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Sample records for bn-600 hybrid core

  1. BN-600 hybrid core benchmark analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.I.; Stanculescu, A.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.N.; Grimm, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Benchmark analyses for the hybrid BN-600 reactor that contains three uranium enrichment zones and one plutonium zone in the core, have been performed within the frame of an IAEA sponsored Coordinated Research Project. The results for several relevant reactivity parameters obtained by the participants with their own state-of-the-art basic data and codes, were compared in terms of calculational uncertainty, and their effects on the ULOF transient behavior of the hybrid BN-600 core were evaluated. The comparison of the diffusion and transport results obtained for the homogeneous representation generally shows good agreement for most parameters between the RZ and HEX-Z models. The burnup effect and the heterogeneity effect on most reactivity parameters also show good agreement for the HEX-Z diffusion and transport theory results. A large difference noticed for the sodium and steel density coefficients is mainly due to differences in the spatial coefficient predictions for non fuelled regions. The burnup reactivity loss was evaluated to be 0.025 (4.3 $) within ∼ 5.0% standard deviation. The heterogeneity effect on most reactivity coefficients was estimated to be small. The heterogeneity treatment reduced the control rod worth by 2.3%. The heterogeneity effect on the k-eff and control rod worth appeared to differ strongly depending on the heterogeneity treatment method. A substantial spread noticed for several reactivity coefficients did not give a significant impact on the transient behavior prediction. This result is attributable to compensating effects between several reactivity effects and the specific design of the partially MOX fuelled hybrid core. (author)

  2. Joint European contribution to phase 5 of the BN600 hybrid reactor benchmark core analysis (European ERANOS formulaire for fast reactor core analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimpault, G.

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid UOX/MOX fueled core of the BN-600 reactor was endorsed as an international benchmark. BFS-2 critical facility was designed for full size simulation of core and shielding of large fast reactors (up tp 3000 MWe). Wide experimental programme including measurements of criticality, fission rates, rod worths, and SVRE was established. Four BFS-62 critical assemblies have been designed to study changes in BN-600 reactor physics-when moving to a hybrid MOX core. BFS-62-3A assembly is a full scale model of the BN-600 reactor hybrid core. it consists of three regions of UO 2 fuel, axial and radial fertile blankets, MOX fuel added in a ring between MC and OC zones, 120 deg sector of stainless steel reflector included within radial blanket. Joint European contribution to the Phase 5 benchmark analysis was performed by Serco Assurance Winfrith (UK) and CEA Cadarache (France). Analysis was carried out using Version 1.2 of the ERANOS code; and data system for advanced and fast reactor core applications. Nuclear data is based on the JEF2.2 nuclear data evaluation (including sodium). Results for Phase 5 of the BN-600 benchmark have been determined for criticality and SVRE in both diffusion and transport theory. Full details of the results are presented in a paper posted on the IAEA Business Collaborator website nad a brief summary is provided in this paper

  3. Neutronic safety parameters of the BN-600 type reactor with hybrid core. Diffusion and transport approach. R-Z homogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherny, V.; Danilytchev, A.; Korobeinikov, V.; Korobeinikova, L.; Stogov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper includes the results of neutronic safety calculations of the BN-600 hybrid core benchmark problem. Results presented include: multiplication factors, Doppler coefficients, fuel and structure density coefficients, expansion coefficients, power distribution, beta-effective values, reaction rate distributions

  4. Joint European contribution to phases 1 and 2 of the BN600 hybrid reactor benchmark core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimpault, Gerald; Newton, Tim; Smith, Peter

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the ERANOS code developed within the European cooperation on fast reactors. Reference scheme and ERANOS code validation are included. The method for BN-600 reactor core analysis and the results of phases 1 and two are presented. They include effective multiplication factors, fuel Doppler constants; steel Doppler constants; sodium density coefficient; steel density coefficients; fuel density coefficient; absorber density coefficient; axial and radial expansion coefficients; dynamic parameters; power distribution; beta and neutron life time; reaction rate distribution

  5. Experimental and calculating substantiation of reactivity balance and energy-release distribution in BN-600 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, A.V.; Khomyakov, Yu.S.; Surov, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical work done in 2003-2010 years on substantiation of neutron-physical characteristics of the BN-600 core. 1. Transition to the new core 01M2 with high burnup 11.2% h.a. (the 4-th upgrade of the BN-600 core). Transfer was made without changing the constructive of the core almost by reducing conservatism of design decisions. 2. The end of BN-600 design life cycle and extending it to 10-15 years. Need for analysis and comprehension of the BN-600 experience. 3. Development and introduction of new methods of analysis (precision method of Monte Carlo). 4. In the experiments was a change of equipment and measurement techniques

  6. Preliminary analysis of the proposed BN-600 benchmark core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research is actively involved in the design of Fast Power Reactors in India. The core physics calculations are performed by the computer codes that are developed in-house or by the codes obtained from other laboratories and suitably modified to meet the computational requirements. The basic philosophy of the core physics calculations is to use the diffusion theory codes with the 25 group nuclear cross sections. The parameters that are very sensitive is the core leakage, like the power distribution at the core blanket interface etc. are calculated using transport theory codes under the DSN approximations. All these codes use the finite difference approximation as the method to treat the spatial variation of the neutron flux. Criticality problems having geometries that are irregular to be represented by the conventional codes are solved using Monte Carlo methods. These codes and methods have been validated by the analysis of various critical assemblies and calculational benchmarks. Reactor core design procedure at IGCAR consists of: two and three dimensional diffusion theory calculations (codes ALCIALMI and 3DB); auxiliary calculations, (neutron balance, power distributions, etc. are done by codes that are developed in-house); transport theory corrections from two dimensional transport calculations (DOT); irregular geometry treated by Monte Carlo method (KENO); cross section data library used CV2M (25 group)

  7. BN600 reactivity definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltyshev, V.; Ivanov, A.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, the fast BN600 reactor with sodium coolant has been operated at Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant. The periodic monitoring of the reactivity modifications should be implemented in compliance with the standards and regulations applied in nuclear power engineering. The reactivity measurements are carried out in order to confirm the basic neutronic features of a BN600 reactor. The reactivity measurements are aimed to justify that nuclear safety is provided in course of the in-reactor installation of the experimental core components. Two reactivity meters are to be used on BN600 operation: 1. Digital on-line reactivity calculated under stationary reactor operation on power (approximation of the point-wise kinetics is applied). 2. Second reactivity meter used to define the reactor control rod operating components efficiency under reactor startup and take account of the changing efficiency of the sensor, however, this is more time-consumptive than the on-line reactivity meter. The application of two reactivity meters allows for the monitoring of the reactor reactivity under every operating mode. (authors)

  8. BN-600 MOX Core Benchmark Analysis. Results from Phases 4 and 6 of a Coordinated Research Project on Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce the Calculational Uncertainties of the LMFR Reactivity Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    For those Member States that have or have had significant fast reactor development programmes, it is of utmost importance that they have validated up to date codes and methods for fast reactor physics analysis in support of R and D and core design activities in the area of actinide utilization and incineration. In particular, some Member States have recently focused on fast reactor systems for minor actinide transmutation and on cores optimized for consuming rather than breeding plutonium; the physics of the breeder reactor cycle having already been widely investigated. Plutonium burning systems may have an important role in managing plutonium stocks until the time when major programmes of self-sufficient fast breeder reactors are established. For assessing the safety of these systems, it is important to determine the prediction accuracy of transient simulations and their associated reactivity coefficients. In response to Member States' expressed interest, the IAEA sponsored a coordinated research project (CRP) on Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce the Calculational Uncertainties of the LMFR Reactivity Effects. The CRP started in November 1999 and, at the first meeting, the members of the CRP endorsed a benchmark on the BN-600 hybrid core for consideration in its first studies. Benchmark analyses of the BN-600 hybrid core were performed during the first three phases of the CRP, investigating different nuclear data and levels of approximation in the calculation of safety related reactivity effects and their influence on uncertainties in transient analysis prediction. In an additional phase of the benchmark studies, experimental data were used for the verification and validation of nuclear data libraries and methods in support of the previous three phases. The results of phases 1, 2, 3 and 5 of the CRP are reported in IAEA-TECDOC-1623, BN-600 Hybrid Core Benchmark Analyses, Results from a Coordinated Research Project on Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce the

  9. BN-600 Phase III benchmark calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Grimm, K.N.

    2002-01-01

    Calculations for a Hexagonal-Z model of the BN-600 reactor with a partial mixed oxide loading, based on a joint IPPE/OBMK loading configuration that contained three uranium enrichment zones and one plutonium enrichment zone in the core, have been performed at ANL. Control-rod worths and reactivity feedback coefficients were calculated using both homogeneous and heterogeneous models. These values were calculated with either first-order perturbation theory methods (Triangle-Z geometry), nodal eigenvalue differences (Hexagonal-Z geometry), or Monte Carlo eigenvalue differences. Both spatially-dependent and region integrated values are shown

  10. KAERI results for BN600 full MOX benchmark (Phase 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kibog Lee

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to report the results of KAERI's calculation for the Phase-4 of BN-600 full MOX fueled core benchmark analyses according to the RCM report of IAEA CRP Action on U pdated Codes and Methods to Reduce the Calculational Uncertainties of the LMFR Reactivity Effects. T he BN-600 full MOX core model is based on the specification in the document, F ull MOX Model (Phase4. doc ) . This document addresses the calculational methods employed in the benchmark analyses and benchmark results carried out by KAERI

  11. Operating experience with Beloyarsk fast reactor BN600 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraev, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    The main results of the seventeen-year operation of the BN600 Nuclear Power Plant are considered. The principal backfittings of the main BN600 Power Plant equipment are presented and summarised. (author)

  12. JNC results of BN-600 benchmark calculation (phase 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.

    2002-01-01

    The present work is the result of phase 3 BN-600 core benchmark problem, meaning burnup and heterogeneity. Analytical method applied consisted of: JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library, group constants (70 group, ABBN type self shielding transport factors), heterogeneous cell model for fuel and control rod, basic diffusion calculation (CITATION code), transport theory and mesh size correction (NSHEX code based on SN transport nodal method developed by JNC). Burnup and heterogeneity calculation results are presented obtained by applying both diffusion and transport approach for beginning and end of cycle

  13. JNC results of BN-600 benchmark calculation (phase 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    The present work is the results of JNC, Japan, for the Phase 4 of the BN-600 core benchmark problem (Hex-Z fully MOX fuelled core model) organized by IAEA. The benchmark specification is based on 1) the RCM report of IAEA CRP on 'Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce the Calculational Uncertainties of LMFR Reactivity Effects, Action 3.12' (Calculations for BN-600 fully fuelled MOX core for subsequent transient analyses). JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library was used for calculating 70 group ABBN-type group constants. Cell models for fuel assembly and control rod calculations were applied: homogeneous and heterogeneous (cylindrical supercell) model. Basic diffusion calculation was three-dimensional Hex-Z model, 18 group (Citation code). Transport calculations were 18 group, three-dimensional (NSHEC code) based on Sn-transport nodal method developed at JNC. The generated thermal power per fission was based on Sher's data corrected on the basis of ENDF/B-IV data library. Calculation results are presented in Tables for intercomparison

  14. BN-600 power unit 15-year operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraev, O.M.; Oshkanov, N.N.; Vylomov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Comprehensive experience has been gained with the operating fast reactor BN-600 with a power out of 600 MWe. This paper includes important performance results and gives also an overview of the experience gained from BN-600 NPP commercial operation during 15 years. (author). 2 figs, 1 tab

  15. Modernization of RTC for fabrication of MOX fuel, Vibropac fuel pins and BN-600 FA with weapon grade plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachyov, A.F.; Kalygin, V.V.; Skiba, O.V.; Mayorshin, A. A.; Bychkov, A.V.; Kisly, V.A.; Ovsyannikov, Y.F.; Bobrov, D.A.; Mamontov, S.I.; Tsyganov, A.N.; Churutkin, E.I.; Davydov, P.I.; Samosenko, E.A; Shalak, A.R.; Ojima, Hisao

    2004-01-01

    Since mid 70's RIAR has been performing activities on plutonium involvement in fuel cycle. These activities are considered a stage within the framework of the closed fuel cycle development. Developed at RIAR fuel cycle is based on two technologies: 'dry' process of fuel reprocessing and vibro-packing method for fuel pin fabrication. Due to the available scientific capabilities and a gained experience in operating the technological facilities (ORYOL, SIC) for plutonium (various grade) blending into fuel for fast reactors, RIAR is a participant of the activities aimed at solving these tasks. Under international program RIAR with financial support of JNC (Japan) is modernizing the facility for granulated fuel production, vibro-pac fuel pins and FA fabrication to provide the BN-600 'hybrid' core. In order to provide 'hybrid' core it is necessary to produce (per year): - 1775 kg of granulated MOX-fuel, 6500 fuel pins, 50 fuel assemblies. Potential output of the facility under construction is as follows: - 1800 kg of granulated MOX-fuel per year, 40 fuel pins per shift, 200 FAs for the BN-600 reactor per year. Taking into account domestic and foreign experience in MOX-fuel production, different options were discussed of the equipment layouts in the available premises of chemical technological division of RIAR: - in the shielded manipulator boxes, in the existing hot cells. During construction of the facility in the building under operation the following requirements should be met: - facility must meet all standards and regulations set for nuclear facilities, installation work at the facility must not influence other production programs implemented in the building, engineering supply lines of the facility must be connected to the existing service lines of the building, cost of the activities must not exceed amount of JNC funding. The paper presents results of comparison between two options of the process equipment layout: in boxes and hot cells. This equipment is intended

  16. The concerted calculation of the BN-600 reactor for the deterministic and stochastic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, E. V.; Kuznetsov, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    The solution of the problem of increasing the safety of nuclear power plants implies the existence of complete and reliable information about the processes occurring in the core of a working reactor. Nowadays the Monte-Carlo method is the most general-purpose method used to calculate the neutron-physical characteristic of the reactor. But it is characterized by large time of calculation. Therefore, it may be useful to carry out coupled calculations with stochastic and deterministic codes. This article presents the results of research for possibility of combining stochastic and deterministic algorithms in calculation the reactor BN-600. This is only one part of the work, which was carried out in the framework of the graduation project at the NRC “Kurchatov Institute” in cooperation with S. S. Gorodkov and M. A. Kalugin. It is considering the 2-D layer of the BN-600 reactor core from the international benchmark test, published in the report IAEA-TECDOC-1623. Calculations of the reactor were performed with MCU code and then with a standard operative diffusion algorithm with constants taken from the Monte - Carlo computation. Macro cross-section, diffusion coefficients, the effective multiplication factor and the distribution of neutron flux and power were obtained in 15 energy groups. The reasonable agreement between stochastic and deterministic calculations of the BN-600 is observed.

  17. Thermal stratification of sodium in the BN 600 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obmelukhin, J.A.; Obukhov, P.I.; Rinejskij, A.A.; Sobolev, V.A.; Sherbakov, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The signs of thermal stratification of sodium in the BN 600 reactor upper plenum revealed by the analysis of standard temperature sensors' readings are defined. The initial conditions for existence of different temperature sodium layers are given. Two approaches for realizing on a computer of equations describing sodium motion in the upper plenum of the reactor are presented. (author)

  18. Organization and processes of the BN-600 reactor mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovin, E.Z.; Karpenko, V.N.; Takhtaulov, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Structural peculiarities of the BN-600 reactor plant are considered. Experience of metal structure mounting inside the reactor vessel has been analysed. Recommendations on the improvements on the organization of the thermal mechanical equipment mounting are given. It is concluded that the consideration of these recommendations will permit to reduce expenditures of labour by 10-40% for the mounting

  19. Licensing Support Experience of the BN-600 Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, N.; Sintsov, A.

    2013-01-01

    License procedure - Main principle: • All works, including fatigue tests of new types of fuel, are carried out at the unit 3 Beloyarsk nuclear power plants with the BN-600 reactor with the justification of the regulatory body. • Justification procedure is standard for all power units and independent from the reactor types. • The regulatory body and independent experts or technical support organizations, which can be involved in this work by the regulatory body, review SAR, operational manuals and other operator documents. • Safety requirements (i.e. Federal rules and codes). The project and design documents shall meet safety requirements. • The technical and organizational measures for safety guarantee shall meet well-known results of the research investigations or shall be experimental validate

  20. Assessing reactor physics codes capabilities to simulate fast reactors on the example of the BN-600 benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Vladimir [Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SES NRS), Moscow (Russian Federation); Bousquet, Jeremy [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    This work aims to assess the capabilities of reactor physics codes (initially validated for thermal reactors) to simulate fast sodium cooled reactors. The BFS-62-3A critical experiment from the BN-600 Hybrid Core Benchmark Analyses was chosen for the investigation. Monte-Carlo codes (KENO from SCALE and SERPENT 2.1.23) and the deterministic diffusion code DYN3D-MG are applied to calculate the neutronic parameters. It was found that the multiplication factor and reactivity effects calculated by KENO and SERPENT using the ENDF/B-VII.0 continuous energy library are in a good agreement with each other and with the measured benchmark values. Few-groups macroscopic cross sections, required for DYN3D-MG, were prepared in applying different methods implemented in SCALE and SERPENT. The DYN3D-MG results of a simplified benchmark show reasonable agreement with results from Monte-Carlo calculations and measured values. The former results are used to justify DYN3D-MG implementation for sodium cooled fast reactors coupled deterministic analysis.

  1. Main results of BN-600 reactor stress-strain state investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of BN-600 fast reactor plant needed the solution of a series of complex engineering problems including ones for confirming integrity of the most vital structural components. The particular attention was given to the main vessel since reactor availability end safe operation of the plant as a whole depend on vessel strength end integrity. The present report deals with the main results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the stress-strain state of BN-600 reactor vessel carried out during design, start-up and initial bringing the reactor to power

  2. Release of radioactive fission products from BN-600 reactor untight fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, S.L.; Tsikunov, A.G.; Lisitsin, E.C.

    1996-01-01

    The experimental data on the release of radioactive fission products from BN-600 reactor untight fuel elements are given in the report. Various groups of radionuclides: inert gases Xe, Kr, volatile Cs, J, non-volatile Nb, and La are considered. The results of calculation-experimental study of transfer and distribution of radionuclides in the reactor primary circuit, gas system and sodium coolant are considered. It is shown that some complex radioactivity transfer processes can be described by simple mathematical models. (author)

  3. Measuring the background acoustic noise in the BN-600 steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugaj, V.S.; Zhukovets, V.N.; Ivannikov, V.I.; Vylomov, V.V.; Ryabinin, F.; Chernykh, P.G.; Flejsher, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic noises in the lower chambers of evaporation and intermediate overheating moduli of the BN-600 reactor steam generator are measured. Bachground noises are registered in the whole range of frequencies studied, from 0.63 to 160 kHz. The comparison of noise spectra in evaporator and overheater has revealed a certain difference. However the general tendency is the reduction of the noise level at high frequencies > 8 kHz. The increase of the noise level at low steam content is observed only in a narrow of frequency range of 3-6 kHz

  4. Estimation of the radiation risks for population in the process of the BN-600 power unit operation at the Beloyarsk NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltik, I.I.; Oshkanov, N.N.

    2005-01-01

    Dose burdens on the population are the main criterion in estimating the radiological risks during NPP operation. Results of analysis of annual dose burdens on the population in the period of the BN-600 unit operation are presented. Data on individual and collective doses due to gas-aerosol and liquid effluents of radionuclides from the BN-600 unit on critical groups of population are presented. Data on collective doses due to other types of reactors are provided. It is shown that the risks stemming from the BN type reactors are approximately 2 orderers below the risks of channel-type and WWER-reactors [ru

  5. Comparison of the worth of control and protection system rods of different design on the basis of the measurements in BN-600 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, B.A.; Roslyakov, V.F.; Farakshin, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the worth measurements of the basic and experimental absorbing rods of BN-600 reactor are presented. The procedure used for the rods worth comparison on the basis of calculated and experimental data interpretation is described here. Basic and experimental rods relative worth is also presented. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Results of examinations of safety experimental rods of trap-like type irradiated in the BN-600 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasikov, V.P.; Voznesenskij, R.M.; Rudenko, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The results of post-irradiation examination are reported for three trap-like scram rods having been in operation in BN-600 reactor for 311, 331 and 348 EFPD (effective full power days). Compacted boron carbide enriched with 80 at.% 10 B is used as an absorber, zirconium hydride serves as a moderator; cladding are fabricated from steel 06Kh16N15M3B. The results obtained show that two zones are formed in the absorber material which are different in fracture mode and positioned at different distances from the moderator. Radiation damages of steel cladding are noted to be arranged nonuniformly through the height of the rod. The cladding-absorber interaction manifests itself in various ways, this is associated with various absorber burnups. The area of cladding-zirconium hydride interaction constitutes ∼ 30-80 μm. The swelling of the moderator is 4-5% and does not result in a loss of a cladding-moderator clearance [ru

  7. An analysis of main processes at small water-into-sodium leaks in the BN-350 and BN-600 NPP steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavsky, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents the main characteristics of emergency processes at small water-into-sodium leaks that took place during the BN-350 and BN-600 NPP steam generators operation. Leak characteristics are presented, the relationship between such parameters as leak rate and duration, its location in a tube bundle, mass of water ingress into sodium, and the character and size of a failure in the interaction zone is analyzed. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Operational characteristics of hybrid-type SFCL with closed and open cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.S.; Lee, N.Y.; Choi, H.S.; Chung, D.C.; Lim, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the operational characteristics of the hybrid-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with the closed and the open cores, which induced the variation of the magnetic flux between the primary and the secondary windings. The experimental set-up of the hybrid-type SFCL with the closed and the open cores were prepared and the experimental analyses for the current limiting characteristics were performed. The peak value of the fault current in the hybrid-type SFCL with the open core was higher than that of the closed core at the first cycle after fault occurrence. However, in the case of the hybrid-type SFCL with the open core, the limiting current level after fault occurrence was decreased less than that of the hybrid-type SFCL with the closed core, because the magnetic leakage reluctance of the open core was higher than that of the closed core. The quench time (T q ) and the arrival time (T a ) for the peak voltage (V SC ) in the hybrid-type SFCL with the closed core were faster than that of the hybrid-type SFCL with the open core due to the increase of the mutual flux. We verified that the consumption power in the hybrid-type SFCL with the open core was larger owing to the increase of leakage flux by the reduction of mutual inductance between primary and secondary windings

  9. A HYBRID GENETIC ALGORITHM-NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH FOR PRICING CORES AND REMANUFACTURED CORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Seidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:Sustainability has become a major issue in most economies, causing many leading companies to focus on product recovery and reverse logistics. Remanufacturing is an industrial process that makes used products reusable. One of the important aspects in both reverse logistics and remanufacturing is the pricing of returned and remanufactured products (called cores. In this paper, we focus on pricing the cores and remanufactured cores. First we present a mathematical model for this purpose. Since this model does not satisfy our requirements, we propose a simulation optimisation approach. This approach consists of a hybrid genetic algorithm based on a neural network employed as the fitness function. We use automata learning theory to obtain the learning rate required for training the neural network. Numerical results demonstrate that the optimal value of the acquisition price of cores and price of remanufactured cores is obtained by this approach.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Volhoubaarheid het ‘n belangrike saak geword in die meeste ekonomieë, wat verskeie maatskappye genoop het om produkherwinning en omgekeerde logistiek te onder oë te neem. Hervervaardiging is ‘n industriële proses wat gebruikte produkte weer bruikbaar maak. Een van die belangrike aspekte in beide omgekeerde logistiek en hervervaardiging is die prysbepaling van herwinne en hervervaardigde produkte. Hierdie artikel fokus op die prysbepalingsaspekte by wyse van ‘n wiskundige model.

  10. A hybrid Fabry–Perot/Michelson interferometer sensor using a dual asymmetric core microstructured fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazão, O; Silva, S F; Viegas, J; Baptista, J M; Santos, J L; Roy, P

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid Fabry–Perot/Michelson interferometer sensor using a dual asymmetric core microstructured fiber is demonstrated. The hybrid interferometer presents three waves. Two parallel Fabry–Perot cavities with low finesse are formed between the splice region and the end of a dual-core microstructured fiber. A Michelson configuration is obtained by the two small cores of the microstructured fiber. The spectral response of the hybrid interferometer presents two pattern fringes with different frequencies due to the respective optical path interferometers. The hybrid interferometer was characterized in strain and temperature presenting different sensitivity coefficients for each topology. Due to these characteristics, this novel sensing head is able to measure strain and temperature, simultaneously

  11. Fabrication of Te@Au core-shell hybrids for efficient ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huile; Wang, Demeng; Zhao, Yuewu; Zhou, Huan; Wang, Shun; Wang, Jichang

    2012-10-01

    Using Au nanoparticles to catalyze the oxidation of alcohols has garnered increasing attention due to its potential application in direct alcohol fuel cells. In this research Te@Au core-shell hybrids were fabricated for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol, where the preparation procedure involved the initial production of Te crystals with different microstructures and the subsequent utilization of the Te crystal as a template and reducing agent for the production of Te@Au hybrids. The as-prepared core-shell hybrids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Electrochemical measurements illustrate that the hybrids have great electrocatalytic activity and stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocatalytic property may be attributed to the cooperative effects between the metal and semiconductor and the presence of a large number of active sites on the hybrids surface.

  12. Hybridization of MOFs and COFs: A New Strategy for Construction of MOF@COF Core-Shell Hybrid Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Zhao, Meiting; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Zhicheng; Huang, Ying; Dai, Fangna; Lai, Zhuangchai; Cui, Xiaoya; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua

    2018-01-01

    The exploration of new porous hybrid materials is of great importance because of their unique properties and promising applications in separation of materials, catalysis, etc. Herein, for the first time, by integration of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs), a new type of MOF@COF core-shell hybrid material, i.e., NH 2 -MIL-68@TPA-COF, with high crystallinity and hierarchical pore structure, is synthesized. As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained NH 2 -MIL-68@TPA-COF hybrid material is used as an effective visible-light-driven photocatalyst for the degradation of rhodamine B. The synthetic strategy in this study opens up a new avenue for the construction of other MOF-COF hybrid materials, which could have various promising applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Hybrid Magnetic Core-Shell Nanophotocatalysts for Environmental Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaulden, Patrick [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona Hunyadi [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-07-29

    This research study describes a facile sol-gel method to creating hybrid iron (III) oxide/silica/titania nanomaterials decorated with gold nanoparticles for use in environmental applications. The multi-functional composition of the nanomaterials allows for photocatalyzed reactions to occur in both the visible and the UV range. The morphologies, elemental composition, and surface charge of the nanoparticles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and Phase Analysis Light Scattering (PALS), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized hybrid nanoparticles for breaking down a model analyte, methyl orange (MO), was then evaluated using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The efficiency of the photocatalyst under UV light irradiation was measured and compared to other well-studied nanophotocatalysts, namely titanium oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles. The concentration dependence of both the photocatalyst and the analyte was also investigated. By utilizing the known UV-active properties of TiO2, the magnetic properties of Fe2O3, the optical properties of gold in the visible range of the spectrum, and the high stability of silica, a novel, highly efficient photocatalyst that is active on a broad range of the spectrum (UV-Vis) can be created to destroy organic pollutants in wastewater streams.

  14. ZnO-nanocarbon core-shell type hybrid quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Won Kook

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive overview of ZnO-nano carbon core shell hybrid issues. There is significant interest in metal oxide/nanocarbon hybrid functional materials in the field of energy conversion and storage as electrode materials for supercapacitors, Li ion secondary battery, electrocatalysts for water splitting, and optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes and solar photovoltaic cells. Despite efforts to manipulate more uniform metal oxide-nanocarbon nanocomposite structures, they have shown poor performance because they are randomly scattered and non-uniformly attached to the nanocarbon surface. For higher and more effective performance of the hybrid structure, 3D conformal coating on metal oxides are highly desirable. In the first part of the book, the physical and chemical properties of ZnO and nanocarbons and the state-of-the-art in related research are briefly summarized. In the next part, the 3D conformal coating synthetic processes of ZnO templated nanocarbon hybrid materials suc...

  15. Hybrid expert system implementation to determine core reload patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greek, K.J.; Robinson, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Determining reactor reload fuel patterns is a computationally intensive problem solving process for which automation can be of significant benefit. Often much effort is expended in the search for an optimal loading. While any modern programming language could be used to automate solution, the specialized tools of artificial intelligence (AI) are the most efficient means of introducing the fuel management expert's knowledge into the search for an optimum reload pattern. Prior research in pressurized water reactor refueling strategies developed FORTRAN programs that automated an expert's basic knowledge to direct a search for an acceptable minimum peak power loading. The dissatisfaction with maintenance of compiled knowledge in FORTRAN programs has served as the motivation for the development of the SHUFFLE expert system. SHUFFLE is written in Smalltalk, an object-oriented programming language, and evaluates loadings as it generates them using a two-group, two-dimensional nodal power calculation compiled in a personal computer-based FORTRAN. This paper reviews the object-oriented representation developed to solve the core reload problem with an expert system tool and its operating prototype, SHUFFLE

  16. Reduced thermal sensitivity of hybrid air-core photonic band-gap fiber ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li-shuang; Wang, Kai; Jiao, Hong-chen; Wang, Jun-jie; Liu, Dan-ni; Yang, Zhao-hua

    2018-01-01

    A novel hybrid air-core photonic band-gap fiber (PBF) ring resonator with twin 90° polarization-axis rotated splices is proposed and demonstrated. Frist, we measure the temperature dependent birefringence coefficient of air-core PBF and Panda fiber. Experimental results show that the relative temperature dependent birefringence coefficient of air-core PBF is 1.42×10-8/°C, which is typically 16 times less than that of Panda fiber. Then, we extract the geometry profile of air-core PBF from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Numerical modal is built to distinguish the fast axis and slow axis in the fiber. By precisely setting the length difference in air-core PBF and Panda fiber between two 90° polarization-axis rotated splicing points, the hybrid air-core PBF ring resonator is constructed, and the finesse of the resonator is 8.4. Environmental birefringence variation induced by temperature change can be well compensated, and experimental results show an 18-fold reduction in thermal sensitivity, compared with resonator with twin 0° polarization-axis rotated splices.

  17. Nanocellulose Derivative/Silica Hybrid Core-Shell Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell silica microspheres with a nanocellulose derivative in the hybrid shell were successfully prepared as a chiral stationary phase by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The hybrid shell assembled on the silica core was formed using a surfactant as template by the copolymerization reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the nanocellulose derivative bearing triethoxysilyl and 3,5-dimethylphenyl groups. The resulting nanocellulose hybrid core-shell chiral packing materials (CPMs were characterized and packed into columns, and their enantioseparation performance was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that CPMs exhibited uniform surface morphology and core-shell structures. Various types of chiral compounds were efficiently separated under normal and reversed phase mode. Moreover, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran as mobile phase additives could obviously improve the resolution during the chiral separation processes. CPMs still have good chiral separation property when eluted with solvent systems with a high content of tetrahydrofuran and chloroform, which proved the high solvent resistance of this new material.

  18. Single axis controlled hybrid magnetic bearing for left ventricular assist device: hybrid core and closed magnetic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Isaias; Horikawa, Oswaldo; Cardoso, Jose R; Camargo, Fernando A; Andrade, Aron J P; Bock, Eduardo G P

    2011-05-01

    In previous studies, we presented main strategies for suspending the rotor of a mixed-flow type (centrifugal and axial) ventricular assist device (VAD), originally presented by the Institute Dante Pazzanese of Cardiology (IDPC), Brazil. Magnetic suspension is achieved by the use of a magnetic bearing architecture in which the active control is executed in only one degree of freedom, in the axial direction of the rotor. Remaining degrees of freedom, excepting the rotation, are restricted only by the attraction force between pairs of permanent magnets. This study is part of a joint project in development by IDPC and Escola Politecnica of São Paulo University, Brazil. This article shows advances in that project, presenting two promising solutions for magnetic bearings. One solution uses hybrid cores as electromagnetic actuators, that is, cores that combine iron and permanent magnets. The other solution uses actuators, also of hybrid type, but with the magnetic circuit closed by an iron core. After preliminary analysis, a pump prototype has been developed for each solution and has been tested. For each prototype, a brushless DC motor has been developed as the rotor driver. Each solution was evaluated by in vitro experiments and guidelines are extracted for future improvements. Tests have shown good results and demonstrated that one solution is not isolated from the other. One complements the other for the development of a single-axis-controlled, hybrid-type magnetic bearing for a mixed-flow type VAD. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A hybrid method for in-core optimization of pressurized water reactor reload core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.G.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this research is the development of an accurate, practical, and robust method for optimization of the design of loading patterns for pressurized water reactors, a nonlinear, non-convex, integer optimization problem. The many logical constraints which may be applied during the design process are modeled herein by a network construction upon which performance objectives and safety constraints from reactor physics calculations are optimized. This thesis presents the synthesis of the strengths of previous algorithms developed for reload design optimization and extension of robustness through development of a hybrid liberated search algorithm. Development of three independent methods for reload design optimization is presented: random direct search for local improvement, liberated search by simulated annealing, and deterministic search for local improvement via successive linear assignment by branch and bound. Comparative application of the methods to a variety of problems is discussed, including an exhaustive enumeration benchmark created to allow comparison of search results to a known global optimum for a large scale problem. While direct search and determinism are shown to be capable of finding improvement, only the liberation of simulated annealing is found to perform robustly in the non-convex design spaces. The hybrid method SHAMAN is presented. The algorithm applies: determinism to shuffle an initial solution for satisfaction of heuristics and symmetry; liberated search through simulated annealing with a bounds cooling constraint treatment; and search bias through relational heuristics for the application of engineering judgment. The accuracy, practicality, and robustness of the SHAMAN algorithm is demonstrated through application to a variety of reload loading pattern optimization problems

  20. 3-D thermal hydraulic analysis of transient heat removal from fast reactor core using immersion coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, I.; Volkov, A.

    2000-01-01

    For advanced fast reactors (EFR, BN-600M, BN-1600, CEFR) the special complementary loop is envisaged in order to ensure the decay heat removal from the core in the case of LOF accidents. This complementary loop includes immersion coolers that are located in the hot reactor plenum. To analyze the transient process in the reactor when immersion coolers come into operation one needs to involve 3-D thermal hydraulics code. Furthermore sometimes the problem becomes more complicated due to necessity of simulation of the thermal hydraulics processes into the core interwrapper space. For example on BN-600M and CEFR reactors it is supposed to ensure the effective removal of decay heat from core subassemblies by specially arranged internal circulation circuit: 'inter-wrapper space'. For thermal hydraulics analysis of the transients in the core and in the whole reactor including hot plenum with immersion coolers and considering heat and mass exchange between the main sodium flow and sodium that moves in the inter-wrapper space the code GRIFIC (the version of GRIF code family) was developed in IPPE. GRIFIC code was tested on experimental data obtained on RAMONA rig under conditions simulating decay heat removal of a reactor with the use of immersion coolers. Comparison has been made of calculated and experimental result, such as integral characteristics (flow rate through the core and water temperature at the core inlet and outlet) and the local temperatures (at thermocouple location) as well. In order to show the capabilities of the code some results of the transient analysis of heat removal from the core of BN-600M - type reactor under loss-of-flow accident are presented. (author)

  1. Self-Assembly of Fluorescent Hybrid Core-Shell Nanoparticles and Their Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Tang, Fu; Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Lidong

    2015-06-24

    In this work, a fluorescent hybrid core-shell nanoparticle was prepared by coating a functional polymer shell onto silver nanoparticles via a facile one-pot method. The biomolecule poly-L-lysine (PLL) was chosen as the polymer shell and assembled onto the silver core via the amine-reactive cross-linker, 3,3'-dithiobis(sulfosuccinimidylpropionate). The fluorescent anticancer drug, doxorubicin, was incorporated into the PLL shell through the same linkage. As the cross-linker possesses a thiol-cleavable disulfide bond, disassembly of the PLL shell was observed in the presence of glutathione, leading to controllable doxorubicin release. The silver core there provided an easily modified surface to facilitate the shell coating and ensures the efficient separation of as-prepared nanoparticles from their reaction mixture through centrifugation. Cell assays show that the prepared hybrid fluorescent nanoparticles can internalize into cells possessing excellent biocompatibility prior to the release of doxorubicin, terminating cancer cells efficiently as the doxorubicin is released at the intracellular glutathione level. Such properties are important for designing smart containers for target drug delivery and cellular imaging.

