOM) that optimizes filter design for a specific application is presented. It considers the worst-case filter performance parameters and a tuning sensitivity term that captures the relation between frequency tunability and the underlying material tunability. A non-tunable parasitic fringe capacitance associated with ferroelectric-based planar capacitors is confirmed by simulated and measured results. The fringe capacitance is an appreciable proportion of the tunable capacitance at frequencies of X-band and higher. As ferroelectric-based tunable capac- itors form tunable resonators in the filter design, a proportionally higher fringe capacitance reduces the capacitance tunability which in turn reduces the frequency tunability of the filter. Methods to reduce the fringe capacitance can thus increase frequency tunability or indirectly reduce the filter insertion-loss by trading off the increased tunability achieved to lower loss. A new two-pole tunable filter topology with high frequency tunability (> 30%), steep filter skirts, wide stopband

  18. Design, development and characterization of multi-functionalized gold nanoparticles for biodetection and targeted boron delivery in BNCT applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Subhra [Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (Netherlands); Bakeine, Gerald J., E-mail: Jamesbakeine1@yahoo.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics-Section of Clinical Toxicology, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta 10, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Krol, Silke [Institute of Neurology, Fondazione IRCCS Carlo Besta, Milan (Italy); Ferrari, Cinzia; Clerici, Anna M.; Zonta, Cecilia; Cansolino, Laura [Department of Surgery, Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, University of Pavia (Italy); Ballarini, Francesca [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, Silva [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia (Italy)] [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia (Italy); Stella, Subrina; Protti, Nicoletta [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, Piero [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia (Italy); Altieri, Saverio [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia (Italy)] [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study is to optimize targeted boron delivery to cancer cells and its tracking down to the cellular level. To this end, we describe the design and synthesis of novel nanovectors that double as targeted boron delivery agents and fluorescent imaging probes. Gold nanoparticles were coated with multilayers of polyelectrolytes functionalized with the fluorescent dye (FITC), boronophenylalanine and folic acid. In vitro confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated significant uptake of the nanoparticles in cancer cells that are known to overexpress folate receptors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of multi-labeled gold nanoparticles for selective boron delivery to tumor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumor selectivity is achieved through folic acid receptor targeting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical fluorescent microscopy allows tracking of cellular uptake of the gold nanoparticle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vitro tests demonstrate selective nanoparticle up in folate receptor positive tumor cells.

  19. Design and characterization of a novel neutron shield for BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch at RA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our research group at the Radiation Pathology Division of the Department of Radiobiology (National Atomic Energy Commission) has previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different BNCT protocols to treat oral cancer in an experimental hamster cheek pouch model. In particular, to perform studies in this experimental model at the thermal facility constructed at RA-3, we designed and constructed a shielding device for thermal neutrons, to be able to expose the cheek pouch while minimizing the dose to the rest of the body. This device allowed for the irradiation of one animal at a time. Given the usage rate of the device, the aim of the present study was to design and construct an optimized version of the existing shielding device that would allow for the simultaneous irradiation of 2 animals at the thermal facility of RA-3. Taking into account the characteristics of the neutron source and preliminary biological assays, we designed the shielding device for the body of the animal, i.e. a rectangular shaped box with double acrylic walls. The space between the walls contains a continuous filling of 6Li2CO3 (95% enriched in 6Li), approximately 6 mm thick. Two small windows interrupt the shield at one end of the box through which the right pouch of each hamster is everted out onto an external acrylic shelf for exposure to the neutron flux. The characterization of the shielding device showed that the neutron flux was equivalent at both irradiation positions confirming that we were able to design and construct a new shielding device that allows for the irradiation of 2 animals at the same time at the thermal facility of RA-3. This new version of the shielding device will reduce the number of interventions of the reactor operators, reducing occupational exposure to radiation and will make the procedure more efficient for researchers. In addition, we addressed the generation of tritium as a product of the capture reaction in lithium. It was considered as a potential

  20. Design of Nonuniform Filter Bank Transceivers for Frequency Selective Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Han-Ting; Phoong, See-May; Lin, Yuan-Pei

    2006-12-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the theory and design of filter bank transceivers due to their superior frequency response. In many applications, it is desired to have transceivers that can support multiple services with different incoming data rates and different quality-of-service requirements. To meet these requirements, we can either do resource allocation or design transceivers with a nonuniform bandwidth partition. In this paper, we propose a method for the design of nonuniform filter bank transceivers for frequency selective channels. Both frequency response and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) can be incorporated in the transceiver design. Moreover, the technique can be extended to the case of nonuniform filter bank transceivers with rational sampling factors. Simulation results show that nonuniform filter bank transceivers with good filter responses as well as high SIR can be obtained by the proposed design method.

  1. Development and applications of an interactive digital filter design program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H W; Kim, Y M; Tompkins, W J

    1985-10-01

    We have implemented an interactive digital filter design program in the HP 1000 computer at the Department of Electrical Engineering of the University of Washington. This program allows users to design different types of filters interactively with both amplitude and phase responses displayed on graphic devices. The performance of each designed filter can be evaluated conveniently before the best one is chosen and implemented for any particular application. This program can design recursive filters, e.g. Butterworth, Chebyshev and elliptic, or nonrecursive filters with one out of six different windows, i.e. rectangular, triangular, Hann, Hamming, Blackman and Kaiser. The main outputs from this program are coefficients of a transfer function of an analog filter, a digital filter, or both. Therefore, the design of both analog and digital filters is facilitated by using this program. The program is very simple to use and does not require background in analog or digital filter principles in order to run it. The program is written in standard FORTRAN and is about 30 kbytes in size excluding the graphics display routines. Since it uses standard FORTRAN, it can be easily transported to minicomputer and microcomputer systems that have a FORTRAN compiler and minimal graphics capabilities. This program is available for distribution to interested institutions and laboratories.

  2. Software Would Largely Automate Design of Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jason C. H.; Negast, William J.

    2005-01-01

    Embedded Navigation Filter Automatic Designer (ENFAD) is a computer program being developed to automate the most difficult tasks in designing embedded software to implement a Kalman filter in a navigation system. The most difficult tasks are selection of error states of the filter and tuning of filter parameters, which are timeconsuming trial-and-error tasks that require expertise and rarely yield optimum results. An optimum selection of error states and filter parameters depends on navigation-sensor and vehicle characteristics, and on filter processing time. ENFAD would include a simulation module that would incorporate all possible error states with respect to a given set of vehicle and sensor characteristics. The first of two iterative optimization loops would vary the selection of error states until the best filter performance was achieved in Monte Carlo simulations. For a fixed selection of error states, the second loop would vary the filter parameter values until an optimal performance value was obtained. Design constraints would be satisfied in the optimization loops. Users would supply vehicle and sensor test data that would be used to refine digital models in ENFAD. Filter processing time and filter accuracy would be computed by ENFAD.

  3. Design of Dual Bandpass and Bandreject LC Ladder Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hospodka

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of two-passband bandpass and two-stopband bandreject LC ladder filters. The design method is based on the special dual frequency transformation that transforms normalized lowpass to either bandpass with two passbands or to bandreject with two stopbands that are specified by four cutoff frequencies. The paper shows analytical solution relating these four cutoff frequencies to parameters of dual frequency transformation. It enables a direct computation of dual band LC filter elements from a normalized lowpass filter by means of simple relations. These relations have been implemented in the mathematical program Maple (TM as new user functions. They are supposed to be used as an enhancement of Syntfil package which is intended for analog filter design in program Maple. Specific application is shown on an example of the two-passband bandpass LC filter design.

  4. An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Microwave Corrugated Filters Design

    OpenAIRE

    Mantilla-Gaviria, Ivan A.; Alejandro Díaz-Morcillo; Balbastre-Tejedor, Juan V.

    2013-01-01

    A practical and useful application of the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) method for microwave corrugated filter design is shown. The classical, general purpose ACO method is adapted to deal with the microwave filter design problem. The design strategy used in this paper is an iterative procedure based on the use of an optimization method along with an electromagnetic simulator. The designs of high-pass and band-pass microwave rectangular waveguide filters working in the C-band and X-band, res...

  5. Design of HTS transmit filter using step impedance resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, N., E-mail: nsekiya@yamanashi.ac.j [University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Nakagawa, Y. [University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Ohshima, S. [Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    We have designed a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmit filter with step impedance resonators (SIRs). A transmit filter using half-wavelength straight-line resonators requires substantial spacing between adjacent resonators. This means that the filter needs a large substrate and that the number of poles is limited. Using SIRs overcomes this problem because SIRs are compact and have weak coupling. An electromagnetic simulator based on the moment method was used to design the SIR filter, which has a center frequency of 5 GHz and a bandwidth of 120 MHz. Simulation showed that it is approximately 19% smaller than a conventional half-wavelength straight-line resonator filter. Additionally, the maximum surface current is approximately 17% less than that of the conventional filter.

  6. High-quality Crystal FilterDesign and Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Dujković

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Analog oscillators and filters are still very important devices in modern telecommunication and measurement equipment. Quartz crystal units are used for high-quality oscillators and filters, due to their extremely stable resonant frequency and Q-factor. In this paper the design and realization of a high-quality bandpass quartz crystal filter with a possible application to antenna circuitry is described.

  7. Design of non-polarizing thin film edge filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Pei-fu; ZHENG Zhen-rong

    2006-01-01

    The separation between s- and p-polarization components invariably affects thin film edge filters used for tilted incidence and is a difficult problem for many applications, especially for optical communication. This paper presents a novel design method to obtain edge filters with non-polarization at incidence angle of 45°. The polarization separation at 50% transmittance for a long-wave-pass filter and a short-wave-pass filter is 0.3 nm and 0.1 nm respectively. The design method is based on a broadband Fabry-Perot thin-film interference filter in which the higher or lower interference band at both sides of the main transmittance peak can be used for initial design of long-wave-pass filter or short-wave-pass filter and then can be refined to reduce the transmittance ripples. The spacer 2H2L2H or 2L2H2L of the filter is usually taken. Moreover, the method for expanding the bandwidth of rejection and transmission is explained. The bandwidth of 200 nm for both rejection region and transmission band is obtained at wavelength 1550 nm. In this way, the long-wave-pass and short-wave-pass edge filters with zero separation between two polarization components can easily be fabricated.

  8. Contourlet Filter Design Based on Chebyshev Best Uniform Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guoan; Fang, Xiaofeng; Jing, Mingli; Zhang, Songjun; Hou, Ming

    2010-12-01

    The contourlet transform can deal effectively with images which have directional information such as contour and texture. In contrast to wavelets for which there exists many good filters, the contourlet filter design for image processing applications is still an ongoing work. Therefore, this paper presents an approach for designing the contourlet filter based on the Chebyshev best uniform approximation for achieving an efficient image denoising applications using hidden Markov tree models in the contourlet domain. Here, we design both the optimal 9/7 wavelet filter banks with rational coefficients and new pkva 12 filter. In this paper, the Laplacian pyramid followed by the direction filter banks decomposition in the contourlet transform using the two filter banks above and the image denoising applications in the contourlet hidden Markov tree model are implemented, respectively. The experimental results show that the denoising performance of the test image Zelda in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio is improved by 0.33 dB than using CDF 9/7 filter banks with irrational coefficients on the JPEG2000 standard and standard pkva 12 filter, and visual effects are as good as compared with the research results of Duncan D.-Y. Po and Minh N. Do.

  9. Design of Tunable Anisotropic Photonic Crystal Filter as Photonic Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Seifan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available By creating point defects and line defects in photonic crystals, we reach the new sort of photonic crystals. Which allow us to design photonic crystals filters. In this type of photonic crystals the ability to tune up central frequency of filter is important to attention. In this paper, we use foregoing points for designing photonic crystal filters. The main function of this type of filters is coupling between shield of point defect modes and directional line defect modes. By using liquid crystals in this structures we can tune up the central frequency. We exert electric field to excite liquid crystals and design photonic switch. This provided filter is promising to miniaturize integrated circuit photonic crystal

  10. Modern analog filter analysis and design a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Raut, R

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the fundamentals, the present book describes methods of designing analog electronic filters and illustrates these methods by providing numerical and circuit simulation programs. The subject matters comprise many concepts and techniques that are not available in other text books on the market. To name a few - principle of transposition and its application in directly realizing current mode filters from well known voltage mode filters; an insight into the technological aspect of integrated circuit components used to implement an integrated circuit filter; a careful blending of basi

  11. Design and Development of Low Pass Filter at 60 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Shah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and development of low pass filter (LPF at 60 GHz. The present design uses stepped impedance method in suspended strip line. The design is modeled and optimized using CST (Computer Simulation Technology microwave studio. The design of a filter types that Tchebysheve 0.1 dB ripple in the passband with the standard bandwidth of 2% and 30 dB attenuation at 94 GHz. The 60 GHz low pass filter exhibits an insertion loss of 1 dB with 3 dB relative bandwidth at a cut-off frequency of 60 GHz and the return loss is better than -18 dB at a cut-off frequency. The designed and fabricated low pass filter shows the good performance for planar integrated millimeter-wave circuits

  12. Chirped-cavity dispersion-compensation filter design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Ping; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2006-03-01

    A new basic structure of a dispersive-compensation filter, called a chirped-cavity dispersion-compensator (CCDC) filter, was designed to offer the advantages of small ripples in both reflectance and group-delay dispersion (GDD). This filter provides a high dispersion compensation, like the Gires-Tournois interferometer (GTI) filter, and a wide working bandwidth, like the chirped mirror (CM). The structure of the CCDC is a cavity-type Fabry-Perot filter with a spacer layer (2 mH or 2 mL) and a chirped high reflector. The CCDC filter can provide a negative GDD of -50 fs2 over a bandwidth of 56 THz with half the optical thickness of the CM or the GTI.

  13. Adaptive Linear Filtering Design with Minimum Symbol Error Probability Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Chen

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive digital filtering has traditionally been developed based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE)criterion and has found ever-increasing applications in communications. This paper presents an alternative adaptive filtering design based on the minimum symbol error rate (MSER) criterion for communication applications. It is shown that the MSER filtering is smarter, as it exploits the non-Gaussian distribution of filter output effectively. Consequently, it provides significant performance gain in terms of smaller symbol error over the MMSE approach. Adopting Parzen window or kernel density estimation for a probability density function, a block-data gradient adaptive MSER algorithm is derived. A stochastic gradient adaptive MSER algorithm, referred to as the least symbol error rate, is further developed for sampleby-sample adaptive implementation of the MSER filtering. Two applications, involving single-user channel equalization and beamforming assisted receiver, are included to demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of the proposed adaptive MSER filtering approach.

  14. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented

  15. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented.

  16. Optical notch filter design based on digital signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Sen; ZHANG Juan; LI Xue

    2011-01-01

    Based on digital signal processing theory, a novel method of designing optical notch filter is proposed for Mach-Zehnder interferometer with cascaded optical fiber rings coupled structure. The method is simple and effective, and it can be used to implement the designing of the optical notch filter which has arbitrary number of notch points in one free spectrum range (FSR). A design example of notch filter based on cascaded single-fiber-rings is given. On this basis, an improved cascaded double-fiber-rings structure is presented to eliminate the effect of phase shift caused by the single-fiber-ring structure. This new structure can improve the stability and applicability of system. The change of output intensity spectrum is finally investigated for each design parameter and the tuning characteristics of the notch filter are also discussed.

  17. Design of High Performance Microstrip Dual-Band Bandpass Filter

    OpenAIRE

    N. Khajavi; S. V. Makki; S. Majidifar

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of dual-band bandpass filters using coupled stepped-impedance resonators for wireless systems. This architecture uses multiple couple stubs to tune the passband frequencies and the filter characteristics are improved using defected ground structure (DGS) technique. Measurement results show insertion losses of 0.93 dB and 1.13 dB for the central frequencies of 2.35 GHz and 3.61 GHz, respectively. This filter is designed, fabricated and measured and the results ...

  18. Design of High Performance Microstrip Dual-Band Bandpass Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khajavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new design of dual-band bandpass filters using coupled stepped-impedance resonators for wireless systems. This architecture uses multiple couple stubs to tune the passband frequencies and the filter characteristics are improved using defected ground structure (DGS technique. Measurement results show insertion losses of 0.93 dB and 1.13 dB for the central frequencies of 2.35 GHz and 3.61 GHz, respectively. This filter is designed, fabricated and measured and the results of the simulation and measurement are in good agreement.

  19. Software Engineering-Based Design for a Bayesian Spam Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Mohammed Ali AL-Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread and the easy availability of a free e-mail service have made it the medium of choice for the sending of unsolicited advertising and bulk e-mail in general. These messages, known as junk e-mail or spam mail, are an increasing problem to both Internet users and Internet service providers (ISPs. The research resolves one aspect of the spam problem by developing an appropriate filter for the e-mail client. The proposed filter is a combination of three forms of filters: Whitelist, Blacklist, and a Bayesian filter. Whitelist-based filter only accepts e-mails from known addresses. Blacklist filter blocks e-mails from addresses known to send out spam. Bayesian content-based filter makes estimations of spam probability based on the text and filters messages based on a pre-selected threshold.The Bayesian filter is selected to be the main filter. The Bayesian filter is manually trained on a set of gathered e-mails; some of them are spam and the others are legitimate based on the contents of an e-mail. Thereafter the classification phase has been implemented for new entered e-mails. All the required databases are constructed in form of tables stored in the Structured Query Language (SQL server. The filter at the client side can transparently access the database in order to carry on the intended filtering. The proposed system (e-mail client interface and the filters can manage messages written in both Arabic and English languages which is crucial for the users in our region.Software engineering principals are implemented throughout the design process to make the system less vulnerable to faults and easily maintained. The design steps have followed the Waterfall-model using the ASCENT software. A user-friendly interface has been developed to access the features of the spam filter at the client side. Visual Basic version 6 has been used to develop the system. As well, the SQL server has been implemented to build and process the database

  20. Design and Efficient Implementation of Oversampled GDFT Filter Banks for Subband Adaptive Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, S; Harteneck, M; Stewart, R W

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces a polyphase implementation and design of an oversampled K-channel generalized DFT (GDFT) filter bank, which can be employed for subband adaptive filtering, and therefore is required to have a low aliasing level in the subband signals. A polyphase structure is derived which can be factorized into a real valued polyphase network and a GDFT modulation. For the latter, an FFT realization may be used, yielding a highly efficient polyphase implementation for arbitrary integer ...

  1. On the 252Cf primary and secondary gamma rays and epithermal neutron flux for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassoun, J.; Merzouki, A.; El Morabiti, A.; Jehouani, A.

    2007-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulation has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons and secondary gamma rays originated by 252Cf fission and also the primary gamma rays emitted directly by the 252Cf source at the exit face of a compact system designed for the BNCT. The system consists of a 252Cf source and a moderator/reflector/filter assembly. To study the material properties and configuration possibilities, the MCNP code has been used. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement is optimised to moderate neutrons to epithermal energy and, as far as possible, to get rid of fast and thermal neutrons and photons from the therapeutic beam. To reduce the total gamma contamination and to have a sufficiently high epithermal neutron flux we have used different photon filters of different thickness. Our analysis showed that the use of an appropriate filter leads to a gamma ray flux reduction without affecting the epithermal neutron beam quality at the exit face of the system.

  2. On the {sup 252}Cf primary and secondary gamma rays and epithermal neutron flux for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassoun, J. [LPTN, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)], E-mail: ghassoun@ucam.ac.ma; Merzouki, A. [LPTN, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco); Remote Sensing and Geomatics of the Environnement Laboratory, Ottawa-Carleton Geoscience Centre, Marion Hall-140Louis Pasteur Ottawa, ON, KIN 6N5 (Canada); El Morabiti, A.; Jehouani, A. [LPTN, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)

    2007-10-15

    Monte Carlo simulation has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons and secondary gamma rays originated by {sup 252}Cf fission and also the primary gamma rays emitted directly by the {sup 252}Cf source at the exit face of a compact system designed for the BNCT. The system consists of a {sup 252}Cf source and a moderator/reflector/filter assembly. To study the material properties and configuration possibilities, the MCNP code has been used. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement is optimised to moderate neutrons to epithermal energy and, as far as possible, to get rid of fast and thermal neutrons and photons from the therapeutic beam. To reduce the total gamma contamination and to have a sufficiently high epithermal neutron flux we have used different photon filters of different thickness. Our analysis showed that the use of an appropriate filter leads to a gamma ray flux reduction without affecting the epithermal neutron beam quality at the exit face of the system.

  3. On the 252Cf primary and secondary gamma rays and epithermal neutron flux for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulation has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons and secondary gamma rays originated by 252Cf fission and also the primary gamma rays emitted directly by the 252Cf source at the exit face of a compact system designed for the BNCT. The system consists of a 252Cf source and a moderator/reflector/filter assembly. To study the material properties and configuration possibilities, the MCNP code has been used. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement is optimised to moderate neutrons to epithermal energy and, as far as possible, to get rid of fast and thermal neutrons and photons from the therapeutic beam. To reduce the total gamma contamination and to have a sufficiently high epithermal neutron flux we have used different photon filters of different thickness. Our analysis showed that the use of an appropriate filter leads to a gamma ray flux reduction without affecting the epithermal neutron beam quality at the exit face of the system

  4. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1999-03-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase 1/2 clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra, alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  5. ANALYSIS OF ACCELERATOR BASED NEUTRON SPECTRA FOR BNCT USING PROTON RECOIL SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIELOPOLSKI,L.; LUDEWIG,H.; POWELL,J.R.; RAPARIA,D.; ALESSI,J.G.; LOWENSTEIN,D.I.

    1998-11-06

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase I/II clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  6. A Transmission-Filter Coronagraph: Design and Test

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian

    2015-01-01

    We propose a transmission-filter coronagraph for direct imaging of Jupiter-like exoplanets with ground-based telescopes. The coronagraph is based on a transmission filter that consists of finite number of transmission steps. A discrete optimization algorithm is proposed for the design of the transmission filter that is optimized for ground-based telescopes with central obstructions and spider structures.We discussed the algorithm that is applied for our coronagraph design. To demonstrate the performance of the coronagraph, a filter was manufactured and laboratory tests were conducted. The test results show that the coronagraph can achieve a high contrast of 10 to -6.5 at an inner working angle of 5{\\lambda}/D, which indicates that our coronagraph can be immediately used for the direct imaging of Jupiter-like exoplanets with ground-based telescopes.

  7. Broadband notch filter design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Vedran; Michelsen, Poul; Leipold, Frank;

    2010-01-01

    Notch filters are integrated in plasma diagnostic systems to protect millimeter-wave receivers from intensive stray radiation. Here we present a design of a notch filter with a center frequency of 140 GHz, a rejection bandwidth of ∼ 900 MHz, and a typical insertion loss below 2 dB in the passband...... in the cylindrical cavities is the fundamental TE11. The performance of the constructed filter is measured using a vector network analyzer monitoring a total bandwidth of 30 GHz. We compare the measurements with numerical simulations. © 2010 EURATOM...

  8. Design and Analysis of Parallel-Coupled Line Bandpass Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Talib Mahmood Ali

    2013-01-01

    A compact microwave parallel coupled line resonator seventh order bandpass filter (BPF) is presented in this paper, consist a 8-parallel coupled line pairs designed for a maximally flat response or Butterworth response at a center frequency of 2.44175 GHz and with a fractional bandwidth, Δ= 0.035. The filter was implemented in a microstrip platform with a permittivity of the substrate Er=4.4 and a substrate height h=1.5mm. The physical parameters of the parallel coupled line filter sections w...

  9. An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Microwave Corrugated Filters Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Mantilla-Gaviria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical and useful application of the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO method for microwave corrugated filter design is shown. The classical, general purpose ACO method is adapted to deal with the microwave filter design problem. The design strategy used in this paper is an iterative procedure based on the use of an optimization method along with an electromagnetic simulator. The designs of high-pass and band-pass microwave rectangular waveguide filters working in the C-band and X-band, respectively, for communication applications, are shown. The average convergence performance of the ACO method is characterized by means of Monte Carlo simulations and compared with that obtained with the well-known Genetic Algorithm (GA. The overall performance, for the simulations presented herein, of the ACO is found to be better than that of the GA.

  10. FULL SCALE REGENERABLE HEPA FILTER DESIGN USING SINTERED METAL FILTER ELEMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Department of Energy funded contract involved the development of porous metal as a HEPA filter, and the subsequent design of a full-scale regenerable HEPA filtration system (RHFS). This RHFS could replace the glass fiber HEPA filters currently being used on the high level waste (HLW) tank ventilation system with a system that would be moisture tolerant, durable, and cleanable in place. The origins of the contract are a 1996 investigation at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) regarding the use of porous metal as a HEPA filter material. This contract was divided into Phases I, IIA and IIB. Phase I of the contract evaluated simple filter cylinders in a simulated High Level Waste (HLW) environment and the ability to clean and regenerate the filter media after fouling. Upon the successful completion of Phase I, Phase IIA was conducted, which included lab scale prototype testing and design of a full-scale system. The work completed under Phase IIA included development of a full-scale system design, development of a filter media meeting the HEPA filtration efficiency that would also be regenerable using prescribed cleaning procedures, and the testing of a single element system prototype at Savannah River. All contract objectives were met. The filter media selected was a nickel material already under development at Mott, which met the HEPA filtration efficiency standard. The Mott nickel media met and exceeded the HEPA requirement, providing 99.99% removal against a requirement of 99.97%. Double open-ended elements of this media were provided to the Savannah River Test Center for HLW simulation testing in the single element prototype filter. These elements performed well and further demonstrated the practicality of a metallic media regenerable HEPA filter system. An evaluation of the manufacturing method on many elements demonstrated the reproducibility to meet the HEPA filtration requirement. The full-scale design of the Mott RHFS incorporated several important

  11. Design and Set up of an Air Filter Testing Unit to Demonstrate Characteristics and Performance of Particulate Air Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Smigielski; Farhang Akbar-Khanzadeh

    2009-01-01

    An air filter is a significant element of any mechanical ventilation system. However, the importance and performance evaluation of air filters have not been well publicized and related scientific reports are scarce. In this study, a transportable, off-line, air filter-testing unit (the Unit) was designed and utilized to simulate the filter housing of a mechanical ventilation system. The Unit was designed, assembled, and operated in a laboratory. To demonstrate the applications of the Unit, a ...

  12. Design and control of hybrid active power filters

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Chi-Seng

    2014-01-01

    Design and Control of Hybrid Active Power Filters presents an overview of the current quality problems and their compensators. To get a balance between the system cost and performance, hybrid active power filters (HAPFs) are valuable. The book presents the coverage of resonance phenomena prevention capability, filtering performance and system robustness analysis of HAPF; nonlinear inverter current slope characteristics and their linear operation region requirement analysis of the hysteresis PWM for the HAPF; minimum inverter capacity design procedure of HAPF, adaptive dc-link voltage controller for the HAPF and the real design example of a 220V 10kVA HAPF, in which the system performance analysis method, minimum dc voltage deduction concept and adaptive dc voltage idea can be further extended into the other active compensators, such as APF, static synchronous compensator STATCOM, etc. This book will benefit researchers, graduate students, and electrical power engineers in the field of power-quality compensati...

  13. Principles and Design Rationale of Composition Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet; Filman, Robert E.; Elrad, Tzilla; Clarke, Siobhán; Akşit, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of aspect-oriented programming languages has appeared in the past years [7]. Current research on future generation AOP languages is addressing issues like flexibility, expressive power and safety. We think that it is important to understand the motivations and design decisions of the fi

  14. Intelligent Optimize Design of LCL Filter for Three-Phase Voltage-Source PWM Rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Wei; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Xiaojie

    2009-01-01

    Compared to traditional L filter, a LCL filter is more effective on reducing harmonic distortion at switch frequency. So it is important to choose the LCL filter parameters to achieve good filtering effect. This paper introduces some traditional design methods. Design of a LCL filter by genetic a...

  15. UWB microstrip filter design using a time-domain technique

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, İbrahim; TEKIN Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    A time-domain technique is proposed for ultra-wideband (UWB) microstrip-filter design. The design technique uses the reflection coefficient (S11) specified in the frequency domain. When the frequency response of the UWB filter is given, the response will be approximated by a series of UWB pulses in the time domain. The UWB pulses are Gaussian pulses of the same bandwidth with different time delays. The method tries to duplicate the reflection scenario in the time domain for very narrow Gaussi...

  16. NEW DESIGN OF ROBUST OPTIMAL ARBITRARY TIME-DELAY FILTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaojun; SHAO Huihe

    2007-01-01

    Zero placement method in the frequency domain is utilized to design robust multi-hump EI optimal arbitrary time-delay filter (OATF) by placing two or more filter zeros near the system poles. A total insensitive OATF can be also achieved if the problem of insensitivity to damping errors is considered. This design strategy is easier to derive and implement. Applications in the anti-swing control of overhead cranes verify the fine performance of this strategy. A better suppression of the load vibrations is obtained using the proposed new OATF, which is more robust to the variation of the cable length.

  17. Designing Asynchronous Circuits for Low Power: An IFIR Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Skovby; Sparsø, Jens

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of asynchronous circuits for low power through an example: a filter bank for a digital hearing aid. The asynchronous design re-implements an existing synchronous circuit which is used in a commercial product. For comparison, both designs have been fabricated...... by numerically small samples). Apart from the improved RAM design, these measures are only viable in an asynchronous design. The principles and techniques explained in this paper are of a general nature, and they apply to the design of asynchronous low-power digital signal-processing circuits in a broader...

  18. OPTIMAL WAVELET FILTER DESIGN FOR REMOTE SENSING IMAGE COMPRESSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Guoan; Zheng Nanning; Guo Shugang

    2007-01-01

    A new approach for designing the Biorthogonal Wavelet Filter Bank (BWFB) for the purpose of image compression is presented in this letter. The approach is decomposed into two steps.First, an optimal filter bank is designed in theoretical sense based on Vaidyanathan's coding gain criterion in SubBand Coding (SBC) system. Then the above filter bank is optimized based on the criterion of Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) in JPEG2000 image compression system, resulting in a BWFB in practical application sense. With the approach, a series of BWFB for a specific class of applications related to image compression, such as remote sensing images, can be fast designed. Here,new 5/3 BWFB and 9/7 BWFB are presented based on the above approach for the remote sensing image compression applications. Experiments show that the two filter banks are equally performed with respect to CDF 9/7 and LT 5/3 filter in JPEG2000 standard; at the same time, the coefficients and the lifting parameters of the lifting scheme are all rational, which bring the computational advantage, and the ease for VLSI implementation.

  19. Cryogenic filter wheel design for an infrared instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcue, Joaquín.; Villanueva, Carlos; Sánchez, Antonio; Polo, Cristina; Reina, Manuel; Carretero, Angel; Torres, Josefina; Ramos, Gonzalo; Gonzalez, Luis M.; Sabau, Maria D.; Najarro, Francisco; Pintado, Jesús M.

    2014-09-01

    In the last two decades, Spain has built up a strong IR community which has successfully contributed to space instruments, reaching Co-PI level in the SPICA mission (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics). Under the SPICA mission, INTA, focused on the SAFARI instrument requirements but highly adaptable to other missions has designed a cryogenic low dissipation filter wheel with six positions, taking as starting point the past experience of the team with the OSIRIS instrument (ROSETTA mission) filter wheels and adapting the design to work at cryogenic temperatures. One of the main goals of the mechanism is to use as much as possible commercial components and test them at cryogenic temperature. This paper is focused on the design of the filter wheel, including the material selection for each of the main components of the mechanism, the design of elastic mount for the filter assembly, a positioner device designed to provide positional accuracy and repeatability to the filter, allowing the locking of the position without dissipation. In order to know the position of the wheel on every moment a position sensor based on a Hall sensor was developed. A series of cryogenic tests have been performed in order to validate the material configuration selected, the ball bearing lubrication and the selection of the motor. A stepper motor characterization campaign was performed including heat dissipation measurements. The result is a six position filter wheel highly adaptable to different configurations and motors using commercial components. The mechanism was successfully tested at INTA facilities at 20K at breadboard level.

  20. Measurement and simulation of the TRR BNCT beam parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Sadremomtaz, Alireza; Khalafi, Hossein; Kasesaz, Yaser; Golshanian, Mohadeseh; Ghods, Hossein; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Haddadi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the configuration of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) thermal column has been modified and a proper thermal neutron beam for preclinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been obtained. In this study, simulations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the BNCT beam parameters including the beam uniformity, the distribution of the thermal neutron dose, boron dose, gamma dose in a phantom and also the Therapeutic Gain (TG). To do this, the entire TRR structure including the reactor core, pool, the thermal column and beam tubes have been modeled using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. To measure in-phantom dose distribution a special head phantom has been constructed and foil activation techniques and TLD700 dosimeter have been used. The results show that there is enough uniformity in TRR thermal BNCT beam. TG parameter has the maximum value of 5.7 at the depth of 1 cm from the surface of the phantom, confirming that TRR thermal neutron beam has potential for being used in treatment of superficial brain tumors. For the purpose of a clinical trial, more modifications need to be done at the reactor, as, for example design, and construction of a treatment room at the beam exit which is our plan for future. To date, this beam is usable for biological studies and animal trials. There is a relatively good agreement between simulation and measurement especially within a diameter of 10 cm which is the dimension of usual BNCT beam ports. This relatively good agreement enables a more precise prediction of the irradiation conditions needed for future experiments.

  1. DC-pass filter design with notch filters superposition for CPW rectenna at low power level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, J.; Douyère, A.; Alicalapa, F.; Luk, J.-D. Lan Sun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the challenging coplanar waveguide direct current (DC) pass filter is designed, analysed, fabricated and measured. As the ground plane and the conductive line are etched on the same plane, this technology allows the connection of series and shunt elements to the active devices without via holes through the substrate. Indeed, this study presents the first step in the optimization of a complete rectenna in coplanar waveguide (CPW) technology: key element of a radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting system. The measurement of the proposed filter shows good performance in the rejection of F0=2.45 GHz and F1=4.9 GHz. Additionally, a harmonic balance (HB) simulation of the complete rectenna is performed and shows a maximum RF-to-DC conversion efficiency of 37% with the studied DC-pass filter for an input power of 10 µW at 2.45 GHz.

  2. Patch Antenna with Low Pass Filter Design to Supress Higher Order Harmonics in Efficient Rectenna Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh Ojha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to design a microstrip patch antenna with low pass filter for efficient rectenna design this structure having the property of rejecting higher harmonics than 2GHz. As the design frequency is 2GHz.in first step we design a patch antenna in second step we design patch antenna with low pass filter and combine these two. The IE3D software is used for the simulation of this structure.

  3. Design of Microstrip UWB bandpass Filter using Multiple Mode Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we present a design of microstrip ultrawideband (UWB bandpass filter (BPF for the use in UWB wireless communication application set by Federal Communications Commission (FCC. The UWB filter is realized with a Basic MMR (Multiple Mode Resonators structure feed by interdigital coupled lines for achieving higher degree of coupling. The structure is optimized for high selectivity, inband and stopband performance. Finally for fabrication of this structure Rogers RT5880 substrate of thickness 0.4mm with Dielectric constant 2.2 is used. The electromagnetic simulation software, Computer Simulation Technology Microwave Studio (CST MWS is used for the simulation and analysis of the designed structure. The comparison between simulated and fabricated measured result shows good agreement. The insertion loss of proposed filter is greater then 0.2 dB at 6.8 GHz and very flat over whole pass band also returns loss is less then -12db.

  4. Design and fabrication of long wave infrared spectral filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Victoria A.; McElhiney, Morgan E.; Gupta, Neelam; Jensen, Janet; Prather, Dennis W.; Mirotznik, Mark S.

    2016-02-01

    Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging in the long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral region has numerous applications in agriculture, astronomy20-22, medicine, and the sensing of dangerous chemical/biological agents23-25. One of the challenges of developing a spectral imaging system in the LWIR is the availability of spectral filters. We will report on three different design methods for realizing spectral filters in the LWIR. The first is an all-dielectric reflection filter based on the guidedmode resonance response. The second is a spatially-varying plasmonic structure that can be used to synthesize complicated spectral reflectance. The third is a Fabry-Perot design for tunable transmission. Numerical and experimental results will be presented.

  5. Design of Low Pass Digital FIR Filter Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Taranjit Singh; Harvinder Singh Josan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach of designing linear phase FIR low pass filter using cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA). FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. An iterative method is introduced to find the best solution of FIR filter design problem.Flat passband and high stopband attenuation are the major characteristics required in FIR filter design. To achieve these charact...

  6. Design and Analysis of Parallel-Coupled Line Bandpass Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Mahmood Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A compact microwave parallel coupled line resonator seventh order bandpass filter (BPF is presented in this paper, consist a 8-parallel coupled line pairs designed for a maximally flat response or Butterworth response at a center frequency of 2.44175 GHz and with a fractional bandwidth, Δ= 0.035. The filter was implemented in a microstrip platform with a permittivity of the substrate Er=4.4 and a substrate height h=1.5mm. The physical parameters of the parallel coupled line filter sections were optimized using the Microwave Office software to provide the closest values of the bandpass filter prototype values and electrical lengths for a given set of filter specifications. The simulation of direct calculation, show the attenuation S11 response was observed at 2.44175 GHz with a value of -25 dB and the corresponding Insertion Loss S21 is - 1.8dB while the optimized design S11 response at the centre frequency with a value of -113 dB and the corresponding Insertion Loss S21 is -2.2dB.

  7. Gravitation search algorithm: Application to the optimal IIR filter design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kumar Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a global heuristic search optimization technique known as Gravitation Search Algorithm (GSA for the design of 8th order Infinite Impulse Response (IIR, low pass (LP, high pass (HP, band pass (BP and band stop (BS filters considering various non-linear characteristics of the filter design problems. This paper also adopts a novel fitness function in order to improve the stop band attenuation to a great extent. In GSA, law of gravity and mass interactions among different particles are adopted for handling the non-linear IIR filter design optimization problem. In this optimization technique, searcher agents are the collection of masses and interactions among them are governed by the Newtonian gravity and the laws of motion. The performances of the GSA based IIR filter designs have proven to be superior as compared to those obtained by real coded genetic algorithm (RGA and standard Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. Extensive simulation results affirm that the proposed approach using GSA outperforms over its counterparts not only in terms of quality output, i.e., sharpness at cut-off, smaller pass band ripple, higher stop band attenuation, but also the fastest convergence speed with assured stability.

  8. Design and development of high performance panel air filter with experimental evaluation and analysis of filter media pleats

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar R. Patil; Prof. Sachin V. Lomte

    2015-01-01

    In automobile vehicles mostly plastic molded panel filters used for the purpose of engine air filtration. Fibrous structured cellulose media were being used with different permeability’s according to requirement of rated air flow rate required for the engine. To optimize the filter pleat design of automotive panel air filter, it is important to study correlation of pressure drop, dust holding capacity & efficiency. The main role of a filter is to provide least pressure drop with h...

  9. Design and analysis of electromagnetic interference filters and shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Andrew Joel

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a problem of rising prevalence as electronic devices become increasingly ubiquitous. EMI filters are low pass filters intended to prevent the conducted electric currents and radiated electromagnetic fields of a device from interfering with the proper operation of other devices. Shielding is a method, often complementary to filtering, that typically involves enclosing a device in a conducting box in order to prevent radiated EMI. This dissertation includes three chapters related to the use of filtering and shielding for preventing electromagnetic interference. The first chapter deals with improving the high frequency EMI filtering performance of surface mount capacitors on printed circuit boards (PCBs). At high frequencies, the impedance of a capacitor is dominated by a parasitic inductance, thus leading to poor high frequency filtering performance. Other researchers have introduced the concept of parasitic inductance cancellation and have applied this concept to improving the filtering performance of volumetrically large capacitors at frequencies up to 100 MHz. The work in this chapter applies the concept of parasitic inductance cancellation to much smaller surface mount capacitors at frequencies up to several gigahertz. The second chapter introduces a much more compact design for applying parasitic inductance cancellation to surface mount capacitors that uses inductive coupling between via pairs as well as coplanar traces. This new design is suited for PCBs having three or more layers including solid ground and/or power plane(s). This design is demonstrated to be considerably more effective in filtering high frequency noise due to crosstalk than a comparable conventional shunt capacitor filter configuration. Finally, chapter 3 presents a detailed analysis of the methods that are used to decompose the measure of plane wave shielding effectiveness into measures of absorption and reflection. Textbooks on electromagnetic

  10. Three different criteria for the design of two-dimensional zero phase FIR digital filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, E.; Johansen, M.; Conradsen, Knut;

    1993-01-01

    An error criterion for the design of FIR filters is proposed. Filters with relatively many free filter coefficients are designed using the Chebyshev, the weighted-least-squares (WLS), and a new partitioned minimax error criterion, and the performance of the filters is compared. A general and fast...... technique for the WLS design is also presented.>...