  2. Optimization of the core configuration design using a hybrid artificial intelligence algorithm for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayat, Afshin; Davilu, Hadi; Barfrosh, Ahmad Abdollahzadeh; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2009-01-01

    To successfully carry out material irradiation experiments and radioisotope productions, a high thermal neutron flux at irradiation box over a desired life time of a core configuration is needed. On the other hand, reactor safety and operational constraints must be preserved during core configuration selection. Two main objectives and two safety and operational constraints are suggested to optimize reactor core configuration design. Suggested parameters and conditions are considered as two separate fitness functions composed of two main objectives and two penalty functions. This is a constrained and combinatorial type of a multi-objective optimization problem. In this paper, a fast and effective hybrid artificial intelligence algorithm is introduced and developed to reach a Pareto optimal set. The hybrid algorithm is composed of a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) and a fast fitness function evaluating system based on the cascade feed forward artificial neural networks (ANNs). A specific GA representation of core configuration and also special GA operators are introduced and used to overcome the combinatorial constraints of this optimization problem. A software package (Core Pattern Calculator 1) is developed to prepare and reform required data for ANNs training and also to revise the optimization results. Some practical test parameters and conditions are suggested to adjust main parameters of the hybrid algorithm. Results show that introduced ANNs can be trained and estimate selected core parameters of a research reactor very quickly. It improves effectively optimization process. Final optimization results show that a uniform and dense diversity of Pareto fronts are gained over a wide range of fitness function values. To take a more careful selection of Pareto optimal solutions, a revision system is introduced and used. The revision of gained Pareto optimal set is performed by using developed software package. Also some secondary operational

  3. Optimization of the core configuration design using a hybrid artificial intelligence algorithm for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayat, Afshin, E-mail: ahedayat@aut.ac.i [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor Research and Development School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), End of North Karegar Street, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davilu, Hadi [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barfrosh, Ahmad Abdollahzadeh [Department of Computer Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepanloo, Kamran [Reactor Research and Development School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), End of North Karegar Street, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To successfully carry out material irradiation experiments and radioisotope productions, a high thermal neutron flux at irradiation box over a desired life time of a core configuration is needed. On the other hand, reactor safety and operational constraints must be preserved during core configuration selection. Two main objectives and two safety and operational constraints are suggested to optimize reactor core configuration design. Suggested parameters and conditions are considered as two separate fitness functions composed of two main objectives and two penalty functions. This is a constrained and combinatorial type of a multi-objective optimization problem. In this paper, a fast and effective hybrid artificial intelligence algorithm is introduced and developed to reach a Pareto optimal set. The hybrid algorithm is composed of a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) and a fast fitness function evaluating system based on the cascade feed forward artificial neural networks (ANNs). A specific GA representation of core configuration and also special GA operators are introduced and used to overcome the combinatorial constraints of this optimization problem. A software package (Core Pattern Calculator 1) is developed to prepare and reform required data for ANNs training and also to revise the optimization results. Some practical test parameters and conditions are suggested to adjust main parameters of the hybrid algorithm. Results show that introduced ANNs can be trained and estimate selected core parameters of a research reactor very quickly. It improves effectively optimization process. Final optimization results show that a uniform and dense diversity of Pareto fronts are gained over a wide range of fitness function values. To take a more careful selection of Pareto optimal solutions, a revision system is introduced and used. The revision of gained Pareto optimal set is performed by using developed software package. Also some secondary operational

  4. Significant efficiency enhancement of hybrid solar cells using core-shell nanowire geometry for energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shin-Hung; Chang, Hung-Chih; Wang, Hsin-Hua; Chen, Szu-Ying; Lin, Chin-An; Chen, Show-An; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He, Jr-Hau

    2011-12-27

    A novel strategy employing core-shell nanowire arrays (NWAs) consisting of Si/regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was demonstrated to facilitate efficient light harvesting and exciton dissociation/charge collection for hybrid solar cells (HSCs). We experimentally demonstrate broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting characteristics of core-shell NWA HSCs due to their subwavelength features, further supported by the simulation based on finite-difference time domain analysis. Meanwhile, core-shell geometry of NWA HSCs guarantees efficient charge separation since the thickness of the P3HT shells is comparable to the exciton diffusion length. Consequently, core-shell HSCs exhibit a 61% improvement of short-circuit current for a conversion efficiency (η) enhancement of 31.1% as compared to the P3HT-infiltrated Si NWA HSCs with layers forming a flat air/polymer cell interface. The improvement of crystal quality of P3HT shells due to the formation of ordering structure at Si interfaces after air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5G) illumination was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The core-shell geometry with the interfacial improvement by AM 1.5G illumination promotes more efficient exciton dissociation and charge separation, leading to η improvement (∼140.6%) due to the considerable increase in V(oc) from 257 to 346 mV, J(sc) from 11.7 to 18.9 mA/cm(2), and FF from 32.2 to 35.2%, which is not observed in conventional P3HT-infiltrated Si NWA HSCs. The stability of the Si/P3HT core-shell NWA HSCs in air ambient was carefully examined. The core-shell geometry should be applicable to many other material systems of solar cells and thus holds high potential in third-generation solar cells.

  5. Preparation of AgBr@SiO{sub 2} core@shell hybrid nanoparticles and their bactericidal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanyuan [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Yang, Lisu [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Henna Sports School, Zhengzhou 450045 (China); Zhao, Yanbao, E-mail: yanbaozhao@126.com [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Li, Binjie; Sun, Lei; Luo, Huajuan [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2013-04-01

    AgBr@SiO{sub 2} core@shell hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully prepared by sol-gel method. Their morphology and structure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hybrid NPs are predominantly spherical in shape, with an average diameter of 180–200 nm, and each NP contains one inorganic core. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the hybrid NPs were examined against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), respectively. Results indicated that the AgBr@SiO{sub 2} NPs had excellent antibacterial activity. - Highlights: ► Presents a novel antibacterial agent “AgBr@ SiO{sub 2} NPs”. ► AgBr@SiO{sub 2} hybrid NPs could provide long-term antimicrobial effect. ► AgBr@SiO{sub 2} hybrid NPs have excellent antibacterial activity.

  6. Development of hybrid core calculation system using 2-D full-core heterogeneous transport calculation and 3-D advanced nodal calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Naoki; Mori, Masaaki; Hijiya, Masayuki; Ushio, Tadashi; Arakawa, Yasushi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the Hybrid Core Calculation System which is a very rigorous but a practical calculation system applicable to best estimate core design calculations taking advantage of the recent remarkable progress of computers. The basic idea of this system is to generate the correction factors for assembly homogenized cross sections, discontinuity factors, etc. by comparing the CASMO-4 and SIMULATE-3 2-D core calculation results under the consistent calculation condition and then apply them for SIMULATE-3 3-D calculation. The CASMO-4 2-D heterogeneous core calculation is performed for each depletion step with the core conditions previously determined by ordinary SIMULATE-3 core calculation to avoid time consuming iterative calculations searching for the critical boron concentrations while treating the thermal hydraulic feedback. The final SIMULATE-3 3-D calculation using the correction factors is performed with iterative calculations searching for the critical boron concentrations while treating the thermal hydraulic feedback. (author)

  7. Core characteristics on a hybrid type fast reactor system combined with proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowata, Yasuki; Otsubo, Akira

    1997-06-01

    In our study on a hybrid fast reactor system, we have investigated it from the view point of transmutation ability of trans-uranium (TRU) nuclide making the most effective use of special features (controllability, hard neutron spectrum) of the system. It is proved that a proton beam is superior in generation of neutrons compared with an electron beam. Therefore a proton accelerator using spallation reaction with a target nucleus has an advantage to transmutation of TRU than an electron one. A fast reactor is expected to primarily have a merit that the reactor can be operated for a long term without employment of highly enriched plutonium fuel by using external neutron source such as the proton accelerator. Namely, the system has a desirable characteristic of being possible to self-sustained fissile plutonium. Consequently in the present report, core characteristics of the system were roughly studied by analyses using 2D-BURN code. The possibility of self-sustained fuel was investigated from the burnup and neutronic calculation in a cylindrical core with 300w/cc of power density without considering a target material region for the accelerator. For a reference core of which the height and the radius are both 100 cm, there is a fair prospect that a long term reactor operation is possible with subsequent refueling of natural uranium, if the medium enriched (around 10wt%) uranium or plutonium fuels are fully loaded in the initial core. More precise analyses will be planed in a later fiscal year. (author)

  8. Identifying core, exciting, and hybrid attributes in fans' assessments of major (World Cup) spectator sports events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Li-Shiue

    2013-12-01

    This paper adopts a methodology of asymmetrical analyses to investigate the relevant importance of spectator sport attributes in terms of their non-linear associations with the benefits that fans experience while watching sports. Questionnaires tapping 16 attributes (e.g., teamwork, sportsmanship, level of competition) and 16 benefits (e.g., good mood, exciting experience, support for my favorite team) were distributed to a sample of fans at the outdoor broadcast of the 2010 World Cup final game at the National Stadium in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 427 participants rated the importance and benefit of each attribute experienced from watching the game. Attributes were categorized as core, exciting, or hybrid attributes. The star player was the core attribute; rivalry, popularity, and coach were the exciting attributes; and the other 12 attributes were hybrid. Two-dimensional space analyses showed that attributes "sportsmanship, teamwork, and supporting a team" were both explicitly and implicitly important attributes. The methodology of asymmetrical analyses can help managers prioritize the focus of attributes and allocate resources effectively.

  9. Hybrid design method for air-core solenoid with axial homogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Suk Jin [Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, a hybrid method is proposed to design an air-core superconducting solenoid system for 6 T axial uniform magnetic field using Niobium Titanium (NbTi) superconducting wire. In order to minimize the volume of conductor, the hybrid optimization method including a linear programming and a nonlinear programming was adopted. The feasible space of solenoid is divided by several grids and the magnetic field at target point is approximated by the sum of magnetic field generated by an ideal current loop at the center of each grid. Using the linear programming, a global optimal current distribution in the feasible space can be indicated by non-zero current grids. Furthermore the clusters of the non-zero current grids also give the information of probable solenoids in the feasible space, such as the number, the shape, and so on. Applying these probable solenoids as the initial model, the final practical configuration of solenoids with integer layers can be obtained by the nonlinear programming. The design result illustrates the efficiency and the flexibility of the hybrid method. And this method can also be used for the magnet design which is required the high homogeneity within several ppm (parts per million)

  10. SpaceCubeX: A Framework for Evaluating Hybrid Multi-Core CPU FPGA DSP Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andrew G.; Weisz, Gabriel; French, Matthew; Flatley, Thomas; Villalpando, Carlos Y.

    2017-01-01

    The SpaceCubeX project is motivated by the need for high performance, modular, and scalable on-board processing to help scientists answer critical 21st century questions about global climate change, air quality, ocean health, and ecosystem dynamics, while adding new capabilities such as low-latency data products for extreme event warnings. These goals translate into on-board processing throughput requirements that are on the order of 100-1,000 more than those of previous Earth Science missions for standard processing, compression, storage, and downlink operations. To study possible future architectures to achieve these performance requirements, the SpaceCubeX project provides an evolvable testbed and framework that enables a focused design space exploration of candidate hybrid CPU/FPGA/DSP processing architectures. The framework includes ArchGen, an architecture generator tool populated with candidate architecture components, performance models, and IP cores, that allows an end user to specify the type, number, and connectivity of a hybrid architecture. The framework requires minimal extensions to integrate new processors, such as the anticipated High Performance Spaceflight Computer (HPSC), reducing time to initiate benchmarking by months. To evaluate the framework, we leverage a wide suite of high performance embedded computing benchmarks and Earth science scenarios to ensure robust architecture characterization. We report on our projects Year 1 efforts and demonstrate the capabilities across four simulation testbed models, a baseline SpaceCube 2.0 system, a dual ARM A9 processor system, a hybrid quad ARM A53 and FPGA system, and a hybrid quad ARM A53 and DSP system.

  11. Core-shell nanophosphor architecture: toward efficient energy transport in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghua; Yuan, Yongbiao; Chen, Zihan; Jin, Xiao; Wei, Tai-huei; Li, Yue; Qin, Yuancheng; Sun, Weifu

    2014-08-13

    In this work, a core-shell nanostructure of samarium phosphates encapsulated into a Eu(3+)-doped silica shell has been successfully fabricated, which has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution TEM. Moreover, we report the energy transfer process from the Sm(3+) to emitters Eu(3+) that widens the light absorption range of the hybrid solar cells (HSCs) and the strong enhancement of the electron-transport of TiO2/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) HSCs by introducing the unique core-shell nanoarchitecture. Furthermore, by applying femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we successfully obtain the electron transport lifetimes of BHJ systems with or without incorporating the core-shell nanophosphors (NPs). Concrete evidence has been provided that the doping of core-shell NPs improves the efficiency of electron transfers from donor to acceptor, but the hole transport almost remains unchanged. In particular, the hot electron transfer lifetime was shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor. Consequently, a notable power conversion efficiency of 3.30% for SmPO4@Eu(3+):SiO2 blended TiO2/P3HT HSCs is achieved at 5 wt % as compared to 1.98% of pure TiO2/P3HT HSCs. This work indicates that the core-shell NPs can efficiently broaden the absorption region, facilitate electron-transport of BHJ, and enhance photovoltaic performance of inorganic/organic HSCs.

  12. Exciton-Dominated Core-Level Absorption Spectra of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorwerk, Christian [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, European Theoretical Spectroscopy; Hartmann, Claudia [Renewable Energy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin, Germany; Cocchi, Caterina [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, European Theoretical Spectroscopy; Sadoughi, Golnaz [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Habisreutinger, Severin N. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, Colorado, United States; Félix, Roberto [Renewable Energy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin, Germany; Wilks, Regan G. [Renewable Energy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin, Germany; Energy Materials In-Situ Laboratory Berlin (EMIL), Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 12489 Berlin, Germany; Snaith, Henry J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Bär, Marcus [Renewable Energy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin, Germany; Energy Materials In-Situ Laboratory Berlin (EMIL), Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 12489 Berlin, Germany; Draxl, Claudia [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, European Theoretical Spectroscopy

    2018-03-23

    In a combined theoretical and experimental work, we investigate X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy of the I L3 and the Pb M5 edges of the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid inorganic-organic perovskite and its binary phase PbI2. The absorption onsets are dominated by bound excitons with sizable binding energies of a few hundred millielectronvolts and pronounced anisotropy. The spectra of both materials exhibit remarkable similarities, suggesting that the fingerprints of core excitations in MAPbI3 are essentially given by its inorganic component, with negligible influence from the organic groups. The theoretical analysis complementing experimental observations provides the conceptual insights required for a full characterization of this complex material.

  13. Heat Removal Performance of Hybrid Control Rod for Passive In-Core Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The two-phase closed heat transfer device can be divided by thermosyphon heat pipe and capillary wicked heat pipe which uses gravitational force or capillary pumping pressure as a driving force of the convection of working fluid. If there is a temperature difference between reactor core and ultimate heat sink, the decay heat removal and reactor shutdown is possible at any accident conditions without external power sources. To apply the hybrid control rod to the commercial nuclear power plants, its modelling about various parameters is the most important work. Also, its unique geometry is coexistence of neutron absorber material and working fluid in a cladding material having annular vapor path. Although thermosyphon heat pipe (THP) or wicked heat pipe (WHP) shows high heat transfer coefficients for limited space, the maximum heat removal capacity is restricted by several phenomena due to their unique heat transfer mechanism. Validation of the existing correlations on the annular vapor path thermosyphon (ATHP) which has different wetted perimeter and heated diameter must be conducted. The effect of inner structure, and fill ratio of the working fluid on the thermal performance of heat pipe has not been investigated. As a first step of the development of hybrid heat pipe, the ATHP which contains neutron absorber in the concentric thermosyphon (CTHP) was prepared and the thermal performance of the annular thermosyphon was experimentally studied. The heat transfer characteristics and flooding limit of the annular vapor path thermosyphon was studied experimentally to model the performance of hybrid control rod. The following results were obtained: (1) The annular vapor path thermosyphon showed better evaporation heat transfer due to the enhanced convection between adiabatic and condenser section. (2) Effect of fill ratio on the heat transfer characteristics was negligible. (3) Existing correlations about flooding limit of thermosyphon could not reflect the annular vapor

  14. Long-lived Hybrid Incore Detector for Core Monitoring and Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Kyoon Ho [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The signal production mechanism in a rhodium (Rh) fixed in-core detector emitter relies primarily on the beta particles resulting from neutron absorptions in either of two Rh isotopes to produce an electric current. As the neutron transmutation process depletes the Rh isotopes, the signal output per unit neutron flux from an Rh detector emitter will decrease. A vanadium detector is primarily sensitive to neutrons, but with a somewhat slower reaction time as that of a Rh detector. The benefit of vanadium over rhodium is its low depletion rate, which is a factor of 7 times less than that of rhodium. Platinum detectors are very sensitive to gamma flux, but only mildly sensitive to neutron flux. Because the depletion rate of platinum is very small, it can be neglected. Generally, both gamma and neutron signals are proportional to the assembly power. The characteristics of a new detector are the long life time due to the low depletion of emitter materials and the capability of reactor protection as well as reactor monitoring. The new detector uses vanadium and platinum as the emitter materials to meet the long life time and reactor protection capability. Vanadium detector is used for reactor monitoring and platinum detector is used for reactor protection. To determine the number of emitter strings, a comparative study of the power peaking factor monitoring accuracy for various self-powered fixed in-core detector geometries was made, and the configuration of the optimal detector design was also established and verified. The design of a new detector consists of five-string vanadium detector elements, and three-string platinum detector elements. The detector assembly also contains a background wire for compensation of noise signal and a thermocouple for use in the post-accident monitoring system. This new hybrid detector can be used for both reactor Monitoring And reactor Protection (MAP)

  15. A hybrid niched-island genetic algorithm applied to a nuclear core optimization problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.

    2005-01-01

    Diversity maintenance is a key-feature in most genetic-based optimization processes. The quest for such characteristic, has been motivating improvements in the original genetic algorithm (GA). The use of multiple populations (called islands) has demonstrating to increase diversity, delaying the genetic drift. Island Genetic Algorithms (IGA) lead to better results, however, the drift is only delayed, but not avoided. An important advantage of this approach is the simplicity and efficiency for parallel processing. Diversity can also be improved by the use of niching techniques. Niched Genetic Algorithms (NGA) are able to avoid the genetic drift, by containing evolution in niches of a single-population GA, however computational cost is increased. In this work it is investigated the use of a hybrid Niched-Island Genetic Algorithm (NIGA) in a nuclear core optimization problem found in literature. Computational experiments demonstrate that it is possible to take advantage of both, performance enhancement due to the parallelism and drift avoidance due to the use of niches. Comparative results shown that the proposed NIGA demonstrated to be more efficient and robust than an IGA and a NGA for solving the proposed optimization problem. (author)

  16. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of poly(acrylic)/SiO2-TiO2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Wen-Chen; Yu, Yang-Yen; Chen, Po-Kan; Yu, Hui-Huan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, poly(acrylic)/SiO 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films were successfully synthesized by microwave-assisted polymerization. The coupling agent 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MSMA) was hydrolyzed with colloidal SiO 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles, and then polymerized with two acrylic monomers and initiator to form a precursor solution. The results of this study showed that the spin-coated hybrid films had relatively good surface planarity, high thermal stability, a tunable refractive index (1.525 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films, for potential use in optical applications.

  17. Pressurized Hybrid Heat Pipe for Passive IN-Core Cooling System (PINCs) in Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The representative operating limit of the thermosyphon heat pipe is flooding limit that arises from the countercurrent flow of vapor and liquid. The effect of difference between wetted perimeter and heated perimeter on the flooding limit of the thermosyphons has not been studied; despite the effect of cross-sectional area of the vapor path on the heat transfer characteristics of thermosyphons have been studied. Additionally, the hybrid heat pipe must operate at the high temperature and high pressure environment because it will be inserted to the active core to remove the decay heat. However, the previously studied heat pipes operated below the atmospheric pressure. Therefore, the effect of the unique geometry for hybrid heat pipe and operating pressure on the heat transfer characteristics including the flooding limit of hybrid heat pipe was experimentally measured. Hybrid heat pipe as a new conceptual decay heat removal device was proposed. For the development of hybrid heat pipe operating at high temperature and high pressure conditions, the pressurized hybrid heat pipe was prepared and the thermal performances including operation limits of hybrid heat pipe were experimentally measured. Followings were obtained: (1) As operating pressure of the heat pipe increases, the evaporation heat transfer coefficient increases due to heat transfer with convective pool boiling mode. (2) Non-condensable gas charged in the test section for the pressurization lowered the condensation heat transfer by impeding the vapor flow to the condenser. (3) The deviations between experimentally measured flooding limits for hybrid heat pipes and the values from correlation for annular thermosyphon were observed.

  18. Self-Assembled Core-Shell-Type Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles: Intracellular Trafficking and Relevance for Oral Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuxia; Xia, Dengning; Tao, Jinsong; Shen, Aijun; He, Yuan; Gan, Yong; Wang, Chi

    2017-10-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) are advantageous for drug delivery. However, their intracellular trafficking mechanism and relevance for oral drug absorption are poorly understood. In this study, self-assembled core-shell lipid-polymer hybrid NPs made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and various lipids were developed to study their differing intracellular trafficking in intestinal epithelial cells and their relevance for oral absorption of a model drug saquinavir (SQV). Our results demonstrated that the endocytosis and exocytosis of hybrid NPs could be changed by varying the kind of lipid. A glyceride mixture (hybrid NPs-1) decreased endocytosis but increased exocytosis in Caco-2 cells, whereas the phospholipid (E200) (hybrid NPs-2) decreased endocytosis but exocytosis was unaffected as compared with PLGA nanoparticles. The transport of hybrid NPs-1 in cells involved various pathways, including caveolae/lipid raft-dependent endocytosis, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis, which was different from the other groups of NPs that involved only caveolae/lipid raft-dependent endocytosis. Compared with that of the reference formulation (nanoemulsion), the oral absorption of SQV-loaded hybrid NPs in rats was poor, probably due to the limited drug release and transcytosis of NPs across the intestinal epithelium. In conclusion, the intracellular processing of hybrid NPs in intestinal epithelia can be altered by adding lipids to the NP. However, it appears unfavorable to use PLGA-based NPs to improve oral absorption of SQV compared with nanoemulsion. Our findings will be essential in the development of polymer-based NPs for the oral delivery of drugs with the purpose of improving their oral absorption. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Co3O4 nanoneedle@electroactive nickel boride membrane core/shell arrays: A novel hybrid for enhanced capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tingting; Zhu, Congxu; Yang, Xiaogang; Gao, Yuanhao; He, Weiwei; Yue, Hongwei; Zhao, Hongxiao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Active nickel boride membrane anchored Co 3 O 4 nanoneedle arrays hybrid is synthesized via rapid interface reaction. The optimized core/shell nanostructure demonstrates greatly enhanced electrochemical properties. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Active nickel boride membrane anchored Co 3 O 4 nanoneedle arrays core-shell hybrid architectures was fabricated via rapid interface reaction. •Specific capacity was improved by synergy between highly active components and optimized electron transfer microstructure. •The assembled asymmetric supercapacitor device exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. -- Abstract: Exploring novel hybrid materials with efficient microstructure using facile approaches is highly urgent in designing supercapacitor electrodes. Here, the Ni-B membrane was used for coating the porous Co 3 O 4 nanoneedle arrays which supported on the nickel foam (NF) frameworks through a rapid chemical reduction process (denoted as NF/Co 3 O 4 @NiB). The Ni-B membrane both provided sufficient active sites for redox reactions and inhibited the aggregation of formed hybrid architectures. Benefiting from the unique structural design and strongly coupled effects between porous Co 3 O 4 arrays and Ni-B membrane, the resulted NF/Co 3 O 4 @NiB electrode exhibited high areal capacitance of 3.47 F cm −2 (0.48 mAh cm −2 ) at a current density of 2.5 mA cm −2 , an excellent rate capability while maintaining 95.5% capacity retention after 2000 cycles. The asymmetric supercapacitor constructed with the NF/Co 3 O 4 @NiB as positive electrode and hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) as negative electrode also showed ideal capacitive behavior, and simultaneously delivered high energy and power densities. The easily decoration of Ni-B membrane on various active nanoarrays may arouse more novel design about hybrid architectures for large-scale applications.

  20. Gold nano particle decorated graphene core first generation PAMAM dendrimer for label free electrochemical DNA hybridization sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K; Rajesh, R; Dharuman, V; Venkatasan, R; Hahn, J H; Pandian, S Karutha

    2012-01-15

    A novel first generation (G1) poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) with graphene core (GG1PAMAM) was synthesized for the first time. Single layer of GG1PAMAM was immobilized covalently on mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) monolayer on Au transducer. This allows cost effective and easy deposition of single layer graphene on the Au transducer surface than the advanced vacuum techniques used in the literature. Au nano particles (17.5 nm) then decorated the GG1PAMAM and used for electrochemical DNA hybridization sensing. The sensor discriminates selectively and sensitively the complementary double stranded DNA (dsDNA, hybridized), non-complementary DNA (ssDNA, un-hybridized) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) surfaces. Interactions of the MPA, GG1PAMAM and the Au nano particles were characterized by Ultra Violet (UV), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Cyclic Voltmetric (CV), Impedance spectroscopy (IS) and Differntial Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) techniques. The sensor showed linear range 1×10(-6) to 1×10(-12) M with lowest detection limit 1 pM which is 1000 times lower than G1PAMAM without graphene core. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth Restored with Biodentine, Resin Modified GIC and Hybrid Composite Resin as a Core Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subash, Dayalan; Shoba, Krishnamma; Aman, Shibu; Bharkavi, Srinivasan Kumar Indu; Nimmi, Vijayan; Abhilash, Radhakrishnan

    2017-09-01

    The restoration of a severely damaged tooth usually needs a post and core as a part of treatment procedure to provide a corono - radicular stabilization. Biodentine is a class of dental material which possess high mechanical properties with excellent biocompatibility and bioactive behaviour. The sealing ability coupled with optimum physical properties could make Biodentine an excellent option as a core material. The aim of the study was to determine the fracture resistance of Biodentine as a core material in comparison with resin modified glass ionomer and composite resin. Freshly extracted 30 human permanent maxillary central incisors were selected. After endodontic treatment followed by post space preparation and luting of Glass fibre post (Reforpost, Angelus), the samples were divided in to three groups based on the type of core material. The core build-up used in Group I was Biodentine (Septodont, France), Group II was Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (GC, Japan) and Group III was Hybrid Composite Resin (TeEconom plus, Ivoclar vivadent). The specimens were subjected to fracture toughness using Universal testing machine (1474, Zwick/Roell, Germany) and results were compared using One-way analysis of variance with Tukey's Post hoc test. The results showed that there was significant difference between groups in terms of fracture load. Also, composite resin exhibited highest mean fracture load (1039.9 N), whereas teeth restored with Biodentine demonstrated the lowest mean fracture load (176.66 N). Resin modified glass ionomer exhibited intermediate fracture load (612.07 N). The primary mode of failure in Group I and Group II was favourable (100%) while unfavourable fracture was seen in Group III (30%). Biodentine, does not satisfy the requirements to be used as an ideal core material. The uses of RMGIC's as a core build-up material should be limited to non-stress bearing areas. Composite resin is still the best core build-up material owing to its high fracture

  2. Optical fiber-based core-shell coaxially structured hybrid cells for self-powered nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Caofeng; Zhu, Guang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Guo, Wenxi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dong, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); School of Materials Science and Enginnering, Zhenzhou University, Zhenghou 450001 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-03

    An optical fiber-based 3D hybrid cell consisting of a coaxially structured dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a nanogenerator (NG) for simultaneously or independently harvesting solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The current output of the hybrid cell is dominated by the DSSC, and the voltage output is dominated by the NG; these can be utilized complementarily for different applications. The output of the hybrid cell is about 7.65 {mu}A current and 3.3 V voltage, which is strong enough to power nanodevices and even commercial electronic components. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. An AgI@g-C3N4 hybrid core@shell structure: Stable and enhanced photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Qi, Yuehong; Yang, Jinyi; Cui, Wenquan; Li, Xingang; Zhang, Zisheng

    2015-12-01

    A novel visible-light-active material AgI@g-C3N4 was prepared by ultrasonication/chemisorption method. The core@shell structure AgI@g-C3N4 catalyst showed high efficiency for the degradation of MB under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). Nearly 96.5% of MB was degraded after 120 min of irradiation in the presence of the AgI@g-C3N4 photocatalyst. Superior stability was also observed in the cyclic runs indicating that the as prepared hybrid composite is highly desirable for the remediation of organic contaminated wastewaters. The improved photocatalytic performance is due to synergistic effects at the interface of AgI and g-C3N4 which can effectively accelerate the charge separation and reinforce the photostability of hybrid composite. The possible mechanism for the photocatalytic activity of AgI@g-C3N4 was tentatively proposed.

  4. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol

    2015-01-01

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  5. Stable Photocatalytic Paints Prepared from Hybrid Core-Shell Fluorinated/Acrylic/TiO2 Waterborne Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bonnefond

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air and water is one of the major concerns towards the development of a sustainable world in the 21st century. In this context many efforts are devoted to the design of photocatalytic paints able to degrade chemical and biological impurities present in air and water. In this work, the photocatalytic activity of hybrid films formed from the blends of pure acrylic or core/shell fluorinated/acrylic waterborne dispersions and photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticle dispersions was first assessed. The films show photocatalytic activity (inactivation of the Escherichia coli bacteria under UV irradiation at the substrate-film interface, but very reduced activity in the air-film interface due to the substantially lower amount of the TiO2 nanoparticles in the vicinity of this interface. In a second step, the fluorinated/(methacrylic core-shell hybrid dispersions were used as binders in the formulation of waterborne photocatalytic paints and the stability of the paints, in terms of gloss retain and color change, was assessed during 5000 hours of accelerated weathering tests (QUV-B. Although a decrease in gloss retention and increased color change occurs during the first 1000 hours of exposure, no further change of these properties takes place, which is an excellent indication of stable photocatalytic paints.

  6. Preparation and photocatalytic properties of hybrid core-shell reusable CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-ZnO nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A. [Department of Physics, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Mishra, S.R., E-mail: srmishra@memphis.edu [Department of Physics, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Gupta, R.; Ghosh, K. [Department of Physics, Materials Science, and Astronomy, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetically separable and reusable core-shell CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-ZnO photocatalyst nanospheres were prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis technique using glucose derived carbon nanospheres as the template. The morphology and the phase of core-shell hybrid structure of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-ZnO were assessed via TEM, SEM and XRD. The magnetic composite showed high UV photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue in water. The photocatalytic activity was found to be ZnO shell thickness dependent. Thicker ZnO shells lead to higher rate of photocatalytic activity. Hybrid nanospheres recovered using an external magnetic field demonstrated good repeatability of photocatalytic activity. These results promise the reusability of the hybrid nanospheres for photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of novel hybrid magnetic-ZnO core-shell composite nanospheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High photocatalytic activity of hybrid nanospheres was noted as compared to that of pure ZnO nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hybrid nanospheres could be easily retrieved using an external magnet for repeated use. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Repeated use of hybrid nanospheres did not show any degradation in the photocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalysis rate was observed to be ZnO shell thickness dependent.

  7. Hybrid gas separation membranes containing star-shaped polystyrene with the fullerene (C60) core

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pulyalina, A. Y.; Rostovtseva, V. A.; Pientka, Zbyněk; Vinogradova, L. V.; Polotskaya, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2018), s. 296-303 ISSN 0965-5441 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : gas separation * hybrid membranes * star-shaped macromolecules Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 0.493, year: 2016

  8. Influence of heat treatment on hole transfer dynamics in core-shell quantum dot/organic hole conductor hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingye; Zheng, Youjin; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Bing

    2017-08-01

    The influence of heat treatment on hole transfer (HT) processes from the CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) to 4,4‧,4″-Tris(carbazol-9-yl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) in QD/TCTA hybrid films has been researched with time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL dynamic results demonstrated a heat-treatment-temperature-dependent HT process from the core-shell CdSe QDs to TCTA. The HT rates and efficiencies can be effectively increased due to reduced distance between core-shell CdSe QDs and TCTA after heat treatment. The CdS shell exhibited a more obvious effect on HT from the core-shell CdSe QDs to TCTA than on electron transfer to TiO2, due to higher barrier for holes to tunnel through CdS shell and larger effective mass of holes in CdS than electrons. These results indicate that heat treatment would be an effective means to further optimize solid-state QD sensitized solar cells and rational design of CdS shell is significant.

  9. Ideas in support to the definition of the Phase 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimpault, G.

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid UOX/MOX fuelled core of the BN-600 reactor was endorsed as an international benchmark. Phases 1 and 2 consist of RZ and HEX-Z homogeneous models of the hybrid version of the BN-600 reactor. Phase 3 consists of RZ and HEX-Z heterogeneous models of the hybrid version of the BN-600 reactor. Phase 4 consists of RZ and HEX-Z heterogeneous models of the full MOX version of the BN-600 reactor. Phase 5 consists of the Analysis of BFS-62 hybrid configuration in support to Phase 3 studies. The background strategy was defined to make the world safer by using weapon grade Plutonium for civil application. Make that use safe by checking the behaviour of the BN-600 core with limited (hybrid core: Phases 1, 2 and 3) and then full use of MOX (Phase 4); Verify uncertainties on reactivity coefficients and especially on SVRE with some BFS-62 experiments (Phase 5) and use of Minor Actinides in the fuel (Phase 6 and possibly Phase 7). The French Strategy was make the link between existing reactors PWR and GEN-IV ones. From 2030 - 2040, Introduction of 4th generation systems was planned. The P4 and N4 PWR reactors will reach 40 years lifetime at 2025-2035. Lifetime extension to 50 years is considered. The replacement of PWR reactors by Gen IV systems will be effective. Proposal of Phase 6 considers to develop a strategy in connection with GEN IV criteria, use BN-600 as a demonstrator of GEN IV cores, use spent fuels from WWERs, RBMKs as a fuel for use in LMFBR (BN-600 being the first in the row). In Russia, there are roughly 9 GWe WWER and 10.2 GWe RBMK reactors. UOX is being used (no MOX being used), burn up rate is 45 GWd/ton. At the moment, no reprocessing is performed but a reasonable scenario is to develop a simplified dry reprocessing or a dry reprocessing to extract both MA and Pu resulting in no separation and limited Proliferation. Pu vector will no longer be weapon grade. There will be no blanket as far as possible. Study the BN-600 behaviour with this type of fuel

  10. A Simple Method for Forming Hybrid Core-Shell Nanoparticles Suspended in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Daigle

    2008-01-01

    addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization as dispersant. Then, the resulting dispersion is engaged in a radical emulsion polymerization process whereby a hydrophobic organic monomer (styrene and butyl acrylate is polymerized to form the shell of the hybrid nanoparticle. This method is extremely versatile, allowing the preparation of a variety of nanocomposites with metal oxides (alumina, rutile, anatase, barium titanate, zirconia, copper oxide, metals (Mo, Zn, and even inorganic nitrides (Si3N4.

  11. Electroless Sliver-Plating Process in the Preparation of 103Pd-125I Hybrid Brachytherapy Seed Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhong-yong1,2;CHEN Bin-da1;Lv Xiao-zhou1;LU Jin-hui1;CUI Hai-ping1,2

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Electroless 103Pd plating and electroless Ag plating and chemical 125I depositing were took place on the surface of carbon rods in turn, which was a reliable method for the preparation of 103Pd-125I hybrid brachytherapy seed cores. 103Pd and 125I were deposited on the same substrate effectively through silver coating as a bridge. The process of electroless Ag plating was a novel and important step in the preparation of 103Pd-125I hybrid seed. In this work, the process of electroless Ag plating was studied using 0.5×3.0 mm carbon rods with palladium coating as substrate, silver-ammino complex as precursor, 110mAg as radioactive tracer, and hydrazine as reductant. The optimum conditions were AgNO3 2g/L,Na2EDTA 40 g/L,NH3•H2O 16.25%,H4N2•H2O 5‰,pH=10,t=60 min,and T=35 ℃. Sliver deposited on each carbon rod was uniform, and sliver-coating was white and smooth.

  12. Reactivity changes in hybrid thermal-fast reactor systems during fast core flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.

    1994-09-01

    A new space-dependent kinetic model in adiabatic approximation with local feedback reactivity parameters for reactivity determination in the coupled systems is proposed in this thesis. It is applied in the accident calculation of the 'HERBE' fast-thermal reactor system and compared to usual point kinetics model with core-averaged parameters. Advantages of the new model - more realistic picture of the reactor kinetics and dynamics during local large reactivity perturbation, under the same heat transfer conditions, are underlined. Calculated reactivity parameters of the new model are verified in the experiments performed at the 'HERBE' coupled core. The model has shown that the 'HERBE' safety system can shutdown reactor safely and fast even in the case of highly set power trip and even under conditions of big partial failure of the reactor safety system (author)

  13. Numerical Research on Hybrid Fuel Locking Device for Upward Flow Core-Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Yoo, Yeon-Sik; Ryu, Jeong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The assembly must be held firmly against these forces, but cannot be permanently attached to the support stand because periodic refueling of the reactor requires removal or relocation of each assembly. There are so many kinds of fuel locking device, but they are operated manually. As a part of a new project, we have investigated a hybrid fuel locking device (HFLD) for research reactor which is operated automatically. Prior method of holding down the fuel assembly includes a hybrid zero electromagnet consisting of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet. The role of an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by controlling the coil current. At this time, a HFLD is an unlocking state. On the contrary, it is locking state that only a permanent magnet works when the power of an electromagnet is off. The results of a FEM in this work lead to the following conclusions: (1) It is possible that an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by remote controlling the coil current. (2) At this time, it is able to detect remotely using proximity sensor whether a HFLD is latched or not

  14. Understanding twinning nucleation and dislocation core structure through interscale hybrid method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ben; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2014-01-01

    The variety of emerging simulation methods and improved computational power advance the understanding in nanometals as a good compensation of the experiments. In this paper, the first principle methods are discussed, especially as a useful combination of the classical molecular dynamics, to overc......, to overcome the disadvantages of the latter method. Two examples are given as: the nucleation of the {10-12} deformation twinning in magnesium, and the screw dislocation core structure with/without hydrogen in tungsten....

  15. Magnetic response of hybrid ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic core-shell nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, U; Li, W J; Adeela, N; Irfan, M; Javed, K; Wan, C H; Riaz, S; Han, X F

    2016-03-21

    The synthesis of FeTiO3-Ni(Ni80Fe20) core-shell nanostructures by a two-step method (sol-gel and DC electrodeposition) has been demonstrated. XRD analysis confirms the rhombohedral crystal structure of FeTiO3(FTO) with space group R3[combining macron]. Transmission electron microscopy clearly depicts better morphology of nanostructures with shell thicknesses of ∼25 nm. Room temperature magnetic measurements showed significant enhancement of magnetic anisotropy for the permalloy (Ni80Fe20)-FTO over Ni-FTO core-shell nanostructures. Low temperature magnetic measurements of permalloy-FeTiO3 core-shell structure indicated a strong exchange bias mechanism with magnetic coercivity below the antiferromagnetic Neel temperature (TN = 59 K). The exchange bias is attributed to the alignment of magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic material at low temperature. Our scheme opens a path towards optimum automotive systems and wireless communications wherein broader bandwidths and smaller sizes are required.

  16. Controllable Synthesis of Gold Nanorod/Conducting Polymer Core/Shell Hybrids Toward in Vitro and in Vivo near-Infrared Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Zhu, Chunhua; Han, Jie; Han, Na; Xi, Juqun; Fan, Lei; Guo, Rong

    2018-04-18

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a minimally invasive tumor treatment technology, and is regarded as a potential anticancer strategy because of its targeted destruction and low toxicity. Specifically, near-infrared light-induced PTT has attracted intriguing interest because of the high transparency of tissue, blood, and water. However, effective PTT generally requires the assistance of photothermal agents. Gold nanorods (GNRs) and conducting polymer are often used as photothermal materials because of their high absorption efficiency and photothermal conversion efficiency. Herein, we combined GNRs with poly( o-methoxyaniline) (POMA, a polyaniline derivative) to form GNRs/POMA core/shell hybrids through the surfactant-assisted chemical oxidative polymerization route and studied their photothermal conversion properties. The configuration of GNRs/POMA core/shell hybrids has been precisely controlled through adjusting the monomer concentration, and the relationship between morphology and absorption band of GNRs/POMA core/shell hybrids has been revealed. Finally, the in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed, and the results indicated that the GNRs/POMA core/shell hybrids with optimized absorbance at around 808 nm exhibited the best performance on photothermal therapy under 808 nm NIR laser irradiation.

  17. Thermoelectric-pyroelectric hybrid energy generation from thermopower waves in core-shell structured carbon nanotube-PZT nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Shin, Dongjoon; Seo, Byungseok; Choi, Wonjoon

    2017-02-10

    There is an urgent need to develop a suitable energy source owing to the rapid development of various innovative devices using micro-nanotechnology. The thermopower wave (TW), which produces a high specific power during the combustion of solid fuel inside micro-nanostructure materials, is a unique energy source for unusual platforms that cannot use conventional energy sources. Here, we report on the significant enhancement of hybrid energy generation of pyroelectrics and thermoelectrics from TWs in carbon nanotube (CNT)-PZT (lead zirconate titanate, P(Z 0.5 -T 0.5 )) composites for the first time. Conventional TWs use only charge carrier transport driven by the temperature gradient along the core materials to produce voltage. In this study, a core-shell structure of CNTs-PZTs was prepared to utilize both the temperature gradient along the core material (thermoelectrics) and the dynamic change in the temperature of the shell structure (pyroelectrics) induced by TWs. The dual mechanism of energy generation in CNT-PZT composites amplified the average peak and duration of the voltage up to 403 mV and 612 ms, respectively, by a factor of 2 and 60 times those for the composites without a PZT layer. Furthermore, dynamic voltage measurements and structural analysis in repetitive TWs confirmed that CNT-PZT composites maintain the original performance in multiple TWs, which improves the reusability of materials. The advanced TWs obtained by the application of a PZT layer as a pyroelectric material contributes to the extension of the usable energy portion as well as the development of TW-based operating devices.

  18. Impulse Response of a 36-Core Few-Mode Photonic Lantern Hybrid Spatial-Multiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Mendinueta, José Manuel Delgado; Klaus, Werner

    2017-01-01

    multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) equalization, provided mode-dependent loss (MDL) is small [3]. Furthermore, mode scrambling at the transmitter improves tolerance to MDL and maximizes system capacity if all supported modes are used to transmit information [3]. Thus, the MDL and mode mixing properties...... significant mode mixing to take place at the multicore few-mode fiber splice. Furthermore, insertion loss and MDL of the system are further analyzed.......Space division multiplexing (SDM) using fibers with multiple cores and/or supporting multiple modes has become an essential technology to support Pbit/s transmissions in a single fiber [1,2]. Despite significant mode-mixing in few-mode fibers (FMF), the original signals can be recovered through...

  19. Primary Damage Characteristics in Metals Under Irradiation in the Cores of Thermal and Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechenkin, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    For an analysis and forecasting of radiation-induced phenomena in structural materials of WWERs, PWRs and BN reactors the fast neutron fluence is usually used (for structural materials of the reactor cores and internals the fluence of neutrons with energy > 0.1 MeV, for WWER and PWRs vessel steels the fluence of neutrons with energy > 0.5 MeV in Russia and East Europe, and with energy > 1.0 MeV in USA and France). Displacements per atom (dpa) seem to be a more appropriate correlation parameter, because it allows comparing the results of materials irradiation in different neutron energy spectra or with different types of particles (neutrons, ions, fast electrons). Energy spectra of primary knocked atoms (PKA) and 'effective' dpa, which are introduced to take into account the point defect recombination during the relaxation stage of a displacement cascade, can be still better representation of the effect of irradiation on material properties. In this work the results of calculating dose rates (dpa/s, NRT-model), PKA energy spectra and PKA mean energies in metals under irradiation in the cores of Russian reactors WWER-440, WWER-1000 (both power thermal reactors) and BN-600 (power fast reactor) and BR-10 (test fast reactor) are presented. In all the reactors Fe and Zr are considered, with addition of Ti and W in BN-600. 'Effective' dose rates in these metals are calculated. Limitations and uncertainties in the standard dpa formulation (the NRT-dpa) are discussed. IPPE activities in the fields related to the TM subject are considered

  20. Plasmon enhanced water splitting mediated by hybrid bimetallic Au-Ag core-shell nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, William R; Coppola, Andrew; Zarick, Holly F; Arora, Poorva; Miller, Kevin J; Bardhan, Rizia

    2014-11-07

    In this work, we employed wet chemically synthesized bimetallic Au-Ag core-shell nanostructures (Au-AgNSs) to enhance the photocurrent density of mesoporous TiO2 for water splitting and we compared the results with monometallic Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). While Au-AgNSs incorporated photoanodes give rise to 14× enhancement in incident photon to charge carrier efficiency, AuNPs embedded photoanodes result in 6× enhancement. By varying nanoparticle concentration in the photoanodes, we observed ∼245× less Au-AgNSs are required relative to AuNPs to generate similar photocurrent enhancement for solar fuel conversion. Power-dependent measurements of Au-AgNSs and AuNPs showed a first order dependence to incident light intensity, relative to half-order dependence for TiO2 only photoanodes. This indicated that plasmonic nanostructures enhance charge carriers formed on the surface of the TiO2 which effectively participate in photochemical reactions. Our experiments and simulations suggest the enhanced near-field, far-field, and multipolar resonances of Au-AgNSs facilitating broadband absorption of solar radiation collectively gives rise to their superior performance in water splitting.

  1. New Hybrid Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Model for Improving Competence Sets: Enhancing a Company’s Core Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Wei Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A company’s core competitiveness depends on the strategic allocation of its human resources in alignment with employee capabilities. Competency models can identify the range of capabilities at a company’s disposal, and this information can be used to develop internal or external education training policies for sustainable development. Such models can ensure the importation of a strategic orientation reflecting the growth of its employee competence set and enhancing human resource sustainably. This approach ensures that the most appropriate people are assigned to the most appropriate positions. In this study, we proposed a new hybrid multiple attributed decision-making model by using the Decision-making trial and Evaluation Laboratory Technique (DEMATEL to construct an influential network relation map (INRM and determined the influential weights by using the basic concept of the analytic network process (called DEMATEL-based ANP, DANP; the influential weights were then adopted with a modified Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR method. A simple forecasting technique as an iteration function was also proposed. The proposed model was effective. We expect that the proposed model can facilitate making timely revisions, reflecting the growth of employee competence sets, reducing the performance gap toward the aspiration level, and ensuring the sustainability of a company.

  2. Hybridization and crystal-field effects in Kondo insulators studied by means of core-level spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strigari, Fabio

    2015-04-13

    and even for symmetries lower than tetragonal. In addition to that, HAXPES measurements on the CeM{sub 2}Al{sub 10} series are presented. A common technique for studying hybridization effects in rare earths, and their electronic structure in general, is photoelectron spectroscopy in the soft X-ray range (hv ≤ 1.5 keV). However, in this energy region surface effects are known to matter so that the picture about the hybridization interaction might be distorted with respect to the bulk. The use of hard X-rays (hν=5-10 keV) guarantees a sufficiently large probing depth for obtaining information about the actual bulk electronic structure. In a detailed quantitative analysis of HAXPES 3d core level spectra - using a combination of full multiplet calculations and a configuration interaction model (fm-CI model) - the hybridization strength can be quantified. The XAS results show that the CEF ground states of CeRu{sub 2}Al{sub 10} and CeOs{sub 2}Al are very similar, while it is clearly different for the non-ordering system CeFe{sub 2}Al{sub 10}. The CEF description nicely explains the magnetic anisotropy observed in susceptibility data and to a large extent the small ordered moments along the c axis. We provide a reliable quantitative description of the CEF ground state of the CeM{sub 2}Al{sub 10} compounds. Furthermore, the analysis of the HAXPES data in the fm-CI model allows to quantify the intermediate 4f valence and establishes that the exchange interaction increases within the series from Ru to Os to Fe. A substantial amount of Kondo screening is shown to be present even in the magnetically ordered Ru and Os compounds. The polarized XAS study on CeNiSn demonstrates that the monoclinic CEF is well described in a trigonal approximation, and the determined 4f ground-state wave function is consistent with results from inelastic neutron scattering for Cu-doped CeNiSn. Moreover, the systematic investigation of the CeRh{sub 1-x}Ir{sub x}In{sub 5} substitution series by means

  3. 5  W output power from a double-clad hybrid fiber with Yb-doped phosphate core and silicate cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Longfei; He, Dongbing; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Chunlei; Feng, Suya; Wang, Meng; Chen, Danping; Hu, Lili

    2017-08-01

    For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we report on the realization of a laser from a Yb-doped phosphate core/silicate cladding double-clad hybrid fiber. 5 W output power was extracted with 14.6% slope efficiency and a laser spectrum of a 1027 nm central wavelength from a 20 cm long single-mode fiber with a ∼10  μm core diameter in a 20%-4% laser cavity. The laser efficiency can be significantly enhanced by correspondingly adjusting and optimizing the laser oscillator.

  4. Experiences Using Hybrid MPI/OpenMP in the Real World: Parallelization of a 3D CFD Solver for Multi-Core Node Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Jost

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today most systems in high-performance computing (HPC feature a hierarchical hardware design: shared-memory nodes with several multi-core CPUs are connected via a network infrastructure. When parallelizing an application for these architectures it seems natural to employ a hierarchical programming model such as combining MPI and OpenMP. Nevertheless, there is the general lore that pure MPI outperforms the hybrid MPI/OpenMP approach. In this paper, we describe the hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization of IR3D (Incompressible Realistic 3-D code, a full-scale real-world application, which simulates the environmental effects on the evolution of vortices trailing behind control surfaces of underwater vehicles. We discuss performance, scalability and limitations of the pure MPI version of the code on a variety of hardware platforms and show how the hybrid approach can help to overcome certain limitations.

  5. Vver-1000 Mox core computational benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Science Committee has established an Expert Group that deals with the status and trends of reactor physics, fuel performance and fuel cycle issues related to disposing of weapons-grade plutonium in mixed-oxide fuel. The objectives of the group are to provide NEA member countries with up-to-date information on, and to develop consensus regarding, core and fuel cycle issues associated with burning weapons-grade plutonium in thermal water reactors (PWR, BWR, VVER-1000, CANDU) and fast reactors (BN-600). These issues concern core physics, fuel performance and reliability, and the capability and flexibility of thermal water reactors and fast reactors to dispose of weapons-grade plutonium in standard fuel cycles. The activities of the NEA Expert Group on Reactor-based Plutonium Disposition are carried out in close co-operation (jointly, in most cases) with the NEA Working Party on Scientific Issues in Reactor Systems (WPRS). A prominent part of these activities include benchmark studies. At the time of preparation of this report, the following benchmarks were completed or in progress: VENUS-2 MOX Core Benchmarks: carried out jointly with the WPRS (formerly the WPPR) (completed); VVER-1000 LEU and MOX Benchmark (completed); KRITZ-2 Benchmarks: carried out jointly with the WPRS (formerly the WPPR) (completed); Hollow and Solid MOX Fuel Behaviour Benchmark (completed); PRIMO MOX Fuel Performance Benchmark (ongoing); VENUS-2 MOX-fuelled Reactor Dosimetry Calculation (ongoing); VVER-1000 In-core Self-powered Neutron Detector Calculational Benchmark (started); MOX Fuel Rod Behaviour in Fast Power Pulse Conditions (started); Benchmark on the VENUS Plutonium Recycling Experiments Configuration 7 (started). This report describes the detailed results of the benchmark investigating the physics of a whole VVER-1000 reactor core using two-thirds low-enriched uranium (LEU) and one-third MOX fuel. It contributes to the computer code certification process and to the

  6. Influence of Kenaf Core Fiber Incorporation on the Mechanical Performance and Dimensional Stability of Oil Palm Fiber Reinforced Poly(lactic acid Hybrid Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Umar Birnin-Yauri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the reinforcing potential of kenaf core fiber (KCF to complement and sustain oil palm fiber supply chain in the production of natural fiber-thermoplastic biocomposites. The lignin-rich KCF was incorporated into cellulose-rich oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF- and oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF-poly(lactic acid (PLA composites, aimed at achieving synergism. The hybrid biocomposites developed by melt blending and subsequent compression molding were characterized for possible application as an alternative to medium-density fiberboards. The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of both single fiber- and hybrid fiber-PLA biocomposites were evaluated and compared. The test results showed a synergistic improvement as a consequence of fiber hybridization. Also, the findings suggested the best material performance with the incorporation of 5% KCF into 55% EFBF or OPMF and 40% PLA matrix. The OPMF-KCF-PLA hybrid biocomposites gave better results than the EFBF-KCF-PLA hybrid biocomposites.

  7. Dual-Channel, Molecular-Sieving Core/Shell ZIF@MOF Architectures as Engineered Fillers in Hybrid Membranes for Highly Selective CO2 Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhuonan; Qiu, Fen; Zaia, Edmond W; Wang, Zhongying; Kunz, Martin; Guo, Jinghua; Brady, Michael; Mi, Baoxia; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2017-11-08

    A novel core/shell porous crystalline structure was prepared using a large pore metal organic framework (MOF, UiO-66-NH 2 , pore size, ∼ 0.6 nm) as core surrounded by a small pore zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF, ZIF-8, pore size, ∼ 0.4 nm) through a layer-by-layer deposition method and subsequently used as an engineered filler to construct hybrid polysulfone (PSF) membranes for CO 2 capture. Compared to traditional fillers utilizing only one type of porous material with rigid channels (either large or small), our custom designed core/shell fillers possess clear advantages via pore engineering: the large internal channels of the UiO-66-NH 2 MOFs create molecular highways to accelerate molecular transport through the membrane, while the thin shells with small pores (ZIF-8) or even smaller pores generated at the interface by the imperfect registry between the overlapping pores of ZIF and MOF enhance molecular sieving thus serving to distinguish slightly larger N 2 molecules (kinetic diameter, 0.364 nm) from smaller CO 2 molecules (kinetic diameter, 0.33 nm). The resultant core/shell ZIF@MOF and as-prepared hybrid PSF membranes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, wide-angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and contact angle tests. The dependence of the separation performance of the membranes on the MOF/ZIF ratio was also studied by varying the number of layers of ZIF coatings. The integrated PSF-ZIF@MOF hybrid membrane (40 wt % loading) with optimized ZIF coating cycles showed improved hydrophobicity and excellent CO 2 separation performance by simultaneously increasing CO 2 permeability (CO 2 permeability of 45.2 barrer, 710% higher than PSF membrane) and CO 2 /N 2 selectivity (CO 2 /N 2 selectivity of 39, 50% higher than PSF membrane), which is superior to most reported hybrid PSF membranes. The strategy of using

  8. Development of Core Design Technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Il; Hong, S. G.; Jang, J. W. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    This report describes the contents of core design technology and computer code system development performed during 2005 and 2006 on the objects of nuclear proliferation resistant core and nuclear fuel basic key technology development security. Also, it is including the future application plans for the results and the developed methodology, important information and the materials acquired in this period. Two core designs with single enrichment were considered for the KALIMER-600 during the first year : 1) the first core uses the non-fuel rods such as B4C, ZrH1.8, and dummy rods, 2) the core using different cladding thickness for each core region (inner, middle, and outer cores) without non-fuel rods to flatten the power distribution. In particular, the latter design was intended to simplify the fuel assembly design by eliminating the heterogeneity. It was found that the proposed design satisfy all of the Gen IV SFR design goals on the cycle length longer than 18 EFPM, fuel discharge burnup larger than 80GWd/t, sodium void worth, conversion ratio, reactivity burnup swing and so on. For this object reactor, the structure integrity outside of reactor is confirmed for the radiation exposure during the plant life according to the result of shielding design and evaluation. The transmutation capability and the core characteristics of sodium cooled fast reactor was also evaluated according to the change of MA amount. The reactivity coefficients for the BN-600 reactor with MA fueled are calculated and the results are compared and evaluated with other participants results. Even though the discrepancies between the results of participants are somewhat large but the K-CORE results are close to the average within a standard deviation. To have the capability of 3-dimensional core dynamic analysis such as analyzing power distribution and reactivity variations according to the asymmetric insertion/withdrawal of control rods, the calculation module for core dynamic parameters was

  9. Core-shell LiFePO4 /carbon-coated reduced graphene oxide hybrids for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sung Hoon; Lee, Yun Jung

    2015-01-26

    Core-shell carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles were hybridized with reduced graphene (rGO) for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes. Spontaneous aggregation of hydrophobic graphene in aqueous solutions during the formation of composite materials was precluded by employing hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) as starting templates. The fabrication of true nanoscale carbon-coated LiFePO4 -rGO (LFP/C-rGO) hybrids were ascribed to three factors: 1) In-situ polymerization of polypyrrole for constrained nanoparticle synthesis of LiFePO4 , 2) enhanced dispersion of conducting 2D networks endowed by colloidal stability of GO, and 3) intimate contact between active materials and rGO. The importance of conducting template dispersion was demonstrated by contrasting LFP/C-rGO hybrids with LFP/C-rGO composites in which agglomerated rGO solution was used as the starting templates. The fabricated hybrid cathodes showed superior rate capability and cyclability with rates from 0.1 to 60 C. This study demonstrated the synergistic combination of nanosizing with efficient conducting templates to afford facile Li(+) ion and electron transport for high power applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Novel three-dimensional tin/carbon hybrid core/shell architecture with large amount of solid cross-linked micro/nanochannels for lithium ion battery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zunxian; Meng, Qing; Yan, Wenhuan; Lv, Jun; Guo, Zaiping; Yu, Xuebin; Chen, Zhixin; Guo, Tailiang; Zeng, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Uniform Sn/C hybrid core/shell nanocomposites were synthesized by a combination of electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment in a reducing atmosphere. The particular three-dimensional architecture, consisting of a Sn@C nanoparticle core and porous hollow carbon nanofiber shell, is characterized by many micro/nanochannels, enhanced mechanical support from the three-dimensional hollow carbon shell, and the abundant porous carbon matrix. The as-prepared Sn/C core/shell nanomaterials exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. They display a reversible capacity of 546.7 mAhg −1 up to 100 cycles at the current density of 40 mAg −1 and good rate capability of 181.8 mAhg −1 at 4000 mAg −1 . These results indicate that the composite could be a promising anode candidate for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • Sn/C core/shell composites were synthesized by an electrospinning, a hydrothermal process, and further thermal treatment. • The best-performing 3D composite consists of a Sn@C nanoparticle core and porous hollow carbon nanofiber shell. • The Sn/C composite electrode exhibit excellent Li ion storage capacity and cycling stability

  11. Assessment of the dry process fuel sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2004-04-01

    The feasibility of using dry-processed oxide fuel in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) was analyzed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two reference cores: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with a enlarged lattice pitch and modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study based on the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was {approx}50% and most of the fission products were removed.

  12. Assessment of the dry process fuel sodium-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2004-04-01

    The feasibility of using dry-processed oxide fuel in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) was analyzed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two reference cores: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with a enlarged lattice pitch and modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study based on the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was ∼50% and most of the fission products were removed

  13. Hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization of the explicit Volterra integral equation solver for multi-core computer architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid MPI/OpenMP scheme for efficiently parallelizing the explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT)-based solution of the time-domain volume (Volterra) integral equation (TD-VIE) is presented. The proposed scheme equally distributes tested field values

  14. Behind the Final Grade in Hybrid v. Traditional Courses: Comparing Student Performance by Assessment Type, Core Competency, and Course Objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Lisa Z.

    2012-01-01

    There are many different delivery methods used by institutions of higher education. These include traditional, hybrid, and online course offerings. The comparisons of these typically use final grade as the measure of student performance. This research study looks behind the final grade and compares student performance by assessment type, core…

  15. White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamoglu, S; Ozel, T; Sari, E; Demir, H V

    2007-01-01

    We introduce white light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals of single, dual, triple and quadruple combinations hybridized with InGaN/GaN LEDs. Such hybridization of different nanocrystal combinations provides the ability to conveniently adjust white light parameters including the tristimulus coordinates (x,y), correlated colour temperature (T c ) and colour rending index (R a ). We present the design, growth, fabrication and characterization of our white hybrid nanocrystal-LEDs that incorporate combinations of (1) yellow nanocrystals (λ PL = 580 nm) on a blue LED (λ EL = 440 nm) with (x,y) = (0.37,0.25), T c = 2692 K and R a 14.69; (2) cyan and red nanocrystals (λ PL = 500 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λ EL = 440 nm) with (x,y) = (0.37,0.28), T c = 3246 K and R a = 19.65; (3) green, yellow and red nanocrystals (λ PL = 540, 580 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λ EL = 452 nm) with (x,y) = (0.30,0.28), T c = 7521 K and R a = 40.95; and (4) cyan, green, yellow and red nanocrystals (λ PL = 500, 540, 580 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λ EL = 452 nm) with (x,y) = (0.24,0.33), T c = 11 171 K and R a 71.07. These hybrid white light sources hold promise for future lighting and display applications with their highly adjustable properties

  16. Enhancement of the Mechanical Properties and Dimensional Stability of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch-Kenaf Core and Oil Palm Mesocarp-Kenaf Core Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Poly(lactic acid Biocomposites by Borax Decahydrate Modification of Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Umar Birnin-Yauri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The surfaces of kenaf core fiber (KCF, oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF, and oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF, were chemically modified using 5 wt.% aqueous sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax solution to enhance their hybrid fiber interface bonding with a polylactic acid (PLA matrix. The untreated fibers (KCF, EFBF, and OPMF and treated fibers (BXKCF, BXEFBF, and BXOPMF, were examined using chemical analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The treatment caused minimal removal of lignin and significant elimination of hemicellulose and waxy substances. The treated and untreated KCF (5%, as a secondary fiber, was randomly mixed, respectively, with treated and untreated EFBF and OPMF (55%, melt-blended with PLA (40%, and subsequently compression-molded to form hybrid fiber-PLA biocomposites. The resulting composite is aimed to exhibit improvements in its mechanical properties and dimensional stability. The optimum results for tensile and flexural properties, as well as water uptake and thickness swelling, were observed for the borax-treated fibers in comparison with the untreated fibers. The BXEFBF-BXKCF-PLA biocomposites exhibited the best results. This work demonstrated that aqueous borax modification of natural fibers could offer a possible option to the most common mercerization method.

  17. Hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization of the explicit Volterra integral equation solver for multi-core computer architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed

    2011-08-01

    A hybrid MPI/OpenMP scheme for efficiently parallelizing the explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT)-based solution of the time-domain volume (Volterra) integral equation (TD-VIE) is presented. The proposed scheme equally distributes tested field values and operations pertinent to the computation of tested fields among the nodes using the MPI standard; while the source field values are stored in all nodes. Within each node, OpenMP standard is used to further accelerate the computation of the tested fields. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed parallelization scheme scales well for problems involving three million or more spatial discretization elements. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Preparation of graphene quantum dots based core-satellite hybrid spheres and their use as the ratiometric fluorescence probe for visual determination of mercury(II) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Mengjuan; Wang, Chengquan; Qian, Jing; Wang, Kan; Yang, Zhenting; Liu, Qian; Mao, Hanping; Wang, Kun

    2015-01-01

    We herein proposed a simple and effective strategy for preparing graphene quantum dots (GQDs)-based core-satellite hybrid spheres and further explored the feasibility of using such spheres as the ratiometric fluorescence probe for the visual determination of Hg 2+ . The red-emitting CdTe QDs were firstly entrapped in the silica nanosphere to reduce their toxicity and improve their photo and chemical stabilities, thus providing a built-in correction for environmental effects, while the GQDs possessing good biocompatibility and low toxicity were electrostatic self-assembly on the silica surface acting as reaction sites. Upon exposure to the increasing contents of Hg 2+ , the blue fluorescence of GQDs can be gradually quenched presumably due to facilitating nonradiative electron/hole recombination annihilation. With the embedded CdTe QDs as the internal standard, the variations of the tested solution display continuous fluorescence color changes from blue to red, which can be easily observed by the naked eye without any sophisticated instrumentations and specially equipped laboratories. This sensor exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg 2+ in a broad linear range of 10 nM–22 μM with a low detection limit of 3.3 nM (S/N = 3), much lower than the allowable Hg 2+ contents in drinking water set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This prototype ratiometric probe is of good simplicity, low toxicity, excellent stabilities, and thus potentially attractive for Hg 2+ quantification related biological systems. - Highlights: • A facile strategy for preparing GQDs based core-satellite hybrid spheres was reported. • Such spheres can be used as the ratiometric fluorescence probe for Hg 2+ detection. • The Hg 2+ content can be easily distinguished by the naked eye. • The sensor shows high sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg 2+ detection. • The ratiometric probe is of good simplicity, low toxicity, and excellent stability

  19. Self-assembly of multiferroic core-shell particulate nanocomposites through DNA-DNA hybridization and magnetic field directed assembly of superstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Srinivasan, Gopalan, E-mail: srinivas@oakland.edu, E-mail: chavez@oakland.edu [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309-4401 (United States); Lochbiler, Thomas A.; Panda, Manashi; Chavez, Ferman A., E-mail: srinivas@oakland.edu, E-mail: chavez@oakland.edu [Department of Chemistry, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309-4401 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Multiferroic composites of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases are of importance for studies on mechanical strain mediated coupling between the magnetic and electric subsystems. This work is on DNA-assisted self-assembly of superstructures of such composites with nanometer periodicity. The synthesis involved oligomeric DNA-functionalized ferroelectric and ferromagnetic nanoparticles, 600 nm BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) and 200 nm NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NFO), respectively. Mixing BTO and NFO particles, possessing complementary DNA sequences, resulted in the formation of ordered core-shell heteronanocomposites held together by DNA hybridization. The composites were imaged by scanning electron microscopy and scanning microwave microscopy. The presence of heteroassemblies along with core-shell architecture is clearly observed. The reversible nature of the DNA hybridization allows for restructuring the composites into mm-long linear chains and 2D-arrays in the presence of a static magnetic field and ring-like structures in a rotating-magnetic field. Strong magneto-electric (ME) coupling in as-assembled composites is evident from static magnetic field H induced polarization and low-frequency magnetoelectric voltage coefficient measurements. Upon annealing the nanocomposites at high temperatures, evidence for the formation of bulk composites with excellent cross-coupling between the electric and magnetic subsystems is obtained by H-induced polarization and low-frequency ME voltage coefficient. The ME coupling strength in the self-assembled composites is measured to be much stronger than in bulk composites with randomly distributed NFO and BTO prepared by direct mixing and sintering.

  20. Directed self-assembly of hybrid oxide/polymer core/shell nanowires with transport optimized morphology for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shanju; Pelligra, Candice I.; Keskar, Gayatri; Majewski, Pawel W.; Taylor, Andre D.; Pfefferle, Lisa D.; Osuji, Chinedum O. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Jiang, Jie; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-01-03

    An entirely bottom-up approach for the preparation of liquid crystalline suspensions of core-shell nanowires for ordered bulk heterojunction photovoltaics is demonstrated. Side-on attachment of polythiophene derivatives to ZnO nanowires promotes a co-axial polymer backbone-nanowire arrangement which favors high hole mobility. This strategy offers structural control over multiple length scales and a viable means of fabricating ordered films over large areas. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Pure-iron/iron-based-alloy hybrid soft magnetic powder cores compacted at ultra-high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tatsuya; Tsuruta, Hijiri; Watanabe, Asako; Ishimine, Tomoyuki; Ueno, Tomoyuki

    2018-04-01

    We developed Fe/FeSiAl soft magnetic powder cores (SMCs) for realizing the miniaturization and high efficiency of an electromagnetic conversion coil in the high-frequency range (˜20 kHz). We found that Fe/FeSiAl SMCs can be formed with a higher density under higher compaction pressure than pure-iron SMCs. These SMCs delivered a saturation magnetic flux density of 1.7 T and iron loss (W1/20k) of 158 kW/m3. The proposed SMCs exhibited similar excellent characteristics even in block shapes, which are closer to the product shapes.

  2. Pure-iron/iron-based-alloy hybrid soft magnetic powder cores compacted at ultra-high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Saito

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed Fe/FeSiAl soft magnetic powder cores (SMCs for realizing the miniaturization and high efficiency of an electromagnetic conversion coil in the high-frequency range (∼20 kHz. We found that Fe/FeSiAl SMCs can be formed with a higher density under higher compaction pressure than pure-iron SMCs. These SMCs delivered a saturation magnetic flux density of 1.7 T and iron loss (W1/20k of 158 kW/m3. The proposed SMCs exhibited similar excellent characteristics even in block shapes, which are closer to the product shapes.

  3. Toward hybrid Au nanorods @ M (Au, Ag, Pd and Pt) core-shell heterostructures for ultrasensitive SERS probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Kang, Shendong; Lei, Yanhua; Pan, Zhengyin; Shibayama, Tamaki; Cai, Lintao

    2017-06-01

    Being able to precisely control the morphologies of noble metallic nanostructures is of essential significance for promoting the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. Herein, we demonstrate an overgrowth strategy for synthesizing Au @ M (M = Au, Ag, Pd, Pt) core-shell heterogeneous nanocrystals with an orientated structural evolution and highly improved properties by using Au nanorods as seeds. With the same reaction condition system applied, we obtain four well-designed heterostructures with diverse shapes, including Au concave nanocuboids (Au CNs), Au @ Ag crystalizing face central cube nanopeanuts, Au @ Pd porous nanocuboids and Au @ Pt nanotrepangs. Subsequently, the exact overgrowth mechanism of the above heterostructural building blocks is further analysed via the systematic optimiziation of a series of fabrications. Remarkably, the well-defined Au CNs and Au @ Ag nanopeanuts both exhibit highly promoted SERS activity. We expect to be able to supply a facile strategy for the fabrication of multimetallic heterogeneous nanostructures, exploring the high SERS effect and catalytic activities.

  4. Preparation of graphene quantum dots based core-satellite hybrid spheres and their use as the ratiometric fluorescence probe for visual determination of mercury(II) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Mengjuan [Key Laboratory of Modern Agriculture Equipment and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Chengquan [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Qian, Jing, E-mail: qianj@ujs.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Agriculture Equipment and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Kan; Yang, Zhenting; Liu, Qian; Mao, Hanping [Key Laboratory of Modern Agriculture Equipment and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Kun, E-mail: wangkun@ujs.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Agriculture Equipment and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-08-12

    We herein proposed a simple and effective strategy for preparing graphene quantum dots (GQDs)-based core-satellite hybrid spheres and further explored the feasibility of using such spheres as the ratiometric fluorescence probe for the visual determination of Hg{sup 2+}. The red-emitting CdTe QDs were firstly entrapped in the silica nanosphere to reduce their toxicity and improve their photo and chemical stabilities, thus providing a built-in correction for environmental effects, while the GQDs possessing good biocompatibility and low toxicity were electrostatic self-assembly on the silica surface acting as reaction sites. Upon exposure to the increasing contents of Hg{sup 2+}, the blue fluorescence of GQDs can be gradually quenched presumably due to facilitating nonradiative electron/hole recombination annihilation. With the embedded CdTe QDs as the internal standard, the variations of the tested solution display continuous fluorescence color changes from blue to red, which can be easily observed by the naked eye without any sophisticated instrumentations and specially equipped laboratories. This sensor exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg{sup 2+} in a broad linear range of 10 nM–22 μM with a low detection limit of 3.3 nM (S/N = 3), much lower than the allowable Hg{sup 2+} contents in drinking water set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This prototype ratiometric probe is of good simplicity, low toxicity, excellent stabilities, and thus potentially attractive for Hg{sup 2+} quantification related biological systems. - Highlights: • A facile strategy for preparing GQDs based core-satellite hybrid spheres was reported. • Such spheres can be used as the ratiometric fluorescence probe for Hg{sup 2+} detection. • The Hg{sup 2+} content can be easily distinguished by the naked eye. • The sensor shows high sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg{sup 2+} detection. • The ratiometric probe is of good simplicity, low toxicity, and

  5. Reactive microencapsulation of carbon allotropes in polyamide shell-core structures and their transformation in hybrid composites with tailored electrical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyamide 6 microcapsules (PAMC loaded with 2–10 wt% of different carbon allotropes: carbon black, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers and graphite were synthesized via activated anionic polymerization (AAROP of ε-caprolactam in solution performed in the presence of the respective micro- or nanosized loads. The forming high-molecular weight microporous PAMC showed typical diameters of 15–35 µm, the filler particles being entrapped in the core as proven by microscopy methods. The melt processing of the loaded microcapsules produced PA6/C-filler hybrid thermoplastic composites with homogeneous distribution of one or two C-fillers even at loads of up to 10% without any functionalization. The crystalline structure of all PAMC and molded composites was studied by thermal and X-ray diffraction methods focusing on possible structure modification during the transition from PAMC to molded plates. Mechanical tests in tension and electrical conductivity measurements showed that transforming loaded PAMC into composites by melt processing could be a facile and rapid method to fabricate polyamide composites with improved mechanical performance and tailored electrical and dielectric properties.

  6. A hydrogel-mediated scalable strategy toward core-shell polyaniline/poly(acrylic acid)-modified carbon nanotube hybrids as efficient electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Bai, Zhengyu; Fan, Jingbiao; Sun, Zhipeng; Mi, Hongyu; Zhang, Qing; Qiu, Jieshan

    2018-04-01

    Structural failure of polyaniline (PANI) stemmed from repeated swelling-shrinkage during Faradic process represents an imminent issue hindering the real application of this material for advanced energy storage. Herein, we explore a clean and facile hydrogel-mediated layer-by-layer strategy to conformally coat a layer of oriented PANI nanofibers on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) where a layer of UV-polymerized poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel is first formed in between as electrodes for supercapacitors. Such an intriguing core-shell tri-component structure perfectly alleviates the drawbacks of PANI as well as combines the advantages of MWCNTs. Especially, the hydrogel used increases the adhesion between PANI and MWCNTs, buffers the structural variation of PANI during cycling, and provide extra driving force accelerating electrolyte penetration throughout active materials. Therefore, the well-intergrown hybrids (PANI/P-MWCNT) display high electrochemical performance as compared to PANI and PANI/MWCNT, i.e., an improved capacitance of 612.5 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, and excellent cycling behavior of 81.5% capacitance retention at 5 A g-1 over 1500 cycles. Also, the maximum energy density of the PANI/P-MWCNT based symmetric configuration reaches 8.2 Wh kg-1. Significantly, such a hydrogel-bridged design concept may find the important application for the synthesis of competitive candidates for energy storage.

  7. Tunable light emission by exciplex state formation between hybrid halide perovskite and core/shell quantum dots: Implications in advanced LEDs and photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rafael S; de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Suarez, Isaac; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of exciplex state electroluminescence due to carrier injection between the hybrid lead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) and quantum dots (core/shell PbS/CdS). Single layers of perovskite (PS) and quantum dots (QDs) have been produced by solution processing methods, and their photoluminescent properties are compared to those of bilayer samples in both PS/QD and QD/PS configurations. Exciplex emission at lower energies than the band gap of both PS and QD has been detected. The exciplex emission wavelength of this mixed system can be simply tuned by controlling the QD size. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using those configurations, which provide light emission with considerably low turn-on potential. The "color" of the LED can also be tuned by controlling the applied bias. The presence of the exciplex state PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications not only in tunable LEDs but also in the preparation of intermediate band gap photovoltaic devices with the potentiality of surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit.