  11. An Applied Method for Designing Maximally Decimating Non-uniform Filter Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Assembling individual line phase filters to form a multi-channel filter bank allows the synthesis filter to be similar to corresponding analysis filters, and the design calculation can be simple. The appropriate relations between synthesis filters and analysis filters eliminate most aliasing resulting from decimation in non-uniform maximally decimating filter banks, and LS algorithm and Remez algorithm are used to optimize the composite character. This design method can achieve approximate Perfect-Reconstruction. An example is given in which the general parameter filters with approximate line phase are used as units of a filter bank.

  12. Design Optimization of Diesel Particulate Filter Using CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Y. Rajasekhar Reddy; Mr. K. Srinivasa Chalapathi

    2015-01-01

    The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a device designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine. A series of tests have been performed on a downscaled DPF prototype. This prototype had high filtration efficiency. Then the next step is to study the soot and ash handling capacity of DPF system and perform tests on a full-scale prototype. In order to move forward to the next step the functionality of the filter should be investigated. More...

  13. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; D'Errico, F; Nath, R; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in sup 1 sup 0 B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast ...

  14. Design and Set up of an Air Filter Testing Unit to Demonstrate Characteristics and Performance of Particulate Air Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Smigielski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An air filter is a significant element of any mechanical ventilation system. However, the importance and performance evaluation of air filters have not been well publicized and related scientific reports are scarce. In this study, a transportable, off-line, air filter-testing unit (the Unit was designed and utilized to simulate the filter housing of a mechanical ventilation system. The Unit was designed, assembled, and operated in a laboratory. To demonstrate the applications of the Unit, a series of air filter handling and installation scenarios was performed to determine the characteristic curve and capture efficiencies of a selected set of HEPA filters. The research project produced a transportable, closed system air filter testing unit. The Unit incorporated a fan, a damper to adjust air flowrate, a filter-housing (consisting of a mixing chamber, a filter-frame, and a pressure-gauge, and ducting with ports to introduce challenge particles and monitor them after filtration. By using the Unit, the detrimental effects of damaged filter-media, damaged filter-gasket, and improper installation of air filters on their capture efficiencies were clearly demonstrated. An air filter testing unit, similar to the Unit presented here, can readily be designed, fabricated, and assembled to simulate the filter-housing of mechanical ventilation systems. The assembled unit can be used (1 to determine capture efficiency of air filters and their characteristic curve, (2 to demonstrate the negative effects of improper handling and installation of air filters, and (3 as an effective investigative and educational tool.

  15. Providing Eligibility Criteria On Turbocharger Filter Silencer Design Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem GÜLERYÜZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Supply of ventilation air to either the engine room or diesel engine directly affects engine performances. Main criteria is supply of air volume and pressure into the cylinder. When Air starts to come until the cylinders, there many points which behave as restrictions. These are ventilation grills. ventilation fans, ventilation casings, misteliminators, manual or pneumatically adjusted fan dampers, number of bending of ventilation casing, cleanness of casings, air flow speed, air filters, turbocharger filter and silencers, engine’s scavenge air cooler restrictions. Here, we focused on optimum required air need through turbocharger for local diesel engine. While researching actual need, new turbocharger filter were designed and manufactured for engine manufacturer.

  16. Design and fabrication of multiple airgap-based visible filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, M.; Wolffenbuttel, R. F.

    2014-05-01

    The efficiency of a Bragg reflector design for implementation in optical resonators is highly dependent on the ratio between the high-index material and the low-index material used for the quarter-wavelength (QWOT) layers. A higher contrast implies that fewer layers are required to achieve a specified spectral selectivity over a wider spectral band. In turn, the reduced total thickness of the filter stack reduces the effect of optical absorption in the layers. The research presented here focuses on implementation of filters on top of silicon detectors that are already fabricated in a CMOS process. This implies that the constraints of process compatibility, such as the materials to be used, process temperature and cleanroom reentrance related to contamination, need to be considered. Silicon-dioxide is often used in CMOS-compatible designs, which has an index of refraction n~1.5, thus limiting nHi/nLo to about 2. This value can be improved by 50% when using air-films as the low-n material. Surface micromachining is used for the fabrication of such mirrors. Multiple layers of Si and SiO2 were alternatingly deposited, and subsequently the Si layers are selectively removed in a sacrificial etch. The width of the λ/4 air-gaps is about 100 nm, which is narrower as compared to the typical layer thickness that is used in surface micromachining for conventional MEMS applications. Moreover, a demanding optical design requires more layers than typically used in a conventional MEMS device. Since the number of stacked layers is significantly higher as compared to the conventional MEMS, fabricating such filters is a challenge. However, unlike a conventional MEMS, electrical contacting to the structural layers is not required in optical filter application, which, eases the fabrication of such filters. This paper presents the design of several 4-layer structures for use in the visible spectral range, along with the fabrication sequence and preliminary measurement results.

  17. Feasibility study of using laser-generated neutron beam for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using a laser-accelerated proton beam to produce a neutron source, via (p,n) reaction, for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) applications has been studied by MCNPX Monte Carlo code. After optimization of the target material and its thickness, a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) has been designed and optimized to provide appropriate neutron beam according to the recommended criteria by International Atomic Energy Agency. It was found that the considered laser-accelerated proton beam can provide epithermal neutron flux of ∼2×106 n/cm2 shot. To achieve an appropriate epithermal neutron flux for BNCT treatment, the laser must operate at repetition rates of 1 kHz, which is rather ambitious at this moment. But it can be used in some BNCT researches field such as biological research. - Highlights: • Feasibility of using laser-accelerated proton beam for BNCT has been investigated. • The considered beam can provide epithermal neutron flux of ~2×106 (n/cm2.shot). • For BNCT treatment, the laser must operate at repetition rates of 1 kHz

  18. A feasibility study of the Tehran research reactor as a neutron source for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasesaz, Yaser; Khalafi, Hossein; Rahmani, Faezeh; Ezati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Hossnirokh, Ashkan; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Monshizadeh, Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    Investigation on the use of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) as a neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been performed by calculating and measuring energy spectrum and the spatial distribution of neutrons in all external irradiation facilities, including six beam tubes, thermal column, and the medical room. Activation methods with multiple foils and a copper wire have been used for the mentioned measurements. The results show that (1) the small diameter and long length beam tubes cannot provide sufficient neutron flux for BNCT; (2) in order to use the medical room, the TRR core should be placed in the open pool position, in this situation the distance between the core and patient position is about 400 cm, so neutron flux cannot be sufficient for BNCT; and (3) the best facility which can be adapted for BNCT application is the thermal column, if all graphite blocks can be removed. The epithermal and fast neutron flux at the beginning of this empty column are 4.12×10(9) and 1.21×10(9) n/cm(2)/s, respectively, which can provide an appropriate neutron beam for BNCT by designing and constructing a proper Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) structure.

  19. MODIFIED MICROPIPLINE ARCHITECTURE FOR SYNTHESIZABLE ASYNCHRONOUS FIR FILTER DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Halak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of asynchronous design approaches to construct digital signal processing (DSP systems is a rapidly growing research area driven by a wide range of emerging energy constrained applications such as wireless sensor network, portable medical devices and brain implants. The asynchronous design techniques allow the construction of systems which are samples driven, which means they only dissipate dynamic energy when there processing data and idle otherwise. This inherent advantage of asynchronous design over conventional synchronous circuits allows them to be energy efficient. However the implementation flow of asynchronous systems is still difficult due to its lack of compatibility with industrystandard synchronous design tools and modelling languages. This paper devises a novel asynchronous design for a finite impulse response (FIR filter, an essential building block of DSP systems, which is synthesizable and suitable for implementation using conventional synchronous systems design flow and tools. The proposed design is based on a modified version of the micropipline architecture and it is constructed using four phase bundled data protocol. A hardware prototype of the proposed filter has been developed on an FPGA, and systematically verified. The results prove correct functionality of the novel design and a superior performance compared to a synchronous FIR implementation. The findings of this work will allow a wider adoption of asynchronous circuits by DSP designers to harness their energy and performance benefits.

  20. Ridge filter design for a particle therapy line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Hyeuk; Han, Garam; Lee, Hwa-Ryun; Kim, Hyunyong; Jang, Hong Suk; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Park, Dong Wook; Jang, Sea Duk; Hwang, Won Taek; Kim, Geun-Beom; Yang, Tae-Keun

    2014-05-01

    The beam irradiation system for particle therapy can use a passive or an active beam irradiation method. In the case of an active beam irradiation, using a ridge filter would be appropriate to generate a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) through a large scanning area. For this study, a ridge filter was designed as an energy modulation device for a prototype active scanning system at MC-50 in Korea Institute of Radiological And Medical Science (KIRAMS). The ridge filter was designed to create a 10 mm of SOBP for a 45-MeV proton beam. To reduce the distal penumbra and the initial dose, [DM] determined the weighting factor for Bragg Peak by applying an in-house iteration code and the Minuit Fit package of Root. A single ridge bar shape and its corresponding thickness were obtained through 21 weighting factors. Also, a ridge filter was fabricated to cover a large scanning area (300 × 300 mm2) by Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA). The fabricated ridge filter was tested at the prototype active beamline of MC-50. The SOBP and the incident beam distribution were obtained by using HD-810 GaF chromatic film placed at a right triangle to the PMMA block. The depth dose profile for the SOBP can be obtained precisely by using the flat field correction and measuring the 2-dimensional distribution of the incoming beam. After the flat field correction is used, the experimental results show that the SOBP region matches with design requirement well, with 0.62% uniformity.

  1. Design of switched-capacitor filter circuits using low gain amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, Hugo Alexandre de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the design of switched-capacitor filter circuits using low gain amplifiers and demonstrates some techniques that can minimize the effects of parasitic capacitances during the design phase. Focus is given in the design of low-pass and band-pass SC filters, and how higher order filters can be achieved using cascaded biquadratic filter sections. The authors also describe a low voltage implementation of a low-pass SC filter.

  2. Dynamical decoupling sequence construction as a filter-design problem

    CERN Document Server

    Biercuk, M J

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade we have seen an explosion of demonstrations of quantum coherence in atomic, optical, and condensed matter systems. These developments have placed a new emphasis on the production of robust and optimal quantum control techniques in the presence of environmental noise. We discuss the use of dynamical decoupling as a form of open-loop quantum control capable of suppressing the effects of decoherence in quantum coherent systems. We introduce the concept of dynamical decoupling pulse-sequence construction as a filter-design problem, making connections with radiofrequency filter design from electrical engineering in the analysis of pulse-sequence performance. Our work takes this perspective in addressing both "standard" sequences derived from nuclear magnetic resonance and novel optimized sequences developed in the context of quantum information. We describe the physics underlying the functionality of various sequences, and compare their relative capabilities. Additionally, we review new techni...

  3. Design of thin-film filters for resolution improvements in filter-array based spectrometers using DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woong-Bi; Kim, Cheolsun; Ju, Gun Wu; Lee, Yong Tak; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-05-01

    Miniature spectrometers have been widely developed in various academic and industrial applications such as bio-medical, chemical and environmental engineering. As a family of spectrometers, optical filter-array based spectrometers fabricated using CMOS or Nano technology provide miniaturization, superior portability and cost effectiveness. In filterarray based spectrometers, the resolution which represents the ability how closely resolve two neighboring spectra, depends on the number of filters and the characteristics of the transmission functions (TFs) of the filters. In practice, due to the small-size and low-cost fabrication, the number of filters is limited and the shape of the TF of each filter is nonideal. As a development of modern digital signal processing (DSP), the spectrometers are equipped with DSP algorithms not only to alleviate distortions due to unexpected noise or interferences among filters but also reconstruct the original signal spectrum. For a high-resolution spectrum reconstruction by the DSP, the TFs of the filters need to be sufficiently uncorrelated with each other. In this paper, we present a design of optical thin-film filters which have the uncorrelated TFs. Each filter consists of multiple layers of high- and low-refractive index materials deposited on a substrate. The proposed design helps the DSP algorithm to improve resolution with a small number of filters. We demonstrate that a resolution of 5 nm within a range from 500 nm to 1100 nm can be achieved with only 64 filters.

  4. Investigating a multi-purpose target for electron linac based photoneutron sources for BNCT of deep-seated tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoudi, S. Farhad, E-mail: masoudi@kntu.ac.ir; Rasouli, Fatemeh S.

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies in BNCT have focused on investigating appropriate neutron sources as alternatives for nuclear reactors. As the most prominent facilities, the electron linac based photoneutron sources benefit from two consecutive reactions, (e, γ) and (γ, n). The photoneutron sources designed so far are composed of bipartite targets which involve practical problems and are far from the objective of achieving an optimized neutron source. This simulation study deals with designing a compact, optimized, and geometrically simple target for a photoneutron source based on an electron linac. Based on a set of MCNPX simulations, tungsten is found to have the potential of utilizing as both photon converter and photoneutron target. Besides, it is shown that an optimized dimension for such a target slows-down the produced neutrons toward the desired energy range while keeping them economy, which makes achieving the recommended criteria for BNCT of deep-tumors more available. This multi-purpose target does not involve complicated designing, and can be considered as a significant step toward finding application of photoneutron sources for in-hospital treatments. In order to shape the neutron beam emitted from such a target, the beam is planned to pass through an optimized arrangement of materials composed of moderators, filters, reflector, and collimator. By assessment with the recommended in-air parameters, it is shown that the designed beam provides high intensity of desired neutrons, as well as low background contamination. The last section of this study is devoted to investigate the performance of the resultant beam in deep tissue. A typical simulated liver tumor, located within a phantom of human body, was subjected to the irradiation of the designed spectrum. The dosimetric results, including evaluated depth-dose curves and carried out in-phantom parameters show that the proposed configuration establishes acceptable agreement between the appropriate neutron intensity, and

  5. A new design of filter system in streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pengyu; Bai, Yonglin

    2015-10-01

    In order to reduce the frequency of researchers routing in and out of the testing site and ensure the fluency of the testing we design a new filter system applied to the streak cameras. This system promotes streak cameras' abilities on spatial discrimination and time resolution. This paper focuses on the instruction of the piezoelectric motor's principle based on field-effect tubes. Filter wheel is driven by piezoelectric motor. It can effectively avoid the influences of high field produced by streak tube. Finally we achieve auto regulation at different gears and promote the efficiency of operations and guarantee the safety of researchers. CD4046 introduces the driven clock of this system and we use an inverter to get two synchronous inverted signals. These signals are amplified by field-effect tubes to more than 300V. The amplified ones are integrated at the output terminals to generate sinusoidal signal. The test shows that in this filter system piezoelectric motor operates at its resonance frequency under a control signal of 62.5 KHz. Its working current is 1.9A and driving power is almost 10W. By adjusting the gears, the filter wheel costs less than 2 seconds to calibrate. We accomplish the test in respected results.

  6. BNCT Technology Development on HANARO Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So as to establish the biological effects of BNCT in the HANARO Reactor, biological damages in cells and animals with treatment of boron/neutron were investigated. And 124I-BPA animal PET image, analysis technology of the boron contents in the mouse tissues by ICP-AES was established. A Standard clinical protocol, a toxicity evaluation report and an efficacy investigation report of BNCT has been developed. Based on these data, the primary permission of clinical application was acquired through IRB of our hospital. Three cases of pre-clinical experiment for boron distribution and two cases of medium-sized animal simulation experiment using cat with verifying for 2 months after BNCT was performed and so the clinical demonstration with a patient was prepared. Also neutron flux, fast neutron flux and gamma ray dose of BNCT facility were calculated and these data will be utilized good informations for clinical trials and further BNCT research. For the new synthesis of a boron compound, o-carboranyl ethylamine, o-carboranylenepiperidine, o-carboranyl-THIQ and o-carboranyl-s-triazine derivatives were synthesized. Among them, boron uptake in the cancer cell of the triazine derivative was about 25 times than that of BPA and so these three synthesized methods of new boron compounds were patented

  7. BNCT Technology Development on HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Jung; Park, Kyung Bae; Whang, Seung Ryul; Kim, Myong Seop

    2007-06-15

    So as to establish the biological effects of BNCT in the HANARO Reactor, biological damages in cells and animals with treatment of boron/neutron were investigated. And 124I-BPA animal PET image, analysis technology of the boron contents in the mouse tissues by ICP-AES was established. A Standard clinical protocol, a toxicity evaluation report and an efficacy investigation report of BNCT has been developed. Based on these data, the primary permission of clinical application was acquired through IRB of our hospital. Three cases of pre-clinical experiment for boron distribution and two cases of medium-sized animal simulation experiment using cat with verifying for 2 months after BNCT was performed and so the clinical demonstration with a patient was prepared. Also neutron flux, fast neutron flux and gamma ray dose of BNCT facility were calculated and these data will be utilized good informations for clinical trials and further BNCT research. For the new synthesis of a boron compound, o-carboranyl ethylamine, o-carboranylenepiperidine, o-carboranyl-THIQ and o-carboranyl-s-triazine derivatives were synthesized. Among them, boron uptake in the cancer cell of the triazine derivative was about 25 times than that of BPA and so these three synthesized methods of new boron compounds were patented.

  8. Design of nonuniform cosine-modulated filter-banks with the perfect-reconstruction property and arbitrary filter lengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xuemei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed to construct recombination nonuniform cosine-modulated filter banks (CMFBs)with a perfect-reconstruction property and with arbitrary filter lengths. In this filter bank (FB) structure, certain channels of an original M-channel uniform FB are merged by a set of transmultiplexers (TMUXs), yielding nonuniform outputs, and the length restrictions on the original CMFB and the recombination TMUXs are avoided, allowing them to have arbitrary filter lengths. By imposing certain improved matching conditions on the prototype filters, nonuniform FBs with arbitrary filter lengths and with good properties can be obtained.As a result, the flexibility of selecting modulation types and filter lengths is greatly increased in the design of recombination nonuniform CMFBs. Another benefit due to the flexibility is that the system delay can be reduced.

  9. Design and development of high performance panel air filter with experimental evaluation and analysis of filter media pleats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar R. Patil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In automobile vehicles mostly plastic molded panel filters used for the purpose of engine air filtration. Fibrous structured cellulose media were being used with different permeability’s according to requirement of rated air flow rate required for the engine. To optimize the filter pleat design of automotive panel air filter, it is important to study correlation of pressure drop, dust holding capacity & efficiency. The main role of a filter is to provide least pressure drop with high dust holding and efficiency. A channel made for the testing of different pleat designs. This research comprises of experimental design & evaluation of filter element with variable pleat depth and pleat density. This assessment offers the selection of pleat design according to the performance requirements.

  10. Spectrum shaping of accelerator-based neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Montagnini, B; Esposito, J; Giusti, V; Mattioda, F; Varone, R

    2002-01-01

    We describe Monte Carlo simulations of three facilities for the production of epithermal neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and examine general aspects and problems of designing the spectrum-shaping assemblies to be used with these neutron sources. The first facility is based on an accelerator-driven low-power subcritical reactor, operating as a neutron amplifier. The other two facilities have no amplifier and rely entirely on their primary sources, a D-T fusion reaction device and a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a Li target, respectively.

  11. Fixed-Point Design of Generalized Comb Filters: A Statistical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Laddomada, Massimiliano

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of designing computationally efficient Generalized Comb Filters (GCF). Basically, GCF filters are anti-aliasing filters that guarantee superior performance in terms of selectivity and quantization noise rejection compared to classical comb filters, when used as decimation filters in multistage architectures. Upon employing a partial polyphase (PP) architecture proposed in a companion paper, we develop a sensitivity analysis in order to investigate the effects of the coefficients' quantization on the frequency response of the designed filters. We show that the sensitivity of the filter response to errors in the coefficients is dependent on the particular split of the decimation factor between the two sub-filters constituting the PP architecture. The sensitivity analysis is then used for developing a fixed-point implementation of a sample filter from the class of GCF filters, used as reference filter throughout the paper. Finally, we present computer simulations in order...

  12. Design Of EMI Filter For Flash Lamp Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhatt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conducted and radiated electromagnetic interference in embedded and VLSI systems have become important in recent years with increase in clock frequency and reduction in physical dimensions of interconnects. It is important to understand the noise components in terms of current paths and the mitigation techniques. Although the common mode and differential mode components of conducted noise are analyzed in the context of a power electronics system the analytical and theoretical techniques hold good for other domains as well such as embedded systems and VLSI. This paper deals with modelling design and development of an EMI filter for conducted mode noise in flash lamp power supply. Also a design procedure of EMI filters sustaining to the military standard 461E is presented and it is based on practical measurement of conducted emissions. Design procedure in this paper considers common mode and differential mode separately. The paper also consists of considerations for magnetic core material integrated common mode CM common mode choke size optimization and differential mode DM choke etc. Design examples are given and are experimentally verified.

  13. Design of a Symmetrical Microstrip Bandpass Filter for S-Band Frequency Range

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd F. Ain; Mandeep S.J. Singh; Prabhu; Syed I. S. Hassan

    2007-01-01

    A new type of microstrip bandpass filter is presented with a center frequency operation at 2.5GHz which lies in the S-band frequency range. The filter is designed to be much smaller compared to the same type of parallel-coupled bandpass filter. The simulation results are excellent and the filter is suitable for integration within various microwave subsystems.

  14. Production of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Bisceglie, E; Colonna, N; Paticchio, V; Santorelli, P; Variale, V

    2002-01-01

    The use of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of deep-seated tumors requires neutron beams of suitable energy and intensity. Simulations indicate the optimal energy to reside in the epithermal region, in particular between 1 and 10 keV. Therapeutic neutron beams with high spectral purity in this energy range could be produced with accelerator-based neutron sources through a suitable neutron-producing reaction. Herein, we report on different solutions that have been investigated as possible sources of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT. The potential use of such sources for a hospital-based therapeutic facility is discussed.

  15. AESOP- INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF LINEAR QUADRATIC REGULATORS AND KALMAN FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, B.

    1994-01-01

    AESOP was developed to solve a number of problems associated with the design of controls and state estimators for linear time-invariant systems. The systems considered are modeled in state-variable form by a set of linear differential and algebraic equations with constant coefficients. Two key problems solved by AESOP are the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) design problem and the steady-state Kalman filter design problem. AESOP is designed to be used in an interactive manner. The user can solve design problems and analyze the solutions in a single interactive session. Both numerical and graphical information are available to the user during the session. The AESOP program is structured around a list of predefined functions. Each function performs a single computation associated with control, estimation, or system response determination. AESOP contains over sixty functions and permits the easy inclusion of user defined functions. The user accesses these functions either by inputting a list of desired functions in the order they are to be performed, or by specifying a single function to be performed. The latter case is used when the choice of function and function order depends on the results of previous functions. The available AESOP functions are divided into several general areas including: 1) program control, 2) matrix input and revision, 3) matrix formation, 4) open-loop system analysis, 5) frequency response, 6) transient response, 7) transient function zeros, 8) LQR and Kalman filter design, 9) eigenvalues and eigenvectors, 10) covariances, and 11) user-defined functions. The most important functions are those that design linear quadratic regulators and Kalman filters. The user interacts with AESOP when using these functions by inputting design weighting parameters and by viewing displays of designed system response. Support functions obtain system transient and frequency responses, transfer functions, and covariance matrices. AESOP can also provide the user

  16. Dynamical decoupling sequence construction as a filter-design problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biercuk, M. J.; Doherty, A. C.; Uys, H.

    2011-08-01

    Over the past decade we have seen an explosion of demonstrations of quantum coherence in atomic, optical and condensed matter systems. These developments have placed a new emphasis on the production of robust and optimal quantum control techniques in the presence of environmental noise. We discuss the use of dynamical decoupling as a form of open-loop quantum control capable of suppressing the effects of dephasing in quantum coherent systems. We introduce the concept of dynamical decoupling pulse-sequence construction as a filter-design problem, making connections with filter design from control theory and electrical engineering in the analysis of pulse-sequence performance for the preservation of the phase degree of freedom in a quantum superposition. A detailed mathematical description of how dephasing and its suppression can be reduced to a linear control problem is provided, and used as motivation and context for studies of the filtration properties of various dynamical decoupling sequences. Our work then takes this practical perspective in addressing both 'standard' sequences derived from nuclear magnetic resonance and novel optimized sequences developed in the context of quantum information. Additionally, we review new techniques for the numerical construction of optimized pulse sequences in this light. We show how the filter-design perspective permits concise comparisons of the relative capabilities of these sequences and reveals the physics underlying their functionality. The use of this new analytical framework allows us to derive new insights into the performance of these sequences and reveals important limiting issues, such as the effect of digital clocking on optimized sequence performance.

  17. A Practical Design of Lumped, Semi-lumped & Microwave Cavity Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Dhanasekharan

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the application of microwave literature for designing lumped/semi-lumped filters and combline/iris-coupled microwave cavity filters. It provides the physical understanding of the terms and characteristics of radio frequency (RF) filters. The book complements engineering text books on RF components and provides support for the project assignments of students. In addition to the functional design of RF filters, the integrated design approach for produceability and reliability is explained.

  18. Design of Low Pass Digital FIR Filter Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranjit Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach of designing linear phase FIR low pass filter using cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA. FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. An iterative method is introduced to find the best solution of FIR filter design problem.Flat passband and high stopband attenuation are the major characteristics required in FIR filter design. To achieve these characteristics, a Cuckoo Search algorithm (CSA is proposed in this paper. CSA have been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filters. Results are presented in this paper that seems to be promising tool for FIR filter design

  19. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  20. Gabor Filter Optimization Design for Iris Texture Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Xu; Xing Ming; Xiaoguang Yang

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with an optimization design method for the Gabor filters based on the analysis of an iris texture model. By means of analyzing the properties of an iris texture image, the energy distribution regularity of the iris texture image measured by the average power spectrum density is exploited, and the theoretical ranges of the efficient valued frequency and orientation parameters can also be deduced. The analysis shows that the energy distribution of the iris texture is generally centralized around lower frequencies in the spatial frequency domain. Accordingly, an iterative algorithm is designed to optimize the Gabor parameter field. The experimental results indicate the validity of the theory and efficiency of the algorithm.

  1. DESIGN OF STEPPED IMPEDANCE LOW PASS FILTER AT 2.4GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Vishakha Dayal Shrivastava*, Vandana Vikas Thakare

    2016-01-01

    In this era, life can't be envisioned without wireless communication. The microwave filter is a component which gives frequency selectivity in mobile, radar, satellite communication systems working at microwave frequency. Microwave low pass filter attenuates the unwanted signal above cut off frequency. For stepped impedance filter design high and low impedance lines are used. This paper describes designing of Chebyshev approximated stepped impedance low pass filter at 2.4 GHz  with t...

  2. Criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters during and after design basis accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have reviewed the literature on the performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be structurally damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. Despite the many studies on HEPA filter performance under adverse conditions, there are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen when there was insufficient data

  3. Design and responses of Butterworth and critically damped digital filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D Gordon E; Dowling, James J

    2003-12-01

    For many years the Butterworth lowpass filter has been used to smooth many kinds of biomechanical data, despite the fact that it is underdamped and therefore overshoots and/or undershoots data during rapid transitions. A comparison of the conventional Butterworth filter with a critically damped filter shows that the critically damped filter not only removes the undershooting and overshooting, but has a superior rise time during rapid transitions. While analog filters always create phase distortion, both the critically damped and Butterworth filters can be modified to become zero-lag filters when the data are processed in both the forward and reverse directions. In such cases little improvement is realized by applying multiple passes. The Butterworth filter has superior 'roll-off' (attenuation of noise above the cutoff frequency) than the critically damped filter, but by increasing the number of passes of the critically damped filter the same 'roll-off' can be achieved. In summary, the critically damped filter was shown to have superior performance in the time domain than the Butterworth filter, but for data that need to be double differentiated (e.g. displacement data) the Butterworth filter may still be the better choice.

  4. Postoperative treatment of glioblastoma with BNCT at the Petten Irradiation Facility (EORTC Protocol 11961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron neutron capture therapy is based on the reaction occurring between the isotope 10B and thermal neutrons. A low energy neutron is captured by the nucleus and it disintegrates into two densely ionising particles, Li nucleus and He nucleus (α particle), with high biological effectiveness. On the basis of comprehensive preclinical investigations in the frame of the European Collaboration with Na2B12H11SH (BSH), as boron delivery agent, the first European phase I, clinical trial was designed at the only available epithermal beam in Europe, at the High Flux Reactor, Petten, in the Netherland. The goal of this study is to establish the safe BNCT dose for cranial tumors under defined conditions. BNCT is applied as postoperative radiotherapy in 4 fractions, after removal of the tumor for a group of patients suffering from glioblastoma, who would have no benefit from conventional treatment, but have sufficient life expectancy to detect late radiation morbidity due to BNCT. The starting dose is set at 80% of the dose where neurological effects occured in preclinical large animal experiments following a single fraction. The radiation dose will be escalated, by constant boron concentration in blood, in 4 steps for cohorts of ten patients, after an observation period of at least 6 months after the end of BNCT of the last patient of a cohort. The adverse events on healthy tissues due to BSH and due to the radiotherapy will be analysed in order to establish the maximal tolerated dose and dose limiting toxicity. Besides of the primary aim of this study the survival will be recorded. The first patient was treated in October 1997, and further four patients have been irradiated to date. The protocol design proved to be well applicable, establishing the basis for scientific evaluation, for performance of safe patient treatment in a very complex situation and for opening the possibility to perform further clinical research work on BNCT. (orig.)

  5. USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR DESIGNING OF FIR DIGITAL FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new technique is presented for the design and optimization of digital FIR filters with coefficients that are presented in canonic signed-digit (CSD format. Since such implementation requires no multipliers, it reduces the hardware cost and lowers the power consumption. The proposed technique considers three goals, the optimum number of coefficients, the optimum wordlength, and the optimum set of coefficients which satisfies the desirable frequency response and ensures the minimum hardware cost by minimizing the number of nonzero digits in CSD representation of the coefficients using Genetic Algorithms (GA. Comparing with equiripple method, the proposed technique results in about 30-40 percent reduction in hardware cost.

  6. Design of Reversible Multipliers for Linear Filtering Applications in DSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakshith Saligram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipliers in DSP computations are crucial. Thus modern DSP systems need to develop low powermultipliers to reduce the power dissipation. One of the efficient ways to reduce power dissipation is by theuse of bypassing technique. If a bit in the multiplier and/or multiplicand is zero the whole array of rowand/or diagonal will be bypassed and hence the name bypass multipliers. This paper presents the columnBypass multiplier and 2-D bypass multiplier using reversible logic; Reversible logic is a more prominenttechnology, having its applications in Low Power CMOS and quantum computations. The switchingactivity of any component in the bypass multiplier depends only on the input bit coefficients. Thesemultipliers find application in linear filtering FFT computational units, particularly during zero paddingwhere there will be umpteen numbers of zeros. A bypass multiplier reduces the number of switchingactivities as well as the power consumption, above which reversible logic design acts to further almostnullify the dissipations

  7. Design a Micro-Strip Band Pass Filter for 6 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Duvey

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of this paper described about the design of microwave band pass filter by using microstrip layout. A microwave filter is two port network used to control the frequency response. The developments after micro-strip filter are simulated by using IE3D simulator software. Photolithographic process is used for fabrication and after fabrication final testing had done by using the spectrum analyzer.

  8. A D-D/D-T fusion reaction based neutron generator system for liver tumor BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunoro, H.; Lou, T.P.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.

    2003-04-02

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation treatment modality used for highly malignant tumor treatments. Prior to irradiation with low energetic neutrons, a 10B compound is located selectively in the tumor cells. The effect of the treatment is based on the high LET radiation released in the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction with thermal neutrons. BNCT has been used experimentally for brain tumor and melanoma treatments. Lately applications of other severe tumor type treatments have been introduced. Results have shown that liver tumors can also be treated by BNCT. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, various compact neutron generators based on D-D or D-T fusion reactions are being developed. The earlier theoretical studies of the D-D or D-T fusion reaction based neutron generators have shown that the optimal moderator and reflector configuration for brain tumor BNCT can be created. In this work, the applicability of 2.5 MeV neutrons for liver tumor BNCT application was studied. The optimal neutron energy for external liver treatments is not known. Neutron beams of different energies (1eV < E < 100 keV) were simulated and the dose distribution in the liver was calculated with the MCNP simulation code. In order to obtain the optimal neutron energy spectrum with the D-D neutrons, various moderator designs were performed using MCNP simulations. In this article the neutron spectrum and the optimized beam shaping assembly for liver tumor treatments is presented.

  9. On the Polyphase Decomposition for Design of Generalized Comb Decimation Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Laddomada, Massimiliano

    2007-01-01

    Generalized comb filters (GCFs) are efficient anti-aliasing decimation filters with improved selectivity and quantization noise (QN) rejection performance around the so called folding bands with respect to classical comb filters. In this paper, we address the design of GCF filters by proposing an efficient partial polyphase architecture with the aim to reduce the data rate as much as possible after the Sigma-Delta A/D conversion. We propose a mathematical framework in order to completely char...

  10. Design of Miniaturized Multiband Filters Using Zero Order Resonators for WLAN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shafiee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to design miniaturized narrow- and dual-band filters for WLAN application using zero order resonators by the method of least squares. The miniaturization of the narrow-band filter is up to 70% and that of the dual-band filter is up to 64% compared to the available models in the literature. Two prototype models of the narrow-band and dual-band filters are fabricated and measured, which verify the proposed structure for the filter and its design by the presented method, using an equivalent circuit model.

  11. Interpolation Filter Design for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik; Muntal, Pere Llimós

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a design of a digital interpolation filter for a 3rd order multi-bit ΣΔ modulator with over-sampling ratio OSR = 64. The interpolation filter and the ΣΔ modulator are part of the back-end of an audio signal processing system in a hearing-aid application. The aim in this paper...... in the interpolation filter are investigated. Proposed design simplifications presented here result in the least hardware demanding combination of oversampling ratio, number of stages and number of filter taps among a number of filters reported for audio applications....

  12. The design of a photonic crystal filter in the terahertz range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xing-xing; Zhu Qiao-Fen; Zhang Yan

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional photonic crystal structures for multiple channeled filtering and polarization selective filtering in the terahertz (THz) range are studied theoretically. The design of aperiodic photonic quantum-well (APQW) structures for multiple channeled filtering and different polarization filtering at arbitrary preassigned frequencies are achieved by using the simulated annealing algorithm with a special merit function. The parameters of these filters can be expediently controlled and the transmission characters are polarization dependent. Numerical simulations show that the designed APQWs can meet the desired specification well.

  13. Concept of a BNCT line with in-pool fission converter at MARIA reactor in Swierk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Krzysztof; Andrzejewski, Krzysztof; Golnik, Natalia; Osko, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    BNCT facility in the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk is under construction at the horizontal channel H2 of the research reactor MARIA. Measurements of the neutron energy spectrum performed at the front of the H2 experimental channel, have shown that flux of epithermal neutrons (above 10 keV) at the BNCT irradiation port was below 109 n cm-2 s-1 i.e. it was too low to be directly used for the BNCT treatment. Therefore, a fission converter will be placed between the reactor core and the periphery of the graphite reflector of MARIA reactor. The uranium converter will be powered by the densely packed EK-10 fuel elements with 10% enrichment. Preliminary calculations have shown that the total neutron flux in the converter will be about 1013 n cm-2 s-1 and flux of epithermal neutrons at the entrance to the filter/moderator of the beam will be about 2·1013 n cm-2 s-1.

  14. Design and control of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede; Hansen, Steffan

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a step-by-step procedure for designing the LCL filter of a front-end three-phase active rectifier. The primary goal is to reduce the switching frequency ripple at a reasonable cost, while at the same time achieving a high-performance front-end rectifier (as characterized...... by a rapid dynamic response and good stability margin). An example LCL filter design is reported and a filter has been built and tested using the values obtained from this design. The experimental results demonstrate the performance of the design procedure both for the LCL filter and for the rectifier...... a powerful tool to design an LCL-filter-based active rectifier while avoiding trial-and-error procedures that can result in having to build several filter prototypes....

  15. A Proficient Design of Hybrid Synchronous and Asynchronous Digital FIR Filter using FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Paulchamy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hybrid synchronous and asynchronous digital FIR filter is designed and implemented in FPGA using VHDL. The digital FIR filter of high throughput, low latency operating at above 1.3 GHz was designed. An adaptive high capacity pipelined was introduced in the hybrid synchronous asynchronous design of the filter. The degree of the pipelining is dynamically variable depending upon the input. Concurrent execution of software or program can be achieved in FPGA through parallel processing. The designed digital FIR filter is simulated using ModelSim and implemented using Xilinx. The simulation results are presented for different order such as 3, 6 and 15. The FIR filter designed is synthesized in Xilinx 9.1i and the device utilization report is presented for filter of order 3, 6 and 15.

  16. Design and Analysis of Robust Active Damping for LCL Filters using Digital Notch Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin;

    2016-01-01

    the resonance, where the notch frequency should be aligned exactly to the resonant frequency of the LCL filter. However, parameter variations of the LCL filter as well as the time delay appearing in digital control systems will induce resonance drifting, and thus break this alignment, possibly deteriorating......Resonant poles of LCL filters may challenge the entire system stability especially in digital-controlled Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) inverters. In order to tackle the resonance issues, many active damping solutions have been reported. For instance, a notch filter can be employed to damp...... make itself fail to damp the resonance. Specifically, the phase lag can make the current control stable despite of the resonant frequency drifting, when the grid current is fed back. In contrast, in the case of an inverter current feedback control, the influence of the phase lead or lag on the active...

  17. Design Of Wide Band Microstrip Bandstop Filter With Open-Circuited Stubs For Wireless Communication Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Mukherjee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Filters play an important role in most RF and Microwave applications. Currently, the electromagnetic spectrum is limited, and the applications are restricted to occupy just a portion of frequency range without affecting the equipment working out of band and also, without being affected by adjacent devices. Emerging applications such as wireless communications continue challenging RF/Microwave filters performance with even more stringent requirements, higher performance, smaller size, lighter weights, and low cost. Depending on the requirements and specifications, filters can mainly be designed with lumped or distributed elements. This paper describes the design of a newly proposed wide band micro strip band stop filter with open circuited stubs. This paper represents the design, simulation and fabrication of wideband bandstop filter using microstrip which is designed to have a center frequency of 2.5GHz. The filter is fabricated on a FR-4 substrate having dielectric constant

  18. Design and Analysis of Compact UWB Bandpass Filter with Wide Passband Using Defected Ground Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashika Saini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A compact ultra-wideband (UWB bandpass filter (BPF with wide passband using defected ground structure (DGS is proposed. The proposed UWB filter is constructed by cascading a high pass filter (HPF and a lowpass filter (LPF. HPF with short-circuited stubs is used to realize the lower stopband and a LPF is used to attenuate the upper stopband. In order to make the filter size compact, DGS technology is incorporated in the filter design, with this technique the size of filter becomes extremely compact compared with the other UWB bandpass filters in different published papers. In designing the filter integrated with DGS, four rectangular shaped DGS were etched on the ground plane. Furthermore, the bandwidth is enhanced from the original UWB filter, by varying the widths of the rectangular shaped DGS in the ground plane. The BPF is designed with the desired frequency band of 3.1GHz-10.6GHz and a flat group delay across the pass-band. The occupied area of the proposed filter is 22.4mm × 12mm, both simulated and experimental results are provided with good agreement

  19. Generalized Design Method for Voltage-Controlled Current-Mode Multifunction Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lattenberg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the Generalized Current Follower Transconductance Amplifier (GCFTA element for generalized frequency filter design and a novel active element, the Programmable Current Amplifier (PCA for the realization of the current-mode analog blocks, are presented. The paper also presents a method of general frequency filter design, whereas the basic circuit is a general autonomous circuit using GCFTA, PCA elements and general admittances. The properties of the proposed filter have been verified using PSPICE simulations.

  20. Practical design of multi-channel oversampled warped cosine-modulated filter banks

    CERN Document Server

    Vashkevich, Maxim; Petrovsky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A practical approach to optimal design of multichannel oversampled warped cosine-modulated filter banks (CMFB) is proposed. Warped CMFB is obtained by allpass transformation of uniform CMFB. The paper addresses the problems of minimization amplitude distortion and suppression of aliasing components emerged due to oversampling of filter bank channel signals. Proposed optimization-based design considerably reduces distortions of overall filter bank transfer function taking into account channel subsampling ratios.