  8. Tunable light emission by exciplex state formation between hybrid halide perovskite and core/shell quantum dots: Implications in advanced LEDs and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rafael S.; de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Suarez, Isaac; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P.; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of exciplex state electroluminescence due to carrier injection between the hybrid lead halide perovskite (MAPbI3–xClx) and quantum dots (core/shell PbS/CdS). Single layers of perovskite (PS) and quantum dots (QDs) have been produced by solution processing methods, and their photoluminescent properties are compared to those of bilayer samples in both PS/QD and QD/PS configurations. Exciplex emission at lower energies than the band gap of both PS and QD has been detected. The exciplex emission wavelength of this mixed system can be simply tuned by controlling the QD size. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using those configurations, which provide light emission with considerably low turn-on potential. The “color” of the LED can also be tuned by controlling the applied bias. The presence of the exciplex state PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications not only in tunable LEDs but also in the preparation of intermediate band gap photovoltaic devices with the potentiality of surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit. PMID:26844299

  9. Effects of nuclear data library on BFS and ZPPR fast reactor core analysis results. Pt. 1. ZPPR analysis results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantourov, Guennadi

    2001-05-01

    This work was fulfilled in the frame of JNC-IPPE Collaboration on Experimental Investigation of Excess of Weapon Pu Disposition in BN-600 Reactor Using BFS-2 Facility. The data processing system CONSYST/ABBN coupled with ABBN-93 nuclear data library was used in analysis of BFS and ZPPR fast reactor cores applying JNC core calculation code CITATION. FFCP cell code was used for taking into account the spatial cell heterogeneity and resonance effects based on the first flight collision probability method and subgroup approach. Especially a converting program was written to transmit the prepared effective cross sections to JNC standard PDS files. Then the CITATION code was applied for 3-D XYZ neutronics calculations of BFS and ZPPR JUPITER experiments series cores. The effects of nuclear data library have been studied by comparing the former results based on JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library. The comparison results using IPPE and JNC nuclear data libraries for k-effective parameter for ZPPR-9, ZPPR-13A and ZPPR-17A cores are presented. The calculated correction factor in all cases was less than 1.0%. So the uncertainty in C value caused by possible errors in calculation of these corrections is expected to be less than 0.3% in case of ZPPR-13A and ZPPR-17A cores, and rather less for ZPPR-9 core. The main result of this study is that the effect of applying ABBN-93 nuclear data in JNC calculation route revealed a large enough discrepancy in k-eff for ZPPR-9 (about 0.6%) and ZPPR-17A (about 0.5%) cores. For BFS-62-1 and BFS-62-2 cores such analysis is in progress. Stretch cell models for both BFS cores were formed and cell calculations using FFCP code have started. Some results of cell calculations are presented. (author)

  10. Coupling Mo2C@C core-shell nanocrystals on 3D graphene hybrid aerogel for high-performance lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hailin; Hai, Yang; Li, Dongzhi; Qiu, Zhaozheng; Lin, Yemao; Yang, Bo; Fan, Haosen; Zhu, Caizhen

    2018-05-01

    Hybrid aerogel by dispersing Mo2C@C core-shell nanocrystals into three-dimensional (3D) graphene (Mo2C@C-GA) has been successfully prepared through two-step methods. Firstly, carbon-coated MoO2 nanocrystals uniformly anchor on 3D graphene aerogel (MoO2@C-GA) via hydrothermal reaction. Then the MoO2@C-GA precursor is transformed into Mo2C@C-GA after the following carbonization process. Furthermore, the freeze-drying step plays an important role in the resulting pore size distribution of the porous networks. Moreover, graphene aerogels exhibit extremely low densities and superior electrical properties. When evaluated as anode material for lithium ion battery, Mo2C@C-GA delivers excellent rate capability and stable cycle performance when compared with C-GA and Mo2C nanoparticles. Mo2C@C-GA exhibits the initial discharge capacity of 1461.4 mA h g-1 at the current density of 0.1 A g-1, and retains a reversible capacity of 1089.8 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1. Even at high current density of 5 A g-1, a discharge capacity of 623.5 mA h g-1 can be still achieved. The excellent performance of Mo2C@C-GA could be attributed to the synergistic effect of Mo2C@C nanocrystals and the 3D graphene conductive network.

  11. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid magnetic approach, merging two different magnetic core properites such as ferrite and iron powder cores, is an effective solution for power converter applications. It can offer similar magnetic properties to that of magnetic powder cores but showing less copper loss than powder cores....... In order to prevent ferrite core saturation, placing an effective air gap within the ferrite core is a key method to obtain optimum hybrid magnetic performance. Furthermore, a relatively large inductance at low loading current is an excellent way to minimze power loss in order to achieve high efficiency...

  14. Nanocrystalline p-hydroxyacetanilide (paracetamol) and gold core-shell structure as a model drug deliverable organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhojit; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2013-09-01

    We report on the generation of core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) having an organic nanocrystal (NC) core coated with an inorganic metallic shell, being dispersed in aqueous medium. First, NCs of p-hydroxyacetanilide (pHA)--known also as paracetamol--were generated in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced the formation of pHA NCs and of their crystalline nature. The NCs were then coated with Au to form pHA@Au core-shell NPs, where the thickness of the Au shell was on the order of nanometers. The formation of Au nanoshell--surrounding pHA NC--was confirmed from its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in the UV/Vis spectrum and by TEM measurements. Further, on treatment of the core-shell particles with a solution comprising NaCl and HCl (pH paracetamol--were generated in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced the formation of pHA NCs and of their crystalline nature. The NCs were then coated with Au to form pHA@Au core-shell NPs, where the thickness of the Au shell was on the order of nanometers. The formation of Au nanoshell--surrounding pHA NC--was confirmed from its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in the UV/Vis spectrum and by TEM measurements. Further, on treatment of the core-shell particles with a solution comprising NaCl and HCl (pH < 3), the Au shell could be dissolved, subsequently releasing pHA molecules. The dissolution of Au shell was marked by a gradual diminishing of its SPR band, while the release of pHA molecules in the solution was confirmed from TEM and FTIR studies. The findings suggest that the core-shell NP could be hypothesized to be a model for encapsulating drug molecules, in their crystalline forms, for slow as well as targeted release. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03566b

  15. Layer-by-Layer-Assembled AuNPs-Decorated First-Generation Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimer with Reduced Graphene Oxide Core as Highly Sensitive Biosensing Platform with Controllable 3D Nanoarchitecture for Rapid Voltammetric Analysis of Ultratrace DNA Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Kumarasamy; Camarada, María Belén; Dharuman, Venkataraman; Rajesh, Rajendiran; Venkatesan, Rengarajan; Ju, Huangxian; Maniraj, Mahalingam; Rai, Abhishek; Barman, Sudipta Roy; Wen, Yangping

    2018-06-12

    The structure and electrochemical properties of layer-by-layer-assembled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-decorated first-generation (G1) poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PD) with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) core as a highly sensitive and label-free biosensing platform with a controllable three-dimensional (3D) nanoarchitecture for the rapid voltammetric analysis of DNA hybridization at ultratrace levels were characterized. Mercaptopropinoic acid (MPA) was self-assembled onto Au substrate, then GG1PD formed by the covalent functionalization between the amino terminals of G1PD and carboxyl terminals of rGO was covalently linked onto MPA, and finally AuNPs were decorated onto GG1PD by strong physicochemical interaction between AuNPs and -OH of rGO in GG1PD, which was characterized through different techniques and confirmed by computational calculation. This 3D controllable thin-film electrode was optimized and evaluated using [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3-/4- as the redox probe and employed to covalently immobilize thiol-functionalized single-stranded DNA as biorecognition element to form the DNA nanobiosensor, which achieved fast, ultrasensitive, and high-selective differential pulse voltammetric analysis of DNA hybridization in a linear range from 1 × 10 -6 to 1 × 10 -13 g m -1 with a low detection limit of 9.07 × 10 -14 g m -1 . This work will open a new pathway for the controllable 3D nanoarchitecture of the layer-by-layer-assembled metal nanoparticles-functionalized lower-generation PD with two-dimensional layered nanomaterials as cores that can be employed as ultrasensitive and label-free nanobiodevices for the fast diagnosis of specific genome diseases in the field of biomedicine.

  16. Efficiency Enhanced Colloidal Mn-Doped Type II Core/Shell ZnSe/CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamshidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal Mn-doped ZnSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs are synthesized for the first time and employed as a strategy to boost the power conversion efficiency of quantum dot sensitized solar cells. By using Mn-doping as a band gap engineering tool for core/shell QDs an effective improvement of absorption spectra could be obtained. The mid-states generated by a proper Mn content alleviate carrier separation and enhance the electron injection rate, thus facilitating electron transport to the TiO2 substrate. It is demonstrated that a device constructed with 0.25% Mn-doped ZnSe/CdS leads to an enhancement of the electron injection rate and power conversion efficiency by 4 times and 1.3, respectively.

  17. Analyses on the BFS critical experiments. An analysis on the BFS-62-1 and 62-2 cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Kazuteru; Shono, Akira

    2002-04-01

    In order to support the Russian excess weapons plutonium disposition, the international collaboration has been started between Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Russian Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE). In the frame of the collaboration, JNC has carried out analyses on the BFS-62 assemblies that are constructed in the fast reactor critical experimental facility BFS-2 of IPPE. This report summarizes an experimental analysis on the BFS-62-1 and BFS-62-2 cores. The BFS-62-1 core models the present BN-600, and contains the enriched UO 2 fuel surrounded by the UO 2 blanket. The BFS-62-2 core has the same layout as the BFS-62-1 but the blanket region was replaced with stainless steel shied. For core parameter analyses, the 3-D Hexagonal-Z or XYZ geometry model was applied by not only diffusion calculation but also transport calculation. Further in terms of the utilization of the BFS experimental analysis data for the standard data base for FBR core design, consistency evaluation with JUPITER experimental analysis data has been performed using the cross-section adjustment method. As the result of analyses, good agreement was obtained between calculations and experiments for the criticality, the reaction rate ratio and reaction rate distribution in BFS-62-1. In the reaction rate distribution of BFS-62-2 calculation without cross-section adjustment produced big radial dependency of calculation over experiment value (C/E value) in the core region and overestimation in the shield region. Cross-section adjustment technique procedure improved those estimation, however alternation of cross-section of Iron, which was dominant in above improvement, compared to the cross-section error, and further investigation was required. Concerning the control rod worth of BFS-62-1, radial dependency of the C/E value was observed whether cross-section adjustment technique was applied or not, therefore comparison with results of other BFS-62 cores analyses is

  18. Effects of nuclear data library on BFS and ZPPR fast reactor core analysis results. Pt. 2. BFS-62 analysis results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantourov, Guennadi

    2001-11-01

    This work was fulfilled in the frame of JNC-IPPE Collaboration on Experimental Investigation of Excess Weapon Pu Disposition in BN-600 Reactor Using BFS-2 Facility. Data processing system CONSYST/ABBN coupled with ABBN-93 nuclear data library was used in analysis of BFS-62 and ZPPR JUPIER series fast reactor cores, applying JNC core calculation code CITATION-FBR. FFCP cell code was used for taking into account the spatial cell heterogeneity and resonance effects based on the First Flight Collision Probability method and subgroup approach. Especially, two converting programs were written to transmit the prepared effective cross sections to JNC standard PDS files to let then the CITATION code be applied for 3-D HEXZ neutronics calculations of the investigated cores. The effects of nuclear data library have been studied by comparing the results calculated using ABBN-93 nuclear data library with the former ones obtained in JNC based on JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library. The comparison results using IPPE and JNC nuclear data libraries for k-effective parameter for 4 BFS-62 cores as well as for 3 ZPPR JUPITER experiment series cores ZPPR-9, ZPPR-13A and ZPPR-17A are presented. The comparison results for reaction rates distributions for 2 BFS-62 uranium loaded cores are included too. The calculated correction factors applied in all cases were less than 1.0%. The estimated uncertainty in k-effective C values caused by possible errors in calculation of the applied corrections is about 0.3% in case of BFS-62 and ZPPR MOX cores, and is about 0.2% for BFS-62 uranium-loaded cores. The main result of this study is that the effect of applying ABBN-93 nuclear data in JNC's calculation route for k-effective results is about 0.3% for ZPPR and BFS-62 cores with plutonium. As for BFS uranium-loaded cores (BFS-62-1 and BFS-62-2) the nuclear data library effect is about 0.1%. Next the sensitivity analysis was applied. It shown that the main contributors to the nuclear data library effect

  19. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  20. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  1. Comprehensive investigation of core-shell dimer nanoparticles size, distance and thicknesses on performance of a hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Hamid

    2018-03-01

    Significant performance enhancement in an ultrathin perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) solar cell is done using plasmonic embedded core–shell dimer nanoparticles. Three-dimensional finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used. A perovskite absorber with a volume of 400 × 400 × 200 nm3 is considered. At first, a cell with one embedded nanoparticle is simulated. Absorptance of CH3NH3PbI3 absorber and gold nanoparticle are obtained. An optimization is done. Then a cell with embedded dimer nanoparticles is evaluated. The results show higher photocurrent enhancement for that in compared to a cell with one embedded nanoparticle. To further photocurrent enhancement, gold-SiO2 core–shell nanoparticles are used. Photocurrents of 23.37 mA cm‑2, 23.3 mA cm‑2, 22.5 mA cm‑2 and 21.47 mA cm‑2 are obtained for a cell with two embedded core–shell nanoparticles with core radius of 60 nm and shell thickness of 2 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm and 20 nm, respectively. It is important to mention that the photocurrent is 17.9 mA cm‑2 for reference cell and 19.8 mA cm‑2 for a cell with one embedded nanoparticle. Higher photocurrent is due to the near-field plasmonic effect.

  2. Assessment of the Dry Processed Oxide Fuel in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2005-09-15

    The neutronic feasibility of the dry process oxide fuel was assessed for the sodium-cooled and lead-cooled fast reactors (SFR and LFR, respectively), which were recommended as Generation-IV (Gen-IV) reactor systems by the Gen-IV international forum. The reactor analysis was performed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two core configurations: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with an enlarged lattice pitch and a modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study is the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic (TRU) enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a fissile self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was {approx}50% and most of the fission products were removed. If the design criteria used in this study is proved to be acceptable through a detailed physics design and thermal hydraulic analysis in the future, it is practically possible to construct an equilibrium fuel cycle of the SFR and LFR systems based on the oxide fuel by utilizing the dry process technology.

  3. Assessment of the Dry Processed Oxide Fuel in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2005-09-01

    The neutronic feasibility of the dry process oxide fuel was assessed for the sodium-cooled and lead-cooled fast reactors (SFR and LFR, respectively), which were recommended as Generation-IV (Gen-IV) reactor systems by the Gen-IV international forum. The reactor analysis was performed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two core configurations: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with an enlarged lattice pitch and a modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study is the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic (TRU) enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a fissile self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was ∼50% and most of the fission products were removed. If the design criteria used in this study is proved to be acceptable through a detailed physics design and thermal hydraulic analysis in the future, it is practically possible to construct an equilibrium fuel cycle of the SFR and LFR systems based on the oxide fuel by utilizing the dry process technology

  4. Effects of existing evaluated nuclear data files on neutronics characteristics of the BFS-62-3A critical assembly benchmark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Mikhail

    2002-11-01

    This report is continuation of studying of the experiments performed on BFS-62-3A critical assembly in Russia. The objective of work is definition of the cross section uncertainties on reactor neutronics parameters as applied to the hybrid core of the BN-600 reactor of Beloyarskaya NPP. Two-dimensional benchmark model of BFS-62-3A was created specially for these purposes and experimental values were reduced to it. Benchmark characteristics for this assembly are 1) criticality; 2) central fission rate ratios (spectral indices); and 3) fission rate distributions in stainless steel reflector. The effects of nuclear data libraries have been studied by comparing the results calculated using available modern data libraries - ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, ENDF/B-VI-PT, JENDL-3.2 and ABBN-93. All results were computed by Monte Carlo method with the continuous energy cross-sections. The checking of the cross sections of major isotopes on wide benchmark criticality collection was made. It was shown that ENDF/B-V data underestimate the criticality of fast reactor systems up to 2% Δk. As for the rest data, the difference between each other in criticality for BFS-62-3A is around 0.6% Δk. However, taking into account the results obtained for other fast reactor benchmarks (and steel-reflected also), it may conclude that the difference in criticality calculation results can achieve 1% Δk. This value is in a good agreement with cross section uncertainty evaluated for BN-600 hybrid core (±0.6% Δk). This work is related to the JNC-IPPE Collaboration on Experimental Investigation of Excess Weapons Grade Pu Disposition in BN-600 Reactor Using BFS-2 Facility. (author)

  5. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  6. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  7. Core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, N G; Edel' man, Ya A

    1981-02-15

    A core lifter is suggested which contains a housing, core-clamping elements installed in the housing depressions in the form of semirings with projections on the outer surface restricting the rotation of the semirings in the housing depressions. In order to improve the strength and reliability of the core lifter, the semirings have a variable transverse section formed from the outside by the surface of the rotation body of the inner arc of the semiring aroung the rotation axis and from the inner a cylindrical surface which is concentric to the outer arc of the semiring. The core-clamping elements made in this manner have the possibility of freely rotating in the housing depressions under their own weight and from contact with the core sample. These semirings do not have weakened sections, have sufficient strength, are inserted into the limited ring section of the housing of the core lifter without reduction in its through opening and this improve the reliability of the core lifter in operation.

  8. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  9. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  10. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  11. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  12. New hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.

    2001-01-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  13. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    and placement machinery. This opens up the possibility for both an automated manufacturing process and an automated production process of toroidal magnetics such as power inductors, filtering inductors, air core inductors, transformers etc. Both the proposed hybrid and the common wire wound winding...

  14. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  15. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  16. New hybrid systems: strategy and research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    This short article gives a status of research and experimental programs concerning new hybrid systems. A hybrid system is made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and of a particle accelerator that delivers a proton beam. The main asset of hybrid systems is to provide a large reactivity margin that would be very valuable to transmute actinide nuclei efficiently. As a consequence hybrid systems could be considered as actinide burner reactors integrated to a large population of classical nuclear reactors dedicated to electricity production. (A.C.)

  17. Development of a three dimensional homogeneous calculation model for the BFS-62 critical experiment. Preparation of adjusted equivalent measured values for sodium void reactivity values. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manturov, G.; Semenov, M.; Seregin, A.; Lykova, L.

    2004-01-01

    The BFS-62 critical experiments are currently used as 'benchmark' for verification of IPPE codes and nuclear data, which have been used in the study of loading a significant amount of Pu in fast reactors. The BFS-62 experiments have been performed at BFS-2 critical facility of IPPE (Obninsk). The experimental program has been arranged in such a way that the effect of replacement of uranium dioxied blanket by the steel reflector as well as the effect of replacing UOX by MOX on the main characteristics of the reactor model was studied. Wide experimental program, including measurements of the criticality-keff, spectral indices, radial and axial fission rate distributions, control rod mock-up worth, sodium void reactivity effect SVRE and some other important nuclear physics parameters, was fulfilled in the core. Series of 4 BFS-62 critical assemblies have been designed for studying the changes in BN-600 reactor physics from existing state to hybrid core. All the assemblies are modeling the reactor state prior to refueling, i.e. with all control rod mock-ups withdrawn from the core. The following items are chosen for the analysis in this report: Description of the critical assembly BFS-62-3A as the 3rd assembly in a series of 4 BFS critical assemblies studying BN-600 reactor with MOX-UOX hybrid zone and steel reflector; Development of a 3D homogeneous calculation model for the BFS-62-3A critical experiment as the mock-up of BN-600 reactor with hybrid zone and steel reflector; Evaluation of measured nuclear physics parameters keff and SVRE (sodium void reactivity effect); Preparation of adjusted equivalent measured values for keff and SVRE. Main series of calculations are performed using 3D HEX-Z diffusion code TRIGEX in 26 groups, with the ABBN-93 cross-section set. In addition, precise calculations are made, in 299 groups and Ps-approximation in scattering, by Monte-Carlo code MMKKENO and discrete ordinate code TWODANT. All calculations are based on the common system

  18. Construction of hybrid photosynthetic units using peripheral and core antennae from two different species of photosynthetic bacteria: detection of the energy transfer from bacteriochlorophyll a in LH2 to bacteriochlorophyll b in LH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ritsuko; Shimonaka, Shozo; Uchida, Naoko; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Sugisaki, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Typical purple bacterial photosynthetic units consist of supra-molecular arrays of peripheral (LH2) and core (LH1-RC) antenna complexes. Recent atomic force microscopy pictures of photosynthetic units in intact membranes have revealed that the architecture of these units is variable (Scheuring et al. (2005) Biochim Bhiophys Acta 1712:109-127). In this study, we describe methods for the construction of heterologous photosynthetic units in lipid-bilayers from mixtures of purified LH2 (from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila) and LH1-RC (from Rhodopseudomonas viridis) core complexes. The architecture of these reconstituted photosynthetic units can be varied by controlling ratio of added LH2 to core complexes. The arrangement of the complexes was visualized by electron-microscopy in combination with Fourier analysis. The regular trigonal array of the core complexes seen in the native photosynthetic membrane could be regenerated in the reconstituted membranes by temperature cycling. In the presence of added LH2 complexes, this trigonal symmetry was replaced with orthorhombic symmetry. The small lattice lengths for the latter suggest that the constituent unit of the orthorhombic lattice is the LH2. Fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectroscopy was applied to the set of the reconstituted membranes prepared with various proportions of LH2 to core complexes. Remarkably, even though the LH2 complexes contain bacteriochlorophyll a, and the core complexes contain bacteriochlorophyll b, it was possible to demonstrate energy transfer from LH2 to the core complexes. These experiments provide a first step along the path toward investigating how changing the architecture of purple bacterial photosynthetic units affects the overall efficiency of light-harvesting.

  19. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  20. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    The Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is a language for expressing business process behaviour based on web services. The language is intentionally not minimal but provides a rich set of constructs, allows omission of constructs by relying on defaults, and supports language......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...

  1. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  2. An analysis of fast reactor fuel assembly performance taking into account their mechanical interaction in the core and refuelling line capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buksha, Yu.K.; Zabudko, L.M.; Kravchenko, I.N.; Matveenko, L.V.; Meshkov, M.N.

    1984-01-01

    An approach to assessment of fast reactor fuel assembly performance has been considered. A concept of passive restraint of fuel assemblies in a reactor adopted in the USSR is described. Some methods for calculating the interassembly interactions during operation are briefly outlined, some calculated results are presented. A problem of fuel assembly performance during refuelling taking into account the refuelling line capabilities is considered. Some results from fuel assemblies operation experience in the BN-600 reactor are given. (author)

  3. Core-shell structured polystyrene/BaTiO3 hybrid nanodielectrics prepared by in situ RAFT polymerization: a route to high dielectric constant and low loss materials with weak frequency dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Huang, Xingyi; Xie, Liyuan; Wu, Chao; Jiang, Pingkai; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    2012-11-23

    A novel route to prepare core-shell structured nanocomposites with excellent dielectric performance is reported. This approach involves the grafting of polystyrene (PS) from the surface of BaTiO(3) by an in situ RAFT polymerization. The core-shell structured PS/BaTiO(3) nanocomposites not only show significantly increased dielectric constant and very low dielectric loss, but also have a weak frequency dependence of dielectric properties over a wide range of frequencies. In addition, the dielectric constant of the nanocomposites can also be easily tuned by varying the thickness of the PS shell. Our method is very promising for preparing high-performance nanocomposites used in energy-storage devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  5. Growth outside the core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Chris; Allen, James

    2003-12-01

    Growth in an adjacent market is tougher than it looks; three-quarters of the time, the effort fails. But companies can change those odds dramatically. Results from a five-year study of corporate growth conducted by Bain & Company reveal that adjacency expansion succeeds only when built around strong core businesses that have the potential to become market leaders. And the best place to look for adjacency opportunities is inside a company's strongest customers. The study also found that the most successful companies were able to consistently, profitably outgrow their rivals by developing a formula for pushing out the boundaries of their core businesses in predictable, repeatable ways. Companies use their repeatability formulas to expand into any number of adjacencies. Some companies make repeated geographic moves, as Vodafone has done in expanding from one geographic market to another over the past 13 years, building revenues from $1 billion in 1990 to $48 billion in 2003. Others apply a superior business model to new segments. Dell, for example, has repeatedly adapted its direct-to-customer model to new customer segments and new product categories. In other cases, companies develop hybrid approaches. Nike executed a series of different types of adjacency moves: it expanded into adjacent customer segments, introduced new products, developed new distribution channels, and then moved into adjacent geographic markets. The successful repeaters in the study had two common characteristics. First, they were extraordinarily disciplined, applying rigorous screens before they made an adjacency move. This discipline paid off in the form of learning curve benefits, increased speed, and lower complexity. And second, in almost all cases, they developed their repeatable formulas by studying their customers and their customers' economics very, very carefully.

  6. Side core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A

    1982-01-01

    A side core lifter is proposed which contains a housing with guide slits and a removable core lifter with side projections on the support section connected to the core receiver. In order to preserve the structure of the rock in the core sample by means of guaranteeing rectilinear movement of the core lifter in the rock, the support and core receiver sections are hinged. The device is equipped with a spring for angular shift in the core-reception part.

  7. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bujorianu, Luminita Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic reachability analysis (SRA) is a method of analyzing the behavior of control systems which mix discrete and continuous dynamics. For probabilistic discrete systems it has been shown to be a practical verification method but for stochastic hybrid systems it can be rather more. As a verification technique SRA can assess the safety and performance of, for example, autonomous systems, robot and aircraft path planning and multi-agent coordination but it can also be used for the adaptive control of such systems. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems is a self-contained and accessible introduction to this novel topic in the analysis and development of stochastic hybrid systems. Beginning with the relevant aspects of Markov models and introducing stochastic hybrid systems, the book then moves on to coverage of reachability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems. Following this build up, the core of the text first formally defines the concept of reachability in the stochastic framework and then...

  8. Hybrid opto-digital signal processing in 112 Gbit/s DP-16QAM and DP-QDB transmission for long-haul large-Aeff pure-silica-core fiber links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Rameez; Ahmad, Ramshah; Basir, Rabeea

    2016-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations, we demonstrated that all-optical signal processing methods (XPM-suppressor module and in-line nonlinear equalization) significantly increase the system performance of digital nonlinear compensation (digital backward propagation) and improve the system performanc...... in five-channel 112 Gbit/s DP-16QAM and DP-QDB transmission over 2400 km large- effective-area pure-silica-core fiber ((Formula presented.)-PSCF). The system performance is quantified with the help of Q-factor (dB) for both dispersion-managed and nondispersion-managed fiber links....

  9. Simplified approach to dynamic process modelling. Annex 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilytchev, A.; Elistratov, D.; Stogov, V.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the OKBM contribution to the analysis of a benchmark of BN-600 reactor hybrid core with simultaneous loading of uranium fuel and MOX within the framework of the international IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project 'Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce the Calculational Uncertainties of the LMFR Reactivity Effects'. In accordance with Action 12 defined during the second RCM, the simplified transient analysis was carried out on the basis of the reactivity coefficients sets, presented by all CRP participants. Purpose of present comparison is the evaluation of spread in the basic transient parameters in connection with spread in the used reactivity coefficients. A ULOF accident initial stage on the simplified model was calculated by using the SAS4A code

  10. Synthesis and properties of core–shell fluorescent hybrids with distinct morphologies based on carbon dots

    KAUST Repository

    Markova, Zdenka; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Safarova, Klara; Polakova, Katerina; Tucek, Jiri; Medrik, Ivo; Siskova, Karolina; Petr, Jan; Krysmann, Marta; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Zboril, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent core-shell nanohybrids with the shells derived from carbon dots and cores differing in the chemical nature and morphology were synthesized. Hybrid nanoparticles combine fluorescence with other functionalities such as magnetic response on a single platform. These hybrids can be used in various bioapplications as demonstrated with labeling of stem cells. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  11. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  12. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  13. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  14. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  15. Fault current limiter-predominantly resistive behavior of a BSCCO shielded-core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, M. G.; Tobin, T. J.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the electrical and magnetic characteristics of a superconductor shielded core reactor (SSCR). The results show that a closed-core SSCR is predominantly a resistive device and an open-core SSCR is a hybrid resistive/inductive device. The open-core SSCR appears to dissipate less than the closed-core SSCR. However, the impedance of the open-core SSCR is less than that of the closed-core SSCR. Magnetic and thermal diffusion are believed to be the mechanism that facilitates the penetration of the superconductor tube under fault conditions

  16. Core Hunter 3: flexible core subset selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beukelaer, Herman; Davenport, Guy F; Fack, Veerle

    2018-05-31

    Core collections provide genebank curators and plant breeders a way to reduce size of their collections and populations, while minimizing impact on genetic diversity and allele frequency. Many methods have been proposed to generate core collections, often using distance metrics to quantify the similarity of two accessions, based on genetic marker data or phenotypic traits. Core Hunter is a multi-purpose core subset selection tool that uses local search algorithms to generate subsets relying on one or more metrics, including several distance metrics and allelic richness. In version 3 of Core Hunter (CH3) we have incorporated two new, improved methods for summarizing distances to quantify diversity or representativeness of the core collection. A comparison of CH3 and Core Hunter 2 (CH2) showed that these new metrics can be effectively optimized with less complex algorithms, as compared to those used in CH2. CH3 is more effective at maximizing the improved diversity metric than CH2, still ensures a high average and minimum distance, and is faster for large datasets. Using CH3, a simple stochastic hill-climber is able to find highly diverse core collections, and the more advanced parallel tempering algorithm further increases the quality of the core and further reduces variability across independent samples. We also evaluate the ability of CH3 to simultaneously maximize diversity, and either representativeness or allelic richness, and compare the results with those of the GDOpt and SimEli methods. CH3 can sample equally representative cores as GDOpt, which was specifically designed for this purpose, and is able to construct cores that are simultaneously more diverse, and either are more representative or have higher allelic richness, than those obtained by SimEli. In version 3, Core Hunter has been updated to include two new core subset selection metrics that construct cores for representativeness or diversity, with improved performance. It combines and outperforms the

  17. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Alexandrina, E-mail: alexandrina.nan@itim-cj.ro; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  18. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  19. The fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.

    1985-01-01

    As the history of the development of fusion energy shows, a sustained controlled fusion reaction is much more difficult to produce than rapid uncontrolled release of fusion energy. Currently, the ''magnetic bottle'' technique shows sufficient progress that it might applied for the commercial fuel production of /sup 233/U, suitable for use in fission reactors, by developing a fusion-fission hybrid. Such a device would consist of a fusion chamber core surrounded by a region containing cladded uranium pellets cooled by helium, with lithium salts also present to produce tritium to refuel the fusion process. Successful development of this hybrid might be possible within 10 y, and would provide both experience and funds for further development of controlled fusion energy

  20. k-core covers and the core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.; Borm, Peter; Estevez-Fernandez, A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Mosquera, M.A.

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  1. Status of fast reactor activities in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyanov, M F; Rinejsjij, A A [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1992-07-01

    The power production program was developed before the disintegration of the USSR and CIS. This report covers therefore the current status of power production and consumption in in republics of the former USSR with a separate chapter on the status of nuclear power. It covers some general results concerned with fast reactors operational experience and BN-600 power plant operational experience. This includes radiological conditions at the BN-600 and reactor core operating experience. Separate chapters are devoted to BN-350, BOR-60, BR-10 and BN-800 reactors. Work devoted to large-size reactor design are described including research and development and fabrication.

  2. Status of fast reactor activities in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanov, M.F.; Rinejsjij, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The power production program was developed before the disintegration of the USSR and CIS. This report covers therefore the current status of power production and consumption in in republics of the former USSR with a separate chapter on the status of nuclear power. It covers some general results concerned with fast reactors operational experience and BN-600 power plant operational experience. This includes radiological conditions at the BN-600 and reactor core operating experience. Separate chapters are devoted to BN-350, BOR-60, BR-10 and BN-800 reactors. Work devoted to large-size reactor design are described including research and development and fabrication

  3. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  4. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  5. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  6. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  7. Hybrid photonic-crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Travers, John C.; Abdolvand, Amir

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an extensive survey of results obtained using hybrid photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) which constitute one of the most active research fields in contemporary fiber optics. The ability to integrate novel and functional materials in solid- and hollow-core PCFs through various...... is reviewed from scientific and technological perspectives, focusing on how different fluids, solids, and gases can significantly extend the functionality of PCFs. The first part of this review discusses the efforts to develop tunable linear and nonlinear fiber-optic devices using PCFs infiltrated...... with various liquids, glasses, semiconductors, and metals. The second part concentrates on recent and state-of-the-art advances in the field of gas-filled hollow-core PCFs. Extreme ultrafast gas-based nonlinear optics toward light generation in the extreme wavelength regions of vacuum ultraviolet, pulse...

  8. Core reilforced braided composite armour as a substitute to steel in concrete reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Fangueiro, Raúl; Sousa, Guilherme José Miranda de; Araújo, Mário Duarte de; Pereira, C. Gonilho; Jalali, Said

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the work that is being done at the University of Minho concerning the development of brainded rods concrete reinforcement. Several samples of core reinforced braided fabrics have been produced varying the type of braided fabric (core reinforced and hybrid), the linear density of the core reinforcing yarns and the type of braiding structure (with or without ribs). The tensile properties of braided fabrics has also been analysed. Core reinforced braided composites rods were ...

  9. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  10. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  11. Nuclear reactor core catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core catcher is described for containing debris resulting from an accident causing core meltdown and which incorporates a method of cooling the debris by the circulation of a liquid coolant. (U.K.)

  12. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  13. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  14. Seismic core shroud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, A.; Mullooly, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A core shroud is provided, comprising: a coolant boundary, following the shape of the core boundary, for channeling the coolant through the fuel assemblies; a cylindrical band positioned inside the core barrel and surrounding the coolant boundary; and support members extending from the coolant boundary to the band, for transferring load from the coolant boundary to the band. The shroud may be assembled in parts using automated welding techniques, and it may be adjusted to fit the reactor core easily

  15. Neutron-physical simulation of fast nuclear reactor cores. Investigation of new and emerging nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friess, Friederike Renate

    2017-01-01

    According to a many publications and discussions, fast reactors hold promises to improve safety, non-proliferation, economic aspects, and reduce the nuclear waste problems. Consequently, several reactor designs advocated by the Generation IV Forum are fast reactors. In reality, however, after decades of research and development and billions of dollars investment worldwide, there are only two fast breeders currently operational on a commercial basis: the Russian reactors BN-600 and BN-800. Energy generation alone is apparently not a sufficient selling point for fast breeder reactors. Therefore, other possible applications for fast nuclear reactors are advocated. Three relevant examples are investigated in this thesis. The first one is the disposition of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Unlike for high enriched uranium that can be downblended for use in light water reactors, there exists no scientifically accepted solution for the disposition of weapon-grade plutonium. One option is the use in fast reactors that are operated for energy production. In the course of burn-up, the plutonium is irradiated which intends to fulfill two objectives: the resulting isotopic composition of the plutonium is less suitable for nuclear weapons, while at the same time the build-up of fission products results in a radiation barrier. Appropriate reprocessing technology is in order to extract the plutonium from the spent fuel. The second application is the use as so-called nuclear batteries, a special type of small modular reactors (SMRs). Nuclear batteries offer very long core lifetimes and have a very small energy output of sometimes only 10 MWe. They can supposedly be placed (almost) everywhere and supply energy without the need for refueling or shuffling of fuel elements for long periods. Since their cores remain sealed for several decades, nuclear batteries are claimed to have a higher proliferation resistance. The small output and the reduced maintenance and operating requirements

  16. Neutron-physical simulation of fast nuclear reactor cores. Investigation of new and emerging nuclear reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Friederike Renate

    2017-07-12

    According to a many publications and discussions, fast reactors hold promises to improve safety, non-proliferation, economic aspects, and reduce the nuclear waste problems. Consequently, several reactor designs advocated by the Generation IV Forum are fast reactors. In reality, however, after decades of research and development and billions of dollars investment worldwide, there are only two fast breeders currently operational on a commercial basis: the Russian reactors BN-600 and BN-800. Energy generation alone is apparently not a sufficient selling point for fast breeder reactors. Therefore, other possible applications for fast nuclear reactors are advocated. Three relevant examples are investigated in this thesis. The first one is the disposition of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Unlike for high enriched uranium that can be downblended for use in light water reactors, there exists no scientifically accepted solution for the disposition of weapon-grade plutonium. One option is the use in fast reactors that are operated for energy production. In the course of burn-up, the plutonium is irradiated which intends to fulfill two objectives: the resulting isotopic composition of the plutonium is less suitable for nuclear weapons, while at the same time the build-up of fission products results in a radiation barrier. Appropriate reprocessing technology is in order to extract the plutonium from the spent fuel. The second application is the use as so-called nuclear batteries, a special type of small modular reactors (SMRs). Nuclear batteries offer very long core lifetimes and have a very small energy output of sometimes only 10 MWe. They can supposedly be placed (almost) everywhere and supply energy without the need for refueling or shuffling of fuel elements for long periods. Since their cores remain sealed for several decades, nuclear batteries are claimed to have a higher proliferation resistance. The small output and the reduced maintenance and operating requirements

  17. Core Values | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core Values Core Values NREL's core values are rooted in a safe and supportive work environment guide our everyday actions and efforts: Safe and supportive work environment Respect for the rights physical and social environment Integrity Maintain the highest standard of ethics, honesty, and integrity

  18. Sidewall coring shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N

    1966-12-12

    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  19. Rotary core drills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-11-30

    The design of a rotary core drill is described. Primary consideration is given to the following component parts of the drill: the inner and outer tube, the core bit, an adapter, and the core lifter. The adapter has the form of a downward-converging sleeve and is mounted to the lower end of the inner tube. The lifter, extending from the adapter, is split along each side so that it can be held open to permit movement of a core. It is possible to grip a core by allowing the lifter to assume a closed position.

  20. Hybrid photonic-crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, Christos; Travers, John C.; Abdolvand, Amir; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Bang, Ole

    2017-10-01

    This article offers an extensive survey of results obtained using hybrid photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) which constitute one of the most active research fields in contemporary fiber optics. The ability to integrate novel and functional materials in solid- and hollow-core PCFs through various postprocessing methods has enabled new directions toward understanding fundamental linear and nonlinear phenomena as well as novel application aspects, within the fields of optoelectronics, material and laser science, remote sensing, and spectroscopy. Here the recent progress in the field of hybrid PCFs is reviewed from scientific and technological perspectives, focusing on how different fluids, solids, and gases can significantly extend the functionality of PCFs. The first part of this review discusses the efforts to develop tunable linear and nonlinear fiber-optic devices using PCFs infiltrated with various liquids, glasses, semiconductors, and metals. The second part concentrates on recent and state-of-the-art advances in the field of gas-filled hollow-core PCFs. Extreme ultrafast gas-based nonlinear optics toward light generation in the extreme wavelength regions of vacuum ultraviolet, pulse propagation, and compression dynamics in both atomic and molecular gases, and novel soliton-plasma interactions are reviewed. A discussion of future prospects and directions is also included.

  1. Current status of development in dry pyro-electrochemical technology of SNF reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, A.V.; Skiba, O.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    FAs have been tested and 3 FAs are being irradiated in the BN-600 reactor. The facilities for production of U-Pu fuel of the BN-600 hybrid core are being modernized. Apart from the main technology of oxide fuel reprocessing and production, new dry processes are being studied: - obtaining of oxide fuel with neptunium and americium (for transmutation); - reprocessing of nitride fuel (for the BREST closed fuel cycle); - reprocessing of uranium fuel from research reactors (in order to solve the problem of unconventional SNF management); - metallization of oxide fuel for long-term storage. The work performed in RIAR is actively supported by Japanese organizations; RIAR cooperates with France, the Republic of Korea, and the USA. (authors)

  2. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate

  3. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  4. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  5. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  6. The core paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, G. C.; Higgins, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rebuttal of suggestions from various critics attempting to provide an escape from the seeming paradox originated by Higgins and Kennedy's (1971) proposed possibility that the liquid in the outer core was thermally stably stratified and that this stratification might prove a powerful inhibitor to circulation of the outer core fluid of the kind postulated for the generation of the earth's magnetic field. These suggestions are examined and shown to provide no reasonable escape from the core paradox.

  7. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  8. Nuclear reactor core flow baffling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berringer, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    A flow baffling arrangement is disclosed for the core of a nuclear reactor. A plurality of core formers are aligned with the grids of the core fuel assemblies such that the high pressure drop areas in the core are at the same elevations as the high pressure drop areas about the core periphery. The arrangement minimizes core bypass flow, maintains cooling of the structure surrounding the core, and allows the utilization of alternative beneficial components such as neutron reflectors positioned near the core

  9. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  10. Can Psychiatric Rehabilitation Be Core to CORE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Gill, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we seek to determine whether psychiatric rehabilitation principles and practices have been more fully incorporated into the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards, the extent to which they are covered in four rehabilitation counseling "foundations" textbooks, and how they are reflected in the…

  11. An axially and radially two-zoned large liquid-metal fast breeder reactor core concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, T.; Arie, K.; Moriki, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Yamaoka, M.

    1985-01-01

    A new core concept that has advantages over conventional homogeneous cores in neutronics characteristics such as power peaking factor, burnup reactivity loss, and reactivity response to the movement of control rods in earthquakes has been evolved. Two options of the new core concept are feasible. One is the so-called axially heterogeneous core, with the internal blanket placed at the lower part of the core. The other concept is similar to the conventional homogeneous core, but has two different plutonium-enriched zones in the axial as well as in the radial direction, so it is a hybrid type of the conventional homogeneous core and the axially heterogeneous core. The new design concept is described and the way that the core characteristics are improved by the chosen key parameters is shown

  12. PWR core design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Ravnik, M.; Zeleznik, N.

    1992-01-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [sl

  13. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  14. Lunar Core and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  15. Internal core tightener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Snyder, H.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    An internal core tightener is disclosed which is a linear actuated (vertical actuation motion) expanding device utilizing a minimum of moving parts to perform the lateral tightening function. The key features are: (1) large contact areas to transmit loads during reactor operation; (2) actuation cam surfaces loaded only during clamping and unclamping operation; (3) separation of the parts and internal operation involved in the holding function from those involved in the actuation function; and (4) preloaded pads with compliant travel at each face of the hexagonal assembly at the two clamping planes to accommodate thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling. The latter feature enables use of a ''fixed'' outer core boundary, and thus eliminates the uncertainty in gross core dimensions, and potential for rapid core reactivity changes as a result of core dimensional change. 5 claims, 12 drawing figures

  16. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  17. Fuel composition effects on HYPER core characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chi Young; Kim, Yong Nam; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2001-01-01

    At KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), a subcritical transmutation reactor is under development, named HYPER(Hybrid Power Extraction Reactor). For the HYPER system, a pyrochemical process is being considered for fuel reprocessing. Separated from the separation process, the fuel contains not only TRU but also the considerable percentages of impurity such as uranium nuclides and lanthanides. The amount of these impurities depends on strongly the refining efficiency of the reprocessing and may change the core characteristics. This paper has analyzed fuel composition effects on th HYPER core characteristics. Assuming various recovery factors of uranium and lanthanides, some dynamic parameters have been evaluated which are the neutron spectrum, the neutron reaction balance, the reactivity coefficients, the effective delayed neutron fraction, and the effective neutron lifetime

  18. Intermodal parametric gain of degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2013-01-01

    Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process.......Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process....

  19. Earth's inner core: Innermost inner core or hemispherical variations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgoe, K. H.; Deuss, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412396610; Rudge, J. F.; Neufeld, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of Earth's deep inner core has important implications for core evolution, since it is thought to be related to the early stages of core formation. Previous studies have suggested that there exists an innermost inner core with distinct anisotropy relative to the rest of the inner core.

  20. Dependence of Core and Extended Flux on Core Dominance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Based on two extragalactic radio source samples, the core dominance parameter is calculated, and the correlations between the core/extended flux density and core dominance parameter are investi- gated. When the core dominance parameter is lower than unity, it is linearly correlated with the core flux density, ...

  1. Korrelasjon mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core

    OpenAIRE

    Berg-Olsen, Andrea Marie; Fugelsøy, Eivor; Maurstad, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med studien var å se hvilke korrelasjon det er mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Testingen bestod av tre hoveddeler hvor vi testet core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Innenfor core styrke og utholdende styrke i core ble tre ulike tester utført. Ved måling av core stabilitet ble det gjennomført kun en test. I core styrke ble isometrisk abdominal fleksjon, isometrisk rygg ekstensjon og isometrisk lateral fleksjon testet. Sit-ups p...

  2. Windscale pile core surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.F.; Mathews, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The two Windscale Piles were closed down, defueled as far as possible and mothballed for thirty years following a fire in the core of Pile 1 in 1957 resulting from the spontaneous release of stored Wigner energy in the graphite moderator. Decommissioning of the reactors commenced in 1987 and has reached the stage where the condition of both cores needs to be determined. To this end, non-intrusive and intrusive surveys and sampling of the cores have been planned and partly implemented. The objectives for each Pile differ slightly. The location and quantity of fuel remaining in the damaged core of Pile 1 needed to be established, whereas the removal of all fuel from Pile 2 needed to be confirmed. In Pile 1, the possible existence of a void in the core is to be explored and in Pile 2, the level of Wigner energy remaining required to be quantified. Levels of radioactivity in both cores needed to be measured. The planning of the surveys is described including strategy, design, safety case preparation and the remote handling and viewing equipment required to carry out the inspection, sampling and monitoring work. The results from the completed non-intrusive survey of Pile 2 are summarised. They confirm that the core is empty and the graphite is in good condition. The survey of Pile 1 has just started. (UK)

  3. New organic-inorganic hybrid molecular systems and highly organized materials in catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustov, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Definitions of hybrid materials are suggested, and applications of these materials are considered. Particular attention is focused on the application of hybrid materials in hydrogenation, partial oxidation, plant biomass conversion, and natural gas reforming, primarily on the use of core-shell nanoparticles and decorated metal nanoparticles in these reactions. Application prospects of various hybrid materials, particularly those of metal-organic frameworks, are discussed.

  4. Graphene oxide chemically decorated with hybrid Ag-Ru/chitosan nanoparticles: fabrication and properties

    OpenAIRE

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Neethirajan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization of distinct materials into a single nanoplatform is relevant to advance material’s properties for functional application such as biosensor platform. We report the synthesis and characterization of nanosheets of graphene oxide decorated with hybrid nanoparticles of silver-ruthenium bipyridine complex (Ag@[Ru(bpy)3]2+) core and chitosan shell. Hybrid nanoparticles were first obtained through a sequential wet-chemical approach using in situ reduction, electrostatic and coordination...

  5. Xclaim: A graphical interface for the calculation of core-hole spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Javier [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Toby, Brian, E-mail: toby@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Veenendaal, Michel van, E-mail: veenendaal@niu.edu [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The program Xclaim (X-ray core level atomic multiplets) calculates core-hole spectra. • Crystal field under an arbitrary point symmetry and hybridization with ligands. • X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and inverse photoemission (IPES). - Abstract: Xclaim (X-ray core level atomic multiplets) is a graphical interface for the calculation of core-hole spectroscopy and ground state properties within a charge-transfer multiplet model taking into account a many-body Hamiltonian with Coulomb, spin–orbit, crystal-field, and hybridization interactions. Using Coulomb and spin–orbit parameters calculated in the Hartree–Fock limit and ligand field parameters (crystal-field, hybridization and charge-transfer energy) the program calculates X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and inverse photoemission (IPES). The program runs on Linux, Windows and MacOS platforms.

  6. Xclaim: A graphical interface for the calculation of core-hole spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Javier; Toby, Brian; Veenendaal, Michel van

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The program Xclaim (X-ray core level atomic multiplets) calculates core-hole spectra. • Crystal field under an arbitrary point symmetry and hybridization with ligands. • X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and inverse photoemission (IPES). - Abstract: Xclaim (X-ray core level atomic multiplets) is a graphical interface for the calculation of core-hole spectroscopy and ground state properties within a charge-transfer multiplet model taking into account a many-body Hamiltonian with Coulomb, spin–orbit, crystal-field, and hybridization interactions. Using Coulomb and spin–orbit parameters calculated in the Hartree–Fock limit and ligand field parameters (crystal-field, hybridization and charge-transfer energy) the program calculates X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and inverse photoemission (IPES). The program runs on Linux, Windows and MacOS platforms

  7. Core shroud corner joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Forsyth, David R.

    2013-09-10

    A core shroud is provided, which includes a number of planar members, a number of unitary corners, and a number of subassemblies each comprising a combination of the planar members and the unitary corners. Each unitary corner comprises a unitary extrusion including a first planar portion and a second planar portion disposed perpendicularly with respect to the first planar portion. At least one of the subassemblies comprises a plurality of the unitary corners disposed side-by-side in an alternating opposing relationship. A plurality of the subassemblies can be combined to form a quarter perimeter segment of the core shroud. Four quarter perimeter segments join together to form the core shroud.

  8. IGCSE core mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Give your core level students the support and framework they require to get their best grades with this book dedicated to the core level content of the revised syllabus and written specifically to ensure a more appropriate pace. This title has been written for Core content of the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus for first teaching from 2013. ? Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of practice questions. ? Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every book. We are working with Cambridge

  9. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, E.; Floether, F. F. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Bennett, A. J., E-mail: anthony.bennet@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Shields, A. J. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Lee, J. P. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-26

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO{sub 2} cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  10. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  11. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, N.J.; Dugan, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    A heterogeneous gas core nuclear reactor is disclosed comprising a core barrel provided interiorly with an array of moderator-containing tubes and being otherwise filled with a fissile and/or fertile gaseous fuel medium. The fuel medium may be flowed through the chamber and through an external circuit in which heat is extracted. The moderator may be a fluid which is flowed through the tubes and through an external circuit in which heat is extracted. The moderator may be a solid which may be cooled by a fluid flowing within the tubes and through an external heat extraction circuit. The core barrel is surrounded by moderator/coolant material. Fissionable blanket material may be disposed inwardly or outwardly of the core barrel

  12. iPSC Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) Core was created in 2011 to accelerate stem cell research in the NHLBI by providing investigators consultation, technical...

  13. Core Flight Software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Core Flight Software (CFS) project purpose is to analyze applicability, and evolve and extend the reusability of the CFS system originally developed by...

  14. PWR degraded core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1982-04-01

    A review is presented of the various phenomena involved in degraded core accidents and the ensuing transport of fission products from the fuel to the primary circuit and the containment. The dominant accident sequences found in the PWR risk studies published to date are briefly described. Then chapters deal with the following topics: the condition and behaviour of water reactor fuel during normal operation and at the commencement of degraded core accidents; the generation of hydrogen from the Zircaloy-steam and the steel-steam reactions; the way in which the core deforms and finally melts following loss of coolant; debris relocation analysis; containment integrity; fission product behaviour during a degraded core accident. (U.K.)

  15. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  16. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  17. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  18. Restraint system for core elements of a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, G.

    1975-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor, a core element bundle formed of a plurality of side-by-side arranged core elements is surrounded by restraining elements that exert a radially inwardly directly restraining force generating friction forces between the core elements in a restraining plane that is transverse to the core element axes. The adjoining core elements are in rolling contact with one another in the restraining plane by virtue of rolling-type bearing elements supported in the core elements. (Official Gazette)

  19. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.I.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a heterogeneous gas core reactor (HGCR) concept suggest that this potential power reactor offers distinct advantages over other existing or conceptual reactor power plants. One of the most favorable features of the HGCR is the flexibility of the power producing system which allows it to be efficiently designed to conform to a desired optimum condition without major conceptual changes. The arrangement of bundles of moderator/coolant channels in a fissionable gas or mixture of gases makes a truly heterogeneous nuclear reactor core. It is this full heterogeneity for a gas-fueled reactor core which accounts for the novelty of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and leads to noted significant advantages over previous gas core systems with respect to neutron and fuel economy, power density, and heat transfer characteristics. The purpose of this work is to provide an insight into the design, operating characteristics, and safety of a heterogeneous gas core reactor system. The studies consist mainly of neutronic, energetic and kinetic analyses of the power producing and conversion systems as a preliminary assessment of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and basic design. The results of the conducted research indicate a high potential for the heterogeneous gas core reactor system as an electrical power generating unit (either large or small), with an overall efficiency as high as 40 to 45%. The HGCR system is found to be stable and safe, under the conditions imposed upon the analyses conducted in this work, due to the inherent safety of ann expanding gaseous fuel and the intrinsic feedback effects of the gas and water coolant

  20. FBR type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamiya, Tadashi; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Fujimura, Koji; Murakami, Tomoko.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron reflectors are disposed at the periphery of a reactor core fuel region and a blanket region, and a neutron shielding region is disposed at the periphery of them. The neutron reflector has a hollow duct structure having a sealed upper portion, a lower portion opened to cooling water, in which a gas and coolants separately sealed in the inside thereof. A driving pressure of a primary recycling pump is lowered upon reduction of coolant flow rate, then the liquid level of coolants in the neutron reflector is lowered due to imbalance between the driving pressure and a gas pressure, so that coolants having an effect as a reflector are eliminated from the outer circumference of the reactor core. Therefore, the amount of neutrons leaking from the reactor core is increased, and negative reactivity is charged to the reactor core. The negative reactivity of the neutron reflector is made greater than a power compensation reactivity. Since this enables reactor scram by using an inherent performance of the reactor core, the reactor core safety of an LMFBR-type reactor can be improved. (I.N.)

  1. The earths innermost core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    A new earth model is advanced with a solid innermost core at the centre of the Earth where elements heavier than iron, over and above what can be retained in solution in the iron core, are collected. The innermost core is separated from the solid iron-nickel core by a shell of liquid copper. The innermost core has a natural vibration measured on the earth's surface as the long period 26 seconds microseisms. The earth was formed initially as a liquid sphere with a relatively thin solid crust above the Byerly discontinuity. The trace elements that entered the innermost core amounted to only 0.925 ppm of the molten mass. Gravitational differentiation must have led to the separation of an explosive thickness of pure 235 U causing a fission explosion that could expel beyond the Roche limit a crustal scab which would form the centre piece of the moon. A reservoir of helium floats on the liquid copper. A small proportion of helium-3, a relic of the ancient fission explosion present there will spell the exciting magnetic field. The field is stable for thousands of years because of the presence of large quantity of helium-4 which accounts for most of the gaseous collisions that will not disturb the atomic spin of helium-3 atoms. This field is prone to sudden reversals after long periods of stability. (author). 14 refs

  2. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  3. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  4. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  6. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  7. Efficient Proof Engines for Bounded Model Checking of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Herde, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present HySat, a new bounded model checker for linear hybrid systems, incorporating a tight integration of a DPLL-based pseudo-Boolean SAT solver and a linear programming routine as core engine. In contrast to related tools like MathSAT, ICS, or CVC, our tool exploits all...

  8. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  9. Mirror hybrid reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid reactor studies are reviewed. The optimization of the point design and work on a reference design are described. The status of the nuclear analysis of fast spectrum blankets, systems studies for fissile fuel producing hybrid reactor, and the mechanical design of the machine are reviewed

  10. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  11. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  12. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  13. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...

  14. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  15. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  16. Reactor core control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hiroki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a reactor core control device, in which switching from a manual operation to an automatic operation, and the control for the parameter of an automatic operation device are facilitated. Namely, the hysteresis of the control for the operation parameter by an manual operation input means is stored. The hysteresis of the control for the operation parameter is collected. The state of the reactor core simulated by an operation control to which the collected operation parameters are manually inputted is determined as an input of the reactor core state to the automatic input means. The record of operation upon manual operation is stored as a hysteresis of control for the operation parameter, but the hysteresis information is not only the result of manual operation of the operation parameter. This is results of operation conducted by a skilled operator who judge the state of the reactor core to be optimum. Accordingly, it involves information relevant to the reactor core state. Then, it is considered that the optimum automatic operation is not deviated greatly from the manual operation. (I.S.)

  17. Course on hybrid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco

    1969-02-01

    After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)

  18. Hybrid functional pseudopotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-02-01

    The consistency between the exchange-correlation functional used in pseudopotential construction and in the actual density functional theory calculation is essential for the accurate prediction of fundamental properties of materials. However, routine hybrid density functional calculations at present still rely on generalized gradient approximation pseudopotentials due to the lack of hybrid functional pseudopotentials. Here, we present a scheme for generating hybrid functional pseudopotentials, and we analyze the importance of pseudopotential density functional consistency for hybrid functionals. For the PBE0 hybrid functional, we benchmark our pseudopotentials for structural parameters and fundamental electronic gaps of the Gaussian-2 (G2) molecular dataset and some simple solids. Our results show that using our PBE0 pseudopotentials in PBE0 calculations improves agreement with respect to all-electron calculations.

  19. The PWR cores management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, J.C.; Rippert, D.; Johner, J.

    2000-01-01

    During the meeting of the 25 january 2000, organized by the SFEN, scientists and plant operators in the domain of the PWR debated on the PWR cores management. The five first papers propose general and economic information on the PWR and also the fast neutron reactors chains in the electric power market: statistics on the electric power industry, nuclear plant unit management, the ITER project and the future of the thermonuclear fusion, the treasurer's and chairman's reports. A second part offers more technical papers concerning the PWR cores management: performance and optimization, in service load planning, the cores management in the other countries, impacts on the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  20. Molten core retention assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods

  1. Core status computing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To calculate power distribution, flow rate and the like in the reactor core with high accuracy in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: Total flow rate signals, traverse incore probe (TIP) signals as the neutron detector signals, thermal power signals and pressure signals are inputted into a process computer, where the power distribution and the flow rate distribution in the reactor core are calculated. A function generator connected to the process computer calculates the absolute flow rate passing through optional fuel assemblies using, as variables, flow rate signals from the introduction part for fuel assembly flow rate signals, data signals from the introduction part for the geometrical configuration data at the flow rate measuring site of fuel assemblies, total flow rate signals for the reactor core and the signals from the process computer. Numerical values thus obtained are given to the process computer as correction signals to perform correction for the experimental data. (Moriyama, K.)

  2. Scalable Parallelization of Skyline Computation for Multi-core Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chester, Sean; Sidlauskas, Darius; Assent, Ira

    2015-01-01

    The skyline is an important query operator for multi-criteria decision making. It reduces a dataset to only those points that offer optimal trade-offs of dimensions. In general, it is very expensive to compute. Recently, multi-core CPU algorithms have been proposed to accelerate the computation...... of the skyline. However, they do not sufficiently minimize dominance tests and so are not competitive with state-of-the-art sequential algorithms. In this paper, we introduce a novel multi-core skyline algorithm, Hybrid, which processes points in blocks. It maintains a shared, global skyline among all threads...

  3. TMI-2 core examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Owen, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The examination of the damaged core at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor is structured to address the following safety issues: fission product release, transport, and deposition; core coolability; containment integrity; and recriticality during severe accidents; as well as zircaloy cladding ballooning and oxidation during so-called design basis accidents. The numbers of TMI-2 components or samples to be examined, the priority of each examination, the safety issue addressed by each examination, the principal examination techniques to be employed, and the data to be obtained and the principal uses of the data are discussed in this paper

  4. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  5. LMFBR core design analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.; Yang, J.C.; Yoh, K.C.; Suk, S.D.; Soh, D.S.; Kim, Y.M.

    1980-01-01

    The design parameters of a commercial-scale fast breeder reactor which is currently under construction by regeneration of these data is preliminary analyzed. The analysis of nuclear and thermal characteristics as well as safety features of this reactor is emphasized. And the evaluation of the initial core mentioned in the system description is carried out in the areas of its kinetics and control system, and, at the same time, the flow distribution of sodium and temperature distribution of the initial FBR core system are calculated. (KAERI INIS Section)

  6. Nuclear core catchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.

    1976-01-01

    A receptacle is described for taking the molten fragments of a nuclear reactor during a reactor core fusion accident. The receptacle is placed under the reactor. It includes at least one receptacle for the reactor core fragments, with a dome shaped part to distribute the molten fragments and at least one outside layer of alumina bricks around the dome. The characteristic of this receptacle is that the outer layer of bricks contains neutron poison rods which pass through the bricks and protrude in relation to them [fr

  7. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  8. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  9. PWR core design calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkov, A; Ravnik, M; Zeleznik, N [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1992-07-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [Slovenian] Opisali smo programski paket CORD-2, ki se uporablja pri projektnih izracunih sredice pri upravljanju tlacnovodnega reaktorja. Prikazana je uporaba paketa in racunskih postopkov za tipicne probleme, ki nastopajo pri projektiranju sredice. Primerjava glavnih rezultatov z eksperimentalnimi vrednostmi je predstavljena kot del preveritvenega procesa. (author)

  10. The LOFA analysis of fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Z.-C.; Xie, H.

    2014-01-01

    The fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor can produce energy, breed nuclear fuel, and handle the nuclear waste, etc, with the fusion neutron source striking the subcritical blanket. The passive safety system, consisting of passive residual heat removal system, passive safety injection system and automatic depressurization system, was adopted into the fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor in this paper. Modeling and nodalization of primary loop, passive core cooling system and partial secondary loop of the fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor using RELAP5 were conducted and LOFA (Loss of Flow Accident) was analyzed. The results of key transient parameters indicated that the PRHRs could mitigate the accidental consequence of LOFA effectively. It is also concluded that it is feasible to apply the passive safety system concept to fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor. (author)

  11. Preparation and characterization of emulsifier-free polyphenylsilsesquioxane-poly (styrene–butyl acrylate) hybrid particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Ruiqin; Qiu, Teng, E-mail: qiuteng@mail.buct.edu.cn; Han, Feng; He, Lifan; Li, Xiaoyu, E-mail: lixy@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2013-10-01

    The core–shell polyphenylsilsesquioxane-poly (styrene–butyl acrylate) hybrid latex paticles with polyphenylsilsesquioxane as core and poly (styrene–butyl acrylate) as shell were successfully synthesized by seeded emulsion polymerization using polyphenylsisesquioxane (PPSQ) latex particles as seeds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the polyphenylsilsesquioxane (PPSQ) had ladder structure, and PPSQ had incorporated into the hybrid latex particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the resultant hybrid latex particles had the core–shell structure. TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis indicated that the polyphenylsisesquioxane latex particles and obtained core–shell hybrid latex particles were uniform and possessed narrow size distributions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis also indicated that the PPSQ core particles were enwrapped by the polymer shell. In addition, compared with pure poly (styrene–butyl acrylate) latex film, the polyphenylsilsesquioxane-poly (styrene–butyl acrylate) hybrid latex film exhibited lower water uptake, higher pencil hardness and better thermal stability.

  12. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly ...

  13. Nuclear core baffling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, F.W. Jr.; Silverblatt, B.L.; Knight, C.B.; Berringer, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for baffling the flow of reactor coolant fluid into and about the core of a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus includes a plurality of longitudinally aligned baffle plates with mating surfaces that allow longitudinal growth with temperature increases while alleviating both leakage through the aligned plates and stresses on the components supporting the plates

  14. The Uncommon Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This author contends that the United States neglects creativity in its education system. To see this, he states, one may look at the Common Core State Standards. If one searches the English Language Arts and Literacy standards for the words "creative," "innovative," and "original"--and any associated terms, one will…

  15. Utah's New Mathematics Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Utah has adopted more rigorous mathematics standards known as the Utah Mathematics Core Standards. They are the foundation of the mathematics curriculum for the State of Utah. The standards include the skills and understanding students need to succeed in college and careers. They include rigorous content and application of knowledge and reflect…

  16. Some Core Contested Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  17. Reactor core structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinakagawa, Emiko; Sato, Kanemitsu.

    1992-01-01

    Taking notice on the fact that Fe based alloys and Ni based alloys are corrosion resistant in a special atmosphere of a nuclear reactor, Fe or Ni based alloys are applied to reactor core structural components such as fuel cladding tubes, fuel channels, spacers, etc. On the other hand, the neutron absorption cross section of zirconium is 0.18 barn while that of iron is 2.52 barn and that of nickel is 4.6 barn, which amounts to 14 to 25 times compared with that of zirconium. Accordingly, if the reactor core structural components are constituted by the Fe or Ni based alloys, neutron economy is lowered. Since it is desirable that neutrons contribute to uranium fission with least absorption to the reactor core structural components, the reactor core structural components are constituted with the Fe or Ni based alloys of good corrosion resistance only at a portion in contact with reactor water, that is, at a surface portion, while the main body is constituted with zircalloy in the present invention. Accordingly, corrosion resistnace can be kept while keeping small neutron absorption cross section. (T.M.)

  18. Investigation of EAS cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaulov S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of nuclear-electromagnetic cascade models in air in the late forties have shown informational content of the study of cores of extensive air showers (EAS. These investigations were the main goal in different experiments which were carried out over many years by a variety of methods. Outcomes of such investigations obtained in the HADRON experiment using an X-ray emulsion chamber (XREC as a core detector are considered. The Ne spectrum of EAS associated with γ-ray families, spectra of γ-rays (hadrons in EAS cores and the Ne dependence of the muon number, ⟨Nμ⟩, in EAS with γ-ray families are obtained for the first time at energies of 1015–1017 eV with this method. A number of new effects were observed, namely, an abnormal scaling violation in hadron spectra which are fundamentally different from model predictions, an excess of muon number in EAS associated with γ-ray families, and the penetrating component in EAS cores. It is supposed that the abnormal behavior of γ-ray spectra and Ne dependence of the muon number are explained by the emergence of a penetrating component in the 1st PCR spectrum ‘knee’ range. Nuclear and astrophysical explanations of the origin of the penetrating component are discussed. The necessity of considering the contribution of a single close cosmic-ray source to explain the PCR spectrum in the knee range is noted.

  19. Plutonium cores of zenith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Drageset, A; Freemantle, R G; Wilson, D J

    1965-03-15

    The report describes a series of experiments carried out with plutonium fuel in the heated zero power reactor ZENITH, with the aim of testing current theoretical methods, with particular reference to excess reactivity, temperature coefficients, differential spectrum and reaction rate distributions. Two cores of widely different fissile/moderator atom ratios were loaded in order to test the theory under significantly varied spectrum conditions.

  20. Core damage risk indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show a method for the fast recalculation of the PSA. To avoid the information loose, it is necessary to simplify the PSA models, or at least reorganize them. The method, introduced in this document, require that preparation, so we try to show, how to do that. This document is an introduction. This is the starting point of the work related to the development of the risk indicators. In the future, with the application of this method, we are going to show an everyday use of the PSA results to produce the indicators of the core damage risk. There are two different indicators of the plant safety performance, related to the core damage risk. The first is the core damage frequency indicator (CDFI), and the second is the core damage probability indicator (CDPI). Of course, we cannot describe all of the possible ways to use these indicators, rather we will try to introduce the requirements to establish such an indicator system and the calculation process

  1. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  2. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  3. Inflation targeting and core inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...

  4. Controlled fabrication of multi-core alginate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eqbal, Md Danish; Gundabala, Venkat

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a robust microfluidic platform for controlled and complete on-chip generation of alginate microcapsules with single and double liquid cores. A combined Coflow and T-junction configuration implemented in a hybrid glass-PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) device is used for the generation of microcapsules with oil as liquid core. Frequency matching of oil-alginate double emulsion generation with that of aqueous Calcium chloride droplet generation allows for controlled merging of the two, resulting in reliable production of microcapsules. Confocal imaging of microcapsule cross-section reveals presence of intact liquid core. In the case of double core microcapsules, the two cores are well separated by alginate layer ensuring their long term stability. The current approach is expected to have advantages over existing techniques for liquid core microcapsule generation in terms of continuity of the process, control over core stability, and non-damage to cells when used for cell encapsulation applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Core@shell Nanoparticles: Greener Synthesis Using Natural Plant Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khatami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among an array of hybrid nanoparticles, core-shell nanoparticles comprise of two or more materials, such as metals and biomolecules, wherein one of them forms the core at the center, while the other material/materials that were located around the central core develops a shell. Core-shell nanostructures are useful entities with high thermal and chemical stability, lower toxicity, greater solubility, and higher permeability to specific target cells. Plant or natural products-mediated synthesis of nanostructures refers to the use of plants or its extracts for the synthesis of nanostructures, an emerging field of sustainable nanotechnology. Various physiochemical and greener methods have been advanced for the synthesis of nanostructures, in contrast to conventional approaches that require the use of synthetic compounds for the assembly of nanostructures. Although several biological resources have been exploited for the synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles, but plant-based materials appear to be the ideal candidates for large-scale green synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles. This review summarizes the known strategies for the greener production of core-shell nanoparticles using plants extract or their derivatives and highlights their salient attributes, such as low costs, the lack of dependence on the use of any toxic materials, and the environmental friendliness for the sustainable assembly of stabile nanostructures.

  6. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  7. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  8. Towers of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  9. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  10. CORE annual report 2006; CORE Jahresbericht 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, A

    2007-04-15

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE in 2006. The six main areas of work during the period 2004 - 2007 are examined, including a review of the SFOE's energy research programme, a road-map for the way towards the realisation of a 2000-watt society, the formulation of an energy research concept for 2008 - 2011, international co-operation, the dissemination of information and the assessment of existing and new instruments. International activities and Switzerland's involvement in energy research within the framework of the International Energy Agency IEA are discussed. New and existing projects are listed and the work done at the Competence Centre for Energy and Mobility noted. The Swiss Technology Award 2007 is presented. Information supplied to interested bodies to help improve knowledge on research work being done and to help make discussions on future energy supply more objective is discussed.

  11. Self-organization of a tetrasubstituted tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) in a silica based hybrid organic-inorganic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveau, Geneviève; Corriu, Robert J P; Lerouge, Frédéric; Bellec, Nathalie; Lorcy, Dominique; Nobili, Maurizio

    2004-02-21

    A hybrid organic inorganic nanostructured material containing a TTF core substituted by four arms exhibited a high level of both condensation at silicon (96%) and self-organization as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and an unprecedented birefringent behaviour.

  12. Critical cladding radius for hybrid cladding modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, Romain; Leduc, Dominique; Lupi, Cyril; Lecieux, Yann

    2018-05-01

    In this article we explore some properties of the cladding modes guided by a step-index optical fiber. We show that the hybrid modes can be grouped by pairs and that it exists a critical cladding radius for which the modes of a pair share the same electromagnetic structure. We propose a robust method to determine the critical cladding radius and use it to perform a statistical study on the influence of the characteristics of the fiber on the critical cladding radius. Finally we show the importance of the critical cladding radius with respect to the coupling coefficient between the core mode and the cladding modes inside a long period grating.

  13. Ice cores and palaeoclimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogh Andersen, K.; Ditlevsen, P.; Steffensen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Ice cores from Greenland give testimony of a highly variable climate during the last glacial period. Dramatic climate warmings of 15 to 25 deg. C for the annual average temperature in less than a human lifetime have been documented. Several questions arise: Why is the Holocene so stable? Is climatic instability only a property of glacial periods? What is the mechanism behind the sudden climate changes? Are the increased temperatures in the past century man-made? And what happens in the future? The ice core community tries to attack some of these problems. The NGRIP ice core currently being drilled is analysed in very high detail, allowing for a very precise dating of climate events. It will be possible to study some of the fast changes on a year by year basis and from this we expect to find clues to the sequence of events during rapid changes. New techniques are hoped to allow for detection of annual layers as far back as 100,000 years and thus a much improved time scale over past climate changes. It is also hoped to find ice from the Eemian period. If the Eemian layers confirm the GRIP sequence, the Eemian was actually climatically unstable just as the glacial period. This would mean that the stability of the Holocene is unique. It would also mean, that if human made global warming indeed occurs, we could jeopardize the Holocene stability and create an unstable 'Eemian situation' which ultimately could start an ice age. Currenlty mankind is changing the composition of the atmosphere. Ice cores document significant increases in greenhouse gases, and due to increased emissions of sulfuric and nitric acid from fossil fuel burning, combustion engines and agriculture, modern Greenland snow is 3 - 5 times more acidic than pre-industrial snow (Mayewski et al., 1986). However, the magnitude and abruptness of the temperature changes of the past century do not exceed the magnitude of natural variability. It is from the ice core perspective thus not possible to attribute the

  14. Formula hybrid SAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    User-friendly tools are needed for undergraduates to learn about component sizing, powertrain integration, and control : strategies for student competitions involving hybrid vehicles. A TK Solver tool was developed at the University of Idaho for : th...

  15. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  16. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  17. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-01-01

    for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations

  18. Translation and convection of Earth's inner core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnereau, M.; Calvet, M.; Margerin, L.; Mizzon, H.; Souriau, A.

    2012-12-01

    outer core. Translation is a particular solution of Navier-Stokes equation with permeable boundary conditions, but depending on the viscosity of the solid core, modes with higher spherical harmonics degree can develop. At low viscosity, these modes can be dominant and dissipate the degree l=1 of thermal heterogeneities. Hence, a viscosity threshold may be expected below which translation cannot take place, thereby constraining the viscosity of iron at inner core conditions. Using a hybrid finite-difference spherical harmonics Navier-Stokes solver, we investigate the interplay between translation and convection in a 3D spherical model with permeable boundary conditions. Our numerical simulations show the dominance of pure translation for viscosities of the inner core higher than 5 x 1018 Pas. Translation is almost completely hampered by convective motions for viscosities lower than 1017 Pas and the phase change becomes an almost impermeable boundary. Between these values, a well developed circulation at the harmonic degree l=1 persists, but composed of localized cold downwellings, a passive upward flow taking place on the opposite side (the melting side). Such a convective structure remains compatible with the seismic asymmetry. Alboussiere, T., Deguen, R., Melzani, M., 2010. Nature 466 (7307), 744-U9. Monnereau, M., Calvet, M., Margerin, L., Souriau, A., 2010. Science 328 (5981), 1014-1017.

  19. Synthesis and Plasmonic Understanding of Core/Satellite and Core Shell Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qifeng

    Localized surface plasmon resonance, which stems from the collective oscillations of conduction-band electrons, endows Au nanocrystals with unique optical properties. Au nanocrystals possess extremely large scattering/absorption cross-sections and enhanced local electromagnetic field, both of which are synthetically tunable. Moreover, when Au nanocrystals are closely placed or hybridized with semiconductors, the coupling and interaction between the individual components bring about more fascinating phenomena and promising applications, including plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies, solar energy harvesting, and cancer therapy. The continuous development in the field of plasmonics calls for further advancements in the preparation of high-quality plasmonic nanocrystals, the facile construction of hybrid plasmonic nanostructures with desired functionalities, as well as deeper understanding and efficient utilization of the interaction between plasmonic nanocrystals and semiconductor components. In this thesis, I developed a seed-mediated growth method for producing size-controlled Au nanospheres with high monodispersity and assembled Au nanospheres of different sizes into core/satellite nanostructures for enhancing Raman signals. For investigating the interactions between Au nanocrystals and semiconductors, I first prepared (Au core) (TiO2 shell) nanostructures, and then studied their synthetically controlled plasmonic properties and light-harvesting applications. Au nanocrystals with spherical shapes are desirable in plasmon-coupled systems owing to their high geometrical symmetry, which facilitates the analysis of electrodynamic responses in a classical electromagnetic framework and the investigation of quantum tunneling and nonlocal effects. I prepared remarkably uniform Au nanospheres with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 220 nm using a simple seed-mediated growth method associated with mild oxidation. Core/satellite nanostructures were assembled out of differently sized

  20. Accelerating Climate Simulations Through Hybrid Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shujia; Sinno, Scott; Cruz, Carlos; Purcell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Unconventional multi-core processors (e.g., IBM Cell B/E and NYIDIDA GPU) have emerged as accelerators in climate simulation. However, climate models typically run on parallel computers with conventional processors (e.g., Intel and AMD) using MPI. Connecting accelerators to this architecture efficiently and easily becomes a critical issue. When using MPI for connection, we identified two challenges: (1) identical MPI implementation is required in both systems, and; (2) existing MPI code must be modified to accommodate the accelerators. In response, we have extended and deployed IBM Dynamic Application Virtualization (DAV) in a hybrid computing prototype system (one blade with two Intel quad-core processors, two IBM QS22 Cell blades, connected with Infiniband), allowing for seamlessly offloading compute-intensive functions to remote, heterogeneous accelerators in a scalable, load-balanced manner. Currently, a climate solar radiation model running with multiple MPI processes has been offloaded to multiple Cell blades with approx.10% network overhead.

  1. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  2. Core design characteristics of the hyper system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonghee, Kim; Won-Seok, Park; Hill, R.N.

    2003-01-01

    In Korea, an accelerator-driven system (ADS) called HYPER (Hybrid Power Extraction Reactor) is being studied for the transmutation of the radioactive wastes. HYPER is a 1000 MWth lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE)-cooled ADS. In this paper, the neutronic design characteristics of HYPER are described and its transmutation performances are assessed for an equilibrium cycle. The core is loaded with a ductless fuel assembly containing transuranics (TRU) dispersion fuel pins. In HYPER, a relatively high core height, 160 cm, is adopted to maximize the multiplication efficiency of the external source. In the ductless fuel assembly, 13 non-fuel rods are used as tie rods to maintain the mechanical integrity of assembly. As the reflector material, pure lead is used to improve the neutron economy and to minimise the generation of radioactive materials. In HYPER, to minimise the burn-up reactivity swing, a B 4 C burnable absorber is employed. For efficient depletion of the B-10 absorber, the burnable absorber is loaded only in the axially-central part (92 cm long) of the 13 tie rods of each assembly. In the current design, the amount of the B 4 C absorber was determined such that the burn-up reactivity swing is about 3.0% Δk. The long-lived fission products (LLFPs) 99 Tc and 129 I are also transmuted in the HYPER core such that their supporting ratios are equal to that of the TRUs. A heterogeneous LLFP transmutation in the reflector zone has been analysed in this work. A unique feature of the HYPER system is that it has an auxiliary core shutdown system, independent of the accelerator shutdown system. It has been shown that a cylindrical B 4 C absorber between the target and fuel blanket can drastically reduce the fission power even without shutting off the accelerator power. (author)

  3. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  4. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  5. Emergency core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Akihiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve core cooling effect by making the operation region for a plurality of water injection pumps more broader. Constitution: An emergency reactor core cooling device actuated upon failure of recycling pipe ways is adapted to be fed with cooling water through a thermal sleeve by way of a plurality of water injection pump from pool water in a condensate storage tank and a pressure suppression chamber as water feed source. Exhaust pipes and suction pipes of each of the pumps are connected by way of switching valves and the valves are switched so that the pumps are set to a series operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is high and the pumps are set to a parallel operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is low. (Furukawa, Y.)