  1. Design of Reversible Multipliers for Linear Filtering Applications in DSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakshith Saligram

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipliers in DSP computations are crucial. Thus modern DSP systems need to develop low power multipliers to reduce the power dissipation. One of the efficient ways to reduce power dissipation is by the use of bypassing technique. If a bit in the multiplier and/or multiplicand is zero the whole array of rowand/or diagonal will be bypassed and hence the name bypass multipliers. This paper presents the column Bypass multiplier and 2-D bypass multiplier using reversible logic; Reversible logic is a more prominent technology, having its applications in Low Power CMOS and quantum computations. The switching activity of any component in the bypass multiplier depends only on the input bit coefficients. The semultipliers find application in linear filtering FFT computational units, particularly during zero padding where there will be umpteen numbers of zeros. A bypass multiplier reduces the number of switching activities as well as the power consumption, above which reversible logic design acts to further almost nullify the dissipations

  2. The studsvik BNCT project: structure and the proposed protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BNCT facility at Studsvik is now ready for clinical trials. Scientific operations of the Studsvik BNCT project are overseen by the Scientific Advisory Board comprised of representatives of all major universities in Sweden. Furthermore, special task groups for clinical and preclinical studies have been formed to facilitate collaboration with academia and to assure the quality of the research. Proposed clinical Phase II trials for glioblastoma are sponsored by the Swedish National Neuro-Oncology Group and, initially, will involve two protocols: Protocol no.1. BNCT for glioblastoma patients who have not received any therapy other than surgery (including stereotactic biopsy only). Protocol no.2. BNCT as a palliative treatment for patients with recurrent glioblastoma following conventional therapies or BNCT. In both protocols, BPA, administered by a 6 hour i.v. infusion, will be used as the boron delivery agent. (author)

  3. A toolkit for epithermal neutron beam characterisation in BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auterinen, Iiro; Serén, Tom; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Kosunen, Antti; Savolainen, Sauli

    2004-01-01

    Methods for dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been developed and utilised within the Finnish BNCT project as well as within a European project for a code of practise for the dosimetry of BNCT. One outcome has been a travelling toolkit for BNCT dosimetry. It consists of activation detectors and ionisation chambers. The free-beam neutron spectrum is measured with a set of activation foils of different isotopes irradiated both in a Cd-capsule and without it. Neutron flux (thermal and epithermal) distribution in phantoms is measured using activation of Mn and Au foils, and Cu wire. Ionisation chamber (IC) measurements are performed both in-free-beam and in-phantom for determination of the neutron and gamma dose components. This toolkit has also been used at other BNCT facilities in Europe, the USA, Argentina and Japan.

  4. Designing Microstrip Low Pass Filter In ISM Band For Rectenna System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Sharma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The filter is required in all RF-communication techniques. Low Pass Filters play an important role in wireless power transmission systems. Transmitted and received signals have to be filtered at a certain frequency with a specific bandwidth. In this paper the design of filter is done in the ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical band whose frequency lies between 1.55GHz- 3.99GHz. After getting the specifications required, we realized the filter structure with the help of CST-MW software.  

  5. The Argonne ACWL, a potential accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THE CWDD (Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator) accelerator was designed to accelerate 80 mA cw of D- to 7.5 MeV. Most of the hardware for the first 2 MeV was installed at Argonne and major subsystems had been commissioned when program funding from the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization ended in October 1993. Renamed the Argonne Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL), we are proposing to complete it to accelerate either deuterons to 2 MeV or protons to 3-3.5 MeV. Equipped with a beryllium or other light-element target, it would make a potent source of neutrons (on the order of 1013 n/s) for BNCT and/or neutron radiography. Project status and proposals for turning ACWL into a neutron source are reviewed, including the results of a computational study that was carried out to design a target/moderator to produce an epithermal neutron beam for BNCT. (orig.)

  6. New optimal design method for trap damping sections in grid-connected LCL filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2014-01-01

    A straightforward method is proposed in this paper to optimally design the damping sections of the LCL or LCL plus trap filters. The proposed method simplifies the iterative design procedure of the overall filter while ensuring minimum resonance peaking and smaller capacitor than otherwise would ...

  7. A Design of 2L-Channel FIR Paraunitary Filter Banks with Complex Coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for the design of 2L-channel FIR paraunitary filter banks with complex coefficients to meet the requirement of processing complex signals. The filter designed with the algorithm has the property of near linear-phase. Thus, there is no more phase distortions introduced to the phase spectrum.

  8. Unconstrained Optimization Method to Design Two Channel Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks for Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Jain, Aditya Goel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient method for the design of two-channel, quadrature mirror filter (QMF bank for subband image coding. The choice of filter bank is important as it affects image quality as well as system design complexity. The design problem is formulated as weighted sum of reconstruction error in time domain and passband and stop-band energy of the low-pass analysis filter of the filter bank .The objective function is minimized directly, using nonlinear unconstrained method. Experimental results of the method on images show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that of the already existing methods. The impact of some filter characteristics, such as stopband attenuation, stopband edge, and filter length on the performance of the reconstructed images is also investigated.

  9. The epithermal neutron beam for BNCT under construction at TAPIRO: Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, K W [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Casalini, L [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mondini, D [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione (DIMNP), Universita di Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Nava, E [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Rosi, G [ENEA - Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-ION, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Rome (Italy); Tinti, R [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    A column to provide an epithermal neutron beam suitable for experimental and clinical BNCT is nearing completion at the TAPIRO reactor (ENEA Casaccia, Rome). TAPIRO is a compact, low power (5 kW), helium-cooled, fast reactor. It has a hard neutron spectrum relative even to other fast reactors. In this paper some of the basic physics aspects of designing an epithermal neutron beam are considered, with reference to the TAPIRO beam.

  10. Determination of the irradiation field at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, S; Hampel, G; Kratz, J V; Aguilar, A L; Minouchehr, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L; Wortmann, B

    2009-07-01

    For the application of the BNCT for the excorporal treatment of organs at the TRIGA Mainz, the basic characteristics of the radiation field in the thermal column as beam geometry, neutron and gamma ray energies, angular distributions, neutron flux, as well as absorbed gamma and neutron doses must be determined in a reproducible way. To determine the mixed irradiation field thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) made of CaF(2):Tm with a newly developed energy-compensation filter system and LiF:Mg,Ti materials with different (6)Li concentrations and different thicknesses as well as thin gold foils were used. PMID:19380234

  11. Design and Simulation of Edge-Coupled Stripline Band Pass Filter for U band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Shakdwipee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a band pass filter structure using Ansoft designer software and Matlab software simulation tool are presented. The filter is operated at U Band range in higher order 50 GHz edge-coupled Stripline band pass filter for different microwave application. For the proposed work we consider simulation using Roger R03203 substrate with dielectric constant of 3.02, Conductor Thickness 0.035 mm and Substrate Height 0.787 mm. This filter is design at a center frequency of 50 GHz with 8 GHz bandwidth. Simulation results show that the filter operation is optimum and best in this range and results show good performance and agree well with the high frequency EM full wave simulation. In this paper, band pass filter development with the assistance of the Richards-Kuroda Transformation method, is used. Moreover, measured S parameters denote the center frequency is also strongly influenced by the variation of Roger's material's dielectric constants. By analyzing the characteristics at center frequency of the filter, both theoretical and simulated data are accumulated for broadening application filed. The band pass filter exhibits advantages of small size and high reliability compared to conventional planar filter structure, which makes the band pass filter suitable for U Band communicational application. This filter shows attractive characteristics for BPF applications.

  12. Analog Filter Design Rules for Multilevel Polybinary Signaling Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Cavallero, Francisco javier Vaquero; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    Polybinary signaling has gained attention lately due to its generation simplicity and reduced spectral usage. This paper presents a study on the requirements for analog filters for the generation of multilevel polybinary signals with three to nine levels.......Polybinary signaling has gained attention lately due to its generation simplicity and reduced spectral usage. This paper presents a study on the requirements for analog filters for the generation of multilevel polybinary signals with three to nine levels....

  13. A Top-Down Optimization Methodology for SC Filter Circuit Design Using Varying Goal Specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Hugo; Santos-Tavares, Rui; Paulino, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    Part 19: Electronics: Design International audience The design of Switched-Capacitor (SC) filters can be an arduous process, which becomes even more complex when the high gain amplifier is replaced by a low gain amplifier or a voltage follower. This eliminates the virtual ground node, requiring the compensation of the parasitic capacitances during the design phase. This paper proposes an automatic procedure for the design of SC filters using low gain amplifiers, based on a Genetic Algor...

  14. Effect of the Design Parameters on the Performance of Inner Recycling Continuous Sand Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-qiang; WEN Qin-xue; Lü Bing-nan

    2002-01-01

    A novel integrated water treatment facility, innerrecycling continuous sand filter, is discussed. The theory of micro-flocculation is applied in the sand-washing circulation system with continuous filtration and backwashing. The design and operation parameters,which affect the performance of the filter, are discussed.The key design parameters are provided as follows:diameter of filter material is 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depth of filter bed is 0.6 m, filtration velocity is less than 12 m/h,ratio of gas to water is 9:11 and sand recycling rate is 2 to 4 mm/min.

  15. Design of Super-resolution Filters with a Gaussian Beam in Optical Data Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Super-resolution filters based on a Gaussian beam are proposed to reduce the focusing spot in optical data storage systems. Both of amplitude filters and pure-phase filters are designed respectively to gain the desired intensity distributions. Their performances are analysed and compared with those based on plane wave in detail. The energy utilizations are presented. The simulation results show that our designed super-resolution filters are favourable for use in optical data storage systems in terms of performance and energy utilization

  16. Design and Simulation of Edge-Coupled Stripline Band Pass Filter for U band

    OpenAIRE

    Pawan Shakdwipee

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a band pass filter structure using Ansoft designer software and Matlab software simulation tool are presented. The filter is operated at U Band range in higher order 50 GHz edge-coupled Stripline band pass filter for different microwave application. For the proposed work we consider simulation using Roger R03203 substrate with dielectric constant of 3.02, Conductor Thickness 0.035 mm and Substrate Height 0.787 mm. This filter is design at a center frequency of 50 GHz with 8 GHz...

  17. Digital IIR filters design using differential evolution algorithm with a controllable probabilistic population size

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Zhu; Jian-an Fang; Yang Tang; Wenbing Zhang; Wei Du

    2012-01-01

    Design of a digital infinite-impulse-response (IIR) filter is the process of synthesizing and implementing a recursive filter network so that a set of prescribed excitations results a set of desired responses. However, the error surface of IIR filters is usually non-linear and multi-modal. In order to find the global minimum indeed, an improved differential evolution (DE) is proposed for digital IIR filter design in this paper. The suggested algorithm is a kind of DE variants with a controlla...

  18. A Robust Filter Design for Uncertain Singular Systems with Unreliable Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Min Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of robust H_∞ filter design in uncertain discrete-time singular systems with possible missing measurements due to unreliable network transmission channels. The stochastic variable satisfying Bernoulli random binary distribution is introduced to model the missing phenomena and the corresponding filtering error dynamics with delay is then induced. We provide a set of sufficient conditions for the existence of the desired filter, and propose a robust filter design method under a strict linear matrix inequality framework. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method

  19. Effect of shaped filter design on dose and image quality in breast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of shaped filters specifically designed for dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) scanners on dose and image quality. Optimization of filter shape and material in fan direction was performed using two different design methods, one aiming at homogeneous noise distributions in the CT images and the other aiming at a uniform dose distribution in the breast. The optimal filter thickness as a function of fan angle was determined iteratively to fulfil the above mentioned criteria for each breast diameter. Different filter materials (aluminium, copper, carbon, polytetrafluoroethylene) and breast phantoms with diameters between 80–180 mm were investigated. Noise uniformity in the reconstructed images, obtained from CT simulations based on ray-tracing methods, and dose in the breast, calculated with a Monte Carlo software tool, were used as figure of merit. Furthermore, CT-value homogeneity, the distribution of noise in cone direction, spatial resolution from centre to periphery and the contrast-to-noise ratio weighted by dose (CNRD) were evaluated. In addition, the decrease of scatter due to shaped filters was investigated. Since only few or one filter are practical in clinical CT systems, the effects of one shaped filter for different breast diameters were also investigated. In this case the filter, designed for the largest breast diameter, was simulated at variable source-to-filter distances depending on breast diameter. With the filter design method aiming at uniform noise distribution best results were obtained for aluminium as the filter material. Noise uniformity improved from 20% down to 5% and dose was reduced by about 30–40% for all breast diameters. No decrease of noise uniformity in cone direction, CT-value homogeneity, spatial resolution and the CNRD was detected with the shaped filter. However, a small improvement of CNRD was observed. Furthermore, a scatter reduction of about 20–30% and a more

  20. Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Joel, D.D.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Micca, P.L. [and others

    1996-12-31

    For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of {sup 10}B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 {mu}g B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses.

  1. Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of 10B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 μg B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses

  2. On the Polyphase Decomposition for Design of Generalized Comb Decimation Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Laddomada, Massimiliano

    2007-01-01

    Generalized comb filters (GCFs) are efficient anti-aliasing decimation filters with improved selectivity and quantization noise (QN) rejection performance around the so called folding bands with respect to classical comb filters. In this paper, we address the design of GCF filters by proposing an efficient partial polyphase architecture with the aim to reduce the data rate as much as possible after the Sigma-Delta A/D conversion. We propose a mathematical framework in order to completely characterize the dependence of the frequency response of GCFs on the quantization of the multipliers embedded in the proposed filter architecture. This analysis paves the way to the design of multiplier-less decimation architectures. We also derive the impulse response of a sample 3rd order GCF filter used as a reference scheme throughout the paper.

  3. The Phase I/II BNCT Trials at the Brookhaven medical research reactor: Critical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phase I/II clinical trial of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) was initiated at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 1994. Many critical issues were considered during the design of the first of many sequential dose escalation protocols. These critical issues included patient selection criteria, boron delivery agent, dose limits to the normal brain, dose escalation schemes for both neutron exposure and boron dose, and fractionation. As the clinical protocols progressed and evaluation of the tolerance of the central nervous system (CNS) to BPA-mediated BNCT at the BMRR continued new specifications were adopted. Clinical data reflecting the progression of the protocols will be presented to illustrate the steps taken and the reasons behind their adoption. (author)

  4. Rational design of a robust diesel particulate filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gulijk, C.

    2002-09-19

    The primary goal is to develop a Diesel Particulate Filter that has the same characteristics as the diesel engine: robust, dependable, durable, and energy efficient. Sub-goals include: characterization of the fractal-nature of diesel soot; assess aerosol measuring instruments for the measurement of diesel soot; develop an experimental method to measure filtration efficiencies of soot in ceramic foams based on numbers of particles; and determine filtration mechanisms of ceramic foam filters. At the start of this work it was concluded that no accurate experimental procedures or standards were available for the determination of filtering mechanisms of diesel soot aerosols. Therefore, a reliable method had to be developed before the actual filtration measurements could start. Chapter 2 treats the experimental setup as a whole and evaluates the performance of two major components: the diesel setup, and the aerosol sampling setup. Chapter 3 evaluates the third major component of the experimental setup: the Electrical Low-Pressure Impactor (ELPI), a particle sizer. Evaluation of the instrument has shown several shortcomings that were improved during the course of this work. In chapter 4 the ELPI and the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SNIPS) are compared with regard to accurate aerosol measurements. The comparison is important because the SMPS is the instrument of choice in industry. As part of the evaluation, diesel soot particles are characterized as fractal clusters, which give key insights in how to interpret the experimental results for particle size measurements and filtration efficiency. The second part of this thesis focuses on filter development. A novel filter is developed: the Modified Turbulent Precipitator. Firstly, a strategic blueprint is adopted for selection and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter in chapter 5. Secondly, the hydrodynamic behavior of the system is studied in chapter 6. In chapter 7 filtration of soot particles by ceramic foams

  5. Design and Efficiency Analysis of one Class of Uniform Linear Phase FIR Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Pantić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One class of uniform linear phase filter banks with different numbers of band-pass channels will be considered in this study, concentrating on 5, 9 and 17-band filter banks and their mutual comparison concerning delay and implementation complexity. Designed banks are based on the FIR filters and frequency response masking technique and are also compared to the banks with direct realization considering complementarity and delay.

  6. Resilient Minimum Entropy Filter Design for Non-Gaussian Stochastic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Guo; Hong Wang; Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the resilient minimum entropy filter problem is investigated for the stochastic systems with non-Gaussian disturbances. The goal of designing the filter is to guarantee that the entropy of the estimation error is monotonically decreasing, moreover, the error system is exponentially ultimately bounded in the mean square. Based on the entropy performance function, a filter gain updating algorithm is presented to make the entropy decrease at every sampling instant k. Then the boun...

  7. Designing a Microwave Filter by Studying and Simulating the Discontinuity in the Waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafir Ibrahim; Přenosil Václav

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to design a microwave filter by studying and simulating the discontinuity in the waveguide. We suggest a filter consists of three waveguides connected to each other and different dimensions. Changing the dimensions of the waveguide will change the conditions of propagation of microwaves and in our suggested filter we have two discontinuity regions affecting on the modes of frequencies propagated through the waveguide. We apply Galerkin method for studying the discontinuity ...

  8. Design of Absorbing Wave Maker based on Digital Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    An absorbing wave maker operated by means of on-line signals from digital FIR filters is presented. Surface elevations are measured in two positions in front of the wave maker. The reflected wave train is seperated by the sum of the incident and reflected wave trains by means of digital filtering...... and subsequent superposition of the measured surface elevations. The motion of the wave paddle required to absorb reflected waves is determined and added to the original wave paddle control signal. Irregular wave tests involving test structures with different degrees of reflection show that excellent absorption...

  9. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D.W.; Mitchell, H.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Therapeutically-useful epithermal-neutron beams for BNCT are currently generated by nuclear reactors. Various accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT have been proposed and some low intensity prototypes of such sources, generally featuring the use of proton beams and beryllium or lithium targets have been constructed. This paper describes an alternate approach to the realization of a clinically useful accelerator-based source of epithermal neutrons for BNCT that reconciles the often conflicting objectives of target cooling, neutron beam intensity, and neutron beam spectral purity via a two stage photoneutron production process.

  10. Design of generalised orthogonal filters: application to the modelling of dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Saša S.; Antić, Dragan S.; Perić, Staniša Lj.; Danković, Nikola B.; Milojković, Marko T.

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we define a new class of orthogonal filters with complex poles and zeroes inside their transfer function. This further improvement of classical orthogonal filters allows the possibility to model a wider range of real systems, that is, the systems whose mathematical models have complex zeroes besides real ones. These filters can be applied in the following areas: circuit theory, telecommunications, signal processing, bond graphs, theory approximations and control system theory. First, we describe the rational functions with complex poles and zeroes, and prove their orthogonality. Based on these functions, we designed the block diagram of orthogonal Legendre-type filter with complex poles and zeroes. After that an appropriate analogue scheme of this filter for practical realisation is derived. To validate theoretical results, we performed an experiment with a cascade-connected system designed and practically realised in our laboratories. The experiments proved the quality of the designed orthogonal model in terms of accuracy and simplicity.

  11. Characterization measurement of a thick CdTe detector for BNCT-SPECT – Detection efficiency and energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Author's group is carrying out development of BNCT-SPECT with CdTe device, which monitors the therapy effect of BNCT in real-time. From the design calculations, the dimensions were fixed to 1.5×2×30 mm3. For the collimator it was confirmed that it would have a good spatial resolution and simultaneously the number of counts would be acceptably large. After producing the CdTe crystal, the characterization measurement was carried out. For the detection efficiency an excellent agreement between calculation and measurement was obtained. Also, the detector has a very good energy resolution so that gamma-rays of 478 keV and 511 keV could be distinguished in the spectrum. - Highlights: • BNCT-SPECT is developed with CdTe device to estimate therapy effect of BNCT. • By design calculations, CdTe dimensions are determined to be 1.5×2×30 mm3. Collimator length is 10 cm with 2 mm diameter hole. • Producing the crystal, efficiency and energy resolution were measured. • Excellent agreement was obtained between measurement and calculation. Discrimination of 478 keV and 511 keV was confirmed in the spectrum

  12. Optimal design and performance verification of a broadband waveguide filter using ANN-GA algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manidipa Nath

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work design and optimization of EBGstructure having multiple dielectric posts uniformly placed insidea rectangular waveguide is done to extract filter responses.Frequency response of BPF configuration using trained ANNmodel of multipost rectangular waveguide are studied andoptimized using GA. The geometrical and positional dimensionof post parameters are varied in accordance to the requirementof reflectance and transmittance of the filter.

  13. Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability. PMID:27222739

  14. Equalization of Loudspeaker and Room Responses Using Kautz Filters: Direct Least Squares Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Paatero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available DSP-based correction of loudspeaker and room responses is becoming an important part of improving sound reproduction. Such response equalization (EQ is based on using a digital filter in cascade with the reproduction channel to counteract the response errors introduced by loudspeakers and room acoustics. Several FIR and IIR filter design techniques have been proposed for equalization purposes. In this paper we investigate Kautz filters, an interesting class of IIR filters, from the point of view of direct least squares EQ design. Kautz filters can be seen as generalizations of FIR filters and their frequency-warped counterparts. They provide a flexible means to obtain desired frequency resolution behavior, which allows low filter orders even for complex corrections. Kautz filters have also the desirable property to avoid inverting dips in transfer function to sharp and long-ringing resonances in the equalizer. Furthermore, the direct least squares design is applicable to nonminimum-phase EQ design and allows using a desired target response. The proposed method is demonstrated by case examples with measured and synthetic loudspeaker and room responses.

  15. Design of the LC+trap filter for a current source rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Huang; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2015-01-01

    capacitor voltage and the line current THD for space vector modulation. The resonance of the input filter can be excited by the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and a simple passive damping can damp the resonances. The analysis and design of the input filter have been verified by simulations in MATLAB/Simulink....

  16. Filter designs based on coupled transmission line model for double split ring resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Lei; Tang, Meng; Krozer, Viktor;

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a systematic way to design filters based on coupled transmission line model of the microstrip rectangular double split ring resonators (DSRRs). This model allows to estimate all resonance modes of DSRR and extract the quality factors of the structure for filter synthesis purpose...... is experimentally verified by comparing measured and simulated data using the developed models....

  17. Optimal design and performance verification of a broadband waveguide filter using ANN-GA algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Manidipa Nath; Sudhabindu Ray; Bhaskar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    In this work design and optimization of EBGstructure having multiple dielectric posts uniformly placed insidea rectangular waveguide is done to extract filter responses.Frequency response of BPF configuration using trained ANNmodel of multipost rectangular waveguide are studied andoptimized using GA. The geometrical and positional dimensionof post parameters are varied in accordance to the requirementof reflectance and transmittance of the filter.

  18. Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability.

  19. Design and analysis of planar printed microwave and PBG filters using an FDTD method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, M.S.; Lu, Y.L.; Chen, Y.C.;

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, various planar printed microwave and photonic band-gap (PBG) filters have been designed and analyzed by applying the finite difference time domain method, together with an unsplit-anisotropic perfectly matched layer technique as treatments of boundary conditions. The implemented...... solver was first validated by comparing the computed data with those published in literature, and a good agreement was observed between the results. Then, based on the specified design criteria, various microwave and PBG filters were designed and analyzed, in which the theoretical predictions matched...... well with the computed results for the characteristics of the proposed filters....

  20. Computer aided design of reentrant coaxial filters including coaxial excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boria, V.; Gerini, G.; Guglielmi, M.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced EM based CAD tool is used for the detailed characterisation of a family of reentrant coaxial waveguide filters. The EM analysis includes the effects of tuning screws and of the input/output coaxial excitation. The software is essentially used as an efficient replacement for the tradition

  1. The BNCT project in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The start of clinical trials is expected before NCT Osaka 2000. The experiences from different part of project are presented. The BNCT facility at LVR-15 reactor of NRI consists of epithermal neutron beam with improved construction (6.98 x 108/cm2s with acceptable background of fast neutrons and gammas) and irradiation and control rooms equipped by appropriate devices. Internationally-recognized software MacNCTPLAN is utilized for computational dosimetry and treatment planning. In the part of protocol the following parameters have been assessed: patient selection, BSH dosage, fractionation, starting dose, dose escalation steps. At the LVR-15, at horizontal channel, a prompt gamma ray analysis (PGRA) system has been developed and is operated for BNCT purposes. Some human blood samples were analyzed and compared with classical ICP method. During the process of licensing the experience was obtained, some notes are discussed in the paper. The first results were received for the study of biological effect of the LVR source for small animal model. (author)

  2. Gabor Filter Design for Fingerprint Application Using Matlab and Verilog HDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Dhanabal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the application of Gabor Filter technique to enhance the fingerprint image. This work produces change in Gabor filter design by increasing the quality of an output which helps in higher security applications. The incoming signal in form of image pixel will be convoluted by Gabor filter to define the Edge and vale regions of fingerprint. The main characteristic of this paper is tostore image pixel in memory if convolution signal is low and if the signal is high image is filtered.

  3. State of the Art on Filter Design and Particle Clogging; and Proposed New Numerical Approach to Redesign

    OpenAIRE

    Akudago Apambilla, John; Nishigaki, Makoto; Chegbeleh Larry, Pax; Alim, Md. Abdul; Komatsu, Mitsuru; Kumamaru, Koji

    2008-01-01

    Filters are essential in the design of embankments/dams, drains and wells for water and oil supplies. Asa result of these functions, filter use is increasing. In order to use the required filter, various empirical relationshave been given based on mathematical and field experience. However, these guidelines have notworked to perfection considering the fact that clogging within the filter face is a serious challenge. Ashort review on filter design criteria is given in this script coupled with ...

  4. Design of Stable Circularly Symmetric Two-Dimensional GIC Digital Filters Using PLSI Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for designing stable circularly symmetric two-dimensional digital filters is presented. Two-dimensional discrete transfer functions of the rotated filters are obtained from stable one-dimensional analog-filter transfer functions by performing rotation and then applying the double bilinear transformation. The resulting filters which may be unstable due to the presence of nonessential singularities of the second kind are stabilized by using planar least-square inverse polynomials. The stabilized rotated filters are then realized by using the concept of generalized immittance converter. The proposed method is simple and straight forward and it yields stable digital filter structures possessing many salient features such as low noise, low sensitivity, regularity, and modularity which are attractive for VLSI implementation.

  5. A novel optimized LCL-filter designing method for grid connected converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guohong, Zeng; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new LCL-filters optimized designing method for grid connected voltage source converter. This method is based on the analysis of converter output voltage components and inherent relations among LCL-filter parameters. By introducing an optimizing index of equivalent total...... capacity of all filter components, with clear physical meaning of minimum cost and volume, a set of optimal values of attenuation ratio and inductancesplit- ratio is obtained for deciding all LCL-filter parameters. With this method, filter overall capacity can be minimized while the grid limit of switching...... frequency distortion is fulfilled. Compared to the existing methods, the proposed method contains only four steps without try-and-error process, so it is efficient and easy to implement. Simulation results of a 50kVA grid-connected inverter with two sets of LCL-filter parameters under different optimizing...

  6. Optimal design of 2D digital filters based on neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-hua; He, Yi-gang; Zheng, Zhe-zhao; Zhang, Xu-hong

    2005-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) digital filters are widely useful in image processing and other 2-D digital signal processing fields,but designing 2-D filters is much more difficult than designing one-dimensional (1-D) ones.In this paper, a new design approach for designing linear-phase 2-D digital filters is described,which is based on a new neural networks algorithm (NNA).By using the symmetry of the given 2-D magnitude specification,a compact express for the magnitude response of a linear-phase 2-D finite impulse response (FIR) filter is derived.Consequently,the optimal problem of designing linear-phase 2-D FIR digital filters is turned to approximate the desired 2-D magnitude response by using the compact express.To solve the problem,a new NNA is presented based on minimizing the mean-squared error,and the convergence theorem is presented and proved to ensure the designed 2-D filter stable.Three design examples are also given to illustrate the effectiveness of the NNA-based design approach.

  7. Development of the high power multi-stage type circulator for BNCT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process for BNCT begins with a pharmaceutical agent that carries a neutron capture agent containing 10B (Boron 10) selectively into tumor cells. Thermal or epi-thermal neutrons then interact with the 10B and produce α and 7Li-particles. So far, BNCT have been provided only by nuclear reactors, because a neutron intensity of 1x109n/cm2/s, with energies between 0.5-eV and 10-keV is required. To realize BNCT using accelerator technologies, one of the big issuer is the high duty rf system, which will be used for 324 MHz, 1.2 MW peak klystron, 1 msec of an rf pulse width and a 200 Hz of cycle. A high power circulator is the most critical component among the waveguide system. It was redesigned from a linear accelerator of J-PARC to meet the 20% of a duty factor using a high saturation magnetization 4piMs has high curie temperature. Also, it was used thin ferrite layer to reduce the temperature rise and to reduce the temperature sensitivity. This paper reports the design work, the manufacture and a low power measurement. (author)

  8. H∞ deconvolution filter design for time-delay linear continuous-time systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Proposes an H∞ deconvolution design for time-delay linear continuous-time systems. We first analyze the general structure and innovation structure of the H∞ deconvolution filter. The deconvolution filter with innovation structure is made up of an output observer and a linear mapping, where the latter reflects the internal connection between the unknown input signal and the output estimate error. Based on the bounded real lemma,a time domain design approach and a sufficient condition for the existence of deconvolution filter are presented.The parameterization of the deconvolution filter can be completed by solving a Riccati equation. The proposed method is useful for the case that does not require statistical information about disturbances. At last, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed filter.

  9. A Review on Reconfigurable Low Pass Bandstop Filter Based on Technology, Method and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconfigurable filter technology is in robustness development. Due on the tunable and reconfigurable capability will contribute a various advantages in wireless applications. This tuning selectivity consist a numerous method, for example using varactor, micromachines, and PINdiodes.This review paper discussed PIN diodes as a switching element. The design and development of different types of switching element were then described. This paper presents of reconfigurable low pass bandstop filter WLAN, UWB bands applications for the past few years that operatedbetween1 to 5.6GHz. Most of the studies were focus on Chebyshev filter because of the excellent selectivity and the response is easy to be analyzed. Different types of method have been introduced in reconfigurable low pass bandstop filter, design and performance of the filter will then be compared.

  10. Big Bang–Big Crunch Optimization Algorithm for Linear Phase Fir Digital Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Rashmi Singh Dr. H. K. Verma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC optimization algorithm is a new optimization method that relies on the Big Bang and Big Crunch theory, one of the theories of the evolution of the universe. In this paper, a Big Bang–Big Crunch algorithm has been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filters. Here the experimented fitness function based on the mean squared error between the actual and the ideal filter response. This paper presents the plot of magnitude response of FIR filters and error graph. The BB-BC seems to be promising tool for FIR filter design especially in a dynamic environment where filter coefficients have to be adapted and fast convergence is of importance.

  11. Polyphase Structure Based Eigen Design of Two-Channel Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Agrawal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the design of two-channel quadrature mirror filter (QMF banks with linear phase in frequency domain. Low-pass prototype filter of the QMF bank is implemented using polyphase decomposition. Prototype filter coefficients are optimized to minimize an objective function using eigenvalue-eigenvector approach without matrix inversion. The objective function is formulated as a weighted sum of four terms, pass-band error and stop-band residual energy of low-pass analysis filter, the square error of the overall transfer function at the quadrature frequency and amplitude distortion of the filter bank. The simulation results clearly show that the proposed method requires less computational efforts in comparison to the other state-of-art existing design methods.

  12. Providing Eligibility Criteria On Turbocharger Filter Silencer Design Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Adem GÜLERYÜZ

    2013-01-01

    Supply of ventilation air to either the engine room or diesel engine directly affects engine performances. Main criteria is supply of air volume and pressure into the cylinder. When Air starts to come until the cylinders, there many points which behave as restrictions. These are ventilation grills. ventilation fans, ventilation casings, misteliminators, manual or pneumatically adjusted fan dampers, number of bending of ventilation casing, cleanness of casings, air flow speed, air filters, tur...

  13. Present status of BNCT at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, we have two facilities for BNCT such as a reactor-based and an accelerator-based neutron source. In this article, we will present the characteristics overview of both facilities. (author)

  14. Design of H(infinity) robust fault detection filter for linear uncertain time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Leishi; Tian, Zuohua; Shi, Songjiao

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, the robust fault detection filter design problem for linear time-delay systems with both unknown inputs and parameter uncertainties is studied. Using a multiobjective optimization technique, a new performance index is introduced, which takes into account the robustness of the fault detection filter against disturbances and sensitivity to faults simultaneously. The reference residual model is then designed based on this performance index to formulate the robust fault detection filter design problem as an H(infinity) model-matching problem. By applying robust H(infinity) optimization control technique, the existence condition of the robust fault detection filter for linear time-delay systems with both unknown inputs and parameter uncertainties is presented in terms of linear matrix inequality formulation, independently of time delay. In order to detect the fault, an adaptive threshold which depends on the inputs is finally determined. An illustrative design example is used to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.

  15. A design methodology for delta-sigma converters based on solid-state passive filters

    OpenAIRE

    Benabes, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Print ISBN : 978-1-4799-0618-5 International audience In the context in the ENIAC ARTEMOS project for the design of agile radio front ends, this paper shows a methodology for the design of agile bandpass continuous-time delta sigma based on acoustic tunable resonators. These resonators use BST materials which have the property to be tunable by an external voltage, allowing changing the resonance frequency of filters by a few percent. Using such filters, the Oversampling ratio of delta s...

  16. A case of astrocytoma, 19 year history after BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 39-year-old man had received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in 1987 for a Grade II Astrocytoma. He gradually exacerbated and received a second operation in 1994. The mass taken in the second operation is almost competent with radiation necrosis. Following that, he shows no signs of recurrence. Currently, he has returned to full time employment in physical labor. This case suggests effectiveness of BNCT for rather low-grade astrocytomas. (author)

  17. Differential Mode EMI Filter Design for Isolated DC-DC Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makda, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Nymand, Morten

    2014-01-01

    A Differential Mode EMI filter for a low input voltage high-current isolated dc-dc boost converter is designed and presented in this paper. The primary side Differential Mode noise voltage is low due to the high transformer turn ratio, however, the input current is very high and since the EMI limit...... is identified first. The DM noise model is then established and based on the harmonic analysis of the noise source voltage waveform, the complete Differential Mode EMI filter, including the filter resonance damping branch, is designed for a 3kW isolated dc-dc boost converter. The noise model and its theoretical...

  18. VHDL Design for Image Segmentation using Gabor filter for Disease Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha R. Thakur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tonsillitis, Tumor and many more skin diseases can be detected in its early-state and can be cured. For this a new idea for efficient Gabor filter design with improved data transfer rate, efficient noise reduction, less power consumption and reduced memory usage is proposed in this paper. The filter design is suitable for detecting the early stages of disease using textural properties of anatomical structures. The code for Gabor filter will be developed in VHDL using Model sim and then implemented on SPARTAN-3E FPGA kit. These systems must provide both highly accurate and extremely fast processing of large amounts of image data.

  19. Design of Maximally Flat FIR Filters Based on Explicit Formulas Combined with Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A maximally flat FIR filter design method based on explicit formulas combined with simulated annealing and random search was presented. Utilizing the explicit formulas to calculate the initial values, the finite-word-length FIR filter design problem was converted into optimization of the filter coefficients. An optimization method combined with local discrete random search and simulated annealing was proposed, with the result of optimum solution in the sense of Chebyshev approximation. The proposed method can simplify the design process of FIR filter and reduce the calculation burden. The simulation result indicates that the proposed method is superior to the traditional round off method and can reduce the value of the objective function to 41%-74%.

  20. Event-triggered H∞ filter design for delayed neural network with quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinliang; Tang, Jia; Fei, Shumin

    2016-10-01

    This paper is concerned with H∞ filter design for a class of neural network systems with event-triggered communication scheme and quantization. Firstly, a new event-triggered communication scheme is introduced to determine whether or not the current sampled sensor data should be broadcasted and transmitted to quantizer, which can save the limited communication resource. Secondly, a logarithmic quantizer is used to quantify the sampled data, which can reduce the data transmission rate in the network. Thirdly, considering the influence of the constrained network resource, we investigate the problem of H∞ filter design for a class of event-triggered neural network systems with quantization. By using Lyapunov functional and linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques, some delay-dependent stability conditions for the existence of the desired filter are obtained. Furthermore, the explicit expression is given for the designed filter parameters in terms of LMIs. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the usefulness of the obtained theoretical results.

  1. Design and characteristics of L-C thin films filter at microwave frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Sung; Min, Bok-Ki; Song, Jae-Sung

    2005-12-01

    Multifunction corresponding to multimedia age has furthermore required high integration to the devices at microwave band, so more evolution for multi-layer integration like system on chip(SoC) becomes to be necessary. In wireless mobile communication, portable mobile phones grew up to a huge market. Microwave devices have played an important role in the wireless communication systems. One challenge in the implementation of circuit integration is in the design of micro wave band pass filter with thin film MOM capacitor and spiral inductor. In this paper, Cu and TaO thin film with RF sputtering was deposited for inductor and capacitor on the SiO II/Si(100) substrate. MIM capacitor and spiral inductor was fabricated for L-C band pass filter by sputtering and lift-off. We are analyzed and designed thin films L-C passive components for band pass filter at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz, an important devices for mobile communication. Based on the high-Q values of passive components, MIM capacitor and spiral inductors for L-C band pass filter, a low insertion loss of L-C passive components can be realized with a minimized chip area. The insertion loss was 3 dB for a 1.8 GHz filter, and was 5 dB for a 900 MHz filter. This paper also discusses a theoretical analysis and practical design to L-C band pass filter.

  2. Design of one-dimensional optical pulse-shaping filters by time-domain topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lirong; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    2009-01-01

    Time-domain topology optimization is used here to design optical pulse-shaping filters in Si/SiO2 thin-film systems. A novel envelope objective function as well as explicit penalization are used to adapt the optimization method to this unique class of design problems.......Time-domain topology optimization is used here to design optical pulse-shaping filters in Si/SiO2 thin-film systems. A novel envelope objective function as well as explicit penalization are used to adapt the optimization method to this unique class of design problems....

  3. Design and manufacturing of band-rejection filters based on long period gratings for applications in next generation access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybka, Kamil; Śmietana, Bartosz; Szarniak, Przemysław; Dłubek, Michał

    2015-12-01

    An engineering tool for designing LPG-based filters is reported. Band-rejection filters for telecom applications have been designed and manufactured and an automated mass production technology has been developed. The technology utilizes single-shot LPG writing with a double CO2 laser beam. The paper discusses also the critical process parameters controlled to shape the spectral characteristics of manufactured filters.

  4. A numerical design approach for single amplifier, Active-RC Butterworth filter of order 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    2007-01-01

    A design method is presented for the design of all pole lowpass active-RC filters applying operational amplifiers. The operational amplifier model used is the integrator model: omegat/s where omegat is the unity gain frequency. The design method is used for the design of a fifth order Butterworth...... filter applying just one operational amplifier coupled as a unity gain amplifier. It is shown that the influence from the real operational amplifier may be reduced by trimming just one resistor in the circuit. The unity gain amplifiers have the advantage of providing low power consumption, yielding...... a large dynamic range, sometimes simplifying the amplifier design and being usable over a larger frequency range than conventional constant gain amplifiers. The Schoeffler sensitivity index is used as a basis for a sensitivity comparison with other similar filters reported in the literature. © 2007 IEEE....

  5. Hybrid method for designing digital FIR filters based on fractional derivative constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baderia, Kuldeep; Kumar, Anil; Kumar Singh, Girish

    2015-09-01

    In this manuscript, a hybrid approach based on Lagrange multiplier method and cuckoo search (CS) optimization technique is proposed for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters using fractional derivative constraints. In the proposed method, FIR filter is designed by optimizing the integral squares in passband and stopband from ideal response such that the fractional derivatives of designed filter response become zero at a given frequency point. Lagrange multiplier method is exploited for finding the optimized filter coefficients. Optimal value of fractional derivative constraints for optimized filter coefficients are determined by minimizing the objective function constructed using a sum of maximum passband ripple and maximum stopband ripple in frequency domain using CS algorithm. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (ϕ(p)), stopband error (ϕ(s)), stopband attenuation (A(s)), maximum passband ripple (MPR), maximum stopband ripple (MSR) and CPU time. A comparative study of the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) for designing FIR filters using the proposed method is also made. PMID:26142984

  6. Digital IIR filters design using differential evolution algorithm with a controllable probabilistic population size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhu

    Full Text Available Design of a digital infinite-impulse-response (IIR filter is the process of synthesizing and implementing a recursive filter network so that a set of prescribed excitations results a set of desired responses. However, the error surface of IIR filters is usually non-linear and multi-modal. In order to find the global minimum indeed, an improved differential evolution (DE is proposed for digital IIR filter design in this paper. The suggested algorithm is a kind of DE variants with a controllable probabilistic (CPDE population size. It considers the convergence speed and the computational cost simultaneously by nonperiodic partial increasing or declining individuals according to fitness diversities. In addition, we discuss as well some important aspects for IIR filter design, such as the cost function value, the influence of (noise perturbations, the convergence rate and successful percentage, the parameter measurement, etc. As to the simulation result, it shows that the presented algorithm is viable and comparable. Compared with six existing State-of-the-Art algorithms-based digital IIR filter design methods obtained by numerical experiments, CPDE is relatively more promising and competitive.