  6. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... applications, and places emphasis on the development of polarization maintaining (PM) HC-PCF. The polarization cross-coupling characteristics of PM HC-PCF are very different from those of conventional PM fibers. The former fibers have the advantage of suffering far less from stress-field fluctuations...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  7. Plasma core reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, T.S.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations are being conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of fissioning uranium plasma core reactors and to characterize space and terrestrial applications for such reactors. Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) fuel is injected into core cavities and confined away from the surface by argon buffer gas injected tangentially from the peripheral walls. Power, in the form of thermal radiation emitted from the high-temperature nuclear fuel, is transmitted through fused-silica transparent walls to working fluids which flow in axial channels embedded in segments of the cavity walls. Radiant heat transfer calculations were performed for a six-cavity reactor configuration; each cavity is approximately 1 m in diameter by 4.35 m in length. Axial working fluid channels are located along a fraction of each cavity peripheral wall

  8. Reactor core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To safely and effectively cool down the reactor core after it has been shut down but is still hot due to after-heat. Constitution: Since the coolant extraction nozzle is situated at a location higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the coolant sprayed from the nozzle, is free from sucking immediately from the extraction nozzle and is therefore used effectively to cool the reactor core. As all the portions from the top to the bottom of the reactor are cooled simultaneously, the efficiency of the reactor cooling process is increased. Since the coolant extraction nozzle can be installed at a point considerably higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the distance from the coolant surface to the point of the coolant extraction nozzle can be made large, preventing cavitation near the coolant extraction nozzle. Therefore, without increasing the capacity of the heat exchanger, the reactor can be cooled down after a shutdown safely and efficiently. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. Some core contested concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-02-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and to lead to conclusions about a number of significant issues that differ from some conventional beliefs.

  10. Schumpeter's core works revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2012-01-01

    This paper organises Schumpeter’s core books in three groups: the programmatic duology,the evolutionaryeconomic duology,and the socioeconomic synthesis. By analysing these groups and their interconnections from the viewpoint of modern evolutionaryeconomics,the paper summarises resolved problems a...... and points at remaining challenges. Its analyses are based on distinctions between microevolution and macroevolution, between economic evolution and socioeconomic coevolution, and between Schumpeter’s three major evolutionary models (called Mark I, Mark II and Mark III)....

  11. BWR type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatemichi, Shin-ichiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the variation in the power distribution of a BWR type reactor core in the axial direction even if the flow rate is increased or decreased by providing a difference in the void coefficient between the upper part and the lower parts of the reactor core, and increasing the void coefficient at the lower part of the reactor core. Constitution: The void coefficient of the lower region from the center to the lower part along the axial direction of a nuclear fuel assembly is increased to decrease the dependence on the flow rate of the axial power distribution of the nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a water/fuel ratio is varied, the water in non-boiled region is increased or the neutron spectrum is varied so as to vary the void coefficient. In order to exemplify it, the rate of the internal pellets of the fuel rod of the nuclear fuel assembly or the shape of the channel box is varied. Accordingly, the power does not considerably vary even if the flow rate is altered since the power is varied in the power operation. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To actuate an automatic pressure down system (ADS) and a low pressure emergency core cooling system (ECCS) upon water level reduction of a nuclear reactor other than loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Constitution: ADS in a BWR type reactor is disposed for reducing the pressure in a reactor container thereby enabling coolant injection from a low pressure ECCS upon LOCA. That is, ADS has been actuated by AND signal for a reactor water level low signal and a dry well pressure high signal. In the present invention, ADS can be actuated further also by AND signal of the reactor water level low signal, the high pressure ECCS and not-operation signal of reactor isolation cooling system. In such an emergency core cooling system thus constituted, ADS operates in the same manner as usual upon LOCA and, further, ADS is operated also upon loss of feedwater accident in the reactor pressure vessel in the case where there is a necessity for actuating the low pressure ECCS, although other high pressure ECCS and reactor isolation cooling system are not operated. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the reliability upon reactor core accident and mitigate the operator burden. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Theoretical studies on core-level spectra of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Akio

    1995-01-01

    I present a review on theoretical studies of core-level spectra (CLS) in solids. In CLS, the dynamical response of outer electrons to a core hole is reflected through the screening of core hole potential. Impurity Anderson model (IAM) or cluster model is successfully applied to the analysis of X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) in f and d electron systems, where the f and d electron states are hybridized with the other valence or conduction electron states. The effect of the core-hole potential in the final state of XPS and XAS plays an important role, as well as the solid state hybridization and intra-atomic multiplet coupling effects. As typical examples, the calculated results for XPS of rare-earth compounds and transition metal compounds are shown, and some discussions are given. As a subject of remarkable progress with high brightness synchrotron radiation sources, I discuss some theoretical aspects of X-ray emission spectra (XES) and their resonant enhancement at the X-ray absorption threshold. Some experimental data and their theoretical analysis are also given. (author)

  14. 4f-5d hybridization in a high k dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losovyj, Ya.B.; Tang, Jinke; Wang, Wendong; Hong Yuanjia; Palshin, Vadim; Tittsworth, Roland

    2006-01-01

    While intra-atomic f-d hybridization is expected, experimental confirmation of f-d hybridization in the photoemission final state leading to 4f band structure has been limited to 5f systems and compound systems with very shallow 4f levels. We demonstrate that core 4f states can contribute to the valence band structure in a wide band gap dielectric, in this case HfO 2 in the photoemission final state. In spite of the complications of sample charging, we find evidence of symmetry in the shallow 4f levels and wave vector dependent band dispersion, the latter consistent with the crystal structure of HfO 2

  15. Addressing safety issues in a hybrid liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabedyan, D.; Ehvart, Eh.

    1988-01-01

    Hybrid design of a fast reactor with a liquid-metal coolant, combining the advantages of traditional loop (prevailing in the USA) and integral (prevailing in Europe) arrangements is described. Just as a loop reactor the hybrid one has separate arrangement of the core and the equipment of the primary circuit heat exchange. At the same time similar to the reactor with integral arrangement, the option considered has no complex pipeline system. This reduces sharply the possibility of sodium leakages which cause fires and personnel irradiation

  16. Symbiosis of near breeder HTR's with hybrid fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1978-07-01

    In this contribution to INFCE a symbiotic fusion/fission reactor system, consisting of a hybrid beam-driven micro-explosion fusion reactor (HMER) and associated high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR) with a coupled fuel cycle, is proposed. This system is similar to the well known Fast Breeder/Near Breeder HTR symbiosis except that the fast fission breeder - running on the U/Pu-cycle in the core and the axial blankets and breeding the surplus fissile material as U-233 in its radial thorium metal or thorium oxide blankets - is replaced by a hybrid micro-explosion DT fusion reactor

  17. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  18. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the range of characteristics attainable from hybrid reactor blankets; blanket design considerations; hybrid reactor designs; alternative fuel hybrid reactors; multi-purpose hybrid reactors; and hybrid reactors and the energy economy. Hybrid reactors are driven by a fusion neutron source and include fertile and/or fissile material. The fusion component provides a copious source of fusion neutrons which interact with a subcritical fission component located adjacent to the plasma or pellet chamber. Fissile fuel and/or energy are the main products of hybrid reactors. Topics include high F/M blankets, the fissile (and tritium) breeding ratio, effects of composition on blanket properties, geometrical considerations, power density and first wall loading, variations of blanket properties with irradiation, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design considerations, safety considerations, tokamak hybrid reactors, tandem-mirror hybrid reactors, inertial confinement hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources, fissile-fuel and energy production ability, simultaneous production of combustible and fissile fuels, fusion reactors for waste transmutation and fissile breeding, nuclear pumped laser hybrid reactors, Hybrid Fuel Factories (HFFs), and scenarios for hybrid contribution. The appendix offers hybrid reactor fundamentals. Numerous references are provided

  19. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  20. WNP-2 core model upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golightly, C.E.; Ravindranath, T.K.; Belblidia, L.A.; O'Farrell, D.; Andersen, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the core model upgrade of the WNP-2 training simulator and the reasons for the upgrade. The core model as well as the interface with the rest of the simulator are briefly described . The paper also describes the procedure that will be used by WNP-2 to update the simulator core data after future core reloads. Results from the fully integrated simulator are presented. (author)

  1. On-line core monitoring with CORE MASTER / PRESTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, S.O.; Borresen, S.; Ovrum, S.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced calculational tools are instrumental in improving reactor plant capacity factors and fuel utilization. The computer code package CORE MASTER is an integrated system designed to achieve this objective. The system covers all main activities in the area of in-core fuel management for boiling water reactors; design, operation support, and on-line core monitoring. CORE MASTER operates on a common data base, which defines the reactor and documents the operating history of the core and of all fuel bundles ever used

  2. All-Silica Hollow-Core Microstructured Bragg Fibers for Biosensor Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passaro, Davide; Foroni, Matteo; Poli, Federica

    2008-01-01

    The possibility to exploit all-silica hollow-core-microstructured Bragg fibers to realize a biosensor useful to detect the DNA hybridization process has been investigated. A Bragg fiber recently fabricated has been considered for the analysis performed by means of a full-vector modal solver based...... layer on the inner surface of the fiber holes can modify the fundamental mode properties. The numerical analysis results have successfully demonstrated the DNA bio-sensor feasibility in hollow-core Bragg fibers....

  3. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  4. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  5. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  6. Core TuLiP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, M.R.; Etalle, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    We propose CoreTuLiP - the core of a trust management language based on Logic Programming. CoreTuLiP is based on a subset of moded logic programming, but enjoys the features of TM languages such as RT; in particular clauses are issued by different authorities and stored in a distributed manner. We

  7. Hybrid diffusion–transport spatial homogenization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooreman, Gabriel; Rahnema, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid diffusion–transport homogenization method. • An extension of the consistent spatial homogenization (CSH) transport method. • Auxiliary cross section makes homogenized diffusion consistent with heterogeneous diffusion. • An on-the-fly re-homogenization in transport. • The method is faster than fine-mesh transport by 6–8 times. - Abstract: A new hybrid diffusion–transport homogenization method has been developed by extending the consistent spatial homogenization (CSH) transport method to include diffusion theory. As in the CSH method, an “auxiliary cross section” term is introduced into the source term, making the resulting homogenized diffusion equation consistent with its heterogeneous counterpart. The method then utilizes an on-the-fly re-homogenization in transport theory at the assembly level in order to correct for core environment effects on the homogenized cross sections and the auxiliary cross section. The method has been derived in general geometry and tested in a 1-D boiling water reactor (BWR) core benchmark problem for both controlled and uncontrolled configurations. The method has been shown to converge to the reference solution with less than 1.7% average flux error in less than one third the computational time as the CSH method – 6 to 8 times faster than fine-mesh transport

  8. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  9. Automated Core Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoko; Aiyoshi, Eitaro

    2005-01-01

    Multistate searching methods are a subfield of distributed artificial intelligence that aims to provide both principles for construction of complex systems involving multiple states and mechanisms for coordination of independent agents' actions. This paper proposes a multistate searching algorithm with reinforcement learning for the automatic core design of a boiling water reactor. The characteristics of this algorithm are that the coupling structure and the coupling operation suitable for the assigned problem are assumed and an optimal solution is obtained by mutual interference in multistate transitions using multiagents. Calculations in an actual plant confirmed that the proposed algorithm increased the convergence ability of the optimization process

  10. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  11. Nuclear reactor core assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    The object of the present invention is to provide a fast reactor core assembly design for use with a fluid coolant such as liquid sodium or carbon monoxide incorporating a method of increasing the percentage of coolant flow though the blanket elements relative to the total coolant flow through the blanket and fuel elements during shutdown conditions without using moving parts. It is claimed that deterioration due to reactor radiation or temperature conditions is avoided and ready modification or replacement is possible. (U.K.)

  12. Reload core safety verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlik, M.; Minarcin, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a brief look at the process of reload core safety evaluation and verification in Slovak Republic. It gives an overview of experimental verification of selected nuclear parameters in the course of physics testing during reactor start-up. The comparison of IAEA recommendations and testing procedures at Slovak and European nuclear power plants of similar design is included. An introduction of two level criteria for evaluation of tests represents an effort to formulate the relation between safety evaluation and measured values (Authors)

  13. RB reactor benchmark cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.

    1998-01-01

    A selected set of the RB reactor benchmark cores is presented in this paper. The first results of validation of the well-known Monte Carlo MCNP TM code and adjoining neutron cross section libraries are given. They confirm the idea for the proposal of the new U-D 2 O criticality benchmark system and support the intention to include this system in the next edition of the recent OECD/NEA Project: International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Experiment, in near future. (author)

  14. A hybrid algorithm for parallel molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiardi, Chris M.; Meyer, R.

    2017-10-01

    This article describes algorithms for the hybrid parallelization and SIMD vectorization of molecular dynamics simulations with short-range forces. The parallelization method combines domain decomposition with a thread-based parallelization approach. The goal of the work is to enable efficient simulations of very large (tens of millions of atoms) and inhomogeneous systems on many-core processors with hundreds or thousands of cores and SIMD units with large vector sizes. In order to test the efficiency of the method, simulations of a variety of configurations with up to 74 million atoms have been performed. Results are shown that were obtained on multi-core systems with Sandy Bridge and Haswell processors as well as systems with Xeon Phi many-core processors.

  15. How cores grow by pebble accretion. I. Direct core growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, M. G.; Vazan, A.; Ormel, C. W.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Planet formation by pebble accretion is an alternative to planetesimal-driven core accretion. In this scenario, planets grow by the accretion of cm- to m-sized pebbles instead of km-sized planetesimals. One of the main differences with planetesimal-driven core accretion is the increased thermal ablation experienced by pebbles. This can provide early enrichment to the planet's envelope, which influences its subsequent evolution and changes the process of core growth. Aims: We aim to predict core masses and envelope compositions of planets that form by pebble accretion and compare mass deposition of pebbles to planetesimals. Specifically, we calculate the core mass where pebbles completely evaporate and are absorbed before reaching the core, which signifies the end of direct core growth. Methods: We model the early growth of a protoplanet by calculating the structure of its envelope, taking into account the fate of impacting pebbles or planetesimals. The region where high-Z material can exist in vapor form is determined by the temperature-dependent vapor pressure. We include enrichment effects by locally modifying the mean molecular weight of the envelope. Results: In the pebble case, three phases of core growth can be identified. In the first phase (Mcore mixes outwards, slowing core growth. In the third phase (Mcore > 0.5M⊕), the high-Z inner region expands outwards, absorbing an increasing fraction of the ablated material as vapor. Rainout ends before the core mass reaches 0.6 M⊕, terminating direct core growth. In the case of icy H2O pebbles, this happens before 0.1 M⊕. Conclusions: Our results indicate that pebble accretion can directly form rocky cores up to only 0.6 M⊕, and is unable to form similarly sized icy cores. Subsequent core growth can proceed indirectly when the planet cools, provided it is able to retain its high-Z material.

  16. Hybrid Photonic Integration on a Polymer Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To fulfill the functionality demands from the fast developing optical networks, a hybrid integration approach allows for combining the advantages of various material platforms. We have established a polymer-based hybrid integration platform (polyboard, which provides flexible optical input/ouptut interfaces (I/Os that allow robust coupling of indium phosphide (InP-based active components, passive insertion of thin-film-based optical elements, and on-chip attachment of optical fibers. This work reviews the recent progress of our polyboard platform. On the fundamental level, multi-core waveguides and polymer/silicon nitride heterogeneous waveguides have been fabricated, broadening device design possibilities and enabling 3D photonic integration. Furthermore, 40-channel optical line terminals and compact, bi-directional optical network units have been developed as highly functional, low-cost devices for the wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network. On a larger scale, thermo-optic elements, thin-film elements and an InP gain chip have been integrated on the polyboard to realize a colorless, dual-polarization optical 90° hybrid as the frontend of a coherent receiver. For high-end applications, a wavelength tunable 100Gbaud transmitter module has been demonstrated, manifesting the joint contribution from the polyboard technology, high speed polymer electro-optic modulator, InP driver electronics and ceramic electronic interconnects.

  17. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    Social media has created new ways of communicating and has brought about a new distinctive ethos. New literacies are not simply about new technology but also about this new ethos. Many museums are embracing this ethos by what is often called participatory practices. From a sociocultural perspective...... this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both...

  18. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. {yields} Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. {yields} Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  19. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawaid, M.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Abu Bakar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. → Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. → Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. → Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  20. Nanostructured hybrid materials from aqueous polymer dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelvetro, Valter; De Vita, Cinzia

    2004-05-20

    Organic-inorganic (O-I) hybrids with well-defined morphology and structure controlled at the nanometric scale represent a very interesting class of materials both for their use as biomimetic composites and because of their potential use in a wide range of technologically advanced as well as more conventional application fields. Their unique features can be exploited or their role envisaged as components of electronic and optoelectronic devices, in controlled release and bioencapsulation, as active substrates for chromatographic separation and catalysis, as nanofillers for composite films in packaging and coating, in nanowriting and nanolithography, etc. A synergistic combination or totally new properties with respect to the two components of the hybrid can arise from nanostructuration, achieved by surface modification of nanostructures, self-assembling or simply heterophase dispersion. In fact, owing to the extremely large total surface area associated with the resulting morphologies, the interfacial interactions can deeply modify the bulk properties of each component. A wide range of starting materials and of production processes have been studied in recent years for the controlled synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures, from nanoparticle or lamellar dispersions to mesoporous materials obtained from templating nanoparticle dispersions in a continuous, e.g. ceramic precursor, matrix. This review is aimed at giving some basic definitions of what is intended as a hybrid (O-I) material and what are the main synthetic routes available. The various methods for preparing hybrid nanostructures and, among them, inorganic-organic or O-I core-shell nanoparticles, are critically analyzed and classified based on the reaction medium (aqueous, non-aqueous), and on the role it plays in directing the final morphology. Particular attention is devoted to aqueous systems and water-borne dispersions which, in addition to being environmentally more acceptable or even a

  1. TMI-2 core examination plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.; MacDonald, P.E.; Hobbins, R.R.; Ploggr, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Three Mile Island (TMI-2) core examination is divided into four stages: (1) before removing the head; (2) before removing the plenum; (3) during defueling; and (4) offsite examinations. Core examinations recommended during the first three stages are primarily devoted to documenting the post-accident condition of the core. The detailed analysis of core damage structures will be performed during offsite examinations at government and commercial hot cell facilities. The primary objectives of these examinations are to enhance the understanding of the degraded core accident sequence, to develop the technical bases for reactor regulations, and to improve LWR design and operation

  2. Monitoring an electric cable core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Marris, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method of, and apparatus for, continuously monitoring an advancing core having a continuous covering comprises directing X-ray radiation laterally towards the advancing covered core; continuously forming an X-ray image pattern of the advancing covered core and translating the image pattern into a visible image pattern; continuously transforming the visible pattern into a digital bit pattern; and processing the digital bit pattern using a microprocessor with interfacing electronics to provide an image profile of the advancing covered core and/or to provide analogue and/or digital signals indicative of the overall diameter and eccentricity of the covered core and of the thickness of the covering. (author)

  3. Winning Cores in Parity Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the novel notion of winning cores in parity games and develop a deterministic polynomial-time under-approximation algorithm for solving parity games based on winning core approximation. Underlying this algorithm are a number properties about winning cores which are interesting...... in their own right. In particular, we show that the winning core and the winning region for a player in a parity game are equivalently empty. Moreover, the winning core contains all fatal attractors but is not necessarily a dominion itself. Experimental results are very positive both with respect to quality...

  4. Hybrid system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid systems studied for fissile material production, were reconsidered for minor actinide and long-lived fission product destruction as alternative to the traditional final disposal of nuclear waste. Now there are attempts to extend the use of the concepts developed for minor actinide incineration to plutonium burning. The most promising hybrid system concept considers fuel and target both as liquids. From the results obtained, the possibility to adopt composite targets seems the most promising solution, but still there remains the problem of Pu production, not acceptable in a burning system. This kind of targets can be mainly used for fissile material production, while for accelerator driven burners it is most convenient to use a liquid lead target. The most suitable solvent is heavy water for minor actinide annihilation in the blanket of a hybrid system. Due to the criticality conditions and the necessity of electric energy production, the blanket using plutonium dissolved in molten salts is the most convenient one. (author)

  5. Hybrid strategies in nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Hector M; Mullen, Thomas J; Zhang Pengpeng; Dewey, Daniel C; Claridge, Shelley A; Weiss, Paul S [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: psw@cnsi.ucla.edu

    2010-03-15

    Hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies combine the registration and addressability of conventional lithographic techniques with the chemical and physical functionality enabled by intermolecular, electrostatic and/or biological interactions. This review aims to highlight and to provide a comprehensive description of recent developments in hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies that enhance existing lithographic techniques or can be used to fabricate functional chemical patterns that interact with their environment. These functional structures create new capabilities, such as the fabrication of physicochemical surfaces that can recognize and capture analytes from complex liquid or gaseous mixtures. The nanolithographic techniques we describe can be classified into three general areas: traditional lithography, soft lithography and scanning-probe lithography. The strengths and limitations of each hybrid patterning technique will be discussed, along with the current and potential applications of the resulting patterned, functional surfaces.

  6. Initial charge reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectivity burn fuels and improve the economical performance in an inital charge reactor core of BWR type reactors or the likes. Constitution: In a reactor core constituted with a plurality of fuel assemblies which are to be partially replaced upon fuel replacement, the density of the fissionable materials and the moderator - fuel ratio of a fuel assembly is set corresponding to the period till that fuel assembly is replaced, in which the density of the nuclear fissionable materials is lowered and the moderator - fuel ratio is increased for the fuel assembly with a shorter period from the fueling to the fuel exchange and, while on the other hand, the density of the fissionable materials is increased and the moderator - fuel ratio is decreased for the fuel assembly with a longer period from the fueling to the replacement. Accordingly, since the moderator - fuel ratio is increased for the fuel assembly to be replaced in a shorter period, the neutrons moderating effect is increased to increase the reactivity. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Statistical core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelkers, E.; Heller, A.S.; Farnsworth, D.A.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    The report describes the statistical analysis of DNBR thermal-hydraulic margin of a 3800 MWt, 205-FA core under design overpower conditions. The analysis used LYNX-generated data at predetermined values of the input variables whose uncertainties were to be statistically combined. LYNX data were used to construct an efficient response surface model in the region of interest; the statistical analysis was accomplished through the evaluation of core reliability; utilizing propagation of the uncertainty distributions of the inputs. The response surface model was implemented in both the analytical error propagation and Monte Carlo Techniques. The basic structural units relating to the acceptance criteria are fuel pins. Therefore, the statistical population of pins with minimum DNBR values smaller than specified values is determined. The specified values are designated relative to the most probable and maximum design DNBR values on the power limiting pin used in present design analysis, so that gains over the present design criteria could be assessed for specified probabilistic acceptance criteria. The results are equivalent to gains ranging from 1.2 to 4.8 percent of rated power dependent on the acceptance criterion. The corresponding acceptance criteria range from 95 percent confidence that no pin will be in DNB to 99.9 percent of the pins, which are expected to avoid DNB

  8. Nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo; Ishibashi, Yoko; Mochida, Takaaki; Haikawa, Katsumasa; Yamanaka, Akihiro.

    1995-01-01

    A reactor core is radially divided into an inner region, an outer region and an outermost region. As a fuel, three kinds of fuels, namely, a high enrichment degree fuel at 3.4%, a middle enrichment degree fuel at 2.3% and a low enrichment degree at 1.1% of a fuel average enrichment degree of fission product are used. Each of the fuels is bisected to upper and lower portions at an axial center thereof. The difference of average enrichment degrees between upper and lower portions is 0.1% for the high enrichment degree fuel, 0.3% for the middle enrichment degree fuel and 0.2% for the low enrichment degree fuel. In addition, the composition of fuels in each of radial regions comprises 100% of the low enrichment degree fuels in the outermost region, 91% of the higher enrichment degree fuels and 9% of the middle enrichment degree fuels in the outer region, and 34% of the high enrichment degree fuels and 30% of the middle enrichment degree fuels in the inner region. With such a constitution, fuel economy can be improved while maintaining the thermal margin in an initially loaded reactor core of a BWR type reactor. (I.N.)

  9. The tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.; Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    At a time when the potential benefits of various energy options are being seriously evaluated in many countries through-out the world, it is both timely and important to evaluate the practical application of fusion reactors for their economical production of nuclear fissile fuels from fertile fuels. The fusion hybrid reactor represents a concept that could assure the availability of adequate fuel supplies for a proven nuclear technology and have the potential of being an electrical energy source as opposed to an energy consumer as are the present fuel enrichment processes. Westinghouse Fusion Power Systems Department, under Contract No. EG-77-C-02-4544 with the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, has developed a preliminary conceptual design for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) Plants. To the depth this study has been performed, no insurmountable technical problems have been identified. The study has provided a basis for reasonable cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources. A nearer-term concept is also defined using a beam driven fusion driver in lieu of the longer term ignited operating mode. (orig.)

  10. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrying set of all hybrid hierarchical structures are element-heterogeneous whilst the structure- carrying set of all ... grams of hierarchical hybrid article structures, the nodes for those text segments that establish the hybrid status of .... der; d ∈ ArtA ⊣ G|WAr (= Artikelangabe, anhand derer das Genus (= G) und zugleich die ...

  11. Models of the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  12. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  13. Doubts about hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The natural draught wet cooling tower with a height of 160 m is considerably taller than the 80 m high hybrid cooling tower, but the latter has a considerably larger diameter. Spray losses for both types are about 4.5 kg/sec for a thermal output of 2500 MW. Apart from the pump load, the natural cooling tower requires no power. Apart from higher pump loads, the hybrid cooling tower requires power for the fans. The energy demand for this purpose is 1.5 to 3% of the nett powerstation output. For the Isar 2 nuclear powerstation this would mean a reduction in puput of about 35 MW. (orig.) [de

  14. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  15. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  16. Scalable and Power Efficient Data Analytics for Hybrid Exascale Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Alok [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Samatova, Nagiza [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, Kesheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liao, Wei-keng [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-03-19

    This project developed a generic and optimized set of core data analytics functions. These functions organically consolidate a broad constellation of high performance analytical pipelines. As the architectures of emerging HPC systems become inherently heterogeneous, there is a need to design algorithms for data analysis kernels accelerated on hybrid multi-node, multi-core HPC architectures comprised of a mix of CPUs, GPUs, and SSDs. Furthermore, the power-aware trend drives the advances in our performance-energy tradeoff analysis framework which enables our data analysis kernels algorithms and software to be parameterized so that users can choose the right power-performance optimizations.

  17. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  18. Security in hybrid cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the area of hybrid cloud computing, specifically with its security. The major aim of the thesis is to analyze and compare the chosen hybrid cloud providers. For the minor aim this thesis compares the security challenges of hybrid cloud as opponent to other deployment models. In order to accomplish said aims, this thesis defines the terms cloud computing and hybrid cloud computing in its theoretical part. Furthermore the security challenges for cloud computing a...

  19. Waves in the core and mechanical core-mantle interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jault, D.; Finlay, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This Chapter focuses on time-dependent uid motions in the core interior, which can beconstrained by observations of the Earth's magnetic eld, on timescales which are shortcompared to the magnetic diusion time. This dynamics is strongly inuenced by the Earth's rapid rotation, which rigidies...... the motions in the direction parallel to the Earth'srotation axis. This property accounts for the signicance of the core-mantle topography.In addition, the stiening of the uid in the direction parallel to the rotation axis gives riseto a magnetic diusion layer attached to the core-mantle boundary, which would...... otherwisebe dispersed by Alfven waves. This Chapter complements the descriptions of large-scaleow in the core (8.04), of turbulence in the core (8.06) and of core-mantle interactions(8.12), which can all be found in this volume. We rely on basic magnetohydrodynamictheory, including the derivation...

  20. Core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppner, G.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor cooling system transports the heat liberated in the reactor core to the component - heat exchanger, steam generator or turbine - where the energy is removed. This basic task can be performed with a variety of coolants circulating in appropriately designed cooling systems. The choice of any one system is governed by principles of economics and natural policies, the design is determined by the laws of nuclear physics, thermal-hydraulics and by the requirement of reliability and public safety. PWR- and BWR- reactors today generate the bulk of nuclear energy. Their primary cooling systems are discussed under the following aspects: 1. General design, nuclear physics constraints, energy transfer, hydraulics, thermodynamics. 2. Design and performance under conditions of steady state and mild transients; control systems. 3. Design and performance under conditions of severe transients and loss of coolant accidents; safety systems. (orig./RW)

  1. The true 'core' splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallerbach, J.

    1978-01-01

    Massive unemployment and the fear of a barred future put at present the unions and civil initiative to the apparent alternatives; securing work places or securing life and future. How the 'atomic fight' is fought and its result can have considerable consequences for our society. This volume presents a dialogue: Firstly the situation and environment must be understood giving rise to the controversial arguments. Reports, analyses and interviews are presented on this as basic structure for the future discussion. The quality and direction of the technical progress are dealt with in the core of the discussion. Is atomic technology acceptable. Who should decide and whom does it serve. What is progress going to look like anyway. (orig.) [de

  2. Emergency core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi; Okataku, Yasukuni.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the fuel soundness upon loss of primary coolant accidents in a pressure tube type nuclear reactor by injecting cooling heavy water at an early stage, to suppress the temperature of fuel cans at a lower level. Constitution: When a thermometer detects the temperature rise and a pressure gauge detects that the pressure for the primary coolants is reduced slightly from that in the normal operation upon loss of coolant accidents in the vicinity of the primary coolant circuit, heavy water is caused to flow in the heavy water feed pipeway by a controller. This enables to inject the heavy water into the reactor core in a short time upon loss of the primary coolant accidents to suppress the temperature rise in the fuel can thereby maintain the fuel soundness. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. The core and cosmopolitans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlander, Linus; Frederiksen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Users often interact and help each other solve problems in communities, but few scholars have explored how these relationships provide opportunities to innovate. We analyze the extent to which people positioned within the core of a community as well as people that are cosmopolitans positioned...... across multiple external communities affect innovation. Using a multimethod approach, including a survey, a complete database of interactions in an online community, content coding of interactions and contributions, and 36 interviews, we specify the types of positions that have the strongest effect...... on innovation. Our study shows that dispositional explanations for user innovation should be complemented by a relational view that emphasizes how these communities differ from other organizations, the types of behaviors this enables, and the effects on innovation....

  4. Adult educators' core competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    ” requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students’ prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator’s reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence......Abstract Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators’ required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural...... environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or “core...

  5. CORE annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gut, A.

    2007-04-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE in 2006. The six main areas of work during the period 2004 - 2007 are examined, including a review of the SFOE's energy research programme, a road-map for the way towards the realisation of a 2000-watt society, the formulation of an energy research concept for 2008 - 2011, international co-operation, the dissemination of information and the assessment of existing and new instruments. International activities and Switzerland's involvement in energy research within the framework of the International Energy Agency IEA are discussed. New and existing projects are listed and the work done at the Competence Centre for Energy and Mobility noted. The Swiss Technology Award 2007 is presented. Information supplied to interested bodies to help improve knowledge on research work being done and to help make discussions on future energy supply more objective is discussed

  6. Nuclear reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, R F

    1974-07-11

    The core of the fast neutron reactor consisting, among other components, of fuel elements enriched in plutonium is divided into modules. Each module contains a bundle of four or six elongated components (fuel elements and control rods). In the arrangement with four components, one is kept rigid while the other three are elastically yielding inclined towards the center and lean against the rigid component. In the modules with six pieces, each component is elastically yielding inclined towards a central cavity. In this way, they form a circular arc. A control rod may be placed in the cavity. In order to counteract a relative lateral movement, the outer surfaces of the components which have hexagonal cross-sections have interlocking bearing cushions. The bearing cushions consist of keyway-type ribs or grooves with the wedges or ribs gripping in the grooves of the neighbouring components. In addition, the ribs have oblique entering surfaces.

  7. IRIS core criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jecmenica, R.; Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code KENO-VI of CSAS26 sequence of SCALE-4.4 code system was applied for pin-by-pin calculations of the effective multiplication factor for the first cycle IRIS reactor core. The effective multiplication factors obtained by the above mentioned Monte Carlo calculations using 27-group ENDF/B-IV library and 238-group ENDF/B-V library have been compared with the effective multiplication factors achieved by HELIOS/NESTLE, CASMO/SIMULATE, and modified CORD-2 nodal calculations. The results of Monte Carlo calculations are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the nodal codes. The discrepancies in effective multiplication factor are typically within 1%. (author)

  8. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  9. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  10. Um mundo de cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Artz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A pintura de Elis Artz é feita com muita alma e transborda alegria. A vitalidade de seu trabalho transparece nas cores fortes e nos traços simples e harmoniosos. Confira o trabalho da artista nesta edição da Revista Jangada. ELIS by ELIS Descobri meu talento artístisco e criativo há uns 25 anos. Nasci no Brasil e me mudei para os EUA 10 anos atrás por puro amor. Embora seja psicóloga de formação, o meu apreço pela pintura só cresceu e, com o passar dos anos, a paixão pelas tintas me direcionou a fazer cursos com artistas brasileiros renomados. Já morando nos EUA e com essa grande paixão adormecida, durante anos, decidi me entregar para as cores que sempre me trouxeram alegria e cor para os meus dias. Embora muitas de minhas pinturas tenham ido para minha família e amigos no Brasil, vendi inúmeras outras pelo país através de exposições em galerias de arte. Em 2014, fui uma das artistas em destaque no MTD ART nos Estados Unidos. Minha obra estava dentro de cada ônibus das cidades de Champaign e Urbana e exposta em destaque na Estação de Trem. Em maio de 2015, tive o prazer de ter outro trabalho meu nos outdoors da cidade, destacando a minha tela 'Frida' o ano inteiro e de expor em conjunto com alguns artistas locais no final de outubro. Desde então, tenho pintado cada vez mais e me interessado em divulgar o meu trabalho. E, como diria um amigo meu "Elis, você me mostrou que a vida não é só preto no branco". Ele estava certo.

  11. Core catcher for nuclear reactor core meltdown containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, M.J.; Bowman, F.L.

    1978-01-01

    A bed of graphite particles is placed beneath a nuclear reactor core outside the pressure vessel but within the containment building to catch the core debris in the event of failure of the emergency core cooling system. Spray cooling of the debris and graphite particles together with draining and flooding of coolant fluid of the graphite bed is provided to prevent debris slump-through to the bottom of the bed

  12. Nonlinear spatial mode imaging of hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Degenerate spontaneous four wave mixing is studied for the rst time in a large mode area hybrid photonic crystal ber, where light con nement is achieved by combined index- and bandgap guiding. Four wave mixing products are generated on the edges of the bandgaps, which is veri ed by numerical and ...... and experimental results. Since the core mode is in resonance with cladding modes near the bandedges an unconventional measurement technique is used, in this work named nonlinear spatial mode imaging....

  13. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een

  14. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  16. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  17. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-09-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates.

  18. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  19. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-01-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates

  20. Hybrid quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehrawat, Arun; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Zemann, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid model of the unitary-evolution-based quantum computation model and the measurement-based quantum computation model. In the hybrid model, part of a quantum circuit is simulated by unitary evolution and the rest by measurements on star graph states, thereby combining the advantages of the two standard quantum computation models. In the hybrid model, a complicated unitary gate under simulation is decomposed in terms of a sequence of single-qubit operations, the controlled-z gates, and multiqubit rotations around the z axis. Every single-qubit and the controlled-z gate are realized by a respective unitary evolution, and every multiqubit rotation is executed by a single measurement on a required star graph state. The classical information processing in our model requires only an information flow vector and propagation matrices. We provide the implementation of multicontrol gates in the hybrid model. They are very useful for implementing Grover's search algorithm, which is studied as an illustrative example.

  1. Hot-injection synthesis of Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with tunable magnetic properties and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Deqian; Qiu, Yulong; Chen, Yuanzhi, E-mail: yuanzhi@xmu.edu.cn; Zhang, Qinfu; Liu, Xiang; Peng, Dong-Liang, E-mail: dlpeng@xmu.edu.cn [Xiamen University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Genome, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, College of Materials (China)

    2017-04-15

    Magnetic metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals containing ferromagnetic Ni and semiconductor ZnO have been prepared via a hot-injection route. The Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals have a flower-like morphology that consists of Ni inner cores and ZnO petal shells. In spite of their large lattice mismatch, ZnO nanocrystals can still grow on faceted Ni nanocrystals to form stable interfaces. The composition of Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals is readily controlled, and the average size of Ni core is tunable from 25 to 50 nm. Room temperature ferromagnetic properties are observed in these hybrid nanocrystals, and tunable magnetic properties also can be achieved by varying the size of Ni core. The as-prepared Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals exhibit enhanced photocatalytic performance under ultraviolet light illumination as compared to pure ZnO nanocrystals. Furthermore, the superior reusability of hybrid nanocrystals for photocatalytic application is achieved by virtue of their magnetic properties. The facile and efficient seed-mediate strategy is particularly attractive to construct hybrid magnetic-semiconducting heterostructures. The as-obtained Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals offer great potential for various applications due to their combined magnetic and semiconducting properties and low-cost earth-abundant availability.

  2. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer's prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The hybrid

  3. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  4. Single-mode fiber laser based on core-cladding mode conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Schülzgen, Axel; Peyghambarian, N

    2008-02-15

    A single-mode fiber laser based on an intracavity core-cladding mode conversion is demonstrated. The fiber laser consists of an Er-doped active fiber and two fiber Bragg gratings. One Bragg grating is a core-cladding mode converter, and the other Bragg grating is a narrowband high reflector that selects the lasing wavelength. Coupling a single core mode and a single cladding mode by the grating mode converter, the laser operates as a hybrid single-mode laser. This approach for designing a laser cavity provides a much larger mode area than conventional large-mode-area step-index fibers.

  5. Study and application of microscopic depletion model in core simulator of COSINE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaoyu; Wang Su; Yan Yuhang; Liu Zhanquan; Chen Yixue; Huang Kai

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic depletion correction is one of the commonly used techniques that could improve the historical effect and attain higher precision of diffusion calculation and alleviate the inaccuracy caused by historical effect. Core simulator of COSINE project (core and system integrated engine for design and analysis) has developed a hybrid macroscopic-microscopic depletion model to track important isotopes during each depletion history and correct the macro cross sections. The basic theory was discussed in this paper. The effect and results of microscopic depletion correction were also analyzed. The preliminary test results demonstrate that the microscopic depletion model is effective and practicable for improving the precision of core calculation. (authors)

  6. Photoresponsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for controlled doxorubicin release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Cuiping; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Cecheng; Lin, Xinyi; Wei, Zuwu; Zheng, Youshi; Zhang, Da; Zhang, Zhenxi; Liu, Xiaolong

    2017-06-01

    Currently, photoresponsive nanomaterials are particularly attractive due to their spatial and temporal controlled drug release abilities. In this work, we report a photoresponsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle for remote controlled delivery of anticancer drugs. This hybrid nanoparticle comprises three distinct functional components: (i) a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) core to encapsulate doxorubicin; (ii) a soybean lecithin monolayer at the interface of the core and shell to act as a molecular fence to prevent drug leakage; (iii) a photoresponsive polymeric shell with anti-biofouling properties to enhance nanoparticle stability, which could be detached from the nanoparticle to trigger the drug release via a decrease in the nanoparticle’s stability under light irradiation. In vitro results revealed that this core-shell nanoparticle had excellent light-controlled drug release behavior (76% release with light irradiation versus 10% release without light irradiation). The confocal microscopy and flow cytometry results also further demonstrated the light-controlled drug release behavior inside the cancer cells. Furthermore, a CCK8 assay demonstrated that light irradiation could significantly improve the efficiency of killing cancer cells. Meanwhile, whole-animal fluorescence imaging of a tumor-bearing mouse also confirmed that light irradiation could trigger drug release in vivo. Taken together, our data suggested that a hybrid nanoparticle could be a novel light controlled drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

  7. AGR core safety assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, N.; Reed, J.; Metcalfe, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    To demonstrate the safety of its gas-cooled graphite-moderated AGR reactors, nuclear safety assessments of the cores are based upon a methodology which demonstrates no component failures, geometrical stability of the structure and material properties bounded by a database. All AGRs continue to meet these three criteria. However, predictions of future core behaviour indicate that the safety case methodology will eventually need to be modified to deal with new phenomena. A new approach to the safety assessment of the cores is currently under development, which can take account of these factors while at the same time providing the same level of protection for the cores. This approach will be based on the functionality of the core: unhindered movement of control rods, continued adequate cooling of the fuel and the core, continued ability to charge and discharge fuel. (author). 5 figs

  8. Overview of core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the analysis of core-disruptive accidents is given. These analyses are for the purpose of understanding and predicting fast reactor behavior in severe low probability accident conditions, to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features. The methods are used to analyze core-disruptive accidents from initiating event to complete core disruption, the effects of the accident on reactor structures and the resulting radiological consequences are described

  9. Coupling between core and cladding modes in a helical core fiber with large core offset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napiorkowski, Maciej; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of resonant coupling between core and cladding modes in a helical core fiber with large core offset using the fully vectorial method based on the transformation optics formalism. Our study revealed that the resonant couplings to lower order cladding modes predicted by perturbative methods and observed experimentally in fibers with small core offsets are in fact prohibited for larger core offsets. This effect is related to the lack of phase matching caused by elongation of the optical path of the fundamental modes in the helical core. Moreover, strong couplings to the cladding modes of the azimuthal modal number much higher than predicted by perturbative methods may be observed for large core offsets, as the core offset introduces higher order angular harmonics in the field distribution of the fundamental modes. Finally, in contrast to previous studies, we demonstrate the existence of spectrally broad polarization sensitive couplings to the cladding modes suggesting that helical core fibers with large core offsets may be used as broadband circular polarizers. (paper)

  10. Models of the earth's core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The combination of seismology, high pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to strong constraints on core models. The synthesis presented here is devoted to the defense of the following properties: (1) core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; (2) the outer, liquid core is predominately iron but cannot be purely iron; (3) the inner core-outer core boundary represents a thermodynamic equilibrium between a liquid alloys and a predominanately iron solid; (4) thermodynamic and transport properties of outer core can be estimated from liquid-state theories; and (5) the outer core is probably adiabatic and uniform in composition. None of these propositions are universally accepted by geophysicists. But, the intent of this paper is to present a coherent picture which explains most of the data with the fewest ad hoc assumptions. Areas in which future progress is both essential and likely are geo- and cosmochronology, seismological determinations of core structure, fluid dynamics of the core and mantle, and condensed matter physics

  11. Wire core reactor for NTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution

  12. Nuclear reactor with several cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swars, H.

    1977-01-01

    Several sodium-cooled cores in separate vessels with removable closures are placed in a common reactor tank. Each individual vessel is protected against the consequences of an accident in the relevant core. Maintenance devices and inlet and outlet pipes for the coolant are also arranged within the reactor tank. The individual vessels are all enclosed by coolant in a way that in case of emergency cooling or refuelling each core can be continued to be cooled by means of the coolant loops of the other cores. (HP) [de

  13. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  14. Core barrel inner tube lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, J P

    1968-07-16

    A core drill with means for selectively lifting a core barrel inner tube consists of a lifting means connected to the core barrel inner tube assembly. It has a closable passage to permit drilling fluid normally to pass through it. The lifting means has a normally downward facing surface and a means to direct drilling fluid pressure against that surface so that on closure of the passage to fluid flow, the pressure of the drilling fluid is caused to act selectively on it. This causes the lifting means to rise and lift the core barrel. (7 claims)

  15. TMI-2 core debris analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.A.; Carlson, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    One of the ongoing examination tasks for the damaged TMI-2 reactor is analysis of samples of debris obtained from the debris bed presently at the top of the core. This paper summarizes the results reported in the TMI-2 Core Debris Grab Sample Examination and Analysis Report, which will be available early in 1986. The sampling and analysis procedures are presented, and information is provided on the key results as they relate to the present core condition, peak temperatures during the transient, temperature history, chemical interactions, and core relocation. The results are then summarized

  16. Meltdown reactor core cooling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The meltdown reactor core cooling facility comprises a meltdown reactor core cooling tank, a cooling water storage tank situates at a position higher than the meltdown reactor core cooling tank, an upper pipeline connecting the upper portions of the both of the tanks and a lower pipeline connecting the lower portions of them. Upon occurrence of reactor core meltdown, a high temperature meltdown reactor core is dropped on the cooling tank to partially melt the tank and form a hole, from which cooling water is flown out. Since the water source of the cooling water is the cooling water storage tank, a great amount of cooling water is further dropped and supplied and the reactor core is submerged and cooled by natural convection for a long period of time. Further, when the lump of the meltdown reactor core is small and the perforated hole of the meltdown reactor cooling tank is small, cooling water is boiled by the high temperature lump intruding into the meltdown reactor core cooling tank and blown out from the upper pipeline to the cooling water storage tank to supply cooling water from the lower pipeline to the meltdown reactor core cooling tank. Since it is constituted only with simple static facilities, the facility can be simplified to attain improvement of reliability. (N.H.)

  17. Fort St. Vrain core performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachern, D.W.; Brown, J.R.; Heller, R.A.; Franek, W.J.

    1977-07-01

    The Fort St. Vrain High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor core performance has been evaluated during the startup testing phase of the reactor operation. The reactor is graphite moderated, helium cooled, and uses coated particle fuel and on-line flow control to each of the 37 refueling regions. Principal objectives of startup testing were to determine: core and control system reactivity, radial power distribution, flow control capability, and initial fission product release. Information from the core demonstrates that Technical Specifications are being met, performance of the core and fuel is as expected, flow and reactivity control are predictable and simple for the operator to carry out

  18. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  19. Mirror hybrid reactor optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A system model of the mirror hybrid reactor has been developed. The major components of the model include (1) the reactor description, (2) a capital cost analysis, (3) various fuel management schemes, and (4) an economic analysis that includes the hybrid plus its associated fission burner reactors. The results presented describe the optimization of the mirror hybrid reactor, the objective being to minimize the cost of electricity from the hybrid fission-burner reactor complex. We have examined hybrid reactors with two types of blankets, one containing natural uranium, the other thorium. The major difference between the two optimized reactors is that the uranium hybrid is a significant net electrical power producer, whereas the thorium hybrid just about breaks even on electrical power. Our projected costs for fissile fuel production are approximately 50 $/g for 239 Pu and approximately 125 $/g for 233 U

  20. Characterizing the Core via K-Core Covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez, S.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Estevez, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  1. Adult educators' core competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  2. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Oikawa, Hirohide.

    1990-01-01

    The device according to this invention can ensure cooling water required for emerency core cooling upon emergence such as abnormally, for example, loss of coolant accident, without using dynamic equipments such as a centrifugal pump or large-scaled tank. The device comprises a pressure accumulation tank containing a high pressure nitrogen gas and cooling water inside, a condensate storage tank, a pressure suppression pool and a jet stream pump. In this device there are disposed a pipeline for guiding cooling water in the pressure accumulation tank as a jetting water to a jetting stream pump, a pipeline for guiding cooling water stored in the condensate storage tank and the pressure suppression pool as pumped water to the jetting pump and, further, a pipeline for guiding the discharged water from the jet stream pump which is a mixed stream of pumped water and jetting water into the reactor pressure vessel. In this constitution, a sufficient amount of water ranging from relatively high pressure to low pressure can be supplied into the reactor pressure vessel, without increasing the size of the pressure accumulation tank. (I.S.)

  3. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Kobayashi, Masahide.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable a stable operation of an emergency core cooling system by preventing the system from the automatic stopping at an abnormally high level of the reactor water during its operation. Constitution: A pump flow rate signal and a reactor water level signal are used and, when the reactor water level is increased to a predetermined level, the pump flow rate is controlled by the reactor water level signal instead of the flow rate signal. Specifically, when the reactor water level is gradually increased by the water injection from the pump and exceeds a setting signal for the water level, the water level deviation signal acts as a demand signal for the decrease in the flow rate of the pump and the output signal from the water level controller is also decreased depending on the control constant. At a certain point, the output signal from the water level controller becomes smaller than the output signal from the flow rate controller. Thus, the output signal from the water level controller is outputted as the output signal for the lower level preference device. In this way, the reactor water level and the pump flow rate can be controlled within a range not exceeding the predetermined pump flow rate. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Nobuaki.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor comprises a static emergency reactor core cooling system having an automatic depressurization system and a gravitationally dropping type water injection system and a container cooling system by an isolation condenser. A depressurization pipeline of the automatic depressurization system connected to a reactor pressure vessel branches in the midway. The branched depressurizing pipelines are extended into an upper dry well and a lower dry well, in which depressurization valves are disposed at the top end portions of the pipelines respectively. If loss-of-coolant accidents should occur, the depressurization valve of the automatic depressurization system is actuated by lowering of water level in the pressure vessel. This causes nitrogen gases in the upper and the lower dry wells to transfer together with discharged steams effectively to a suppression pool passing through a bent tube. Accordingly, the gravitationally dropping type water injection system can be actuated faster. Further, subsequent cooling for the reactor vessel can be ensured sufficiently by the isolation condenser. (I.N.)

  5. Necrosome core machinery: MLKL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yu; He, Wenyan; Sun, Liming

    2016-06-01

    In the study of regulated cell death, the rapidly expanding field of regulated necrosis, in particular necroptosis, has been drawing much attention. The signaling of necroptosis represents a sophisticated form of a death pathway. Anti-caspase mechanisms (e.g., using inhibitors of caspases, or genetic ablation of caspase-8) switch cell fate from apoptosis to necroptosis. The initial extracellular death signals regulate RIP1 and RIP3 kinase activation. The RIP3-associated death complex assembly is necessary and sufficient to initiate necroptosis. MLKL was initially identified as an essential mediator of RIP1/RIP3 kinase-initiated necroptosis. Recent studies on the signal transduction using chemical tools and biomarkers support the idea that MLKL is able to make more functional sense for the core machinery of the necroptosis death complex, called the necrosome, to connect to the necroptosis execution. The experimental data available now have pointed that the activated MLKL forms membrane-disrupting pores causing membrane leakage, which extends the prototypical concept of morphological and biochemical events following necroptosis happening in vivo. The key role of MLKL in necroptosis signaling thus sheds light on the logic underlying this unique "membrane-explosive" cell death pathway. In this review, we provide the general concepts and strategies that underlie signal transduction of this form of cell death, and then focus specifically on the role of MLKL in necroptosis.

  6. Analysis of the BFS-62 critical experiment. A report produced for BNFL (Joint European contribution)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.D.; Hosking, J.G.; Smith, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    A benchmark analysis for a hybrid UOX/MOX fuelled core of the BN-600 reactor was proposed during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project 'Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce Calculational Uncertainties of LMFR Reactivity Effects'. Phase 5 of the benchmark focuses on validation of calculated sodium void coefficient distributions and integral reactivity coefficients by comparison with experimental measurements made in the critical facility BFS-62. The European. participation in Phase 5 of the benchmark analyses consists of a joint contribution from France (CEA Cadarache) and the UK (Serco Assurance Winfrith - sponsored by BNFL). Calculations have been performed using the ERANOS code and data system, which has been developed in the framework of the European collaboration on fast reactors. Results are presented in this paper for the sodium void reactivity effect based on calculated values of the absolute core reactivity. The spatial distribution of the void effect, determined using first order perturbation theory with the diffusion theory approximation, is also presented

  7. Interface engineered ferrite@ferroelectric core-shell nanostructures: A facile approach to impart superior magneto-electric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Ann Rose; Raneesh, B.; Das, Dipankar; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi Samuel; Thomas, Sabu; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2018-04-01

    The electric field control of magnetism in multiferroics is attractive for the realization of ultra-fast and miniaturized low power device applications like nonvolatile memories. Room temperature hybrid multiferroic heterostructures with core-shell (0-0) architecture (ferrite core and ferroelectric shell) were developed via a two-step method. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) images confirm the core-shell structure. The temperature dependant magnetization measurements and Mossbauer spectra reveal superparamagnetic nature of the core-shell sample. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops reveal leaky nature of the samples. The results indicate the promising applications of the samples for magneto-electric memories and spintronics.

  8. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  9. Sneutrino Hybrid Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We review the scenario of sneutrino hybrid inflation, where one of the singlet sneutrinos, the superpartners of the right-handed neutrinos, plays the role of the inflaton. In a minimal model of sneutrino hybrid inflation, the spectral index is given by ns ≅ 1 + 2γ. With γ = 0.025 ± 0.01 constrained by WMAP, a running spectral index vertical bar dns/dlnk vertical bar << vertical barγvertical bar and a tensor-to-scalar ratio r << γ2 are predicted. Small neutrino masses arise from the seesaw mechanism, with heavy masses for the singlet (s)neutrinos generated by the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field after inflation. The baryon asymmetry of the universe can be explained by non-thermal leptogenesis via sneutrino inflaton decay, with low reheat temperature TRH ≅ 106 GeV

  10. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    of the adversary, without being aware of the actual adversarial setting. Thus, hybrid-secure MPC protocols allow for graceful degradation of security. We present a hybrid-secure MPC protocol that provides an optimal trade-off between IT robustness and computational privacy: For any robustness parameter ρ ... obtain one MPC protocol that is simultaneously IT secure with robustness for up to t ≤ ρ actively corrupted parties, IT secure with fairness (no robustness) for up to t ... in the universal composability (UC) framework (based on a network of secure channels, a broadcast channel, and a common reference string). It achieves the bound on the trade-off between robustness and privacy shown by Ishai et al. [CRYPTO'06] and Katz [STOC'07], the bound on fairness shown by Cleve [STOC'86...

  11. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  12. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  13. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-09-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is presented. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  14. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-01-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is given. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  15. Core-to-core uniformity improvement in multi-core fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Emma; Min, Seong-Sik; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Cvetojevic, Nick; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Lawrence, Jon; Gris-Sanchez, Itandehui; Birks, Tim; Haynes, Roger; Haynes, Dionne

    2014-07-01

    Multi-core fiber Bragg gratings (MCFBGs) will be a valuable tool not only in communications but also various astronomical, sensing and industry applications. In this paper we address some of the technical challenges of fabricating effective multi-core gratings by simulating improvements to the writing method. These methods allow a system designed for inscribing single-core fibers to cope with MCFBG fabrication with only minor, passive changes to the writing process. Using a capillary tube that was polished on one side, the field entering the fiber was flattened which improved the coverage and uniformity of all cores.

  16. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  17. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  18. Mirror hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission hybrid is a combination of the fusion and fission processes, having features which are complementary. Fission energy is running out of readily available fuel, and fusion has extra neutrons which can be used to breed that fission fuel. Fusion would have to take on an extra burden of radioactivity, but this early application would give fusion, which does not work well enough now to make power, practical experience which may accelerate development of pure fusion

  19. The challenge of hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Caccia, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    Hybridization of pixel detector systems has to satisfy tight requirements: high yield, long term reliability, mechanical stability, thermal compliance and robustness have to go together with low passive mass added to the system, radiation hardness, flexibility in the technology end eventually low cost. The current technologies for the interconnection of the front-end chips and the sensor are reviewed and compared, together with the solutions for the interface to the far-end electronics.

  20. STEM image simulation with hybrid CPU/GPU programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Y.; Ge, B.H.; Shen, X.; Wang, Y.G.; Yu, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    STEM image simulation is achieved via hybrid CPU/GPU programming under parallel algorithm architecture to speed up calculation on a personal computer (PC). To utilize the calculation power of a PC fully, the simulation is performed using the GPU core and multi-CPU cores at the same time to significantly improve efficiency. GaSb and an artificial GaSb/InAs interface with atom diffusion have been used to verify the computation. - Highlights: • STEM image simulation is achieved by hybrid CPU/GPU programming under parallel algorithm architecture to speed up the calculation in the personal computer (PC). • In order to fully utilize the calculation power of the PC, the simulation is performed by GPU core and multi-CPU cores at the same time so efficiency is improved significantly. • GaSb and artificial GaSb/InAs interface with atom diffusion have been used to verify the computation. The results reveal some unintuitive phenomena about the contrast variation with the atom numbers.

  1. STEM image simulation with hybrid CPU/GPU programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Y., E-mail: yaoyuan@iphy.ac.cn; Ge, B.H.; Shen, X.; Wang, Y.G.; Yu, R.C.

    2016-07-15

    STEM image simulation is achieved via hybrid CPU/GPU programming under parallel algorithm architecture to speed up calculation on a personal computer (PC). To utilize the calculation power of a PC fully, the simulation is performed using the GPU core and multi-CPU cores at the same time to significantly improve efficiency. GaSb and an artificial GaSb/InAs interface with atom diffusion have been used to verify the computation. - Highlights: • STEM image simulation is achieved by hybrid CPU/GPU programming under parallel algorithm architecture to speed up the calculation in the personal computer (PC). • In order to fully utilize the calculation power of the PC, the simulation is performed by GPU core and multi-CPU cores at the same time so efficiency is improved significantly. • GaSb and artificial GaSb/InAs interface with atom diffusion have been used to verify the computation. The results reveal some unintuitive phenomena about the contrast variation with the atom numbers.

  2. Nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement is described wherein a plurality of actuators, disposed in a pattern laterally surrounding a group of elongated fuel assemblies, press against respective contiguous fuel assemblies on the periphery of the group to reduce the clearance between adjacent fuel assemblies thereby forming a more compacted, vibration resistant core structure. 7 claims, 4 drawing figures

  3. Complicated Politics to the Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    People dislike the Common Core for several different reasons, and so it is important to disaggregate the sources of opposition and to assess and then to dispel some of the myths that have built up around it. It also is important to understand the unusual political alliances that have emerged in opposition to Common Core implementation and how they…

  4. Toward full MOX core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouviere, G.; Guillet, J.L.; Bruna, G.B.; Pelet, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a selection of the main preliminary results of a study program sponsored by COGEMA and currently carried out by FRAMATOME. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of full MOX core loading in a French 1300 MWe PWR, a recent and widespread standard nuclear power plant. The investigation includes core nuclear design, thermal hydraulic and systems aspects. (authors)

  5. Collapsing stellar cores and supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, R J [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Noorgaard, H [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.); Bond, J R [Niels Bohr Institutet, Copenhagen (Denmark); California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.)

    1979-05-01

    The evolution of a stellar core is studied during its final quasi-hydrostatic contraction. The core structure and the (poorly known) properties of neutron rich matter are parametrized to include most plausible cases. It is found that the density-temperature trajectory of the material in the central part of the core (the core-center) is insensitive to nearly all reasonable parameter variations. The central density at the onset of the dynamic phase of the collapse (when the core-center begins to fall away from the rest of the star) and the fraction of the emitted neutrinos which are trapped in the collapsing core-center depend quite sensitively on the properties of neutron rich matter. We estimate that the amount of energy Ecm which is imparted to the core-mantle by the neutrinos which escape from the imploded core-center can span a large range of values. For plausible choices of nuclear and model parameters Ecm can be large enough to yield a supernova event.

  6. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements...... of the observing programme....

  7. Core barrel plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolino, R.W.; Hopkins, R.J.; Congleton, R.L.; Popalis, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    A plug is described for preventing flow through a port in a core barrel of a pressurized water nuclear reactor which consists of: a substantially cylindrical body formed with a cylindrical portion and a flange and defining a tapered leading open end with the other end being closed by an end plug attached to the flange, the body defining a bore therein extending from the open end to the end plug with the bore having a smaller diameter near the open end than near the end plug, the cylindrical portion having a lip near the open end and being formed with longitudinal slots extending from the open end toward the flange and extending entirely through the thickness of the cylindrical portion, the cylindrical portion having a circumferential first groove on the outer surface thereof located near the forwardmost portion of the cylindrical portion but not in the section of the cylindrical portion that has the slots therein, and a plurality of circumferential second grooves on the outer surface thereof located in the section of the cylindrical portion that has the slots therein, the first and second grooves establishing a seal between the cylindrical portion and the inside surface of the port when the cylindrical portion is expanded, and the flange and the end plug having a passageway defined therein for introducing a fluid into the body; a metal ring disposed in each of the second grooves; a mandrel slidably disposed and captured in the body and capable of being moved toward the open end of the body when the fluid is introduced through the passageway, thereby causing the cylindrical portion to be expanded into contact with the inside surface of the port; and a locking mechanism disposed in the end plug for preventing inadvertent movement of the mandrel

  8. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. SCORPIO - VVER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalesky, K.; Svarny, J.; Novak, L.; Rosol, J.; Horanes, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Halden Project has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. So far the system has only been implemented on western PWRs but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactor including WWERs. The main differences between WWERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a WWER version of SCORPIO was initiated in cooperation with the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system will be installed at the Dukovany NPP. (author)

  10. Eleventh annual meeting, Bologna, Italy, 17-20 April 1978. Summary report. Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-09-01

    The Summary Report - Part III of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors - contains the discussions on the commercialization LMFBRs according to national plans, mostly related to technology of fuel fabrication, PHENIX fuel pins testing, heterogeneous cores, in service inspection of fuel elements, regulations and licensing, and related OECD activities. Most of the discussions were related to the existing reactors: BR-10, BN-600, BN-350, BN-1600, RAPSODIE and PHENIX.

  11. Eleventh annual meeting, Bologna, Italy, 17-20 April 1978. Summary report. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The Summary Report - Part III of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors - contains the discussions on the commercialization LMFBRs according to national plans, mostly related to technology of fuel fabrication, PHENIX fuel pins testing, heterogeneous cores, in service inspection of fuel elements, regulations and licensing, and related OECD activities. Most of the discussions were related to the existing reactors: BR-10, BN-600, BN-350, BN-1600, RAPSODIE and PHENIX

  12. Core body temperature in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Marc J; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Savastano, David M; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-05-01

    A lower core body temperature set point has been suggested to be a factor that could potentially predispose humans to develop obesity. We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals have lower core temperatures than those in normal-weight individuals. In study 1, nonobese [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) temperature-sensing capsules, and we measured core temperatures continuously for 24 h. In study 2, normal-weight (BMI of 18-25) and obese subjects swallowed temperature-sensing capsules to measure core temperatures continuously for ≥48 h and kept activity logs. We constructed daily, 24-h core temperature profiles for analysis. Mean (±SE) daily core body temperature did not differ significantly between the 35 nonobese and 46 obese subjects (36.92 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.89 ± 0.03°C; P = 0.44). Core temperature 24-h profiles did not differ significantly between 11 normal-weight and 19 obese subjects (P = 0.274). Women had a mean core body temperature ≈0.23°C greater than that of men (36.99 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.76 ± 0.03°C; P body temperature. It may be necessary to study individuals with function-altering mutations in core temperature-regulating genes to determine whether differences in the core body temperature set point affect the regulation of human body weight. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428987 and NCT00266500.

  13. Unstructured Computational Aerodynamics on Many Integrated Core Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Al Farhan, Mohammed A.

    2016-06-08

    Shared memory parallelization of the flux kernel of PETSc-FUN3D, an unstructured tetrahedral mesh Euler flow code previously studied for distributed memory and multi-core shared memory, is evaluated on up to 61 cores per node and up to 4 threads per core. We explore several thread-level optimizations to improve flux kernel performance on the state-of-the-art many integrated core (MIC) Intel processor Xeon Phi “Knights Corner,” with a focus on strong thread scaling. While the linear algebraic kernel is bottlenecked by memory bandwidth for even modest numbers of cores sharing a common memory, the flux kernel, which arises in the control volume discretization of the conservation law residuals and in the formation of the preconditioner for the Jacobian by finite-differencing the conservation law residuals, is compute-intensive and is known to exploit effectively contemporary multi-core hardware. We extend study of the performance of the flux kernel to the Xeon Phi in three thread affinity modes, namely scatter, compact, and balanced, in both offload and native mode, with and without various code optimizations to improve alignment and reduce cache coherency penalties. Relative to baseline “out-of-the-box” optimized compilation, code restructuring optimizations provide about 3.8x speedup using the offload mode and about 5x speedup using the native mode. Even with these gains for the flux kernel, with respect to execution time the MIC simply achieves par with optimized compilation on a contemporary multi-core Intel CPU, the 16-core Sandy Bridge E5 2670. Nevertheless, the optimizations employed to reduce the data motion and cache coherency protocol penalties of the MIC are expected to be of value for CFD and many other unstructured applications as many-core architecture evolves. We explore large-scale distributed-shared memory performance on the Cray XC40 supercomputer, to demonstrate that optimizations employed on Phi hybridize to this context, where each of

  14. Unstructured Computational Aerodynamics on Many Integrated Core Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Al Farhan, Mohammed A.; Kaushik, Dinesh K.; Keyes, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Shared memory parallelization of the flux kernel of PETSc-FUN3D, an unstructured tetrahedral mesh Euler flow code previously studied for distributed memory and multi-core shared memory, is evaluated on up to 61 cores per node and up to 4 threads per core. We explore several thread-level optimizations to improve flux kernel performance on the state-of-the-art many integrated core (MIC) Intel processor Xeon Phi “Knights Corner,” with a focus on strong thread scaling. While the linear algebraic kernel is bottlenecked by memory bandwidth for even modest numbers of cores sharing a common memory, the flux kernel, which arises in the control volume discretization of the conservation law residuals and in the formation of the preconditioner for the Jacobian by finite-differencing the conservation law residuals, is compute-intensive and is known to exploit effectively contemporary multi-core hardware. We extend study of the performance of the flux kernel to the Xeon Phi in three thread affinity modes, namely scatter, compact, and balanced, in both offload and native mode, with and without various code optimizations to improve alignment and reduce cache coherency penalties. Relative to baseline “out-of-the-box” optimized compilation, code restructuring optimizations provide about 3.8x speedup using the offload mode and about 5x speedup using the native mode. Even with these gains for the flux kernel, with respect to execution time the MIC simply achieves par with optimized compilation on a contemporary multi-core Intel CPU, the 16-core Sandy Bridge E5 2670. Nevertheless, the optimizations employed to reduce the data motion and cache coherency protocol penalties of the MIC are expected to be of value for CFD and many other unstructured applications as many-core architecture evolves. We explore large-scale distributed-shared memory performance on the Cray XC40 supercomputer, to demonstrate that optimizations employed on Phi hybridize to this context, where each of

  15. METALLIC AND HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURES: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S.

    2012-05-02

    This book chapter presents an overview of research conducted in our laboratory on preparation, optical and physico-chemical properties of metallic and nanohybrid materials. Metallic nanoparticles, particularly gold, silver, platinum or a combination of those are the main focus of this review manuscript. These metallic nanoparticles were further functionalized and used as templates for creation of complex and ordered nanomaterials with tailored and tunable structural, optical, catalytic and surface properties. Controlling the surface chemistry on/off metallic nanoparticles allows production of advanced nanoarchitectures. This includes coupled or encapsulated core-shell geometries, nano-peapods, solid or hollow, monometallic/bimetallic, hybrid nanoparticles. Rational assemblies of these nanostructures into one-, two- and tridimensional nano-architectures is described and analyzed. Their sensing, environmental and energy related applications are reviewed.

  16. Epistemology and ontology in core ontologies: FOLaw and LRI-Core, two core ontologies for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukers, J.A.P.J.; Hoekstra, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    For more than a decade constructing ontologies for legal domains, we, at the Leibniz Center for Law, felt really the need to develop a core ontology for law that would enable us to re-use the common denominator of the various legal domains. In this paper we present two core ontologies for law. The

  17. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  18. Permeability of sediment cores from methane hydrate deposit in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Nagao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Effective and absolute permeability are key parameters for gas production from methane-hydrate-bearing sandy sediments. Effective and/or absolute permeability have been measured using methane-hydrate-bearing sandy cores and clayey and silty cores recovered from Daini Atsumi Knoll in the Eastern Nankai Trough during the 2012 JOGMEC/JAPEX Pressure coring operation. Liquid-nitrogen-immersed cores were prepared by rapid depressurization of pressure cores recovered by a pressure coring system referred to as the Hybrid PCS. Cores were shaped cylindrically on a lathe with spraying of liquid nitrogen to prevent hydrate dissociation. Permeability was measured by a flooding test or a pressure relaxation method under near in-situ pressure and temperature conditions. Measured effective permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments is less than tens of md, which are order of magnitude less than absolute permeability. Absolute permeability of clayey cores is approximately tens of μd, which would perform a sealing function as cap rocks. Permeability reduction due to a swelling effect was observed for a silty core during flooding test of pure water mimicking hydrate-dissociation-water. Swelling effect may cause production formation damage especially at a later stage of gas production from methane hydrate deposits. This study was financially supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) that carries out Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program conducted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  19. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  20. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types th......-style intensional models; we build, as simply as we can, hybrid logicover Henkin’s logic...

  1. HOW STARLESS ARE STARLESS CORES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnee, Scott; Friesen, Rachel; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Enoch, Melissa; Sadavoy, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy continuum and spectral line observations of the dense core Per-Bolo 45. Although this core has previously been classified as starless, we find evidence for an outflow and conclude that Per-Bolo 45 is actually an embedded, low-luminosity protostar. We discuss the impact of newly discovered, low-luminosity, embedded objects in the Perseus molecular cloud on starless core and protostar lifetimes. We estimate that the starless core lifetime has been overestimated by 4%-18% and the Class 0/I protostellar lifetime has been underestimated by 5%-20%. Given the relatively large systematic uncertainties involved in these calculations, variations on the order of 10% do not significantly change either core lifetimes or the expected protostellar luminosity function. Finally, we suggest that high-resolution (sub)millimeter surveys of known cores lacking near-infrared and mid-infrared emission are necessary to make an accurate census of starless cores.

  2. Challenges for proteomics core facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Kathryn S; Deery, Michael J; Gatto, Laurent

    2011-03-01

    Many analytical techniques have been executed by core facilities established within academic, pharmaceutical and other industrial institutions. The centralization of such facilities ensures a level of expertise and hardware which often cannot be supported by individual laboratories. The establishment of a core facility thus makes the technology available for multiple researchers in the same institution. Often, the services within the core facility are also opened out to researchers from other institutions, frequently with a fee being levied for the service provided. In the 1990s, with the onset of the age of genomics, there was an abundance of DNA analysis facilities, many of which have since disappeared from institutions and are now available through commercial sources. Ten years on, as proteomics was beginning to be utilized by many researchers, this technology found itself an ideal candidate for being placed within a core facility. We discuss what in our view are the daily challenges of proteomics core facilities. We also examine the potential unmet needs of the proteomics core facility that may also be applicable to proteomics laboratories which do not function as core facilities. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  4. Core Level Spectra of Organic Molecules Adsorbed on Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Ravikumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We perform first principle calculations based on density functional theory to investigate the effect of the adsorption of core-excited organic molecules on graphene. We simulate Near Edge X-ray absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS at the N and C edges for two moieties: pyridine and the pyridine radical on graphene, which exemplify two different adsorption characters. The modifications of molecular and graphene energy levels due to their interplay with the core-level excitation are discussed. We find that upon physisorption of pyridine, the binding energies of graphene close to the adsorption site reduce mildly, and the NEXAFS spectra of the molecule and graphene resemble those of gas phase pyridine and pristine graphene, respectively. However, the chemisorption of the pyridine radical is found to significantly alter these core excited spectra. The C 1s binding energy of the C atom of graphene participating in chemisorption increases by ∼1 eV, and the C atoms of graphene alternate to the adsorption site show a reduction in the binding energy. Analogously, these C atoms also show strong modifications in the NEXAFS spectra. The NEXAFS spectrum of the chemisorbed molecule is also modified as a result of hybridization with and screening by graphene. We eventually explore the electronic properties and magnetism of the system as a core-level excitation is adiabatically switched on.

  5. Glueballs, hybrids, multiquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klempt, Eberhard [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitaet, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: klempt@hiskp.uni-bonn.de; Zaitsev, Alexander [Institute for High-Energy Physics, Moscow Region, RU-142284 Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2007-12-15

    Glueballs, hybrids and multiquark states are predicted as bound states in models guided by quantum chromo dynamics (QCD), by QCD sum rules or QCD on a lattice. Estimates for the (scalar) glueball ground state are in the mass range from 1000 to 1800 MeV, followed by a tensor and a pseudoscalar glueball at higher mass. Experiments have reported evidence for an abundance of meson resonances with 0{sup -+},0{sup ++} and 2{sup ++} quantum numbers. In particular, the sector of scalar mesons is full of surprises starting from the elusive {sigma} and {kappa} mesons. The a{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 0}(980), discussed extensively in the literature, are reviewed with emphasis on their Janus-like appearance as KK-bar molecules, tetraquark states or qq-bar mesons. Most exciting is the possibility that the three mesons f{sub 0}(1370), f{sub 0}(1500), and f{sub 0}(1710) might reflect the appearance of a scalar glueball in the world of quarkonia. However, the existence of f{sub 0}(1370) is not beyond doubt and there is evidence that both f{sub 0}(1500) and f{sub 0}(1710) are flavour octet states, possibly in a tetraquark composition. We suggest a scheme in which the scalar glueball is dissolved into the wide background into which all scalar flavour-singlet mesons collapse. There is an abundance of meson resonances with the quantum numbers of the {eta}. Three states are reported below 1.5GeV/c{sup 2} whereas quark models expect only one, perhaps two. One of these states, {iota}(1440), was the prime glueball candidate for a long time. We show that {iota}(1440) is the first radial excitation of the {eta} meson. Hybrids may have exotic quantum numbers which are not accessible by qq-bar mesons. There are several claims for J{sup PC}=1{sup -+} exotics, some of them with properties as predicted from the flux tube model interpreting the quark-antiquark binding by a gluon string. The evidence for these states depends partly on the assumption that meson-meson interactions are dominated by s

  6. Assessing Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marches in 1987. Assessment in the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). It is widely recognized that sophisticated computing technologies are becoming a key element in today's classroom instructional techniques. Regardless, the Professor must be held responsible for creating an instructional environment in which the technology actually supplements learning outcomes of the students. Almost all academic disciplines have found a niche for computer-based instruction in their respective professional domain. In many cases, it is viewed as an essential and integral part of the educational process. Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology

  7. Biocompatible magnetic and molecular dual-targeting polyelectrolyte hybrid hollow microspheres for controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pengcheng; Zeng, Jin; Mu, Bin; Liu, Peng

    2013-05-06

    Well-defined biocompatible magnetic and molecular dual-targeting polyelectrolyte hybrid hollow microspheres have been accomplished via the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The hybrid shell was fabricated by the electrostatic interaction between the polyelectrolyte cation, chitosan (CS), and the hybrid anion, citrate modified ferroferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4-CA), onto the uniform polystyrene sulfonate microsphere templates. Then the magnetic hybrid core/shell composite particles were modified with a linear, functional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) monoterminated with a biotargeting molecule (folic acid (FA)). Afterward the dual targeting hybrid hollow microspheres were obtained after etching the templates by dialysis. The dual targeting hybrid hollow microspheres exhibit exciting pH response and stability in high salt-concentration media. Their pH-dependent controlled release of the drug molecule (anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX)) was also investigated in different human body fluids. As expected, the cell viability of the HepG2 cells which decreased more rapidly was treated by the FA modified hybrid hollow microspheres rather than the unmodified one in the in vitro study. The dual-targeting hybrid hollow microspheres demonstrate selective killing of the tumor cells. The precise magnetic and molecular targeting properties and pH-dependent controlled release offers promise for cancer treatment.