  7. Shunt hybrid active power filter for harmonic mitigation: A practical design approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unnikrishnan A K; Chandira Sekaran E; Subhash Joshi T G; Manju A S; Aby Joseph

    2015-06-01

    The increasing importance of Power Quality problems has been responsible for several improvements in Active Power Filter (APF) typologies in the last decade. The increased cost and switching losses make a pure shunt APF economically impractical for high power applications. In higher power levels shunt Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF) has been reported to be a useful approach to eliminate current harmonics caused by nonlinear loads. This paper presents a control strategy and design criteria for transformer-less shunt HAPF with special attention to the integration of series passive filter. The paper also compares the performance improvement of passive harmonic filter when modified as shunt HAPF. Experimental results obtained verify the viability and effectiveness of the proposed design criteria and control algorithm.

  8. Design of high-order elliptic filter from a versatile mode generic OTA-C structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, K.; Ray, B. N.

    2015-03-01

    A new synthesis methodology for high-order versatile mode programmable Operational transconductance amplifier and capacitor (OTA-C) generic filter structure is proposed. The structure fulfills the three main criteria of high frequency operation i.e it uses (1) less number of components (2) only single ended input OTAs (3) only grounded capacitors. Any nth order transfer function can be realised from it. Elliptic filter is designed from the generic structure using optimisation technique to reduce the number of OTAs. SPICE simulation with BSIM level 53 model and 0.13 μm process confirms the theoretical analysis. Frequency response of third-order and fourth-order elliptic filter is shown as representative set of simulated result. Sensitivity and non-ideal effect of the designed filter are studied.

  9. Design of macro-filter-lens with simultaneous chromatic and geometric aberration correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Dilip K; Brown, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    A macro-filter-lens design that can correct for chromatic and geometric aberrations simultaneously while providing for a long focal length is presented. The filter is easy to fabricate since it involves two spherical surfaces and a planar surface. Chromatic aberration correction is achieved by making all the rays travel the same optical distance inside the filter element (negative meniscus). Geometric aberration is corrected for by the lens element (plano-convex), which makes the output rays parallel to the optic axis. This macro-filter-lens design does not need additional macro lenses and it provides an inexpensive and optically good (aberration compensated) solution for macro imaging of objects not placed close to the camera.

  10. Design and Performance of Overlap FFT Filter-Bank for Dynamic Spectrum Access Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Motohiro; Umehira, Masahiro

    An OFDMA-based (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access-based) channel access scheme for dynamic spectrum access has the drawbacks of large PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) and large ACI (Adjacent Channel Interference). To solve these problems, a flexible channel access scheme using an overlap FFT filter-bank was proposed based on single carrier modulation for dynamic spectrum access. In order to apply the overlap FFT filter-bank for dynamic spectrum access, it is necessary to clarify the performance of the overlap FFT filter-bank according to the design parameters since its frequency characteristics are critical for dynamic spectrum access applications. This paper analyzes the overlap FFT filter-bank and evaluates its performance such as frequency characteristics and ACI performance according to the design parameters.

  11. Design of UWB Bandpass Filter with Notched Band Using Distributed CRLH Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyuje Sung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an Ultra-Wideband (UWB filter with a notched band. The filter adopts novel Composite Right/Left-Handed (CRLH Transmission Lines (TLs, the unit cell of which is theoretically analyzed to derive the design formulas. A model of the CRLH TLs is composed with distributed elements rather than lumped elements. Based on the results of the analysis, it is confirmed that the proposed structures are CRLH TLs. A UWB bandpass filter with a notched band is designed and fabricated using the induced formulas. The measurement results show that the fabricated UWB bandpass filter has an insertion loss of less than 3 dB, a bandwidth of 2.8-10.5 GHz and a rejection of greater than 27 dB at 5.75 GHz.

  12. Design of the annular binary filters with super-resolution based on the genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qi-lei; LE Zi-chun; ZHU Hong-ying

    2006-01-01

    To improve the density of information storage,this paper introduces a kind of annular binary filters with super-resolution,Several of these filters have been designed based on the genetic algorithm,the simulations demonstrate that the transverse gain of the filters can reach the value of 1.37.Thus they can remarkably decrease the recording spot size,which is helpful to improve the density of information storage and to make the depth of focus longer,and therefore they can avoid the mistake caused by the small undulation of the optical disk in the process of recording/reading the information.

  13. Designing All-Pole Filters for High-Frequency Phase-Locked Loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bressan Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    signals exchanged between the nodes of the networks and detected by PLLs. The necessity to improve clock precision that follows the bandwidth increase provoked the improvement of the filter component of the PLLs, avoiding instability and high-frequency components in the reference signals. Here, a technique of designing this kind of filter is presented, considering second-order filters, implying third-order PLLs. Simulations show that following this technique produces very fast tracking processes, enabling precise operation even for very high frequencies.

  14. On Implementation and Design of Filter Banks for Subband Adaptive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, S; Harteneck, M; Stewart, R W

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces a polyphase implementation and design of an oversampled K-channel generalized DFT (GDFT) filter bank, which can be employed for subband adaptive filtering, and therefore is required to have a low aliasing level in the subband signals. A polyphase structure is derived which can be factorized into a real valued polyphase network and a GDFT modulation. For the latter, an FFT realization may be used, yielding a highly efficient polyphase implementation for arbitrary integer ...

  15. RF MEMS and CSRRs-based tunable filter designed for Ku and K bands application

    OpenAIRE

    Ngasepam Monica Devi; Santanu Maity; Rajesh Saha; Sanjeev Kumar Metya

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and simulation of a reconfigurable stop-band filter on a silicon substrate based on the combination of RF microelectromechanical system and metamaterial-based technologies. The device is implemented on coplanar waveguide structure by embedding complementary split-ring resonators on the central line and an RF MEMS varactor bridge supporting the neighboring ground planes. The response characteristics of this metamaterial-based filter can be dynamically tuned, thus...

  16. Computational dosimetry of a simulated combined standard X-Rays and BNCT treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, M.R., E-mail: mcasal@cnea.gov.ar [Instituto de Oncologia ' Angel H. Roffo' , Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. San Martin 5481, Bs.As. (Argentina)] [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Herrera, M.S., E-mail: mariettaherrera@gmail.com [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad de General San Martin, 25 de Mayo and M. de Irigoyen, San Martin (Argentina); Gonzalez, S.J., E-mail: srgonzal@cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    There has been increasing interest in combining Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) with standard radiotherapy, either concomitantly or as a BNCT treatment of a recurrent tumor that was previously irradiated with a medical electron linear accelerator (LINAC). In this work we report the simulated dosimetry of treatments combining X-rays and BNCT

  17. Fault detection filter design for stochastic time-delay systems with sensor faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jian; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2012-08-01

    This article considers the fault detection (FD) problem for a class of Itô-type stochastic time-delay systems subject to external disturbances and sensor faults. The main objective is to design a fault detection filter (FDF) such that it has prescribed levels of disturbance attenuation and fault sensitivity. Sufficient conditions for guaranteeing these levels are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and the corresponding fault detection filter design is cast into a convex optimisation problem which can be efficiently handled by using standard numerical algorithms. In order to reduce the conservatism of filter design with mixed objectives, multi-Lyapunov functions approach is used via Projection Lemma. In addition, it is shown that our results not only include some previous conditions characterising H ∞ performance and H - performance defined for linear time-invariant (LTI) systems as special cases but also improve these conditions. Finally, two examples are employed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design scheme.

  18. Reliability-Oriented Design of LC Filter in Buck DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi; Huang, Meng; Wang, Huai;

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art LC filter design of buck DC-DC converter is based on the specifications of voltage and current ripples and constrains in power density and cost. Since lifetime is an important performance factor in reliability critical applications, this digest proposes a method to optimize...... the design of the LC filters from a reliability perspective, among other considerations. It investigates the design freedom between the values of inductor and capacitors, the physical formation of the LC network, and the corresponding electro-thermal stresses of the selected capacitors. The outcome enables...... an optimized LC filter design to fulfill the required lifetime. The theoretical analysis and simulation study are presented which are verified by the experimental results from a buck converter prototype....

  19. CSD-Coded Genetic Algorithm on Robustly Stable Multiplierless IIR Filter Design

    OpenAIRE

    Shing-Tai Pan

    2012-01-01

    A Canonic-Signed-Digit-(CSD-) coded genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to find the optimal design of robustly stable infinite impulse response digital filter (IIR). Under the characteristics of the CSD structure, the circuit of the filter can be simplified and also the calculation speed can be raised to increase the hardware’s efficiency. However, the design of CSD has a big challenge: the CSD structure of the system parameters will be destroyed by an optimal design procedure. To solve this p...

  20. Passivity-based design of robust passive damping for LCL-filtered voltage source converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Passive damping is proven as a robust stabilizing technique for LCL-filtered voltage source converters. However, conventional design methods of passive dampers are based on the passive components only, while the inherent damping effect of time delay in the digital control system is overlooked...... in the current control is included, which allows a relaxed design of the passive damper with the reduced power loss and improved stability robustness against grid parameters variations. Design procedures of two commonly used passive dampers with LCL-filtered VSCs are illustrated. Experimental results validate...

  1. Stepped Impedance Resonators in Triple Band Bandpass Filter Design for Wireless Communication Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eroglu, Abdullah [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Triple band microstrip tri-section bandpass filter using stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is designed, simulated, built, and measured using hair pin structure. The complete design procedure is given from analytical stage to implementation stage with details The coupling between SIRs is investigated for the first time in detail by studying their effect on the filter characteristics including bandwidth, and attenuation to optimize the filter perfomance. The simulation of the filler is performed using method of moment based 2.5D planar electromagnetic simulator The filter is then implemented on RO4003 material and measured The simulation, and measured results are compared and found to be my close. The effect of coupling on the filter performance is then investigated using electromagnetic simulator It is shown that the coupling effect between SIRs can be used as a design knob to obtain a bandpass Idler with a better performance jar the desired frequency band using the proposed filter topology The results of this work can used in wireless communication systems where multiple frequency bandy are needed

  2. Criteria for calculating the efficiency of deep-pleated HEPA filters with aluminum separators during and after design basis accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have reviewed the literature on the performance of HEPA filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). This study is only applicable to the standard deep-pleated HEPA filter with aluminum separators as specified in ASME N509[1]. Other HEPA filter designs such as the mini-pleat and separatorless filters are not included in this study. The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. There are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen. The estimation of the efficiency of the HEPA filters under DBA conditions involves three steps: (1) The filter pressure drop and environmental parameters are determined during and after the DBA, (2) Comparing the filter pressure drop to a set of threshold values above which the filter is damaged. There is a different threshold value for each combination of environmental parameters, and (3) Determining the filter efficiency. If the filter pressure drop is greater than the threshold value, the filter is damaged and is assigned 0% efficiency. If the pressure drop is less, then the filter is not damaged and the efficiency is determined from literature values of the efficiency at the environmental conditions.

  3. Design of Digital IIR Filter with Conflicting Objectives Using Hybrid Gravitational Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Sidhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the digital IIR filter design as a single objective optimization problem using evolutionary algorithms has gained much attention. In this paper, the digital IIR filter design is treated as a multiobjective problem by minimizing the magnitude response error, linear phase response error and optimal order simultaneously along with meeting the stability criterion. Hybrid gravitational search algorithm (HGSA has been applied to design the digital IIR filter. GSA technique is hybridized with binary successive approximation (BSA based evolutionary search method for exploring the search space locally. The relative performance of GSA and hybrid GSA has been evaluated by applying these techniques to standard mathematical test functions. The above proposed hybrid search techniques have been applied effectively to solve the multiparameter and multiobjective optimization problem of low-pass (LP, high-pass (HP, band-pass (BP, and band-stop (BS digital IIR filter design. The obtained results reveal that the proposed technique performs better than other algorithms applied by other researchers for the design of digital IIR filter with conflicting objectives.

  4. Filter Design and Performance Evaluation for Fingerprint Image Segmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Hoang Thai

    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition plays an important role in many commercial applications and is used by millions of people every day, e.g. for unlocking mobile phones. Fingerprint image segmentation is typically the first processing step of most fingerprint algorithms and it divides an image into foreground, the region of interest, and background. Two types of error can occur during this step which both have a negative impact on the recognition performance: 'true' foreground can be labeled as background and features like minutiae can be lost, or conversely 'true' background can be misclassified as foreground and spurious features can be introduced. The contribution of this paper is threefold: firstly, we propose a novel factorized directional bandpass (FDB segmentation method for texture extraction based on the directional Hilbert transform of a Butterworth bandpass (DHBB filter interwoven with soft-thresholding. Secondly, we provide a manually marked ground truth segmentation for 10560 images as an evaluation benchmark. Thirdly, we conduct a systematic performance comparison between the FDB method and four of the most often cited fingerprint segmentation algorithms showing that the FDB segmentation method clearly outperforms these four widely used methods. The benchmark and the implementation of the FDB method are made publicly available.

  5. Filter Design and Performance Evaluation for Fingerprint Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Duy Hoang; Huckemann, Stephan; Gottschlich, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition plays an important role in many commercial applications and is used by millions of people every day, e.g. for unlocking mobile phones. Fingerprint image segmentation is typically the first processing step of most fingerprint algorithms and it divides an image into foreground, the region of interest, and background. Two types of error can occur during this step which both have a negative impact on the recognition performance: ‘true’ foreground can be labeled as background and features like minutiae can be lost, or conversely ‘true’ background can be misclassified as foreground and spurious features can be introduced. The contribution of this paper is threefold: firstly, we propose a novel factorized directional bandpass (FDB) segmentation method for texture extraction based on the directional Hilbert transform of a Butterworth bandpass (DHBB) filter interwoven with soft-thresholding. Secondly, we provide a manually marked ground truth segmentation for 10560 images as an evaluation benchmark. Thirdly, we conduct a systematic performance comparison between the FDB method and four of the most often cited fingerprint segmentation algorithms showing that the FDB segmentation method clearly outperforms these four widely used methods. The benchmark and the implementation of the FDB method are made publicly available. PMID:27171150

  6. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. E-mail: stefano.agosteo@polimi.it; Curzio, G.; D' Errico, F.; Nath, R.; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in {sup 10}B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast neutron beam, generated by 7 MeV deuterons impinging on a thick target of beryllium. The neutron field was characterized at several deuteron energies (3.0-6.5 MeV) in an experimental structure installed at the Van De Graaff accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, in Italy. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluences were measured with activation techniques and fast neutron spectra were determined with superheated drop detectors (SDD). These neutron spectrometry and dosimetry studies indicated that the fast neutron dose is unacceptably high in the current design. Modifications to the current design to overcome this problem are presented.

  7. Radiation field characterization of a BNCT research facility using Monte Carlo method - code MCNP-4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - BNCT - is a selective cancer treatment and arises as an alternative therapy to treat cancer when usual techniques - surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy - show no satisfactory results. The main proposal of this work is to project a facility to BNCT studies. This facility relies on the use of an Am Be neutron source and on a set of moderators, filters and shielding which will provide the best neutron/gamma beam characteristic for these Becton studies, i.e., high intensity thermal and/or epithermal neutron fluxes and with the minimum feasible gamma rays and fast neutrons contaminants. A computational model of the experiment was used to obtain the radiation field in the sample irradiation position. The calculations have been performed with the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo Code and the results obtained can be regarded as satisfactory, i.e., a thermal neutron fluencyNT = 1,35x108 n/cm , a fast neutron dose of 5,86x10-10 Gy/NT and a gamma ray dose of 8,30x10-14 Gy/NT. (author)

  8. Design and Experimental Investigation of a Compact Circularly Polarized Integrated Filtering Antenna for Wearable Biotelemetric Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Gregory, Micah D; Werner, Douglas H

    2016-04-01

    A compact circularly polarized (CP) integrated filtering antenna is reported for wearable biotelemetric devices in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. The design is based on a mutual synthesis of a CP patch antenna connected to a bandpass filter composed of coupled stripline open-loop resonators, which provides an integrated low-profile radiating and filtering module with a compact form factor of 0.44λ(0)×0.44λ(0)×0.04λ(0). The optimized filtering antenna is fabricated and measured, achieving an S11 < -14 dB, an axial ratio of less than 3 dB and gain higher than 3.5 dBi in the targeted ISM band. With the integrated filtering functionality, the antenna exhibits good out-of-band rejection over an ultra-wide frequency range of 1-6 GHz. Further full-wave simulations and experiments were carried out, verifying that the proposed filtering antenna maintains these desirable properties even when mounted in close proximity to the human body at different positions. The stable impedance performance and the simultaneous wide axial ratio and radiated power beam widths make it an ideal candidate as a wearable antenna for off-body communications. The additional integrated filtering functionality further improves utility by greatly reducing interference and crosstalk with other existing wireless systems. PMID:26186795

  9. Correlation of Electric Field and Critical Design Parameters for Ferroelectric Tunable Microwave Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Guru; VanKeuls, Fred W.; Miranda, Felix A.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2000-01-01

    The correlation of electric field and critical design parameters such as the insertion loss, frequency ability return loss, and bandwidth of conductor/ferroelectric/dielectric microstrip tunable K-band microwave filters is discussed in this work. This work is based primarily on barium strontium titanate (BSTO) ferroelectric thin film based tunable microstrip filters for room temperature applications. Two new parameters which we believe will simplify the evaluation of ferroelectric thin films for tunable microwave filters, are defined. The first of these, called the sensitivity parameter, is defined as the incremental change in center frequency with incremental change in maximum applied electric field (EPEAK) in the filter. The other, the loss parameter, is defined as the incremental or decremental change in insertion loss of the filter with incremental change in maximum applied electric field. At room temperature, the Au/BSTO/LAO microstrip filters exhibited a sensitivity parameter value between 15 and 5 MHz/cm/kV. The loss parameter varied for different bias configurations used for electrically tuning the filter. The loss parameter varied from 0.05 to 0.01 dB/cm/kV at room temperature.

  10. Filter Mounting and Mechanism Design for the Pan-STARRS PS1 Prototype Telescope System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A.; Morgan, J.; Siegmund, W.; Hude, C.

    The Pan-STARRS PS1 telescope is a 1.8m Cassegrain telescope with a 7 square degree field of view and a 1.4 billion pixel CCD camera. The required clear aperture at the filters is 496mm in diameter, and therefore the filters needed are quite large. The Pan-STARRS filter complement consists of six octagonal shaped filters that have a distance between the flats of 538mm and a thickness of 10mm. The automated mechanism that will move the filters needs to fit into a small area. A filter wheel would be prohibitively large, so the mechanism will consist of three layers with two athermally mounted filters that slide on each layer. Each layer will be identical to the other two to provide interchangeability and commonality in manufacturing. The layers will be stacked and held together with top and bottom cover plates to form a rigid structure. The shutter will be mounted to the bottom of the mechanism and they will be installed as one unit. A separate structure will be utilized to clamp the mechanism to the telescope cassegrain core registration points. This installation system will allow the mechanism to be isolated from other structural loads and be easily removed without affecting the camera. This talk will present the detailed design of the mechanism an its performance to date.

  11. Feasibility of BNCT radiobiological experiments at the HYTHOR facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, J.; Ceballos, C.; Soncin, M.; Fabris, C.; Friso, E.; Moro, D.; Colautti, P.; Jori, G.; Rosi, G.; Nava, E.

    2008-06-01

    HYTHOR (HYbrid Thermal spectrum sHifter tapirO Reactor) is a new thermal-neutron irradiation facility, which was installed and became operative in mid 2005 at the TAPIRO (TAratura PIla Rapida potenza 0) fast reactor, in the Casaccia research centre (near Rome) of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie Energia ed Ambiente). The facility has been designed for in vivo radiobiological studies. In HYTHOR irradiation cavity, 1-6 mice can be simultaneously irradiated to study skin melanoma treatments with the BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy). The therapeutic effects of HYTHOR radiation field on mouse melanoma has been studied as a preliminary investigation before studying the tumour local control due to boron neutron capture effect after boronated molecule injection. The method to properly irradiate small animals has been precisely defined. Results show that HYTHOR radiation field is by itself effective in reducing the tumour-growth rate. This finding has to be taken into account in studying the effectiveness of new 10B carriers. A method to properly measure the reduction of the tumour-growth rate is reported and discussed.

  12. FIR Filter Design Using An Adjustable Novel Window and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrishi Rakshit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of adjustable window function, based on combination of tangent hyperbolic function and a weighted cosine series, is proposed to design an FIR filter. The proposed window is adjustable since the spectral characteristics of the window vary with the change of a simple window’s controlling parameter. The spectral characteristic of the proposed window is studied and its performance is compared with Hamming and Kaiser windows. Simulation results show that the proposed window yields better ripple and side-lobe roll-off ratios compare to the mentioned windows. Moreover, the paper represents the application of the proposed window in finite impulse response (FIR filter design. The results confirm that the filter designed by the proposed window provides 11.5607 dB better ripple ratio than Kaiser windows. In side-lobe roll-off ratio measurement, the proposed window based FIR low-pass filter attains 95.75 dB and 14.4534 dB better result than Hamming and Kaiser windows respectively. Moreover, the filter designed using the proposed window method reduces additive white Gaussian noise from the ECG signal more precisely than Kaiser window.

  13. Enhanced Internet firewall design using stateful filters final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Infrastructure and Networking Research Dept.; Simons, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Decision Support Systems Architectures

    1997-08-01

    The current state-of-the-art in firewall design provides a lot of security for company networks, but normally at the expense of performance and/or functionality. Sandia researched a new approach to firewall design which incorporates a highly stateful approach, allowing much more flexibility for protocol checking and manipulation while retaining performance. A prototype system was built and multiple protocol policy modules implemented to test the concept. The resulting system, though implemented on a low-power workstation, performed almost at the same performance as Sandia`s current firewall.

  14. Microwave Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiafeng

    2010-01-01

    The general theory of microwave filter design based on lumped-element circuit is described in this chapter. The lowpass prototype filters with Butterworth, Chebyshev and quasielliptic characteristics are synthesized, and the prototype filters are then transformed to bandpass filters by lowpass to bandpass frequency mapping. By using immitance inverters ( J - or K -inverters), the bandpass filters can be realized by the same type of resonators. One design example is given to verify the theory ...

  15. A Generic Current Mode Design for Multifunction Grounded Capacitor Filters Employing Log-Domain Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A generic design (GD for realizing an nth order log-domain multifunction filter (MFF, which can yield four possible stable filter configurations, each offering simultaneously lowpass (LP, highpass (HP, and bandpass (BP frequency responses, is presented. The features of these filters are very simple, consisting of merely a few exponential transconductor cells and capacitors; all grounded elements, capable of absorbing the shunt parasitic capacitances, responses are electronically tuneable, and suitable for monolithic integration. Furthermore, being designed using log-domain technique, it offers all its advantages. As an example, 5th-order MFFs are designed in each case and their performances are evaluated through simulation. Lastly, a comparative study of the MFFs is also carried, which helps in selecting better high-order MFF for a given application.

  16. The Design, Implementation, and Performance of the Astro-H SXS Aperture Assembly and Blocking Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Arsenovic, Petar; Ayers, Travis; Chiao, Meng P.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Kazeva, John D.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kripps, Kari L.; Lairson, Bruce; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McGuinness, Daniel S.; Porter, F. Scott; Schweiss, Andrea N.

    2016-01-01

    The calorimeter array of the JAXA Astro-H (renamed Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was designed to provide unprecedented spectral resolution of spatially extended cosmic x-ray sources and of all cosmic x-ray sources in the Fe-K band around 6 keV, enabling essential plasma diagnostics. The properties that make the SXS array a powerful x-ray spectrometer also make it sensitive to photons from the entire electromagnetic band, and particles as well. If characterized as a bolometer, it would have a noise equivalent power (NEP) of less than 4x10(exp -18) W/(Hz)0.5(exp 0.5). Thus it was imperative to shield the detector from thermal radiation from the instrument and optical and UV photons from the sky. Additionally, it was necessary to shield the coldest stages of the instrument from the thermal radiation emanating from the warmer stages. Both of these needs are addressed by a series of five thin-film radiation-blocking filters, anchored to the nested temperature stages, that block long-wavelength radiation while minimizing x-ray attenuation. The aperture assembly is a system of barriers, baffles, filter carriers, and filter mounts that supports the filters and inhibits their potential contamination. The three outer filters also have been equipped with thermometers and heaters for decontamination. We present the requirements, design, implementation, and performance of the SXS aperture assembly and blocking filters.

  17. A Pipelined Architecture for Batcher’s Sorting Network based Median Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. L. V. Ramya Javvadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial filtering is one of the principal tools used in image processing for a broad spectrum of applications. Median filtering is a nonlinear spatial filtering technique, often used to remove noise and it is very widely used in digital image processing because, under certain conditions, it preserves edges while removing noise. In the paper, median filter is implemented using 16 input Batcher’s odd even merge sorting network which is a better sorting network when compared to the other networks. Images in YUV formats are taken and to show the action of median filtering, noise is introduced into the images by using MATLAB. Now they are processed by the designed median filter and simulated using Modelsim. The timing results are taken on Cyclone II FPGA and the clock rate for the design has got improved and it is found to be around 127MHz. And finally Peak Signal to Noise Ratio(PSNR is calculated for the set of images.

  18. Design and implementation of a low-pass filter for microsensor signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhuping; Zhong Shun' an; Ding Yingtao; Wang Xiaoqing, E-mail: wangzhuping169@163.com [School of Information and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A novel low-pass filter that consists of a switched capacitor filter (SCF) and its antialiasing prefilter and smoothing postfilter is proposed for a microsensor signal processing system, which is used in separation point detection on the surface of micro air vehicles. In the system, the filter is not only applied to finish the function of filtering but also used as the front end antialiasing filter of the over sampling analog-to-digital converter. This proposed implementation mostly relies on the design of a high-precision SCF employing a correlated double sampling technique and optimisation switches. Simultaneously, the multiple-loop feedback low pass filter with good high frequency attenuation characteristics is applied as the pre- and postfilter. The design is implemented in the Central Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation (CSMC) 0.5 {mu}m double-poly three-metal (2P3M) 3.3 V CMOS technology, with satisfactory results. The chip die area occupies only 0.39 mm{sup 2} and dissipates1.53 mW. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Electromagnetic design methods in systems-on-chip: integrated filters for wireless CMOS RFICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present general methods for designing on-chip CMOS passives and utilizing these integrated elements to design on-chip CMOS filters for wireless communications. These methods rely on full-wave electromagnetic numerical calculations that capture all the physics of the underlying foundry technologies. This is especially crucial for deep sub-micron CMOS technologies as it is important to capture the physical effects of finite (and mediocre) Q-factors limited by material losses and constraints on expensive die area, low self-resonance frequencies and dual parasitics that are particularly prevalent in deep sub-micron CMOS processes (65 nm-0.18 μm. We use these integrated elements in an ideal synthesis of a Bluetooth/WLAN pass-band filter in single-ended or differential architectures, and show the significant deviations of the on-chip filter response from the ideal one. We identify which elements in the filter circuit need to maximize their Q-factors and which Q-factors do not affect the filter performance. This saves die area, and predicts the FET parameters (especially transconductances) and negative-resistance FET topologies that have to be integrated in the filter to restore its performance. (invited paper)

  20. Optical design and characterization of a gas filled MEMS Fabry-Perot filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerden, N. Pelin; Ghaderi, Mohammadamir; de Graaf, Ger; Wolffenbuttel, Reinoud F.

    2015-05-01

    A concept for a highly integrated and miniaturized gas sensor based on infrared absorption, a Fabry-Perot type linear variable optical filter with integrated gas cell, is presented. The sample chamber takes up most of the space in a conventional spectrometer and is the only component that has so far not been miniaturized. In this concept the gas cell is combined with the resonator cavity of the filter. The optical design, fabrication, and characterization results on a MEMSbased realization are reported for a 24-25.5 μm long tapered resonator cavity. Multiple reflections from highly reflective mirrors enable this optical cavity to also act as a gas cell with an equivalent optical absorption path length of 8 mm. Wideband operation of the filter is ensured by fabrication of a tapered mirror. In addition to the functional integration and significant size reduction, the filter contains no moving parts, thus enables the fabrication of a robust microspectrometer

  1. Design and operation of a filter reactor for continuous production of a selected pharmaceutical intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Müller; Pedersen, Michael Jønch; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2012-01-01

    flow reactor, where residual reactant is converted by titration. A chemical case study, production of the pharmaceutical intermediate allylcarbinol by a reaction between allylmagnesium chloride and 2-chloro-thioxanthone, in the presence of a side reaction is considered. The synthesis is conducted......A novel filter reactor system for continuous production of selected pharmaceutical intermediates is presented and experimentally verified. The filter reactor system consists of a mixed flow reactor equipped with a bottom filter, to retain solid reactant particles, followed by a conventional plug...... in tetrahydrofuran solvent. The use of the filter reactor design was explored by examining the transferability of a synthesis step in a present full-scale semi-batch pharmaceutical production into continuous processing. The main advantages of the new continuous minireactor system, compared to the conventional semi...

  2. INEL BNCT research program publications, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a collection of the published reports describing research supporting the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research Program for calendar year 1993. Contributions from the principal investigators are included, covering chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (tissue and efficacy studies of small and large animal models). These reports have previously appeared in the book: Advances in Neutron Capture Therapy, edited by A. H. Soloway, R. F. Barth, D. E. Carpenter, Plenum Press, 1993. Reports have also appeared in three journals: Angewandte Chemie, Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, and Nuclear Science and Engineering. This individual papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  3. Design of Bessel low-pass filter using DGS for RF/microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Verma, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    A synthesis method to design a defected ground structures (DGS)-based Bessel low-pass filter (LPF) using a triangular and an open-square (OS)-type DGS is reported. For the five-pole Bessel LPF at fc = 2.5 GHz, we get 10.6 dB/GHz selectivity using the triangular DGS; while the OS-type DGS provides 39 dB/GHz selectivity. For these two filters, the 10 dB impedance matching BW is 76% and 84%, respectively. It is a much wider BW that is obtained for a lumped element Bessel LPF. The maximum group delay (GD) variation within the pass band is 25pS and 28pS, respectively. The 20 dB rejection BW can be increased from 5.8 GHz to 18.8 GHz with increase in the order of filter from 5 to 11. We have also presented the design of a compact five-pole DGS-based elliptic filter with selectivity 38.2 dB/GHz and 17.8 dB return loss. Results on the DGS-based elliptic filter, Butterworth and Chebyshev filters are also presented. The experimental results are compared against the recently reported LPFs. Our reported filters perform better with respect to selectivity and group delay variation. The flatter GD and high selectivity, along with a wide 10 dB impedance matching BW, make the DGS Bessel filter a candidate for high-speed data communication, front end of a wideband communication system and efficiency improvement of a power amplifier.

  4. Design of multiplier-less sharp transition width non-uniform filter banks using gravitational search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindiya T., S.; Elias, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, multiplier-less near-perfect reconstruction tree-structured filter banks are proposed. Filters with sharp transition width are preferred in filter banks in order to reduce the aliasing between adjacent channels. When sharp transition width filters are designed as conventional finite impulse response filters, the order of the filters will become very high leading to increased complexity. The frequency response masking (FRM) method is known to result in linear-phase sharp transition width filters with low complexity. It is found that the proposed design method, which is based on FRM, gives better results compared to the earlier reported results, in terms of the number of multipliers when sharp transition width filter banks are needed. To further reduce the complexity and power consumption, the tree-structured filter bank is made totally multiplier-less by converting the continuous filter bank coefficients to finite precision coefficients in the signed power of two space. This may lead to performance degradation and calls for the use of a suitable optimisation technique. In this paper, gravitational search algorithm is proposed to be used in the design of the multiplier-less tree-structured uniform as well as non-uniform filter banks. This design method results in uniform and non-uniform filter banks which are simple, alias-free, linear phase and multiplier-less and have sharp transition width.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel liposome containing BPA-peptide conjugate for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakawa, Makoto [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan)], E-mail: m0720347@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yamamto, Tetsuya; Nakai, Kei [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Aburai, Kenichi [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Kawatobi, Sho [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University (Japan); Tsurubuchi, Takao; Yamamoto, Yohei [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yokoyama, Yuusaku; Okuno, Hiroaki [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University (Japan); Matsumura, Akira [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    We aimed at securing sufficient concentrations of {sup 10}B in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by developing a new drug delivery system. We have designed and developed a novel lipid analog and succeeded in using it to develop the new boron component liposome. It consisted of three different kinds of amino acid derivatives and two fatty acids, and could react directly with the peptide synthesized first on resin by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis. In this study, lipid analog conjugated with HIV-TAT peptide (domain of human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) was synthesized and successfully incorporated into liposomes.

  6. Analysis and design of box-like filters based on 3×2 microring resonator arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobei; Zhang, Xinliang; Huang, Dexiu

    2009-11-01

    This paper theoretically investigates spectral characteristics of the 3×2 microring resonator array, with its analytical model developed firstly. Simulation results show that the case of the ring-bus coupling coefficient smaller than the ringring coupling coefficient is suitable for box-like filters. After design principles are given, the optimization process are carried out by evaluating the side lobe rejection ratio, the passband ripple rejection ratio and the roll-off coefficient of the passband edge. The FWHM of the designed box-like filter can be adjustable in a flexible range.

  7. Protocols for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme at Brookhaven: Practical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Joel, D.D.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    In this report we discuss some issues considered in selecting initial protocols for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of human glioblastoma multiforme. First the tolerance of normal tissues, especially the brain, to the radiation field. Radiation doses limits were based on results with human and animal exposures. Estimates of tumor control doses were based on the results of single-fraction photon therapy and single fraction BNCT both in humans and experimental animals. Of the two boron compounds (BSH and BPA), BPA was chosen since a FDA-sanctioned protocol for distribution in humans was in effect at the time the first BNCT protocols were written and therapy studies in experimental animals had shown it to be more effective than BSH.

  8. Proceedings of neutron irradiation technical meeting on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The 'Neutron Irradiation Technical Meeting for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)' was held on March 13, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment. The Meeting is aimed to introduce the neutron beam facility for medical irradiation at JRR-4 to Japanese researchers widely, as well as providing an opportunity for young researchers, engineers, medical representatives such surgeons and doctors of pharmacology to present their research activities and to exchange valuable information. JAERI researcher presented the performance and the irradiation technology in the JRR-4 neutron beam facility, while external researchers made various and beneficial presentations containing such accelerator-based BNCT, spectrum-shifter, biological effect, pharmacological development and so on. In this meeting, a special lecture titled 'The Dawn of BNCT and Its Development.' was given by MD, Prof. Takashi Minobe, an executive director of Japan Foundation for Emergency Medicine. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6Li2CO3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author)

  10. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  11. Optimal fractional delay-IIR filter design using cuckoo search algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manjeet; Rawat, Tarun Kumar

    2015-11-01

    This paper applied a novel global meta-heuristic optimization algorithm, cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) to determine optimal coefficients of a fractional delay-infinite impulse response (FD-IIR) filter and trying to meet the ideal frequency response characteristics. Since fractional delay-IIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem, it cannot be computed efficiently using conventional gradient based optimization techniques. A weighted least square (WLS) based fitness function is used to improve the performance to a great extent. FD-IIR filters of different orders have been designed using the CSA. The simulation results of the proposed CSA based approach have been compared to those of well accepted evolutionary algorithms like Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The performance of the CSA based FD-IIR filter is superior to those obtained by GA and PSO. The simulation and statistical results affirm that the proposed approach using CSA outperforms GA and PSO, not only in the convergence rate but also in optimal performance of the designed FD-IIR filter (i.e., smaller magnitude error, smaller phase error, higher percentage improvement in magnitude and phase error, fast convergence rate). The absolute magnitude and phase error obtained for the designed 5th order FD-IIR filter are as low as 0.0037 and 0.0046, respectively. The percentage improvement in magnitude error for CSA based 5th order FD-IIR design with respect to GA and PSO are 80.93% and 74.83% respectively, and phase error are 76.04% and 71.25%, respectively. PMID:26391486

  12. A novel method for designing dichroic color filter transmittance curves for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Rui; Shum, Frank

    2014-09-01

    This paper focuses on designing dichroic filters for changing the color of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. Dichroic filters are composed of multiple dielectric layers on a substrate. By applying a dichroic filter, some of the LED's spectral energy is reflected and some is transmitted, which changes the lamp's color. Conventional methods to obtain spectral transmittance curves have shortcomings. The design criteria for the transmittance curves are incompatible with the metrics used in lighting applications, such as correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Thus, the color rendering performance and the optical transmission of a lighting system are not optimized. This observation leads to the development of a proposed method for designing dichroic filter transmittance curves to provide accurate color shift, high CRI, and sufficient optical transmission. The method initially uses the transmittance curve of an existing color filter that provides a roughly close color shift for the LED lamp to calculate the transmittance curve that causes an accurate color shift by polynomial approximation. Based on the approximated curve, a preliminary transmittance curve without the effect of the LED lamp's secondary optics is derived and verified in thin-film design and optical design software tools. Further, the derived preliminary transmittance curve is optimized by applying an algorithm to loop through a large amount of representative curves fluctuating near the preliminary curve. The resulting dichroic filter provides an accurate color shift (ΔCCT = -800±50K, Duv = ±0.003), high CRI (Ra and R9 <= 95), and sufficient luminous flux transmission (<= 70%).

  13. Design of Semi-Adaptive 190-200 KHz Digital Band Pass Filters for SAR Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Yadav

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Technologies have advanced rapidly in the field of digital signal processing due to advances made in high speed, low cost digital integrated chips. These technologies have further stimulated ever increasing use of signal representation in digital form for purposes of transmission, measurement, control and storage. Design of digital filters especially adaptive or semi adaptive is the necessity of the hour for SAR applications. The aim of this research work is to design and performance evaluation of 380-400 KHz Bartlett, Blackman and Chebyshev digital semi adaptive filters. For this work XILINX and MATLAB softwares were used for the design. As pert of practical research work these designs were translated using FPGA hardware SPARTAN-3E kit. These were optimized, analyzed, compared and evaluated keeping the sampling frequency at 5 MHz for 64 order. Both these filters designed using software and hardware were tested by passing a sinusoidal test signal of 381 KHz along with noise and the filtered output signals are presented.

  14. Low-Cost Design of an FIR Filter by Using a Coefficient Mapping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chih Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel coefficient mapping method to reduce the area cost of the finite impulse response (FIR filter design, especially for optimizing its coefficients. Being capable of reducing the area cost and improving the filter performance, the proposed mapping method consists of four steps: quantization of coefficients, import of parameters, constitution of prime coefficients with parameters, and constitution of residual coefficients with prime coefficients. Effectiveness of the proposed coefficient mapping method is verified by selecting the 48-tap filter of IS-95 code division multiple access (CDMA standard as the benchmark. Experimental results indicate that the proposed design with canonical signed digit (CSD coefficients can operate at 86 MHz with an area of 241,813 um2, leading to a throughput rate of 1,382 Mbps. Its ratio of throughput/area is 5,715 Kbps/um2, yielding a higher performance than that of previous designs. In summary, the proposed design reduces 5.7% of the total filter area, shortens 25.7% of the critical path delay, and improves 14.8% of the throughput/area by a value over that of the best design reported before.

  15. Design of LCL-filters with LCL resonance frequencies beyond the Nyquist frequency for grid-connected inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Yao, Wenli; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel LCL-filter design method and its current control for grid-connected converters. With the proposed design method, it is possible to set the resonance frequency of the LCL-filter to be higher than the Nyquist frequency, i.e. half of the system sampling frequency, and thi......This paper proposes a novel LCL-filter design method and its current control for grid-connected converters. With the proposed design method, it is possible to set the resonance frequency of the LCL-filter to be higher than the Nyquist frequency, i.e. half of the system sampling frequency...

  16. Design and experimental study of compensation fitting on the angle-tuned filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Kan; HUANG De-xiu; LIU Wen; CHANG Jin

    2008-01-01

    For a 100 GHz DWDM angle-tuned filter with low polarization dependent loss,the insertion loss and the Gaussiantransformation tendency of the transmission spectrum will become more serious as the incident angle is increased.It is because of that the optical path and the transmission modes of the thin film filter will change when the incident angle is varied.According to the thin film matrix theory,the analysis model is established,the displacement change of the transmission field is simulated,and a dynamic compensation fitting is also designed and fabricated in the paper.The experimental results show that it can effectively reduce the insertion loss and the phenomenon of Gaussian process.Using the compensation fitting,the tunable range of the filter is at about 20 nm which coincides with the theoretical design.

  17. Design of a Coordinate-Transformation Extended Robust Kalman Filter for Incoming Ballistic Missile Tracking Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J.G. [LG Electronics, Seoul (Korea); Lee, T.H.; Park, J.B. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Yoon, T.S. [Changwon University, Changwon (Korea); Choi, Y.H. [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea)

    2003-01-01

    A Coordinate-Transformation Extended Robust Kalman Filter (CERKF) designed in the Krein space is proposed, and then applied to a nonlinear incoming ballistic missile tracking system with parameter uncertainties. First, the Extended Robust Kalman filter (ERKF) is proposed to handle the nonlinearity of measurement equation which occurs whenever the polar coordinate system is transformed into the Cartesian coordinate system. Moreover, linearization error inevitably occurs and deteriorates the tracking performance, which is considerably reduced by the proposed CERKF. Through the simulation results, we show that the proposed CERKF, which uses the measurement coordinate system, has less RMS error than the previous ERKF which is designed in the Krein space using the Cartesian system. We also verify that the robustness and the stability of the proposed filter are guaranteed in two radars: the phased array radar and the scanning radar. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Parallel power electronics filters in three-phase four-wire systems principle, control and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Man-Chung; Lam, Chi-Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book describes parallel power electronic filters for 3-phase 4-wire systems, focusing on the control, design and system operation. It presents the basics of power-electronics techniques applied in power systems as well as the advanced techniques in controlling, implementing and designing parallel power electronics converters. The power-quality compensation has been achieved using active filters and hybrid filters, and circuit models, control principles and operational practice problems have been verified by principle study, simulation and experimental results. The state-of-the-art research findings were mainly developed by a team at the University of Macau. Offering background information and related novel techniques, this book is a valuable resource for electrical engineers and researchers wanting to work on energy saving using power-quality compensators or renewable energy power electronics systems. .

  19. Design and analysis of a high Q MEMS passive RF filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Vishal; Pande, Rajesh

    2016-04-01

    Over the past few years, significant growth has been observed in using MEMS based passive components in the RF microelectronics domain, especially in transceiver system. This is due to some excellent properties of the MEMS devices like low loss, low cost and excellent isolation. This paper presents a design of high performance MEMS passive band pass filter, consisting of L and C with improved quality factor and insertion loss less than the reported filters. In this paper we have presented a design of 2nd order band pass filter with 2.4GHz centre frequency and 83MHz bandwidth for Bluetooth application. The simulation results showed improved Q-factor of 34 and Insertion loss of 1.7dB to 1.9dB. The simulation results needs to be validated by fabricating the device, fabrication flow of which is also presented in the paper.

  20. Design of a multilevel Active Power Filter for More Electrical Airplane variable frequency systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Joel Filipe; Pomilio, Jose Antenor; Busarello, Tiago Davi Curi

    This paper presents the design and simulation of an Aeronautical Active Power Filter (AAPF) for a Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF) advanced aircraft electric power system. The purposes of the AAPF are to mitigate current harmonics, to improve the source power factor and to mitigate the effects of unbalanced loads. Regarding the fact that the Aircraft Electrical Power System (AEPS) frequency may vary between 360 Hz and 900 Hz, and the load dynamics is often modified, an enhanced filtering technique is required. The designed AAPF topology is an asymmetrical multilevel inverter (AMI), which control strategy is based on the Conservative Power Theory (CPT) and synchronized by a Kalman Filter Phase-Locked Loop (KF-PLL). The above configuration renders the AAPF very robust and effective to its purpose. Accurate simulation results on Matlab/Simulink platform verify the feasibility of the proposed AAPF and the high performance of the control strategy during steady-state and dynamic operations.

  1. Mitigation of Noise in OFDM Based Plc System Using Filter Kernel Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha G Krishnan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Power line communication is a technology that transforms power line in to pathway for conveyance of broadband data. It is cost less than other communication approach and for better bandwidth efficiency OFDM based PLC system is used. In real PLC environment some electrical appliances will produce noise. To mitigate this noise filter kernel design is used, so periodic impulsive noise and Gaussian noises are removed from PLC communication system by using this filter kernel design. MATLAB is used for the simulation and the result shows that filter kernel is simple and effective noise mitigation technique. Further in future, interference due to obstacles also wants to be mitigated for the better data transmission without noise.

  2. Design and Simulation of a T-Type Lymphocyte Cells Filter on a Microfluidic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Quiroga T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work consisted in designing and validating, by experimental computational simulation, a T-Lymphocites filtering system based on microfluidics for hiv virus detection. Material and methods: It was used AutoDesk® Inventor simulation tool was used with which the microflui­dic system design was performed. The filter system was tested by a computer simulation in the AutoDesk® Simulation cfd (computational fluid dynamics software, simulation tool in which different particles with different diameters (5 μm, 10 μm, 15 μm flow through the system to test. Results and conclusions: Results showed that this system allowed to pass the expected particles, however, it also was observed that it allows bigger particles than desired, for this reason it is neces­sary to keep on working on system perfectioning. Filtering system efficiency was of a 33.33 %.

  3. Design technique for nonlinear phase SAW filters using slanted finger interdigital transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuda, H

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a useful design technique to achieve a nonlinear phase SAW filter using slanted finger interdigital transducers (SFITs) or tapered interdigital transducers which are suitable for wide-band filters in intermediate frequency stages. A required nonlinear phase response in the passband can be obtained by changing center-to-center distances between input and output SFITs along an axis perpendicular to the SAW propagation axis. The design is based on a building-block approach in the frequency domain. A nonlinear phase SAW filter with a center frequency of 70 MHz and a fractional bandwidth of about 10% is demonstrated on x-cut 112.2 degrees y-propagating LiTaO(3 ). Because the substrate has a power flow angle of 1.55 degrees, the SFIT pattern is tilted along that angle. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained. PMID:18244156

  4. Design, fabrication and characterization of guided-mode resonance transmission filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohammad Shyiq

    This dissertation addresses photonic devices enabled by the guided-mode resonance (GMR) effect. As periodic phototonic structures can become highly reflective or transmissive at resonance, this effect has been utilized to design suites of optical elements including reflection filters, transmission filters, broadband mirrors, polarizers, and absorbers with a plethora of possible deployment venues. Even though there has been considerable research on the reflection type GMR elements, attendant transmission filters have less explored experimentally, as there is material limitation to design this kind of filters with simple architecture and they also may require coupling to multiple resonances simultaneously. Apart from the design issues, experimental realization of these filters is challenging. There have not been any experimental reports on optical transmission filters with narrow transmission band and high efficiency and well defined low sidebands. In this Dissertation, we design, fabricate and characterize narrow band guided-mode resonance transmission filters. Initially we study a way to engineer the optical constants of amorphous silicon (a-Si) suitable for different applications. Rapid thermal annealing is applied to induce crystallization of sputtered amorphous silicon deposited on thermally grown oxide layers. The influence of annealing temperatures in the range of 600°C--980°C is systematically investigated. Using scanning-electron microscopy, ellipsometry and x-ray diffraction techniques, the structural and optical properties of the films are determined. An order-of-magnitude reduction of the extinction coefficient is achieved. We show that the optical constants can be tuned for different design requirements by controlling the process parameters. For example, we obtain a refractive index of ~3.66 and an extinction coefficient of ~0.0012 at the 1550-nm wavelength as suitable for GMR transmission filter applications where a high refractive index and low

  5. Stability margins in a design method for 2-dimensional recursive digital filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crebbin, G.; Attikiouzel, J.

    1982-06-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the extension of a concept of stability margin introduced by Crebbin and Attikiouzel (1981). When implemented as a constraint in a 2-D filter design problem, the stability margin guarantees stability, and, in addition, has a moderating effect on the behavior in either the frequency or the spatial domain. An investigation is conducted regarding the possibility of incorporating stability margins into available automated design methods, and a description is provided of a design method which uses the simplex algorithm reported by Nelder and Mead (1975). The considered algorithm is well suited to handle the constraints imposed by stability and by stability margins. Attention is given to filter structures, the design program, additional computing time for stability testing, problems of stable-only design methods, and relationships between pole position, frequency response, and spatial response.

  6. Wide Bandpass and Narrow Bandstop Microstrip Filters based on Hilbert fractal geometry: design and simulation results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqeen S Mezaal

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Wide Bandpass Filter (WBPF and Narrow Bandstop Filter (NBSF incorporating two microstrip resonators, each resonator is based on 2nd iteration of Hilbert fractal geometry. The type of filter as pass or reject band has been adjusted by coupling gap parameter (d between Hilbert resonators using a substrate with a dielectric constant of 10.8 and a thickness of 1.27 mm. Numerical simulation results as well as a parametric study of d parameter on filter type and frequency responses are presented and studied. WBPF has designed at resonant frequencies of 2 and 2.2 GHz with a bandwidth of 0.52 GHz, -28 dB return loss and -0.125 dB insertion loss while NBSF has designed for electrical specifications of 2.37 GHz center frequency, 20 MHz rejection bandwidth, -0.1873 dB return loss and 13.746 dB insertion loss. The proposed technique offers a new alternative to construct low-cost high-performance filter devices, suitable for a wide range of wireless communication systems.

  7. A Method for Designing FIR Filters with Arbitrary Magnitude Characteristic Used for Modeling Human Audiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZOPOS, E.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an iterative method for designing FIR filters that implement arbitrary magnitude characteristics, defined by the user through a set of frequency-magnitude points (frequency samples. The proposed method is based on the non-uniform frequency sampling algorithm. For each iteration a new set of frequency samples is generated, by processing the set used in the previous run; this implies changing the samples location around the previous frequency values and adjusting their magnitude through interpolation. If necessary, additional samples can be introduced, as well. After each iteration the magnitude characteristic of the resulting filter is determined by using the non-uniform DFT and compared with the required one; if the errors are larger than the acceptable levels (set by the user a new iteration is run; the length of the resulting filter and the values of its coefficients are also taken into consideration when deciding a re-run. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method a tool for designing FIR filters that match human audiograms was implemented in LabVIEW. It was shown that the resulting filters have smaller coefficients than the standard one, and can also have lower order, while the errors remain relatively small.

  8. Grid Filter Design for a Multi-Megawatt Medium-Voltage Voltage Source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rockhill, A.A.; Liserre, Marco; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2011-01-01

    converter, a limited allowable switching frequency, component physical size and weight concerns, and the stringent limits for allowable injected current harmonics. Traditional design procedures of grid filters for lower power and higher switching frequency converters are not valid for a multi...

  9. LC Filter Design for Wide Band Gap Device Based Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Casper; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a simple design procedure for LC filters used in wide band gap device based adjustable speed drives. Wide band gap devices offer fast turn-on and turn-off times, thus producing high dV/dt into the motor terminals. The high dV/dt can be harmful for the motor windings and bearings...

  10. Design and use of guided mode resonance filters for refractive index sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon

    This Ph.D. thesis is concerned with the design and use of guided mode resonance filters (GMRF) for applications in refractive index sensing. GMRFs are optical nanostructures capable of efficiently and resonantly reflecting a narrow wavelength interval of incident broad band light. They combine a ...

  11. Design and operation of nitrifying trickling filters in recirculating aquaculture: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eding, E.H.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Huisman, E.A.; Klapwijk, A.

    2006-01-01

    This review deals with the main mechanisms and parameters affecting design and performance of trickling filters in aquaculture. Relationships between nitrification rates and easily accessible process parameters, like bulk phase concentration of TAN, O2, organic matter (COD), nitrite, temperature, HC

  12. A New Method for Filter Design Based on Long-Period Fibre Grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai; SHENG Qiu-Qin; DONG Xiao-Yi

    2004-01-01

    @@ We present a simple method to induce mechanically a long-period fibre grating in a general sing mode fibre. The transmission spectrum of the new type of grating can be tailored by changing the external applied pressure or by introducing a phase-shift in the grating. The tunability this kind of gratings exhibit will be particularly useful for the filter design.

  13. Filter Design for Failure Detection and Isolation in the Presence of Modeling Erros and Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The design problem of filters for robust Failure Detectionand Isolation, (FDI) is addressed in this paper. The failure detectionproblem will be considered with respect to both modeling errors anddisturbances. Both an approach based on failure detection observes aswell as an approach based...

  14. Filter design for failure detection and isolation in the presence of modeling errors and disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    The design problem of filters for robust failure detection and isolation, (FDI) is addressed in this paper. The failure detection problem will be considered with respect to both modeling errors and disturbances. Both an approach based on failure detection observers as well as an approach based...

  15. The PC—Based ATLAS Event Filter Prototype:Supervision Design,Implementation and Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.P.Bee; F.Etienne; 等

    2001-01-01

    The studies undertaken to prepare the Technical Design Report of the ATLAS 3rd Level Trigger(Event Filter)are performed on different prototypes based on different technologies.we present here the most recent results obtained for the supervision of the prototype based on conventional,off-the-shelf PC machines and Java Moblie agent technology.

  16. Characterization measurement of a thick CdTe detector for BNCT-SPECT - detection efficiency and energy resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Isao; Nakamura, Soichiro; Manabe, Masanobu; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Kato, Itsuro

    2014-06-01

    Author׳s group is carrying out development of BNCT-SPECT with CdTe device, which monitors the therapy effect of BNCT in real-time. From the design calculations, the dimensions were fixed to 1.5×2×30mm(3). For the collimator it was confirmed that it would have a good spatial resolution and simultaneously the number of counts would be acceptably large. After producing the CdTe crystal, the characterization measurement was carried out. For the detection efficiency an excellent agreement between calculation and measurement was obtained. Also, the detector has a very good energy resolution so that gamma-rays of 478keV and 511keV could be distinguished in the spectrum. PMID:24581600

  17. Feasibility of sealed D-T neutron generator as neutron source for liver BNCT and its beam shaping assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Li, Gang; Liu, Linmao

    2014-04-01

    This paper involves the feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver tumor with four sealed neutron generators as neutron source. Two generators are placed on each side of the liver. The high energy of these emitted neutrons should be reduced by designing a beam shaping assembly (BSA) to make them useable for BNCT. However, the neutron flux decreases as neutrons pass through different materials of BSA. Therefore, it is essential to find ways to increase the neutron flux. In this paper, the feasibility of using low enrichment uranium as a neutron multiplier is investigated to increase the number of neutrons emitted from D-T neutron generators. The neutron spectrum related to our system has a proper epithermal flux, and the fast and thermal neutron fluxes comply with the IAEA recommended values.

  18. Big Bang–Big Crunch Optimization Algorithm for Linear Phase Fir Digital Filter Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Rashmi Singh Dr. H. K. Verma

    2012-01-01

    The Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC) optimization algorithm is a new optimization method that relies on the Big Bang and Big Crunch theory, one of the theories of the evolution of the universe. In this paper, a Big Bang–Big Crunch algorithm has been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters. Here the experimented fitness function based on the mean squared error between the actual and the ideal filter response. This paper presents the plot of magnitude response ...

  19. Adaptive Filters with Error Nonlinearities: Mean-Square Analysis and Optimum Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Sayed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a unified approach to the analysis and design of adaptive filters with error nonlinearities. In particular, the paper performs stability and steady-state analysis of this class of filters under weaker conditions than what is usually encountered in the literature, and without imposing any restriction on the color or statistics of the input. The analysis results are subsequently used to derive an expression for the optimum nonlinearity, which turns out to be a function of the probability density function of the estimation error. Some common nonlinearities are shown to be approximations to the optimum nonlinearity. The framework pursued here is based on energy conservation arguments.

  20. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  1. Thermal Filters for the ATHENA X-IFU: Ongoing Activities Toward the Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Marco; Argan, A.; Bozzo, E.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Ciaravella, A.; Collura, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Gatti, F.; Jimenez Escobar, A.; Lo Cicero, U.; Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Mineo, T.; Nuzzo, F.; Paltani, S.; Parodi, G.; Piro, L.; Rauw, G.; Sciortino, L.; Sciortino, S.; Villa, F.

    2016-08-01

    ATHENA is the L2 mission selected by ESA to pursue the science theme "Hot and Energetic Universe." One of the two focal plane instruments is the X-ray Integral Field Unit, an array of TES microcalorimeters operated at T thermal shields. X-ray transparent filters need to be mounted on these open windows to attenuate the IR radiation from warm surfaces, to attenuate RF electromagnetic interferences on TES sensors and SQUID electronics, and to protect the detector from contamination. This paper reviews the ongoing activities driving the design of the X-IFU thermal filters.

  2. Robust and Nonfragile H∞ Kalman-Type Filter Design for Parameter-Uncertain Time-Delay Systems: PLMI Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hyeop Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis of a robust and nonfragile H∞ Kalman-type filter design for a class of time-delay systems with polytopic uncertainties, filter-gain variations, and disturbances. We present the sufficient condition for filter existence and the method for designing a robust nonfragile H∞ filter by using LMIs (Linear Matrix Inequalities technique. Because the obtained sufficient condition can be represented as PLMIs (Parameterized Linear Matrix Inequalities, which can generate infinite LMIs, we use a relaxation technique to find finite solutions for a robust nonfragile H∞ filter. We show that the proposed filter can minimize estimation error in terms of parameter uncertainties, filter-fragility, and disturbances.

  3. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an Oral Precancer Model: Therapeutic Benefits and Potential Toxicity of a Double Application of BNCT with a Six-Week Interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the clinical relevance of locoregional recurrences in head and neck cancer, we developed a novel experimental model of premalignant tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies and demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect of a single application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on tumor development from premalignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a double application of BNCT with a 6 week interval in terms of inhibitory effect on tumor development, toxicity and DNA synthesis. We performed a double application, 6 weeks apart, of (1) BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT); (2) BNCT mediated by the combined application of decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and BPA ((GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT) or (3) beam-only, at RA-3 nuclear reactor and followed the animals for 8 months. The control group was cancerized and sham-irradiated. BPA-BNCT, (GB- 10 + BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from premalignant tissue that persisted until 8, 3, and 2 months respectively. An early maximum inhibition of 100% was observed for all 3 protocols. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was detected. Reversible mucositis was observed in premalignant tissue, peaking at 1 week and resolving by the third week after each irradiation. Mucositis after the second application was not exacerbated by the first application. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in premalignant tissue 8 months post-BNCT. A double application of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT, 6 weeks apart, could be used therapeutically at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues.

  4. Adaptive filter design based on the LMS algorithm for delay elimination in TCR/FC compensators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Rahmat Allah; Torabian Esfahani, Mahdi

    2011-04-01

    Thyristor controlled reactor with fixed capacitor (TCR/FC) compensators have the capability of compensating reactive power and improving power quality phenomena. Delay in the response of such compensators degrades their performance. In this paper, a new method based on adaptive filters (AF) is proposed in order to eliminate delay and increase the response of the TCR compensator. The algorithm designed for the adaptive filters is performed based on the least mean square (LMS) algorithm. In this design, instead of fixed capacitors, band-pass LC filters are used. To evaluate the filter, a TCR/FC compensator was used for nonlinear and time varying loads of electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These loads caused occurrence of power quality phenomena in the supplying system, such as voltage fluctuation and flicker, odd and even harmonics and unbalancing in voltage and current. The above design was implemented in a realistic system model of a steel complex. The simulation results show that applying the proposed control in the TCR/FC compensator efficiently eliminated delay in the response and improved the performance of the compensator in the power system.

  5. Adaptive filter design based on the LMS algorithm for delay elimination in TCR/FC compensators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Rahmat Allah; Torabian Esfahani, Mahdi

    2011-04-01

    Thyristor controlled reactor with fixed capacitor (TCR/FC) compensators have the capability of compensating reactive power and improving power quality phenomena. Delay in the response of such compensators degrades their performance. In this paper, a new method based on adaptive filters (AF) is proposed in order to eliminate delay and increase the response of the TCR compensator. The algorithm designed for the adaptive filters is performed based on the least mean square (LMS) algorithm. In this design, instead of fixed capacitors, band-pass LC filters are used. To evaluate the filter, a TCR/FC compensator was used for nonlinear and time varying loads of electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These loads caused occurrence of power quality phenomena in the supplying system, such as voltage fluctuation and flicker, odd and even harmonics and unbalancing in voltage and current. The above design was implemented in a realistic system model of a steel complex. The simulation results show that applying the proposed control in the TCR/FC compensator efficiently eliminated delay in the response and improved the performance of the compensator in the power system. PMID:21193194

  6. Design and evaluation of a filter-based chairside amalgam separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the ability of a chairside filtration system to remove particulate-based mercury (Hg) from dental-unit wastewater. Prototypes of the chairside filtration system were designed and fabricated using reusable filter chambers with disposable filter elements. The system was installed in five dental operatories utilizing filter elements with nominal pore sizes of 50μm, 15μm, 1μm, 0.5μm, or with no system installed (control). Daily chairside wastewater samples were collected on ten consecutive days from each room and brought to the laboratory for processing. After processing the wastewater samples, Hg concentrations were determined with cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (USEPA method 7470A). Filter systems were exchanged after ten samples were collected so that all five of the configurations were evaluated in each room (with assignment order balanced by a Latin Square). The numbers of surfaces of amalgam placed and removed per day were tracked in each room. In part two, new filter systems with the 0.5μm filter elements were installed in the five dental operatories and vacuum levels at the high-velocity evacuation cannula tip were measured with a vacuum gauge. In part three of the study, the chairside filtration system utilizing 0.5μm and 15μm filter elements was evaluated utilizing the ISO 11143 testing protocol, a laboratory test of amalgam separator efficiency utilizing amalgam samples of known particle size distribution. Mean Hg per chair per day (no filter installed) was 1087.38mg (SD = 993.92mg). Mean Hg per chair per day for the 50μm, 15μm, 1μm, 0.5μm filter configurations was 79.13mg (SD = 71.40mg), 23.55mg (SD = 23.25mg), 17.68mg (SD = 17.35mg), and 4.25mg (SD = 6.35mg), respectively (n = 50 for all groups). Calculated removal efficiencies from the clinical samples were 92.7%, 97.8%, 98.4%, and 99.6%, respectively. ANCOVA on data from the four filter groups, with amalgam-surfaces-removed included as a significant covariate

  7. Design and evaluation of a filter-based chairside amalgam separation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Mark E. [Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research, 310A B Street, Great Lakes, Illinois 60088 (United States)], E-mail: mark.stone@yahoo.com; Cohen, Mark E.; Berry, Denise L.; Ragain, James C. [Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research, 310A B Street, Great Lakes, Illinois 60088 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    This study evaluated the ability of a chairside filtration system to remove particulate-based mercury (Hg) from dental-unit wastewater. Prototypes of the chairside filtration system were designed and fabricated using reusable filter chambers with disposable filter elements. The system was installed in five dental operatories utilizing filter elements with nominal pore sizes of 50{mu}m, 15{mu}m, 1{mu}m, 0.5{mu}m, or with no system installed (control). Daily chairside wastewater samples were collected on ten consecutive days from each room and brought to the laboratory for processing. After processing the wastewater samples, Hg concentrations were determined with cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (USEPA method 7470A). Filter systems were exchanged after ten samples were collected so that all five of the configurations were evaluated in each room (with assignment order balanced by a Latin Square). The numbers of surfaces of amalgam placed and removed per day were tracked in each room. In part two, new filter systems with the 0.5{mu}m filter elements were installed in the five dental operatories and vacuum levels at the high-velocity evacuation cannula tip were measured with a vacuum gauge. In part three of the study, the chairside filtration system utilizing 0.5{mu}m and 15{mu}m filter elements was evaluated utilizing the ISO 11143 testing protocol, a laboratory test of amalgam separator efficiency utilizing amalgam samples of known particle size distribution. Mean Hg per chair per day (no filter installed) was 1087.38mg (SD = 993.92mg). Mean Hg per chair per day for the 50{mu}m, 15{mu}m, 1{mu}m, 0.5{mu}m filter configurations was 79.13mg (SD = 71.40mg), 23.55mg (SD = 23.25mg), 17.68mg (SD = 17.35mg), and 4.25mg (SD = 6.35mg), respectively (n = 50 for all groups). Calculated removal efficiencies from the clinical samples were 92.7%, 97.8%, 98.4%, and 99.6%, respectively. ANCOVA on data from the four filter groups, with amalgam-surfaces-removed included as a

  8. A neural network-based optimal spatial filter design method for motor imagery classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Yuksel

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel spatial filter design method is introduced. Spatial filtering is an important processing step for feature extraction in motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces. This paper introduces a new motor imagery signal classification method combined with spatial filter optimization. We simultaneously train the spatial filter and the classifier using a neural network approach. The proposed spatial filter network (SFN is composed of two layers: a spatial filtering layer and a classifier layer. These two layers are linked to each other with non-linear mapping functions. The proposed method addresses two shortcomings of the common spatial patterns (CSP algorithm. First, CSP aims to maximize the between-classes variance while ignoring the minimization of within-classes variances. Consequently, the features obtained using the CSP method may have large within-classes variances. Second, the maximizing optimization function of CSP increases the classification accuracy indirectly because an independent classifier is used after the CSP method. With SFN, we aimed to maximize the between-classes variance while minimizing within-classes variances and simultaneously optimizing the spatial filter and the classifier. To classify motor imagery EEG signals, we modified the well-known feed-forward structure and derived forward and backward equations that correspond to the proposed structure. We tested our algorithm on simple toy data. Then, we compared the SFN with conventional CSP and its multi-class version, called one-versus-rest CSP, on two data sets from BCI competition III. The evaluation results demonstrate that SFN is a good alternative for classifying motor imagery EEG signals with increased classification accuracy.

  9. Design and Development of a High Efficiency CarbonGranular Bed Filter in Industrial Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张济宇; 旷戈; 林诚

    2004-01-01

    The new dust removal technical route using the carbon-granular bed filter, packed of carbon particles with appropriate grade derive from an online-process vibration sieve, to replace the traditional baggy filter had been developed successfully for capturing the micro-carbon dusts produced from pulverization of petroleum coke,and the green close loop of carbon materials is thus completed in the combined pulverizing and classifying system and pulverized carbon dust removal process. The high dust removal efficiency greater than 99%, low outlet dust concentration less than 100 mg-m-S, low pressure drop through dust filtration chamber less than 980 Pa, simple and easy design, and flexible and stable operation were achieved also with the carbon-granular bed filter in both bench and industrial scale operations.

  10. Band-Pass and OH-Suppression Filters for the E-ELT - Design and Prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Guenster, S; Davies, R

    2011-01-01

    Optical filters are used for a variety of purposes at astronomical telescopes. In the near infrared region, from 0.8 to 2.5 um, bandpass and edge filters are used to separate the different astronomical channels, such as the J, H, and K bands. However, in the same wavelength range light emission generated in the earth's atmosphere is superimposed on the stellar radiation. Therefore, ground based astronomical instruments measure, in addition to the stellar light, also unwanted contributions from the earth's atmosphere. The characteristic lines of this OH emission are extremely narrow and distributed over the complete NIR spectral range. The sensitivity of future telescopes, like the European Extreme Large Telescope (E-ELT) which is currently being designed by ESO, can be dramatically improved if the atmospheric emission lines are effectively suppressed while the stellar radiation is efficiently transferred to the detector systems. For this task, new types of optical filters have to be developed. In this framewo...

  11. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9. Bulletin, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  12. INEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research Program for calendar year 1993. Contributions from all the principal investigators are included, covering chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, boron drug analysis), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (tissue and efficacy studies of small and large animal models). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented. Results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with boron neutron capture therapy at the Brookhaven National Laboratory are updated. Boron-containing drug purity verification is discussed in some detail. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging of boron in vivo are discussed. Several boron-carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux of the Petten (The Netherlands) High Flux Reactor beam (HFB11B), and comparison to predictions are shown.

  13. The Design, Implementation, and Performance of the Astro-H SXS Aperture Assembly and Blocking Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, C. A.; Adams, J. S.; Arsenovic, P.; Ayers, T.; Chiao, M. P.; DiPirro, M. J.; Eckart, M. E.; Fujimoto, R.; Kazeva, J. D.; Kelley, R. L.; Kripps, K. L.; Lairson, B.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Lopez, H.; McCammon, D.; McGuinness, D. S.; Mitsuda, K.; Moseley, S. J.; Porter, F. S.; Schweiss, A. N.; Takei, Y.; Thorpe, R. S.; Watanabe, T.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-01-01

    The calorimeter array of the JAXA Astro-H (renamed Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was designed to provide unprecedented spectral resolution of spatially extended cosmic x-ray sources and of all cosmic x-ray sources in the Fe-K band around 6 keV. The properties that make the SXS a powerful x-ray spectrometer also make it sensitive to the entire electromagnetic band. If characterized as a bolometer, it would have a noise equivalent power (NEP) of < 4x10(exp -18) W/(Hz)0.5. Thus it was imperative to shield the detector from thermal radiation from the instrument and optical and UV photons from the sky. Additionally, it was necessary to shield the coldest stages of the instrument from the thermal radiation emanating from the warmer stages. These needs are addressed by a series of five thin-film radiation blocking filters that block long-wavelength radiation while minimizing x-ray attenuation. The SXS aperture assembly is a system of barriers, baffles, filter carriers, and filter mounts that supports the filters and inhibits their potential contamination. The three warmer filters also were equipped with thermometers and heaters for decontamination.

  14. Design of Substrate Integrated Waveguide Pass Filter at [33-75] GHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rhbanou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presented the design of two filters SIW (Substrate Integrated Waveguide in two different bands. Their conceptions were made by two different topologies. The first SIW filter with circular inductive post in the band [33-50] GHz on an RT / Duroid 5880 substrate permittivity 2.2, the simulated results of this filter have shown that the insertion loss lower than -0.4 dB within 3.5% bandwidth around 41.7 GHz and the return loss is better than -15 dB between 41.1 GHz and 42.4 GHz. The second SIW filter with iris in the band [50-75] GHz on an NY9217 (IM substrate permittivity 2.17, the simulated results of this filter have shown that the insertion loss lower than -0.35 dB within 19% bandwidth around 62 GHz and the return loss is better than -15 dB between 60 GHz and 66.3 GHz. The compatibility with planar circuits is provided via a specific microstrip transition (microstrip tapered transitions.

  15. Elaborate analysis and design of filter-bank-based sensing for wideband cognitive radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliatsos, Konstantinos; Adamis, Athanasios; Kanatas, Athanasios G.

    2014-12-01

    The successful operation of a cognitive radio system strongly depends on its ability to sense the radio environment. With the use of spectrum sensing algorithms, the cognitive radio is required to detect co-existing licensed primary transmissions and to protect them from interference. This paper focuses on filter-bank-based sensing and provides a solid theoretical background for the design of these detectors. Optimum detectors based on the Neyman-Pearson theorem are developed for uniform discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and modified DFT filter banks with root-Nyquist filters. The proposed sensing framework does not require frequency alignment between the filter bank of the sensor and the primary signal. Each wideband primary channel is spanned and monitored by several sensor subchannels that analyse it in narrowband signals. Filter-bank-based sensing is proved to be robust and efficient under coloured noise. Moreover, the performance of the weighted energy detector as a sensing technique is evaluated. Finally, based on the Locally Most Powerful and the Generalized Likelihood Ratio test, real-world sensing algorithms that do not require a priori knowledge are proposed and tested.

  16. Design of LCL Filters With LCL Resonance Frequencies Beyond the Nyquist Frequency for Grid-Connected Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Yao, Wenli; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel LCL filter design method and its current control for grid-connected converters. With the proposed design method, it is possible to set the resonance frequency of the LCL filter to be higher than the Nyquist frequency, i.e., half of the system sampling frequency...

  17. A controller design method for 3 phase 4 wire grid connected VSI with LCL filter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anirban Ghoshal; Vinod John

    2015-08-01

    Closed loop control of a grid connected VSI requires line current control and dc bus voltage control. The closed loop system comprising PR current controller and grid connected VSI with LCL filter is a higher order system. Closed loop control gain expressions are therefore difficult to obtain directly for such systems. In this work a simplified approach has been adopted to find current and voltage controller gain expressions for a 3 phase 4 wire grid connected VSI with LCL filter. The closed loop system considered here utilises PR current controller in natural reference frame and PI controller for dc bus voltage control. Asymptotic frequency response plot and gain bandwidth requirements of the system have been used for current control and voltage controller design. A simplified lower order model, derived for closed loop current control, is used for the dc bus voltage controller design. The adopted design method has been verified through experiments by comparison of the time domain response.

  18. LCL-Filter Design for Robust Active Damping in Grid-Connected Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Alzola, Rafael; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2014-01-01

    Grid-connected converters employ LCL-filters, instead of simple inductors, because they allow lower inductances while reducing cost and size. Active damping, without dissipative elements, is preferred to passive damping for solving the associated stability problems. However, large variations...... in the grid inductance may compromise system stability, and this problem is more severe for parallel converters. This situation, typical of rural areas with solar and wind resources, calls for robust LCL-filter design. This paper proposes a design procedure with remarkable results under severe grid inductance...... variation. The procedure considers active damping using lead-lag network and capacitor current feedback. Passive damping is also discussed. The design flow, with little iteration and no complex algorithms, selects the proper ratios between the switching and resonance frequency, the grid and converter...

  19. Application of Implicit Space Mapping in the Design of Hammerhead Filter in Millimeter-Wave Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqun Zhong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present advances in microwave and millimeter-wave device modeling exploiting the Space Mapping (SM technology. New SM-based modeling techniques are used that are easy to implement entirely in the Agilent ADS framework. The implicit space mapping algorithm is applied to the design of hammerhead filter in millimeter-wave band. The validity of this method is confirmed by comparison with fullwave EM simulation result and measured data. Based on the proposed method, a filter was designed and fabricated on a substrate with thickness of 0.254 mm and dielectric constant of 2.2. The experimental results show good agreement with simulated results. It is proved that the accuracy can be achieved using the implicit space mapping algorithm, and the design efficiency can be greatly improved.

  20. Novel Approach of Designing Multiplier-less Finite Impulse Response Filter using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Chandra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of computational complexity of digital hardware has drawn the special attention of researchers in recent past. Proper emphasis is needed in this regard towards the settlement of computationally efficient as well as functionally competent design of digital systems. In this communication, we have made one novel attempt for designing multiplier-free Finite duration Impulse Response (FIR digital filter using one robust evolutionary optimization technique, called Differential Evolution (DE. The search has been directed through two sequentially opposite paths which include quantization and optimization as fundamental operations. Besides performing a detailed comparative analysis between these two proposed approaches; the performance evaluation of the designed filter with other existing discrete coefficient FIR models has also been carried out. Finally, the optimum search method for realizing the required set of specifications has been suggested.

  1. Design Optimization of Vena Cava Filters: An application to dual filtration devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M A; Wang, S L; Diachin, D P

    2009-12-03

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a significant medical problem that results in over 300,000 fatalities per year. A common preventative treatment for PE is the insertion of a metallic filter into the inferior vena cava that traps thrombi before they reach the lungs. The goal of this work is to use methods of mathematical modeling and design optimization to determine the configuration of trapped thrombi that minimizes the hemodynamic disruption. The resulting configuration has implications for constructing an optimally designed vena cava filter. Computational fluid dynamics is coupled with a nonlinear optimization algorithm to determine the optimal configuration of trapped model thrombus in the inferior vena cava. The location and shape of the thrombus are parameterized, and an objective function, based on wall shear stresses, determines the worthiness of a given configuration. The methods are fully automated and demonstrate the capabilities of a design optimization framework that is broadly applicable. Changes to thrombus location and shape alter the velocity contours and wall shear stress profiles significantly. For vena cava filters that trap two thrombi simultaneously, the undesirable flow dynamics past one thrombus can be mitigated by leveraging the flow past the other thrombus. Streamlining the shape of thrombus trapped along the cava wall reduces the disruption to the flow, but increases the area exposed to abnormal wall shear stress. Computer-based design optimization is a useful tool for developing vena cava filters. Characterizing and parameterizing the design requirements and constraints is essential for constructing devices that address clinical complications. In addition, formulating a well-defined objective function that quantifies clinical risks and benefits is needed for designing devices that are clinically viable.

  2. Behavioral study and design of a digital interpolator filter for wireless reconfigurable transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragina, V.; Frassone, A.; Ghittori, N.; Malcovati, P.; Vigna, A.

    2005-06-01

    The behavioral analysis and the design in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology of a digital interpolator filter for wireless applications are presented. The proposed block is designed to be embedded in the baseband part of a reconfigurable transmitter (WLAN 802.11a, UMTS) to operate as a sampling frequency boost between the digital signal processor (DSP) and the digital-to-analog converter (DAC). In recent trends the DAC of such transmitters usually operates at high conversion frequencies (to allow a relaxed implementation of the following analog reconstruction filter), while the DSP output flows at low frequencies (typically Nyquist rate). Thus a block able to increase the digital data rate, like the one proposed, is needed before the DAC. For example, in the WLAN case, an interpolation factor of 4 has been used, allowing the digital data frequency to raise from 20 MHz to 80 MHz. Using a time-domain model of the TX chain, a behavioral analysis has been performed to determine the impact of the filter performance on the quality of the signal at the antenna. This study has led to the evaluation of the z-domain filter transfer function, together with the specifications concerning a finite precision implementation. A VHDL description has allowed an automatic synthesis of the circuit in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology (with a supply voltage of 1.2 V). Post-synthesis simulations have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed study.

  3. Photonic-Crystal Band-pass Resonant Filters Design Using the Two-dimensional FDTD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjira Badaoui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, band-pass photonic crystal filters have attracted great attention due to their important applications in the fields of optical interconnection network and ultrahigh speed information processing. In this paper we propose the design of a new type of photonic crystal band-pass resonant filters realized in one-missing-row waveguide by decreasing proper defects along the waveguide with broadband acceptable bandwidth. Two types of photonic crystal band-pass filters are utilized and optimized using the Two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD technique. The first one is based on the Fabry-Perot cavities and in the second one a cavity is introduced in the middle by omitting two neighboring air holes in waveguide. Numerical results show that a band [1.47 and#956;m-1.57 and#956;m] around 1.55um is transmitted with a maximum transmission of about 68% and as a result wide band-pass filters are designed.

  4. Second Order Low-Pass and High-Pass Filter Designs Using Method of Synthetic Immitance Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Brandstetter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly describes the basics of frequency filter design method using synthetic immittance elements with current conveyors. An introduction of the paper explains the advantages and also disadvantages of using this method. Other chapters briefly introduce a design process of simple second order low-pass and high-pass filter. A theory of current conveyors is discussed too, because they are the basic building blocs of proposed synthetic element and also active frequency filters. Finally, the particular solutions of low-pass and high-pass filters are given and verified by OrCAD PSpice simulations.

  5. Embedded FIR filter design for real-time refocusing using a standard plenoptic video camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar

    2014-03-01

    A novel and low-cost embedded hardware architecture for real-time refocusing based on a standard plenoptic camera is presented in this study. The proposed layout design synthesizes refocusing slices directly from micro images by omitting the process for the commonly used sub-aperture extraction. Therefore, intellectual property cores, containing switch controlled Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters, are developed and applied to the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) XC6SLX45 from Xilinx. Enabling the hardware design to work economically, the FIR filters are composed of stored product as well as upsampling and interpolation techniques in order to achieve an ideal relation between image resolution, delay time, power consumption and the demand of logic gates. The video output is transmitted via High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) with a resolution of 720p at a frame rate of 60 fps conforming to the HD ready standard. Examples of the synthesized refocusing slices are presented.

  6. Design of Pass Band Filter in Hybrid Architecture Planar/Non-Radiative Dielectric Waveguide Integration Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harizi Hanen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The expansion of RF, microwave and millimeter devices has revolutionized today’s ommunication and sensor systems. Low-cost, high-performance and mass producible millimeter wave technologies are vital for commercial broadband systems. Challenging issues are commonly faced in the design of low-loss integrated circuits for example high-Q band pass filter, which the planar technique is fundamentally limited in performance. Approach: In this study, we present a design of a nonradiative dielectric waveguide band pass filter based on hybrid architecture of micro strip line and non-radiative dielectric waveguide. Results: The simulation with High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS three dimensional analyses is presented. Conclusion: The non radiative dielectric resolves most of the drawbacks of dielectric waveguide in connection with the radiation loss."

  7. LCL filter design for three-phase two-level power factor correction using line impedance stabilization network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    with unknown grid impedance at high frequency, simplify the model of the filter, and provide repetitive measurements. In this paper, all the filter parameters are derived with analyzing the behavior of the converter at high frequency with presence of LISN impedance. The minimum required filter capacitor......This paper presents LCL filter design method for three-phase two-level power factor correction (PFC) using line impedance stabilization network (LISN). A straightforward LCL filter design along with variation in grid impedance is not simply achievable and inevitably lead to an iterative solution...... for filter. By introducing of fast power switches for PFC applications such as silicon-carbide, major current harmonics around the switching frequency drops in the region that LISN can actively provide well-defined impedance for measuring the harmonics (i.e. 9 kHz- 30MHz). Therefore, LISN can be replaced...

  8. Design and fabrication of microlens and spatial filter array by self-alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ren; Chan, Kin Foong; Feng, Zhiqiang; Mei, Wenhui

    2003-01-01

    For typically small volume production of MEMS, MOEMS, fine feature PCB, high density chip packaging and display panels, especially for lab tests, low cost and the capability to change the original design easily and quickly are very important for customers and researchers. BALL Semiconductor Inc.'s Maskless Lithography Systems (MLS) feature the Digital Mirror Device (DMD) as the pattern generator to replace photo-masks. This can remove masks from UV lithography, and dramatically reduce the running cost and save time for lab tests and small volume production. At Ball Semiconductor Inc, 1.5μm line/space, 10μm line/space, and 20μm line/space Maskless Lithography Systems were developed. In our MLS, an 848×600 microlens and spatial filter array (MLSFA) was used to focus the light and to filter the noise. In order to produce smaller line-space than 16μm the MLSFA was used to get smaller UV light pad (compared with the SVGA DMD"s micro-mirror: 17μm×17μm) and to filter the noise produced from the DMD, optical lens system, and micro lens array. This MLSFA is one of the key devices for our Maskless Lithography System, and determines the resolution and quality of maskless lithography. A novel design and fabrication process of a single-package MLSFA for our Maskless Lithography System will be introduced. To avoid problems produced by misalignment between a two-piece spatial filter and microlens array, MEMS processing is used to integrate the microlens array with the spatial filter array. In this paper, the self-alignment method used to fabricate exactly matched MLSFA will be presented.

  9. The design of a 4’th order Bandpass Butterworth filter with one operational amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    2008-01-01

    band pass filter with Butterworth poles applying just one operational amplifier coupled as a unity gain amplifier. The unity gain amplifiers have the advantage of providing low power consumption, yielding a large dynamic range, sometimes simplifying the amplifier design and being usable over a larger...... frequency range than conventional constant gain amplifiers. The Schoeffler sensitivity index is used as a basis for a practical realization of the circuit....

  10. A LTE UPCUL architecture design combining Multi-Blackboards and Pipes & Filters architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Axelsson, Bohui

    2015-01-01

    Context. The single blackboard architecture is widely used in the LTE application area. Despite its several benefits, this architecture limits synchronization possibilities of the developed systems and increases the signal operational latency. As a result the DSP (Digital Signal Processing) utilization is suboptimal. Objectives. In this thesis, we design a new architecture, which combines concepts of Multi-Blackboards and Pipes & Filters architectures, as a replacement for the current si...

  11. An Observer-Based Adaptive Iterative Learning Control Using Filtered-FNN Design for Robotic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Chung Wang; Chiang-Ju Chien

    2014-01-01

    An observer-based adaptive iterative learning control using a filtered fuzzy neural network is proposed for repetitive tracking control of robotic systems. A state tracking error observer is introduced to design the iterative learning controller using only the measurement of joint position. We first derive an observation error model based on the state tracking error observer. Then, by introducing some auxiliary signals, the iterative learning controller is proposed based on the use of an aver...

  12. FIR Filter Design Using An Adjustable Novel Window and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hrishi Rakshit; Muhammad Ahsan Ullah

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new class of adjustable window function, based on combination of tangent hyperbolic function and a weighted cosine series, is proposed to design an FIR filter. The proposed window is adjustable since the spectral characteristics of the window vary with the change of a simple window’s controlling parameter. The spectral characteristic of the proposed window is studied and its performance is compared with Hamming and Kaiser windows. Simulation results show that the proposed ...

  13. Slow-sand water filter: Design, implementation, accessibility and sustainability in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Peter A.; Pinedo, Catalina Arango; Fadus, Matthew; Capuzzi, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Summary The need for clean water has risen exponentially over the globe. Millions of people are affected daily by a lack of clean water, especially women and children, as much of their day is dedicated to collecting water. The global water crisis not only has severe medical implications, but social, political, and economic consequences as well. The Institute of Catholic Bioethics at Saint Joseph’s University has recognized this, and has designed a slow-sand water filter that is accessible, co...

  14. Selected solutions and design features from the design of remotely handled filters and the technology of remote filter handling. Previous operating experience with these components in the PASSAT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prototype filter offgas cleaning system for reprocessing plants (PASSAT) built at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center a fullscale filter cell with remotely handled filters for aerosol and iodine removal and the corresponding remote handling systems for exchange, bagging out, packaging and disposal of spent filter elements has been installed and run in trial operation since July 1978. The filters and the replacement techniques have been tested for the past two years or so and so far have always worked satisfactory over the test period involving some 150 replacement events. Neither wear nor corrosion phenomena were found in the filter housings and the replacement systems. The seals and clamping devices were selected so that during operation the prescribed leak rates of -3 Torr l/s were always maintained on the filter lid, the seat of the filter element and the cell lock. The total clamping loads for the filter element and the filter lid amount to approx. 20 kN. The force necessary to separate the filter element from the filter housing is approx. 3.5 kN. No ruptures of seals or gaskets were to be detected. The design of the filters and of the handling systems has been found satisfactorily in the cold test operation so far and can be recommended for use in nuclear facilities. In all experiments conducted until now PASSAT has worked without any failure. All operating data required in the specifications were met in the test period. The maximum pressure loss in the system with loaded filter elements amounts to some 3000 mm of water. After operation with iodine and NO/sub x/, plant components exposed to 100% relative humidity and condensate showed corrosion

  15. Criteria for calculating the efficiency of deep-pleated HEPA filters with aluminum separators during and after design basis accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have reviewed the literature on the performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). This study is only applicable to the standard deep-pleated HEPA filter with aluminum separators as specified in ASME N509. The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be structurally damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. Despite the many studies on HEPA filter performance under adverse conditions, there are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen when there was insufficient data

  16. Positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]BPA: A perspective application to assess tumour extraction of boron in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichetti, L. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: luca.menichetti@ifc.cnr.it; Cionini, L. [Unit of Radiotherapy, AOUP-University Hospital, Pisa (Italy); Sauerwein, W.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Duisburg-Essen, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Altieri, S. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear Physics, Pavia (Italy); Solin, O.; Minn, H. [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku (Finland); Salvadori, P.A. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a key imaging tool in clinical practice and biomedical research to quantify and study biochemical processes in vivo. Physiologically active compounds are tagged with positron emitters (e.g. {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 124}I) while maintaining their biological properties, and are administered intravenously in tracer amounts (10{sup -9}-10{sup -12} M quantities). The recent physical integration of PET and computed tomography (CT) in hybrid PET/CT scanners allows a combined anatomical and functional imaging: nowadays PET molecular imaging is emerging as powerful pharmacological tool in oncology, neurology and for treatment planning as guidance for radiation therapy. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of boron carrier for BNCT and the quantification of {sup 10}B in living tissue were performed by PET in the late nineties using compartmental models based on PET data. Nowadays PET and PET/CT have been used to address the issue of pharmacokinetic, metabolism and accumulation of BPA in target tissue. The added value of the use of L-[{sup 18}F]FBPA and PET/CT in BNCT is to provide key data on the tumour extraction of {sup 10}B-BPA versus normal tissue and to predict the efficacy of the treatment based on a single-study patient analysis. Due to the complexity of a binary treatment like BNCT, the role of PET/CT is currently to design new criteria for patient enrolment in treatment protocols: the L-[{sup 18}F]BPA/PET methodology could be considered as an important tool in newly designed clinical trials to better estimate the concentration ratio of BPA in the tumour as compared to neighbouring normal tissues. Based on these values for individual patients the decision could be made whether BNCT treatment could be advantageous due to a selective accumulation of BPA in an individual tumour. This approach, applicable in different tumour entities like melanoma, glioblastoma and head and neck malignancies, make this methodology as reliable

  17. Granular-bed Filtration Assisted by Filter Cake Formation: Advanced Design and Experimental Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaarder, Kavitha Pathmanathan

    2011-07-01

    Particulate matter removal at high temperatures has gained a great attention in the last years due to the vast growing of power production plants around the world. A reliable and robust gas cleaning method is inherently necessary to facilitate efficient fuel to energy conversion while protecting all the downstream equipment s in a plant. In accordance with the current demand, a detail study has been conducted on panel bed filter which exhibits the suitable characteristic for high temperature applications.The thesis focuses on four main parts related to the design evaluation, experimental verification and development of new apparatus and method for regeneration in a panel bed filter. The four main parts are as following;1. Testing of an advanced new louver design, filter tray, at room and elevated temperature 2. Development of a new apparatus and method for puff-back cleaning 3. Testing of filter tray with the new puff-back apparatus and 4. Industrial scale panel bed filter testing in a commercial combustion plant. A very first laboratory scale panel bed filter with filter tray louvers was built and tested at room temperature. Tests were performed mainly at higher filtration velocities (7 - 31cm/s) with sintered bauxite spherical particles (mean diameter of 710 m) as filtration medium with standardized test dust (mean diameter of 9 m). The filter demonstrated excellent results at filtration velocity of 30 cm/s however unstable residual pressure drop profile and high dust penetration were recorded, suggesting the depth of the granular beds are too shallow. A second laboratory scale panel-bed filter with filter tray louvers with deeper granular beds, i.e. 40 mm was built. The gas-entry surfaces are much larger than the first test rig. Tests were performed from low to high filtration velocities with sintered bauxite spherical particles (mean diameter of 470 and 710 m) and olivine sand particles (mean diameter of 545 m) as filtration medium and standardized test dust

  18. Challenges to the design of containment filtered venting systems at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accidents (SA) may result in pressure and temperature increase leading to containment failure and uncontrolled release of radioactive products to the environment. Containment over-pressurization can be prevented by the operation of a Containment Filter Venting System (CFVS) intended to actuate within the specific SA conditions. However, the particular design solution and especially the sizing of appropriate Containment Filter Venting System require precise information regarding the accident progression and parameters. Such information may be obtained only by detailed assessment of each phase of the severe accident considering the specific reactor technology. Therefore, a study was performed in order to evaluate the most challenging conditions and the most suitable solution for implementation of a system for filtered venting of the containment taking into account the uncertain nature of the accidents and the limitations of the mathematical simulations. The current paper presents the main results from the above mentioned study on the influence of the severe accident conditions, including the specific containment environment effects, to the design and sizing of Containment Filter Venting System. The study includes the selection of a bounding case and the initial conditions for simulation of a severe accident scenario which is expected to pose the most stringent requirements to the CFVS. Evaluation of the Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) parameters and analysis of system performance during the severe accident progression is furthermore performed. The main parameters of the accident scenario under evaluation are the timing of the vessel failure and the containment design limit pressure achievement, hydrogen production during the accident and its influence on the system operation. The accuracy of predictions of the severe accident parameters (containment pressure and temperature, fission product mass concentration at different stages of accident, modelling

  19. Optimal design of FIR high pass filter based on L1 error approximation using real coded genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Aggarwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal design of linear phase digital finite impulse response (FIR highpass (HP filter using the L1-norm based real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA is investigated. A novel fitness function based on L1 norm is adopted to enhance the design accuracy. Optimized filter coefficients are obtained by defining the filter objective function in L1 sense using RCGA. Simulation analysis unveils that the performance of the RCGA adopting this fitness function is better in terms of signal attenuation ability of the filter, flatter passband and the convergence rate. Observations are made on the percentage improvement of this algorithm over the gradient-based L1 optimization approach on various factors by a large amount. It is concluded that RCGA leads to the best solution under specified parameters for the FIR filter design on account of slight unnoticeable higher transition width.

  20. A NEW DESIGN METHOD OF CDMA SPREADING CODES BASED ON MULTI-RATE UNITARY FILTER BANK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Jianxin; Wang Yingmin; Yi Kechu

    2001-01-01

    It is well-known that the multi-valued CDMA spreading codes can be designed by means of a pair of mirror multi-rate filter banks based on some optimizing criterion. This paper indicates that there exists a theoretical bound in the performance of its circulating correlation property, which is given by an explicit expression. Based on this analysis, a criterion of maximizing entropy is proposed to design such codes. Computer simulation result suggests that the resulted codes outperform the conventional binary balanced Gold codes for an asynchronous CDMA system.

  1. Two-Port Transmission Line Parameters Approach Modeling and Design Centering of Integrated Continuous-Time Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasantha M.H. 1 , Tonse Laxminidhi 2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Design centering is one of the important process followed for the accurate design of integratedcontinuous time filters where the filter frequency response is tuned to match the ideal in presence of non-idealities such as finite gain of the OTAs/Opamps and parasitics. One of the efficient method adopted is the space-mapping where the filter response is tuned in the ‘model space’ and the results are interpreted in the actual ‘filter space’ resulting in a time efficient process. This method demands the filter to be modeled and state-space approach has been the choice for modeling. This paper proposes a two- port transmission-line parameter based approach for modeling a class of filters. The paper compares the proposed process with that of the conventional state-space method. The demonstration is carried out on a 2ndorder Butterworth low pass Gm-C filter having Cochlea architecture. The filter is designed to operate on a0.5 V supply in 0.18 µm standard CMOS process. The paper brings out the limitations of state-space based approach for accurate modeling in the regime of low voltage design and demonstrates how the proposed two-port parameter based approach can be used for better accuracy

  2. Preliminary design of an advanced programmable digital filter network for large passive acoustic ASW systems. [Parallel processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, T.; Widdoes, Jr., L. C.; Wood, L.

    1976-09-30

    The design of an extremely high performance programmable digital filter of novel architecture, the LLL Programmable Digital Filter, is described. The digital filter is a high-performance multiprocessor having general purpose applicability and high programmability; it is extremely cost effective either in a uniprocessor or a multiprocessor configuration. The architecture and instruction set of the individual processor was optimized with regard to the multiple processor configuration. The optimal structure of a parallel processing system was determined for addressing the specific Navy application centering on the advanced digital filtering of passive acoustic ASW data of the type obtained from the SOSUS net. 148 figures. (RWR)

  3. Design and Realization of Software for Guard Against DDoS Based on Self-Similar and Optimization Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed denial-of-service attack detection method based on self similar and wavelet analysis. This method adopts an optimized transmission control protocol cookie technology for filter optimization in order to accurately detect and efficiently filter the traffic of distributed denial-of-service attack. This paper presents the design of our software, and describes all important algorithms of detection and filtering. Experimental results showed that our method has only a low delay to detect abnormal traffic of distributed denial-of-service attacks, and with a high percentage of filtering.

  4. Experimental data required for the design and analysis of emergency filtered air discharge sytems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological consequences of an accident in a CANDU nuclear generating station are mitigated by special safety systems which include an Emergency Filtered Air Discharge (EFAD) system. EFAD systems are designed to provide a controlled leakage path following an accident. They remove radioiodine and particulates from the air discharge required, to inhibit uncontrolled emissions by maintaining containment sub-atmospheric in the long term. The design and analysis of an EFAD system requires an accurate data base comprised of the numerous parameters involved in the simulation of fission product behaviour within containment. This paper emphasizes the data requirements of EFAD system design with regard to those parameters which preliminary sensitivity analyses have shown to most effect environmental releases. These include the source term radioisotopes; their chemical behaviour and distribution within containment; the repressurization time during the vacuum hold-up period; and parameters effecting the long term releases through the EFAD system. The net radioiodine trapping efficiency of charcoal filters in the long term is dependent on the adsorption efficiency and desorption of the deep charcoal bed. These are a function of many parameters such as impregnate, aging, humidity, temperature, radiation, recirculation, etc. Although the effect of these parameters on charcoal filters has been individually investigated, generally at ideal or extreme values, there is little applicable data to determine their combined effect under expected post accident operating conditions. As a consequence, designers tend to overdesign by using unduly conservative parameters. A summary comparison is presented to illustrate the information gap between the experimental data from the literature and the data required for optimal design and analysis of the EFAD systems

  5. An Efficient Micro Control Unit with a Reconfigurable Filter Design for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-An Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low-cost, low-power and high performance micro control unit (MCU core is proposed for wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs. It consists of an asynchronous interface, a register bank, a reconfigurable filter, a slop-feature forecast, a lossless data encoder, an error correct coding (ECC encoder, a UART interface, a power management (PWM, and a multi-sensor controller. To improve the system performance and expansion abilities, the asynchronous interface is added for handling signal exchanges between different clock domains. To eliminate the noise of various bio-signals, the reconfigurable filter is created to provide the functions of average, binomial and sharpen filters. The slop-feature forecast and the lossless data encoder is proposed to reduce the data of various biomedical signals for transmission. Furthermore, the ECC encoder is added to improve the reliability for the wireless transmission and the UART interface is employed the proposed design to be compatible with wireless devices. For long-term healthcare monitoring application, a power management technique is developed for reducing the power consumption of the WBSN system. In addition, the proposed design can be operated with four different bio-sensors simultaneously. The proposed design was successfully tested with a FPGA verification board. The VLSI architecture of this work contains 7.67-K gate counts and consumes the power of 5.8 mW or 1.9 mW at 100 MHz or 133 MHz processing rate using a TSMC 0.18 μm or 0.13 μm CMOS process. Compared with previous techniques, this design achieves higher performance, more functions, more flexibility and higher compatibility than other micro controller designs.

  6. Design and FPGA Implementation of Variable Cutoff Frequency Filter based on Continuously Variable Fractional Delay Structure and Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedh Dhabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and FPGA implementation of interpolated continuously variable fractional delay structure based filter (ICVFD filter with fine control over the cutoff frequency. In the ICVFD filter, each unit delay of the prototype lowpass filter is replaced by a continuously variable fractional delay (CVFD element proposed in this paper. The CVFD element requires the same number of multiplications as that of the second-order fractional delay structure used in the existing fractional delay structure based variable filter (FDS based filter, however it provides fractional delays corresponding to the higher-order fractional delay structures. Hence, the proposed ICVFD filter provides wider cutoff frequency range compared to the FDS based filter. The ICVFD filter is also capable of providing variable bandpass and highpass responses. We use two-stage approach for the FPGA implementation of the ICVFD filter. First, we use pipelining stages to shorten the critical path and improve the operating frequency. Then, we make use of specific hardware resource, i.e. RAM-based Shift Register (SRL to further improve the operating frequency and resource usage.

  7. A Modified Integer Coded Genetic Algorithm Design of Time-Variant Staggered Sampling MTI Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOHaihong; LIAOGuisheng; WANGLing

    2005-01-01

    The stagger time-variant sampling MTI filter design is an effective method to reject clutter and alleviate the blind speed problem. Selecting the suitable stagger-code to make the nadir shallow can avoid the loss of weak target in it. Also multi-model clutters can be suppressed by MTI filter, and blind-velocity can appear out of three times velocity of sound. So the low speed weak target can be detected out of strong multl-model clutters. The paper presents a modified Integer coded genetic algorithm (ICGA) including some strategies to select the optimal stagger-code. By comparing with other traditional algorithm, GA is a global stochastic searching method and can converge quickly. The simulation and performance analysis demonstrate the feasibility and validity of this algorithm.

  8. HEPA Filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System Functional Requirements and Technical Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double-shell tanks (DSTs) and Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs) are actively ventilated, along with certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other RPP facilities. The exhaust air stream on a typical primary ventilation system is drawn through two stages of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration to ensure confinement of airborne radioactive materials. Active ventilation exhaust stacks require a stack CAM interlock to detect releases from postulated accidents, and to shut down the exhaust fan when high radiation levels are detected in the stack airstream. The stack CAM interlock is credited as a mitigating control to stop continued unfiltered radiological and toxicological discharges from the stack, which may result from an accident involving failure of a HEPA filter. This document defines the initial technical design baseline for a HEPA filter AP fan interlock system

  9. Slow-sand water filter: design, implementation, accessibility and sustainability in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter A; Pinedo, Catalina Arango; Fadus, Matthew; Capuzzi, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    The need for clean water has risen exponentially over the globe. Millions of people are affected daily by a lack of clean water, especially women and children, as much of their day is dedicated to collecting water. The global water crisis not only has severe medical implications, but social, political, and economic consequences as well. The Institute of Catholic Bioethics at Saint Joseph's University has recognized this, and has designed a slow-sand water filter that is accessible, cost-effective, and sustainable. Through the implementation of the Institute's slow-sand water filter and the utilization of microfinancing services, developing countries will not only have access to clean, drinkable water, but will also have the opportunity to break out of a devastating cycle of poverty.

  10. Design of metallic nanoparticles gratings for filtering properties in the visible spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Brûlé, Y; Fehrembach, A -L; Gralak, B; Popov, E; Tayeb, G; Grangier, M; Barat, D; Bertin, H; Gogol, P; Dagens, B

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles are exploited to create efficient optical filtering functions. A Finite Element Method is used to model metallic nanoparticles gratings. The accuracy of this method is shown by comparing numerical results with measurements on a two-dimensional grating of gold nanocylinders with elliptic cross section. Then a parametric analysis is performed in order to design efficient filters with polarization dependent properties together with high transparency over the visible range. The behavior of nanoparticle gratings is also modelled using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory and analyzed by comparison with the diffraction by a single nanoparticle. The proposed structures are intended to be included in optical systems which could find innovative applications.

  11. Design and manufacture of a bandpass filter with high transmittance and steep edge on both sides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruisheng; Lü, Shaobo; Yin, Xiaojun; Zhao, Shuaifeng; Sun, Yan

    2016-01-01

    By using Nb2O5 and SiO2 as the coating material, a 152 layers (12 cavities) bandpass film stack with steep edge on both sides was designed. Multiple thickness control methods, including direct optical monitoring control and time control were used in coating strategy. To confirm the feasibility of this coating strategy, a process simulation was performed using Simulator software, and the simulation result indicated that relative thickness errors for all layers were less than ±0.1%. A bandpass filter with this film stack on one side was manufactured by using a plasma assisted reactive magnetic sputtering coating machine. The measuring result shows that the peak transmittance of the filter (without AR on backside) is up to 95.4%, and the steepness of both blocking slope are less than λ/100.

  12. Efficient Architecture and Implementation of Vector Median Filter in Co-Design Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Masmoudi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an efficient fast parallel architecture of the Vector Median Filter (VMF using combined hardware/software (HW/SW implementation. The hardware part of the system is implemented using VHDL language, whereas the software part is developed using C/C++ language. The software part of the embedded system uses the NIOS-II softcore processor and the operating system used is μClinux. The comparison between the software and HW/SW solutions shows that adding a hardware part in the design attempts to speed up the filtering process compared to the software solution. This efficient embedded system implementation can perform well in several image processing applications.

  13. Sensor Fault Estimation Filter Design for Discrete-time Linear Time-varying Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen-Hua; RODRIGUES Mickael; THEILLIOL Didier; SHEN Yi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a sensor fault diagnosis method for a class of discrete-time linear time-varying (LTV) systems. In this paper, the considered system is firstly formulated as a de-scriptor system representation by considering the sensor faults as auxiliary state variables. Based on the descriptor system model, a fault estimation filter which can simultaneously estimate the state and the sensor fault magnitudes is designed via a minimum-variance principle. Then, a fault diagnosis scheme is presented by using a bank of the proposed fault estimation filters. The novelty of this paper lies in developing a sensor fault diagnosis method for discrete LTV systems without any assumption on the dynamic of fault. Another advantage of the proposed method is its ability to detect, isolate and estimate sensor faults in the presence of process noise and measurement noise. Simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. On co-design of filter and fault estimator against randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring deception attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Liu, Steven; Ji, Donghai; Li, Shanqiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the co-design problem of filter and fault estimator is studied for a class of time-varying non-linear stochastic systems subject to randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring deception attacks. Two mutually independent random variables obeying the Bernoulli distribution are employed to characterize the phenomena of the randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring deception attacks, respectively. By using the augmentation approach, the co-design problem of the robust filter and fault estimator is converted into the recursive filter design problem. A new compensation scheme is proposed such that, for both randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring deception attacks, an upper bound of the filtering error covariance is obtained and such an upper bound is minimized by properly designing the filter gain at each sampling instant. Moreover, the explicit form of the filter gain is given based on the solution to two Riccati-like difference equations. It is shown that the proposed co-design algorithm is of a recursive form that is suitable for online computation. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the usefulness of the developed filtering approach.

  15. Design of robust fault detection filter for nonlinear time-delay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Lei-shi; HE Li-ming; TIAN Zuo-hua; SHI Song-jiao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the robust fault detection filter (RFDF) design problems are studied for nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown inputs. First, a reference residual model is introduced to formulate the RFDF design problem as an H∞model-matching problem. Then appropriate input/output selection matrices are introduced to extend a performance index to the time-delay systems in time domain. The reference residual model designed according to the performance index is an optimal residual generator, which takes into account the robustness against disturbances and sensitivity to faults simultaneously. Applying robust H∞ optimization control technique, the existence conditions of the RFDF for nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown inputs are presented in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) formulation, independently of time delay. An illustrative design example is used to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed approach.

  16. Optimization of the application of BNCT to undifferentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible increase in BNCT efficacy for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) using BPA plus BOPP and nicotinamide (NA) as a radiosensitizer on the BNCT reaction was analyzed. In these studies nude mice were transplanted with the ARO cells and after 14 days they were treated as follows: 1) Control; 2) NCT (neutrons alone); 3) NCT plus NA (100 mg/kg bw/day for 3 days); 4) BPA (350 mg/kg bw) + neutrons; 5) BPA+ NA+ neutrons; 6) BPA+BOPP (60 mg/kg bw) + neutrons. The flux of hyperthermal neutrons was 2.8 108 during 85 min. Neutrons alone or with NA caused some tumor growth delay, while in the BPA, BPA+NA and BPA+BOPP groups a 100% halt of tumor growth was observed. When the initial tumor volume was 50 mm3 or less a complete cure was found in BPA+NA (2/2); BPA (1/4); BPA+BOPP (7/7). After 90 days of complete regression, recurrence of tumor was observed in 2/2 BPA/NA (2/2) and BPA+BOPP (1/7). Caspase 3 activity was increased in BPA+NA (p<0.05 vs controls). BPA plus NA increased tumor apoptosis but only the combination of BPA+BOPP increased significantly BNCT efficiency. (author)

  17. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [Department of Neurosurgery, Kagawa National Children' s Hospital, Kagawa 765-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: ynakagawa0517@yahoo.co.jp; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Department of Research Reactor, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaragi 319-1195 (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshiaki [Department of Medical Informatics, Post Graduated School, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue. However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells. We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years. Among 183 patients with brain tumors treated by our group using BSH-based intra-operative BNCT, 23 patients were under 15 years. They included 4 patients under 3 years. There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma. All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth. All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor. Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence. BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation. Although it can achieve the local control in the primary site, it cannot prevent CSF dissemination in patients with glioblastoma.

  18. A Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project to develop a Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded Tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT

  19. BNCT and Targeted Radiotherapy (TRT) developments in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of treatment modalities for cancer including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. However, these treatments are not always effective. The search for new and more efficient ways to combat cancer has opened new perspectives. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a new approach in cancer treatment that has been proposed to combat glioblastomas of the brain, neck cancer and malignant melanomas, tumors that are resistant to traditional cancer therapies. BNCT is based on the 10B(n,α)7Li nuclear reaction, which can potentially deliver a very high and fatal radiation dose to cancerous cells by concentrating boron in them. It is a promising, though complicated treatment. This type of therapy offers a number of potentially significant advantages compared to traditional radiation therapy. Treatment is better targeted to cancerous cells so that when a tumour is irradiated with neutrons, the damage to normal tissue is respectively less. It is also less demanding for the patient as treatment is only one to two sessions, compared to conventional radiation therapy where patients can be treated up to 30 times. It provides an excellent example of the importance of innovation in the search for a cure to cancer. The recent developments in BNCT in Romania as well as the major drawbacks will be presented. (authors)

  20. Tandem-ESQ for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ElectroStatic Quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the '7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT. (author)

  1. CANONIC SIGNED DIGIT BASED DESIGN OF MULTIPLIER-LESS FIR FILTER USING SELFORGANIZING RANDOM IMMIGRANTS GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Chandra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Signal processing of present era is becoming more and more complex day by day. To meet the demand of modern signal processing, emphasis has been given to develop systems with minimum hardware. As a matter of fact, reduction in hardware complexity of digital filter has emerged as one of the upcoming research areas in present time. This paper highlights the design of multiplier-less finite impulse response (FIR filter with the aid of an evolutionary optimization technique, namely Self-organizing Random Immigrants Genetic Algorithm (SORIGA. For this purpose, the coefficients of the filter have been encoded by binary and Canonic Signed Digit (CSD number systems and subsequently optimized by means of SORIGA. Performance of the proposed filter has been analyzed in terms of its frequency and impulse response. Subsequently, hardware cost of the designed filter has been measured by means of a number of performance parameters and compared with few s

  2. Fractally Generated Microstrip Bandpass Filter Designs Basedon Dual-Mode Square Ring Resonator for WirelessCommunication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad K. Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel fractal design scheme has been introduced in this paper to generate microstrip bandpass filter designs with miniaturized sizes for wireless applications. The presented fractal scheme is based on Minkowski-like prefractal geometry. The space-filling property and self-similarity of this fractal geometry has found to produce reduced size symmetrical structures corresponding to the successive iteration levels. The resulting filter designs are with sizes suitable for use in modern wireless communication systems. The performance of each of the generated bandpass filter structures up to the 2nd iteration has been analyzed using a method of moments (MoM based software IE3D, which is widely adopted in microwave research and industry. Results show that these filters possess good transmission and return loss characteristics, besides the miniaturized sizes meeting the design specifications of most of wireless communication systems

  3. Fuzzy Filter-Based FDD Design for Non-Gaussian Stochastic Distribution Processes Using T-S Fuzzy Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yi; Yue-Yue Zhao; Song-Yin Cao

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the fuzzy modeling problem and the fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) algorithm for non-Gaussian stochastic distribution systems based on the nonlinear fuzzy filter design. Following spline function approximation for output probability density functions (PDFs), the T-S fuzzy model is built as a nonlinear identifier to describe the dynamic relationship between the control input and the weight vector. By combining the designed filter and the threshold value, the fault in T-S...

  4. A New Mutated Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimizer for Digital IIR Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive infinite impulse response (IIR filters have shown their worth in a wide range of practical applications. Because the error surface of IIR filters is multimodal in most cases, global optimization techniques are required for avoiding local minima. In this paper, we employ a global optimization algorithm, Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO that was proposed by us previously, and its mutated version in the design of digital IIR filter. The mechanism in QPSO is based on the quantum behaviour of particles in a potential well and particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. QPSO is characterized by fast convergence, good search ability, and easy implementation. The mutated QPSO (MuQPSO is proposed in this paper by using a random vector in QPSO to increase the randomness and to enhance the global search ability. Experimental results on three examples show that QPSO and MuQPSO are superior to genetic algorithm (GA, differential evolution (DE algorithm, and PSO algorithm in quality, convergence speed, and robustness.

  5. Pre-processing filter design at transmitters for IBI mitigation in an OFDM system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Wang; Lei Wang

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet the demands for high transmission rates and high service quality in broadband wireless communica-tion systems, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been adopted in some standards. However, the inter-block interference (IBI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI) in an OFDM system affect the performance. To mitigate IBI and ICI, some pre-processing approaches have been proposed based on ful channel state information (CSI), which improved the system per-formance. A pre-processing filter based on partial CSI at the trans-mitter is designed and investigated. The filter coefficient is given by the optimization processing, the symbol error rate (SER) is tested, and the computation complexity of the proposed scheme is analyzed. Computer simulation results show that the proposed pre-processing filter can effectively mitigate IBI and ICI and the performance can be improved. Compared with pre-processing approaches at the transmitter based on ful CSI, the proposed scheme has high spectral efficiency, limited CSI feedback and low computation complexity.

  6. A Design of a Terahertz Microstrip Bandstop Filter with Defected Ground Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A planar microstrip terahertz (THz bandstop filter has been proposed with defected ground structure with high insertion loss (S21 in a stopband of −25.8 dB at 1.436 THz. The parameters of the circuit model have been extracted from the EM simulation results. A dielectric substrate of Benzocyclobutene (BCB is used to realize a compact bandstop filter using modified hexagonal dumbbell-shape defected ground structure (DB-DGS. In this paper, a defected ground structure topology is used in a λ/4, 50 Ω microstrip line at THz frequency range for compactness. No article has been reported on the microstrip line at terahertz frequency regime using DGS topology. The proposed filter can be used for sensing and detection in biomedical instruments in DNA testing. All the simulations/cosimulations are carried out using a full-wave EM simulator CST V.9 Microwave Studio, HFSS V.10, and Agilent Design Suite (ADS.

  7. The simulation and improved design of tunable channel drop filter using hexagonal photonic crystal ring resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com [Government Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we have proposed a new design of tunable two dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PhC) channel drop filter (CDF) using ring resonators. The increasing interest in photonic integrated circuits (PIC's) and the increasing use of all-optical fiber networks as backbones for global communication systems have been based in large part on the extremely wide optical transmission bandwidth provided by dielectric materials. Based on the analysis we present novel photonic crystal channel drop filters. Simulations demonstrate that these filters exhibit ideal transfer characteristics. Channel dropping filters (CDF's) that access one channel of a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) signal while leaving other channels undisturbed are essential components of PIC's and optical communication systems. In this paper we have investigated such parameters which have an effect on resonant wavelength in this Channel Drop Filter, such as dielectric constant of inner, coupling, adjacent and whole rods of the structure. The dimensions of these structures are taken as 20a×19a and the area of the proposed structure is about 125.6μm{sup 2}; therefore this structure can be used in the future photonic integrated circuits. While using this design the dropping efficiency at the resonance of single ring are 100%. The spectrum of the power transmission is obtained with finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. FDTD method is the most famous method for PhC analysis. In this paper the dielectric rods have a dielectric constant of 10.65, so the refractive index is 3.26 and radius r=0.213a is located in air, where a is a lattice constant. In this we have used five scatter rods for obtaining more coupling efficiency; radius of scatter rods is set to 0.215a. The proposed structure is simulated with OptiFDTD.v.8.0 software, the different dielectric constant of rods equal to ε{sub r}−0.4, ε{sub r} and ε{sub r}+0.4 at wavelength of 1570 nm.

  8. Design of Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Using Dual-Mode Defected Stub Loaded Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for designing a dual-band bandpass filter (BPF using defected stub loaded resonator (DSLR is presented in this paper. The proposed DSLR consists of two fundamental resonant modes and some resonant characteristics have been investigated by EM software of Ansoft HFSS. Then, based on two coupled DSLRs, a dual-band response BPF that operates at 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz is designed and implemented for WLAN and WIMAX application. The first passband is constructed by two lower frequencies of the coupled DSLRs and the second passband is produced by two higher ones; the coupling scheme of them is also given. Finally, the dual-band BPF is fabricated and measured; a good agreement between simulation and measurement is obtained, which verifies the validity of the design methodology.

  9. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Tonello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT modulated filter bank (FB. It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998, and Weiss and Stewart (2000, and Tonello (2006. A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  10. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moret Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT modulated filter bank (FB. It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998, and Weiss and Stewart (2000, and Tonello (2006. A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  11. A Novel Magnetic Linear Encoder Designed by Using the Slant Multi-Phase Filtering Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yu; XING Huai-Zhong; ZHANG Huai-Wu; LIU Ying-Li; JING Yu-Lan; ZHONG Zhi-Yong

    2004-01-01

    @@ A novel design model based on the slant multi-phase filtering model is presented. A magnetic linear encoder with sinusoidal output voltage waveform has been investigated, and the improved sinusoidal output waveform can be easily acquired. A minimum 6% of distortion factor, when the difference of slant phase is 2π/3, is observed. It is found that the Wheatstone bridge type sensor, made of NiFe(450A)/NiO(300A) bilayers deposited on Si (001)substrate, can enhance both output signal and thermal stability, and then can be widely used in the field of magneto-resistive sensor.

  12. Evaluation of mixed effects in event-related fMRI studies: impact of first-level design and filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianciardi, M; Cerasa, A; Patria, F; Hagberg, G E

    2004-07-01

    With the introduction of event-related designs in fMRI, it has become crucial to optimize design efficiency and temporal filtering to detect activations at the 1st level with high sensitivity. We investigate the relevance of these issues for fMRI population studies, that is, 2nd-level analysis, for a set of event-related fMRI (er-fMRI) designs with different 1st-level efficiencies, adopting three distinct 1st-level filtering strategies as implemented in SPM99, SPM2, and FSL3.0. By theory, experiments, and simulations using physiological fMRI noise, we show that both design and filtering impact the outcome of the statistical analysis, not only at the 1st but also at the 2nd level. There are several reasons behind this finding. First, sensitivity is affected by both design and filtering, since the scan-to-scan variance, that is the fixed effect, is not negligible with respect to the between-subject variance, that is the random effect, in er-fMRI population studies. The impact of the fixed effects error on the sensitivity of the mixed effects analysis can be mitigated by an optimal choice of er-fMRI design and filtering. Moreover, the accuracy of the 1st- and 2nd-level parameter estimates also depend on design and filtering; especially, we show that inaccuracies caused by the presence of residual noise autocorrelations can be constrained by designs that have hemodynamic responses with a Gaussian distribution. In conclusion, designs with both good efficiency and decorrelating properties, for example, such as the geometric or Latin square probability distributions, combined with the "whitening" filters of SPM2 and FSL3.0, give the best result, both for 1st- and 2nd-level analysis of er-fMRI studies.

  13. A new NEDO research project towards hospital based accelerator BNCT using advanced DDS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new national project of developing a hospital based accelerator for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with advanced drug delivery system (DDS) has been started in 2005. In this paper, the outline of the new project will be introduced. The project includes two main topics: 1) a hospital based accelerator for BNCT will be developed by a research consortium of Universities and companies. A fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) type of accelerator with internal target is planned. 2) New boronated DDS using different methods including porphyrins, virus envelope vector, and liposome are planned. BNCT may become a first line charged particle therapy if the hospital based accelerator become feasible due to broadening the opportunity to use the neutron source. Due to such clinical convenience, there will be also possibility to spread the indication of BNCT for the diseases (cancer and other diseases) which has not been the candidate for BNCT in the nuclear-reactor era. (author)

  14. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT of explanted livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingeneria Nucleare; Colautti, P. [INFN, Padova (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro; Corrado, M.G. [Universita degli Studi di Milano (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica; d`Errico, F. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari; Matzke, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Monti, S.; Tinti, R. [ENEA-ERG-FIRE, Bologna (Italy); Silari, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    An accelerator-based thermal neutron source for BNCT of the explanted liver was designed using the MCNP code. Neutrons are generated via (d,n) reactions by 7 MeV deuterons bombarding a beryllium target. The therapy constraints were approached by simulating an irradiation cavity placed inside a graphite reflector parallelepiped containing a heavy-water moderator in turn enclosing the beryllium target. The experimental verification was performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy). The thermal and epithermal neutron flux was measured at various positions in the irradiation cavity by means of activation techniques employing bare and cadmium covered indium foils. Further measurements were performed with BF{sub 3} detectors. The fast neutron component of the dose equivalent and the energy spectrum above 100keV were assessed by means of a recently developed technique employing variable threshold superheated drop detectors. The prompt gamma ray dose was measured with {sup 7}LiF TLDs. (author).

  15. Epithermal neutron beam for BNCT research at Washington State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new filter has been designed and analysed for the Washington State University TRIGATM research reactor. Optimum balance of epithermal flux and background KERMA was obtained with a FluentalTM and alumina filter. The epithermal neutron flux calculated by the DORT transport code was approximately 9 x 108 n/cm2-s with a background KERMA of about 3x10-13 Gy/n/cm2. Operation of the beam for animal testing is expected to commence in 2000. (author)

  16. Microwave digestion techniques applied to determination of boron by ICP-AES in BNCT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has merged as an interesting option for the treatment of some kind of tumors where established therapies show no success. A molecular boronated species, enriched in 10B is administrated to the subject; it localizes in malignant tissues depending the kind of tumor and localization. Therefore, a very important fact in BNCT research is the detection of boron at trace or ultra trace levels precisely and accurately. This is extremely necessary as boronated species do localize in tumoral tissue and also localize in liver, kidney, spleen, skin, membranes. By this way, before testing a boronated species, it is mandatory to determine its biodistribution in a statistically meaning population, that is related with managing of a great number of samples. In the other hand, it is necessary to exactly predict when to begin the irradiation and to determine the magnitude of radiation to obtain the desired radiological dose for a specified mean boron concentration. This involves the determination of boron in whole blood, which is related with boron concentration in the tumor object of treatment. The methodology selected for the analysis of boron in whole blood and tissues must join certain characteristics: it must not be dependant of the chemical form of boron, it has to be fast and capable to determine boron accurately and precisely in a wide range of concentrations. The design and validation of experimental models involving animals in BNCT studies and the determination of boron in blood of animals and subjects upon treatment require reliable analytical procedures to determine boron quantitatively in those biologic materials. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using pneumatic nebulization is one of the most promising methods for boron analysis, but the sample must be liquid and have low solid concentration. In our case, biological tissues and blood, it is mandatory to mineralize and/or dilute samples

  17. Adaptive Reduced-Rank LCMV Beamforming Algorithms Based on Joint Iterative Optimization of Filters: Design and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    de Lamare, R C; Fa, R

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents reduced-rank linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) beamforming algorithms based on joint iterative optimization of filters. The proposed reduced-rank scheme is based on a constrained joint iterative optimization of filters according to the minimum variance criterion. The proposed optimization procedure adjusts the parameters of a projection matrix and an adaptive reducedrank filter that operates at the output of the bank of filters. We describe LCMV expressions for the design of the projection matrix and the reduced-rank filter. We then describe stochastic gradient and develop recursive least-squares adaptive algorithms for their efficient implementation along with automatic rank selection techniques. An analysis of the stability and the convergence properties of the proposed algorithms is presented and semi-analytical expressions are derived for predicting their mean squared error (MSE) performance. Simulations for a beamforming application show that the proposed scheme and algorit...

  18. Demonstration of the importance of a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system for BNCT facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Der-Sheng; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    The neutron beam monitoring system is indispensable to BNCT facility in order to achieve an accurate patient dose delivery. The neutron beam monitoring of a reactor-based BNCT (RB-BNCT) facility can be implemented through the instrumentation and control system of a reactor provided that the reactor power level remains constant during reactor operation. However, since the neutron flux in reactor core is highly correlative to complicated reactor kinetics resulting from such as fuel depletion, poison production, and control blade movement, some extent of variation may occur in the spatial distribution of neutron flux in reactor core. Therefore, a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system is needed to be installed in the vicinity of the beam path close to the beam exit of the RB-BNCT facility, where it can measure the BNCT beam intensity as closely as possible and be free from the influence of the objects present around the beam exit. In this study, in order to demonstrate the importance of a dedicated BNCT neutron beam monitoring system, the signals originating from the two in-core neutron detectors installed at THOR were extracted and compared with the three dedicated neutron beam monitors of the THOR BNCT facility. The correlation of the readings between the in-core neutron detectors and the BNCT neutron beam monitors was established to evaluate the improvable quality of the beam intensity measurement inferred by the in-core neutron detectors. In 29 sampled intervals within 16 days of measurement, the fluctuations in the mean value of the normalized ratios between readings of the three BNCT neutron beam monitors lay within 0.2%. However, the normalized ratios of readings of the two in-core neutron detectors to one of the BNCT neutron beam monitors show great fluctuations of 5.9% and 17.5%, respectively. PMID:26595774

  19. Design of LCL filters for converters with low switching frequency used in decentralised power generating plants; Auslegung eines LCL Filters fuer Umrichter mit niedriger Schaltfrequenz in dezentralen Erzeugungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Robert; Mertens, Axel [Hannover Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Antriebssysteme und Leistungselektronik (IAL)

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes a method for designing LCL filters to be used in decentralized power generating plants. It is especially suitable for converters with low switching frequency and/or converters with modulation methods generating harmonics in the entire frequency range. As an example, the flat-top modulation is examined more detailed. The method is based on the fact that the converter's spectrum is known, for which a calculation approach is presented. The method discussed enables a filter design meeting all requirements of the utility companies concerning voltage quality for all relevant operating ranges. In general, it is suitable for all converter topologies and modulation methods generating periodical output voltages. (orig.)

  20. Design of a bed load and driftwood filtering dam, analysis of the phenomena and hydraulic design

    OpenAIRE

    Schleiss, Anton; Speerli, J.; Pfammatter, Roger; Bianco-Riccioz, Manuella; Bianco, Philippe; De Cesare, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Flood protection often calls on to the realization of retention works for bed load as well as wood and debris flow. Certain relatively recent arrangements did not perform according to their intended function, what shows the complexity of the design and the implementation of such works. Adaptations were necessary to reach the security objectives. The design of a retention dam for solid materials and floating driftwood requires the consideration of numerous hydraulic and material transport proc...

  1. AESOP: An interactive computer program for the design of linear quadratic regulators and Kalman filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, B.; Geyser, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    AESOP is a computer program for use in designing feedback controls and state estimators for linear multivariable systems. AESOP is meant to be used in an interactive manner. Each design task that the program performs is assigned a "function" number. The user accesses these functions either (1) by inputting a list of desired function numbers or (2) by inputting a single function number. In the latter case the choice of the function will in general depend on the results obtained by the previously executed function. The most important of the AESOP functions are those that design,linear quadratic regulators and Kalman filters. The user interacts with the program when using these design functions by inputting design weighting parameters and by viewing graphic displays of designed system responses. Supporting functions are provided that obtain system transient and frequency responses, transfer functions, and covariance matrices. The program can also compute open-loop system information such as stability (eigenvalues), eigenvectors, controllability, and observability. The program is written in ANSI-66 FORTRAN for use on an IBM 3033 using TSS 370. Descriptions of all subroutines and results of two test cases are included in the appendixes.

  2. Design of volume hologram filters for suppression of daytime sky brightness in artificial satellite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hanhong; Watson, Jonathan M; Stuart, Joseph Scott; Barbastathis, George

    2013-03-11

    We present a design methodology for volume hologram filters (VHFs) with telephoto objectives to improve contrast of solar-illuminated artificial satellites observed with a ground-based optical telescope and camera system operating in daytime. VHFs provide the ability to selectively suppress incoming light based on the range to the source, and are used to suppress the daylight background noise since signal (satellite) and noise (daylight scatterers) are located at different altitudes. We derive the overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement as the system metric, and balance main design parameters over two key performance considerations--daylight attenuation and spectral bandwidth--to optimize the functioning of VHFs. Overall SNR enhancement of 7.5 has been achieved. Usage of multi-pixel cameras can potentially further refine this system.

  3. Design of narrow band photonic filter with compact MEMS for tunable resonant wavelength ranging 100 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanquan Liang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of planar silicon photonic structure is designed and simulated to provide narrow resonant line-width (∼2 nm in a wide photonic band gap (∼210 nm with broad tunable resonant wavelength range (∼100 nm around the optical communication wavelength 1550 nm. This prototype is based on the combination of two modified basic photonic structures, i.e. a split tapered photonic crystal micro-cavity embedded in a photonic wire waveguide, and a slot waveguide with narrowed slabs. This prototype is then further integrated with a MEMS (microelectromechanical systems based electrostatic comb actuator to achieve “coarse tune” and “fine tune” at the same time for wide range and narrow-band filtering and modulating. It also provides a wide range tunability to achieve the designed resonance even fabrication imperfection occurs.

  4. Design, Simulation and Fabrication of a Wideband Filter Using Multi-Mode Resonators in Three Layer Stripline Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Karimiyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, in order to overcome the coupling and fabrication constraints of microstrip structures, 3 layer stripline structure be introduced and based on impedance steps and microwave coupled lines as impedance inverters and multi mode resonators, new and miniaturized structures are proposed. Using this structure, several 2-6 GHz wideband filters has been designed and simulated, and some effective techniques to reducing virtual resonances and improving slope of filter introduced. Finally, a wideband filter is fabricated and using simulation and measurement, efficiency of method is shown.

  5. Evaluation of beam delivery and ripple filter design for non-isocentric proton and carbon ion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at selecting and evaluating a ripple filter design compatible with non-isocentric proton and carbon ion scanning beam treatment delivery for a compact nozzle. The use of non-isocentric treatments when the patient is shifted as close as possible towards the nozzle exit allows for a reduction in the air gap and thus an improvement in the quality of scanning proton beam treatment delivery. Reducing the air gap is less important for scanning carbon ions, but ripple filters are still necessary for scanning carbon ion beams to reduce the number of energy steps required to deliver homogeneous SOBP. The proper selection of ripple filters also allows a reduction in the possible transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities that could appear in non-isocentric conditions in particular.A thorough review of existing ripple filter designs over the past 16 years is performed and a design for non-isocentric treatment delivery is presented. A unique ripple filter quality index (QIRiFi) independent of the particle type and energy and representative of the ratio between energy modulation and induced scattering is proposed. The Bragg peak width evaluated at the 80% dose level (BPW80) is proposed to relate the energy modulation of the delivered Bragg peaks and the energy layer step size allowing the production of homogeneous SOBP. Gate/Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations have been validated for carbon ion and ripple filter simulations based on measurements performed at CNAO and subsequently used for a detailed analysis of the proposed ripple filter design.A combination of two ripple filters in a series has been validated for non-isocentric delivery and did not show significant transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities. Non-isocentric conditions allow a significant reduction in the spot size at the patient entrance (up to 350% and 200% for protons and carbon ions with range shifter, respectively), and therefore in the lateral penumbra in the patients. (paper)

  6. Evaluation of beam delivery and ripple filter design for non-isocentric proton and carbon ion therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevillot, L.; Stock, M.; Vatnitsky, S.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims at selecting and evaluating a ripple filter design compatible with non-isocentric proton and carbon ion scanning beam treatment delivery for a compact nozzle. The use of non-isocentric treatments when the patient is shifted as close as possible towards the nozzle exit allows for a reduction in the air gap and thus an improvement in the quality of scanning proton beam treatment delivery. Reducing the air gap is less important for scanning carbon ions, but ripple filters are still necessary for scanning carbon ion beams to reduce the number of energy steps required to deliver homogeneous SOBP. The proper selection of ripple filters also allows a reduction in the possible transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities that could appear in non-isocentric conditions in particular. A thorough review of existing ripple filter designs over the past 16 years is performed and a design for non-isocentric treatment delivery is presented. A unique ripple filter quality index (QIRiFi) independent of the particle type and energy and representative of the ratio between energy modulation and induced scattering is proposed. The Bragg peak width evaluated at the 80% dose level (BPW80) is proposed to relate the energy modulation of the delivered Bragg peaks and the energy layer step size allowing the production of homogeneous SOBP. Gate/Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations have been validated for carbon ion and ripple filter simulations based on measurements performed at CNAO and subsequently used for a detailed analysis of the proposed ripple filter design. A combination of two ripple filters in a series has been validated for non-isocentric delivery and did not show significant transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities. Non-isocentric conditions allow a significant reduction in the spot size at the patient entrance (up to 350% and 200% for protons and carbon ions with range shifter, respectively), and therefore in the lateral penumbra in the patients.

  7. Centroid stabilization in alignment of FOA corner cube: designing of a matched filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwal, Abdul; Wilhelmsen, Karl; Roberts, Randy; Leach, Richard; Miller Kamm, Victoria; Ngo, Tony; Lowe-Webb, Roger

    2015-02-01

    The current automation of image-based alignment of NIF high energy laser beams is providing the capability of executing multiple target shots per day. An important aspect of performing multiple shots in a day is to reduce additional time spent aligning specific beams due to perturbations in those beam images. One such alignment is beam centration through the second and third harmonic generating crystals in the final optics assembly (FOA), which employs two retro-reflecting corner cubes to represent the beam center. The FOA houses the frequency conversion crystals for third harmonic generation as the beams enters the target chamber. Beam-to-beam variations and systematic beam changes over time in the FOA corner-cube images can lead to a reduction in accuracy as well as increased convergence durations for the template based centroid detector. This work presents a systematic approach of maintaining FOA corner cube centroid templates so that stable position estimation is applied thereby leading to fast convergence of alignment control loops. In the matched filtering approach, a template is designed based on most recent images taken in the last 60 days. The results show that new filter reduces the divergence of the position estimation of FOA images.

  8. Design of jitter compensation algorithm for robot vision based on optical flow and Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B R; Jin, Y L; Shao, D L; Xu, Y

    2014-01-01

    Image jitters occur in the video of the autonomous robot moving on bricks road, which will reduce robot operation precision based on vision. In order to compensate the image jitters, the affine transformation kinematics were established for obtaining the six image motion parameters. The feature point pair detecting method was designed based on Eigen-value of the feature windows gradient matrix, and the motion parameters equation was solved using the least square method and the matching point pairs got based on the optical flow. The condition number of coefficient matrix was proposed to quantificationally analyse the effect of matching errors on parameters solving errors. Kalman filter was adopted to smooth image motion parameters. Computing cases show that more point pairs are beneficial for getting more precise motion parameters. The integrated jitters compensation software was developed with feature points detecting in subwindow. And practical experiments were conducted on two mobile robots. Results show that the compensation costing time is less than frame sample time and Kalman filter is valid for robot vision jitters compensation. PMID:24600320

  9. Optimal IIR filter design using Gravitational Search Algorithm with Wavelet Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a global heuristic search optimization technique, which is a hybridized version of the Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA and Wavelet Mutation (WM strategy. Thus, the Gravitational Search Algorithm with Wavelet Mutation (GSAWM was adopted for the design of an 8th-order infinite impulse response (IIR filter. GSA is based on the interaction of masses situated in a small isolated world guided by the approximation of Newtonian’s laws of gravity and motion. Each mass is represented by four parameters, namely, position, active, passive and inertia mass. The position of the heaviest mass gives the near optimal solution. For better exploitation in multidimensional search spaces, the WM strategy is applied to randomly selected particles that enhance the capability of GSA for finding better near optimal solutions. An extensive simulation study of low-pass (LP, high-pass (HP, band-pass (BP and band-stop (BS IIR filters unleashes the potential of GSAWM in achieving better cut-off frequency sharpness, smaller pass band and stop band ripples, smaller transition width and higher stop band attenuation with assured stability.

  10. Design of Jitter Compensation Algorithm for Robot Vision Based on Optical Flow and Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Image jitters occur in the video of the autonomous robot moving on bricks road, which will reduce robot operation precision based on vision. In order to compensate the image jitters, the affine transformation kinematics were established for obtaining the six image motion parameters. The feature point pair detecting method was designed based on Eigen-value of the feature windows gradient matrix, and the motion parameters equation was solved using the least square method and the matching point pairs got based on the optical flow. The condition number of coefficient matrix was proposed to quantificationally analyse the effect of matching errors on parameters solving errors. Kalman filter was adopted to smooth image motion parameters. Computing cases show that more point pairs are beneficial for getting more precise motion parameters. The integrated jitters compensation software was developed with feature points detecting in subwindow. And practical experiments were conducted on two mobile robots. Results show that the compensation costing time is less than frame sample time and Kalman filter is valid for robot vision jitters compensation.

  11. RF MEMS and CSRRs-based tunable filter designed for Ku and K bands application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngasepam Monica Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and simulation of a reconfigurable stop-band filter on a silicon substrate based on the combination of RF microelectromechanical system and metamaterial-based technologies. The device is implemented on coplanar waveguide structure by embedding complementary split-ring resonators on the central line and an RF MEMS varactor bridge supporting the neighboring ground planes. The response characteristics of this metamaterial-based filter can be dynamically tuned, thus enhancing its usefulness. The device operates within a frequency range of 16.5–19.5 GHz, giving a tuning range of 15%, and can be tuned from Ku-frequency band to K-frequency band. It works with a comparative low pull-in voltage of 17.42 V and a faster switching time of 0.138 µs. A thorough electromechanical analysis has been done by varying various structural and material parameters. Moreover, a comparative electrical performance of silicon and glass has been shown to overcome the cons of silicon by high-resistivity glass.

  12. Design of jitter compensation algorithm for robot vision based on optical flow and Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B R; Jin, Y L; Shao, D L; Xu, Y

    2014-01-01

    Image jitters occur in the video of the autonomous robot moving on bricks road, which will reduce robot operation precision based on vision. In order to compensate the image jitters, the affine transformation kinematics were established for obtaining the six image motion parameters. The feature point pair detecting method was designed based on Eigen-value of the feature windows gradient matrix, and the motion parameters equation was solved using the least square method and the matching point pairs got based on the optical flow. The condition number of coefficient matrix was proposed to quantificationally analyse the effect of matching errors on parameters solving errors. Kalman filter was adopted to smooth image motion parameters. Computing cases show that more point pairs are beneficial for getting more precise motion parameters. The integrated jitters compensation software was developed with feature points detecting in subwindow. And practical experiments were conducted on two mobile robots. Results show that the compensation costing time is less than frame sample time and Kalman filter is valid for robot vision jitters compensation.

  13. Higher Order Mode Filter Design for Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, B P; Ben-Zv, I; Burt, Graeme Campbell; Calaga, Rama; Capatina, Ofelia; Hall, B; Jones, T; Skaritka, J; Verdú-Andrés, S; Wu, Q

    2015-01-01

    A Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity (DQWCC) was designed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. A compact Higher Order Mode (HOM) filter with wide stop band at the deflecting mode is developed for this cavity. Multi-physics finite element simulation results are presented. The integration of this design to the cavity cryomodule is described.

  14. Higher order mode filter design for double quarter wave crab cavity for the LHC high luminosity upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Burt, G. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom); Calaga, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Capatina, O. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hall, B. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom); Jones, T. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Daresbury (United Kingdom). Daresbury Lab.; Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Verdu-Andres, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Q. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    A Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity (DQWCC) was designed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. A compact Higher Order Mode (HOM) filter with wide stop band at the deflecting mode is developed for this cavity. Multiphysics finite element simulation results are presented. The integration of this design to the cavity cryomodule is described.

  15. Design of two-channel filter bank using nature inspired optimization based fractional derivative constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, B; Singh, V K; Kumar, A; Singh, G K

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a novel approach for 2-channel linear phase quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank design based on a hybrid of gradient based optimization and optimization of fractional derivative constraints is introduced. For the purpose of this work, recently proposed nature inspired optimization techniques such as cuckoo search (CS), modified cuckoo search (MCS) and wind driven optimization (WDO) are explored for the design of QMF bank. 2-Channel QMF is also designed with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) nature inspired optimization techniques. The design problem is formulated in frequency domain as sum of L2 norm of error in passband, stopband and transition band at quadrature frequency. The contribution of this work is the novel hybrid combination of gradient based optimization (Lagrange multiplier method) and nature inspired optimization (CS, MCS, WDO, PSO and ABC) and its usage for optimizing the design problem. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (ϕp), stopband error (ϕs), transition band error (ϕt), peak reconstruction error (PRE), stopband attenuation (As) and computational time. The design examples illustrate the ingenuity of the proposed method. Results are also compared with the other existing algorithms, and it was found that the proposed method gives best result in terms of peak reconstruction error and transition band error while it is comparable in terms of passband and stopband error. Results show that the proposed method is successful for both lower and higher order 2-channel QMF bank design. A comparative study of various nature inspired optimization techniques is also presented, and the study singles out CS as a best QMF optimization technique. PMID:25034647

  16. Design of LLCL-filter for grid-connected converter to improve stability and robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2015-01-01

    The LLCL-filter has recently emerged into gridconnected converters due to the improved filtering capability which ensuring a smaller physical size. An LLCL -based gridconnected converter has almost the same frequency-response characteristic as that with the traditional LCL-filter within half of t...... for LLCL-filter is given. Both simulations and experimental results are provided through a 5 kW, 380V/50 Hz grid-connected inverter model to validate the theoretical analysis in this paper....

  17. A new design concept for realising highly tunable microwave filters using recursive principles

    OpenAIRE

    Mouzannar, W.; Billonnet, L.; Jarry, B.; Guillon, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, new active monolithic microwave integrated bandpass filters employing recursive principles are developped. A 7 GHz fixed center frequency filter with 2% bandwidth, and a tunable filter with 2.5 GHz tuning range around 8 GHz, are succesfully implemented employing 0.2 um GaAs P-HEMT monolithic technology, and exhibit excellent measured performances.

  18. Validation and Optimization of a Design Formula for Stable Geometrically Open Filter Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Sande, S.A.H.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.; Verheij, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Granular filters are used for protection against scour and erosion of base material. For a proper functioning it is necessary that at the interfaces between the filter structure, the subsoil and the water flowing above the filter structure no material will be transported. Different types of granular

  19. Design of a broad spectrum multichannel optical filter based on FBG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-tao; PAN Wei; YAN Lian-shan; LUO Bin; WEN Kun-hua; FENG Xian-gui

    2009-01-01

    To increase the channel number in the optic filter, the multiple-phase-shift (MPS) technology is adoped based on the multiple-reflection-spectrum-envelopes-concatenation (MRSEC) model which has a broadband flatness. The reflection spectra of the MPS digital concatenated sample gratings are simulated with transfer matrix method, the results show that wave band of the reflection spectrum is widened and the channel number is multiplied. What's more, the spectrum flatness is improved with the increasing of refraction index change. Moreover, to improve the extinction ratio and peak value when MPS is adopted in concatenated SFBG, an available designing method based on the cascaded unit is put forward and the optimized results are obtained.

  20. IMC-PID-fractional-order-filter controllers design for integer order systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maâmar, Bettayeb; Rachid, Mansouri

    2014-09-01

    One of the reasons of the great success of standard PID controllers is the presence of simple tuning rules, of the automatic tuning feature and of tables that simplify significantly their design. For the fractional order case, some tuning rules have been proposed in the literature. However, they are not general because they are valid only for some model cases. In this paper, a new approach is investigated. The fractional property is not especially imposed by the controller structure but by the closed loop reference model. The resulting controller is fractional but it has a very interesting structure for its implementation. Indeed, the controller can be decomposed into two transfer functions: an integer transfer function which is generally an integer PID controller and a simple fractional filter.

  1. 电磁干扰滤波器的设计%Design of Electromagnetic Interference Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高生存

    2015-01-01

    电力技术飞速发展的如今,带来了电源技术的进步.防电磁干扰带来的问题,开关电源尤为值得注意.本文对开关电源电磁干扰滤波器的原因及种类进行了分析,并进行科学合理的设计方案.%Electric power technology rapid development today, the power supply technology. Preventing electromagnetic interfer?ence problems, switching power supply is particularly noticeable. In this paper, the cause of the switch power supply emi filter and types are analyzed, and scientific and rational design scheme.

  2. Design and operation of optimized high efficiency filter element test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses significant improvements in the design and operation of high efficiency filter test systems. The major areas discussed are the optimization of system hardware and the application of statistical analysis to expedite the test procedure. This has resulted in systems which can verify HEPA performance in 15 seconds, ULPA performance in 60 seconds, with low mass loading of non-DOP aerosols. Performance data are presented for two systems spanning a flow rate range of 1 to 65 m/sub 3//min (30 to 2000 cfm) and capable of determining fractional penetrations down to 10/sup -7/ (efficiencies up to 99.99999%) for particles from 0.1 to 1.0 micrometers

  3. Differential mode EMI filter design for ultra high efficiency partial parallel isolated full-bridge boost converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makda, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Nymand, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a practical method to design a Differential Mode EMI filter for fuel cell powered isolated full bridge dc-dc boost converter. As the input voltage of such converter is inherently low with very high dc and ripple currents and since the EMI limits also does not change...... for such application, it calls for a carefully optimized EMI filter which is designed and implemented in this work. Moreover, the negative input impedance of the regulated converter is extremely low; well-designed filter damping branch is also included. Differential mode noise is analyzed analytically for a 3KW/400V...... boost converter. Simulation and experimental results are recorded and published. © 2013 IEEE....

  4. Flat-top MZI filters: a novel robust design based on MMI splitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchi, Matteo; Harjanne, Mikko; Ylinen, Sami; Kapulainen, Markku; Vehmas, Tapani; Aalto, Timo

    2016-03-01

    Multimode Interferometers (MMIs) are an attractive alternative to directional couplers, ensuring more relaxed tolerances to fabrication errors and broader operation bandwidth. The drawback is that only a limited discrete set of splitting ratios is achievable with MMIs of constant cross section. This issue clearly limits their use in flat-top interferometric filters, which design requires, in general, free choice of the splitting ratios. Here we show for the first time that it is possible to design 4-stage flat-top interferometers using only standard MMIs with 50:50 and 85:15 splitting ratios. The design approach is based on the representation of the system on the Bloch sphere. Flat-top interleavers with different free spectral ranges have been designed and fabricated on the silicon photonics platform of VTT, based on 3 μm thick rib and strip waveguides. Two different layouts have been explored: one where all components are collinear and a more compact one which elements have been folded in a spiral shape. All interleavers have been designed for TE polarization, and they work in a wavelength range comparable with the 100 nm bandwidth of the MMI splitters. Even though fabrication imperfections and non-ideal behaviour of both waveguide bends and MMIs led to reduced extinction compared to simulations, most devices show in-band extinction exceeding 15 dB. The in-band losses of the most central channels did not exceed 1.5 dB compared to the reference straight waveguide. The designed interleavers can be employed in cascaded configurations to achieve broadband and fabrication tolerant flat-top wavelength (de)multiplexers.

  5. Radiation-induced meningiomas after BNCT in patients with malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageji, T; Sogabe, S; Mizobichi, Y; Nakajima, K; Shinji, N; Nakagawa, Y

    2015-12-01

    Of the 180 patients with malignant brain tumors whom we treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) since 1968, only one (0.56%) developed multiple radiation-induced meningiomas. The parasagittal meningioma that had received 42 Gy (w) for BNCT showed more rapid growth on Gd-enhanced MRI scans and more atypical features on histopathologic studies than the temporal convexity tumor that had received 20 Gy (w). Long-term follow up MRI studies are necessary in long-survivors of malignant brain tumors treated by BNCT. PMID:26122975

  6. Correlation of clinical outcome to the estimated radiation dose from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadha, M. [Beth Israel Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A phase I/II trial delivering a single fraction of BNCT using p-Boronophenylalanine-Fructose and epithermal neutrons at the the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was initiated in September 1994. The primary endpiont of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a given BNCT dose. The clinical outcome of the disease was a secondary endpoint of the study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the correlation of the clinical outcome of patients to the estimated radiation dose from BNCT.

  7. Drawing the Optimal Design Factor of a Metal Filter for Capturing Radioactive Aerosol Using Particle Collection Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seunguk; Park, Minchan; Lee, Jaekeun [EcoEnergy Research Institute, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In the U. S., the number of HEPA filters, which are located in the HVAC system of nuclear power plants, generated as wastes is annually 31,055, and tremendous economic/social costs are incurred to deal with them. Thus, it is needed to develop the metal fiber filter that can be reused and has performance equal to the HEPA level to replace the glass fiber HEPA filter. This study, to draw the optimal design factors of the metal fiber filter for removing radioactive aerosol, analyzed the design condition by reflecting the actual temperature and pressure condition that can be generated in the nuclear HVAC system to the particle collection mechanism by single fiber. As a result of performing modeling for the radioactive aerosol particle collection efficiency and the pressure drop of the filter made up with single metal fiber. It was analyzed that when a diameter of the metal fiber is less than 4 μm, thickness more than 1 mm, solidity more than 0.2, and face velocity less than 5 cm, it shows more than 99.97% particle collection efficiency, which is equal to the HEPA level. Because generally as the particle collection efficiency gets higher, the pressure drop gets bigger, it is judged that the filter design factors should be optimized to satisfy the design condition for the HVAC system. It is also judged that, in the future, an additional verification should be conducted through a comparison of the test results of the filter particle collection efficiency and the pressure drop in the condition of actual temperature and pressure, and the modeling results of this study.

  8. EFFICIENT FIR FILTER DESIGN METHODOLOGY USING DYNAMIC REGIONAL HARMONY SEARCH ALGORITHM WITH OPPOSITION AND LOCAL LEARNING (DRHS-OLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Nirmala

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal design of FIR filter is carried out using a “Dynamic Regional Harmony Search algorithm (DRHS with Opposition and Local Learning”. The Harmony Search (HS is a robust optimization algorithm which mimics the musician’s improvisation method and has been used by many researchers for solving and optimizing various real-world optimization problems and numerical solutions. For optimizing the functionality of the FIR filter, DRHS algorithm which is an enhanced variant of the HS algorithm is adopted to avoid pre-mature convergence and stagnation. BY adopting DRHS algorithm the low pass, high pass, band pass and band stop FIR filters are constructed and their performances are evaluated and compared with the other existing optimization techniques. A comparison of the DRHS with other optimization algorithms for constructing FIR filter clearly shows the DRHS finds the optimal solution and the convergence is clearly guaranteed.

  9. A Design of Paraunitary Polyphase Matrices of Rational Filter Banks Based on (P,Q) Shift-Invariant Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Sudarshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to design paraunitary polyphase matrices of critically sampled rational filter banks. The method is based on (P,Q) shift-invariant systems, and so any kind of rational splitting of the frequency spectrum can be achieved using this method. Ideal (P,Q) shift-invariant system with smallest P and Q that map of a band of input spectrum to the output spectrum are obtained. A new set of filters is obtained that characterize a (P,Q) shift-invariant system. Ideal frequency spectrum of these filters are obtained using ideal $(P,Q)$ shift-invariant systems. Actual paraunitary polyphase matrices are then obtained by minimizing the stopband energies of these filters against the parameters of the paraunitary polyphase matrices.

  10. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Muhammad Y.; Hunter, Ian C.

    2016-10-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  11. BNCT-Project at the Finnish TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epithermal neutron irradiation station for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) will be constructed in the thermal column of the Finnish Triga reactor. The first target of the BNCT at FiR 1 is the treatment of malignant brain tumors. The epithermal neutrons have the capability to penetrate deep into the brain tissue thermalizing at the same time. The thermal neutrons are captured by 10B-nuclei situated ideally in the tumor cells only and thus the reaction products destroy selectively only the tumor cells. The graphite filling of the thermal column will be replaced by a special moderator material: Al+AlF3. The moderator material and its thickness has been chosen so that the system produces as much as possible epithermal neutrons with low fast neutron and gamma contamination. Both fast neutrons and gamma radiation are harmful for the patient. To reduce the gamma radiation there is a lead-bismuth gamma shield at the outer end of the moderator block. In spite of the low power (250 kW) of the reactor the needed epithermal neutron dose to destroy the tumor will be accumulated in a reasonable time e.g. 0.5 to 1.5 h. This is possible because of the rather short distance between the reactor core and the irradiation target. (author)

  12. 基于Matlab的IIR数字滤波器设计%Design of IIR digital filter based on Matlab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 徐艳

    2016-01-01

    数字滤波是数字信号处理的重要内容,可分为FIR和IIR两大类。文章介绍了基于MATLAB的IIR 数字滤波器设计方法。先确定性能参数,再按照映射规则(冲激响应不变法或双线性变换法)变换成模拟滤波器的性能参数,然后采用一定的逼近方法(巴特沃斯型或切比雪夫型)设计模拟滤波器,最后将模拟滤波器按照映射规则转变成数字滤波器。通过Matlab实验仿真,成功地设计出了满足预定指标的IIR数字滤波器。%The digital filter is one of the most important parts in digital signal processing, it can be divided into two kinds, the finite impulse response and the infinite impulse response. The design method of IIR digital filter based on Matlab is introduced in this paper. First,the performance requirements are determined,and then they are converted into analog filter performance requirements according to the mapping rules(impulse response method or bilinear transformation method),and then analog filter is designed using some approximation method(Butterworth type or Chebyshev type),and at Last analog filter is transformed into digital filter according to the same mapping rules. In this paper, through simulation experiments in Matlab,IIR digital filter that meets scheduled performance requirements are designed successfully.

  13. Design and experimental verification of a dual-band metamaterial filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Yang; Yao, Ai-Qin; Zhong, Min

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present the design, simulation, and experimental verification of a dual-band free-standing metamaterial filter operating in a frequency range of 1 THz-30 THz. The proposed structure consists of periodically arranged composite air holes, and exhibits two broad and flat transmission bands. To clarify the effects of the structural parameters on both resonant transmission bands, three sets of experiments are performed. The first resonant transmission band shows a shift towards higher frequency when the side width w 1 of the main air hole is increased. In contrast, the second resonant transmission band displays a shift towards lower frequency when the side width w 2 of the sub-holes is increased, while the first resonant transmission band is unchanged. The measured results indicate that these resonant bands can be modulated individually by simply optimizing the relevant structural parameters (w 1 or w 2) for the required band. In addition, these resonant bands merge into a single resonant band with a bandwidth of 7.7 THz when w 1 and w 2 are optimized simultaneously. The structure proposed in this paper adopts different resonant mechanisms for transmission at different frequencies and thus offers a method to achieve a dual-band and low-loss filter. Project supported by the Doctorate Scientific Research Foundation of Hezhou University, China (Grant No. HZUBS201503), the Promotion of the Basic Ability of Young and Middle-aged Teachers in Universities Project of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Grant No. KY2016YB453), the Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory Symbolic Computation, China, Engineering Data Processing and Mathematical Support Autonomous Discipline Project of Hezhou University, China (Grant No. 2016HZXYSX01).

  14. Design and performance of an EMI filter to reduce conducted EMI in an isolated full bridge buck converter power supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdolreza Esmaeli; SUN Li; ZHAO Ke; JIANG Bao-jun

    2005-01-01

    EMI Filter Design and Performance for isolated full bridge buck converter is developed in this paper.In order to design a high performance EMI filter, many issues need to be considered beforehand. Some important issues including accurate model of converter components, parasitic elements, its effect on EMI noise and impedance mismatch are included in this paper. A numerical prediction of EMI/EMC has the potential to evaluate EMI performances at the design stage and before prototyping. It can also help reduce the post-prototype EMC cost by minimizing late redesign and modifications of a design implementation. Saber simulator is used to analyze the EMI noises and EMI filter's performance. Conducted EMI noise measurement and EMI filter design of isolated full bridge buck converter has been achieved while successfully satisfying the FCC class B limits in the frequency range from 150 kHz to 30 MHz. Simulation results are compared with experimental data and the effectiveness of the EMI simulation approach is demonstrated.

  15. Gene transfer-applied BNCT (g-BNCT) for amelanotic melanoma in brain. Further upregulation of 10B uptake by cell modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our success in eradicating melanoma by single BNCT with BPA led to the next urgent theme, i.e. application of such BNCT for currently uncurable melanoma metastasis in brain. In order to establish 10B-BPA-BNCT for melanoma in brain, we have investigated the pharmacokinetics of BPA which is most critical factor for successful BNCT, in melanotic and amelanotic and further tyrosinase gene-transfected amelanotic melanoma proliferating in brain having blood-brain-barrier, as compared to melanoma proliferating in skin. We have established three implanted models for melanoma in brain: 1) A1059 cells, amelanotic melanoma, 2) B16B15b cells, melanotic melanoma cells, highly metastatic to brain, and 3) TA1059 cells, with active melanogenesis induced by tyrosinase gene transfection. We would like to report the results of comparative analysis of the BPA uptake ability in these melanoma cells in both brain and skin. Based on these findings, we are further investigating to enhance 10B-BPA uptake by not only g-BNCT but also by additional melanogenesis upregulating cell modulation. (author)

  16. Alpha-amino alcohol of para-boronophenylalanine, BPAol, as a potential boron carrier for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    α amino alcohol of boronophenylalanine BPAol in which -COOH group is replaced with hydrophilic group of -OH of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has been synthesized and its BNCT effect on experimental tumor models have been investigated. Tumor cell killing effect of BPAol on C6 gliosarcoma cells was very high 4.4 times as that of BPA, since it was actively accumulated into tumor cells in 4-5 times as that of BPA. Carboxylic group of BPA might not play as an essential role in uptake of BPA into tumor cells. BPAol-based BNCT strongly inhibited the tumor growth of Green's melanotic melanoma hamsters even under therapeutic dose of BPA-based BNCT. These preliminary findings strongly warrant further extensive pre-clinical study for BPAol as a boron carrier for BNCT. (author)

  17. Successful BNCT for patients with cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. Report of 4 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 we have conducted BNCT clinical trials on melanomas at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) and Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4). We report 4 patients given BNCT for malignant melanomas: 2 with superficial spreading types on the heel, 1 with mucosal melanoma in the nasal cavity, and 1 with a melanoma on the vulva and in the vagina. The two cutaneous melanomas and the nasal cavity mucosal melanoma showed a complete response (CR) by 6 months after BNCT. The residual melanoma showed a partial response (PR) by 3 months after treatment and no regrowth since then. Although two patients experienced normal-tissue damage that exceeded the tolerance level, all the participants were cured within a few months of treatment. BNCT was shown to be a promising treatment for mucosal, as well as for cutaneous, melanomas. (author)

  18. FiR 1 Reactor in Service for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose to run the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Although BNCT dominates the current utilization of the reactor, it also has an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics, etc. with isotope produc- tion and activation analysis services. The whole reactor building has been renovated, creating a dedicated clinical BNCT facility at the reactor. Close to 30 patients have been treated since May 1999, when the licence for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization. The treatment organization has a close connection to the Helsinki University Central Hospital. (author)

  19. Investigation of development and management of treatment planning systems for BNCT at foreign facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A new computational dosimetry system for BNCT: JCDS is developed by JAERI in order to carry out BNCT with epithermal neutron beam at present. The development and management situation of computational dosimetry system, which are developed and are used in BNCT facilities in foreign countries, were investigated in order to accurately grasp functions necessary for preparation of the treatment planning and its future subjects. In present state, 'SERA', which are developed by Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is used in many BNCT facilities. Followings are necessary for development and management of the treatment planning system. (1) Reliability confirmation of system performance by verification as comparison examination of calculated value with actual experimental measured value. (2) Confirmation systems such as periodic maintenance for retention of the system quality. (3) The improvement system, which always considered relative merits and demerits with other computational dosimetry system. (4) The development of integrated system with patient setting. (author)

  20. Design and Analysis of Microstrip Multi-Channeled Filter Using Photonic Crystal Branchy Defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A multi-channeled filter based on branchy defect in a microstrip photonic crystal was proposed. By introducing a branchy structure across the defect region, multiple defect modes will appear inside the photonic gap, leading to the multi-channeled filtering phenomenon. In comparison with the conventional multi-channeled filters, the proposed structure is more compact and tunable as far as the device volume and fabrication are concerned. The microwave experiment results are found in agreement with simulation results.

  1. Design and analysis of a photonic crystal fiber based polarization filter using surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogalakshmi, S.; Selvendran, S.; Sivanantha Raja, A.

    2016-05-01

    A photonic crystal fiber with an active metal nanowire is proposed to act as a polarization filter based on the principle of plasmonic resonance. The light launched into the silica core gets coupled to gold wire inducing surface plasmon resonance, filtering one of the two orthogonally polarized light waves in the third optical communication window. This polarization filtering characteristic is analyzed using the finite element method. The change in the performance behaviour of the proposed filter is investigated by increasing the number of embedded gold wires, altering their positions and varying the diameter of gold wire. It is found that enhanced absorption of the core guided mode is achieved by replacing the filled metal nanowire with a metal coating around the air hole. Filtering of any or both polarizations can be attained by suitably positioning the metal wires. Confinement loss as high as 348.55 and 302 dB cm-1 for y-polarized and x-polarized lights respectively are attained at 1.52 and 1.56 μm respectively for single gold wire. The filter acts as a single polarization filter filtering x-polarized light with a confinement loss value of 187.67 dB cm-1 when two gold nanowires are placed adjacently. The same structure acts as the filter for y-polarized light by employing gold coating exhibiting an increased confinement loss of 406.34 dB cm-1 at 1.64 μm.

  2. Moving Average Filter-Based Phase-Locked Loops: Performance Analysis and Design Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    The phase locked-loops (PLLs) are probably the most widely used synchronization technique in grid-connected applications. The main challenge associated with the PLLs is how to precisely and fast estimate the phase and frequency when the grid voltage is unbalanced and/or distorted. To overcome...... this challenge, incorporating moving average filter(s) (MAF) into the PLL structure has been proposed in some recent literature. A MAF is a linear-phase finite impulse response filter which can act as an ideal low-pass filter, if certain conditions hold. The main aim of this paper is to present the control...

  3. INEEL BNCT research program. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1996. Contributions from the individual investigators about their projects are included, specifically, physics: treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry, measurement of the Finnish research reactor epithermal neutron spectrum, BNCT accelerator technology; and chemistry: analysis of biological samples and preparation of 10B enriched decaborane

  4. Dosimetric feasibility study for an extracorporeal BNCT application on liver metastases at the TRIGA Mainz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaickner, M; Kratz, J V; Minouchehr, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L; Wortmann, B; Hampel, G

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the dosimetric feasibility of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of explanted livers in the thermal column of the research reactor in Mainz. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 is used to calculate the biologically weighted dose for different ratios of the (10)B-concentration in tumour to normal liver tissue. The simulation results show that dosimetric goals are only partially met. To guarantee effective BNCT treatment the organ has to be better shielded from all gamma radiation. PMID:21872481

  5. The Design of Digital Filter Based on MATLAB%基于MATLAB的数字滤波器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳

    2013-01-01

    This paper elaborates the digital filter by using the MATLAB, and realizes the filter design and simulation by using MAT-LAB language and tools. MATLAB language and MATLAB tools can design the digital filters symstem conveniently and quickly, so it can save many programming time, enhaces the programming efficiency, and the parameter revision is also convenient. It is favor-able to optimizing the filter design. It provides detailed steps for designing programs and interfaces by using the MATLAB.%该文阐述了利用MATLAB设计数字滤波器,并利用MATLAB语言和MATLAB工具包实现了滤波器的设计与仿真。MATLAB语言及MATLAB工具包均能方便、快速地设计出数字滤波器,可节省大量的编程时间,提高编程效率,且参数的修改也十分方便。该文给出了使用MATLAB语言进行程序设计和工具包设计的详细步骤。

  6. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05...; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1151 DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an...

  7. Role of Mutation Strategies of Differential Evolution Algorithm in Designing Hardware Efficient Multiplier-less Low-pass FIR Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Chandra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, system designers are becoming very much apprehensive in reducing the structural complexity of digital systems with which they deal in practice. However, the uncontrolled minimization of any digital hardware always leads to significant deterioration of system performance making it incompatible for use in any practical system. As proper trade-off is inevitably essential between achievable performance and required hardware, researchers have sought a number of artificially intelligent optimization techniques to solve it out. Since such a technique generally involves variety of constructional alternatives, appropriate use of correct option demands justified attention. Numerous evolutionary computation techniques, being a branch of biologically inspired optimization process, are being increasingly used for a number of signal processing applications of late. This paper throws enough light to select the most suitable mutation strategy of Differential Evolution (DE algorithm for efficient design of multiplier-less low-pass finite duration impulse response (FIR filter. Computationally efficient mutation scheme has been identified by observing convergence behavior and error histogram plot for different alternatives. Performance of the designed filter has been compared in terms of its magnitude response and the requirement of various hardware blocks for four different lengths of the filter. Consequently the name of the most favorable mutation rule has been suggested upon analyzing all the factors. Finally the supremacy of our proposed design has been established by comparing its performance with that of other state-of-the-art multiplier-less low-pass FIR filters.

  8. Voxel model in BNCT treatment planning: performance analysis and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sara J.; Carando, Daniel G.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Zamenhof, Robert G.

    2005-02-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been made to study the performance of treatment planning systems in deriving an accurate dosimetry of the complex radiation fields involved in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The computational model of the patient's anatomy is one of the main factors involved in this subject. This work presents a detailed analysis of the performance of the 1 cm based voxel reconstruction approach. First, a new and improved material assignment algorithm implemented in NCTPlan treatment planning system for BNCT is described. Based on previous works, the performances of the 1 cm based voxel methods used in the MacNCTPlan and NCTPlan treatment planning systems are compared by standard simulation tests. In addition, the NCTPlan voxel model is benchmarked against in-phantom physical dosimetry of the RA-6 reactor of Argentina. This investigation shows the 1 cm resolution to be accurate enough for all reported tests, even in the extreme cases such as a parallelepiped phantom irradiated through one of its sharp edges. This accuracy can be degraded at very shallow depths in which, to improve the estimates, the anatomy images need to be positioned in a suitable way. Rules for this positioning are presented. The skin is considered one of the organs at risk in all BNCT treatments and, in the particular case of cutaneous melanoma of extremities, limits the delivered dose to the patient. Therefore, the performance of the voxel technique is deeply analysed in these shallow regions. A theoretical analysis is carried out to assess the distortion caused by homogenization and material percentage rounding processes. Then, a new strategy for the treatment of surface voxels is proposed and tested using two different irradiation problems. For a parallelepiped phantom perpendicularly irradiated with a 5 keV neutron source, the large thermal neutron fluence deviation present at shallow depths (from 54% at 0 mm depth to 5% at 4 mm depth) is reduced to 2% on average

  9. Implementation and design of multifunction filter using multiply-output CCII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Jixing; Zheng Shibao; Liu Haiwen

    2005-01-01

    A novel filter built by multiply-output current conveyor II (MOCCII) is presented and analyzed which implements the low-pass, high-pass, band-reject and all-pass second order transfer functions simultaneously. With the passive elements grounded, the filter also displays low incremental parameter sensitivities.Spice simulation results are presented and support the theory.

  10. Design and implementation of a sub-nm resolution microspectrometer based on a Linear-Variable Optical Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Emadi, A.; Wu, H; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the concept of a microspectrometer based on a Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF) for operation in the visible spectrum is presented and used in two different designs: the first is for the narrow spectral band between 610 nm and 680 nm, whereas the other is for the wider spectral band between 570 nm and 740 nm. Design considerations, fabrication and measurement results of the LVOF are presented. An iterative signal processing algorithm based on an initial calibration has been ...

  11. Electromagnetic Simulation and Design of a Novel Waveguide RF Wien Filter for Electric Dipole Moment Measurements of Protons and Deuterons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, J.; Gebel, R.; Heberling, D.; Hinder, F.; Hölscher, D.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Mey, S.; Nass, A.; Rathmann, F.; Reifferscheidt, L.; Soltner, H.; Straatmann, H.; Trinkel, F.; Wolters, J.

    2016-08-01

    The conventional Wien filter is a device with orthogonal static magnetic and electric fields, often used for velocity separation of charged particles. Here we describe the electromagnetic design calculations for a novel waveguide RF Wien filter that will be employed to solely manipulate the spins of protons or deuterons at frequencies of about 0.1-2 MHz at the COoler SYnchrotron COSY at Jülich. The device will be used in a future experiment that aims at measuring the proton and deuteron electric dipole moments, which are expected to be very small. Their determination, however, would have a huge impact on our understanding of the universe.

  12. Electromagnetic Simulation and Design of a Novel Waveguide RF Wien Filter for Electric Dipole Moment Measurements of Protons and Deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Slim, J; Heberling, D; Hinder, F; Hölscher, D; Lehrach, A; Lorentz, B; Mey, S; Nass, A; Rathmann, F; Reifferscheidt, L; Soltner, H; Straatmann, H; Trinkel, F; Wolters, J

    2016-01-01

    The conventional Wien filter is a device with orthogonal static magnetic and electric fields, often used for velocity separation of charged particles. Here we describe the electromagnetic design calculations for a novel waveguide RF Wien filter that will be employed to solely manipulate the spins of protons or deuterons at frequencies of about 0.1 to 2 MHz at the COoler SYnchrotron COSY at J\\"ulich. The device will be used in a future experiment that aims at measuring the proton and deuteron electric dipole moments, which are expected to be very small. Their determination, however, would have a huge impact on our understanding of the universe.

  13. A Design of Paraunitary Polyphase Matrices of Rational Filter Banks Based on (P,Q) Shift-Invariant Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shinde, Sudarshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to design paraunitary polyphase matrices of critically sampled rational filter banks. The method is based on (P,Q) shift-invariant systems, and so any kind of rational splitting of the frequency spectrum can be achieved using this method. Ideal (P,Q) shift-invariant system with smallest P and Q that map of a band of input spectrum to the output spectrum are obtained. A new set of filters is obtained that characterize a (P,Q) shift-invariant system. Ideal freq...

  14. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M. [Univ. Hospital, State Univ. of New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains.

  15. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  16. TIDBIT - the INEL database of BNCT information and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, C.A.

    1995-11-01

    The INEL Database of BNCT Information and Treatment (TIDBIT) has been under development for several years. Late in 1993, a new software development team took over the project and did and assessment of the current implementation status, and determined that the user interface was unsatisfactory for the expected users and that the data structures were out of step with the current state of reality. The team evaluated several tools that would improve the user interface to make the system easier to use. Uniface turned out to be the product of choice. During 1994, TIDBIT got its name, underwent a complete change of appearance, had a major overhaul to the data structures that support the application, and system documentation was begun. A prototype of the system was demonstrated in September 1994.

  17. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  18. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  19. INEL BNCT research program, July--August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  20. INEL BNCT Research Program, March/April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murino screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronopheoylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  1. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  2. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  3. Transmission Phase Holography: Spatial-Mode Filter Design for Quantum Information Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Rachel; Barreiro, Julio; Kwiat, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Photon spatial modes offer access to promising new applications in quantum information because they provide a higher-dimensional basis set than the usual two-dimensional one associated with polarization. Downconversion experiments have demonstrated spatial-mode entanglement [1], and even hyperentanglement in polarization and spatial mode [2]. However optical elements currently lack the refinement necessary to perform efficient, high-fidelity operations using spatial modes. Holographic filters for Laguerre-Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussian laser modes can act as modes converters, and have long been studied (under the terms ``modans'' and ``kinoforms'') for use in electrical engineering applications [3,4]. Her we present analytical refinements and optimizations of these techniques, with predicted mode fidelities over 95% and diffraction efficiencies up to 98%. Results of our experimental implementions of these solutions are presented. [1] Walborn, S.P, et al, ``Entanglement and conservation of orbital angular momentum in spontaneous parametric down-conversion,'' Phys. Rev. A 69, 023811 (2004); [2] Barreiro, J.T. et al, ``Generation of Hyperentangled Photon Pairs,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 260501 (2005); [3] Soifer, V.A., ``Methods of Computer Design of Diffractive Optical Elements,'' John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002; [4] Golub, M. and Soifer, V., ``Laser Beam Mode Selection by Computer Generated Holograms,'' CRC Press, Inc., 1994.

  4. Design and Analysis of Multilayered Waveguide Structure With Metal-Dielectric Gratings for Sensing With Reflection Narrowband Notch Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiju ZHANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Developments in micro and nanofabrication technologies have led a variety of grating waveguide structures (GWS being proposed and implemented in optics and laser application systems. A new design of multilayered nanostructure double-grating is described for reflection notch filter. Thin metal film and dielectric film are used and designed with one-dimensional composite gratings. The results calculated by rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA present that the thin metal film between substrate and grating can produce significant attenuated reflections and efficiency in a broad reflected spectral range. The behavior of such a reflection filter is evaluated for refractive index sensing, which can be applied inside the integrated waveguide structure while succeeding cycles in measurement. The filter peaks are designed and obtained in a visible range with full width half maximum (FWHM of several nanometers to less than one nanometer. The multilayered structure shows a sensitivity of refractive index of 220nm/RIU as changing the surroundings. The reflection spectra are studied under different periods, depths and duty cycles. The passive structure and its characteristics can achieve practical applications in various fields, such as optical sensing, color filtering, Raman spectroscopy and laser technology.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9625

  5. Design of a Low-Power Universal Gm-C Filter in Sub-Threshold Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aghaei Jeshvaghani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a second order universal filter with the ability of electronically tuning central frequency (ω0 and quality factor (Q, based on the inverter as transconductance block which realizes multi-mode responses (voltage, current, transconductance, transresistance in sub-threshold region, is presented. Biasing transistors in sub-threshold region, reduces the power consumption of the proposed filter and the grounded capacitors are used to reduce the parasitic effects which is another advantage of the proposed filter circuit. Furthermore, low sensitivity of the performance of the proposed filter to the values of gmi , Ci is considered as another advantage of the proposed circuit. In addition, realizing the proposed filter based on the inverter circuit leads to a reduced value of layout area as well as power consumption. Finally, the proposed filter performance is simulated in HSPICE using 0.18 µm (LEVEL49 CMOS technology parameters. As it is shown in the paper, the proposed filter consumes only 64.69 nW power in a ±0.3V supply voltage.

  6. Synthesis and design of waveguide band-stop filters without out-of-band spurious responses for plasma diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montejo-Garai, Jose R., E-mail: jr@etc.upm.es [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Teoria de Circuitos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 20840 (Spain); Leal-Sevillano, Carlos A. [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Teoria de Circuitos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 20840 (Spain); Ruiz-Cruz, Jorge A. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/Fco. Tomas y Valiente 11, Madrid 28409 (Spain); Rebollar, Jesus M. [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Teoria de Circuitos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 20840 (Spain); Estrada, Teresa [T. Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rigorous systematic design process based on circuit synthesis is proposed for band-stop filters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new compact E-plane waveguide structure reduces drastically the unwanted resonances in a very large pass band. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The manufacturing process together with the computation effort is significantly reduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental results validate the state-of-art electrical responses. - Abstract: Band-stop or notch filters play a crucial role in plasma diagnosis systems to protect receivers from the stray radiation. In this work, a rigorous design process based on circuit synthesis in addition to an extremely compact E-plane waveguide structure is proposed for this kind of filters. On the one hand, the transfer function verifying the rejection specification is analytically obtained, fixing the minimum number of required cavities. On the other hand, a coupling structure that reduces drastically the unwanted resonances in filters with a very large pass band requirement, is presented. This coupling between the rejection cavities and the main rectangular waveguide has additional advantages; (a) unlike typical inductive irises, large coupling coefficients can be implemented (b) a pure E-plane configuration is achieved, which simplifies the manufacturing and also reduces significantly the computational effort. Experimental validation is demonstrated by two pseudo-elliptic fifth-order band-stop filters fabricated and measured in Ka and V bands. In both cases, the filters are free of spurious resonances in their total operation bands.

  7. Design of Folded Multilayer Microstrip Tri-Band Hairpin Band Pass Filter

    OpenAIRE

    K. Vidhya; T. Jayanthy

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel approach for realizing miniaturized multi layer folded tri band micro-strip band pass filter for Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Worldwide interoperatability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) applications. The proposed filter consists of a pair of folded hairpin stepped impedance resonators and pair of open loop resonators to achieve tri-band performance. The size of the folded micro-strip tri-band filter is reduced by nearly 60% due to the structural folding arr...

  8. Design of Filter for a Class of Switched Linear Neutral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyun Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the filtering problem for a class of switched linear neutral systems with time-varying delays. The time-varying delays appear not only in the state but also in the state derivatives. Based on the average dwell time approach and the piecewise Lyapunov functional technique, sufficient conditions are proposed for the exponential stability of the filtering error dynamic system. Then, the corresponding solvability condition for a desired filter satisfying a weighted performance is established. All the conditions obtained are delay-dependent. Finally, two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed theory.

  9. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats Introduction: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on selective tumor uptake of boron compounds, followed by neutron irradiation. BNCT was proposed for the treatment of unresectable, diffuse lung metastases. The aim of the present study was to perform BNCT studies in an experimental model of lung metastases. Materials and Methods: 3 x 106/0.5 ml colon carcinoma cells (DHD/K12/TRb) were injected iv in syngeneic BDIX rats. Three weeks post-inoculation, rats with diffuse lung metastases were used for in vivo BNCT studies in the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Based on previous biodistribution studies and computational dosimetry with Monte Carlo simulation, 2 doses were prescribed, i.e. 4 Gy and 8 Gy minimum absorbed dose to tumor. The animals were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n= 4 to 8) at each dose level: T0 (euthanized pre-treatment), BPA-BNCT, Comb-BNCT (BPA+GB-10), Beam only (background dose) and Sham (same manipulation, no treatment). Boron concentration was measured in a blood sample taken pre-irradiation to verify that the value was in the range established in previous biodistribution studies. The animals were followed clinically for 2 weeks after neutron irradiation and then euthanized to assess the response of tumor and normal lung, macroscopically and histologically. To date we have evaluated the end-point weight of lung (normal lung + metastases) and % lung weight/body weight as an indicator of tumor growth. Results: The statistical analysis (ANOVA) of % lung weight/body weight showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between groups T0 (0.79 ± 0.38) and Sham (1.87 ± 0.91). No statistically significant differences were observed between the Beam only groups (at both dose levels) and Sham. Similar and statistically significant tumor control was induced in the groups BPA-BNCT Low dose (LD) (0.56 ± 0.11), BPA-BNCT High dose (HD) (0.80 ± 0.16), Comb-BNCT

  10. Passive Filter Design and Offshore Wind Turbine Modelling for System Level Harmonic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Brantsæter, Henrik; Kocewiak, Łukasz; Tedeschi, Elisabetta; Årdal, Atle Rygg

    2015-01-01

    This paper is aimed at creating a framework for harmonic studies of an offshore wind power plant by means of system level time domain simulations. Many modern wind turbine generators employ full-scale power electronic converters, thus the filter connected between the power electronic converter and grid becomes a key aspect. The main contribution of the paper is a comparison between eight LCL-filter configurations. The 400 MW Anholt offshore wind power plant offthe coast of Denmark, a...

  11. Design of a Low-Power Universal Gm-C Filter in Sub-Threshold Region

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aghaei Jeshvaghani; Mehdi Dolatshahi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a second order universal filter with the ability of electronically tuning central frequency (ω0) and quality factor (Q), based on the inverter as transconductance block which realizes multi-mode responses (voltage, current, transconductance, transresistance) in sub-threshold region, is presented. Biasing transistors in sub-threshold region, reduces the power consumption of the proposed filter and the grounded capacitors are used to reduce the parasitic effects which is another ...

  12. Design of CDBA-based active polyphase filter for low-IF receiver applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sağbaş, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    A novel first-order active-RC polyphase filter section, using current differencing buffered amplifiers (CDBAs), is presented. The section uses 6 resistors, 2 capacitors, and 2 CDBAs. The transfer function of the proposed section has a single pole and optionally a single zero. Increasing the number of cascading sections, any higher order polyphase filter can be realized. This paper also introduces the leakage caused by element deviation and the effects of the amplifier in nonideal ca...

  13. Analysis of design parameters for crosstalk cancellation filters applied to different loudspeaker configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2011-01-01

    for crosstalk cancellation filters applied to different loudspeaker configurations has not yet been addressed systematically. A study of three different inversion techniques applied to several loudspeaker arrangements is documented. Least-squares approximations in the frequency and time domains are evaluated......Several approaches to render binaural signals through loudspeakers have been proposed in the past decades. Some studies have focused on the optimum loudspeaker arrangement whereas others have proposed more efficient filters. However, to our knowledge the identification of optimum parameters...

  14. Analysis of design parameters for crosstalk cancellation filters applied to different loudspeaker configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parodi, Yesenia Lacouture

    2008-01-01

    loudspeaker arrangements. Least square approximations in frequency and time domain are evaluated along with a crosstalk canceler based on minimum-phase approximation. Filter parameters, such as length and regularization, are varied and simulated for different span and elevation angles.......Several approaches to render binaural signals through loudspeakers have been proposed previously. Some studies had focused on the optimum loudspeaker arrangement while others had proposed efficient filters. However, to our knowledge, the identification of optimal parameters for inverse methods...

  15. Nonlinear stochastic systems with network-induced phenomena recursive filtering and sliding-mode design

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Jun; Gao, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces methods for handling filtering and control problems in nonlinear stochastic systems arising from network-induced phenomena consequent on limited communication capacity. Such phenomena include communication delay, packet dropout, signal quantization or saturation, randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring uncertainties.The text is self-contained, beginning with an introduction to nonlinear stochastic systems, network-induced phenomena and filtering and control, moving through a collection of the latest research results which focuses on the three aspects

  16. Band-Pass and OH-Suppression Filters for the E-ELT - Design and Prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Guenster, S.; Ristau, D.; Davies, R.

    2011-01-01

    Optical filters are used for a variety of purposes at astronomical telescopes. In the near infrared region, from 0.8 to 2.5 um, bandpass and edge filters are used to separate the different astronomical channels, such as the J, H, and K bands. However, in the same wavelength range light emission generated in the earth's atmosphere is superimposed on the stellar radiation. Therefore, ground based astronomical instruments measure, in addition to the stellar light, also unwanted contributions fro...

  17. Numerical and experimental design of ultrasonic particle filters for water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cappon, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Due to limited water resources available in the world and the ever growing world population, there is an increasing need for water recycling, recovery and multi-sourcing strategies. One of the new physical process technologies being investigated for water purification and/or constituent recycling is ultrasonic particle separation. This technology is especially interesting for harvesting particles with an almost neutral buoyancy. An ultrasonic particle filter does not use a filter medium, like...

  18. First clinical results on the finnish study on BPA-mediated BNCT in glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanranta, L. [Helsinki University Hospital, Dept. of Oncology, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaelae, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Kallio, M. [Helsinki University Hospital, Dept. of Neurology, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    2000-10-01

    An open phase I dose-escalation boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) study on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was initiated at the BNCT facility FiR 1, Espoo, Finland, in May 1999. The aim of the study is to investigate the safety of boronophenylalanine (BPA)-mediated BNCT. Ten GBM patients were treated with a 2-field treatment plan using one fraction. BPA-F was used as the {sup 10}B carrier infused as a fructose solution 290 mg BPA/kg over 2-hours prior to irradiation with epithermal neutrons. Average doses to the normal brain, contrast enhancing tumour, and the target ranged from 3.0 to 5.6 Gy (W), from 35.1 to 66.7 Gy (W), and from 29.6 to 53.6 Gy (W), respectively. BNCT was associated with acceptable toxicity. The median follow-up is 9 months (range, 3 to 16 months) post diagnosis in July 2000. Seven of the 10 patients have recurrent or persistent GBM, and the median time to progression is 8 months. Only one patient has died, and the estimated 1-year overall survival is 86%. Five of the recurrent tumours were treated with external beam photon radiation therapy to the total dose of 30-40 Gy with few acute side-effects. These preliminary findings suggest that acute toxicity of BPA-mediated BNCT is acceptable when average brain doses of 5.6 Gy (W) or less are used. The followup time is too short to evaluate survival, but the estimated 1-year survival of 86% achieved with BNCT followed by conventional photon irradiation at the time of tumour progression is encouraging and emphasises the need of further investigation of BPA-mediated BNCT. (author)

  19. Complex Membership Grades with an Application to the Design of Adaptive Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Moses

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, complex membership grades are introduced for the extension of fuzzy set theory to the complex domain. This model is based on the idea of viewing the complex domain in a linguistic manner, where two linguistic terms are required to define an object. Thus, as opposed to Buckley's model, after fuzzification the two- dimensionality of the universe of discourse is still apparent. One form for representing a complex fuzzy set is using the Cartesian Complex Fuzzy Set representation, which produces complex sets of the form [Z\\tilde]c = [X\\tilde] + j[Y\\tilde]. The motivation for this aberrant representation is oriented from the limitations in using a direct extension to Zadeh, that Buckley introduced. These limitations pose the guidelines for Complex Membership Grades and, therefore, are initially discussed in this paper. Complex Fuzzy Sets are defined and a technique for converting between Complex Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Relations is developed based on Cylindrical Extensions and Projections defined by Zadeh. Next, linguistic coordinate transformations are discussed and exemplified by a rule-base coordinate transformation between Polar and Cartesian Complex Fuzzy Sets. Arithmetic operations and defuzzification are demonstrated. The simplicity of these latter operations is crucial when considering implementation prospects. Finally, Complex Membership Grades are applied to the design of adaptive filters. It is shown that a logically derived rule-base can be described, using the linguistic complex domain, for the adaptation process. Emphasis, in this part, is put on the unique characteristics of the complex membership grades model.

  20. Design and Delivery of a Filter for Removal of Siloxanes from the ISS Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Kayatin, Matthew; Perry, Jay; Agui, Juan; Green, Robert; Gentry, Gregory; Bowman, Elizabeth; Wilson, Mark; Rector, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) has been identified as a problematic chemical contaminant aboard ISS. This contaminant was initially identified in the ISS condensate and in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) product water in 2010 when an increasing total organic carbon (TOC) trend was detected in the water produced by the WPA. DMSD is not a crew health hazard at the levels observed in the product water, but it may degrade the performance of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) which uses product produced by the WPA for electrolysis. In addition, DMSD can prevent the effective operation of the WPA catalytic reactor, and necessitates early replacement of Multifiltration Beds in the WPA. An investigation into the source of DMSD has determined that polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs) are hydrolyzing in the Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) to form DMSD. PDMSs are prevalent aboard ISS from a variety of sources, including crew hygiene products, adhesives, caulks, lubricants, and various nonmetallics. TPDMSs are also implicated in CHX hydrophilic coating degradation, rendering it hydrophobic and adversely affecting its ability to effectively transmit water to the condensate bus. Eventually this loss in performance results in water droplets in the air flow out of the CHX core, which can lead to microbial growth in the air ducts and can impact the performance of downstream systems. Design concepts have now been developed for removing PDMS in the air stream before it can reach the CHX core, thus preventing degradation of the coating and decomposition of the PDMS to DMSD. This paper summarizes the current status of the effort to deliver filters to ISS for removing PDMSs from the atmosphere before they can adversely impact the performance of the CHX coating and the WPA.

  1. T-S Fuzzy Model-Based Approximation and Filter Design for Stochastic Time-Delay Systems with Hankel Norm Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the Hankel norm filter design problem for stochastic time-delay systems, which are represented by Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy model. Motivated by the parallel distributed compensation (PDC technique, a novel filtering error system is established. The objective is to design a suitable filter that guarantees the corresponding filtering error system to be mean-square asymptotically stable and to have a specified Hankel norm performance level γ. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and the Itô differential rule, the Hankel norm criterion is first established by adopting the integral inequality method, which can make some useful efforts in reducing conservativeness. The Hankel norm filtering problem is casted into a convex optimization problem with a convex linearization approach, which expresses all the conditions for the existence of admissible Hankel norm filter as standard linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated via a numerical example.

  2. Low Power Architecture Design of De-Blocking Filter and Hardware Implementations in H.264/AVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. T. Priyadarsini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive in-loop de-blocking filter (DF is standardized in H.264/AVC to reduce blocking artifacts and improve compression efficiency. This paper proposes a low power DF architecture with hybrid and intelligent edge skip filtering order. We further adopt a four-stage pipeline to boost the speed of DF process and the proposed Horizontal Edge Skip Processing Architecture (HESPA offers an edge skip aware mechanism for filtering the horizontal edges that not only reduces power consumption but also reduces the filtering processes down to 100 clock cycles per macro block (MB. In addition, the architecture utilizes the buffers efficiently to store the temporary data without affecting the standard defined data dependency by a reasonable strategy of edge filtering order to enhance the reusability of the intermediate data. The system throughput can then be improved and the power consumption can also be reduced. Simulation results show that more than 34% of logic power measured in FPGA can be saved when the proposed HESPA is enabled. Furthermore, the proposed architecture is implemented on a 0.18μm standard cell library, which consumes 19.8K gates at a clock frequency of 200 MHz, which compares competitively with other state-of-the-art works in terms of hardware cost

  3. Designing clutter rejection filters with complex coefficients for airborne pulsed Doppler weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamora, Dennis A.

    1993-01-01

    Ground clutter interference is a major problem for airborne pulse Doppler radar operating at low altitudes in a look-down mode. With Doppler zero set at the aircraft ground speed, ground clutter rejection filtering is typically accomplished using a high-pass filter with real valued coefficients and a stopband notch centered at zero Doppler. Clutter spectra from the NASA Wind Shear Flight Experiments of l991-1992 show that the dominant clutter mode can be located away from zero Doppler, particularly at short ranges dominated by sidelobe returns. Use of digital notch filters with complex valued coefficients so that the stopband notch can be located at any Doppler frequency is investigated. Several clutter mode tracking algorithms are considered to estimate the Doppler frequency location of the dominant clutter mode. From the examination of night data, when a dominant clutter mode away from zero Doppler is present, complex filtering is able to significantly increase clutter rejection over use of a notch filter centered at zero Doppler.

  4. Accelerator based-boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)-clinical QA and QC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-particle and recoil Li atom yielded by the reaction (10B, n), due to their high LET properties, efficiently and specifically kill the cancer cell that has incorporated the boron. Efficacy of this boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been demonstrated mainly in the treatment of recurrent head/neck and malignant brain cancers in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). As the clinical trial of BNCT is to start from 2009 based on an accelerator (not on the Reactor), this paper describes the tentative outline of the standard operation procedure of BNCT for its quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) along the flow of its clinical practice. Personnel concerned in the practice involve the attending physician, multiple physicians in charge of BNCT, medical physicists, nurses and reactor stuff. The flow order of the actual BNCT is as follows: Pre-therapeutic evaluation mainly including informed consent and confirmation of the prescription; Therapeutic planning including setting of therapy volume, and of irradiation axes followed by meeting for stuffs' agreement, decision of irradiating field in the irradiation room leading to final decision of the axis, CT for the planning, decision of the final therapeutic plan according to Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) and meeting of all related personnel for the final confirmation of therapeutic plan; and BNCT including the transport of patient to KUR, dripping of boronophenylalanine, setting up of the patient on the machine, blood sampling for pharmacokinetics, boron level measurement for decision of irradiating time, switch on/off of the accelerator, confirmation of patient's movement in the irradiated field after the neutron irradiation, blood sampling for confirmation of the boron level, and patient's leave from the room. The QA/QC check is principally to be conducted with the two-person rule. The purpose of the clinical trial is to establish the usefulness of BNCT, and

  5. Broadband Microwave Filters Based on Open Split Ring Resonators (OSRRs) and Open Complementary Split Ring Resonators (OCSRRs): Improved Models and Design Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    J. Bonache; Duran-Sindreu, M.; Velez, P; Martin, F.

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on the design of broadband bandpass filters at microwave frequencies. The proposed filters are based on a combination of open split ring resonators (OSRRs) and open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs) loaded in a host transmission line. Since these resonators (OSRRs and OCSRRs) are electrically small, the resulting filters are compact. As compared to previous papers by the authors on this topic, the main aim and originality of the present paper is to demonstrate ...

  6. A novel non-linear recursive filter design for extracting high rate pulse features in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Salar; Kamal Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammad R; Farahani, Mohammad H; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-06-01

    Applications in imaging and spectroscopy rely on pulse processing methods for appropriate data generation. Often, the particular method utilized does not highly impact data quality, whereas in some scenarios, such as in the presence of high count rates or high frequency pulses, this issue merits extra consideration. In the present study, a new approach for pulse processing in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy is introduced and evaluated. The new non-linear recursive filter (NLRF) performs nonlinear processing of the input signal and extracts the main pulse characteristics, having the powerful ability to recover pulses that would ordinarily result in pulse pile-up. The filter design defines sampling frequencies lower than the Nyquist frequency. In the literature, for systems involving NaI(Tl) detectors and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), with a signal bandwidth considered as 15 MHz, the sampling frequency should be at least 30 MHz (the Nyquist rate), whereas in the present work, a sampling rate of 3.3 MHz was shown to yield very promising results. This was obtained by exploiting the known shape feature instead of utilizing a general sampling algorithm. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed filter enhances count rates in spectroscopy. With this filter, the system behaves almost identically as a general pulse detection system with a dead time considerably reduced to the new sampling time (300 ns). Furthermore, because of its unique feature for determining exact event times, the method could prove very useful in time-of-flight PET imaging.

  7. Comparison of Intelligent Algorithms for Economically Optimum Harmonic Passive Filter Design in Radial Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimal planning of harmonic passive filters in distribution system using three intelligent methods including genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, artificial bee colony (ABC and as a new research is compared with biogeography based optimization (BBO algorithm. In this work, the considered objective function is to minimize the value of investment cost of filters and total harmonic distortion of three-phase current. It is shown that through an economical placement and sizing of LC passive filters the total voltage harmonic distortion and cost could be minimized simultaneously. BBO is a novel evolutionary algorithm that is based on the mathematics of biogeography. In the BBO model, problem solutions are represented as islands, and the sharing of features between solutions is represented as immigration and emigration between the islands. The simulation results show that the proposed method is efficient for solving the presented problem.

  8. BDTPS The BNCT Treatment Planning System jointly developed at DIMNP and JRC/IE

    CERN Document Server

    Daquino, G G; Mazzini, M; Moss, R; Muzi, L; International Workshop on "Neutron Capture Therapy: State of the art"

    2003-01-01

    The idea to couple the Treatment Planning System (TPS) to the information on the real boron distribution in the patient is the main added value of the new methodology set-up at DIMNP of University of Pisa, in collaboration with the JRC of Petten (NL). The methodology has been implemented in the new TPS, called BDTPS (Boron Distribution Treatment Planning System), which takes into account the actual boron distribution in the patient brain, while the standard TPS assumes a uniform boron distribution, absolutely far from the reality. Nowadays, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is able to provide this in vivo information. The new TPS, based on the Monte Carlo technique, has been validated comparing the main BNCT parameters (thermal flux, boron dose, etc.) as measured during the irradiation of a special heterogeneous boron phantom (HEBOM), ad hoc designed, as calculated by the BDTPS and by the standard TPS SERA. An evident SERA overestimation of the thermal neutron flux, as well as the boron dose, has been detect...

  9. Development of an accelerator-based BNCT facility at the Berkeley Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accelerator-based BNCT facility is under construction at the Berkeley Lab. An electrostatic-quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator is under development for the production of neutrons via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction at proton energies between 2.3 and 2.5 MeV. A novel type of power supply, an air-core coupled transformer power supply, is being built for the acceleration of beam currents exceeding 50 mA. A metallic lithium target has been developed for handling such high beam currents. Moderator, reflector and neutron beam delimiter have extensively been modeled and designs have been identified which produce epithermal neutron spectra sharply peaked between 10 and 20 keV. These. neutron beams are predicted to deliver significantly higher doses to deep seated brain tumors, up to 50% more near the midline of the brain than is possible with currently available reactor beams. The accelerator neutron source will be suitable for future installation at hospitals

  10. Design, construction and operation of bio-filters for odour control sewage treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitner, D.; Gethke, H.G. (G+E Umwelttechnologie GmbH, Aachen (DE))

    1987-01-01

    It is known from waste water technology that the micro-organisms existing in a clarification plant under living conditions as optimal as possible, are capable of decomposing pollution in waste water. This knowledge has been used to search for low-cost waste air treatment technologies. Odour substances of a waste air are decomposed by microbial procedures. The possibility of biological waste air clarification by means of bio-filter plants or compost filter plants is discussed in this paper. There are indications of this technology as early as in the year 1928. Technical progress can be noted with this technology, as well.

  11. Optimal Gaussian Filter for Effective Noise Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Kopparapu, Sunil; Satish, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that the knowledge of noise statistics contaminating a signal can be effectively used to choose an optimal Gaussian filter to eliminate noise. Very specifically, we show that the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) contaminating a signal can be filtered best by using a Gaussian filter of specific characteristics. The design of the Gaussian filter bears relationship with the noise statistics and also some basic information about the signal. We first derive a relationship...

  12. Effect of different BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissues in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported the therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in the treatment of oral cancer, employing the hamster cheek pouch model. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissue in this model and assess the potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue. The data are relevant to potential control of field cancerized tissue and tolerance of normal tissue. We evaluated DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal pouch tissue 1-30 days post-BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or BPA + GB-10 employing incorporation of bromo-deoxyuridine as an end-point. The BNCT-induced potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue was monitored. A drastic, statistically significant reduction in DNA synthesis occurred in pacancerous tissue as early as 1 day post-BNCT and was sustained at virtually all time points until 30 days post-BNCT for all protocols. The histological categories evaluated individually within precancerous tissue (dysplasia, hyperplasia and NUMF [no unusual microscopic features]) responded similarly. DNA synthesis in normal tissue treated with BNCT oscillated around the very low pre-treatment values. A BNCT-induced lag in the development of second primary tumors was observed. BNCT induced a drastic fall in DNA synthesis in precancerous tissue that would be associated to the observed lag in the development of second primary tumors. The minimum variations in DNA synthesis in BNCT-treated normal tissue would correlate with the absence of normal tissue radiotoxicity. The present data would contribute to optimize therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of field-cancerized areas. (author)

  13. The Application of the FDTD Method to Millimeter-Wave Filter Circuits Including the Design and Analysis of a Compact Coplanar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, J. E.; Siegel, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is applied to the analysis of microwave, millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave filter circuits. In each case, the validity of this method is confirmed by comparison with measured data. In addition, the FDTD calculations are used to design a new ultra-thin coplanar-strip filter for feeding a THz planar-antenna mixer.

  14. Design for sustainable development--household drinking water filter for arsenic and pathogen treatment in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Tommy K K; Shrestha, Roshan R; Dangol, Bipin; Maharjan, Makhan; Murcott, Susan E

    2007-10-01

    In the last 20 years, the widespread adoption of shallow tubewells in Nepal Terai region enabled substantial improvement in access to water, but recent national water quality testing showed that 3% of these sources contain arsenic above the Nepali interim guideline of 50 microg/L, and up to 60% contain unsafe microbial contamination. To combat this crisis, MIT, ENPHO and CAWST together researched, developed and implemented a household water treatment technology by applying an iterative, learning development framework. A pilot study comparing 3 technologies against technical, social, and economic criteria showed that the Kanchan Arsenic Filter (KAF) is the most promising technology for Nepal. A two-year technical and social evaluation of over 1000 KAFs deployed in rural villages of Nepal determined that the KAF typically removes 85-90% arsenic, 90-95% iron, 80-95% turbidity, and 85-99% total coliforms. Then 83% of the households continued to use the filter after 1 year, mainly motivated by the clean appearance, improved taste, and reduced odour of the filtered water, as compared to the original water source. Although over 5,000 filters have been implemented in Nepal by January 2007, further research rooted in sustainable development is necessary to understand the technology diffusion and scale-up process, in order to expand access to safe water in the country and beyond.

  15. Sufficient Condition for Estimation in Designing H∞ Filter-Based SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aqilah Othman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Kalman filter (EKF is often employed in determining the position of mobile robot and landmarks in simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM. Nonetheless, there are some disadvantages of using EKF, namely, the requirement of Gaussian distribution for the state and noises, as well as the fact that it requires the smallest possible initial state covariance. This has led researchers to find alternative ways to mitigate the aforementioned shortcomings. Therefore, this study is conducted to propose an alternative technique by implementing H∞ filter in SLAM instead of EKF. In implementing H∞ filter in SLAM, the parameters of the filter especially γ need to be properly defined to prevent finite escape time problem. Hence, this study proposes a sufficient condition for the estimation purposes. Two distinct cases of initial state covariance are analysed considering an indoor environment to ensure the best solution for SLAM problem exists along with considerations of process and measurement noises statistical behaviour. If the prescribed conditions are not satisfied, then the estimation would exhibit unbounded uncertainties and consequently results in erroneous inference about the robot and landmarks estimation. The simulation results have shown the reliability and consistency as suggested by the theoretical analysis and our previous findings.

  16. Optimal Design of High-Order Passive-Damped Filters for Grid-Connected Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2016-01-01

    Harmonic stability problems caused by the resonance of high-order filters in power electronic systems are ever increasing. The use of passive damping does provide a robust solution to address these issues, but at the price of reduced efficiency due to the presence of additional passive components...

  17. Design of gas filter separator%气体过滤分离器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓军; 谢珂

    2001-01-01

    介绍了气体过滤分离器的功能及分离原理,详细阐述了该设备的结构特点及其工艺定尺计算。%The function and working principle of the gas filter separatorare introduced.And its advantages in construction and processing calculation are expounded.

  18. 集成滤波器优化设计新方法%A New Method for Optimization Design of Integrated Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 陈丹丹; 赵俊杰; 张磊昂

    2012-01-01

    In case to high sensitivity and wild fluctuaion problems which appeared in the design procedure of integrated filter, the study takes LC ladcler-lype filter as design prototype and optimizes the transfer function by applying the design margin which is generated by rounding the filter order to the nearest integer. Ry optimizing the the analytical formula for the low-pass filler design, it could receive the best analytical formulas of filter design. By utilizing Bruton transformation, it could transfer analog IX ladder-type filter into low-sensitivity integrated active filter. Simulation results .show that integrated filter which obtained by optimized design method not only has the advantage of low sensitivity as LC ladder-type filter, but also could improve the bandpass fluctuating range of filter without any increase in filter order number.%针对集成滤波器设计中灵敏度高,波动大的问题,以LC梯形滤波器为设计原型,利用滤波器设计阶数上取整后带来的设计余量优化传递函数.通过对低通滤波器设计解析公式的优化,得到了滤波器设计的最佳解析公式.借助Bruton变换,可使模拟LC梯形滤波器转化成低灵敏度集成有源滤波器.仿真实验表明,利用该优化设计方法得到的集成滤波器,不仅具有LC梯形滤波器元件变化灵敏度低的优点,又在不增加滤波器阶数的情况下,改善了滤波器通带波动范围.

  19. Designing Programme Implementation Strategies to Increase the Adoption and Use of Biosand Water Filters in Rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy K.K. Ngai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost household water treatment systems are innovations designed to improve the quality of drinking water at the point of use. This study investigates how an NGO can design appropriate programme strategies in order to increase the adoption and sustained use of household sand filters in rural India. A system dynamics computer model was developed and used to assess 18 potential programme strategies for their effectiveness in increasing filter use at two and ten years into the future, under seven scenarios of how the external context may plausibly evolve. The results showed that the optimal choice of strategy is influenced by the macroeconomic situation, donor funding, presence of alternative options, and the evaluation time frame. The analysis also revealed some key programme management challenges, including the trade-off between optimising short- or long-term gains, and counter-intuitive results, such as higher subsidy fund allocation leading to fewer filter distribution, and technology advances leading to fewer sales. This study outlines how an NGO can choose effective strategies in consideration of complex system interactions. This study demonstrated that small NGOs can dramatically increase their programme outcomes without necessarily increasing operational budget.

  20. Orientation Capture of a Walker’s Leg Using Inexpensive Inertial Sensors with Optimized Complementary Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Andersson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerometers and gyroscope are often referred to as inertial sensors. They detect movement and are used for motion tracking systems in many fields. In recent years they have become much smaller, lighter and cheaper which makes them attractive for use in consumer electronics. The goal of this research is to use all these advantages to create a cheap, low cost and accurate motion tracking system. The system that will be developed is using two pairs of accelerometer + gyroscope sensors which communicates with an iOS device using BLE. The sensors are attached to a persons leg to capture the orientation of the leg while walking or running. Studying the movements of a persons leg can be useful regarding both performance and health aspects. To create the system, usage of inertial sensors and how to combine their data using the complementary filter have been studied. Further, several experiments were made to optimize the filter design for this kind of movement. The results shows how the orientation estimation differs in accuracy depending on different values of how the filter is designed. However, by using the right values, a fairly accurate orientation of the leg can be estimated which is proved by the simple visualization of the iOS application.