  8. A Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler for High Performance Image Processing Workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Timothy; Keyrouz, Walid; Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S; Halem, Milton; Brady, Mary

    2017-12-01

    Designing applications for scalability is key to improving their performance in hybrid and cluster computing. Scheduling code to utilize parallelism is difficult, particularly when dealing with data dependencies, memory management, data motion, and processor occupancy. The Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler (HTGS) improves programmer productivity when implementing hybrid workflows for multi-core and multi-GPU systems. The Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler (HTGS) is an abstract execution model, framework, and API that increases programmer productivity when implementing hybrid workflows for such systems. HTGS manages dependencies between tasks, represents CPU and GPU memories independently, overlaps computations with disk I/O and memory transfers, keeps multiple GPUs occupied, and uses all available compute resources. Through these abstractions, data motion and memory are explicit; this makes data locality decisions more accessible. To demonstrate the HTGS application program interface (API), we present implementations of two example algorithms: (1) a matrix multiplication that shows how easily task graphs can be used; and (2) a hybrid implementation of microscopy image stitching that reduces code size by ≈ 43% compared to a manually coded hybrid workflow implementation and showcases the minimal overhead of task graphs in HTGS. Both of the HTGS-based implementations show good performance. In image stitching the HTGS implementation achieves similar performance to the hybrid workflow implementation. Matrix multiplication with HTGS achieves 1.3× and 1.8× speedup over the multi-threaded OpenBLAS library for 16k × 16k and 32k × 32k size matrices, respectively.

  9. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  10. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  11. Hybrid Maritime Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Murphy, Martin; Hoffman, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Russia’s use of hybrid warfare techniques has raised concerns about the security of the Baltic States. Gary Schaub, Jr, Martin Murphy and Frank G Hoffman recommend a series of measures to augment NATO’s Readiness Action Plan in the Baltic region, including increasing the breadth and depth of naval...... exercises, and improving maritime domain awareness through cooperative programmes. They also suggest unilateral and cooperative measures to develop a sound strategic communications strategy to counter Moscow’s information operations, reduce dependence on Russian energy supplies and build the resilience...

  12. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  13. Hybrid Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter can be produced in the early universe via the freeze-in or freeze-out mechanisms. Both scenarios were investigated in references, but the production of dark matters via the combination of these two mechanisms are not addressed. In this paper we propose a hybrid dark matter model where dark matters have two components with one component produced thermally and the other one produced non-thermally. We present for the first time the analytical calculation for the relic abundance of th...

  14. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  15. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  16. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  17. Electrochemical Performance of Low-Carbon Steel in Alkaline Model Solutions Containing Hybrid Aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Hu, J.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Boshkov, N.; Radeva, T.; Milkova, V.; Van Breugel, K.

    2010-01-01

    This work reports on the electrochemical performance of low-carbon steel electrodes in model alkaline solutions in the presence of 4.9.10-4 g/l hybrid aggregates i.e. cement extract, containing PDADMAC (poly (diallyl, dimethyl ammonium chloride) / PAA (Poly (acrylic acid)/ PDADMAC over a CaO core.

  18. Implementing Molecular Dynamics for Hybrid High Performance Computers - 1. Short Range Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W. Michael; Wang, Peng; Plimpton, Steven J.; Tharrington, Arnold N.

    2011-01-01

    The use of accelerators such as general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) have become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power requirements. Hybrid high performance computers, machines with more than one type of floating-point processor, are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. In this work, we discuss several important issues in porting a large molecular dynamics code for use on parallel hybrid machines - (1) choosing a hybrid parallel decomposition that works on central processing units (CPUs) with distributed memory and accelerator cores with shared memory, (2) minimizing the amount of code that must be ported for efficient acceleration, (3) utilizing the available processing power from both many-core CPUs and accelerators, and (4) choosing a programming model for acceleration. We present our solution to each of these issues for short-range force calculation in the molecular dynamics package LAMMPS. We describe algorithms for efficient short range force calculation on hybrid high performance machines. We describe a new approach for dynamic load balancing of work between CPU and accelerator cores. We describe the Geryon library that allows a single code to compile with both CUDA and OpenCL for use on a variety of accelerators. Finally, we present results on a parallel test cluster containing 32 Fermi GPGPUs and 180 CPU cores.

  19. SpaceCube Core Software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a flexible, modular and user friendly SpaceCube Core Software system that will dramatically simplify SpaceCube application development and enable any...

  20. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  1. Computed tomography of drill cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.

    1985-08-01

    A preliminary computed tomography evaluation of drill cores of granite and sandstone has generated geologically significant data. Density variations as small as 4 percent and fractures as narrow as 0.1 mm were easily detected

  2. In-core monitoring detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitelman, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The main task of in-core monitoring consists in securing observability of the reactor installation in all possible operation modes (normal, transient, accident and post-accident). Operation safety at acceptable cost can be achieved by optimized measurement errors. The range of sensors applied as in-core detectors for operative measurements in the industry is very limited in number. Among them might be cited self powered neutron detectors (SPND) and thermocouples. Sensors are incorporated in the in-core detectors assemblies (SVRD). The presentation makes an effort to touch upon the problems of assuring and increasing quality of in-core on-line measurements. So we do not consider systems using movable detectors, as the latter do not assure on-line measurements. (Authors)

  3. Discovering the Army's Core Competencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudesheim, Frederick

    2001-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question, "Has the Army correctly identified its core competencies to ensure the Army can adequately respond to the national military strategy?" FM 1, The Army (Prototype Draft...

  4. Recriticality analyses for CAPRA cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschek, W.; Thiem, D.

    1995-01-01

    The first scoping calculation performed show that the energetics levels from recriticalities in CAPRA cores are in the same range as in conventional cores. However, considerable uncertainties exist and further analyses are necessary. Additional investigations are performed for the separation scenarios of fuel/steel/inert and matrix material as a large influence of these processes on possible ramp rates and kinetics parameters was detected in the calculations. (orig./HP)

  5. Recriticality analyses for CAPRA cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschek, W.; Thiem, D.

    1995-08-01

    The first scoping calculation performed show that the energetics levels from recriticalities in CAPRA cores are in the same range as in conventional cores. However, considerable uncertainties exist and further analyses are necessary. Additional investigations are performed for the separation scenarios of fuel/steel/inert and matrix material as a large influence of these processes on possible ramp rates and kinetics parameters was detected in the calculations. (orig./HP)

  6. One dimensional reactor core model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, V.; Stritar, A.; Radovo, M.; Mavko, B.

    1984-01-01

    The one dimensional model of neutron dynamic in reactor core was developed. The core was divided in several axial nodes. The one group neutron diffusion equation for each node is solved. Feedback affects of fuel and water temperatures is calculated. The influence of xenon, boron and control rods is included in cross section calculations for each node. The system of equations is solved implicitly. The model is used in basic principle Training Simulator of NPP Krsko. (author)

  7. Improvements to core-catchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T C.W.

    1969-07-22

    A core catcher consists of a generally annular holder adapted to be contained within a core barrel with sets of dogs circumferentially disposed in the holder. Each set of dogs consists of at least 2 dogs of different lengths pivotally mounted in the holder to swing inward. The dogs in each set are vertically superimposed. They are of upward decreasing length, with the arc of swing of the vertically adjacent dogs overlapping. (8 claims)

  8. Nanoporous polymer liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Ndoni, Sokol

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented.......We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented....

  9. Plasmon hybridization in complex metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feng

    With Plasmon Hybridization (PH) and Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method, we theoretically investigated the optical properties of some complex metallic nanostructures (coupled nanoparticle/wire, nanostars, nanorings and combined ring/disk nanocavity systems). We applied the analytical formulism of PH studying the plasmonic coupling of a spherical metallic nanoparticle and an infinite long cylindrical nanowire. The plasmon resonance of the coupled system is shown shifted in frequency, which highly depends on the polarization of incident light relative to the geometry of the structure. We also showed the nanoparticle serves as an efficient antenna coupling the electromagnetic radiation into the low-energy propagating wire plasmons. We performed an experimental and theoretical analysis of the optical properties of gold nanorings with different sizes and cross sections. For light polarized parallel to the ring, the optical spectrum sensitively depends on the incident angle. When light incidence is normal to the ring, two dipolar resonance is observed. As the incident light is titled, some previously dark mulipolar plasmon resonances will be excited as a consequence of the retardation. The concept of plasmon hybridization is combined with the power of brute-force numerical methods to understand the plasmonic properties of some very complicated nanostructures. We showed the plasmons of a gold nanostar are a result of hybridization of the plasmons of the core and the tips of the particle. The core serves as a nanoantenna, dramatically enhanced the optical spectrum and the field enhancement of the nanostar. We also applied this method analyzing the plasmonic modes of a nanocavity structure composed of a nanodisk with a surrounding minoring. For the concentric combination, we showed the nature of the plasmon modes can be understood as the plasmon hybrization of an individual ring and disk. The interation results in a blueshifted and broadened superradiant antibonding

  10. LMFBR Ultra Long Life Cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.E.; Doncals, R.A.; Porter, C.A.; Gundy, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Ultra Long Life Core is an attractive and innovative design approach with several extremely beneficial attributes. Long Life cores are applicable to the full range of LMR plant sizes resulting in lifetimes up to 30 years. Core life is somewhat limited for smaller plant sizes, however significant benefits of this approach still exist for all plant sizes. The union of long life cores and the complementary inherent safety technology offer a means of utilizing the well-proven oxide fuel in a system with unsurpassed safety capability. A further benefit is that the uranium fuel cycle can be used in long life cores, especially for initial LMR plant deployment, thereby eliminating the need for reprocessing prior to starting LMR plant construction in the U.S. Finally the long life core significantly reduces power costs. With inherent safety capability designed into an LMR and with the ULLC fuel cycle, power costs competitive with light water plants are achievable while offering improved operational flexibility derived through extending refueling intervals

  11. TMI-2 core boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, K.M.; Helbert, H.J.; Laney, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    An important and essential aspect of the TMI-2 defueling effort is to determine what occurred in the core region during the accident. Remote cameras and probes only portray a portion of the overall picture. What lies beneath the rubble bed and solidified sublayer is, as yet, unknown. This paper discusses the TMI-2 Core Boring Machine, which has been developed to drill into the damaged core of the TMI-2 reactor and extract stratified samples of the core. This machine, its unique support structure, positioning and leveling systems, and specially designed drill bits, combine to provide a unique mechanical system. In addition, the machine is controlled by a microprocessor; which actually controls the drilling operation, allowing relatively inexperienced operators to drill the core samples. A data acquisition system is data integral with the controlling system and collects data relative to system conditions and monitored parameters during drilling. Data obtained during the actual drilling operations are collected in a data base which will be used for actual mapping of the core region, identifying materials and stratification levels that are present

  12. Reactor core performance calculating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Kenji; Bando, Masaru; Sano, Hiroki; Maruyama, Hiromi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can calculate a power distribution efficiently at high speed by a plurality of calculation means while taking an amount of the reactor state into consideration. Namely, an input device takes data from a measuring device for the amount of the reactor core state such as a large number of neutron detectors disposed in the reactor core for monitoring the reactor state during operation. An input data distribution device comprises a state recognition section and a data distribution section. The state recognition section recognizes the kind and amount of the inputted data and information of the calculation means. The data distribution section analyzes the characteristic of the inputted data, divides them into a several groups, allocates them to each of the calculation means for the purpose of calculating the reactor core performance efficiently at high speed based on the information from the state recognition section. A plurality of the calculation means calculate power distribution of each of regions based on the allocated inputted data, to determine the power distribution of the entire reactor core. As a result, the reactor core can be evaluated at high accuracy and at high speed irrespective of the whole reactor core or partial region. (I.S.)

  13. Core cooling system for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Ryoichi; Amada, Tatsuo.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the function of residual heat dissipation from the reactor core in case of emergency by providing a secondary cooling system flow channel, through which fluid having been subjected to heat exchange with the fluid flowing in a primary cooling system flow channel flows, with a core residual heat removal system in parallel with a main cooling system provided with a steam generator. Constitution: Heat generated in the core during normal reactor operation is transferred from a primary cooling system flow channel to a secondary cooling system flow channel through a main heat exchanger and then transferred through a steam generator to a water-steam system flow channel. In the event if removal of heat from the core by the main cooling system becomes impossible due to such cause as breakage of the duct line of the primary cooling system flow channel or a trouble in a primary cooling system pump, a flow control valve is opened, and steam generator inlet and outlet valves are closed, thus increasing the flow rate in the core residual heat removal system. Thereafter, a blower is started to cause dissipation of the core residual heat from the flow channel of a system for heat dissipation to atmosphere. (Seki, T.)

  14. Nonminimally coupled hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Seoktae; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the hybrid inflation model where the inflaton field is nonminimally coupled to gravity. In the Jordan frame, the potential contains φ 4 term as well as terms in the original hybrid inflation model. In our model, inflation can be classified into the type (I) and the type (II). In the type (I), inflation is terminated by the tachyonic instability of the waterfall field, while in the type (II) by the violation of slow-roll conditions. In our model, the reheating takes place only at the true minimum and even in the case (II) finally the tachyonic instability occurs after the termination of inflation. For a negative nonminimal coupling, inflation takes place in the vacuum-dominated region, in the large field region, or near the local minimum/maximum. Inflation in the vacuum-dominated region becomes either the type (I) or (II), resulting in a blue or red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, respectively. Inflation around the local maximum can be either the type (I) or the type (II), which results in the red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, while around the local minimum it must be the type (I), which results in the blue spectrum. In the large field region, to terminate inflation, potential in the Einstein frame must be positively tilted, always resulting in the red spectrum. We then numerically solve the equations of motion to investigate the whole dynamics of inflaton and confirm that the spectrum of curvature perturbations changes from red to blue ones as scales become smaller.

  15. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  16. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  17. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  18. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  19. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  20. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  1. Conceptual innovations in hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A number of innovations in the conception of fusion-fission hybrid reactors, including the blanket, the fusion driver, the coupling of the fusion and the fission components as well as the application of hybrid reactors are described, and their feasibility assessed

  2. Magnetic instability with increasing hybridization in cerium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kioussis, N.; Cooper, B.R.; Wills, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A synthesis of a phenomenological theory of orbitally driven magnetic ordering of moderately delocalized light rare-earth systems and ab initio electronic structure calculations has been applied to investigate the change in magnetic behavior on going from CeSb to CeTe, both of which have rocksalt structure with a small decrease in lattice parameter. The hybridization-potential matrix elements and the band energies entering the Anderson-lattice Hamiltonian are obtained from linear-muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) electronic-structure calculations with the Ce 4f states treated as core states. The position of the Ce 4f energy level relative to the Fermi energy and the intra-atomic Coulomb energy U are obtained by use of a sequence of three total-energy supercell calculations with one out of four Ce sites constrained to f n occupation with n=0,1,2, successively. The calculations elucidate the origins, in the electronic structure, of the variation of the f-state resonance width and hybridization potential on going from CeSb to CeTe, and the resultant sensitivity of the hybridization dressing of the crystal-field splitting and the hybridization-induced exchange interactions to chemical environment. The effect of opening up successive angular momentum scattering channels of the ab initio calculated two-ion exchange-interaction matrix on the nature of the magnetic ordering is examined. The calculated magnitude and range dependence of the two-ion exchange interactions changes sharply from CeSb to CeTe, yielding a change in magnetic behavior in qualitative agreement with experiment. The nonlinear hybridization effects on the hybridization dressing of the crystal-field splitting have been examined

  3. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  4. Laser driven fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    The role of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) as a fissile fuel and/or power producer is discussed. As long range options to supply the world energy needs, hybrid-fueled thermal-burner reactors are compared to liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). A discussion of different fuel cycles (thorium, depleted uranium, and spent fuel) is presented in order to compare the energy multiplication, the production of fissile fuel, the laser efficiency and pellet gain requirements of the hybrid reactor. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has collaborated with Bechtel Corporation and with Westinghouse in two engineering design studies of laser fusion driven hybrid power plants. The hybrid designs which have resulted from these two studies are briefly described and analyzed by considering operational parameters, such as energy multiplication, power density, burn-up and plutonium production as a function time

  5. Feasibility of a Monte Carlo-deterministic hybrid method for fast reactor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, W.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology - KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    A Monte Carlo and deterministic hybrid method is investigated for the analysis of fast reactors in this paper. Effective multi-group cross sections data are generated using a collision estimator in the MCNP5. A high order Legendre scattering cross section data generation module was added into the MCNP5 code. Both cross section data generated from MCNP5 and TRANSX/TWODANT using the homogeneous core model were compared, and were applied to DIF3D code for fast reactor core analysis of a 300 MWe SFR TRU burner core. For this analysis, 9 groups macroscopic-wise data was used. In this paper, a hybrid calculation MCNP5/DIF3D was used to analyze the core model. The cross section data was generated using MCNP5. The k{sub eff} and core power distribution were calculated using the 54 triangle FDM code DIF3D. A whole core calculation of the heterogeneous core model using the MCNP5 was selected as a reference. In terms of the k{sub eff}, 9-group MCNP5/DIF3D has a discrepancy of -154 pcm from the reference solution, 9-group TRANSX/TWODANT/DIF3D analysis gives -1070 pcm discrepancy. (authors)

  6. Hybrid simulation of reactor kinetics in CANDU reactors using a modal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaghan, B.M.; McDonnell, F.N.; Hinds, H.W.T.; m.

    1980-01-01

    A hybrid computer model for simulating the behaviour of large CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactor cores is presented. The main dynamic variables are expressed in terms of weighted sums of a base set of spatial natural-mode functions with time-varying co-efficients. This technique, known as the modal or synthesis approach, permits good three-dimensional representation of reactor dynamics and is well suited to hybrid simulation. The hybrid model provides improved man-machine interaction and real-time capability. The model was used in two applications. The first studies the transient that follows a loss of primary coolant and reactor shutdown; the second is a simulation of the dynamics of xenon, a fission product which has a high absorption cross-section for neutrons and thus has an important effect on reactor behaviour. Comparison of the results of the hybrid computer simulation with those of an all-digital one is good, within 1% to 2%

  7. An insight into the biological activities of heterocyclic-fatty acid hybrid molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venepally, Vijayendar; Reddy Jala, Ram Chandra

    2017-12-01

    Heterocyclic compounds are the interesting core structures for the development of new bioactive compounds. Fatty acids are derived from renewable raw materials and exhibit various biological activities. Several researchers are amalgamating these two bioactive components to yield bioactive hybrid molecules with some desirable features. Heterocyclic-fatty acid hybrid derivatives are a new class of heterocyclic compounds with a broad range of biological activities and significance in the field of medicinal chemistry. Over the last few years, many research articles emphasized the significance of heterocyclic-fatty acid hybrid derivatives. The present review article focuses the developments in designing and biological evaluation of heterocyclic-fatty acid hybrid molecules. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. 4D Trajectory Estimation for Air Traffic Control Automation System Based on Hybrid System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Min Tang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the problem of future airspace management under great traffic flow and high density condition, 4D trajectory estimation has become one of the core technologies of the next new generation air traffic control automation system. According to the flight profile and the dynamics models of different aircraft types under different flight conditions, a hybrid system model that switches the aircraft from one flight stage to another with aircraft state changing continuously in one state is constructed. Additionally, air temperature and wind speed are used to modify aircraft true airspeed as well as ground speed, and the hybrid system evolution simulation is used to estimate aircraft 4D trajectory. The case study proves that 4D trajectory estimated through hybrid system model can image the flight dynamic states of aircraft and satisfy the needs of the planned flight altitude profile.KEY WORDSair traffic management, 4D trajectory estimation, hybrid system model, aircraft dynamic model

  9. Reactor core performance estimating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Akira; Yamamoto, Toru; Shinpuku, Kimihiro; Chuzen, Takuji; Nishide, Fusayo.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention can autonomously simplify a neural net model thereby enabling to conveniently estimate various amounts which represents reactor core performances by a simple calculation in a short period of time. Namely, a reactor core performance estimation device comprises a nerve circuit net which divides the reactor core into a large number of spacial regions, and receives various physical amounts for each region as input signals for input nerve cells and outputs estimation values of each amount representing the reactor core performances as output signals of output nerve cells. In this case, the nerve circuit net (1) has a structure of extended multi-layered model having direct coupling from an upper stream layer to each of downstream layers, (2) has a forgetting constant q in a corrected equation for a joined load value ω using an inverse error propagation method, (3) learns various amounts representing reactor core performances determined using the physical models as teacher signals, (4) determines the joined load value ω decreased as '0' when it is to less than a predetermined value upon learning described above, and (5) eliminates elements of the nerve circuit net having all of the joined load value decreased to 0. As a result, the neural net model comprises an autonomously simplifying means. (I.S.)

  10. SCORPIO - WWER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornaes, Arne; Bodal, Terje; Sunde, Svein; Zalesky, K.; Lehman, M.; Pecka, M.; Svarny, J.; Krysl, V.; Juzova, Z.; Sedlak, A.; Semmler, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Institut for energiteknikk has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO, which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety, as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. The system has been implemented on western PWRs, but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactors including WWERs. The main differences between WWERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a WWER version of SCORPIO has been done in co-operation with the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system is installed at Dukovany NPP, where the Site Acceptance Test was completed 6. March 1998.(Authors)

  11. SCORPIO - VVER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornaes, A.; Bodal, T.; Sunde, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Institutt for energiteknikk has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO, which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators, which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety, as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. The system has been implemented on western PWRs, but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactors including VVERs. The main differences between VVERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a VVER version of SCORPIO has been done in co-operation with the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system is installed at Dukovany NPP, where the Site Acceptance Test was completed 6. March 1998.(author)

  12. Fuel assembly and reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuchi, Yoko; Aoyama, Motoo; Haikawa, Katsumasa; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Koyama, Jun-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor, a region substantially containing burnable poison is divided into an upper region and a lower region having different average concentrations of burnable poison along a transverse cross section perpendicular to the axial direction. The ratio of burnable poison contents of both regions is determined to not more than 80%, and the average concentration of the burnable poison in the lower region is determined to not less than 9% by weight. An infinite multiplication factor at an initial stage of the burning of the fuel assembly is controlled effectively by the burnable poisons. Namely, the ratio of the axial power can be controlled by the distribution of the enrichment degree of uranium fuels and the distribution of the burnable poison concentration in the axial direction. Since the average enrichment degree of the reactor core has to be increased in order to provide an initially loaded reactor core at high burnup degree. Distortion of the power distribution in the axial direction of the reactor core to which fuel assemblies at high enrichment degree are loaded is flattened to improve thermal margin, to extend continuous operation period and increase a burnup degree upon take-out thereby improving fuel economy without worsening the reactor core characteristics of the initially loaded reactor core. (N.H.)

  13. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  14. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V=Δ"4(1+acos (ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ϵ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  15. Hybrid powertrain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Ricardo C.; O'Neil, Walter K.; Preston, David M.

    2005-09-20

    A hybrid powertrain system is provided that includes a first prime mover having a rotational output, a second prime mover having a rotational output, and a transmission having a main shaft supporting at least two main shaft gears thereon. The transmission includes a first independent countershaft drivingly connected to the first prime mover and including at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. A second independent countershaft is drivingly connected to the second prime mover and includes at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. The ratio gears on the first and second countershafts cooperate with the main shaft gears to provide at least one gear ratio between the first and second countershafts and the main shaft. A shift control mechanism selectively engages and disengages the first and second countershafts for rotation with the main shaft.

  16. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  17. Hyper- and hybrid nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanna; Gessner, Manuel; Li, Weidong; Smerzi, Augusto

    2018-02-01

    The controlled generation and identification of quantum correlations, usually encoded in either qubits or continuous degrees of freedom, builds the foundation of quantum information science. Recently, more sophisticated approaches, involving a combination of two distinct degrees of freedom, have been proposed to improve on the traditional strategies. Hyperentanglement describes simultaneous entanglement in more than one distinct degree of freedom, whereas hybrid entanglement refers to entanglement shared between a discrete and a continuous degree of freedom. In this work we propose a scheme that allows us to combine the two approaches, and to extend them to the strongest form of quantum correlations. Specifically, we show how two identical, initially separated particles can be manipulated to produce Bell nonlocality among their spins, among their momenta, as well as across their spins and momenta. We discuss possible experimental realizations with atomic and photonic systems.

  18. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  19. Hybrid Magnetic Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kevin; Crawford, Christopher; Mullins, Andrew; Porter, Greg; Blanton, Hunter; Johnstone, Connor; Kistler, Ben; Olivera, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    The search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron requires the ambient magnetic field to be on the pT scale which is accomplished with large magnetic shielding rooms. These rooms are fitted with large mu-metal sheets to allow for passive cancellation of background magnetic fields. Active shielding technology cannot uniformly cancel background magnetic fields. These issues can be remedied by combining the methods into a hybrid system. The design used is composed of panels that have an active layer of cancellation between two sheets of mu-metal. The panels form a cube and draw in magnetic fields perpendicular to the surface which can then be reduced using active shielding. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Contract DE-SC0008107.

  20. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    “hubris” that is so much taken for granted in contemporary science and engineering discourses and practices with a sense of cooperation and social responsibility. The book portrays the history of science and technology as an underlying tension between hubris – literally the ambition to “play god...... an alternative approach, devoting special attention to the role played by social and cultural movements in the making of science and technology. They show how social and cultural movements, from the Renaissance of the late 15th century to the environmental and global justice movements of our time, have provided......” on the part of many a scientist and engineer and neglect the consequences - and a hybrid imagination, connecting scientific “facts” and technological “artifacts” with cultural understanding. The book concludes with chapters on the recent transformations in the modes of scientific and technological production...

  1. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time......-derivatives in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  2. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  4. Highly photoluminescent and photostable CdSe quantum dot-nylon hybrid composites for efficient light conversion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Ying; Riehle, Frank-Stefan [Freiburg Materials Research Centre (FMF), University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str. 21, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Georg Koehler Allee 103, University of Freiburg, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Nitschke, Roland [Life Imaging Center, Centre of Systems Biology, University of Freiburg Habsburgerstr. 49, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Centre for Biological Signalling Studies (BIOSS), University of Freiburg (Germany); Krueger, Michael, E-mail: michael.krueger@fmf.uni-freiburg.de [Freiburg Materials Research Centre (FMF), University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str. 21, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Georg Koehler Allee 103, University of Freiburg, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel in situ synthesis approach for highly luminescent CdSe core QDs-nylon hybrid materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential applications for light and energy conversion are demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three dimensional structures out of this hybrid material are available. - Abstract: Highly photoluminescent hexadecylamine (HDA) capped core CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with fluorescent quantum yields (QYs) up to 60% were synthesized using a hot injection method and directly incorporated into nylon polymer. For the incorporation of crude CdSe QDs into nylon a simple reproducible and upscalable one pot approach was developed without the need of further purification steps. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of the core QDs and the resulting QD-polymer hybrid composites were investigated and compared. Red emitting hybrid materials exhibit a QY of 60% with a high potential for applications in direct light and energy conversion. The hybrid materials could be successfully utilized as LED conversion layers. By avoiding exposure to oxygen the hybrid films can be kept for a month without detecting a significant decrease in luminescence. Various three dimensional structures are easily available opening doors for further applications such as novel materials for fluorescence standard development in laser scanning microscopy (LSM).

  5. Fabrication of core-shell MIL-101(Cr)@UiO-66(Zr) nanocrystals for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available of the individual metal-organic framework (MOF) components and the coreeshell hybrid crystals were also characterized. The hydrogen storage capacity exhibited by the resulting core eshell nanocrystals was 26% and 60% higher than those of pure phase MIL-101 and Ui...

  6. Grain alignment in starless cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A V ∼48. We find that P K /τ K continues to decline with increasing A V with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A V ≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A V ∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  7. SMART core protection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Park, H. Y.; Koo, I. S.; Park, H. S.; Kim, J. S.; Son, C. H.

    2003-01-01

    SMART COre Protection System(SCOPS) is designed with real-tims Digital Signal Processor(DSP) board and Network Interface Card(NIC) board. SCOPS has a Control Rod POSition (CRPOS) software module while Core Protection Calculator System(CPCS) consists of Core Protection Calculators(CPCs) and Control Element Assembly(CEA) Calculators(CEACs) in the commercial nuclear plant. It's not necessary to have a independent cabinets for SCOPS because SCOPS is physically very small. Then SCOPS is designed to share the cabinets with Plant Protection System(PPS) of SMART. Therefor it's very easy to maintain the system because CRPOS module is used instead of the computer with operating system

  8. Core-meltdown experimental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    The results of a study of the experimental evidence having a bearing on hypothetical core meltdowns in light-water reactors are presented. The first objective of the study was to obtain a compendium of the experimental evidence applicable to the analysis of a hypothetical core meltdown. Literature from the nuclear power field and from other scientific disciplines and industrial sources was reviewed. Investigators and other persons knowledgeable in the subject were interviewed. A second objective was to determine what data are required and to determine the adequacy of existing data. In core-meltdown studies only land-based plants have been examined. A third, and final, task of this study was to examine offshore plants to determine applicability of onshore plant analysis to particular areas therein and to determine what information peculiar to meltdown accidents in offshore plants was needed. (U.S.)

  9. Full MOX core for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puill, A.; Aniel-Buchheit, S.

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium management is a major problem of the back end of the fuel cycle. Fabrication costs must be reduced and plant operation simplified. The design of a full MOX PWR core would enable the number of reactors devoted to plutonium recycling to be reduced and fuel zoning to be eliminated. This paper is a contribution to the feasibility studies for achieving such a core without fundamental modification of the current design. In view of the differences observed between uranium and plutonium characteristics it seems necessary to reconsider the safety of a MOX-fuelled PWR. Reduction of the control worth and modification of the moderator density coefficient are the main consequences of using MOX fuel in a PWR. The core reactivity change during a draining or a cooling is thus of prime interest. The study of core global draining leads to the following conclusion: only plutonium fuels of very poor quality (i.e. with low fissile content) cannot be used in a 900 MWe PWR because of a positive global voiding reactivity effect. During a cooling accident, like an spurious opening of a secondary-side valve, the hypothetical return to criticality of a 100% MOX core controlled by means of 57 control rod clusters (made of hafnium-clad B 4 C rods with a 90% 10 B content) depends on the isotopic plutonium composition. But safety criteria can be complied with for all isotopic compositions provided the 10 B content of the soluble boron is increased to a value of 40%. Core global draining and cooling accidents do not present any major obstacle to the feasibility of a 100% MOX PWR, only minor hardware modifications will be required. (author)

  10. Identifying ELIXIR Core Data Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durinx, Christine; McEntyre, Jo; Appel, Ron; Apweiler, Rolf; Barlow, Mary; Blomberg, Niklas; Cook, Chuck; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lopez, Rodrigo; Redaschi, Nicole; Stockinger, Heinz; Teixeira, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The core mission of ELIXIR is to build a stable and sustainable infrastructure for biological information across Europe. At the heart of this are the data resources, tools and services that ELIXIR offers to the life-sciences community, providing stable and sustainable access to biological data. ELIXIR aims to ensure that these resources are available long-term and that the life-cycles of these resources are managed such that they support the scientific needs of the life-sciences, including biological research. ELIXIR Core Data Resources are defined as a set of European data resources that are of fundamental importance to the wider life-science community and the long-term preservation of biological data. They are complete collections of generic value to life-science, are considered an authority in their field with respect to one or more characteristics, and show high levels of scientific quality and service. Thus, ELIXIR Core Data Resources are of wide applicability and usage. This paper describes the structures, governance and processes that support the identification and evaluation of ELIXIR Core Data Resources. It identifies key indicators which reflect the essence of the definition of an ELIXIR Core Data Resource and support the promotion of excellence in resource development and operation. It describes the specific indicators in more detail and explains their application within ELIXIR's sustainability strategy and science policy actions, and in capacity building, life-cycle management and technical actions. The identification process is currently being implemented and tested for the first time. The findings and outcome will be evaluated by the ELIXIR Scientific Advisory Board in March 2017. Establishing the portfolio of ELIXIR Core Data Resources and ELIXIR Services is a key priority for ELIXIR and publicly marks the transition towards a cohesive infrastructure.

  11. Multi-Threaded DNA Tag/Anti-Tag Library Generator for Multi-Core Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    base pair)  Watson ‐ Crick  strand pairs that bind perfectly within pairs, but poorly across pairs. A variety  of  DNA  strand hybridization metrics...AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2009-131 Final Technical Report May 2009 MULTI-THREADED DNA TAG/ANTI-TAG LIBRARY GENERATOR FOR MULTI-CORE PLATFORMS...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Jun 08 – Feb 09 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MULTI-THREADED DNA TAG/ANTI-TAG LIBRARY GENERATOR FOR MULTI-CORE

  12. Reactor core and initially loaded reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo.

    1989-01-01

    In BWR type reactors, improvement for the reactor shutdown margin is an important characteristic condition togehter with power distribution flattening . However, in the reactor core at high burnup degree, the reactor shutdown margin is different depending on the radial position of the reactor core. That is , the reactor shutdown margin is smaller in the outer peripheral region than in the central region of the reactor core. In view of the above, the reactor core is divided radially into a central region and as outer region. The amount of fissionable material of first fuel assemblies newly loaded in the outer region is made less than the amount of the fissionable material of second fuel assemblies newly loaded in the central region, to thereby improve the reactor shutdown margin in the outer region. Further, the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower portion of the first fuel assemblies is made smaller than the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower region of the second fuel assemblies, to thereby obtain a sufficient thermal margin in the central region. (K.M.)

  13. Core-to-core dimers forming switchable mesophase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horčic, M.; Svoboda, J.; Novotná, Vladimíra; Pociecha, D.; Gorecka, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 18 (2017), s. 2721-2724 ISSN 1359-7345 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02843S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystals * bent- core mesogens * dimers Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 6.319, year: 2016

  14. CCTF CORE I test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Yoshio; Sudoh, Takashi; Akimoto, Hajime; Iguchi, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Jun; Fujiki, Kazuo; Hirano, Kenmei

    1982-07-01

    This report presents the results of the following CCTF CORE I tests conducted in FY. 1980. (1) Multi-dimensional effect test, (2) Evaluation model test, (3) FLECHT coupling test. On the first test, one-dimensional treatment of the core thermohydrodynamics was discussed. On the second and third tests, the test results were compared with the results calculated by the evaluation model codes and the results of the corresponding FLECHT-SET test (Run 2714B), respectively. The work was performed under contracts with the Atomic Energy Bureau of Science and Technology Agency of Japan. (author)

  15. Core baffle for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, O.J.; Berringer, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    The invention concerns the design of the core of a LWR with a large number of fuel assemblies formed by fuel rods and kept in position by spacer grids. According to the invention, at the level of the spacer grids match plates are mounted with openings so the flow of coolant directed upwards will not be obstructed and a parallel bypass will be obtained in the space between the core barrel and the baffle plates. In case of an accident, this configuration reduces or avoids damage from overpressure reactions. (HP) [de

  16. Understanding Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hix, W. R.; Lentz, E. J.; Baird, M.; Messer, O. E. B.; Mezzacappa, A.; Lee, C.-T.; Bruenn, S. W.; Blondin, J. M.; Marronetti, P.

    2010-03-01

    Our understanding of core-collapse supernovae continues to improve as better microphysics is included in increasingly realistic neutrino-radiationhydrodynamic simulations. Recent multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors between 12 and 25 solar mass, have motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of how supernovae explode. Recent progresses on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  17. Core seismic methods verification report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, B.E.; Shatoff, H.D.; Rakowski, J.E.; Rickard, N.D.; Thompson, R.W.; Tow, D.; Lee, T.H.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents the description and validation of the analytical methods for calculation of the seismic loads on an HTGR core and the core support structures. Analytical modeling, integration schemes, parameter assignment, parameter sensitivity, and correlation with test data are key topics which have been covered in detail. Much of the text concerns the description and the results of a series of scale model tests performed to obtain data for code correlation. A discussion of scaling laws, model properties, seismic excitation, instrumentation, and data reduction methods is also presented, including a section on the identification and calculation of statistical errors in the test data

  18. Core microbiomes for sustainable agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Peay, Kabir G; Yamamichi, Masato; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Hiruma, Kei; Naito, Ken; Fukuda, Shinji; Ushio, Masayuki; Nakaoka, Shinji; Onoda, Yusuke; Yoshida, Kentaro; Schlaeppi, Klaus; Bai, Yang; Sugiura, Ryo; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Kiers, E Toby

    2018-05-01

    In an era of ecosystem degradation and climate change, maximizing microbial functions in agroecosystems has become a prerequisite for the future of global agriculture. However, managing species-rich communities of plant-associated microbiomes remains a major challenge. Here, we propose interdisciplinary research strategies to optimize microbiome functions in agroecosystems. Informatics now allows us to identify members and characteristics of 'core microbiomes', which may be deployed to organize otherwise uncontrollable dynamics of resident microbiomes. Integration of microfluidics, robotics and machine learning provides novel ways to capitalize on core microbiomes for increasing resource-efficiency and stress-resistance of agroecosystems.

  19. Hybrid computing - Generalities and bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, Daniele

    1970-01-01

    This note presents the content of a research thesis. It describes the evolution of hybrid computing systems, discusses the benefits and shortcomings of analogue or hybrid systems, discusses the building up of an hybrid system (requires properties), comments different possible uses, addresses the issues of language and programming, discusses analysis methods and scopes of application. An appendix proposes a bibliography on these issues and notably the different scopes of application (simulation, fluid dynamics, biology, chemistry, electronics, energy, errors, space, programming languages, hardware, mechanics, and optimisation of equations or processes, physics) [fr

  20. Research of a hybrid undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Youwu; Wu Bing; Liu Bo

    1995-12-01

    A 1.5 m tapered hybrid undulator has been designed and built for mid-infrared free electron laser experiments at CIAE. The undulator utilizes the REC-steel hybrid configuration. The magnetic gap and magnetic field taper can be continuously adjusted. The rms error of the peak field is less than 0.53%. The electron trajectory deviation is around 0.03 mm. The design of undulator, sorting of magnets in hybrid undulator using simulated annealing technique, the motion of electron beam in the ideal and measured magnetic field, magnetic field measurement technique and magnetic field adjustment are described. (6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab)