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Sample records for bn combat heavy

  1. Direct conversion of h-BN into c-BN and formation of epitaxial c-BN/diamond heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Jagdish; Bhaumik, Anagh; Xu, Weizong

    2016-01-01

    We have created a new state of BN (named Q-BN) through rapid melting and super undercooling and quenching by using nanosecond laser pulses. Phase pure c-BN is formed either by direct quenching of super undercooled liquid or by nucleation and growth from Q-BN. Thus, a direct conversion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) into phase-pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is achieved by nanosecond pulsed laser melting at ambient temperatures and atmospheric pressure in air. According to the P-T phase diagram, the transformation from h-BN into c-BN under equilibrium processing can occur only at high temperatures and pressures, as the hBN-cBN-Liquid triple point is at 3500 K/9.5 GPa or 3700 K/7.0 GPa with a recent theoretical refinement. Using nonequilibrium nanosecond laser melting, we have created super undercooled state and shifted this triple point to as low as 2800 K and atmospheric pressure. The rapid quenching from super undercooled state leads to the formation of a new phase, named as Q-BN. We present detailed characterization of Q-BN and c-BN layers by using Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, electron-back-scatter diffraction, high-resolution TEM, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, and discuss the mechanism of formation of nanodots, nanoneedles, microneedles, and single-crystal c-BN on sapphire substrate. We have also deposited diamond by pulsed laser deposition of carbon on c-BN and created c-BN/diamond heterostructures, where c-BN acts as a template for epitaxial diamond growth. We discuss the mechanism of epitaxial c-BN and diamond growth on lattice matching c-BN template under pulsed laser evaporation of amorphous carbon, and the impact of this discovery on a variety of applications.

  2. Multi-Functional All BN-BN Composites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of multifunctional Boron Nitride nanotube-Boron Nitride (BN-BN) composites to provide novel energy transducers, thermal conductors, anti-penetrator/wear...

  3. Pressure sensing element based on the BN-graphene-BN heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengwei; Wu, Chenggen; Zhao, Shiliang; Deng, Tao; Wang, Junqiang; Liu, Zewen; Wang, Li; Wang, Gao

    2018-04-01

    In this letter, we report a pressure sensing element based on the graphene-boron nitride (BN) heterostructure. The heterostructure consists of monolayer graphene sandwiched between two layers of vertically stacked dielectric BN nanofilms. The BN layers were used to protect the graphene layer from oxidation and pollution. Pressure tests were performed to investigate the characteristics of the BN-graphene-BN pressure sensing element. A sensitivity of 24.85 μV/V/mmHg is achieved in the pressure range of 130-180 kPa. After exposing the BN-graphene-BN pressure sensing element to the ambient environment for 7 days, the relative resistance change in the pressure sensing element is only 3.1%, while that of the reference open-faced graphene device without the BN protection layers is 15.7%. Thus, this strategy is promising for fabricating practical graphene pressure sensors with improved performance and stability.

  4. Synthesis and processing of nanostructured BN and BN/Ti composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Robert Steven

    Superhard materials, such as cubic-BN, are widely used in machine tools, grinding wheels, and abrasives. Low density combined with high hardness makes c-BN and its composites attractive candidate materials for personnel and vehicular armor. However, improvements in toughness, and ballistic-impact performance, are needed to meet anticipated performance requirements. To achieve such improvements, we have targeted for development nanostructured c-BN, and its composites with Ti. Current research utilizes an experimental high pressure/high temperature (HPHT) method to produce these materials on a laboratory scale. Results from this work should transfer well into the industrial arena, utilizing high-tonnage presses used in the production of synthetic diamond and c-BN. Progress has been made in: (1) HPHT synthesis of cBN powder using Mg as catalyst; (2) HPHT consolidation of cBN powder to produce nanostructured cBN; (3) reactive-HPHT consolidation of mixed cBN/Ti powder to produce nanostructured Ti- or TiB2/TiN-bonded cBN; and (4) reactive-HPHT consolidation of mixed hBN/Ti powder to produce nanostructured Ti-bonded TiB2/TiN or TiB2/TiN. Even so, much remains to be done to lay a firm scientific foundation to enable the reproducible fabrication of large-area panels for armor applications. To this end, Rutgers has formed a partnership with a major producer of hard and superhard materials. The ability to produce hard and superhard nanostructured composites by reacting cBN or hBN with Ti under high pressure also enables multi-layered structures to be developed. Such structures may be designed to satisfy impedance-mismatch requirements for high performance armor, and possibly provide a multi-hit capability. A demonstration has been made of reactive-HPHT processing of multi-layered composites, consisting of alternating layers of superhard Ti-bonded cBN and tough Ti. It is noteworthy that the pressure requirements for processing Ti-bonded cBN, Ti-bonded TiB2/TiN, and their

  5. Spin transport in two-layer-CVD-hBN/graphene/hBN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, M.; Omar, S.; Zihlmann, S.; Makk, P.; Li, Q. C.; Zhang, Y. F.; Schönenberger, C.; van Wees, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    We study room-temperature spin transport in graphene devices encapsulated between a layer-by-layer-stacked two-layer-thick chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) tunnel barrier, and a few-layer-thick exfoliated-hBN substrate. We find mobilities and spin-relaxation times comparable to that of SiO2 substrate-based graphene devices, and we obtain a similar order of magnitude of spin relaxation rates for both the Elliott-Yafet and D'Yakonov-Perel' mechanisms. The behavior of ferromagnet/two-layer-CVD-hBN/graphene/hBN contacts ranges from transparent to tunneling due to inhomogeneities in the CVD-hBN barriers. Surprisingly, we find both positive and negative spin polarizations for high-resistance two-layer-CVD-hBN barrier contacts with respect to the low-resistance contacts. Furthermore, we find that the differential spin-injection polarization of the high-resistance contacts can be modulated by dc bias from -0.3 to +0.3 V with no change in its sign, while its magnitude increases at higher negative bias. These features point to the distinctive spin-injection nature of the two-layer-CVD-hBN compared to the bilayer-exfoliated-hBN tunnel barriers.

  6. Anisotropic Effective Mass, Optical Property, and Enhanced Band Gap in BN/Phosphorene/BN Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Hong, Jisang

    2015-10-28

    Phosphorene is receiving great research interests because of its peculiar physical properties. Nonetheless, the phosphorus has a trouble of degradation due to oxidation. Hereby, we propose that the electrical and optical anisotropic properties can be preserved by encapsulating into hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). We found that the h-BN contributed to enhancing the band gap of the phosphorene layer. Comparing the band gap of the pristine phosphorene layer, the band gap of the phosphorene/BN(1ML) system was enhanced by 0.15 eV. It was further enhanced by 0.31 eV in the BN(1ML)/phosphorene/BN(1ML) trilayer structure. However, the band gap was not further enhanced when we increased the thickness of the h-BN layers even up to 4 MLs. Interestingly, the anisotropic effective mass and optical property were still preserved in BN/phosphorene/BN heterostructures. Overall, we predict that the capping of phosphorene by the h-BN layers can be an excellent solution to protect the intrinsic properties of the phosphorene.

  7. Bias induced modulation of electrical and thermal conductivity and heat capacity of BN and BN/graphene bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegel, Raad, E-mail: Raad.chegel@gmail.com

    2017-04-15

    By using the tight binding approximation and Green function method, the electronic structure, density of state, electrical conductivity, heat capacity of BN and BN/graphene bilayers are investigated. The AA-, AB{sub 1}- and AB{sub 2}- BN/graphene bilayers have small gap unlike to BN bilayers which are wide band gap semiconductors. Unlike to BN bilayer, the energy gap of graphene/BN bilayers increases with external field. The magnitude of the change in the band gap of BN bilayers is much higher than the graphene/BN bilayers. Near absolute zero, the σ(T) is zero for BN bilayers and it increases with temperature until reaches maximum value then decreases. The BN/graphene bilayers have larger electrical conductivity larger than BN bilayers. For both bilayers, the specific heat capacity has a Schottky anomaly.

  8. (Fuzzy) Ideals of BN-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendziak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The notions of an ideal and a fuzzy ideal in BN-algebras are introduced. The properties and characterizations of them are investigated. The concepts of normal ideals and normal congruences of a BN-algebra are also studied, the properties of them are displayed, and a one-to-one correspondence between them is presented. Conditions for a fuzzy set to be a fuzzy ideal are given. The relationships between ideals and fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are established. The homomorphic properties of fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are provided. Finally, characterizations of Noetherian BN-algebras and Artinian BN-algebras via fuzzy ideals are obtained. PMID:26125050

  9. Research Update: Direct conversion of h-BN into pure c-BN at ambient temperatures and pressures in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Narayan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a direct conversion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN into pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN by nanosecond laser melting at ambient temperatures and atmospheric pressure in air. According to the phase diagram, the transformation from h-BN into c-BN can occur only at high temperatures and pressures, as the hBN-cBN-Liquid triple point is at 3500 K/9.5 GPa. Using nanosecond laser melting, we have created super undercooled state and shifted this triple point to as low as 2800 K and atmospheric pressure. The rapid quenching from super undercooled state leads to formation of super undercooled BN (Q-BN. The c-BN phase is nucleated from Q-BN depending upon the time allowed for nucleation and growth.

  10. Tribological properties of epoxy composite coatings reinforced with functionalized C-BN and H-BN nanofillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingjing; Zhao, Wenjie; Wu, Yinghao; Wang, Deliang; Feng, Ruotao

    2018-03-01

    A series of epoxy resin (EP) composite coatings reinforced with functionalized cubic boron nitride (FC-BN) and functionalized hexagonal boron nitride (FH-BN) were fabricated successfully on 316L stainless steel by hand lay-up technique. The structure properties were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphologies were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, UMT-3 tribometer and surface profiler were used to investigate tribological behaviors of as-prepared composite coatings under dry friction and seawater conditions respectively. The results demonstrated that the presence of FC-BN or FH-BN fillers could greatly decrease the friction coefficient (COF) and wear rate of epoxy, in addition, composite coatings possess better tribological properties under seawater condition which was attributed to the lubricating effect of seawater. Moreover, FC-BN endows the composite coatings the highest wear resistance, and FH-BN /EP composite coatings exhibited the best friction reduction performance which is attributed to the self-lubricating performance of lamella structure for FH-BN sheet.

  11. BN-800 - history and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivitski, I.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The sodium cooled fast reactors are one of the most developed and advanced directions of future nuclear engineering. Russia is the first among other countries in field of fast reactor development. The idea of fast reactor designing was proposed in the former Soviet Union by Dr. A.I. Leipunski at the end of 40 th . The successful operation of Russian fast reactors (BOR-60, BN-350 and BN-600 and the world experience proved the feasibility, reliability and safety of this direction of nuclear engineering and allowed to begin the development of the BN-800 reactor project as the commercial fast reactor. In 1992 Russian Government confirmed the construction of BN-800 reactors on South Ural NPP in Chelyabinsk region and on Beloyarskaya NPP. This report presents the brief review on main directions of BN-800 reactor development carrying out in IPPE. (authors)

  12. Vibrational Properties of h-BN and h-BN-Graphene Heterostructures Probed by Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suyong; Park, Minkyu; Park, Jaesung; Jeong, Tae-Young; Kim, Ho-Jong; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ha, Dong Han; Hwang, Chanyong; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2015-11-13

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is a powerful technique for investigating lattice dynamics of nanoscale systems including graphene and small molecules, but establishing a stable tunnel junction is considered as a major hurdle in expanding the scope of tunneling experiments. Hexagonal boron nitride is a pivotal component in two-dimensional Van der Waals heterostructures as a high-quality insulating material due to its large energy gap and chemical-mechanical stability. Here we present planar graphene/h-BN-heterostructure tunneling devices utilizing thin h-BN as a tunneling insulator. With much improved h-BN-tunneling-junction stability, we are able to probe all possible phonon modes of h-BN and graphite/graphene at Γ and K high symmetry points by inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. Additionally, we observe that low-frequency out-of-plane vibrations of h-BN and graphene lattices are significantly modified at heterostructure interfaces. Equipped with an external back gate, we can also detect high-order coupling phenomena between phonons and plasmons, demonstrating that h-BN-based tunneling device is a wonderful playground for investigating electron-phonon couplings in low-dimensional systems.

  13. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) filled boron nitride (BN) nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, Hanisah Syed; Hua, Chia Chin; Zakaria, Sarani [School of Applied Physic, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    In this study, nanocomposite using cellulose nanofibrils filled with different percentage of boron nitride (CNF-BN) were prepared. The objective of this research is to study the effect of different percentage of BN to the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite produced. The CNF-BN nanocomposite were characterization by FT-IR, SEM and thermal conductivity. The FT-IR analysis of the CNF-BN nanocomposite shows all the characteristic peaks of cellulose and BN present in all samples. The dispersion of BN in CNF were seen through SEM analysis. The effect of different loading percentage of BN to the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite were also investigated.

  14. Study on thermal conductive BN/novolac resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shasha; Qi, Shuhua; Liu, Nailiang; Cao, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Boron nitride (BN) particles were used to modify novolac resin. → BN particles were pretreated by γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. → The thermal conductivity trend of composite almost agrees with the predicted data from the Maxwell-Eucken model. → At BN concentration of 80 wt.%, thermal conductivity value of composite is 4.5 times that of pure novolac resin. → Combined use of the larger and smaller particles with a mass ratio of 1:2 provides the composites with the maximum thermal conductivity among the testing systems. → The composite thermal property also increases with an increase in the BN concentration. - Abstract: In this study, γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-treated boron nitride (BN) particles were used to modify novolac resin. The effect of varying the BN concentration, particle size, and hybrid BN fillers with the binary particle size distribution on the thermal conductivity of the composites was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed homogeneously dispersed treated BN particles in the matrix. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity increased as the BN concentration was increased. This behavior was also observed when the filler size was increased. Experimentally obtained thermal conductivity values agree with the predicted data from the Maxwell-Eucken model well at less than 70 wt.% BN loading. A larger particle size BN-filled novolac resin exhibits a higher thermal conductivity than a smaller particle size BN-filled one. The combined use of 0.5 and 15 μm particles with a mass ratio of 2:1 achieved the maximum thermal conductivity among the testing systems. The thermal resistance properties of the composites were also studied.

  15. Chemically stabilized epitaxial wurtzite-BN thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishal, Badri; Singh, Rajendra; Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Sharma, Ankit; Sreedhara, M. B.; Sahu, Rajib; Bhat, Usha; Ramamurty, Upadrasta; Datta, Ranjan

    2018-03-01

    We report on the chemically stabilized epitaxial w-BN thin film grown on c-plane sapphire by pulsed laser deposition under slow kinetic condition. Traces of no other allotropes such as cubic (c) or hexagonal (h) BN phases are present. Sapphire substrate plays a significant role in stabilizing the metastable w-BN from h-BN target under unusual PLD growth condition involving low temperature and pressure and is explained based on density functional theory calculation. The hardness and the elastic modulus of the w-BN film are 37 & 339 GPa, respectively measured by indentation along direction. The results are extremely promising in advancing the microelectronic and mechanical tooling industry.

  16. Optimizing the recovery efficiency of Finnish oil combating vessels in the Gulf of Finland using Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehikoinen, Annukka; Luoma, Emilia; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    2013-02-19

    Oil transport has greatly increased in the Gulf of Finland over the years, and risks of an oil accident occurring have risen. Thus, an effective oil combating strategy is needed. We developed a Bayesian Network (BN) to examine the recovery efficiency and optimal disposition of the Finnish oil combating vessels in the Gulf of Finland (GoF), Eastern Baltic Sea. Four alternative home harbors, five accident points, and ten oil combating vessels were included in the model to find the optimal disposition policy that would maximize the recovery efficiency. With this composition, the placement of the oil combating vessels seems not to have a significant effect on the recovery efficiency. The process seems to be strongly controlled by certain random factors independent of human action, e.g. wave height and stranding time of the oil. Therefore, the success of oil combating is rather uncertain, so it is also important to develop activities that aim for preventing accidents. We found that the model developed is suitable for this type of multidecision optimization. The methodology, results, and practices are further discussed.

  17. Enhancement of surface mechanical properties by using TiN[BCN/BN] n/c-BN multilayer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, H.; Caicedo, J. C.; Amaya, C.; Muñoz-Saldaña, J.; Yate, L.; Esteve, J.; Prieto, P.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the mechanical properties of AISI 4140 steel substrates by using a TiN[BCN/BN] n/c-BN multilayer system as a protective coating. TiN[BCN/BN] n/c-BN multilayered coatings via reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering technique were grown, systematically varying the length period ( Λ) and the number of bilayers ( n) because one bilayer ( n = 1) represents two different layers ( tBCN + tBN), thus the total thickness of the coating and all other growth parameters were maintained constant. The coatings were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showing bands associated with h-BN bonds and c-BN stretching vibrations centered at 1400 cm -1 and 1100 cm -1, respectively. Coating composition and multilayer modulation were studied via secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy analysis revealed a reduction in grain size and roughness when the bilayer number ( n) increased and the bilayer period decreased. Finally, enhancement of mechanical properties was determined via nanoindentation measurements. The best behavior was obtained when the bilayer period ( Λ) was 80 nm ( n = 25), yielding the relative highest hardness (˜30 GPa) and elastic modulus (230 GPa). The values for the hardness and elastic modulus are 1.5 and 1.7 times greater than the coating with n = 1, respectively. The enhancement effects in multilayered coatings could be attributed to different mechanisms for layer formation with nanometric thickness due to the Hall-Petch effect; because this effect, originally used to explain increased hardness with decreasing grain size in bulk polycrystalline metals, has also been used to explain hardness enhancements in multilayered coatings taking into account the thickness reduction at individual single layers that make up the multilayered system. The Hall-Petch model based on dislocation motion within layered and across layer interfaces has been successfully applied to multilayered coatings to explain this

  18. Enhancement of surface mechanical properties by using TiN[BCN/BN]n/c-BN multilayer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, H.; Caicedo, J.C.; Amaya, C.; Munoz-Saldana, J.; Yate, L.; Esteve, J.; Prieto, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the mechanical properties of AISI 4140 steel substrates by using a TiN[BCN/BN] n /c-BN multilayer system as a protective coating. TiN[BCN/BN] n /c-BN multilayered coatings via reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering technique were grown, systematically varying the length period (Λ) and the number of bilayers (n) because one bilayer (n = 1) represents two different layers (t BCN + t BN ), thus the total thickness of the coating and all other growth parameters were maintained constant. The coatings were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showing bands associated with h-BN bonds and c-BN stretching vibrations centered at 1400 cm -1 and 1100 cm -1 , respectively. Coating composition and multilayer modulation were studied via secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy analysis revealed a reduction in grain size and roughness when the bilayer number (n) increased and the bilayer period decreased. Finally, enhancement of mechanical properties was determined via nanoindentation measurements. The best behavior was obtained when the bilayer period (Λ) was 80 nm (n = 25), yielding the relative highest hardness (∼30 GPa) and elastic modulus (230 GPa). The values for the hardness and elastic modulus are 1.5 and 1.7 times greater than the coating with n = 1, respectively. The enhancement effects in multilayered coatings could be attributed to different mechanisms for layer formation with nanometric thickness due to the Hall-Petch effect; because this effect, originally used to explain increased hardness with decreasing grain size in bulk polycrystalline metals, has also been used to explain hardness enhancements in multilayered coatings taking into account the thickness reduction at individual single layers that make up the multilayered system. The Hall-Petch model based on dislocation motion within layered and across layer interfaces has been successfully applied to multilayered coatings to explain this

  19. Tunable localized surface plasmon resonances in one-dimensional h-BN/graphene/h-BN quantum-well structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaibiao, Zhang; Hong, Zhang; Xinlu, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    The graphene/hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) hybrid structure has emerged to extend the performance of graphene-based devices. Here, we investigate the tunable plasmon in one-dimensional h-BN/graphene/h-BN quantum-well structures. The analysis of optical response and field enhancement demonstrates that these systems exhibit a distinct quantum confinement effect for the collective oscillations. The intensity and frequency of the plasmon can be controlled by the barrier width and electrical doping. Moreover, the electron doping and the hole doping lead to very different results due to the asymmetric energy band. This graphene/h-BN hybrid structure may pave the way for future optoelectronic devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474207 and 11374217) and the Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, China (Grant No. 2014PY07).

  20. BN600 reactivity definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltyshev, V.; Ivanov, A.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, the fast BN600 reactor with sodium coolant has been operated at Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant. The periodic monitoring of the reactivity modifications should be implemented in compliance with the standards and regulations applied in nuclear power engineering. The reactivity measurements are carried out in order to confirm the basic neutronic features of a BN600 reactor. The reactivity measurements are aimed to justify that nuclear safety is provided in course of the in-reactor installation of the experimental core components. Two reactivity meters are to be used on BN600 operation: 1. Digital on-line reactivity calculated under stationary reactor operation on power (approximation of the point-wise kinetics is applied). 2. Second reactivity meter used to define the reactor control rod operating components efficiency under reactor startup and take account of the changing efficiency of the sensor, however, this is more time-consumptive than the on-line reactivity meter. The application of two reactivity meters allows for the monitoring of the reactor reactivity under every operating mode. (authors)

  1. Enhancement of surface mechanical properties by using TiN[BCN/BN]{sub n}/c-BN multilayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, H. [Laboratorio de Recubrimientos Duros, CDT-ASTIN SENA, Cali (Colombia); Caicedo, J.C., E-mail: Jcesarca@calima.univalle.edu.co [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Amaya, C. [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Munoz-Saldana, J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Mexico (Mexico); Yate, L.; Esteve, J. [Department de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Prieto, P. [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales, CENM, Cali (Colombia)

    2010-11-15

    The aim of this work is to improve the mechanical properties of AISI 4140 steel substrates by using a TiN[BCN/BN]{sub n}/c-BN multilayer system as a protective coating. TiN[BCN/BN]{sub n}/c-BN multilayered coatings via reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering technique were grown, systematically varying the length period ({Lambda}) and the number of bilayers (n) because one bilayer (n = 1) represents two different layers (t{sub BCN} + t{sub BN}), thus the total thickness of the coating and all other growth parameters were maintained constant. The coatings were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showing bands associated with h-BN bonds and c-BN stretching vibrations centered at 1400 cm{sup -1} and 1100 cm{sup -1}, respectively. Coating composition and multilayer modulation were studied via secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy analysis revealed a reduction in grain size and roughness when the bilayer number (n) increased and the bilayer period decreased. Finally, enhancement of mechanical properties was determined via nanoindentation measurements. The best behavior was obtained when the bilayer period ({Lambda}) was 80 nm (n = 25), yielding the relative highest hardness ({approx}30 GPa) and elastic modulus (230 GPa). The values for the hardness and elastic modulus are 1.5 and 1.7 times greater than the coating with n = 1, respectively. The enhancement effects in multilayered coatings could be attributed to different mechanisms for layer formation with nanometric thickness due to the Hall-Petch effect; because this effect, originally used to explain increased hardness with decreasing grain size in bulk polycrystalline metals, has also been used to explain hardness enhancements in multilayered coatings taking into account the thickness reduction at individual single layers that make up the multilayered system. The Hall-Petch model based on dislocation motion within layered and across layer interfaces has been successfully applied to

  2. Strain, stabilities and electronic properties of hexagonal BN bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yoshitaka; Saito, Susumu

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) atomic layers have been regarded as fascinating materials both scientifically and technologically due to the sizable band gap. This sizable band-gap nature of the h-BN atomic layers would provide not only new physical properties but also novel nano- and/or opto-electronics applications. Here, we study the first-principles density-functional study that clarifies the biaxial strain effects on the energetics and the electronic properties of h-BN bilayers. We show that the band gaps of the h-BN bilayers are tunable by applying strains. Furthermore, we show that the biaxial strains can produce a transition from indirect to direct band gaps of the h-BN bilayer. We also discuss that both AA and AB stacking patterns of h-BN bilayer become feasible structures because h-BN bilayers possess two different directions in the stacking patterns. Supported by MEXT Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Research Center through Tokodai Institute for Element Strategy, JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP26390062 and JP25107005.

  3. Adsorption-induced gap states of h-BN on metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preobrajenski, A. B.; Krasnikov, S. A.; Vinogradov, A. S.; Ng, May Ling; Käämbre, T.; Cafolla, A. A.; Mårtensson, N.

    2008-02-01

    The formation of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) monolayers on Ni(111), Rh(111), and Pt(111) has been studied by a combination of x-ray emission, angle-resolved valence band photoemission, and x-ray absorption in search for interface-induced gap states of h-BN . A significant density of both occupied and unoccupied gap states with N2p and B2p characters is observed for h-BN/Ni(111) , somewhat less for h-BN/Rh(111) and still less for h-BN/Pt(111) . X-ray emission shows that the h-BN monolayer is chemisorbed strongly on Ni(111) and very weakly on Pt(111). We associate the gap states of h-BN adsorbed on the transition metal surfaces with the orbital mixing and electron sharing at the interface because their density increases with the growing strength of chemisorption.

  4. Assessment of Psychophysiological Response and Specific Fine Motor Skills in Combat Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Molina, Joaquín; Robles-Pérez, José J; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J

    2018-03-02

    Soldiers´ training and experience can influence the outcome of the missions, as well as their own physical integrity. The objective of this research was to analyze the psycho-physiological response and specific motor skills in an urban combat simulation with two units of infantry with different training and experience. psychophysiological parameters -Heart Rate, blood oxygen saturation, glucose and blood lactate, cortical activation, anxiety and heart rate variability-, as well as fine motor skills were analyzed in 31 male soldiers of the Spanish Army, 19 belonging to the Light Infantry Brigade, and 12 to the Heavy Forces Infantry Brigade, before and after an urban combat simulation. A combat simulation provokes an alteration of the psycho-physiological basal state in soldiers and a great unbalance in the sympathetic-vagal interaction. The specific training of Light Infantry unit involves lower metabolic, cardiovascular, and anxiogenic response not only previous, but mainly after a combat maneuver, than Heavy Infantry unit's. No differences were found in relation with fine motor skills, improving in both cases after the maneuver. This fact should be taken into account for betterment units´ deployment preparation in current theaters of operations.

  5. How lithium atoms affect the first hyperpolarizability of BN edge-doped graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yao-Dong; Wu, Li-Ming; Chen, Qiao-Ling; Liu, Fa-Kun; Tang, Xiao-Wen

    2016-01-01

    How do lithium atoms affect the first hyperpolarizability (β0) of boron-nitrogen (BN) edge-doped graphene. In this work, using pentacene as graphene model, Lin@BN-1 edge-doped pentacene and Lin@BN-2 edge-doped pentacene (n = 1, 5) were designed to study this problem. First, two models (BN-1 edge-doped pentacene, and BN-2 edge-doped pentacene ) were formed by doping the BN into the pentacene with different order, and then Li@BN-1 edge-doped pentacene and Li@ BN-2 edge-doped pentacene were obtained by substituting the H atom in BN edge-doped pentacene with a Li atom. The results show that the first hyperpolarizabilities of BN-1 edge-doped pentacene and Li@BN-1 edge-doped pentacene were 4059 a.u. and 6249 a.u., respectively; the first hyperpolarizabilities of BN-2 edge-doped pentacene and Li@BN-2 edge-doped pentacene were 2491 a.u. and 4265 a.u., respectively. The results indicate that the effect of Li substitution is to greatly increase the β0 value. To further enhance the first hyperpolarizability, Li5@ BN-1 edge-doped pentacene and Li5@BN-2 edge-doped pentacene were designed, and were found to exhibit considerably larger first hyperpolarizabilities (β0) (12,112 a.u. and 7921a.u., respectively). This work may inspire further study of the nonlinear properties of BN edge-doped graphene.

  6. Are there atheists in foxholes? Combat intensity and religious behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Wansink, Craig S

    2013-09-01

    After battle, the moral and mortality stresses influence different soldiers in different ways. Using two large-scale surveys of World War II veterans, this research investigates the impact of combat on religiosity. Study 1 shows that as combat became more frightening, the percentage of soldiers who reported praying rose from 42 to 72%. Study 2 shows that 50 years later, many soldiers still exhibited religious behavior, but it varied by their war experience. Soldiers who faced heavy combat (vs. no combat) attended church 21% more often if they claimed their war experience was negative, but those who claimed their experience was positive attended 26% less often. The more a combat veteran disliked the war, the more religious they were 50 years later. While implications for counselors, clergy, support groups, and health practitioners are outlined, saying there are no atheists in foxholes may be less of an argument against atheism than it is against foxholes.

  7. Preparations and thermal properties of micro- and nano-BN dispersed HDPE composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinwoo; Kim, Jaewoo; Uhm, Young Rang; Jeon, Jae-Kyun; Lee, Sol; Lee, Hi Min; Rhee, Chang Kyu

    2010-01-01

    The thermal properties of micro-sized boron nitride (BN) and nano-sized BN dispersed high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Nano-BN powder was prepared by using a ball mill process before it was mixed in HDPE. To enhance the dispersivity of nano-BN in the polymer matrix, the surfaces of the nano-particles were treated with low density polyethylene (LDPE) which was dissolved in the cyclohexane solvent. The average particle sizes of micro-BN powder and LDPE coated nano-BN powder were ∼10 μm and ∼100 nm respectively. Dispersion and distribution of 5 wt% and 20 wt% of micro-BN and nano-BN respectively mixed in HDPE were observed by using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). According to the thermal analyses of pure HDPE, micro-BN/HDPE, and nano-BN/HDPE, 20 wt% nano-BN/HDPE composite shows the lowest enthalpy of fusion (ΔH m ) and better thermal conductive characteristics compared to the others.

  8. Electronic structure of graphene- and BN-supported phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davletshin, Artur R.; Ustiuzhanina, Svetlana V.; Kistanov, Andrey A.; Saadatmand, Danial; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Zhou, Kun; Korznikova, Elena A.

    2018-04-01

    By using first-principles calculations, the effects of graphene and boron nitride (BN) substrates on the electronic properties of phosphorene are studied. Graphene-supported phosphorene is found to be metallic, while the BN-supported phosphorene is a semiconductor with a moderate band gap of 1.02 eV. Furthermore, the effects of the van der Waals interactions between the phosphorene and graphene or BN layers by means of the interlayer distance change are investigated. It is shown that the interlayer distance change leads to significant band gap size modulations and direct-indirect band gap transitions in the phosphorene-BN heterostructure. The presented band gap engineering of phosphorene may be a powerful technique for the fabrication of high-performance phosphorene-based nanodevices.

  9. Tunable magnetotransport in Fe/hBN/graphene/hBN/Pt(Fe) epitaxial multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Ukpong, Aniekan

    2018-03-01

    Theoretical and computational analysis of the magnetotransport properties and spin-transfer torque field-induced switching of magnetization density in vertically-stacked multilayers is presented. Using epitaxially-capped free layers of Pt and Fe, atom-resolved magnetic moments and spin-transfer torques are computed at finite bias. The calculations are performed within linear response approximation to the spin-density reformulation of the van der Waals density functional theory. Dynamical spin excitations are computed as a function of a spin-transfer torque induced magnetic field along the magnetic easy axis, and the corresponding spin polarization perpendicular to the easy axis is obtained. Bias-dependent giant anisotropic magnetoresistance of up to 3200% is obtained in the nonmagnetic-metal-capped Fe/hBN/graphene/hBN/Pt multilayer architecture. Since this specific heterostructure is not yet fabricated and characterized, the predicted high performance has not been demonstrated experimentally. Nevertheless, similar calculations performed on the Fe/hBN/Co stack show that the tunneling magnetoresistance obtained at the Fermi-level is in excellent agreement with results of recent magnetotransport measurements on magnetic tunnel junctions that contain the monolayer hBN tunnel region. The magnitude of the spin-transfer torque is found to increase as the tunneling spin current increases, and this activates the magnetization switching process due to increased charge accumulation. This mechanism causes substantial spin backflow, which manifests as rapid undulations in the bias-dependent tunneling spin currents. The implication of these findings on the design of nanoscale spintronic devices with spin-transfer torque tunable magnetization density is discussed. Insights derived from this study are expected to enhance the prospects for developing and integrating artificially assembled van der Waals multilayer heterostructures as the preferred material platform for efficient

  10. Planning of the BN-350 reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepikov, A.Kh.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.; Zhantikin, T.M.; Baldov, A.N.; Nazarenko, P.I.; Koltyshev, S.M.; Wells, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental and commercial BN-350 NPP equipped with a fast neutron sodium cooled reactor is located in Kazakhstan near the Aktau city on the Caspian Sea coast. It was commissioned in 1973 and intended for weapon-grade plutonium production and as stream supply to a water desalination facility and the turbines of the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex. Taking into account technical, financial and political issues, the Government of Kazakhstan enacted the Decree no. 456 'On Decommissioning of the Reactor BN-350 in the Aktau City of the Mangystau Region'. Because the decision on reactor decommissioning was adopted before the end of scheduled operation (2003), the plan to decommission the BN-350 reactor has not yet been developed. To determine the activities required for ensuring reactor safety and in preparation for decommission in the period prior, the development and ensuring approval by the Republic of Kazakhstan Government of the decommissioning plan, a 'Plan of Priority Actions for BN-350 Reactor Decommissioning' was developed and approved. Actions provided for in the plan include the following: Development of BN-350 Reactor Decommissioning Plan; Accident prevention during the period of transition; Unloading nuclear fuel from reactor and draining the coolant from the heat exchange circuits. Decommission is defined as a complex of administrative and technical actions taken to allow the removal of some or all of regulatory controls over a nuclear facility. These actions involve decontamination, dismantling and removal of radioactive materials, waste, components and structures. They are carried out to achieve a progressive and systematic reduction in radiological hazards and are undertaken on the basis of planning and assessment in order to ensure safety decommissioning operations. In accordance with the decision of Kazakhstan Government, three basic stages for BN-350 reactor decommissioning are envisaged: First stage - Placement of BN-350 into long-term storage

  11. Bias induced up to 100% spin-injection and detection polarizations in ferromagnet/bilayer-hBN/graphene/hBN heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurram, Mallikarjuna; Omar, Siddharta; van Wees, Bart

    2017-01-01

    We study spin transport in a fully hBN encapsulated monolayer-graphene van der Waals heterostructure at room temperature. A top-layer of bilayer-hBN is used as a tunnel barrier for spin-injection and detection in graphene with ferromagnetic cobalt electrodes. We report surprisingly large and

  12. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga + beam etching process

  13. Resistance to BN myelogenous leukemia in rat radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, D.E.; Haynor, D.R.; Williams, R.M

    1980-01-01

    Lewis → LBNFl rat radiation chimeras showed marked resistance to transplanted BN myelogenous leukemia when compared to naive LBNFl, LBNFl → LBNFl, or BN → LBNFl. This occurred in the absence of overt graft versus host disease or of anti-BN response in mixed lymphocyte culture. Bone marrow specific antigens may serve as the target of the resistance mechanism. (author)

  14. Nanoindentation of ultra-hard cBN films: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cheng [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Peng, Xianghe, E-mail: xhpeng@cqu.edu.cn [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Fu, Tao, E-mail: futaocqu@163.com [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhao, Yinbo; Feng, Chao; Lin, Zijun [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Li, Qibin [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We optimize tersoff potential to better simulate the BN. • We perform respectively the nanoindentations on the (001) and (111) surface of cBN. • The main slip system of cBN under nanoindentation is {111}<110>. • Temperature has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of cBN. - Abstract: Cubic Boron nitride (cBN) exhibits excellent mechanical properties including high strength, hardness and thermal resistance, etc. We optimized the parameters in the Tersoff interatomic potential for cBN based on its cohesive energy, lattice parameter, elastic constants, surface energy and stacking fault energy. We performed with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations the nanoindentation on the (001) and (111) surface of monocrystalline cBN thin films to study the deformation mechanisms and the effects of temperature and substrate orientation. It was found that during the indentation plastic deformation is mainly stress-induced slips of dislocations along {111}<110> orientations. It was also found that the hardness of cBN depends strongly on temperature, and the capability of plastic deformation is enhanced with the increase of temperature.

  15. Validation of BN Reactor Plant Long-Term Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilensky, O.; Vasilyev, B.; Kaidalov, V.

    2013-01-01

    The BN RP operation life time is mainly determined by resource of non-replaceable equipment. The new standard (RD) “Procedure of strength analysis for main components of sodium cooled fast neutron reactor plants” was developed to validate structure strength in view of radiation effects and degradation of material properties within the time period up to 300000 hours and under irradiation, as well as development of postulated crack-like defects. Using this RD, the extension of operation life of BN-600 reactor non-replaceable components from 30 to 45 years, as well as strength and durability of the most loaded non-replaceable components of BN-800 RP under construction were validated for the specified 45-year operation life. Wider application of steel 16Cr-11Ni-3Mo refers to new decisions in BN-1200 RP design that allow increasing of operation life of the most loaded non-replaceable components up to 60 years. High-chromium steel 12Cr-Ni-Mo-V-Nb is a new material, which was proposed for SG design to increase the operation life up to 30 years. In addition, the austenitic steels 18Cr-9Ni and 16Cr-11Ni-3Mo are now under upgrading for future application of them in commercial BN-1200 RP. To provide additional long-term reliable and safe operation of BN-1200 RP equipment and pipelines, it is planned to develop and implement the lifetime operational monitoring system

  16. Low-pressure c-BN deposition - is a CVD process possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubner, R.; Tang, X.

    2001-01-01

    Since the low-pressure diamond deposition was discovered in 1982 there is a high interest to find a similar process for the c-BN synthesis. A review about the c-BN deposition process as well as its characterization is given. Experiments with a simple chemical vapor deposition(CVD) reactor using tris(dimethylamino)borane as precursor were carried out. In a cold-wall reactor substrates were heated up by high-frequency. Argon was used as protecting and carrying the precursor, it was saturated with tris(dimethylamino)borane (precursor) according to its vapor pressure and transports the pressure to the hot substrate, where deposition occurs. WC-Co hardmetal plates containing 6 wt. % Co, Mo and Si were used as substrates. Various BN layers were deposited and characterized. X-ray diffraction, IR-spectroscopy and SIMS indicate that BN-coatings containing c-BN were deposited. However a final verification of c-BN crystallites by TEM investigations was not possible till now. (nevyjel)

  17. Calculated carrier mobility of h-BN/γ-InSe/h-BN van der Waals heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, P.; Michaud-Rioux, V.; Kong, X.-H.; Yu, G.-H.; Guo, H.

    2017-12-01

    Recent experiments reported excellent transport properties of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures made of atomically thin InSe layers encapsulated by two hBN capping layers (ISBN). The carrier mobility of the ISBN films exceeded μ ˜ 1.2× {{10}4} \\text{c}{{\\text{m}}2} {{\\text{V}}-1} {{\\text{s}}-1} at low temperature, much higher than that of pristine InSe films. It has been puzzling why the relatively inert hBN capping layer could so drastically enhance mobility of the ISBN composite. Using a state-of-the-art first principles method, we have calculated phonon limited carrier mobility of 18 different ISBN films and 6 pristine InSe films with different thicknesses, the largest system containing 2212 atoms. The hBN capping layer significantly alters the elastic stiffness coefficient as compared with pure InSe—thus the acoustic phonons in the ISBN composite—giving rise to the observed large mobility of ISBN films. Of the 18 calculated ISBN films, the ones with no strain at the hBN/InSe interface possess the highest electron mobility, reaching 4340~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}2}~{{\\text{V}}-1}~{{\\text{s}}-1} at room temperature, which could easily go over {{10}4}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}2}~{{\\text{V}}-1}~{{\\text{s}}-1} at low temperatures. We conclude that the mechanical properties of the composite 2D vdW ISBN material play the crucial role for inducing the large carrier mobility, a principle that could be applied to many other 2D vdW heterostructures.

  18. Electronic Properties of Curved and Defective 2-D BN Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Kory; Terrones, Humberto; Raeliarijaona, Aldo; Siegel, Ross; Florio, Fred

    Density functional theory (DFT) with local density approximation (LDA) pseudopotentials is used to calculate the band structure and density of states of various novel 2-D BN nanostructures. Three types of systems are studied: Schwarzites, a Haeckelite, and an h-BN monolayer. Schwarzites are negatively curved structures in which the curvature is due to the introduction of octagonal rings of alternating boron and nitrogen atoms. In particular, three families of Schwarzites are analyzed: P, G and IWP. The Haeckelites on the other hand, are flat layers composed of squares and octagons of BN. It is found that all these BN allotropes are metastable in which the band gap is direct and smaller than the most stable system, h-BN. National Science Foundation (EFRI-1433311).

  19. Investigation on two abnormal phenomena about thermal conductivity enhancement of BN/EG nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjiao; Zhou, Jing'en; Luo, Zhifeng; Tung, Simon; Schneider, Eric; Wu, Jiangtao; Li, Xiaojing

    2011-07-09

    The thermal conductivity of boron nitride/ethylene glycol (BN/EG) nanofluids was investigated by transient hot-wire method and two abnormal phenomena was reported. One is the abnormal higher thermal conductivity enhancement for BN/EG nanofluids at very low-volume fraction of particles, and the other is the thermal conductivity enhancement of BN/EG nanofluids synthesized with large BN nanoparticles (140 nm) which is higher than that synthesized with small BN nanoparticles (70 nm). The chain-like loose aggregation of nanoparticles is responsible for the abnormal increment of thermal conductivity enhancement for the BN/EG nanofluids at very low particles volume fraction. And the difference in specific surface area and aspect ratio of BN nanoparticles may be the main reasons for the abnormal difference between thermal conductivity enhancements for BN/EG nanofluids prepared with 140- and 70-nm BN nanoparticles, respectively.

  20. Investigation on two abnormal phenomena about thermal conductivity enhancement of BN/EG nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jiangtao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The thermal conductivity of boron nitride/ethylene glycol (BN/EG nanofluids was investigated by transient hot-wire method and two abnormal phenomena was reported. One is the abnormal higher thermal conductivity enhancement for BN/EG nanofluids at very low-volume fraction of particles, and the other is the thermal conductivity enhancement of BN/EG nanofluids synthesized with large BN nanoparticles (140 nm which is higher than that synthesized with small BN nanoparticles (70 nm. The chain-like loose aggregation of nanoparticles is responsible for the abnormal increment of thermal conductivity enhancement for the BN/EG nanofluids at very low particles volume fraction. And the difference in specific surface area and aspect ratio of BN nanoparticles may be the main reasons for the abnormal difference between thermal conductivity enhancements for BN/EG nanofluids prepared with 140- and 70-nm BN nanoparticles, respectively.

  1. Purification and characterization of the bacteriocin Thuricin Bn1 produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Bn1 isolated from a hazelnut pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugras, Serpil; Sezen, Kazim; Kati, Hatice; Demirbag, Zihni

    2013-02-01

    A novel bioactive molecule produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Bn1 (Bt-Bn1), isolated from a common pest of hazelnut, Balaninus nucum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was determined, purified, and characterized in this study. The Bt-Bn1 strain was investigated for antibacterial activity with an agar spot assay and well diffusion assay against B. cereus, B. weinhenstephenensis, L. monocytogenes, P. savastanoi, P. syringae, P. lemoignei, and many other B. thuringiensis strains. The production of bioactive molecule was determined at the early logarithmic phase in the growth cycle of strain Bt-Bn1 and its production continued until the beginning of the stationary phase. The mode of action of this molecule displayed bacteriocidal or bacteriolytic effect depending on the concentration. The bioactive molecule was purified 78-fold from the bacteria supernatant with ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and HPLC, respectively. The molecular mass of this molecule was estimated via SDS-PAGE and confirmed by the ESI-TOFMS as 3,139 Da. The bioactive molecule was also determined to be a heat-stable, pH-stable (range 6-8), and proteinase K sensitive antibacterial peptide, similar to bacteriocins. Based on all characteristics determined in this study, the purified bacteriocin was named as thuricin Bn1 because of the similarities to the previously identified thuricin-like bacteriocin produced by the various B. thuringiensis strains. Plasmid elution studies showed that gene responsible for the production of thuricin Bn1 is located on the chromosome of Bt-Bn1. Therefore, it is a novel bacteriocin and the first recorded one produced by an insect originated bacterium. It has potential usage for the control of many different pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in the food industry, agriculture, and various other areas.

  2. The effect of incorporated self-lubricated BN(h) particles on the tribological properties of Ni–P/BN(h) composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chih-I., E-mail: s1322509@gmail.com [School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hou, Kung-Hsu, E-mail: khou@ndu.edu.tw [Department of Power Vehicle and Systems Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Ger, Ming-Der, E-mail: mingderger@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Material Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Gao-Liang, E-mail: wanggl@takming.edu.tw [Department of Marketing Management, Takming University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The Ni-P-BN(h) coatings were prepared by electroless plating techniques in this research. • Surfactant CTAB resulting in a uniform dispersion of particles in Ni-P coating. • CTAB with a positive effect on the tribological performance of Ni–P/BN(h) coatings. • Frictional tests results show that optimal friction coefficient would be decreased 75%. • Wear resistance of the Ni-P/BN(h) coating is higher about 10 times Ni–P coatings. - Abstract: Ni–P/BN(h) composite coatings are prepared by means of the conventional electroless plating from the bath containing up to 10.0 g/l of hexagonal boron nitride particles with size 0.5 μm. The Ni–P coating is also prepared as a comparison. Cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is used to stabilize the electrolyte, and the optimum CTAB concentration resulting in a nonagglomerated dispersion of particles is obtained using a dispersion stability analyzer. Morphology of the coatings and the effect of incorporated particles on coating structure and composition are investigated via scanning electron microscopy, field emission electron probe micro-analyzer and X-ray diffraction analysis. Hardness, roughness, friction coefficient and wear resistance of the coatings are also evaluated using Vickers microhardness tester, atomic force microscopy and ball-on disk machine. The presence of CTAB in the depositing bath has a positive effect on the surface roughness and performance of Ni–P/BN(h) composite coatings. The friction and wear tests results show that incorporation of 14.5 vol% BN(h) particles into the Ni–P coating lowers the coating friction coefficient by about 75% and the wear resistance of the Ni–P composites is approximately 10 times higher than Ni–P coating.

  3. BN-600 power unit 15-year operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraev, O.M.; Oshkanov, N.N.; Vylomov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Comprehensive experience has been gained with the operating fast reactor BN-600 with a power out of 600 MWe. This paper includes important performance results and gives also an overview of the experience gained from BN-600 NPP commercial operation during 15 years. (author). 2 figs, 1 tab

  4. Operating experience with Beloyarsk fast reactor BN600 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraev, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    The main results of the seventeen-year operation of the BN600 Nuclear Power Plant are considered. The principal backfittings of the main BN600 Power Plant equipment are presented and summarised. (author)

  5. Near-field heat transfer between graphene/hBN multilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bo; Guizal, Brahim; Zhang, Zhuomin M.; Fan, Shanhui; Antezza, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    We study the radiative heat transfer between multilayer structures made by a periodic repetition of a graphene sheet and a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) slab. Surface plasmons in a monolayer graphene can couple with a hyperbolic phonon polaritons in a single hBN film to form hybrid polaritons that can assist photon tunneling. For periodic multilayer graphene/hBN structures, the stacked metallic/dielectric array can give rise to a further effective hyperbolic behavior, in addition to the intri...

  6. On the Stability of c-BN-Reinforcing Particles in Ceramic Matrix Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Kathrin Wolfrum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cubic boron nitride (c-BN composites produced at high pressures and temperatures are widely used as cutting tool materials. The advent of new, effective pressure-assisted densification methods, such as spark plasma sintering (SPS, has stimulated attempts to produce these composites at low pressures. Under low-pressure conditions, however, transformation of c-BN to the soft hexagonal BN (h-BN phase can occur, with a strong deterioration in hardness and wear. In the present work, the influence of secondary phases (B2O3, Si3N4, and oxide glasses on the transformation of c-BN was studied in the temperature range between 1100 °C and 1575 °C. The different heat treated c-BN particles and c-BN composites were analyzed by SEM, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The transformation mechanism was found to be kinetically controlled solution–diffusion–precipitation. Given a sufficiently low liquid phase viscosity, the transformation could be observed at temperatures as low as 1200 °C for the c-BN–glass composites. In contrast, no transformation was found at temperatures up to 1575 °C when no liquid oxide phase is present in the composite. The results were compared with previous studies concerning the c-BN stability and the c-BN phase diagram.

  7. İbn Kuteybe’ye Göre Şiirde Yetenek Sorunu

    OpenAIRE

    Öznurhan, Halim

    2005-01-01

    ‛Abdü’s-Selâm ‛Abdü’l-Hafîz ‛Abdü’l-‛Âl, Nakdü’ş-şi‛r beyne İbn Kuteybe ve İbn Tabâtabâ el-‛Alevî, Dâru’l-fikri’l-‛Arabî, Mısır, ts. , 166. ‛Abdü’l-‛Âl, aynı yer. İbn Kuteybe, 12, 13. Ebû ‛Usmân ‛Amr b. Bahr el-Câhiz, el-Beyân ve’t-tebyîn, nşr: ‛Abdü’s-Selâm M. Hârûn, Kahire, 1948, I, 208. İbn Kuteybe, 17. Krş: el-Câhiz, I, 207 ve II, 13. Krş: el-Câhiz, II, 13. Bkz: İbn Kuteybe, 476, 497, 501

  8. BN-1200 Reactor Power Unit Design Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, B.A.; Shepelev, S.F.; Ashirmetov, M.R.; Poplavsky, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    Main goals of BN-1200 design: • Develop a reliable new generation reactor plant for the commercial power unit with fast reactor to implement the first-priority objectives in changing over to closed nuclear fuel cycle; • Improve technical and economic indices of BN reactor power unit to the level of those of Russian VVER of equal power; • Enhance the safety up to the level of the requirements for the 4th generation RP

  9. Basic research on mechanism of BN inclusion in improving the machinability of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-nan, C.; Yan-ping, B.; Min, W.; Xiao-feng, C.; Lin-jing, W.; Li-hua, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Boron nitride-added eco-friendly free cutting steel has recently drawn more and more attention. But, the mechanisms explaining the role of BN inclusions improving the machinability of steels is not very clear. In this investigation, the material removal mechanism for cutting of BN inclusions in steels is explored, using a combination of theoretical analysis and a series of experiments. First, the actual shape of BN inclusions is observed and the amount and distribution of BN inclusions is quantitatively analyzed. Subsequently, the cutting performance of the steel is determined by cutting experimental tests. Moreover, the micro mechanical properties and the material removal mechanisms for cutting of BN inclusions are investigated by means of nano indentation. The results revealed that the BN inclusions are hexagonal and are uniformly distributed, their average content is 23.2 per unit area and their volume fraction is 0.51% in the steel with 74 ppm B and 180 ppm N. It is shown that BN inclusions can improve the cutting performance of steel significantly, and a model describing the material removal mechanism for cutting of BN inclusions is proposed. BN inclusions act as stress concentration source, lubrication and wrap page of hard particles. (Author)

  10. Basic research on mechanism of BN inclusion in improving the machinability of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ya-nan, C.; Yan-ping, B.; Min, W.; Xiao-feng, C.; Lin-jing, W.; Li-hua, Z.

    2014-07-01

    Boron nitride-added eco-friendly free cutting steel has recently drawn more and more attention. But, the mechanisms explaining the role of BN inclusions improving the machinability of steels is not very clear. In this investigation, the material removal mechanism for cutting of BN inclusions in steels is explored, using a combination of theoretical analysis and a series of experiments. First, the actual shape of BN inclusions is observed and the amount and distribution of BN inclusions is quantitatively analyzed. Subsequently, the cutting performance of the steel is determined by cutting experimental tests. Moreover, the micro mechanical properties and the material removal mechanisms for cutting of BN inclusions are investigated by means of nano indentation. The results revealed that the BN inclusions are hexagonal and are uniformly distributed, their average content is 23.2 per unit area and their volume fraction is 0.51% in the steel with 74 ppm B and 180 ppm N. It is shown that BN inclusions can improve the cutting performance of steel significantly, and a model describing the material removal mechanism for cutting of BN inclusions is proposed. BN inclusions act as stress concentration source, lubrication and wrap page of hard particles. (Author)

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopy of hexagonal BN grown on graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, H.; Hamada, T.; Endo, T.; Osaka, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The microscopic surface topography of thin BN x films grown on graphite by electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapor deposition have been imaged with scanning tunneling microscopy in air. The scanning tunneling microscope has generated images of hexagonal BN with atomic resolution

  12. Introducing lattice strain to graphene encapsulated in hBN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Hikari; Hiraide, Rineka; Ootuka, Youiti; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kanda, Akinobu

    Due to the characteristic lattice structure, lattice strain in graphene produces an effective gauge field. Theories tell that by controlling spatial variation of lattice strain, one can tailor the electronic state and transport properties of graphene. For example, under uniaxial local strain, graphene exhibits a transport gap at low energies, which is attractive for a graphene application to field effect devices. Here, we develop a method for encapsulating a strained graphene film in hexagonal boron-nitride (hBN). It is known that the graphene carrier mobility is significantly improved by the encapsulation of graphene in hBN, which has never been applied to strained graphene. We encapsulate graphene in hBN using the van der Waals assembly method. Strain is induced by sandwiching a graphene film between patterned hBN sheets. Spatial variation of strain is confirmed with micro Raman spectroscopy. Transport measurement of encapsulated strained graphene is in progress.

  13. I-V characteristics of graphene nanoribbon/h-BN heterojunctions and resonant tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Taiga; Sakamoto, Shoichi; Tomiya, Mitsuyoshi

    2018-07-04

    We present the first principle calculations of the electrical properties of graphene sheet/h-BN heterojunction (GS/h-BN) and 11-armchair graphene nanoribbon/h-BN heterojunction (11-AGNR/h-BN), which are carried out using the density functional theory (DFT) method and the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) technique. Since 11-AGNR belongs to the conductive (3n-1)-family of AGNR, both are metallic nanomaterials with two transverse arrays of h-BN, which is a wide-gap semi-conductor. The two h-BN arrays act as double barriers. The transmission functions (TF) and I-[Formula: see text] characteristics of GS/h-BN and 11-AGNR/h-BN are calculated by DFT and NEGF, and they show that quantum double barrier tunneling occurs. The TF becomes very spiky in both materials, and it leads to step-wise I-[Formula: see text] characteristics rather than negative resistance, which is the typical behavior of double barriers in semiconductors. The results of our first principle calculations are also compared with 1D Dirac equation model for the double barrier system. The model explains most of the peaks of the transmission functions nearby the Fermi energy quite well. They are due to quantum tunneling.

  14. Orthorhombic BN: A novel superhard sp{sup 3} boron nitride allotrope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiguo [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Lu, Mingchun [Department of Aeronautical Engineering Professional Technology, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132102 (China); Zhu, Li; Zhu, Lili; Li, Yadan [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Zhang, Miao, E-mail: zhangmiaolmc@126.com [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Quan, E-mail: liquan777@jlu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Here, a novel superhard orthorhombic allotrope of boron nitride (O-BN) with the space group of Pbam has been predicted using first-principles calculations. Our results revealed that O-BN simultaneously posses incompressible with a high bulk modulus of 397.38 GPa, and superhard properties with a high Vickers hardness of 65 GPa. Further phonon calculations show O-BN structure is dynamically stable. Moreover, it is thermodynamics energetically more preferable than previous proposed BN allotropes and a transparent insulator with an indirect band gap of about 4.85 eV. Our researches represent a significant step toward the exploration of superhard materials.

  15. BnNHL18A shows a localization change by stress-inducing chemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Suk-Bae; Ham, Byung-Kook; Park, Jeong Mee; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2006-01-01

    The two genes, named BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B, showing sequence homology with Arabidopsis NDR1/HIN1-like (NHL) genes, were isolated from cDNA library prepared with oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seedlings treated with NaCl. The transcript level of BnNHL18A was increased by sodium chloride, ethephon, hydrogen peroxide, methyl jasmonate, or salicylic acid treatment. The coding regions of BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B contain a sarcolipin (SLN)-like sequence. Analysis of the localization of smGFP fusion proteins showed that BnNHL18A is mainly localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This result suggests that the SLN-like sequence plays a role in retaining proteins in ER membrane in plants. In response to NaCl, hydrogen peroxide, ethephon, and salicylic acid treatments, the protein localization of BnNHL18A was changed. Our findings suggest a common function of BnNHL18A in biotic and abiotic stresses, and demonstrate the presence of the shared mechanism of protein translocalization between the responses to plant pathogen and to osmotic stress

  16. Optoelectronic properties of higher acenes, their BN analogue and substituted derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Holodkov, Vladimir; Pelemiš, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated optoelectronic properties of higher acenes: pentacene, hexacene, heptacene, octacene, nonacene, decacene and their boron-nitride (BN) analogues, within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). We have also investigated the optoelectronic properties of acenes modified by BN substitution. Calculated optoelectronic properties encompasses: oxidation and reduction potentials, electron and hole reorganization energies and energy difference between excited first singlet and triplet states ΔE(S_1−T_1). Oxidation and reduction potentials indicate significantly better stability of BN analogues, comparing with their all-carbon relatives. Although higher acenes possess lower electron and hole reorganization energies, with both best values much lower than 0.1 eV, their BN analogues also have competitive values of reorganization energies, especially for holes for which reorganization energy is also lower than 0.1 eV. On the other hand ΔE(S_1−T_1) is much better for BN analogues, having values that indicate that BN analogues are possible applicable for thermally activated delayed fluorescence. - Highlights: • Optoelectronic properties of structures based on higher acenes have been investigated. • Oxidation and reduction potentials together with reorganization energies are calculated. • TADF is analyzed through calculation of ΔE(S_1−T_1), which is much better for BN analogues. • Reorganization energies of acenes improve with the increase of number of benzene rings.

  17. A comparative computational study on the BN ring doped nanographenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vessally, E. [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soleimani-Amiri, S. [Department of Chemistry, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinian, A. [Department of Engineering Science, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Edjlali, L., E-mail: l_edjlali@iaut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bekhradnia, A. [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Clar’s sextet rule determine the relative stability of HBC nanographenes. • Coronene-like doping increases the electrical conductivity of the HBC. • Frenkel type exciton binding energy is predicted for HBC nanographenes. - Abstract: The electronic, optical, energetic, and structural properties of a HBC (hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene) nanographene and its central benzene- and coronene-like BN substituted forms, and also full BN analogue were investigated using density functional theory. It was found that a larger number of carbon atoms cause a more negative cohesive energy and, thereby a greater structural stability. Our nucleus independent chemical shift analysis indicates that the aromaticity and Clar’s sextet rule determine the relative stability of these structures. The benzene-like or coronene-like doping makes the HBC more insulator or semiconductor. Electron-hole Frenkel type exciton binding energy was predicted and calculated to be nearly identical for all nanographenes in the range of 0.61–0.69 eV. The coronene-like BN-doped HBC (BN2-HBN) shows higher conductivity due to very narrow optical and HOMO-LUMO energy gap. Partial density of states analysis indicates that the BN2-HBC electronically can be assumed a full BN whose peripheral atoms are replaced by carbon atoms. These carbon atoms are responsible for new states which are appeared within the gap.

  18. Electronic properties of T graphene-like C-BN sheets: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, R.

    2015-11-01

    We have used density functional theory to study the electronic properties of T graphene-like C, C-BN and BN sheets. The planar T graphene with metallic property has been considered. The results show that the presence of BN has a considerable effect on the electronic properties of T graphene. The T graphene-like C-BN and BN sheets show semiconducting properties. The energy band gap is increased by enhancing the number of BN units. The possibility of opening and controlling band gap opens the door for T graphene in switchable electronic devices.

  19. Basic research on mechanism of BN inclusion in improving the machinability of steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-nan, Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron nitride-added eco-friendly free cutting steel has recently drawn more and more attention. But, the mechanisms explaining the role of BN inclusions improving the machinability of steels is not very clear. In this investigation, the material removal mechanism for cutting of BN inclusions in steels is explored, using a combination of theoretical analysis and a series of experiments. First, the actual shape of BN inclusions is observed and the amount and distribution of BN inclusions is quantitatively analyzed. Subsequently, the cutting performance of the steel is determined by cutting experimental tests. Moreover, the micro mechanical properties and the material removal mechanisms for cutting of BN inclusions are investigated by means of nanoindentation. The results revealed that the BN inclusions are hexagonal and are uniformly distributed, their average content is 23.2 per unit area and their volume fraction is 0.51% in the steel with 74 ppm B and 180 ppm N. It is shown that BN inclusions can improve the cutting performance of steel significantly, and a model describing the material removal mechanism for cutting of BN inclusions is proposed. BN inclusions act as stress concentration source, lubrication and wrappage of hard particles.Los aceros de fácil mecanizado o corte libre con nitruro de boro agregado han despertado un gran interés. Sin embargo, aún no se han determinado los mecanismos que explican el papel de las inclusiones de BN en la mejora de la maquinabilidad de estos aceros. En este trabajo, se investigan los mecanismos de corte de las inclusiones BN en aceros mediante la combinación de un análisis teórico y una serie de experimentos. En primer lugar, se determina la morfología de las inclusiones BN y se analiza cuantitativamente la cantidad y distribución de las mismas. Posteriormente, el rendimiento de corte del acero se determina mediante ensayos de corte. Por otra parte, las propiedades mecánicas locales y los

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of SiO2-BN ceramic and Invar alloy joints brazed with Ag–Cu–Ti+TiH2+BN composite filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ag–Cu–Ti + TiH2+BN composite filler was prepared to braze SiO2-BN ceramic and Invar alloy. The interfacial microstructure, mechanical properties, and residual stress distribution of the brazed joints were investigated. The results show that a wave-like Fe2Ti–Ni3Ti structure appears in the Invar substrate and a thin TiN–TiB2 reaction layer forms adjacent to the SiO2-BN ceramic. The added BN particles react with Ti to form TiN–TiB fine-particles, which is beneficial to refine the microstructure of the brazing seam and to greatly inhibit the brittle compounds formation. The interfacial microstructure at various brazing temperatures was analyzed, and the mechanism for the interfacial reactions responsible for the bonding was proposed. The maximum shear strength of the joints brazed with the composite filler at 880 °C for 10 min is 39 MPa, which is 30% greater than that brazed with Ag–Cu–Ti alloy. The improvement of the joint strength is attributed to the variation of joint microstructure and the reduction of tensile stresses induced in the SiO2-BN ceramic. The finite element analysis indicates that the peak tensile stress decreases from 230 to 142 MPa due to the addition of BN particles in the ceramic.

  1. Plan for Combat Operations (Battlefield Function 18) as Accomplished by a Heavy Brigade. Volume 2: Assessment Package

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullen, William

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the overall research program was to document the synchronization required by command and control tasks performed within the armored brigade, to include combat support and combat service support units...

  2. BN-350 decommissioning problems of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galkin, A.; Tkachenko, V.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant of modern concept on radioactive waste management applied in IAEA Member States all radioactive wastes produced during the BN-350 operation and decommissioning are subject to processing in order to be transformed to a form suitable for long-term storage and final disposal. The first two priority objectives for BN-350 reactor are as follows: cesium cleaning from sodium followed by sodium drain, and processing; processing of liquid and solid radioactive waste accumulated during BN-350 operation. Cesium cleaning from sodium and sodium processing to NaOH will be implemented under USA engineering and financial support. However the outputted product might be only subject to temporary storage under special conditions. Currently the problem is being solved on selection of technology for sodium hydroxide conversion to final product incorporated into cement-like matrix ready for disposal pursuant to existing regulatory requirements. Industrial installation is being designed for liquid radioactive waste processing followed by incorporation to cement matrix subject to further disposal. The next general objective is management of radioactive waste expected from BN-350 decommissioning procedure. Complex of engineering-radiation investigation that is being conducted at BN-350 site will provide estimation of solid and liquid radioactive waste that will be produced during the course of the BN-350 decommission. Radioactive wastes that will be produced may be shared for primary (metal structures of both reactor and reactor plant main and auxiliary systems equipment as well as construction wastes of dismantled biological protection, buildings and structures) and secondary (deactivation solutions, tools, materials, cloth, special accessory, etc.). Processing of produced radioactive wastes (including high activity waste) requires the use of special industrial facilities and construction of special buildings and structures for arrangement of facilities mentioned as well as for

  3. BN-350 nuclear power plant. Regulatory aspects of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiganakov, S.; Zhantikin, T.; Kim, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The BN-350 reactor is a fast breeder reactor using liquid sodium as a coolant [1]. This reactor was commissioned in 1973 and operated for its design life of 20 years. Thereafter, it was operated on the basis of annual licenses, and the final shutdown was initially planned in 2003. In 1999, however, the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on the Decommissioning of BN-350 Reactor. This Decree establishes the conception of the reactor plant decommissioning. The conception envisages three stages of decommissioning. The first stage of decommissioning aims at putting the installation into a state of long term safe enclosure. The main goal is an achievement of nuclear-and radiation-safe condition and industrial safety level. The completion criteria for the stage are as follows: spent fuel is removed and placed in long term storage; radioactive liquid metal coolant is drained from the reactor and processed; liquid and solid radioactive wastes are reprocessed and long-term stored; systems and equipment, that are decommissioned at the moment of reactor safe store, are disassembled; radiation monitoring of the reactor building and environment is provided. The completion criteria of the second stage are as follows: 50 years is up; a decision about beginning of works by realization of dismantling and burial design is accepted. The goal of the third stage is partial or total dismantling of equipment, buildings and structure and burial. Since the decision on the decommissioning of BN-350 Reactor Facility was accepted before end of scheduled service life (2003), to this moment 'The Decommissioning Plan' (which in Kazakhstan is called 'Design of BN-350 reactor Decommission') was not worked out. For realization of the Governmental Decree and for determination of activities by the reactor safety provision and for preparation of its decommission for the period till Design approval the following documents were developed: 1. Special Technical Requirements

  4. Optoelectronic properties of higher acenes, their BN analogue and substituted derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armaković, Stevan, E-mail: stevan.armakovic@df.uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, 21000, Novi Sad (Serbia); Armaković, Sanja J. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000, Novi Sad (Serbia); Holodkov, Vladimir [Educons University, Faculty of Sport and Tourism - TIMS, Radnička 30a, 21000, Novi Sad (Serbia); Pelemiš, Svetlana [University of East Sarajevo, Faculty of Technology, Karakaj bb, 75400, Zvornik, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    2016-02-15

    We have investigated optoelectronic properties of higher acenes: pentacene, hexacene, heptacene, octacene, nonacene, decacene and their boron-nitride (BN) analogues, within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). We have also investigated the optoelectronic properties of acenes modified by BN substitution. Calculated optoelectronic properties encompasses: oxidation and reduction potentials, electron and hole reorganization energies and energy difference between excited first singlet and triplet states ΔE(S{sub 1}−T{sub 1}). Oxidation and reduction potentials indicate significantly better stability of BN analogues, comparing with their all-carbon relatives. Although higher acenes possess lower electron and hole reorganization energies, with both best values much lower than 0.1 eV, their BN analogues also have competitive values of reorganization energies, especially for holes for which reorganization energy is also lower than 0.1 eV. On the other hand ΔE(S{sub 1}−T{sub 1}) is much better for BN analogues, having values that indicate that BN analogues are possible applicable for thermally activated delayed fluorescence. - Highlights: • Optoelectronic properties of structures based on higher acenes have been investigated. • Oxidation and reduction potentials together with reorganization energies are calculated. • TADF is analyzed through calculation of ΔE(S{sub 1}−T{sub 1}), which is much better for BN analogues. • Reorganization energies of acenes improve with the increase of number of benzene rings.

  5. Phase stability limit of c-BN under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jianwei; Du, Jinglian; Wen, Bin; Zhang, Xiangyi; Melnik, Roderick; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Phase stability limit of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has been investigated by the crystal structure search technique. It indicated that this limit is ∼1000 GPa at hydrostatic pressure condition. Above this pressure, c-BN turns into a metastable phase with respect to rocksalt type boron nitride (rs-BN). However, rs-BN cannot be retained at 0 GPa owing to its instability at pressure below 250 GPa. For non-hydrostatic pressure conditions, the phase stability limit of c-BN is substantially lower than that under hydrostatic pressure conditions and it is also dramatically different for other pressure mode

  6. Structural analysis of graphene and h-BN: A molecular dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Siby; Ajith, K. M.; Valsakumar, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Classical molecular dynamics simulation is employed to analyze pair correlations in graphene and h-BN at various temperatures to explore the integrity of their respective structures. As the temperature increases, the height fluctuations in the out-of-plane direction of both graphene and h-BN are found to increase. The positional spread of atoms also increases with temperature. Thus the amplitude of the peak positions in the radial distribution function (RDF) decreases with temperature. It is found that FWHM of peaks in the RDF of h-BN is smaller as compared to those of graphene which implies that the structure of h-BN is more robust as compared to that of graphene with respect to their respective empirical potential.

  7. Densification Behavior of BN-added UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Keonsik; Kim, Dong Joo; Kim, Jong Hun; Oh, Jang Soo; Yang, Jae Ho

    2013-01-01

    Local wall thinning in pipelines affects the structural integrity of industries like nuclear power plants (NPPs). In the present study a pulsed eddy current (PEC) technology to detect the wall thing of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation is developed. Boron is commercially used as a neutron absorber fuel. A neutron absorber fuel is burned out or depleted during reactor operation. Westinghouse have been produced the Integral Fuel Burnable Absorber (IFBA) which is enriched UO 2 fuel pellets with a thin coating of zirconium diboride (ZrB 2 ) on the outer surface. Standard sintered fuel pellets are sputter coated with ZrB 2 . It is known that IFBA fuel can incur 20% to 30% additional fabrication costs. Boron-dispersed UO 2 fuel pellet made by the conventional pressing and sintering process of a powder mixture of UO 2 and B compound might be more cost-effective than IFBAs. M. G. Andrew et al. tried to sinter boron-dispersed UO 2 green pellet. However, they reported that boron-dispersed UO 2 fuel pellet is very difficult to be fabricated with a sufficient level of boron retention and high sintered density (greater than 90 % of theoretical density) because of the volatilization of boron oxide. We have investigated the densification behavior of mixtures of UO 2 and various boron compounds, such as B 4 C, BN, TiB 2 , ZrB 2 , SiB 6 , and HfB 2 . Boron compounds seemed to act as a sintering additive for UO 2 at a certain low temperature range. In this study, the densification behavior of BN-added UO 2 pellet has been investigated by sintering green pellets of a mixture of UO 2 powder and BN powder in H 2 atmosphere. A high density BN-added UO 2 pellet can be fabricated after sintering at 1200 .deg. C for more than 1 h in a H 2 atmosphere. The sintered density of BN-added UO 2 pellet can be increased up to about 95 %TD

  8. Electronic structure properties of deep defects in hBN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Pratibha; Prdm Collaboration

    In recent years, the search for room-temperature solid-state qubit (quantum bit) candidates has revived interest in the study of deep-defect centers in semiconductors. The charged NV-center in diamond is the best known amongst these defects. However, as a host material, diamond poses several challenges and so, increasingly, there is an interest in exploring deep defects in alternative semiconductors such as hBN. The layered structure of hBN makes it a scalable platform for quantum applications, as there is a greater potential for controlling the location of the deep defect in the 2D-matrix through careful experiments. Using density functional theory-based methods, we have studied the electronic and structural properties of several deep defects in hBN. Native defects within hBN layers are shown to have high spin ground states that should survive even at room temperature, making them interesting solid-state qubit candidates in a 2D matrix. Partnership for Reduced Dimensional Material (PRDM) is part of the NSF sponsored Partnerships for Research and Education in Materials (PREM).

  9. Li{sub 4}Ba[BN{sub 2}]{sub 2} - structure and vibrational spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Rodewald, Ute C.; Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Somer, Mehmet; Kiraz, Kamil [Chemistry Department, Koc University, Sariyer-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-12-13

    The nitridoborate Li{sub 4}Ba[BN{sub 2}]{sub 2} was synthesized from a 4:1 molar ratio of Li{sub 3}[BN]{sub 2} and Ba{sub 3}[BN{sub 2}]{sub 2} in an arc-welded niobium ampoule at a maximum annealing temperature of 1173 K. The structure was refined from single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data: new type, P1, a = 533.9(2), b = 585.0(3), c = 860.6(4) pm, α = 80.72(3), β = 73.84(6), γ = 89.87(4) , wR{sub 2} = 0.1196, 1429 F{sup 2} values, 50 variables. The Li{sub 4}Ba[BN{sub 2}]{sub 2} structure contains two crystallographically independent [BN{sub 2}]{sup 3-} units with 134 pm B-N distance, which are slightly bent: 178 for N2-B1-N1 and 175 for N4-B2-N3. Due to the high lithium content both [BN{sub 2}]{sup 3-} units have a strongly distorted coordination by 8Li{sup +} + 3Ba{sup 2+}. The four crystallographically independent lithium cations show distorted tetrahedral coordination by [BN{sub 2}]{sup 3-} units with Li-N distances ranging from 195 to 247 pm. IR and Raman spectra show the typical vibrations of the [BN{sub 2}] unit along with a well-resolved splitting of the ν({sup 10}B) and ν({sup 11}B) frequencies. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Dielectric Properties of Boron Nitride-Ethylene Glycol (BN-EG) Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal, Jacek; Cholewa, Marian; Gizowska, Magdalena; Witek, Adam; ŻyŁa, GaweŁ

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigation of the dielectric properties of ethylene glycol (EG) with various load of boron nitride (BN) nanoparticles. The nanofuids were prepared by using a two-step method on the basis of commercially available BN nanoparticles. The measurements were carried out using the Concept 80 System (NOVOCONTROL Technologies GmbH & Co. KG, Montabaur, Germany) in a frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 MHz and temperatures from 278.15 K to 328.15 K. The frequency-dependent real (ɛ ^' }) and imaginary (ɛ ^' ' }) parts of the complex permittivity (ɛ ^*) and the alternating current (AC) conductivity are presented. Also, the effect of temperature and mass concentrations on the dielectric properties of BN-EG nanofluids are demonstrated. The results show that the most significant increase can be achieved for 20 wt.% of BN nanoparticles at 283.15 K and 288.15 K, that is eleven times larger than in the case of pure EG.

  11. An analysis of main processes at small water-into-sodium leaks in the BN-350 and BN-600 NPP steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavsky, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents the main characteristics of emergency processes at small water-into-sodium leaks that took place during the BN-350 and BN-600 NPP steam generators operation. Leak characteristics are presented, the relationship between such parameters as leak rate and duration, its location in a tube bundle, mass of water ingress into sodium, and the character and size of a failure in the interaction zone is analyzed. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Metallic behavior and enhanced adsorption energy of graphene on BN layer induced by Cu(111) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption properties and the electronic structure of graphene/BN and graphene/BN/Cu(111) systems by using van der Waals density functional theory. The ground-state adsorption site of graphene on BN/Cu(111) is found to be the same as that of graphene/BN. The Cu(111) substrate did not induce a significant change in the geometrical feature of graphene/BN. However, the adsorption energy of graphene on BN/Cu(111) is observed to be enhanced due to the Cu(111) substrate. In addition, we have found that the graphene layer displays a weak metallic character in graphene/BN/Cu(111) whereas an energy band gap is observed in the graphene in the graphene/BN bilayer system. Therefore, we have found that the metallic Cu(111) substrate affects the electronic structure and adsorption properties of graphene on BN/Cu(111), although it has no significant effect on the geometrical features.

  13. Graphene/h-BN/GaAs sandwich diode as solar cell and photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Lin, Shisheng; Lin, Xing; Xu, Zhijuan; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Shengjiao; Zhong, Huikai; Xu, Wenli; Wu, Zhiqian; Fang, Wei

    2016-01-11

    In graphene/semiconductor heterojunction, the statistic charge transfer between graphene and semiconductor leads to decreased junction barrier height and limits the Fermi level tuning effect in graphene, which greatly affects the final performance of the device. In this work, we have designed a sandwich diode for solar cells and photodetectors through inserting 2D hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) into graphene/GaAs heterostructure to suppress the static charge transfer. The barrier height of graphene/GaAs heterojunction can be increased from 0.88 eV to 1.02 eV by inserting h-BN. Based on the enhanced Fermi level tuning effect with interface h-BN, through adopting photo-induced doping into the device, power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.18% has been achieved for graphene/h-BN/GaAs compared with 8.63% of graphene/GaAs structure. The performance of graphene/h-BN/GaAs based photodetector is also improved with on/off ratio increased by one magnitude compared with graphene/GaAs structure.

  14. 44Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 in comparison to 68Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 in pre-clinical investigation. Is 44Sc a potential radionuclide for PET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koumarianou, E.; Loktionova, N.S.; Fellner, M.; Roesch, F.; Thews, O.; Pawlak, D.; Archimandritis, S.C.; Mikolajczak, R.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: In the present study we demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo comparison of the 44 Sc and 68 Ga labeled DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 . 44 Sc is a positron emitter with a half life of 3.92 h. Hence it could be used for PET imaging with ligands requiring longer observation time than in the case of 68 Ga. Methods: The binding affinity of nat Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 and nat Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 to GRP receptors was studied in competition to [ 125 I-Tyr 4 ]-Bombesin in the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3. A preliminary biodistribution in normal rats was performed, while first microPET images were assessed in male Copenhagen rats bearing the androgen-independent Dunning R-3327-AT-1 prostate cancer tumor. Results: The affinity to GRP receptors in the PC-3 cell line was higher for nat Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 (IC 50 (nM)=0.85±0.06) than that of nat Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 (IC 50 (nM)=6.49±0.13). The internalization rate of 68 Ga labeled DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 was slower than that of 44 Sc, but their final internalization percents were comparable. 68 Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 was externalized faster than 44 Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 . The biodistribution of 44 Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 and 68 Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 in normal rats revealed a higher uptake in target organs and tissues of the first one while both excreted mainly through urinary tract. In microPET images both tracers were accumulated in the tumor with similar uptake patterns. Conclusions: Despite the differences in the receptor affinity both the 68 Ga- and the 44 Sc-labeled DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 tracers showed comparable distribution and similar time constants of uptake and elimination. Moreover no differences in tumor accumulation (neither in the overall uptake nor in the dynamics) were observed from the microPet imaging. From that perspective the use of either 44 Sc or 68 Ga for detecting tumors with GRP receptors is equivalent. - Highlights: ► In vitro and in vivo evaluation of 44 Sc- and 68 Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH 2 in reference to published

  15. Flattening and manipulation of the electronic structure of h-BN/Rh(111) nanomesh upon Sn intercalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yuya; Bernard, Carlo; Okuyama, Yuma; Ideta, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Greber, Thomas; Hirahara, Toru

    2018-06-01

    We have deposited Sn on corrugated hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanomeshs formed on Rh(111) and found that Sn atoms are intercalated between h-BN and Rh, flattening the h-BN. Our reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) analysis showed that the average in-plane lattice constant of h-BN increases due to the loss of the corrugation. Furthermore, electronic structure measurements based on angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) showed that the h-BN π band width increases significantly while the σ band width does not change as much. These behaviors were partly different from previous reports on the intercalation of h-BN/Rh system. Our results offer a novel, simple method to control the electronic structure of h-BN.

  16. On the Difference Equation xn=anxn-k/(bn+cnxn-1⋯xn-k

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Stević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of well-defined solutions of the difference equation xn=anxn-k/(bn+cnxn-1⋯xn-k, n∈ℕ0, where k∈ℕ is fixed, the sequences an, bn and cn are real, (bn,cn≠(0,0, n∈ℕ0, and the initial values x-k,…,x-1 are real numbers, is described.

  17. Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boknam Jung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed.

  18. The BN-1800 advanced sodium cooled fast reactor meeting requirements to nuclear power engineering of the XXI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, V.M.; Tsibulya, A.M.; Kamaev, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Basic principles and direction of the elaboration of sodium fast reactor BN-1800 are discussed. The elaboration of the BN-1800 reactor is based on the scientific justified technical feasibilities of BN-350, BN-600 and BN-800 reactors. Descriptions of power blocks and reactor core of the elaborated reactor are presented. Characteristics of the BN-1800 steam generator are given. Safety of reactor unit is estimated, fundamental technical and economic indexes of BN-1800 are discussed. Economic indexes of the BN-1800 reactor are noted to be on the level of WWER-1000 and WWER-1500 reactors [ru

  19. 44Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 in comparison to 68Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 in pre-clinical investigation. Is 44Sc a potential radionuclide for PET?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumarianou, E; Loktionova, N S; Fellner, M; Roesch, F; Thews, O; Pawlak, D; Archimandritis, S C; Mikolajczak, R

    2012-12-01

    In the present study we demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo comparison of the (44)Sc and (68)Ga labeled DOTA-BN[2-14]NH(2). (44)Sc is a positron emitter with a half life of 3.92 h. Hence it could be used for PET imaging with ligands requiring longer observation time than in the case of (68)Ga. The binding affinity of (nat)Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH(2) and (nat)Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH(2) to GRP receptors was studied in competition to [(125)I-Tyr(4)]-Bombesin in the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3. A preliminary biodistribution in normal rats was performed, while first microPET images were assessed in male Copenhagen rats bearing the androgen-independent Dunning R-3327-AT-1 prostate cancer tumor. The affinity to GRP receptors in the PC-3 cell line was higher for (nat)Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH(2) (IC(50)(nM)=0.85 ± 0.06) than that of (nat)Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH(2) (IC(50) (nM)=6.49 ± 0.13). The internalization rate of (68)Ga labeled DOTA-BN[2-14]NH(2) was slower than that of (44)Sc, but their final internalization percents were comparable. (68)Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH(2) was externalized faster than (44)Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH(2). The biodistribution of (44)Sc-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH(2) and (68)Ga-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH(2) in normal rats revealed a higher uptake in target organs and tissues of the first one while both excreted mainly through urinary tract. In microPET images both tracers were accumulated in the tumor with similar uptake patterns. Despite the differences in the receptor affinity both the (68)Ga- and the (44)Sc-labeled DOTA-BN[2-14]NH(2) tracers showed comparable distribution and similar time constants of uptake and elimination. Moreover no differences in tumor accumulation (neither in the overall uptake nor in the dynamics) were observed from the microPet imaging. From that perspective the use of either (44)Sc or (68)Ga for detecting tumors with GRP receptors is equivalent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  1. Review of the toxicologic and radiologic risks to military personnel from exposure to depleted uranium during and after combat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Academies Press (U.S.); National Research Council (U.S.). Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; National Research Council (U.S.) Committee on Toxicologic and Radiologic Effects from Exposure to Depleted Uranium During and After Combat

    2008-01-01

    .... Depleted uranium is a toxic heavy metal and is weakly radioactive. Concerns have been raised about the adverse health effects from exposure to depleted uranium that is aerosolized during combat...

  2. Decolourization and degradation of azo Dye, Synozol Red HF6BN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decolourization and degradation of azo Dye, Synozol Red HF6BN, by Pleurotus ostreatus. Sidra Ilyas, Skinder Sultan Sultan, Abdul Rehman. Abstract. The present paper focuses on the use of fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus, to decolorize and degrade azo dye, Synazol Red HF6BN. Decolorization study showed that P.

  3. Application of the Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS analysis) for detecting heavy impurity elements in pBN crucible materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Meyer, J.D.; Michelmann, R.; Krauskopf, J.

    1992-01-01

    By means of the Rutherford backscattering analysis evidence is given of an inhomogeneous depth distribution of the elements C, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni in pBN (pyrolytic boron nitride) materials of crucibles. This inhomogenous distribution is observed both at the original surface and at the surface of inner cracks. In addition, the distribution of the elements is found to differ depending on the spots chosen for analysis. The RBS measurements alone do not yield information on the volume concentration of the elements. (orig.) With 2 refs [de

  4. Enhancing the mechanical properties of BN nanosheet-polymer composites by uniaxial drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Rahim; May, Peter; Bell, Alan P.; Habib, Amir; Khan, Umar; Coleman, Jonathan N.

    2014-04-01

    We have used liquid exfoliation of hexagonal Boron-Nitride (BN) to prepare composites of BN nanosheets of three different sizes in polyvinylchloride matrices. These composites show low levels of reinforcement, consistent with poor alignment of the nanosheets as-described by a modified version of Halpin-Tsai theory. However, drawing of the composites to 300% strain results in a considerable increase in mechanical properties with the maximum composite modulus and strength both ~×3 higher than that of the pristine polymer. In addition, the rate of increase of modulus with BN volume fraction was up to 3-fold larger than for the unstrained composites. This is higher than can be explained by drawing-induced alignment using Halpin-Tsai theory. However, the data was consistent with a combination of alignment and strain-induced de-aggregation of BN multilayers.

  5. Anticorrosive performance of waterborne epoxy coatings containing water-dispersible hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Mingjun; Ren, Siming; Chen, Jia; Liu, Shuan; Zhang, Guangan; Zhao, Haichao; Wang, Liping; Xue, Qunji

    2017-03-01

    Homogenous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets in solvents or in the polymer matrix is crucial to initiate their many applications. Here, homogeneous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in epoxy matrix was achieved with a water-soluble carboxylated aniline trimer derivative (CAT-) as a dispersant, which was attributed to the strong π-π interaction between h-BN and CAT-, as proved by Raman and UV-vis spectra. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed a random dispersion of h-BN nanosheets in the waterborne epoxy coatings. The deterioration process of water-borne epoxy coating with and without h-BN nanosheets during the long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by electrochemical measurements and water absorption test. Results implied that the introduction of well dispersed h-BN nanosheets into waterborne epoxy system remarkably improved the corrosion protection performance to substrate. Moreover, 1 wt% BN/EP composite coated substrate exhibited higher impedance modulus (1.3 × 106 Ω cm2) and lower water absorption (4%) than those of pure waterborne epoxy coating coated electrode after long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution, demonstrating its superior anticorrosive performance. This enhanced anticorrosive performance was mainly ascribed to the improved water barrier property of epoxy coating via incorporating homogeneously dispersed h-BN nanosheets.

  6. Double vacancy on BN layer: A natural trap for Hydrogen Molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, J S

    2015-01-01

    A pair of vacancies, one of boron and other of nitrogen atom at a flat layer becomes a natural trap to capture a hydrogen molecule at the center of the cavity defined by the empty space left by the lack of a nitrogen and a boron atom at the perfect BN layer formed by 16 N atoms and 16 B atoms. The adsorption of the hydrogen molecule is compared with the equivalent graphene layer with a pair of carbon vacancies. The little increase in the BN cell parameter respect to the graphene cell parameter, besides the differences between N, B and C atoms helps to explain the easier adsorption on the defective BN layer

  7. Modulation of band gap by an applied electric field in BN-based heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, M.; Xu, Y. E.; Zhang, Q. X.

    2018-05-01

    First-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed on the structural and electronic properties of the SiC/BN van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures under an external electric field (E-field). Our results reveal that the SiC/BN vdW heterostructure has a direct band gap of 2.41 eV in the raw. The results also imply that electrons are likely to transfer from BN to SiC monolayer due to the deeper potential of BN monolayer. It is also observed that, by applying an E-field, ranging from -0.50 to +0.65 V/Å, the band gap decreases from 2.41 eV to zero, which presents a parabola-like relationship around 0.0 V/Å. Through partial density of states (PDOS) plots, it is revealed that, p orbital of Si, C, B, and N atoms are responsible for the significant variations of band gap. These obtained results predict that, the electric field tunable band gap of the SiC/BN vdW heterostructures carries potential applications for nanoelectronics and spintronic device applications.

  8. Childhood trauma, combat trauma, and substance use in National Guard and reserve soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Bonnie M; Hoopsick, Rachel A; Homish, D Lynn; Daws, Rachel C; Homish, Gregory G

    2018-02-27

    The goal of this work was to examine associations among childhood trauma, combat trauma, and substance use (alcohol problems, frequent heavy drinking [FHD], current cigarette smoking, and current/lifetime drug use) and the interaction effects of childhood trauma and combat exposure on those associations among National Guard/reserve soldiers. Participants (N = 248) completed an electronic survey asking questions about their military experiences, physical and mental health, and substance use. Childhood trauma and combat exposure were examined jointly in regression models, controlling for age, marital satisfaction, and number of deployments. Childhood trauma was associated with current drug use (trend level, odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97, 2.14; P = .072) in the main effect model; however, there was not a significant interaction with combat. Combat exposure had a significant interaction with childhood trauma on alcohol problems (b = -0.56, 95% CI: -1.12, -0.01; P = .048), FHD (b = -0.27, 95% CI: -0.47, -0.08; P = .007), and lifetime drug use (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.04; P = .035). There were no associations with either of the trauma measures and current cigarette smoking. These results demonstrate that childhood and combat trauma have differential effects on alcohol use, such that combat trauma may not add to the effect on alcohol use in those with greater child maltreatment but may contribute to greater alcohol use among those with low child maltreatment. As expected, childhood and combat trauma had synergistic effects on lifetime drug use. Screening for multiple types of trauma prior to enlistment and/or deployment may help to identify at-risk individuals and allow time for early intervention to prevent future adverse outcomes.

  9. RESOLVING THE STRUCTURE AND KINEMATICS OF THE BN OBJECT AT 0.''2 RESOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2009-01-01

    We present sensitive 7 mm observations of the H53α recombination line and adjacent continuum, made toward the Orion BN/KL region. In the continuum we detect the BN object, the radio source I (GMR I) and the radio counterpart of the infrared (IR) source n (Orion-n). Comparing with observations made at similar angular resolutions but lower frequency, we discuss the spectral indices and angular sizes of these sources. In the H53α line, we only detect the BN object. This is the first time that radio recombination lines have been detected from this source. The LSR radial velocity of BN from the H53α line, v LSR = 20.1 ± 2.1 km s -1 , is consistent with that found from previous studies in near-IR lines. While the continuum emission is expected to have considerable optical depth at 7 mm, the observed H53α line emission is consistent with an optically thin nature and we discuss possible explanations for this apparent discrepancy. There is evidence of a velocity gradient, with the NE part of BN being redshifted by ∼10 km s -1 with respect to the SW part. This is consistent with the suggestion of Jiang et al. that BN may be driving an ionized outflow along that direction.

  10. Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Resin Composites Filled with Combustion Synthesized h-BN Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shyan-Lung; Lin, Jeng-Shung

    2016-05-20

    The thermal conductivity of epoxy resin composites filled with combustion-synthesized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) particles was investigated. The mixing of the composite constituents was carried out by either a dry method (involving no use of solvent) for low filler loadings or a solvent method (using acetone as solvent) for higher filler loadings. It was found that surface treatment of the h-BN particles using the silane 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) increases the thermal conductivity of the resultant composites in a lesser amount compared to the values reported by other studies. This was explained by the fact that the combustion synthesized h-BN particles contain less -OH or active sites on the surface, thus adsorbing less amounts of GPTMS. However, the thermal conductivity of the composites filled with the combustion synthesized h-BN was found to be comparable to that with commercially available h-BN reported in other studies. The thermal conductivity of the composites was found to be higher when larger h-BN particles were used. The thermal conductivity was also found to increase with increasing filler content to a maximum and then begin to decrease with further increases in this content. In addition to the effect of higher porosity at higher filler contents, more horizontally oriented h-BN particles formed at higher filler loadings (perhaps due to pressing during formation of the composites) were suggested to be a factor causing this decrease of the thermal conductivity. The measured thermal conductivities were compared to theoretical predictions based on the Nielsen and Lewis theory. The theoretical predictions were found to be lower than the experimental values at low filler contents ( 60 vol %).

  11. Ab initio study of the structural, electronic and optical properties of BAs and BN compounds and BN{sub x}As{sub 1−x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemou, M., E-mail: guemoumhamed7@gmail.com [Engineering Physics Laboratory, Ibn Khaldoun University of Tiaret, Postbox 78-Zaaroura, 14000 Tiaret (Algeria); Abdiche, A.; Riane, R. [Applied Materials Laboratory, Research Center, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, 22000 Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria)

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we present a density-functional theory study of structural, electronic and optical properties of BAs, BN binary compounds and their ternary BN{sub x}As{sub 1−x} solid solutions. The calculations are done by using the all-electron full potential linear augmented plane-wave method (FP-LAPW) as employed in WIEN2k code. For the exchange-correlation potential, local-density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) have been used to calculate theoretical lattice parameters, bulk modulus, and its pressure derivative. The electronic band structure of these compounds have been calculated by using the above two approximations. We have also investigated in this article the density of state and the optical properties such as the dielectric function and the refractive index of BAs, BN and BN{sub 0.25}As{sub 0.75} compounds by using the above method. The results obtained for structural and electronic properties are compared with experimental data and other computational work. It has been found that the energy bands with all these approximations are similar except the band gap values. It has also been found that our results with LDA and GGA are in good agreement with other computational work wherever these are available.

  12. Cubic boron nitride coatings for innovative applications; Schichten aus kubischem Bornitrid (cBN) fuer innovative Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keunecke, M.; Bewilogua, K. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Schicht- und Oberflaechentechnik (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    Coatings of cubic boron nitride (cBN), the second hardest of all known materials, were prepared using a sputter process. A new coating design, based on a special B-C-N layer system, allows to deposit thick (> 2 {mu}m) cBN films, however so far only on silicon substrates. The properties of the coatings are quite similar to those of bulk cBN. Promising experiments were performed with respect to a transfer of this application relevant layer system to cemented carbide and steel substrates. First measurements of the mechanical and tribological properties confirmed the outstanding properties and the high potential of such cBN based coating systems. (orig.) [German] Schichten aus kubischem Bornitrid (cBN), dem nach Diamant zweithaertesten aller bekannten Materialien, wurden mit einem Sputter-Prozess hergestellt. Ein neuartiger Schichtaufbau, der auf einem speziellen B-C-N-Schichtsystem basiert, ermoeglicht die Abscheidung von cBN-Schichten mit ueber 2 {mu}m Dicke, allerdings bisher nur auf Siliciumsubstraten. Die Eigenschaften der Schichten sind denen von massivem cBN sehr aehnlich. Es wurden vielversprechende Experimente zur Uebertragung dieses fuer Werkzeugbeschichtungen und vielfaeltige andere Anwendungen interessanten Schichtsystems auf Werkzeugsubstrate durchgefuehrt. Erste Untersuchungen der mechanisch-tribologischen Eigenschaften der auf Hartmetall- und Stahlsubstraten abgeschiedenen Schichten belegen das aussergewoehnlich hohe Potential der cBN-basierten Schichtsysteme. (orig.)

  13. Diamond and cBN hybrid and nanomodified cutting tools with enhanced performance: Development, testing and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    with 25% of diamond replaced by cBN grains demonstrate 20% increased performance as compared with pure diamond machining tools, and more than two times higher performance as compared with pure cBN tools. Further, cast iron machining efficiency of the wheels modified by hBN particles was 80% more efficient......The potential of enhancement of superhard steel and cast iron cutting tool performance on the basis of microstuctural modifications of the tool materials is studied. Hybrid machining tools with mixed diamond and cBN grains, as well as machining tool with composite nanomodified metallic binder...... are developed, and tested experimentally and numerically. It is demonstrated that both combination of diamond and cBN (hybrid structure) and nanomodification of metallic binder (with hexagonal boron nitride/hBN platelets) lead to sufficient improvement of the cast iron machining performance. The superhard tools...

  14. Oxidation Behavior of AlN/h-BN Nano Composites at High Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Haiyun; Huang Yinmao; Feng Dawei; He Bo; Yang Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    Both AlN/ nano h-BN composites and AlN/ micro h-BN composites were fabricated. The high temperature oxidation behaviors were investigated at 1000deg. C and 1300deg. C using a cycle-oxidation method. The results showed that there were little changes of both nano composites and monolithic AlN ceramic at temperature of 1000deg. C. And at 1300deg. C, the oxidation dynamics curve of composites could be divided into two courses: a slowly weight increase and a rapid weight decrease, but the oxidation behavior of nano composites was better than micro composites. It was due to that the uniform distribution of oxidation production (Al 18 B 4 O 33 ) surround the AlN grains in nano composites and the oxidation proceeding was retarded. The XRD analysis and SEM observations showed that there was no BN remained in the composites surface after 1300deg. C oxidation and the micropores remain due to the vaporizing of B 2 O 3 oxidized by BN.

  15. Midgap states and band gap modification in defective graphene/h-BN heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachs, B.; Wehling, T.O.; Katsnelson, M.I.; Lichtenstein, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    The role of defects in van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is studied using a combination of ab initio and model calculations. Despite the weak van der Waals interaction between layers, defects residing in h-BN, such as carbon impurities and antisite

  16. Anticorrosive performance of waterborne epoxy coatings containing water-dispersible hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ren, Siming [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Jia; Liu, Shuan [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhang, Guangan [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao, Haichao, E-mail: zhaohaichao@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Liping, E-mail: wangliping@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Xue, Qunji, E-mail: qjxue@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets were well dispersed by using water-soluble carboxylated aniline trimer as dispersant. • The best corrosion performance of waterborne epoxy coatings was achieved with the addition of 1 wt% h-BN. • The decrease of the pores and defects of coating matrix inhibits the diffusion and water absorption of corrosive medium in the coating. - Abstract: Homogenous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets in solvents or in the polymer matrix is crucial to initiate their many applications. Here, homogeneous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in epoxy matrix was achieved with a water-soluble carboxylated aniline trimer derivative (CAT{sup −}) as a dispersant, which was attributed to the strong π-π interaction between h-BN and CAT{sup −}, as proved by Raman and UV–vis spectra. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed a random dispersion of h-BN nanosheets in the waterborne epoxy coatings. The deterioration process of water-borne epoxy coating with and without h-BN nanosheets during the long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by electrochemical measurements and water absorption test. Results implied that the introduction of well dispersed h-BN nanosheets into waterborne epoxy system remarkably improved the corrosion protection performance to substrate. Moreover, 1 wt% BN/EP composite coated substrate exhibited higher impedance modulus (1.3 × 10{sup 6} Ω cm{sup 2}) and lower water absorption (4%) than those of pure waterborne epoxy coating coated electrode after long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution, demonstrating its superior anticorrosive performance. This enhanced anticorrosive performance was mainly ascribed to the improved water barrier property of epoxy coating via incorporating homogeneously dispersed h-BN nanosheets.

  17. Near-field heat transfer between graphene/hBN multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Guizal, Brahim; Zhang, Zhuomin M.; Fan, Shanhui; Antezza, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    We study the radiative heat transfer between multilayer structures made by a periodic repetition of a graphene sheet and a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) slab. Surface plasmons in a monolayer graphene can couple with hyperbolic phonon polaritons in a single hBN film to form hybrid polaritons that can assist photon tunneling. For periodic multilayer graphene/hBN structures, the stacked metallic/dielectric array can give rise to a further effective hyperbolic behavior, in addition to the intrinsic natural hyperbolic behavior of hBN. The effective hyperbolicity can enable more hyperbolic polaritons that enhance the photon tunneling and hence the near-field heat transfer. However, the hybrid polaritons on the surface, i.e., surface plasmon-phonon polaritons, dominate the near-field heat transfer between multilayer structures when the topmost layer is graphene. The effective hyperbolic regions can be well predicted by the effective medium theory (EMT), thought EMT fails to capture the hybrid surface polaritons and results in a heat transfer rate much lower compared to the exact calculation. The chemical potential of the graphene sheets can be tuned through electrical gating and results in an additional modulation of the heat transfer. We found that the near-field heat transfer between multilayer structures does not increase monotonously with the number of layers in the stack, which provides a way to control the heat transfer rate by the number of graphene layers in the multilayer structure. The results may benefit the applications of near-field energy harvesting and radiative cooling based on hybrid polaritons in two-dimensional materials.

  18. Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Resin Composites Filled with Combustion Synthesized h-BN Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyan-Lung Chung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity of epoxy resin composites filled with combustion-synthesized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN particles was investigated. The mixing of the composite constituents was carried out by either a dry method (involving no use of solvent for low filler loadings or a solvent method (using acetone as solvent for higher filler loadings. It was found that surface treatment of the h-BN particles using the silane 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS increases the thermal conductivity of the resultant composites in a lesser amount compared to the values reported by other studies. This was explained by the fact that the combustion synthesized h-BN particles contain less –OH or active sites on the surface, thus adsorbing less amounts of GPTMS. However, the thermal conductivity of the composites filled with the combustion synthesized h-BN was found to be comparable to that with commercially available h-BN reported in other studies. The thermal conductivity of the composites was found to be higher when larger h-BN particles were used. The thermal conductivity was also found to increase with increasing filler content to a maximum and then begin to decrease with further increases in this content. In addition to the effect of higher porosity at higher filler contents, more horizontally oriented h-BN particles formed at higher filler loadings (perhaps due to pressing during formation of the composites were suggested to be a factor causing this decrease of the thermal conductivity. The measured thermal conductivities were compared to theoretical predictions based on the Nielsen and Lewis theory. The theoretical predictions were found to be lower than the experimental values at low filler contents (< 60 vol % and became increasing higher than the experimental values at high filler contents (> 60 vol %.

  19. Theoretical predictions for hexagonal BN based nanomaterials as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyalin, Andrey; Nakayama, Akira; Uosaki, Kohei; Taketsugu, Tetsuya

    2013-02-28

    The catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of both the pristine and defect-possessing hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) monolayer and H-terminated nanoribbon have been studied theoretically using density functional theory. It is demonstrated that an inert h-BN monolayer can be functionalized and become catalytically active by nitrogen doping. It is shown that the energetics of adsorption of O(2), O, OH, OOH, and H(2)O on N atom impurities in the h-BN monolayer (N(B)@h-BN) is quite similar to that known for a Pt(111) surface. The specific mechanism of destructive and cooperative adsorption of ORR intermediates on the surface point defects is discussed. It is demonstrated that accounting for entropy and zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections results in destabilization of the ORR intermediates adsorbed on N(B)@h-BN, while solvent effects lead to their stabilization. Therefore, entropy, ZPE and solvent effects partly cancel each other and have to be taken into account simultaneously. Analysis of the free energy changes along the ORR pathway allows us to suggest that a N-doped h-BN monolayer can demonstrate catalytic properties for the ORR under the condition that electron transport to the catalytically active center is provided.

  20. A novel combinatorial approach for the realization of advanced cBN composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.C.; Yedave, S.N.; Sundaram, N.; Brown, W.D.; Malshe, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reports a novel coating process for the synthesis of hard material composite coatings. It consists of electrostatic spray coating (ESC) of powder particles (of micron-nanometer size) followed by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of a suitable binder phase. This novel approach enables fabrication of unique compositions such as cubic boron nitride (cBN) and titanium nitride (TiN) in a coating form. Recently, we have demonstrated the success of this technology by first coating a uniform over-layer (in excess of ∼ 10 μm) of cBN particles an carbide cutting tool inserts using ESC, followed by infiltration of particulate cBN matrix with TiN from its vapor phase using CVI to synthesize cBN-TiN a composite coating. The composite has shown excellent cBN-to-TiN and composite coating-to-carbide substrate adhesion. One of the main emphases of the paper is to discuss optimization and scale up of the ESC technology to achieve the desired microstructure and tailor the thickness across the cutting tool for better performance. Further, the cutting tools have been successfully tested for advanced machining applications. (author)

  1. Safety Design Criteria and Approaches to Safety Substantiation of the BN-1200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurko, I.

    2013-01-01

    Russian experience in SFR area: Activities on development of safety design criteria for SFRs of the 4th generation is carried out within the GIF framework. Although this reactor technology is considered as innovative that is relevant to the 4th generation, however, it has already a certain history. In this relation, it seems to be useful to analyze the corresponding experience that is available in various countries. 4 SFRs have been successfully operated in the USSR and in the Russian Federation: • Experimental reactor BR-5/10; • Research reactor BOR-60; • Prototype BN-350 power reactor; • Commercial BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Thus, Russia gained a considerable experience of design, construction and operation of SFRs. In particular, a certain experience has been acquired on safety substantiation of reactors of this type and their licensing. Now BOR-60 and BN-600 continue their operation, BN-800 power unit is under construction, development of the commercial BN-1200 power unit, that is considered as the 4th generation reactor, has been started. Due to limited number of operating SFRs in the world, successful Russian experience in this area should be taken into account for further development and improvement of SFR SDC developed by the GIF Task Force. In particular, participation of SFR designers in this activities would be fruitful and useful

  2. Mechanical characterization of Si-C(O) fiber/SiC (CVI) matrix composites with a BN-interphase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouhet, S.; Camus, G.; Labrugere, C.; Guette, A.; Martin, E.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of three CVI-processed 2D woven SiC/BN/SiC composite materials with different initial BN interphase thicknesses has been investigated by means of tensile and impact tests. The results have established the efficiency of a BN interphase in promoting a nonlinear/noncatastrophic tensile behavior and high impact resistance. The effect of the initial BN interphase thickness on the resulting mechanical behavior has also been demonstrated. AES and TEM has revealed the presence of a SiO 2 /C double layer at the BN/fiber interface, which might result from a decomposition undergone by the Si-C(O) Nicalon fiber during processing. It has been suggested that the influence of the initial BN interphase thickness on the mechanical properties of the composites results from both changes occurring in the composition and morphology of the interfacial zones and modifications of the interfacial forces due to accommodation of the radial residual clamping stress

  3. Unraveling the structure of the h-BN/Rh(111) nanomesh with ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowski, R; Blaha, P

    2008-01-01

    The properties of a single layer of h-BN on top of a Rh(111) surface are discussed in terms of an ab initio generated force field approach as well as by direct ab initio density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. A single-layer model for the h-BN/Rh(111) nanomesh, in contrast to a previously considered (incomplete) double-layer model of h-BN, can explain the experimental data. The main focus of this work is to compare a force field approach described earlier in (Laskowski et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 106802) with direct ab initio calculations. The calculated geometry of the h-BN layer is very similar to the structure predicted by the force field approach. The ab initio calculated density of states projected on N-p x,y of BN corresponding to 'low' and 'high' regions with respect to the Rh surface shows a 1 eV splitting and thus explains the observed σ-band splitting. Moreover, we find good agreement between calculated and experimental scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images of this system

  4. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna; Freire Soler, Victor M.; Brökers, Lara; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning; Schleberger, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS 2 and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS 2 does not

  5. Electron Excess Doping and Effective Schottky Barrier Reduction on the MoS2/h-BN Heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Min-Kyu; Moon, Byoung Hee; Ji, Hyunjin; Han, Gang Hee; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Gwanmu; Lim, Seong Chu; Suh, Dongseok; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-10-12

    Layered hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) thin film is a dielectric that surpasses carrier mobility by reducing charge scattering with silicon oxide in diverse electronics formed with graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the h-BN effect on electron doping concentration and Schottky barrier is little known. Here, we report that use of h-BN thin film as a substrate for monolayer MoS 2 can induce ∼6.5 × 10 11 cm -2 electron doping at room temperature which was determined using theoretical flat band model and interface trap density. The saturated excess electron concentration of MoS 2 on h-BN was found to be ∼5 × 10 13 cm -2 at high temperature and was significantly reduced at low temperature. Further, the inserted h-BN enables us to reduce the Coulombic charge scattering in MoS 2 /h-BN and lower the effective Schottky barrier height by a factor of 3, which gives rise to four times enhanced the field-effect carrier mobility and an emergence of metal-insulator transition at a much lower charge density of ∼1.0 × 10 12 cm -2 (T = 25 K). The reduced effective Schottky barrier height in MoS 2 /h-BN is attributed to the decreased effective work function of MoS 2 arisen from h-BN induced n-doping and the reduced effective metal work function due to dipole moments originated from fixed charges in SiO 2 .

  6. Plan for Combat Operations (Battlefield Function 18) as Accomplished by an Engineer Battalion Supporting a Heavy Brigade. Volume 1: Function Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Martin

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the overall research program was to document the synchronization required by command and control tasks performed within the armored brigade, to include combat support and combat service support units...

  7. Plan for Combat Operations (Battlefield Function 18) as Accomplished by an Engineer Battalion Supporting a Heavy Brigade. Volume 2: Assessment Package

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullen, William

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the overall research program was to document the synchronization required by command and control tasks performed within the armored brigade to include combat support and combat service support units...

  8. Elastic and Plastic Behavior of an Ultrafine-Grained Mg Reinforced with BN Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanová, Zuzanka; Dash, Khushbu; Máthis, Kristián; Lukáč, Pavel; Kasakewitsch, Alla

    2018-04-01

    Pure microcrystalline magnesium (µMg) was reinforced with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoparticles and was fabricated by powder metallurgy process followed by hot extrusion. For comparison pure magnesium powder was consolidated by hot extrusion too. Both materials exhibited a significant fiber texture. Mg-hBN nanocomposites (nc) and pure Mg specimens were deformed between room temperature and 300 °C under tension and compression mode. The yield strength and ultimate tensile and compression strength as well as characteristic stresses were evaluated and reported. The tensile and compressive strengths of Mg-hBN nc are quiet superior in values compared to monolithic counterpart as well as Mg alloys. The compressive yield strength of µMg was recorded as 90 MPa, whereas the Mg-hBN nancomposite shows 125 MPa at 200 °C. The tensile yield strength of µMg was computed as 67 MPa which is quite lower as compared to Mg-hBN nanocomposite's value which was recorded as 157 MPa at 200 °C. Under tensile stress the true stress-strain curves are flat in nature, whereas the stress-strain curves observed in compression at temperatures up to 100 °C exhibited small local maxima at the onset of deformation followed by a significant work hardening.

  9. 111In-BnDTPA-F3: an Auger electron-emitting radiotherapeutic agent that targets nucleolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Bart; Waller, Andrew; Target, Carol; Kersemans, Veerle; Smart, Sean; Vallis, Katherine A

    2012-02-20

    The F3 peptide (KDEPQRRSARLSAKPAPPKPEPKPKKAPAKK), a fragment of the human high mobility group protein 2, binds nucleolin. Nucleolin is expressed in the nuclei of normal cells but is also expressed on the membrane of some cancer cells. The goal was to investigate the use of 111In-labeled F3 peptide for Auger electron-targeted radiotherapy. F3 was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for confocal microscopy and conjugated to p-SCN-benzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (BnDTPA) for labeling with 111In to form 111In-BnDTPA-F3. MDA-MB-231-H2N (231-H2N) human breast cancer cells were exposed to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 and used in cell fractionation, γH2AX immunostaining (a marker of DNA double-strand breaks), and clonogenic assays. In vivo, biodistribution studies of 111In-BnDTPA-F3 were performed in 231-H2N xenograft-bearing mice. In tumor growth delay studies, 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (3 μg, 6 MBq/μg) was administered intravenously to 231-H2N xenograft-bearing mice once weekly for 3 weeks. Membrane-binding of FITC-F3 was observed in 231-H2N cells, and there was co-localization of FITC-F3 with nucleolin in the nuclei. After exposure of 231-H2N cells to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 for 2 h, 1.7% of 111In added to the medium was membrane-bound. Of the bound 111In, 15% was internalized, and of this, 37% was localized in the nucleus. Exposure of 231-H2N cells to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (1 μM, 6 MBq/μg) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in γH2AX foci and in a significant reduction of clonogenic survival compared to untreated cells or cells exposed to unlabeled BnDTPA-F3 (46 ± 4.1%, 100 ± 1.8%, and 132 ± 7.7%, respectively). In vivo, tumor uptake of 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (3 μg, 6 MBq/μg) at 3-h post-injection was 1% of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g), and muscle uptake was 0.5%ID/g. In tumor growth delay studies, tumor growth rate was reduced 19-fold compared to untreated or unlabeled BnDTPA-F3-treated mice (p = 0.023). 111In-BnDTPA-F3 is internalized into 231-H2N cells and translocates

  10. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Polyimide Composites Filled with Modified h-BN and Nanodiamond Hybrid Filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Yu, Xiaoyan; Naito, Kimiyoshi; Ding, Huili; Qu, Xiongwei; Zhang, Qingxin

    2018-05-01

    A new thermally conductive and electrically insulative polyimide were prepared by filling different amounts of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) particles, and the thermal conductivity of Polyimide (PI) composites were improved with the increasing h-BN content. Based on this, two methods were applied to improve thermal conductivity furtherly at limited filler loading in this paper. One is modifying the h-BN to improve interface interaction, another is fabricating a nano-micro hybrid filler with 2-D h-BN and 0-D nano-scale nanodiamond (ND) to build more effective conductive network. Both surface modification and hybrid system have a positive effect on thermal conductivity. The composites introducing 40 wt% hybrid filler (the weight ratio of ND/modified BN was 1/10) showed the highest thermal conductivity, being up to 0.98 W/(m K) (5.2 times that of PI). In addition, the composites exhibits excellent electrical insulation, thermal stability properties etc.

  11. DFT simulation on H2 adsorption over Ni-decorated defective h-BN nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Chu, Wei; Zhou, Yanan; Sun, Wenjing; Xue, Ying

    2018-05-01

    Nickel doped defective h-BN nanosheets and their potential application on hydrogen storage were explored by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. Three types of defective h-BN (SW defect, VB and VN substrates) were modeled. In comparison with the SW defect, the B or N vacancy can improve the interaction between Ni atom and h-BN nanosheet strikingly. Furthermore, the Ni-doped SW defect sheet shows chemisorption on H2 molecules, and the Hsbnd H bond is partially dissociated. While on the VB sheet, Ni adatom interacts with H2 in the range of physisorption. However, the Ni-functionalized VN sheet exhibits a desirable adsorption on H2, and the corresponding energy varies from -0.40 to -0.51 eV, which is favorable for H2 adsorption and release at ambient conditions. As a result, the VN substrate is expected to a desirable support for H2 storage. Our work provides an insight into H2 storage on Ni-functionalized defective h-BN monolayer.

  12. KAERI results for BN600 full MOX benchmark (Phase 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kibog Lee

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to report the results of KAERI's calculation for the Phase-4 of BN-600 full MOX fueled core benchmark analyses according to the RCM report of IAEA CRP Action on U pdated Codes and Methods to Reduce the Calculational Uncertainties of the LMFR Reactivity Effects. T he BN-600 full MOX core model is based on the specification in the document, F ull MOX Model (Phase4. doc ) . This document addresses the calculational methods employed in the benchmark analyses and benchmark results carried out by KAERI

  13. Main results of BN-600 reactor stress-strain state investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of BN-600 fast reactor plant needed the solution of a series of complex engineering problems including ones for confirming integrity of the most vital structural components. The particular attention was given to the main vessel since reactor availability end safe operation of the plant as a whole depend on vessel strength end integrity. The present report deals with the main results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the stress-strain state of BN-600 reactor vessel carried out during design, start-up and initial bringing the reactor to power

  14. The modulation of Schottky barriers of metal-MoS2 contacts via BN-MoS2 heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jie; Feng, Liping; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Zhengtang

    2016-06-22

    Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we systematically studied the effect of BN-MoS2 heterostructure on the Schottky barriers of metal-MoS2 contacts. Two types of FETs are designed according to the area of the BN-MoS2 heterostructure. Results show that the vertical and lateral Schottky barriers in all the studied contacts, irrespective of the work function of the metal, are significantly reduced or even vanish when the BN-MoS2 heterostructure substitutes the monolayer MoS2. Only the n-type lateral Schottky barrier of Au/BN-MoS2 contact relates to the area of the BN-MoS2 heterostructure. Notably, the Pt-MoS2 contact with n-type character is transformed into a p-type contact upon substituting the monolayer MoS2 by a BN-MoS2 heterostructure. These changes of the contact natures are ascribed to the variation of Fermi level pinning, work function and charge distribution. Analysis demonstrates that the Fermi level pinning effects are significantly weakened for metal/BN-MoS2 contacts because no gap states dominated by MoS2 are formed, in contrast to those of metal-MoS2 contacts. Although additional BN layers reduce the interlayer interaction and the work function of the metal, the Schottky barriers of metal/BN-MoS2 contacts still do not obey the Schottky-Mott rule. Moreover, different from metal-MoS2 contacts, the charges transfer from electrodes to the monolayer MoS2, resulting in an increment of the work function of these metals in metal/BN-MoS2 contacts. These findings may prove to be instrumental in the future design of new MoS2-based FETs with ohmic contact or p-type character.

  15. Cubic boron nitride (cBN) - A new material for advanced optoelectronic devices. Properties and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, S.V.; Nistor, L.C.; Dinca, G.

    2001-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) exhibits, besides exceptional thermal and mechanical properties similar to diamond, an excellent ability to be n or p doped, which makes it a strong candidate for advanced, high - temperature optical and microelectronic devices. Despite its outstanding characteristics, there are quite a few reports concerning the physical properties of cBN. This is partly due to the absence of natural cBN gems and the extreme difficulties in producing enough large (mm 3 sized) single crystals, or single phase thin films, for physical characterization. The state of the art knowledge concerning the basic properties of crystalline cBN, as well as our recent results of microstructure and defect properties studies will be presented. (authors)

  16. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    of spot-checks, the authority can then convince itself that the operator is fulfilling the requirements. The legislation should also impose heavy sanctions and penalties for all criminal activities related to illicit trafficking. As a direct measure to combat illicit trafficking on the national level, the State supervisory and law enforcement authorities should establish co-operation between themselves and with authorities in other countries and international organisations. Special national committees for combating illicit trafficking should be set up and should use intelligence and open sources information. Regions of States should investigate and implement joint task forces for combating illicit trafficking. Improvements on the International level by the IAEA: The IAEA should assist States in the practical implementation of measures and means for combating illicit trafficking and for the evaluation of threat scenarios. To improve that process in an efficient way, the IAEA should apply the principle of public access to information on its operations to a greater extent. Among other measures for promoting the development of more efficient tools and systems for combating illicit trafficking, the IAEA should: in assisting States, establish rules about duties and responsibilities for operators, authorities and individuals in the NPT area, through appropriate documentation; promote assistance programmes to States in consultation with NPT States, as need may be, of technical equipment and competent staff for the combating of illicit trafficking; provide experts and establish standards and procedures, across borders, for the investigation of serious cases of illicit trafficking, in consultation with national and international nuclear and law enforcement authorities and organisations; incorporate a more modern safeguards inspection technique of the national systems for accountancy and control, in accordance with standards and procedures that were intended to be established

  17. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    . By means of spot-checks, the authority can then convince itself that the operator is fulfilling the requirements. The legislation should also impose heavy sanctions and penalties for all criminal activities related to illicit trafficking. As a direct measure to combat illicit trafficking on the national level, the State supervisory and law enforcement authorities should establish co-operation between themselves and with authorities in other countries and international organisations. Special national committees for combating illicit trafficking should be set up and should use intelligence and open sources information. Regions of States should investigate and implement joint task forces for combating illicit trafficking. Improvements on the International level by the IAEA: The IAEA should assist States in the practical implementation of measures and means for combating illicit trafficking and for the evaluation of threat scenarios. To improve that process in an efficient way, the IAEA should apply the principle of public access to information on its operations to a greater extent. Among other measures for promoting the development of more efficient tools and systems for combating illicit trafficking, the IAEA should: in assisting States, establish rules about duties and responsibilities for operators, authorities and individuals in the NPT area, through appropriate documentation; promote assistance programmes to States in consultation with NPT States, as need may be, of technical equipment and competent staff for the combating of illicit trafficking; provide experts and establish standards and procedures, across borders, for the investigation of serious cases of illicit trafficking, in consultation with national and international nuclear and law enforcement authorities and organisations; incorporate a more modern safeguards inspection technique of the national systems for accountancy and control, in accordance with standards and procedures that were intended to be

  18. Calculation of the octanol-water partition coefficient of armchair polyhex BN nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadinasab, E.; Pérez-Sánchez, H.; Goodarzi, M.

    2017-12-01

    A predictive model for determination partition coefficient (log P) of armchair polyhex BN nanotubes by using simple descriptors was built. The relationship between the octanol-water log P and quantum chemical descriptors, electric moments, and topological indices of some armchair polyhex BN nanotubes with various lengths and fixed circumference are represented. Based on density functional theory electric moments and physico-chemical properties of those nanotubes are calculated.

  19. Experimental and calculating substantiation of reactivity balance and energy-release distribution in BN-600 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, A.V.; Khomyakov, Yu.S.; Surov, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical work done in 2003-2010 years on substantiation of neutron-physical characteristics of the BN-600 core. 1. Transition to the new core 01M2 with high burnup 11.2% h.a. (the 4-th upgrade of the BN-600 core). Transfer was made without changing the constructive of the core almost by reducing conservatism of design decisions. 2. The end of BN-600 design life cycle and extending it to 10-15 years. Need for analysis and comprehension of the BN-600 experience. 3. Development and introduction of new methods of analysis (precision method of Monte Carlo). 4. In the experiments was a change of equipment and measurement techniques

  20. Acoustically-driven surface and hyperbolic plasmon-phonon polaritons in graphene/h-BN heterostructures on piezoelectric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandan, R.; Pedrós, J.; Schiefele, J.; Boscá, A.; Martínez, J.; Calle, F.

    2018-05-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons in graphene couple strongly to surface phonons in polar substrates leading to hybridized surface plasmon-phonon polaritons (SPPPs). We demonstrate that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) can be used to launch propagating SPPPs in graphene/h-BN heterostructures on a piezoelectric substrate like AlN, where the SAW-induced surface modulation acts as a dynamic diffraction grating. The efficiency of the light coupling is greatly enhanced by the introduction of the h-BN film as compared to the bare graphene/AlN system. The h-BN interlayer not only significantly changes the dispersion of the SPPPs but also enhances their lifetime. The strengthening of the SPPPs is shown to be related to both the higher carrier mobility induced in graphene and the coupling with h-BN and AlN surface phonons. In addition to surface phonons, hyperbolic phonons polaritons (HPPs) appear in the case of multilayer h-BN films leading to hybridized hyperbolic plasmon-phonon polaritons (HPPPs) that are also mediated by the SAW. These results pave the way for engineering SAW-based graphene/h-BN plasmonic devices and metamaterials covering the mid-IR to THz range.

  1. Effect of substrate temperature and gas flow ratio on the nanocomposite TiAlBN coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Z. M., E-mail: azmr@utem.edu.my; Kwan, W. L., E-mail: kwailoon86@gmail.com; Juoi, J. M., E-mail: jariah@utem.edu.my [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    Nanocomposite TiAlBN (nc-TiAlBN) coatings were successfully deposited via RF magnetron sputtering by varying the nitrogen-to-total gas flow ratio (R{sub N}), and substrate temperature (T{sub S}). All coatings were deposited on AISI 316 substrates using single Ti-Al-BN hot-pressed disc as a target. The grain size, phases, and chemical composition of the coatings were evaluated using glancing angle X-ray diffraction analysis (GAXRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results showed that the grains size of the deposited nc-TiAlBN coatings were in the range of 3.5 to 5.7 nm and reached a nitride saturation state as early as 15 % R{sub N}. As the nitrogen concentration decreases, boron concentration increased from 9 at.% to 16.17 at.%. and thus, increase the TiB{sub 2} phase within the coatings. The T{sub S}, however, showed no significant effect either on the crystallographic structure, grain size, or in the chemical composition of the deposited nc-TiAlBN coating.

  2. Effect of substrate temperature and gas flow ratio on the nanocomposite TiAlBN coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli, Z. M.; Kwan, W. L.; Juoi, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposite TiAlBN (nc-TiAlBN) coatings were successfully deposited via RF magnetron sputtering by varying the nitrogen-to-total gas flow ratio (R_N), and substrate temperature (T_S). All coatings were deposited on AISI 316 substrates using single Ti-Al-BN hot-pressed disc as a target. The grain size, phases, and chemical composition of the coatings were evaluated using glancing angle X-ray diffraction analysis (GAXRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results showed that the grains size of the deposited nc-TiAlBN coatings were in the range of 3.5 to 5.7 nm and reached a nitride saturation state as early as 15 % R_N. As the nitrogen concentration decreases, boron concentration increased from 9 at.% to 16.17 at.%. and thus, increase the TiB_2 phase within the coatings. The T_S, however, showed no significant effect either on the crystallographic structure, grain size, or in the chemical composition of the deposited nc-TiAlBN coating.

  3. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Freire Soler, Victor M. [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brökers, Lara [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Schleberger, Marika, E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS{sub 2} does not.

  4. Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of 3D metal trioxide and tetraoxide superhalogen cluster-doped monolayer BN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jingjing; Li, Dan; Niu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongmin; Liang, Chunjun; He, Zhiqun

    2016-01-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of monolayer BN doped with 3D metal trioxide and tetraoxide superhalogen clusters are investigated using first-principle calculations. TMO_3_(_4_)-doped monolayer BN exhibits a low negative formation energy, whereas TM atoms embedded in monolayer BN show a high positive formation energy. TMO_3_(_4_) clusters are embedded more easily in monolayer BN than TM atoms. Compared with TMO_3-doped structures, TMO_4-doped structures have a higher structural stability because of their higher binding energies. Given their low negative formation energies, TMO_4-doped structures are more favored for specific applications than TMO_3-doped structures and TM atom-doped structures. Large magnetic moments per supercell and significant ferromagnetic couplings between a TM atom and neighboring B and N atoms on the BN layer were observed in all TMO_4-doped structures, except for TiO_4-doped structures. - Highlights: • TMO_3_(_4_) superhalogen clusters incorporated into monolayer BN were investigated. • TMO_3_(_4_) clusters are embedded more easily in monolayer BN than TM atoms. • TMO_4-doped structures are more favored for specific applications. • Large magnetic moments were observed in TMO_4-doped structures. • The band gap was sensitively dependent on the doped clusters.

  5. The Impact of Combat Status on Veterans' Attitudes Toward Help Seeking: The Hierarchy of Combat Elitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Wendy; Brown, Jodi Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Many veterans do not seek assistance for mental health concerns despite the staggering prevalence of trauma-related symptomatology. Barriers to service provision include personal and professional stigma and inter-veteran attitudes that dictate who is more or less deserving of services. Veteran attitudes are shaped by military culture, which promotes a hyper-masculine paradigm upholding combat experience as the defining feature of the "ideal soldier." The stratification of soldiers into combat or non-combat status creates a hierarchy of combat elitism that extends far beyond active duty. This pilot study surveyed veterans (n = 24) to explore how combat experience may affect attitudes toward help seeking. Findings indicate combat and non-combat veterans are less accepting of non-combat veterans' help-seeking behavior, supporting the notion that veterans' attitudes toward help seeking are influenced by combat status. Despite limitations, the results of this study reflect a need for increased attention to the attitudes veterans have about each other and themselves.

  6. Oxidation of BN-coated SiC fibers in ceramic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, B.W.; Sun, E.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations were performed to analyze the simultaneous oxidation of BN and SiC. The results show that, with limited amounts of oxygen present, the formation of SiO 2 should occur prior to the formation of B 2 O 3 . This agrees with experimental observations of oxidation in glass-ceramic matrix composites with BN-coated SiC fibers, where a solid SiO 2 reaction product containing little or no boron has been observed. The thermodynamic calculations suggest that this will occur when the amount of oxygen available is restricted. One possible explanation for this behavior is that SiO 2 formation near the external surfaces of the composite closes off cracks or pores, such that vapor phase O 2 diffusion into the composite occurs only for a limited time. This indicates that BN-coated SiC fibers will not always oxidize to form significant amounts of a low-melting, borosilicate glass

  7. Fabrication of BN/Al(-Mg) metal matrix composite (MMC) by pressureless infiltration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W.G.; Kwon, H. [School of Advanced Materials Eng., Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    BN/Al(-Mg) metal matrix composite (MMC) was fabricated by the pressureless infiltration technique. The phase characterizations of the composites were analyzed using the SEM, TEM, EDS and EPMA on reaction products after the electrochemical dissolution of the matrix. It is confirmed that aluminum nitride (AlN) was formed by the reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and Al alloy melt. Plate type AlN and polyhedral type Mg(-Al) boride were formed by the reaction between Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2}, BN and molten Al in the composite. The reaction mechanism in the fabrication of BN/Al(-Mg) MMC was derived from the phase analysis results and the thermodynamic investigation. (orig.)

  8. Investigation of structure and mechanical properties of plasma vapor deposited nanocomposite TiBN films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Neena, D.; Wang, Zesong; Kondamareddy, K. k.; Li, Na; Zuo, Wenbin; Yan, Shaojian; Liu, Chuansheng; Fu, Dejun

    2017-04-01

    TiBN coatings have huge potential applications as they have excellent properties with increasing modern industrial requirements. Nanocomposite TiBN coatings were synthesized on cemented carbide, high speed steel and Si substrates by using cathodic arc plasma ion plating from pure TiB2 ceramic targets. The structure and mechanical properties of the TiBN coatings were significantly influenced by the nitrogen partial pressure. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry demonstrates that the nitrogen content of the coating varied from 2.8% to 34.5% and high-resolution electron microscopy images reveal that all coatings have the characteristic of nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. The root-mean-square roughness of the coatings increases from 3.73 to 14.64 nm and the coefficients of friction of the coatings at room temperature vary from 0.54 to 0.73 with increasing nitrogen partial pressure. The microhardness of the coating increases up to 35.7 GPa at 10 sccm N2 flow rate. The smallest wear rate is 2.65 × 10-15 m3 N-1 m-1 which indicates that TiBN coatings have excellent wear resistance. The adhesion test revealed that the TiBN coatings have good adhesion at low nitrogen partial pressure.

  9. A nano capacitor with graphene electrodes and Methane - (h-BN)insulator

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokh Roya Nikmaram

    2016-01-01

    Methan has a large potential to adsorb and diffuse among h-BN and graphene surfaces as the suitable dielectric. With this background the nanoscale dielectric capacitors have been widely studied due to their ability to store a high amount of energy. In this research, I have modeled one which is composed of two graphene layers including insulating medium of a h-BN layers which are filed out (Methane)n,m {n=m=7). It has been indicated thatthe Methane moleculeis the suitable gas for hetero-struct...

  10. Plasma synthesis and HPHT consolidation of BN nanoparticles, nanospheres, and nanotubes to produce nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Christopher

    Plasma methods offer a variety of advantages to nanomaterials synthesis. The process is robust, allowing varying particle sizes and phases to be generated simply by modifying key parameters. The work here demonstrates a novel approach to nanopowder synthesis using inductively-coupled plasma to decompose precursor, which are then quenched to produce a variety of boron nitride (BN)-phase nanoparticles, including cubic phase, along with short-range-order nanospheres (e.g., nano-onions) and BN nanotubes. Cubic BN (c-BN) powders can be generated through direct deposition onto a chilled substrate. The extremely-high pyrolysis temperatures afforded by the equilibrium plasma offer a unique particle growth environment, accommodating long deposition times while exposing resulting powders to temperatures in excess of 5000K without any additional particle nucleation and growth. Such conditions can yield short-range ordered amorphous BN structures in the form of 20nm diameter nanospheres. Finally, when introducing a rapid-quenching counter-flow gas against the plasma jet, high aspect ratio nanotubes are synthesized, which are collected on substrate situated radially. The benefits of these morphologies are also evident in high-pressure/high-temperature consolidation experiments, where nanoparticle phases can offer a favorable conversion route to super-hard c-BN while maintaining nanocrystallinity. Experiments using these morphologies are shown to begin to yield c-BN conversion at conditions as low as 2.0 GPa and 1500°C when using micron sized c-BN seeding to create localized regions of high pressures due to Hertzian forces acting on the nanoparticles.

  11. Nanowires and nanotubes of BN, GaN and Si3N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepak, F.L.; Gundiah, G.; Govindaraj, A.; Rao, C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Simple methods of synthesizing nanotubes and nanowires of boron nitride, gallium nitride and silicon nitride have been investigated. The nanotubes and nanowires have been examined by electron microscopy and other techniques. In the case of BN, activated carbon or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was heated with boric acid in the presence of NH 3 . With activated carbon, BN nanowires constitute the primary products, but good yields of BN nanotubes are obtained with MWNTs. Aligned BN nanotubes are obtained when aligned MWNTs are employed as the starting material suggesting templating role of carbon nanotubes. Single crystal gallium nitride nanowires have been obtained by heating carbon nanotubes coated with gallium acetylacetonate in NH 3 vapor at 910 o C. Single walled carbon nanotubes were used as templated to reduce the diameter of the GaN nanowires. The growth direction of the GaN nanowires is nearly perpendicular to the [100] planes and the nanowires exhibit satisfactory photoluminescence spectra. Si 3 N 4 nanowires have been synthesized by heating multi-walled carbon nanotubes with silica gel at 1360 o C in an atmosphere of NH 3 . Si 3 N 4 nanotubes are found occasionally when aligned multi-walled nanotubes are employed as templates. (author)

  12. Effects of hexagonal boron nitride and sintering temperature on mechanical and tribological properties of SS316L/h-BN composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahathanabodee, S.; Palathai, T.; Raadnui, S.; Tongsri, R.; Sombatsompop, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► 20 vol% h-BN in stainless steel gave the lowest friction coefficient. ► Sintering temperature of 1200 °C was recommended for optimum friction coefficient. ► h-BN in stainless steel transformed to a boride liquid phase at 1250 °C. - Abstract: In this work, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)-embedded 316L stainless steel (SS316L/h-BN) composites were prepared using a conventional powder metallurgy process. In order to produce self-lubricating composites, various amounts of h-BN (10, 15 and 20 vol%) were incorporated. Effects of h-BN content and sintering temperature on the mechanical and tribological properties were of primary interest. The results suggested that an increase in h-BN content reduced the hardness of the composites, but that the hardness could be improved by increasing the sintering temperature. Addition of h-BN up to 20 vol% improved the friction coefficient of the composites. At a sintering temperature of 1250 °C, h-BN transformed into a boride liquid phase, which formed a eutectic during cooling and exhibited a deterioration effect on lubricating film formation of the h-BN, resulting in an increase in the friction coefficient of the composites. The specific wear rate was greatly reduced when the composites were sintered at 1200 °C. The lowest friction coefficient and specific wear rate in the composites could be found under the experimental conditions used in this work when using 20 vol% of h-BN at a sintering temperature of 1200 °C

  13. Suppression of Lateral Diffusion and Surface Leakage Currents in nBn Photodetectors Using an Inverted Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Savich, G. R.; Marozas, B. T.; Wicks, G. W.

    2018-02-01

    Surface leakage and lateral diffusion currents in InAs-based nBn photodetectors have been investigated. Devices fabricated using a shallow etch processing scheme that etches through the top contact and stops at the barrier exhibited large lateral diffusion current but undetectably low surface leakage. Such large lateral diffusion current significantly increased the dark current, especially in small devices, and causes pixel-to-pixel crosstalk in detector arrays. To eliminate the lateral diffusion current, two different approaches were examined. The conventional solution utilized a deep etch process, which etches through the top contact, barrier, and absorber. This deep etch processing scheme eliminated lateral diffusion, but introduced high surface current along the device mesa sidewalls, increasing the dark current. High device failure rate was also observed in deep-etched nBn structures. An alternative approach to limit lateral diffusion used an inverted nBn structure that has its absorber grown above the barrier. Like the shallow etch process on conventional nBn structures, the inverted nBn devices were fabricated with a processing scheme that only etches the top layer (the absorber, in this case) but avoids etching through the barrier. The results show that inverted nBn devices have the advantage of eliminating the lateral diffusion current without introducing elevated surface current.

  14. Band gap tunning in BN-doped graphene systems with high carrier mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.

    2014-02-17

    Using density functional theory, we present a comparative study of the electronic properties of BN-doped graphene monolayer, bilayer, trilayer, and multilayer systems. In addition, we address a superlattice of pristine and BN-doped graphene. Five doping levels between 12.5% and 75% are considered, for which we obtain band gaps from 0.02 eV to 2.43 eV. We demonstrate a low effective mass of the charge carriers.

  15. Vacuolar iron transporter BnMEB2 is involved in enhancing iron tolerance of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron toxicity is a major nutrient disorder that severely affects crop development and yield. Vacuolar detoxification of metal stress is an important strategy for plants to survive and adapt to this adverse environment. Vacuolar iron transporter (VIT members are involved in this process and play essential roles in iron storage and transport. In this study, a rapeseed VIT gene BnMEB2 (BnaC07g30170D was identified. BnMEB2 is a homolog to Arabidopsis MEB2 (At5g24290 and acts as a detoxifier in vacuolar sequestration of divalent metal. Transient expression analysis revealed that BnMEB2 was localized to the vacuolar membrane. Q-PCR detection showed a high expression of BnMEB2 in mature (60-day-old leaves and could be obviously induced by exogenous iron stress in both roots and leaves. Over-expressed BnMEB2 in both Arabidopsis wild type and meb2 mutant seedlings resulted in greatly improved iron tolerability with no significant changes in the expression level of other vacuolar iron transporter genes. The mutant meb2 grew slowly and its root hair elongation was inhibited under high iron concentration condition while BnMEB2 over-expressed transgenic plants of the mutant restored the phenotypes with apparently higher iron storage in roots and dramatically increased iron content in the whole plant. Taken together, these results suggested that BnMEB2 was a VIT gene in rapeseed which was necessary for safe storage and vacuole detoxification function of excess iron to enhance the tolerance of iron toxicity. This research sheds light on a potentially new strategy for attenuating hazardous metal stress from environment and improving iron biofortification in Brassicaceae crops.

  16. Exfoliated BN shell-based high-frequency magnetic core-shell materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Patel, Ketan; Ren, Shenqiang

    2017-09-14

    The miniaturization of electric machines demands high frequency magnetic materials with large magnetic-flux density and low energy loss to achieve a decreased dimension of high rotational speed motors. Herein, we report a solution-processed high frequency magnetic composite (containing a nanometal FeCo core and a boron nitride (BN) shell) that simultaneously exhibits high electrical resistivity and magnetic permeability. The frequency dependent complex initial permeability and the mechanical robustness of nanocomposites are intensely dependent on the content of BN insulating phase. The results shown here suggest that insulating magnetic nanocomposites have potential for application in next-generation high-frequency electric machines with large electrical resistivity and permeability.

  17. The BnALMT1 Protein That is an Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporter is Localized in the Plasma Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Ligaba, Ayalew; Katsuhara, Maki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    We have previously reported that Al-induces citrate and malate efflux from P-sufficient and P-deficient plants of rape (Brassica napus L.) and that P-deficiency alone could not induce this response. Further investigation showed that the transcript of two genes designated BnALMT1 and BnALMT2 is accumulated in roots by Al-treatment. Transgenic tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum) and Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the BnALMT1 and BnALMT2 proteins released more malate than control cells in the p...

  18. nBn Infrared Detector Containing Graded Absorption Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Bandara, Sumith V.

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed to modify the basic structure of an nBn infrared photodetector so that a plain electron-donor- type (n-type) semiconductor contact layer would be replaced by a graded n-type III V alloy semiconductor layer (i.e., ternary or quarternary) with appropriate doping gradient. The abbreviation nBn refers to one aspect of the unmodified basic device structure: There is an electron-barrier ("B" ) layer between two n-type ("n" ) layers, as shown in the upper part of the figure. One of the n-type layers is the aforementioned photon-absorption layer; the other n-type layer, denoted the contact layer, collects the photocurrent. The basic unmodified device structure utilizes minority-charge-carrier conduction, such that, for reasons too complex to explain within the space available for this article, the dark current at a given temperature can be orders of magnitude lower (and, consequently, signal-to-noise ratios can be greater) than in infrared detectors of other types. Thus, to obtain a given level of performance, less cooling (and, consequently, less cooling equipment and less cooling power) is needed. [In principle, one could obtain the same advantages by means of a structure that would be called pBp because it would include a barrier layer between two electron-acceptor- type (p-type) layers.] The proposed modifications could make it practical to utilize nBn photodetectors in conjunction with readily available, compact thermoelectric coolers in diverse infrared- imaging applications that could include planetary exploration, industrial quality control, monitoring pollution, firefighting, law enforcement, and medical diagnosis.

  19. P-type sp3-bonded BN/n-type Si heterodiode solar cell fabricated by laser-plasma synchronous CVD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Shojiro; Nagata, Takahiro; Chikyo, Toyohiro; Sato, Yuhei; Watanabe, Takayuki; Hirano, Daisuke; Takizawa, Takeo; Nakamura, Katsumitsu; Hashimoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Takuya; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    A heterojunction of p-type sp 3 -bonded boron nitride (BN) and n-type Si fabricated by laser-plasma synchronous chemical vapour deposition (CVD) showed excellent rectifying properties and proved to work as a solar cell with photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.76%. The BN film was deposited on an n-type Si (1 0 0) substrate by plasma CVD from B 2 H 6 + NH 3 + Ar while doping of Si into the BN film was induced by the simultaneous irradiation of an intense excimer laser with a pulse power of 490 mJ cm -2 , at a wavelength of 193 nm and at a repetition rate of 20 Hz. The source of dopant Si was supposed to be the Si substrate ablated at the initial stage of the film growth. The laser enhanced the doping (and/or diffusion) of Si into BN as well as the growth of sp 3 -bonded BN simultaneously in this method. P-type conduction of BN films was determined by the hot (thermoelectric) probe method. The BN/Si heterodiode with an essentially transparent p-type BN as a front layer is supposed to efficiently absorb light reaching the active region so as to potentially result in high efficiency.

  20. Extending the Operational Relevance of the Current Heavy Mechanized and Armor Force to 2020 and Beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boston, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    Can the U.S. Army's current heavy mechanized and armor force adapt emerging Joint Vision 2020 operational concepts, in order to remain relevant to the land power requirements of combatant commanders across...

  1. Engineering few-layer MoTe2 devices by Co/hBN tunnel contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengjian; Luo, Wei; Wu, Nannan; Zhang, Xue-ao; Qin, Shiqiao

    2018-04-01

    2H phase Molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) is a layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor that has recently gained extensive attention for its intriguing properties, demonstrating great potential for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. Optimizing the electric contacts to MoTe2 is a critical step for realizing high performance devices. Here, we demonstrate Co/hBN tunnel contacts to few-layer MoTe2. In sharp contrast to the p-type conduction of Co contacted MoTe2, Co/hBN tunnel contacted MoTe2 devices show clear n-type transport properties. Our first principles calculation reveals that the inserted few-layer hBN strongly interacts with Co and significantly reduces its work-function by ˜1.2 eV, while MoTe2 itself has a much weaker influence on the work-function of Co. This allows us to build MoTe2 diodes using the mixed Co/hBN and Co contact architecture, which can be switched from p-n type to n-p type by changing the gate-voltage, paving the way for engineering multi-functional devices based on atomically thin 2D semiconductors.

  2. Growth and characterization of thick cBN coatings on silicon and tool substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewilogua, K.; Keunecke, M.; Weigel, K.; Wiemann, E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently some research groups have achieved progress in the deposition of cubic boron nitride (cBN) coatings with a thickness of 2 μm and more, which is necessary for cutting tool applications. In our laboratory, thick cBN coatings were sputter deposited on silicon substrates using a boron carbide target. Following a boron carbide interlayer (few 100 nm thick), a gradient layer with continuously increasing nitrogen content was prepared. After the cBN nucleation, the process parameters were modified for the cBN film growth to a thickness of more than 2 μm. However, the transfer of this technology to technically relevant substrates, like cemented carbide cutting inserts, required some further process modifications. At first, a titanium interlayer had to be deposited followed by a more than 1-μm-thick boron carbide layer. The next steps were identical to those on silicon substrates. The total coating thickness was in the range of 3 μm with a 0.5- to nearly 1-μm-thick cBN top layer. In spite of the enormous intrinsic stress, both the coatings on silicon and on cemented carbide exhibited a good adhesion and a prolonged stability in humid air. Oxidation experiments revealed a stability of the coating system on cemented carbide up to 700 deg. C and higher. Coated cutting inserts were tested in turning operations with different metallic workpiece materials. The test results will be compared to those of well-established cutting materials, like polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) and oxide ceramics, considering the wear of coated tools

  3. Preparation of transparent BN films with superhydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxing; Liu Yi; Wang Bo; Song Xuemei; Li Er; Yan Hui

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach was investigated to obtain the superhydrophobicity on surfaces of boron nitride films. In this method boron nitride films were deposited firstly on Si(1 0 0) and quartz substrate using a radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system, and then using CF 4 plasma treatment, the topmost surface area can be modified systematically. The results have shown that the water contact angle on such surfaces can be tuned from 67 deg. to 159 deg. The films were observed to be uniform. The surfaces of films consist of micro-features, which were confirmed by Atomic Force Micrograph. The chemical bond states of the films were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, which indicate the dominance of B-N binding. According to the X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analysis, the surface of film is mainly in BN phase. The micro-feature induced surface roughness is responsible for the observed superhydrophobic nature. The water contact angles measured on these surfaces can be modeled by the Cassie's formulation

  4. Effects of epitaxial structure and processing on electrical characteristics of InAs-based nBn infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Savich, G. R.; Marozas, B. T.; Wicks, G. W.

    2017-02-01

    The conventional processing of the III-V nBn photodetectors defines mesa devices by etching the contact n-layer and stopping immediately above the barrier, i.e., a shallow etch. This processing enables great suppression of surface leakage currents without having to explore surface passivation techniques. However, devices that are made with this processing scheme are subject to lateral diffusion currents. To address the lateral diffusion current, we compare the effects of different processing approaches and epitaxial structures of nBn detectors. The conventional solution for eliminating lateral diffusion current, a deep etch through the barrier and the absorber, creates increased dark currents and an increased device failure rate. To avoid deep etch processing, a new device structure is proposed, the inverted-nBn structure. By comparing with the conventional nBn structure, the results show that the lateral diffusion current is effectively eliminated in the inverted-nBn structure without elevating the dark currents.

  5. Wear resistance and microstructural properties of Ni–Al/h-BN/WC–Co coatings deposited using plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, W.T.; Su, C.Y.; Huang, T.S.; Liao, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and tungsten carbide cobalt (WC–Co) were added to nickel aluminum alloy (Ni–Al) and deposited as plasma sprayed coatings to improve their tribological properties. The microstructure of the coatings was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Following wear test, the worn surface morphologies of the coatings were analyzed using a SEM to identify their fracture modes. The results of this study demonstrate that the addition of h-BN and WC–Co improved the properties of the coatings. Ni–Al/h-BN/WC–Co coatings with high hardness and favorable lubrication properties were deposited. - Highlights: • We mixed Ni–Al, h-BN and WC–Co powders and deposited them as composite coatings. • Adding WC–Co was found to increase the hardness and reduce the wear volume loss. • Adding h-BN was found to decrease the hardness and reduce the friction coefficient. • This composite coating was shown to have improved wear properties at 850 °C

  6. Effect of an in-plane ligand on the electronic structures of bromo-bridged nano-wire Ni-Pd mixed-metal complexes, [Ni(1-x)Pd(x)(bn)2Br]Br2 (bn = 2S,3S-diaminobutane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Mari; Wu, Hashen; Kawakami, Daisuke; Takaishi, Shinya; Kajiwara, Takashi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro; Kishida, Hideo; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shinichi

    2009-08-03

    Single crystals of quasi-one-dimensional bromo-bridged Ni-Pd mixed-metal complexes with 2S,3S-diaminobutane (bn) as an in-plane ligand, [Ni(1-x)Pd(x)(bn)(2)Br]Br(2), were obtained by using an electrochemical oxidation method involving mixed methanol/2-propanol (1:1) solutions containing different ratios of [Ni(II)(bn)(2)]Br(2) and [Pd(II)(bn)(2)]Br(2). To investigate the competition between the electron-correlation of the Ni(III) states, or Mott-Hubbard states (MH), and the electron-phonon interaction of the Pd(II)-Pd(IV) mixed valence states, or charge-density-wave states (CDW), in the Ni-Pd mixed-metal compounds, X-ray structure analyses, X-ray oscillation photograph, and Raman, IR, ESR, and single-crystal reflectance spectra were analyzed. In addition, the local electronic structures of Ni-Pd mixed-metal single crystals were directly investigated by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at room temperature and ambient pressure. The oxidation states of [Ni(1-x)Pd(x)(bn)(2)Br]Br(2) changed from a M(II)-M(IV) mixed valence state to a M(III) MH state at a critical mixing ratio (x(c)) of approximately 0.8, which is lower than that of [Ni(1-x)Pd(x)(chxn)(2)Br]Br(2) (chxn = 1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane) (x(c) approximately 0.9) reported previously. The lower value of x(c) for [Ni(1-x)Pd(x)(bn)(2)Br]Br(2) can be explained by the difference in their CDW dimensionalities because the three-dimensional CDW ordering in [Pd(bn)(2)Br]Br(2) observed by using X-ray diffuse scattering stabilizes the Pd(II)-Pd(IV) mixed valence state more than two-dimensional CDW ordering in [Pd(chxn)(2)Br]Br(2) does, which has been reported previously.

  7. Search for muonium states in BN, WS[sub 2] and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansaldo, E J [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada) Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

    1994-07-01

    A sizable missing fraction was found for semiconductors (cubic) BN and (hexagonal) WS[sub 2]. A repolarization measurement at room temperature yielded a high hyperfine frequency for the dominant muonium signal in BN. The missing fraction in carbon nanotubes with average 20 nm outer diameter was less than 4% at temperatures above 5 K, with very small relaxation in transverse and longitudinal fields, indicating that such tubulenes are microscopically (semi-)metals or small-gap semiconductors, non-magnetic and non-superconducting. (orig.)

  8. Controlling the orientation of nucleobases by dipole moment interaction with graphene/h-BN interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vovusha, Hakkim; Amorim, Rodrigo G.; Scheicher, Ralph H.; Sanyal, Biplab

    2018-01-01

    The interfaces in 2D hybrids of graphene and h-BN provide interesting possibilities of adsorbing and manipulating atomic and molecular entities. In this paper, with the aid of density functional theory, we demonstrate the adsorption characteristics of DNA nucleobases at different interfaces of 2D hybrid nanoflakes of graphene and h-BN. The interfaces provide stronger binding to the nucleobases in comparison to pure graphene and h-BN nanoflakes. It is also revealed that the individual dipole moments of the nucleobases and nanoflakes dictate the orientation of the nucleobases at the interfaces of the hybrid structures. The results of our study point towards a possible route to selectively control the orientation of individual molecules in biosensors.

  9. Controlling the orientation of nucleobases by dipole moment interaction with graphene/h-BN interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vovusha, Hakkim

    2018-02-08

    The interfaces in 2D hybrids of graphene and h-BN provide interesting possibilities of adsorbing and manipulating atomic and molecular entities. In this paper, with the aid of density functional theory, we demonstrate the adsorption characteristics of DNA nucleobases at different interfaces of 2D hybrid nanoflakes of graphene and h-BN. The interfaces provide stronger binding to the nucleobases in comparison to pure graphene and h-BN nanoflakes. It is also revealed that the individual dipole moments of the nucleobases and nanoflakes dictate the orientation of the nucleobases at the interfaces of the hybrid structures. The results of our study point towards a possible route to selectively control the orientation of individual molecules in biosensors.

  10. Structure of boron clusters revisited, Bn with n = 14-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Truong Ba; Tam, Nguyen Minh; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2012-03-01

    We reinvestigate the structures of neutral boron clusters Bn, with n = 14-20. G3B3 calculations confirm that a transition between 2D and 3D shape occurs at B20, which has a tubular form. In disagreement with Boustani et al. (Phys. Rev. B, 83 (2011) 193405), we find a planar B19 cluster. Standard heats of formation are obtained and used to evaluate the clusters stability. The average binding energy tends to increase with increasing size toward a limit. Higher stability is found B14, B16, B18 and B20. All Bn have negative NICS-values. The bonding nature and electron delocalization of B20 are re-examined using CMO and LOL.

  11. UK contributions to the decommissioning of the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan: 2002 – 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.

    2011-01-01

    UK assistance with the decommissioning of BN-350 has cost ~£8.9 million over ten years, ~£4 million spent directly in Kazakhstan. The Programme has immobilised key wastes, contributed to irreversible shutdown of the reactor and addressed issues associated with sodium coolant processing. The Programme funded the operations to load spent fuel canisters into casks at BN-350, together with their despatch from site and receipt at the secure storage facility. The Programme also delivered technical and project management training, assisted in the production of the BN-350 Decommissioning Plan and contributed to the radiation survey effort in the STS

  12. Electron scattering in graphene by defects in underlying h-BN layer: First-principles transport calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tomoaki; Ohno, Takahisa

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and the transport properties of graphene adsorbed onto h-BN with carbon impurities or atomic vacancies using density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function method. We find that the transport properties are degraded due to carrier doping and scattering off of localized defect states in h-BN. When graphene is doped by introducing defects in h-BN, the transmission spectra become asymmetric owing to the reduction of the electronic density of states, which contributes significantly to the degradation of graphene transport properties as compared with the effect of defect levels.

  13. Investigation of band structure and electrochemical properties of h-BN/rGO composites for asymmetric supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Sanjit; Jana, Milan; Samanta, Pranab; Murmu, Naresh C. [Surface Engineering & Tribology Division, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, 713209 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-CMERI Campus, Durgapur, 713209 (India); Kim, Nam H. [Advanced Materials Institute of BIN Convergence Technology (BK21 Plus Global), Dept. of BIN Convergence Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Kuila, Tapas, E-mail: tkuila@gmail.com [Surface Engineering & Tribology Division, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, 713209 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-CMERI Campus, Durgapur, 713209 (India); Lee, Joong H., E-mail: jhl@jbnu.ac.kr [Advanced Materials Institute of BIN Convergence Technology (BK21 Plus Global), Dept. of BIN Convergence Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Carbon Composite Research Centre, Department of Polymer & Nanoscience and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    The effect of different content of graphene oxide (GO) on the electrical and electrochemical property of h-BN/reduced GO (rGO) hetero-structure is investigated elaborately. The increasing amount of rGO within the h-BN moiety plays fascinating role by reducing the electronic work function while increasing the density of state of the electrode. Furthermore, different h-BN/rGO architecture shows different potential window and the transition from pseudocapacitance to electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) is observed with increasing π-conjugation of C atoms. The rod like h-BN is aligned as sheet while forming super-lattice with rGO. Transmission electron microscopy images show crystalline morphology of the hetero-structure super-lattice. The valance band and Mott-Shotky relationship determined from Mott-Shotky X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the electronic band structure of super-lattice is improved as compared to the insulating h-BN. The h-BN/rGO super-lattice provides high specific capacitance of ∼960 F g{sup −1}. An asymmetric device configured with h-BN/rGO super-lattice and B, N doped rGO shows very high energy and power density of 73 W h kg{sup −1} and 14,000 W kg{sup −1}, respectively. Furthermore, very low relaxation time constant of ∼1.6 ms and high stability (∼80%) after 10,000 charge-discharge cycles ensure the h-BN/rGO super-lattice as potential materials for the next generation energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Band gap energy of boron nitride decreased with increasing graphene oxide content. • Graphene oxide effectively affected the charge storage mechanism of the composite. • Morphology of boron nitride changed from rod to sheet while forming superlattice. • Highly conducting superlattice showed excellent supercapacitor performance. • Asymmetric device exhibited long stability with high energy and power density.

  14. Germany unveils €18bn research plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-07-01

    The German government has unveiled an ambitious plan to inject a total of €18bn into teaching and research over the next decade. The German chancellor Angela Merkel, who has a degree in physics, announced that she was releasing the funds despite concerns from her social-democrat coalition partners that financing the package could be difficult in the economic downturn.

  15. Abductive networks applied to electronic combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.

    1990-08-01

    A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since

  16. Abstracts of 2. international conference C-BN and diamond crystallization under reduced pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The important problem and the last advanced one from the view point of electronic materials sciences is the new A III B V compounds creation and investigation of their properties. This domain was the main subject of the 2. International Conference on C-BN and diamond crystallization under reduced pressure. The conference has been divided into 8 sessions. They were: opening address, c-BN, new materials, posters, diamond, applications, posters

  17. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    of spot-checks, the authority can then convince itself that the operator is fulfilling the requirements. The legislation should also impose heavy sanctions and penalties for all criminal activities related to illicit trafficking. As a direct measure to combat illicit trafficking on the national level, the State supervisory and law enforcement authorities should establish co-operation between themselves and with authorities in other countries and international organisations. Special national committees for combating illicit trafficking should be set up and should use intelligence and open sources information. Regions of States should investigate and implement joint task forces for combating illicit trafficking. Improvements on the International level by the IAEA: The IAEA should assist States in the practical implementation of measures and means for combating illicit trafficking and for the evaluation of threat scenarios. To improve that process in an efficient way, the IAEA should apply the principle of public access to information on its operations to a greater extent. Among other measures for promoting the development of more efficient tools and systems for combating illicit trafficking, the IAEA should: in assisting States, establish rules about duties and responsibilities for operators, authorities and individuals in the NPT area, through appropriate documentation; promote assistance programmes to States in consultation with NPT States, as need may be, of technical equipment and competent staff for the combating of illicit trafficking; provide experts and establish standards and procedures, across borders, for the investigation of serious cases of illicit trafficking, in consultation with national and international nuclear and law enforcement authorities and organisations; incorporate a more modern safeguards inspection technique of the national systems for accountancy and control, in accordance with standards and procedures that were intended to be established

  18. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    Since ancient times, pure carbon materials have been familiar in human society—not only diamonds in jewellery and graphite in pencils, but also charcoal and coal which have been used for centuries as fuel for living and industry. Carbon fibers are stronger, tougher and lighter than steel and increase material efficiency because of their lower weight. Today, carbon fibers and related composite materials are used to make the frames of bicycles, cars and even airplane parts. The two-dimensional allotrope, now called graphene, is just a single layer of carbon atoms, locked together in a strongly bonded honeycomb lattice. In plane, graphene is stiffer than diamond, but out-of-plane it is soft, like rubber. It is virtually invisible, may conduct electricity (heat) better than copper and weighs next to nothing. Carbon compounds with two carbon atoms as a base, such as graphene, graphite or diamond, have isoelectronic sister compounds made of boron-nitrogen pairs: hexagonal and cubic boron nitride, with almost the same lattice constant. Although the two 2D sisters, graphene and h-BN, have the same number of valence electrons, their electronic properties are very different: freestanding h-BN is an insulator, while charge carriers in graphene are highly mobile. The past ten years have seen a great expansion in studies of single-layer and few-layer graphene. This activity has been concerned with the π electron transport in graphene, in electric and magnetic fields. More than 30 years ago, however, single-layer graphene and h-BN on solid surfaces were widely investigated. It was noted that they drastically changed the chemical reactivity of surfaces, and they were known to 'poison' heterogeneous catalysts, to passivate surfaces, to prevent oxidation of surfaces and to act as surfactants. Also, it was realized that the controlled growth of h-BN and graphene on substrates yields the formation of mismatch driven superstructures with peculiar template functionality on the

  19. Raman enhancement effect on two-dimensional layered materials: graphene, h-BN and MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Fang, Wenjing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Araujo, Paulo T; Zhang, Xu; Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin F; Lin, Yuxuan; Zhang, Jin; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2014-06-11

    Realizing Raman enhancement on a flat surface has become increasingly attractive after the discovery of graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS). Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, exhibiting a flat surface without dangling bonds, were thought to be strong candidates for both fundamental studies of this Raman enhancement effect and its extension to meet practical applications requirements. Here, we study the Raman enhancement effect on graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), by using the copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecule as a probe. This molecule can sit on these layered materials in a face-on configuration. However, it is found that the Raman enhancement effect, which is observable on graphene, hBN, and MoS2, has different enhancement factors for the different vibrational modes of CuPc, depending strongly on the surfaces. Higher-frequency phonon modes of CuPc (such as those at 1342, 1452, 1531 cm(-1)) are enhanced more strongly on graphene than that on h-BN, while the lower frequency phonon modes of CuPc (such as those at 682, 749, 1142, 1185 cm(-1)) are enhanced more strongly on h-BN than that on graphene. MoS2 demonstrated the weakest Raman enhancement effect as a substrate among these three 2D materials. These differences are attributed to the different enhancement mechanisms related to the different electronic properties and chemical bonds exhibited by the three substrates: (1) graphene is zero-gap semiconductor and has a nonpolar C-C bond, which induces charge transfer (2) h-BN is insulating and has a strong B-N bond, while (3) MoS2 is semiconducting with the sulfur atoms on the surface and has a polar covalent bond (Mo-S) with the polarity in the vertical direction to the surface. Therefore, the different Raman enhancement mechanisms differ for each material: (1) charge transfer may occur for graphene; (2) strong dipole-dipole coupling may occur for h-BN, and (3) both charge transfer and dipole-dipole coupling may

  20. Multiple-walled BN nanotubes obtained with a mechanical alloying technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas, G.; Sistos, J.; Ascencio, J.A.; Medina, A.; Perez, R.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental method to obtain multiple-walled nanotubes of BN using low energy is presented. The method is based on the use of mechanical alloying techniques with elemental boron powders and nitrogen gas mixed in an autoclave at room temperature. The chemical and structural characteristics of the multiple-walled nanotubes were obtained using different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, EELS microanalysis, high-resolution electron microscopy images and theoretical simulations based on the multisliced approach of the electron diffraction theory. This investigation clearly illustrates the production of multiple-wall BN nanotubes at room temperature. These results open up a new kind of synthesis method with low expense and important perspectives for use in large-quantity production. (orig.)

  1. Electronic structure and STM images simulation of defects on hBN/ black-phosphorene heterostructures: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, D. A.; Cisternas, E.; Duque, C. A.; Correa, J. D.

    2018-03-01

    By first principles calculations which include van der Waals interactions, we studied the electronic structure of hexagonal boron-nitride/black-phosphorene heterostructures (hBN/BP). In particular the role of several kind of defects on the electronic properties of black-phosphorene monolayer and hBN/BP heterostructure was analyzed. The defects under consideration were single and double vacancies, as well Stone-Wale type defects, all of them present in the phosphorene layer. In this way, we found that the electronic structure of the hBN/BP is modified according the type of defect that is introduced. As a remarkable feature, our results show occupied states at the Fermi Level introduced by a single vacancy in the energy gap of the hBN/BP heterostructure. Additionally, we performed simulations of scanning tunneling microscopy images. These simulations show that is possible to discriminate the kind of defect even when the black-phosphorene monolayer is part of the heterostructure hBN/BP. Our results may help to discriminate among several kind of defects during experimental characterization of these novel materials.

  2. The electrical and thermal transport properties of hybrid zigzag graphene-BN nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Lu, Wei; Zheng, Guo-Hui; Jia, Yalei; Ke, San-Huang

    2017-06-01

    The electron and phonon transport in hybrid graphene-BN zigzag nanoribbons are investigated by the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combined with density functional theory calculations. A 100% spin-polarized electron transport in a large energy window around the Fermi level is found and this behavior is independent of the ribbon width as long as there contain 3 zigzag carbon chains. The phonon transport calculations show that the ratio of C-chain number to BN-chain number will modify the thermal conductance of the hybrid nanoribbon in a complicated manner.

  3. The electrical and thermal transport properties of hybrid zigzag graphene-BN nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Song; Lu, Wei; Zheng, Guo-Hui; Jia, Yalei; Ke, San-Huang

    2017-01-01

    The electron and phonon transport in hybrid graphene-BN zigzag nanoribbons are investigated by the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combined with density functional theory calculations. A 100% spin-polarized electron transport in a large energy window around the Fermi level is found and this behavior is independent of the ribbon width as long as there contain 3 zigzag carbon chains. The phonon transport calculations show that the ratio of C-chain number to BN-chain number will modify the thermal conductance of the hybrid nanoribbon in a complicated manner. (paper)

  4. Study of vibrational modes and specific heat of wurtzite phase of BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Daljit, E-mail: daljit.jt@gmail.com; Sinha, M. M. [Department of Physics, SLIET, Longowal (India)

    2016-05-06

    In these days of nanotechnology the materials like BN is of utmost importance as in hexagonal phase it is among hardest materials. The phonon mode study of the materials is most important factor to find structural and thermodynamcal properties. To study the phonons de launey angular force (DAF) constant model is best suited as it involves many particle interactions. Therefore in this presentation we have studied the lattice dynamical properties and specific heat of BN in wurtzite phase using DAF model. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with existing results.

  5. Study of vibrational modes and specific heat of wurtzite phase of BN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Daljit; Sinha, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    In these days of nanotechnology the materials like BN is of utmost importance as in hexagonal phase it is among hardest materials. The phonon mode study of the materials is most important factor to find structural and thermodynamcal properties. To study the phonons de launey angular force (DAF) constant model is best suited as it involves many particle interactions. Therefore in this presentation we have studied the lattice dynamical properties and specific heat of BN in wurtzite phase using DAF model. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with existing results.

  6. Sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans beyond combat exposure, PTSD, and mild TBI history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L; Morissette, Sandra B; Rowland, Jared A; Dolan, Sara L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans after accounting for effects of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. This was a cross-sectional assessment study evaluating combat exposure, PTSD, mTBI history, sleep quality, and neuropsychological functioning. One hundred and nine eligible male Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans completed an assessment consisting of a structured clinical interview, neuropsychological battery, and self-report measures. Using partial least squares structural equation modeling, combat experiences and mTBI history were not directly associated with sleep quality. PTSD was directly associated with sleep quality, which contributed to deficits in neuropsychological functioning independently of and in addition to combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Combat experiences and PTSD were differentially associated with motor speed. Sleep affected cognitive function independently of combat experiences, PTSD, and mTBI history. Sleep quality also contributed to cognitive deficits beyond effects of PTSD. An evaluation of sleep quality may be a useful point of clinical intervention in combat veterans with cognitive complaints. Improving sleep quality could alleviate cognitive complaints, improving veterans' ability to engage in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. BnDGAT1s Function Similarly in Oil Deposition and Are Expressed with Uniform Patterns in Tissues of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuizhu Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As an allotetraploid oilcrop, Brassica napus contains four duplicated Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1 genes, which catalyze one of the rate-limiting steps in triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis in plants. While all four BnDGAT1s have been expressed functionally in yeast, their expression patterns in different germplasms and tissues and also consequent contribution to seed oil accumulation in planta remain to be elucidated. In this study, the coding regions of the four BnDGAT1s were expressed in an Arabidopsis dgat1 mutant. All four BnDGAT1s showed similar effects on oil content and fatty acid composition, a result which is different from that observed in previous studies of their expression in yeast. Expression patterns of BnDGAT1s were analyzed in developing seeds of 34 B. napus inbred lines and in different tissues of 14 lines. Different expression patterns were observed for the four BnDGAT1s, which suggests that they express independently or randomly in different germplasm sources. Higher expression of BnDGAT1s was correlated with higher seed oil content lines. Tissue-specific analyses showed that the BnDGAT1s were expressed in a uniform pattern in different tissues. Our results suggest that it is important to maintain expression of the four BnDGAT1s for maximum return on oil content.

  8. BnEPFL6, an EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) secreted peptide gene, is required for filament elongation in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Tao, Zhangsheng; Liu, Qiong; Wang, Xinfa; Yu, Jingyin; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-07-01

    Inflorescence architecture, pedicel length and stomata patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana are specified by inter-tissue communication mediated by ERECTA and its signaling ligands in the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) family of secreted cysteine-rich peptides. Here, we identified and characterized BnEPFL6 from Brassica napus. Heterologous expression of this gene under the double enhanced CaMV promoter (D35S) in Arabidopsis resulted in shortened stamen filaments, filaments degradation, and reduced filament cell size that displayed down-regulated expression of AHK2, in which phenotypic variation of ahk2-1 mutant presented highly consistent with that of BnEPFL6 transgenic lines. Especially, the expression level of BnEPFL6 in the shortened filaments of four B. napus male sterile lines (98A, 86A, SA, and Z11A) was similar to that of BnEPFL6 in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines. The activity of pBnEPFL6.2::GUS was intensive in the filaments of transgenic lines. These observations reveal that BnEPFL6 plays an important role in filament elongation and may also affect organ morphology and floral organ specification via a BnEPFL6-mediated cascade.

  9. Boosting the adsorption performance of BN nanosheet as an anode of Na-ion batteries: DFT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinian, A. [Department of Engineering Science, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soleimani-amiri, S. [Department of Chemistry, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arshadi, S., E-mail: chemistry_arshadi@pnu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vessally, E. [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Edjlali, L. [Department of Chemistry, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-28

    Despite the high advance in the Li-ion battery technology, there exist great concerns about its lifetime, safety, cost, and low-temperature performance. It is expected that the Li-ion batteries may be replaced by Na-ion batteries (NIB) because of the low cost, nontoxicity, and wide availability of sodium. Here, we investigated the potential application of BN nanosheets in anode of NIBs by means of density functional theory calculation and introduced a strategy to increase their performance. It was shown that the Na and Na{sup +} are mainly adsorbed on the center of a hexagonal ring of BN sheet with adsorption energies of −0.08 and −33.7 kcal/mol, respectively. Replacing three N atoms of the hexagonal ring with larger P atoms significantly increases the performance of the sheet as an anode of a NIB but the replacement of B by Al decreases the performance. The initial cell voltage of LIB is increased by about 0.67 V after the P-doping which causes a high storage performance with long discharge time. The results are discussed based on the energetic, structural, orbital, charge transfer and electronic properties and provide guidelines to build better high-capacity anode materials for NIBs. - Highlights: • Potential use of BN sheet as anode in Na-ion batteries (NIB) is studied by DFT. • The replacement of B by Al decreases the performance. • The cell voltage of LIB is increased by about 0.67 V after by P-doping. • The order of performance is P-BN > BN >> Al-BN.

  10. Creep of Sylramic-iBN Fiber Tows at Elevated Temperature in Air and in Silicic Acid-Saturated Steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    CREEP OF SYLRAMIC-iBN FIBER TOWS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE IN AIR AND IN SILICIC ACID-SATURATED STEAM ...protection in the United States. AFIT-ENY-15-J-46 CREEP OF SYLRAMIC-iBN FIBER TOWS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE IN AIR AND IN SILICIC ACID-SATURATED STEAM ...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENY-15-J-46 CREEP OF SYLRAMIC-iBN FIBER TOWS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE IN AIR AND IN SILICIC ACID-SATURATED STEAM

  11. Bandgap renormalization and work function tuning in MoSe2/hBN/Ru(0001) heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yuxuan; Zhang, Chendong; Pan, Chi-Ruei; Chou, Mei-Yin; Zeng, Changgan; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2016-12-14

    The van der Waals interaction in vertical heterostructures made of two-dimensional (2D) materials relaxes the requirement of lattice matching, therefore enabling great design flexibility to tailor novel 2D electronic systems. Here we report the successful growth of MoSe 2 on single-layer hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) on the Ru(0001) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we found that the quasi-particle bandgap of MoSe 2 on hBN/Ru is about 0.25 eV smaller than those on graphene or graphite substrates. We attribute this result to the strong interaction between hBN/Ru, which causes residual metallic screening from the substrate. In addition, the electronic structure and the work function of MoSe 2 are modulated electrostatically with an amplitude of ∼0.13 eV. Most interestingly, this electrostatic modulation is spatially in phase with the Moiré pattern of hBN on Ru(0001) whose surface also exhibits a work function modulation of the same amplitude.

  12. Quality of Life in Patients With Brain Metastases Using the EORTC QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caissie, Amanda; Nguyen, Janet; Chen, Emily; Zhang Liying; Sahgal, Arjun; Clemons, Mark; Kerba, Marc; Arnalot, Palmira Foro; Danjoux, Cyril; Tsao, May; Barnes, Elizabeth; Holden, Lori; Danielson, Brita; Chow, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The 20-item European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire–Brain Neoplasm (QLQ-BN20) is a validated quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire for patients with primary brain tumors. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire–Core 15 Palliative (QLQ-C15-PAL) core palliative questionnaire is a 15-item version of the core 30-item QLQ-C30 and was developed to decrease the burden on patients with advanced cancer. The combination of the QLQ-BN20 and QLQ-C30 to assess QOL may be too burdensome for patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess QOL in patients before and after treatment for brain metastases using the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL, a version of the QLQ-BN20 questionnaire with 2 additional questions assessing cognitive functioning that were not addressed in the QLQ-C15-PAL. Methods and Materials: Patients with brain metastases completed the QLQ-C15-PAL and QLQ-BN20+2 questionnaires to assess QOL before and 1 month after radiation. Linear regression analysis was used to assess changes in QOL scores over time, as well as to explore associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales, patient demographics, and clinical variables. Spearman correlation assessed associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales. Results: Among 108 patients, the majority (55%) received whole-brain radiotherapy only, with 65% of patients completing follow-up at 1 month after treatment. The most prominent symptoms at baseline were future uncertainty (QLQ-BN20+2) and fatigue (QLQ-C15-PAL). After treatment, significant improvement was seen for the QLQ-C15-PAL insomnia scale, as well as the QLQ-BN20+2 scales of future uncertainty, visual disorder, and concentration difficulty. Baseline Karnofsky Performance Status was negatively correlated to QLQ-BN20+2 motor dysfunction but positively related to QLQ-C15-PAL physical functioning and QLQ-BN20+2 cognitive functioning at

  13. Quality of Life in Patients With Brain Metastases Using the EORTC QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caissie, Amanda; Nguyen, Janet; Chen, Emily; Zhang Liying [Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun [Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Clemons, Mark [Department of Medical Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Kerba, Marc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Arnalot, Palmira Foro [Parc de Salut Mar Hospital de l' Esperanca, Barcelona (Spain); Danjoux, Cyril; Tsao, May; Barnes, Elizabeth; Holden, Lori [Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Danielson, Brita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Chow, Edward, E-mail: edward.chow@sunnybrook.ca [Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The 20-item European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Brain Neoplasm (QLQ-BN20) is a validated quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire for patients with primary brain tumors. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 15 Palliative (QLQ-C15-PAL) core palliative questionnaire is a 15-item version of the core 30-item QLQ-C30 and was developed to decrease the burden on patients with advanced cancer. The combination of the QLQ-BN20 and QLQ-C30 to assess QOL may be too burdensome for patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess QOL in patients before and after treatment for brain metastases using the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL, a version of the QLQ-BN20 questionnaire with 2 additional questions assessing cognitive functioning that were not addressed in the QLQ-C15-PAL. Methods and Materials: Patients with brain metastases completed the QLQ-C15-PAL and QLQ-BN20+2 questionnaires to assess QOL before and 1 month after radiation. Linear regression analysis was used to assess changes in QOL scores over time, as well as to explore associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales, patient demographics, and clinical variables. Spearman correlation assessed associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales. Results: Among 108 patients, the majority (55%) received whole-brain radiotherapy only, with 65% of patients completing follow-up at 1 month after treatment. The most prominent symptoms at baseline were future uncertainty (QLQ-BN20+2) and fatigue (QLQ-C15-PAL). After treatment, significant improvement was seen for the QLQ-C15-PAL insomnia scale, as well as the QLQ-BN20+2 scales of future uncertainty, visual disorder, and concentration difficulty. Baseline Karnofsky Performance Status was negatively correlated to QLQ-BN20+2 motor dysfunction but positively related to QLQ-C15-PAL physical functioning and QLQ-BN20+2 cognitive functioning at

  14. BN-600 Phase III benchmark calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Grimm, K.N.

    2002-01-01

    Calculations for a Hexagonal-Z model of the BN-600 reactor with a partial mixed oxide loading, based on a joint IPPE/OBMK loading configuration that contained three uranium enrichment zones and one plutonium enrichment zone in the core, have been performed at ANL. Control-rod worths and reactivity feedback coefficients were calculated using both homogeneous and heterogeneous models. These values were calculated with either first-order perturbation theory methods (Triangle-Z geometry), nodal eigenvalue differences (Hexagonal-Z geometry), or Monte Carlo eigenvalue differences. Both spatially-dependent and region integrated values are shown

  15. JNC results of BN-600 benchmark calculation (phase 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    The present work is the results of JNC, Japan, for the Phase 4 of the BN-600 core benchmark problem (Hex-Z fully MOX fuelled core model) organized by IAEA. The benchmark specification is based on 1) the RCM report of IAEA CRP on 'Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce the Calculational Uncertainties of LMFR Reactivity Effects, Action 3.12' (Calculations for BN-600 fully fuelled MOX core for subsequent transient analyses). JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library was used for calculating 70 group ABBN-type group constants. Cell models for fuel assembly and control rod calculations were applied: homogeneous and heterogeneous (cylindrical supercell) model. Basic diffusion calculation was three-dimensional Hex-Z model, 18 group (Citation code). Transport calculations were 18 group, three-dimensional (NSHEC code) based on Sn-transport nodal method developed at JNC. The generated thermal power per fission was based on Sher's data corrected on the basis of ENDF/B-IV data library. Calculation results are presented in Tables for intercomparison

  16. Time-resolved Polarimetry of the Superluminous SN 2015bn with the Nordic Optical Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leloudas, Giorgos; Maund, Justyn R.; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2017-01-01

    We present imaging polarimetry of the superluminous supernova SN 2015bn, obtained over nine epochs between -20 and +46 days with the Nordic Optical Telescope. This was a nearby, slowly evolving Type I superluminous supernova that has been studied extensively and for which two epochs of spectropol......We present imaging polarimetry of the superluminous supernova SN 2015bn, obtained over nine epochs between -20 and +46 days with the Nordic Optical Telescope. This was a nearby, slowly evolving Type I superluminous supernova that has been studied extensively and for which two epochs...... of spectropolarimetry are also available. Based on field stars, we determine the interstellar polarization in the Galaxy to be negligible. The polarization of SN 2015bn shows a statistically significant increase during the last epochs, confirming previous findings. Our well-sampled imaging polarimetry series allows us...

  17. Novel composite cBN-TiN coating deposition method: structure and performance in metal cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.C.; Malshe, A.P.; Yedave, S.N.; Brown, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride coatings are under development for a variety of applications but stabilization of the pure cBN form and adhesion of films deposited by PVD and ion-based methods has been difficult. An alternative method for depositing a composite cBN-TiN film has been developed for wear related applications. The coating is deposited in a two-stage process utilizing ESC (electrostatic spray coating) and CVI (chemical vapor infiltration). Fully dense films of cBN particles evenly dispersed in a continuous TiN matrix have been developed. Testing in metal cutting has shown an increase in tool life (turning - 4340 steel) of three to seven times, depending of machining parameters, in comparison with CVD deposited TiN films. (author)

  18. Combat Power Analysis is Combat Power Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Lanchester equations, Weapon Effectiveness Index (WEI), Weighted Unit Value (WUV), Armored Division Equivalents (ADE), and Unit Frontages. The research...6 Lanchester Equations... Lanchester Equations ............................................................................................... 53 Appendix C: Relative Combat Power

  19. Further delays hit troubled $2bn cosmic-ray detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    "A $2bn mission to study cosmic rays will have to wait another few months before being sent to the International Space Station (ISS) after NASA announced last month that it was pushing back the launch of the Space Shuttle Endeavour until 26 February 2011" (0.5 page)

  20. Stabilization of the O p2x2 phase on Cu(001) sheltered by wrinkled BN over-layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Sung; Ma, Chuanxu; Li, An-Ping; Yoon, Mina

    The 2 √3x √3R45°phase of oxygen (O) on the Cu(001) surface has been observed in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements. Although the p2x2 phase of O on the Cu(001) surface has been proposed theoretically to be the most stable in O-lean conditions, it has not been observed in experiments for a long time. Recently, the O p2x2 phase has been found in STM on the Cu(001) surface with an overlying BN monolayer. In this theoretical study, we investigate what the role of BN over-layer is to stabilize the O p2x2 phase on the Cu(001) surface. The BN over-layer is lattice-matched with the Cu(001) surface and the BN mono-layer sheet is periodically wrinkled along the BN arm-chair direction and along the [100] or [010] direction on the Cu(001) surface. The interlayer space between the Cu(001) surface and the bulge of the wrinkled BN sheet is found to play as a preferential shelter for O to be adsorbed, and the boundary of the BN inner wall along the [010] or [100] direction makes the p2x2 phase more favorable against the 45°-tilted 2 √3x √3R45°phase of O on the Cu(001) surface. This was supported by Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility, and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, maaged by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. DOE.

  1. First-Principles Investigations of the Working Mechanism of 2D h-BN as an Interfacial Layer for the Anode of Lithium Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Le; Xu, Ao; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-01-18

    An issue with the use of metallic lithium as an anode material for lithium-based batteries is dendrite growth, causing a periodic breaking and repair of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Adding 2D atomic crystals, such as h-BN, as an interfacial layer between the lithium metal anode and liquid electrolyte has been demonstrated to be effective to mitigate dendrite growth, thereby enhancing the Columbic efficiency of lithium metal batteries. But the underlying mechanism leading to the reduced dendrite growth remains unknown. In this work, with the aid of first-principle calculations, we find that the interaction between the h-BN and lithium metal layers is a weak van der Waals force, and two atomic layers of h-BN are thick enough to block the electron tunneling from lithium metal to electrolyte, thus prohibiting the decomposition of electrolyte. The interlayer spacing between the h-BN and lithium metal layers can provide larger adsorption energies toward lithium atoms than that provided by bare lithium or h-BN, making lithium atoms prefer to intercalate under the cover of h-BN during the plating process. The combined high stiffness of h-BN and the low diffusion energy barriers of lithium at the Li/h-BN interfaces induce a uniform distribution of lithium under h-BN, therefore effectively suppressing dendrite growth.

  2. BN-600 hybrid core benchmark analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.I.; Stanculescu, A.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.N.; Grimm, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Benchmark analyses for the hybrid BN-600 reactor that contains three uranium enrichment zones and one plutonium zone in the core, have been performed within the frame of an IAEA sponsored Coordinated Research Project. The results for several relevant reactivity parameters obtained by the participants with their own state-of-the-art basic data and codes, were compared in terms of calculational uncertainty, and their effects on the ULOF transient behavior of the hybrid BN-600 core were evaluated. The comparison of the diffusion and transport results obtained for the homogeneous representation generally shows good agreement for most parameters between the RZ and HEX-Z models. The burnup effect and the heterogeneity effect on most reactivity parameters also show good agreement for the HEX-Z diffusion and transport theory results. A large difference noticed for the sodium and steel density coefficients is mainly due to differences in the spatial coefficient predictions for non fuelled regions. The burnup reactivity loss was evaluated to be 0.025 (4.3 $) within ∼ 5.0% standard deviation. The heterogeneity effect on most reactivity coefficients was estimated to be small. The heterogeneity treatment reduced the control rod worth by 2.3%. The heterogeneity effect on the k-eff and control rod worth appeared to differ strongly depending on the heterogeneity treatment method. A substantial spread noticed for several reactivity coefficients did not give a significant impact on the transient behavior prediction. This result is attributable to compensating effects between several reactivity effects and the specific design of the partially MOX fuelled hybrid core. (author)

  3. Quasi-Two-Dimensional h-BN/β-Ga2O3 Heterostructure Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janghyuk; Mastro, Michael A; Tadjer, Marko J; Kim, Jihyun

    2017-06-28

    β-gallium oxide (β-Ga 2 O 3 ) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructure-based quasi-two-dimensional metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) were demonstrated by integrating mechanical exfoliation of (quasi)-two-dimensional materials with a dry transfer process, wherein nanothin flakes of β-Ga 2 O 3 and h-BN were utilized as the channel and gate dielectric, respectively, of the MISFET. The h-BN dielectric, which has an extraordinarily flat and clean surface, provides a minimal density of charged impurities on the interface between β-Ga 2 O 3 and h-BN, resulting in superior device performances (maximum transconductance, on/off ratio, subthreshold swing, and threshold voltage) compared to those of the conventional back-gated configurations. Also, double-gating of the fabricated device was demonstrated by biasing both top and bottom gates, achieving the modulation of the threshold voltage. This heterostructured wide-band-gap nanodevice shows a new route toward stable and high-power nanoelectronic devices.

  4. Spin polarization of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) and Ni(111) observed by spin-polarized surface positronium spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, A.; Maekawa, M.; Wada, K.; Kawasuso, A.; Watanabe, T.; Entani, S.; Sakai, S.

    2018-05-01

    In spin-polarized surface positronium annihilation measurements, the spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) were higher than those on Ni(111), while no significant differences were seen between graphene and h -BN on the same metal. The obtained spin polarizations agreed with those expected from first-principles calculations considering the positron wave function and the electron density of states from the first surface layer to the vacuum region. The higher spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) as compared to Ni(111) simply reflect the spin polarizations of these metals. The comparable spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on the same metal are attributed to the creation of similar electronic states due to the strong influence of the metals: the Dirac cone of graphene and the band gap of h -BN disappear as a consequence of d -π hybridization.

  5. Carbon-tuned bonding method significantly enhanced the hydrogen storage of BN-Li complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qing-ming; Zhao, Lina; Luo, You-hua; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Li-xia; Zhao, Yuliang

    2011-11-01

    Through first-principles calculations, we found doping carbon atoms onto BN monolayers (BNC) could significantly strengthen the Li bond on this material. Unlike the weak bond strength between Li atoms and the pristine BN layer, it is observed that Li atoms are strongly hybridized and donate their electrons to the doped substrate, which is responsible for the enhanced binding energy. Li adsorbed on the BNC layer can serve as a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium, without forming clusters, which can be recycled at room temperature. Eight polarized H(2) molecules are attached to two Li atoms with an optimal binding energy of 0.16-0.28 eV/H(2), which results from the electrostatic interaction of the polarized charge of hydrogen molecules with the electric field induced by positive Li atoms. This practical carbon-tuned BN-Li complex can work as a very high-capacity hydrogen storage medium with a gravimetric density of hydrogen of 12.2 wt%, which is much higher than the gravimetric goal of 5.5 wt % hydrogen set by the U.S. Department of Energy for 2015.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of Ni-decorated h-BN powders with ChCl-EG ionic liquid as addition by electroless deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qionglian; Ru, Juanjian; Song, Peng; Hu, Mingyu; Feng, Jing

    2018-05-01

    Ni-decorated h-BN powders are fabricated with ChCl-EG as additive via electroless plating in the paper. As comparison, the different additive concentration of choline chloride-ethylene glycol (ChCl-EG) ionic liquid (0 g l-1, 30 g l-1, 60 g l-1, 90 g l-1) is presented. The effects of ChCl-EG concentration are studied, including the surface morphologies, phase analysis of Ni-decorated h-BN powders and the residual Ni2+ concentration is measured in electroless plating bath. It is demonstrated that the deposition phenomena of nickel particles on h-BN surface is changed with the addition of ChCl-EG. When the concentration of ChCl-EG is 30 g l-1, the Ni particles on h-BN surface are in dispersed and spheroid state with the average size of 10-1000 nm. It can be found that 30 g l-1 ChCl-EG is conducive to the arise of deposition phenomena, which is the formation of the single nickel particle on h-BN surface. Besides, more Ni particles are deposited on h-BN surface with the increase of nickel plating times, which is characterized with scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Furthermore, the deposition phenomenon and growth mechanism are proposed without and with ChCl-EG as additive to further elaborate the formation of Ni particles on h-BN surface.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of Ni-decorated h-BN powders with ChCl-EG ionic liquid as addition by electroless deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qionglian; Ru, Juanjian; Song, Peng; Hu, Mingyu; Feng, Jing

    2018-05-01

    Ni-decorated h-BN powders are fabricated with ChCl-EG as additive via electroless plating in the paper. As comparison, the different additive concentration of choline chloride-ethylene glycol (ChCl-EG) ionic liquid (0 g l -1 , 30 g l -1 , 60 g l -1 , 90 g l -1 ) is presented. The effects of ChCl-EG concentration are studied, including the surface morphologies, phase analysis of Ni-decorated h-BN powders and the residual Ni 2+ concentration is measured in electroless plating bath. It is demonstrated that the deposition phenomena of nickel particles on h-BN surface is changed with the addition of ChCl-EG. When the concentration of ChCl-EG is 30 g l -1 , the Ni particles on h-BN surface are in dispersed and spheroid state with the average size of 10-1000 nm. It can be found that 30 g l -1 ChCl-EG is conducive to the arise of deposition phenomena, which is the formation of the single nickel particle on h-BN surface. Besides, more Ni particles are deposited on h-BN surface with the increase of nickel plating times, which is characterized with scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Furthermore, the deposition phenomenon and growth mechanism are proposed without and with ChCl-EG as additive to further elaborate the formation of Ni particles on h-BN surface.

  8. Simulating barrier penetration during combat. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Laquil, P. III.

    1980-04-01

    A computer program, BARS, simulates combat between an adversary group attempting to hijack special nuclear material and escort personnel attempting to protect it. BARS is designed to investigate how various combat strategies and levels of performance affect the time required to penetrate barriers (armor, deterrent systems, etc.) against forcible entry. A Monte Carlo code, BARS uses a game theoretic approach to allocate the attacking and defending forces. Combat suppression is simulated using a stochastic state-transition model for the behavior of individuals under combat stress. The BARS program was developed as part of the overall combat modelling effort of the transportation safeguards program

  9. Dielectric Response and Born Dynamic Charge of BN Nanotubes from Ab Initio Finite Electric Field Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang-Yu; Ishibashi, Shoji; Tamura, Tomoyuki; Terakura, Kiyoyuki

    2007-03-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991 by Iijima, carbon and other nanotubes have attracted considerable interest worldwide because of their unusual properties and also great potentials for technological applications. Though CNTs continue to attract great interest, other nanotubes such as BN nanotubes (BN-NTs) may offer different opportunities that CNTs cannot provide. In this contribution, we present the results of our recent systematic ab initio calculations of the static dielectric constant, electric polarizability, Born dynamical charge, electrostriction coefficient and piezoelectric constant of BN-NTs using the latest crystalline finite electric field theory [1]. [1] I. Souza, J. Iniguez, and D. Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 117602 (2002); P. Umari and A. Pasquarello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 157602 (2002).

  10. Thermal stratification of sodium in the BN 600 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obmelukhin, J.A.; Obukhov, P.I.; Rinejskij, A.A.; Sobolev, V.A.; Sherbakov, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The signs of thermal stratification of sodium in the BN 600 reactor upper plenum revealed by the analysis of standard temperature sensors' readings are defined. The initial conditions for existence of different temperature sodium layers are given. Two approaches for realizing on a computer of equations describing sodium motion in the upper plenum of the reactor are presented. (author)

  11. Organization and processes of the BN-600 reactor mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovin, E.Z.; Karpenko, V.N.; Takhtaulov, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Structural peculiarities of the BN-600 reactor plant are considered. Experience of metal structure mounting inside the reactor vessel has been analysed. Recommendations on the improvements on the organization of the thermal mechanical equipment mounting are given. It is concluded that the consideration of these recommendations will permit to reduce expenditures of labour by 10-40% for the mounting

  12. Alcohol use in a military population deployed in combat areas: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwella Raveen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is more prevalent among military populations. Association between PTSD and heavy drinking have been reported in many studies. Most of the studies on alcohol use among military personnel are from US and UK. Aim of this study is to describe alcohol consumption patterns among military personnel in Sri Lanka, a country where the alcohol consumption among the general population are very different to that in US and UK. Methods Cross sectional study consisting of representative samples of Sri Lanka Navy Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas continuously during a one year period was carried out. Data was collected using a self report questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess alcohol consumption. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. The median AUDIT score was 2.0 (interquartile range 6.0. Prevalence of current drinking was 71.2 %. Of the current users 54.81 % were infrequent users (frequency ≤ once a month while 37.87 % of users consumed 2–4 times a month. Prevalence of hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8 was 16.69 % and binge drinking 14.01 %. Five (0.75 % had AUDIT total ≥20. There was no significant difference between Special Forces and regular forces in hazardous drinking or binge drinking. Total AUDIT score ≥16 were associated with difficulty performing work. Conclusions High rates of hazardous drinking and binge drinking described among military personnel in US and UK were not seen among SLN personnel deployed in combat areas. This finding contrasts with previously reported association between combat exposure and hazardous alcohol use among military personnel. Alcohol use among military personnel may be significantly influenced by alcohol consumption patterns among the general population, access to alcohol and attitudes about alcohol use. Similar to findings from other countries, heavy

  13. Physical Training Strategies for Military Women's Performance Optimization in Combat-Centric Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    The physiological differences, particularly of upper-body strength and power, between women and men, and the rigors of combat-centric occupational demands would seem to place women at a significant disadvantage, as the U.S. military opens up previously closed combat-arms military occupational specialties (MOSs) to women. This inherent disadvantage can be significantly mitigated by implementing effective and comprehensive physical training (PT) regimens for women targeting those fitness components most critical for those tasks considered most essential for solider warfighting duties (i.e., strength and power). Regrettably, the military historical and legacy overemphasis on aerobic fitness and on "field expediency" as the major criteria for implementing training have limited the extent to which the military has fully operationalized state-of-the-science PT policies. This continued legacy approach could be problematic regarding fully enhancing women's abilities to perform physically demanding combat-centric occupations and could place the successful integration of women into ground combat MOSs at significant risk. Seminal studies from the literature indicate that (a) a minimum of 6 months of periodized combined resistance/endurance training preparedness is recommended for untrained women considering entering combat-arms MOS training; (b) any comprehensive PT program should incorporate and emphasize progressive load carriage training; (c) a greater emphasis on upper body on strength/power development in military women is needed; (d) heavy resistance training in the range of 3-8 repetition maximum sets should be incorporated into training programs to target type II motor units and muscle fibers (those fibers that produce the most force and have the greatest capacity to hypertrophy); (e) low-volume, high-intensity interval training should be considered as a time-efficient training method to improve aerobic fitness while protecting against lower-body musculoskeletal

  14. Development of devices for handling with BN-350 radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iksanov, A.G.; Pustobaev, S.N.; Shirobokov, Yu.P.; Pugachyev, G.P.; Baldov, A.N.; Tikhomirov, L.N.; Tkachenko, V.V.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Romanenko, O.G.; Kenzhin, E.A.; Yakovlev, V.V.; Khametov, S.; Kalinkin, V.L.; Skvortsov, A.I.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Arustamov, A.E.; Zelenski, D.I.; Serebrennikov, Yu.A.

    2010-01-01

    The package of activity performed proves the correctness of the concept accepted by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the BN-350 decommissioning (three successive steps above) targeted at minimization of cost, exposure and amount of radioactive waste. Decommissioning of the high power fast breeder reactor plant is carried out for the first time and therefore the normative documents and design decisions elaborated, accepted technologies and estimation of capital expenditure and maintenance costs may enrich the database and serve as orientation for decommissioning of similar units. According to the concept accepted the BN-350 decommissioning is the process of top level of complexity that is characterized with the requirement of concurrent execution of a large scope of work by means of international teams from Kazakhstan, Russia, USA, EC, etc. Such approach needs the creation of modern effective organization schemes of interfaces and management of the Projects and will be further used in other complicated Projects

  15. BN-800 as a new stage in development of fast neutron sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, V.M.; Chebeskov, A.N.; Matveev, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    The role of fast reactors in the strategy of evolution of the nuclear power of Russia is discussed, BN-800 under construction, where unique technical and construction decisions are used, is viewed. Economical estimations of expenses with regard for all life cycle demonstrate that fast reactors may be no higher-priced than the most popular in the world water moderated reactors. Closing of nuclear fuel cycle of BN-800 makes possible decision of the problem of plutonium and actinide utilization, that makes the fast reactor more safety for the environment [ru

  16. Vickers Hardness of Diamond and cBN Single Crystals: AFM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Dub

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy in different operation modes (topography, derivative topography, and phase contrast was used to obtain 3D images of Vickers indents on the surface of diamond and cBN single crystals with high spatial resolution. Confocal Raman spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy were used to study the structure of the material in the indents. It was found that Vickers indents in diamond has no sharp and clear borders. However, the phase contrast operation mode of the AFM reveals a new viscoelastic phase in the indent in diamond. Raman spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy revealed that the new phase in the indent is disordered graphite, which was formed due to the pressure-induced phase transformation in the diamond during the hardness test. The projected contact area of the graphite layer in the indent allows us to measure the Vickers hardness of type-Ib synthetic diamond. In contrast to diamond, very high plasticity was observed for 0.5 N load indents on the (001 cBN single crystal face. Radial and ring cracks were absent, the shape of the indents was close to a square, and there were linear details in the indent, which looked like slip lines. The Vickers hardness of the (111 synthetic diamond and (111 and (001 cBN single crystals were determined using the AFM images and with account for the elastic deformation of the diamond Vickers indenter during the tests.

  17. The biological characterization of 99mTc-BnAO-NI as a SPECT probe for imaging hypoxia in a sarcoma-bearing mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsia, Chien-Chung; Huang, Fu-Lei; Hung, Guang-Uei; Shen, Lie-Hang; Chen, Chuan-Lin; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Tumor growth beyond the region where vascular oxygen can reach creates a hypoxic domain. In this study, BnAO, a ligand that had been labeled with 99m Tc-pertechnetate for hypoxia imaging, was conjugated with 2-nitroimidazole to give 3,3,10,10-tetramethyl-1-(2-nitro-1H-imidazo-1-y1)-4,9-diazadodecane-2,11- dionedioxime (BnAO-NI) as a potential ligand for hypoxia detection. Pentoxifylline is a peripheral vasodilator and has been used as a radiosensitizer in tumor radiotherapy. 99m Tc-BnAO-NI/SPECT was applied to noninvasively assess the pharmacological effect of pentoxifylline in reducing tumor hypoxia in vivo. Methods: BnAO-NI was synthesized and formulated with methylene diphosphonate (MDP), stannous chloride and carbonate buffer to afford kits. After mixing with 99m Tc-pertechnetate, 99m Tc-BnAO-NI injection can be readily prepared. The partition coefficient, radiochemical purity and in vitro stability were determined. Cellular uptake of radiotracers in KHT cells under hypoxia was conducted in a CO 2 incubator at 37 o C under hypoxia or normoxia. A biodistribution study after intravenous injection of 99m Tc-BnAO-NI in KHT sarcoma-implanted C3H mice was performed. The effect of pentoxifylline (100 mg/kg) on reducing tumor hypoxia was also studied. Results: The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the 99m Tc-BnAO-NI preparation was greater than 96% and stable at ambient temperature for 24 h (RCP>90%). The accumulation of 99m Tc-BnAO-NI and 99m Tc-BnAO in KHT cells under hypoxia were 3.57 and 4.13-fold higher than those under normoxic environment, indicating unambiguous oxygen-dependent uptakes of these two probes. The distribution of 99m Tc-BnAO-NI in KHT sarcoma-bearing mice revealed rapid clearance from the blood circulation. The tumor uptake peaked at 2 h post-injection (0.32±0.05%ID/g) with tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios of 10.32 and 3.96, respectively. The effect of pentoxifylline on the tumor blood perfusion was obvious. The tumor

  18. Intelligently interactive combat simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Lawrence J.; Porto, Vincent W.; Alexander, Steven M.

    2001-09-01

    To be fully effective, combat simulation must include an intelligently interactive enemy... one that can be calibrated. But human operated combat simulations are uncalibratable, for we learn during the engagement, there's no average enemy, and we cannot replicate their culture/personality. Rule-based combat simulations (expert systems) are not interactive. They do not take advantage of unexpected mistakes, learn, innovate, and reflect the changing mission/situation. And it is presumed that the enemy does not have a copy of the rules, that the available experts are good enough, that they know why they did what they did, that their combat experience provides a sufficient sample and that we know how to combine the rules offered by differing experts. Indeed, expert systems become increasingly complex, costly to develop, and brittle. They have face validity but may be misleading. In contrast, intelligently interactive combat simulation is purpose- driven. Each player is given a well-defined mission, reference to the available weapons/platforms, their dynamics, and the sensed environment. Optimal tactics are discovered online and in real-time by simulating phenotypic evolution in fast time. The initial behaviors are generated randomly or include hints. The process then learns without instruction. The Valuated State Space Approach provides a convenient way to represent any purpose/mission. Evolutionary programming searches the domain of possible tactics in a highly efficient manner. Coupled together, these provide a basis for cruise missile mission planning, and for driving tank warfare simulation. This approach is now being explored to benefit Air Force simulations by a shell that can enhance the original simulation.

  19. Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-479 Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Name Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Development Estimate) Defense Acquisition... Helicopter (CRH) system will provide Personnel Recovery (PR) forces with a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft that is quickly deployable and

  20. Creep/Stress Rupture Behavior of 3D Woven SiC/SiC Composites with Sylramic-iBN, Super Sylramic-iBN and Hi-Nicalon-S Fibers at 2700F in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R. T.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the influence of fiber types on creep durability, 3D SiC/SiC CMCs were fabricated with Sylramic-iBN, super Sylramic-iBN and Hi-Nicalon-S fibers and the composite specimens were then tested under isothermal tensile creep at 14820C at 69, 103 and 138 MPa for up to 300hrs in air. The failed specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and computed tomography (CT) for fracture mode analysis. The creep data of these composites are compared with those of other SiC/SiC composites in the literature. The results of this study will be presented.

  1. Becoming Socialized into a New Professional Role: LPN to BN Student Nurses' Experiences with Legitimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, Sherri; Miller, Jean; Gordon, Kathryn; Janzen, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative descriptive study that explored the professional socialization experiences of Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) who attended an online university to earn a Baccalaureate degree in nursing (BN), a prerequisite to writing the Canadian Registered Nurse (RN) qualifying exam. The project was framed from a constructivist worldview and Haas and Shaffir's theory of legitimation. Participants were 27 nurses in a Post-LPN to BN program who came from across Canada to complete required practicums. Data was collected from digital recordings of four focus groups held in different cities. Transcripts were analyzed for themes and confirmed with participants through member checking. Two overarching themes were identified and are presented to explain how these unique adult learners sought to legitimize their emerging identity as Registered Nurses (RNs). First, Post-LPN to BN students need little, if any, further legitimation to affirm their identities as “nurse.” Second, practicum interactions with instructors and new clinical experiences are key socializing agents. PMID:22548165

  2. THE PROPER MOTIONS OF THE DOUBLE RADIO SOURCE n IN THE ORION BN/KL REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Zapata, Luis; Lizano, Susana; Dzib, Sergio A.; Menten, Karl M.; Gómez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    We have extended the time baseline for observations of the proper motions of radio sources in the Orion BN/KL region from 14.7 to 22.5 years. We present improved determinations for the sources BN and I. In addition, we address the proper motions of the double radio source n, that have been questioned in the literature. We confirm that all three sources are moving away at transverse velocities of tens of kilometers per second from a region in-between them, where they were located about 500 years ago. Source n exhibits a new component that we interpret as due to a one-sided ejection of free–free emitting plasma that took place after 2006.36. We used the highly accurate relative proper motions between sources BN and I to determine that their closest separation took place in the year 1475 ± 6, when they were within ∼100 au or less from each other in the plane of the sky.

  3. THE PROPER MOTIONS OF THE DOUBLE RADIO SOURCE n IN THE ORION BN/KL REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Zapata, Luis; Lizano, Susana [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Dzib, Sergio A.; Menten, Karl M. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Gómez, Laura, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdoba 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-01-10

    We have extended the time baseline for observations of the proper motions of radio sources in the Orion BN/KL region from 14.7 to 22.5 years. We present improved determinations for the sources BN and I. In addition, we address the proper motions of the double radio source n, that have been questioned in the literature. We confirm that all three sources are moving away at transverse velocities of tens of kilometers per second from a region in-between them, where they were located about 500 years ago. Source n exhibits a new component that we interpret as due to a one-sided ejection of free–free emitting plasma that took place after 2006.36. We used the highly accurate relative proper motions between sources BN and I to determine that their closest separation took place in the year 1475 ± 6, when they were within ∼100 au or less from each other in the plane of the sky.

  4. Becoming Socialized into a New Professional Role: LPN to BN Student Nurses' Experiences with Legitimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri Melrose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a qualitative descriptive study that explored the professional socialization experiences of Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs who attended an online university to earn a Baccalaureate degree in nursing (BN, a prerequisite to writing the Canadian Registered Nurse (RN qualifying exam. The project was framed from a constructivist worldview and Haas and Shaffir’s theory of legitimation. Participants were 27 nurses in a Post-LPN to BN program who came from across Canada to complete required practicums. Data was collected from digital recordings of four focus groups held in different cities. Transcripts were analyzed for themes and confirmed with participants through member checking. Two overarching themes were identified and are presented to explain how these unique adult learners sought to legitimize their emerging identity as Registered Nurses (RNs. First, Post-LPN to BN students need little, if any, further legitimation to affirm their identities as “nurse.” Second, practicum interactions with instructors and new clinical experiences are key socializing agents.

  5. Becoming Socialized into a New Professional Role: LPN to BN Student Nurses' Experiences with Legitimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, Sherri; Miller, Jean; Gordon, Kathryn; Janzen, Katherine J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative descriptive study that explored the professional socialization experiences of Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) who attended an online university to earn a Baccalaureate degree in nursing (BN), a prerequisite to writing the Canadian Registered Nurse (RN) qualifying exam. The project was framed from a constructivist worldview and Haas and Shaffir's theory of legitimation. Participants were 27 nurses in a Post-LPN to BN program who came from across Canada to complete required practicums. Data was collected from digital recordings of four focus groups held in different cities. Transcripts were analyzed for themes and confirmed with participants through member checking. Two overarching themes were identified and are presented to explain how these unique adult learners sought to legitimize their emerging identity as Registered Nurses (RNs). First, Post-LPN to BN students need little, if any, further legitimation to affirm their identities as "nurse." Second, practicum interactions with instructors and new clinical experiences are key socializing agents.

  6. BN800: The advanced sodium cooled fast reactor plant based on close fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xingman

    2011-01-01

    As one of the advanced countries with actually fastest reactor technology, Russia has always taken a leading role in the forefront of the development of fast reactor technology. After successful operation of BN600 fast reactor nuclear power station with a capacity of six hundred thousand kilowatts of electric power for nearly 30 years, and after a few decades of several design optimization improved and completed on its basis, it is finally decided to build Unit 4 of Beloyarsk nuclear power station (BN800 fast reactor power station). The BN800 fast reactor nuclear power station is considered to be the project of the world's most advanced fast reactor nuclear power being put into implementation. The fast reactor technology in China has been developed for decades. With the Chinese pilot fast reactor to be put into operation soon, the Chinese model fast reactor power station has been put on the agenda. Meanwhile, the closed fuel cycle development strategy with fast reactor as key aspect has given rise to the concern of experts and decision-making level in relevant areas. Based on the experiences accumulated in many years in dealing the Sino-Russian cooperation in fast reactor technology, with reference to the latest Russian published and authoritative literatures regarding BN800 fast reactor nuclear power station, the author compiled this article into a comprehensive introduction for reference by leaders and experts dealing in the related fields of nuclear fuel cycle strategy and fast reactor technology development researches, etc. (authors)

  7. Littoral Combat Vessels: Analysis and Comparison of Designs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiansen, Bryan J

    2008-01-01

    .... The candidates are a Littoral Combat Ship with a surface warfare module, a National Security Cutter augmented with offensive and defensive weaponry, a "Sea Lance" inshore combat vessel, and a Combat...

  8. Cobalt-60 production in the BN-350 fast power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, A.V.; Korobejnikov, V.V.; Matveenko, I.P.

    1994-01-01

    A possibility of Co-60 isotope production in the BN-350 fast reactor was considered. A special irradiating device, which is an assembly with a central hole, where a container containing cobalt and zirconium hydride is placed. The irradiating device tested permits generating 60 Co with specific activity of 100 Ci/g

  9. CONCEPTUALISATION ONTOLOGIQUE DE LA REPRÉSENTATION DU COMBAT CONCEPTUALISATION ONTOLOGIQUE DE LA REPRÉSENTATION DU COMBAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Rheault

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En adoptant une perspective existentielle, on peut tenter d'expliquer la représentation du combat au moyen de concepts comme les positions de SOI et de L'AUTRE ainsi que les statuts de l'ÊTRE et de la CHOSE, qui, une fois combinés, définissent des domaines ontologiques. Le combat devient alors, conceptuellement, l'action de forcer une conscience à passer d'un domaine à un autre. On observe qu'en modifiant l'intensité des positions (polarisation, des statuts (hiérarchisation et des actions (dosage, on peut expliquer les variations possibles des représentations du combat. Il restera à valider la pertinence de ces concepts en multipliant les analyses.En adoptant une perspective existentielle, on peut tenter d'expliquer la représentation du combat au moyen de concepts comme les positions de SOI et de L'AUTRE ainsi que les statuts de l'ÊTRE et de la CHOSE, qui, une fois combinés, définissent des domaines ontologiques. Le combat devient alors, conceptuellement, l'action de forcer une conscience à passer d'un domaine à un autre. On observe qu'en modifiant l'intensité des positions (polarisation, des statuts (hiérarchisation et des actions (dosage, on peut expliquer les variations possibles des représentations du combat. Il restera à valider la pertinence de ces concepts en multipliant les analyses.

  10. Structural and electronic properties of a single C chain doped zigzag BN nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ping; Wang, Qianwen; Cao, Gengyu; Tang, Fuling; Huang, Min

    2014-01-01

    The effects of single C-chain on the stability, structural and electronic properties of zigzag BN nanoribbons (ZBNNRs) were investigated by first-principles calculations. C-chain was expected to dope at B-edge for all the ribbon widths N z considered. The band gaps of C-chain doped N z -ZBNNR are narrower than that of perfect ZBNNR due to new localized states induced by C-chain. The band gaps of N z -ZBNNR-C(n) are direct except for the case of C-chain position n=2. Band gaps of BN nanoribbons are tunable by C-chain and its position n, which may endow the potential applications of BNNR in electronics.

  11. Battlemind Training: Transitioning Home from Combat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W; Milliken, Charles W; McGurk, Dennis; Adler, Amy B; Cox, Anthony; Bliese, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    .... Destruction, injury, and death were ever present in the combat zone. Transitioning from combat to home can be difficult, and many Soldiers encounter readjustment problems ranging from elevated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD...

  12. The biological characterization of {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI as a SPECT probe for imaging hypoxia in a sarcoma-bearing mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsia, Chien-Chung [Institute of Biomedical imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Huang, Fu-Lei [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Hung, Guang-Uei [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang-Bing Show Chwan Hospital, Taiwan (China); Shen, Lie-Hang [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chuan-Lin, E-mail: clchen2@ym.edu.t [Institute of Biomedical imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hsin-Ell, E-mail: hewang@ym.edu.t [Institute of Biomedical imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-15

    Objectives: Tumor growth beyond the region where vascular oxygen can reach creates a hypoxic domain. In this study, BnAO, a ligand that had been labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate for hypoxia imaging, was conjugated with 2-nitroimidazole to give 3,3,10,10-tetramethyl-1-(2-nitro-1H-imidazo-1-y1)-4,9-diazadodecane-2,11- dionedioxime (BnAO-NI) as a potential ligand for hypoxia detection. Pentoxifylline is a peripheral vasodilator and has been used as a radiosensitizer in tumor radiotherapy. {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI/SPECT was applied to noninvasively assess the pharmacological effect of pentoxifylline in reducing tumor hypoxia in vivo. Methods: BnAO-NI was synthesized and formulated with methylene diphosphonate (MDP), stannous chloride and carbonate buffer to afford kits. After mixing with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate, {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI injection can be readily prepared. The partition coefficient, radiochemical purity and in vitro stability were determined. Cellular uptake of radiotracers in KHT cells under hypoxia was conducted in a CO{sub 2} incubator at 37 {sup o}C under hypoxia or normoxia. A biodistribution study after intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI in KHT sarcoma-implanted C3H mice was performed. The effect of pentoxifylline (100 mg/kg) on reducing tumor hypoxia was also studied. Results: The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI preparation was greater than 96% and stable at ambient temperature for 24 h (RCP>90%). The accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI and {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO in KHT cells under hypoxia were 3.57 and 4.13-fold higher than those under normoxic environment, indicating unambiguous oxygen-dependent uptakes of these two probes. The distribution of {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI in KHT sarcoma-bearing mice revealed rapid clearance from the blood circulation. The tumor uptake peaked at 2 h post-injection (0.32{+-}0.05%ID/g) with tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios of 10.32 and 3.96, respectively. The effect of pentoxifylline on the

  13. Micro/nanoscale mechanical characterization and in situ observation of cracking of laminated Si3N4/BN composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaodong; Zou Linhua; Ni Hai; Reynolds, Anthony P.; Wang Changan; Huang Yong

    2008-01-01

    Micro/nanoscale mechanical characterization of laminated Si 3 N 4 /BN composites was carried out by nanoindentation techniques. A custom-designed micro mechanical tester was integrated with an optical microscope and an atomic force microscope to perform in situ three-point bending tests on notched Si 3 N 4 /BN composite bend specimens where the crack initiation and propagation were imaged simultaneously with the optical microscope and atomic force microscope during bending loading. The whole fracture process was in situ captured. It was found that crack deflection was initiated/induced by the pre-existing microvoids and microcracks in BN interfacial layers. New fracture mechanisms were proposed to provide guidelines for the design of biomimetic nacre-like composites

  14. Oxidation of SiC/BN/SiC Composites in Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Boyd, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    SiC fiber-reinforced SiC composites with a BN interphase are proposed for use as leading edge structures of hypersonic vehicles. The durability of these materials under hypersonic flight conditions is therefore of interest. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to characterize the oxidation kinetics of both the constituent fibers and composite coupons at four temperatures: 816, 1149, 1343, and 1538 C (1500, 2100, 2450, and 2800 F) and in oxygen partial pressures between 5% and 0.1% (balance argon) at 1 atm total pressure. One edge of the coupons was ground off so the effects of oxygen ingress into the composite could be monitored by post-test SEM and EDS. Additional characterization of the oxidation products was conducted by XPS and TOF-SIMS. Under most conditions, the BN oxidized rapidly, leading to the formation of borosilicate glass. Rapid initial oxidation followed by volatilization of boria lead to protective oxide formation and further oxidation was slow. At 1538C in 5% oxygen, both the fibers and coupons exhibited borosilicate glass formation and bubbling. At 1538C in 0.1% oxygen, active oxidation of both the fibers and the composites was observed leading to rapid SiC degradation. BN oxidation at 1538C in 0.1% oxygen was not significant.

  15. High-performance polyimide nanocomposites with core-shell AgNWs@BN for electronic packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yongcun; Liu, Feng, E-mail: liufeng@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2016-08-22

    The increasing density of electronic devices underscores the need for efficient thermal management. Silver nanowires (AgNWs), as one-dimensional nanostructures, possess a high aspect ratio and intrinsic thermal conductivity. However, high electrical conductivity of AgNWs limits their application for electronic packaging. We synthesized boron nitride-coated silver nanowires (AgNWs@BN) using a flexible and fast method followed by incorporation into synthetic polyimide (PI) for enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric properties of nanocomposites. The thinner boron nitride intermediate nanolayer on AgNWs not only alleviated the mismatch between AgNWs and PI but also enhanced their interfacial interaction. Hence, the maximum thermal conductivity of an AgNWs@BN/PI composite with a filler loading up to 20% volume was increased to 4.33 W/m K, which is an enhancement by nearly 23.3 times compared with that of the PI matrix. The relative permittivity and dielectric loss were about 9.89 and 0.015 at 1 MHz, respectively. Compared with AgNWs@SiO{sub 2}/PI and Ag@BN/PI composites, boron nitride-coated core-shell structures effectively increased the thermal conductivity and reduced the permittivity of nanocomposites. The relative mechanism was studied and discussed. This study enables the identification of appropriate modifier fillers for polymer matrix nanocomposites.

  16. Hybrid MoS2/h-BN Nanofillers As Synergic Heat Dissipation and Reinforcement Additives in Epoxy Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Hélio; Trigueiro, João Paulo C; Silva, Wellington M; Woellner, Cristiano F; Owuor, Peter S; Cristian Chipara, Alin; Lopes, Magnovaldo C; Tiwary, Chandra S; Pedrotti, Jairo J; Villegas Salvatierra, Rodrigo; Tour, James M; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N; Silva, Glaura G; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2017-09-26

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials as molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and their hybrid (MoS 2 /h-BN) were employed as fillers to improve the physical properties of epoxy composites. Nanocomposites were produced in different concentrations and studied in their microstructure, mechanical and thermal properties. The hybrid 2D mixture imparted efficient reinforcement to the epoxy leading to increases of up to 95% in tensile strength, 60% in ultimate strain, and 58% in Young's modulus. Moreover, an enhancement of 203% in thermal conductivity was achieved for the hybrid composite as compared to the pure polymer. The incorporation of MoS 2 /h-BN mixture nanofillers in epoxy resulted in nanocomposites with multifunctional characteristics for applications that require high mechanical and thermal performance.

  17. Acoustic control system BN-350. Explanatory note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    A description of the acoustic system developed to control boiling in the active zone of the BN 350 reactor is given together with the corresponding technical characteristics. The results of experiments and calculations which confirm the validity of the solutions adopted are discussed. Theoretical calculations on the boiling process in the duct are reported together with details on the fast diagnostic system. A means for localizing the onset of boiling is also given, possible error being taken into consideration. The special features of the passive acoustic diagnostic method used to study boiling are described and schemas of the anciliary equipment presented [fr

  18. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…

  19. Minority carrier lifetime and dark current measurements in mid-wavelength infrared InAs0.91Sb0.09 alloy nBn photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, B. V.; Kim, J. K.; Kadlec, E. A.; Klem, J. F.; Hawkins, S. D.; Leonhardt, D.; Coon, W. T.; Fortune, T. R.; Cavaliere, M. A.; Tauke-Pedretti, A.; Shaner, E. A.

    2015-11-01

    Carrier lifetime and dark current measurements are reported for a mid-wavelength infrared InAs0.91Sb0.09 alloy nBn photodetector. Minority carrier lifetimes are measured using a non-contact time-resolved microwave technique on unprocessed portions of the nBn wafer and the Auger recombination Bloch function parameter is determined to be |F1F2|=0.292 . The measured lifetimes are also used to calculate the expected diffusion dark current of the nBn devices and are compared with the experimental dark current measured in processed photodetector pixels from the same wafer. Excellent agreement is found between the two, highlighting the important relationship between lifetimes and diffusion currents in nBn photodetectors.

  20. Born to fight? Genetics and combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Franchini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the influence of genetics on sports performance has received increased attention from many researchers. In combat sports, some investigations have also been conducted. This article’s main objective was to review the representation of specific gene polymorphisms in combat sports athletes compared to controls. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science and SportDiscus. The terms used in this search involved combat sports (boxing, karate, judo, mixed martial arts, taekwondo and wrestling, genes, genetics and candidate genes. Articles published until November 2013 were included if combat sports athletes were considered as a single group (i.e., not mixed with athletes of other sports. Seven studies were found, with two presenting no difference between combat sports athletes and controls, two presenting higher frequencies of candidate genes related to a more endurance-related profile compared to controls, and three where a more power-related gene overrepresentation was found in comparison to controls. Taken together, the initial studies about the genetic characteristics of combat sports athletes are controversial, which is probably due to the mixed (aerobic and anaerobic characteristic and to the multifactorial performance determinants of these sports.

  1. New lube oil for stationary heavy fuel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    An extensively field-tested diesel engine lubricating oil for medium speed, heavy fuel stationary engine applications has been introduced by Caltex Petroleum, in Dallas, Texas. The new oil is similar to a product developed and marketed for marine medium speed heavy fuel propulsion and auxillary engine applications by one of its two parent companies, Chevron. Detailed are results of two field evaluations in Caterpillar 3600 series engines installed at Kimberly Clark (KCPI) and Sime Darby (SDPI), both in the Philippines. Both were one year, 7000-plus hour field evaluations of a new, 40 BN trunk piston engine oil (TPEO), identified as Caltex Delo 3400, SAE 40 engine lube oil. The oil uses the new Phenalate additive technology developed by Chevron Chemical Company`s Oronite Additives Division. This technology is designed to improve engine cleanliness in regard to soft black sludge and piston deposits. The focus of the field evaluations was the performance of the lubricating oil. During controlled tests at Sime Darby, the most noticeable improvement over another technology was in the control of sludge deposits. This improvement was seen in all areas where black sludge forms, such as the rocker cover, crankcase cover and valve assemblies. 4 figs.

  2. Adsorption and possible dissociation of glucose by the [BN fullerene-B6]- magnetic nanocomposite. In silico studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anota, E. Chigo; Villanueva, M. Salazar; Shakerzadeh, E.; Castro, M.

    2018-02-01

    The adsorption, activation and possible dissociation of the glucose molecule on the magnetic [BN fullerene-B6]- system is performed by means of density functional theory calculations. Three models of magnetic nanocomposites were inspected: i) pristine BN fullerene, BN fullerene functionalized with a magnetic B6 cluster which generates two structures: ii) pyramidal (P) and iii) triangular (T). Chemical interactions of glucose appear for all these cases; however, for the BNF:B6(T)—glucose system, the interaction generates an effect of dissociation on glucose, due to the magnetic effects, since it has high spin multiplicity. The latter nanocomposite shows electronic behavior like-conductor and like-semi-conductor for the P and T geometries, respectively. Intrinsic magnetism associated to values of 1.0 magneton bohr (µB) for the pyramidal and 5.0 µB for the triangular structure, high polarity, and low-chemical reactivity are found for these systems. These interesting properties make these functionalized fullerenes a good option for being used as nano-vehicles for drug delivery. These quantum descriptors remain invariant when the [BN]-fullerene and [BNF:B6 (P) or (T)]- nanocomposites are interacting with the glucose molecule. According to the determined adsorption energy, chemisorption regimes occur in both the phases: gas and aqueous medium.

  3. Combat Leadership Styles: Empowerment versus Authoritarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism FARIS R. KIRKLAND Recent research in Israel and the United States suggests that...Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  4. Synthesis of bulk quantity BN nanotubes with uniform morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, G.; Zhang, T.; Huang, X.X.; Zhong, B.; Zhang, X.D.; Yu, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Bulk quantity hexagonal BN nanotubes (h-BNNTs) with uniform morphology were synthesized via an improved ball-milling and annealing method. The sample was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM. The results show that the fabricated BNNTs have a uniform diameter ranging from 80 to 100 nm and a length of about 50-60 μm.

  5. k-eff of the Bn-350 reactor fuel by transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lado, A. V.; Romanenko, O. G.; Tazhibaeva, I. L.

    2001-01-01

    There is packaging of nuclear fuel on the BN-350 fast breeder reactor, Actau, now. The analysis of criticality while this procedure was done in the Safety Analysis Report . Keeping in mind the planning displacement of the fuel to a site of long-term storage, the criticality assessment of the fuel packed into transportation cask carried out in this paper

  6. Challenging the conclusion that lower preinduction cognitive ability increases risk for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder in 2,375 combat-exposed, Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William W; Gottesman, Irving I

    2008-06-01

    Among U.S. Vietnam War veterans, we assessed whether preinduction cognitive abilities were associated with the risk of developing combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The sample included 2,375 single-term, enlisted, male, Army, Vietnam War veterans who reported exposure to combat during the war. There were two measures of cognitive abilities obtained before military induction, the Armed Forces Qualification Test and the General Technical Examination. Associations of ability with current and lifetime diagnoses of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition Revised, combat-related PTSD were assessed. An index was used to grade the severity of combat exposure. Among low-combat exposure veterans, higher preinduction cognitive abilities decreased the risk for lifetime, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition Revised, combat-related PTSD. For veterans with higher levels of combat exposure, higher scores for preinduction cognitive abilities had no effect on reducing the risk for lifetime diagnosis of combat-related PTSD. For a current diagnosis of combat-related PTSD, approximately 20 years after the stressful life events, preinduction cognitive abilities had no effect on the rates of combat-related PTSD. We found significant interactions between preinduction cognitive abilities and severity of combat exposure for the lifetime diagnosis of combat-related PTSD among Army Vietnam War veterans. High levels of combat exposure are likely to exhaust intellectual resources available for coping with stressful life events. Lower scores for cognitive abilities are not uniformly disadvantageous, and this should be considered by military manpower policymakers.

  7. Resistance to and Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Actinobacteria Isolated from Abandoned Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia El Baz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of high concentrations of heavy metals in environments can cause many human health risks and serious ecological problems. Nowadays, bioremediation using microorganisms is receiving much attention due to their good performance. The aim of this work is to investigate heavy metals resistance and bioaccumulation potential of actinobacteria strains isolated from some abandoned mining areas. Analysis of mining residues revealed that high concentration of zinc “Zn” was recorded in Sidi Bouatman, Arbar, and Bir Nhass mining residues. The highest concentration of lead “Pb” was found in Sidi Bouatman. Copper “Cu,” cadmium “Cd,” and chromium “Cr” were found with moderate and low concentrations. The resistance of 59 isolated actinobacteria to the five heavy metals was also determined. Using molecular identification 16S rRNA, these 27 isolates were found to belong to Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis genera. The results showed different levels of heavy metal resistance; the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC recorded was 0.55 for Pb, 0.15 for Cr, and 0.10 mg·mL−1 for both Zn and Cu. Chemical precipitation assay of heavy metals using hydrogen sulfide technic (H2S revealed that only 27 isolates have a strong ability to accumulate Pb (up to 600 mg of Pb per g of biomass for Streptomyces sp. BN3.

  8. Resistance to and Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Actinobacteria Isolated from Abandoned Mining Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baz, Soraia; Baz, Mohamed; El Gharmali, Abdelhay; Imziln, Boujamâa

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of high concentrations of heavy metals in environments can cause many human health risks and serious ecological problems. Nowadays, bioremediation using microorganisms is receiving much attention due to their good performance. The aim of this work is to investigate heavy metals resistance and bioaccumulation potential of actinobacteria strains isolated from some abandoned mining areas. Analysis of mining residues revealed that high concentration of zinc “Zn” was recorded in Sidi Bouatman, Arbar, and Bir Nhass mining residues. The highest concentration of lead “Pb” was found in Sidi Bouatman. Copper “Cu,” cadmium “Cd,” and chromium “Cr” were found with moderate and low concentrations. The resistance of 59 isolated actinobacteria to the five heavy metals was also determined. Using molecular identification 16S rRNA, these 27 isolates were found to belong to Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis genera. The results showed different levels of heavy metal resistance; the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) recorded was 0.55 for Pb, 0.15 for Cr, and 0.10 mg·mL−1 for both Zn and Cu. Chemical precipitation assay of heavy metals using hydrogen sulfide technic (H2S) revealed that only 27 isolates have a strong ability to accumulate Pb (up to 600 mg of Pb per g of biomass for Streptomyces sp. BN3). PMID:25763383

  9. MILITARY MISSION COMBAT EFFICIENCY ESTIMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ighoyota B. AJENAGHUGHRURE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Military infantry recruits, although trained, lacks experience in real-time combat operations, despite the combat simulations training. Therefore, the choice of including them in military operations is a thorough and careful process. This has left top military commanders with the tough task of deciding, the best blend of inexperienced and experienced infantry soldiers, for any military operation, based on available information on enemy strength and capability. This research project delves into the design of a mission combat efficiency estimator (MCEE. It is a decision support system that aids top military commanders in estimating the best combination of soldiers suitable for different military operations, based on available information on enemy’s combat experience. Hence, its advantages consist of reducing casualties and other risks that compromises the entire operation overall success, and also boosting the morals of soldiers in an operation, with such information as an estimation of combat efficiency of their enemies. The system was developed using Microsoft Asp.Net and Sql server backend. A case study test conducted with the MECEE system, reveals clearly that the MECEE system is an efficient tool for military mission planning in terms of team selection. Hence, when the MECEE system is fully deployed it will aid military commanders in the task of decision making on team members’ combination for any given operation based on enemy personnel information that is well known beforehand. Further work on the MECEE will be undertaken to explore fire power types and impact in mission combat efficiency estimation.

  10. Rating of Perceived Exertion for Quantification of Training and Combat Loads During Combat Sport-Specific Activities: A Short Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Davis, Philip; Franchini, Emerson; Moalla, Wassim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this short review was to summarize data pertaining to the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) methods (RPE value and session-RPE) during combat sport-specific activities (i.e., competition and training) based on many factors, including contest type (i.e., official vs. simulated vs. training), combat rounds, age of participants and muscle groups, and their correlation with physiological variables (i.e., blood lactate concentration [La] and heart rate [HR]). The current review shows higher RPE in a match of mixed martial arts (MMAs) than Brazilian jiu-jitsu and kickboxing matches and during the competitive period compared with the precompetitive period. This could be explained by the longer duration of bouts, the higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism in MMA than other combat sports and contest type differences (simulated vs. official matches). Thus, this review found significant correlations between RPE or session-RPE, [La] and HR. Particularly, there was a stronger correlation between RPE and [La] during official striking (r = 0.81) than grappling combat sports matches (r = 0.53). In addition, a variation of correlation (moderate to large) between session-RPE and HR-based methods has been reported (i.e., Edwards' training load [r ranged between 0.58 and 0.95] and Banister training impulse [r ranged between 0.52 and 0.86]). Specifically, stronger correlation was apparent in combat sport competition that required a much higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism (e.g., karate) and in adult athletes than anaerobic-based combat sports (e.g., taekwondo) and young athletes, respectively. Indeed, the current review highlights that the correlations between session-RPE and HR-based methods were higher during official competition than training sessions. Session-RPE was affected by participants' competitive level, the intensity of session (high vs. low), the training modalities (tactical-technical vs. technical-development vs. simulated

  11. Combat ocular trauma and systemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichel, Eric D; Colyer, Marcus H

    2008-11-01

    To review the recent literature regarding combat ocular trauma during hostilities in Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, describe the classification of combat ocular trauma, and offer strategies that may assist in the management of eye injuries. Several recent publications have highlighted features of combat ocular trauma from Operation Iraqi Freedom. The most common cause of today's combat ocular injuries is unconventional fragmentary munitions causing significant blast injuries. These explosive munitions cause high rates of concomitant nonocular injuries such as traumatic brain injury, amputation, and other organ injuries. The most frequent ocular injuries include open-globe and adnexal lacerations. The extreme severity of combat-related open-globe injuries leads to high rates of primary enucleation and retained intraocular foreign bodies. Visual outcomes of intraocular foreign body injuries are similar to other series despite delayed removal, and no cases of endophthalmitis have occurred. Despite these advances, however, significant vision loss persists in cases of perforating globe injuries as well as open and closed-globe trauma involving the posterior segment. This review summarizes the recent literature describing ocular and systemic injuries sustained during Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. An emphasis on classification of ocular injuries as well as a discussion of main outcome measures and complications is discussed.

  12. ZnO quantum dot-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanghua; Wu, Zhiqian; Xu, Wenli; Lin, Shisheng

    2016-12-01

    A ZnO quantum dot photo-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity of more than 1915 A W-1 and detectivity of more than 1.02 × 1013 Jones (Jones = cm Hz1/2 W-1) has been demonstrated. The interfaced h-BN layer increases the barrier height at the graphene/GaN heterojunction, which decreases the dark current and improves the on/off current ratio of the device. The photo-doping effect increases the barrier height and carrier concentration at the graphene/h-BN/GaN heterojunction, thus the responsivity is improved from 1473 A W-1 to 1915 A W-1 and the detectivity is improved from 5.8 × 1012 to 1.0 × 1013 Jones. Moreover, all of the responsivity and detectivity values are the highest values among all the graphene-based ultraviolet photodetectors.

  13. Mechanical, tribological and corrosion properties of CrBN films deposited by combined direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahodova, Vera; Ding, Xing-zhao; Seng, Debbie H.L.; Gulbinski, W.; Louda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Cr–B–N films were deposited on stainless steel substrates by a combined direct current and radio frequency (RF) reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering process using two elemental Cr and one compound BN targets. Boron content in the as-deposited films was qualitatively analyzed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Films' microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and pin-on-disk tribometer experiments. Corrosion behavior of the Cr–B–N films was evaluated by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization method in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution. All the films were crystallized into a NaCl-type cubic structure. At lower RF power applied on the BN target (≤ 600 W), films are relatively randomly oriented, and films' crystallinity increased with increasing RF power. With increasing RF power further (≥ 800 W), films became (200) preferentially oriented, and films' crystallinity decreased gradually. With incorporation of a small amount of boron atoms into the CrN films, hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance were all improved evidently. The best wear and corrosion resistance was obtained for the film deposited with 600 W RF power applied on the BN target. - Highlights: • CrBN films deposited by direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • CrBN exhibited higher hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance than pure CrN. • The best wear- and corrosion-resistant film was deposited with 600 W RF power

  14. Combat Stress Decreases Memory of Warfighters in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, Rosa; Robles-Pérez, José Juan; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier

    2017-08-01

    The present research aimed to analyze the effect of combat stress in the psychophysiological response and attention and memory of warfighters in a simulated combat situation. Variables of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood glucose, blood lactate, body temperature, lower body muscular strength manifestation, cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, state anxiety and memory and attention through a postmission questionnaire were analyzed before and after a combat simulation in 20 male professional Spanish Army warfighters. The combat simulation produces a significant increase (p body temperature post, HF post/correct sound, body temperature post/glucose post, CFFTpre/lactate post, CFFT post/wrong sound, glucose post/AC pre, AC post/wrong fusil, AS post/SC post and SC post/wrong olfactory; and negative correlations: LF post/correct sound, body temperature post/lactate post and glucose post/lactate post. This data suggest that combat stress actives fight-flight system of soldiers. As conclusion, Combat stress produces an increased psychophysiological response that cause a selective decrease of memory, depending on the nature, dangerous or harmless of the objects.

  15. Exploring the effect of oxygen coverage on the electronic, magnetic and chemical properties of Ni(111) supported h-BN sheet: A density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasey, A. H. M. Abdul; Das, G. P.; Majumder, C.

    2017-05-01

    Traditionally, h-BN is used as coating material to prevent corrosion on the metal surface. In sharp contrast to this, here we show catalytic behavior of h-BN monolayer deposited on Ni(111) surface, clearly demonstrating the influence of the support in modulation of h-BN electronic structure. Using first principles density functional theory we have studied the interaction of O2 molecules with the h-BN/Ni(111) surface. The activation of Osbnd O bond, which is the most important step for oxidative catalysis, showed dependence on the O2 coverage. Thus this study is extremely important to predict the optimum O2 pressure in reaction chamber for efficient catalysis.

  16. Electronic structure of BN-aromatics: Choice of reliable computational tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazière, Audrey; Chrostowska, Anna; Darrigan, Clovis; Dargelos, Alain; Graciaa, Alain; Chermette, Henry

    2017-10-01

    The importance of having reliable calculation tools to interpret and predict the electronic properties of BN-aromatics is directly linked to the growing interest for these very promising new systems in the field of materials science, biomedical research, or energy sustainability. Ionization energy (IE) is one of the most important parameters to approach the electronic structure of molecules. It can be theoretically estimated, but in order to evaluate their persistence and propose the most reliable tools for the evaluation of different electronic properties of existent or only imagined BN-containing compounds, we took as reference experimental values of ionization energies provided by ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UV-PES) in gas phase—the only technique giving access to the energy levels of filled molecular orbitals. Thus, a set of 21 aromatic molecules containing B-N bonds and B-N-B patterns has been merged for a comparison between experimental IEs obtained by UV-PES and various theoretical approaches for their estimation. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) methods using B3LYP and long-range corrected CAM-B3LYP functionals are used, combined with the Δ SCF approach, and compared with electron propagator theory such as outer valence Green's function (OVGF, P3) and symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction ab initio methods. Direct Kohn-Sham estimation and "corrected" Kohn-Sham estimation are also given. The deviation between experimental and theoretical values is computed for each molecule, and a statistical study is performed over the average and the root mean square for the whole set and sub-sets of molecules. It is shown that (i) Δ SCF+TDDFT(CAM-B3LYP), OVGF, and P3 are the most efficient way for a good agreement with UV-PES values, (ii) a CAM-B3LYP range-separated hybrid functional is significantly better than B3LYP for the purpose, especially for extended conjugated systems, and (iii) the "corrected" Kohn-Sham result is a

  17. A study of the nanostructure and hardness of electron beam evaporated TiAlBN Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.A., E-mail: m.baker@surrey.ac.u [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Monclus, M.A. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Rebholz, C. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Gibson, P.N. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, I-21027 Ispra (Italy); Leyland, A.; Matthews, A. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-31

    TiAlBN coatings have been deposited by electron beam (EB) evaporation from a single TiAlBN material source onto AISI 316 stainless steel substrates at a temperature of 450 {sup o}C and substrate bias of - 100 V. The stoichiometry and nanostructure have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness and elastic modulus were determined by nanoindentation. Five coatings have been deposited, three from hot-pressed TiAlBN material and two from hot isostatically pressed (HIPped) material. The coatings deposited from the hot-pressed material exhibited a nanocomposite nc-(Ti,Al)N/a-BN/a-(Ti,Al)B{sub 2} structure, the relative phase fraction being consistent with that predicted by the equilibrium Ti-B-N phase diagram. Nanoindentation hardness values were in the range of 22 to 32 GPa. Using the HIPped material, coating (Ti,Al)B{sub 0.29}N{sub 0.46} was found to have a phase composition of 72-79 mol.% nc-(Ti,Al)(N,B){sub 1-x}+ 21-28 mol.% amorphous titanium boride and a hardness of 32 GPa. The second coating, (Ti,Al)B{sub 0.66}N{sub 0.25}, was X-ray amorphous with a nitride+boride multiphase composition and a hardness of 26 GPa. The nanostructure and structure-property relationships of all coatings are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the single-EB coatings deposited in this work and previously deposited twin-EB coatings. Twin-EB deposition gives rise to lower adatom mobilities, leading to (111) (Ti,Al)N preferential orientation, smaller grain sizes, less dense coatings and lower hardnesses.

  18. The electronic structure and ferromagnetism of TM (TM=V, Cr, and Mn)-doped BN(5, 5) nanotube: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, K.H.; Zheng, G.; Chen, G.; Wan, M.; Ji, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    We study the electronic structure and ferromagnetism of V-, Cr-, and Mn-doped single-wall BN(5, 5) nanotube by using polarized spin calculations within first principles. The optimized structures show that the transition-metal atoms move outwards and the calculated electronic properties demonstrate that the isolated V-, Cr-, and Mn-doped BN(5, 5) nanotubes show half-metallicity. The total ferromagnetic moments are 2μ B , 3.02μ B , and 3.98μ B for V-, Cr-, and Mn-doped BN(5, 5), respectively. The study suggests that such transition-metal (TM)-doped nanotubes may be useful in spintronics and nanomagnets

  19. Estimation of the radiation risks for population in the process of the BN-600 power unit operation at the Beloyarsk NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltik, I.I.; Oshkanov, N.N.

    2005-01-01

    Dose burdens on the population are the main criterion in estimating the radiological risks during NPP operation. Results of analysis of annual dose burdens on the population in the period of the BN-600 unit operation are presented. Data on individual and collective doses due to gas-aerosol and liquid effluents of radionuclides from the BN-600 unit on critical groups of population are presented. Data on collective doses due to other types of reactors are provided. It is shown that the risks stemming from the BN type reactors are approximately 2 orderers below the risks of channel-type and WWER-reactors [ru

  20. A survey on the measure of combat readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kwong Fook; Nor, Norazman Mohamad; Soon, Lee Lai

    2014-09-01

    Measuring the combat readiness in military forces involves the measures of tangible and intangible elements of combat power. Though these measures are applicable, the mathematical models and formulae used focus mainly on either the tangible or the intangible elements. In this paper, a review is done to highlight the research gap in the formulation of a mathematical model that incorporates tangible elements with intangible elements to measure the combat readiness of a military force. It highlights the missing link between the tangible and intangible elements of combat power. To bridge the gap and missing link, a mathematical model could be formulated that measures both the tangible and intangible aspects of combat readiness by establishing the relationship between the causal (tangible and intangible) elements and its effects on the measure of combat readiness. The model uses multiple regression analysis as well as mathematical modeling and simulation which digest the capability component reflecting its assets and resources, the morale component reflecting human needs, and the quality of life component reflecting soldiers' state of satisfaction in life. The results of the review provide a mean to bridge the research gap through the formulation of a mathematical model that shows the total measure of a military force's combat readiness. The results also significantly identify parameters for each of the variables and factors in the model.

  1. Movement of Fuel Ashore: Storage, Capacity, Throughput, and Distribution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    in MPEM, as the basis for analysis. In keeping with the spirit of EF21 and 33 seabasing concepts, this approach assumes that all other combat...PLTSQ03TM 2 GCE 1 1 INF BN 1 (SL.R’)CO B 1ST Pl. T SQO 3 TM 3 GCE , 1 INF BN 1 (Sl.FIF)CO B2Ml Pl. T HJS(J) GCE 1 1 INF BN 1 (SI.H)CO B2 >1l Pl T SCiO 1 HQ...TM GCE 1 1 INF BN 1 (Sl.R’)CO B2NJ Pl. T SOl 1 TM 1 GCE 1 1 INF BN 1 (SI.H)CO B2 >1l Pl T SCiO 1 TM 2 GCE 1 1 INF BN 1 (SURF) CO B2NJ Pl. T SQ) 1 TM

  2. Combat Wound Initiative program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Elster, Eric; Potter, Benjamin K; Davis, Thomas A; Tadaki, Doug K; Brown, Trevor S; Ahlers, Stephen; Attinger, Christopher E; Andersen, Romney C; Burris, David; Centeno, Jose; Champion, Hunter; Crumbley, David R; Denobile, John; Duga, Michael; Dunne, James R; Eberhardt, John; Ennis, William J; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Hawksworth, Jason; Helling, Thomas S; Lazarus, Gerald S; Milner, Stephen M; Mullick, Florabel G; Owner, Christopher R; Pasquina, Paul F; Patel, Chirag R; Peoples, George E; Nissan, Aviram; Ring, Michael; Sandberg, Glenn D; Schaden, Wolfgang; Schultz, Gregory S; Scofield, Tom; Shawen, Scott B; Sheppard, Forest R; Stannard, James P; Weina, Peter J; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2010-07-01

    The Combat Wound Initiative (CWI) program is a collaborative, multidisciplinary, and interservice public-private partnership that provides personalized, state-of-the-art, and complex wound care via targeted clinical and translational research. The CWI uses a bench-to-bedside approach to translational research, including the rapid development of a human extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) study in complex wounds after establishing the potential efficacy, biologic mechanisms, and safety of this treatment modality in a murine model. Additional clinical trials include the prospective use of clinical data, serum and wound biomarkers, and wound gene expression profiles to predict wound healing/failure and additional clinical patient outcomes following combat-related trauma. These clinical research data are analyzed using machine-based learning algorithms to develop predictive treatment models to guide clinical decision-making. Future CWI directions include additional clinical trials and study centers and the refinement and deployment of our genetically driven, personalized medicine initiative to provide patient-specific care across multiple medical disciplines, with an emphasis on combat casualty care.

  3. ZnO quantum dot-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanghua; Wu, Zhiqian; Xu, Wenli; Lin, Shisheng

    2016-12-02

    A ZnO quantum dot  photo-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity of more than 1915 A W -1 and detectivity of more than 1.02 × 10 13 Jones (Jones = cm Hz 1/2 W -1 ) has been demonstrated. The interfaced h-BN layer increases the barrier height at the graphene/GaN heterojunction, which decreases the dark current and improves the on/off current ratio of the device. The photo-doping effect increases the barrier height and carrier concentration at the graphene/h-BN/GaN heterojunction, thus the responsivity is improved from 1473 A W -1 to 1915 A W -1 and the detectivity is improved from 5.8 × 10 12 to 1.0 × 10 13 Jones. Moreover, all of the responsivity and detectivity values are the highest values among all the graphene-based ultraviolet photodetectors.

  4. Development of data analysis tool for combat system integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Chun Shin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available System integration is an important element for the construction of naval combat ships. In particular, because impeccable combat system integration together with the sensors and weapons can ensure the combat capability and survivability of the ship, the integrated performance of the combat system should be verified and validated whether or not it fulfills the requirements of the end user. In order to conduct systematic verification and validation, a data analysis tool is requisite. This paper suggests the Data Extraction, Recording and Analysis Tool (DERAT for the data analysis of the integrated performance of the combat system, including the functional definition, architecture and effectiveness of the DERAT by presenting the test results.

  5. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30 years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health services, medical training and future medical research programs. We also discuss the characteristics of modern naval combat, medical rescue challenges, medical treatment highlights and future developments of medical rescue at sea.

  6. Experimental study of microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of cBN particulates SS316 alloy based MMCs fabricated by DMLS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, M.; Mandal, V.; Singh, P. K.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, V.; Das, A. K. [Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad (India)

    2017-06-15

    Direct metal laser sintering process (DMLS) was chosen to develop cBN particulates reinforced SS316 based Metal matrix composite (MMC) with 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % cBN in the nitrogen gas atmosphere using continuous wave fibre laser of 400 W output capacity. Effects of process parameters such as laser power, beam scanning speed and the mixing ratio of powder on different physical properties of the developed MMC were investigated. It was found that the physical and mechanical properties such as friction and wear behavior, micro hardness and density come up with improved results. FESEM images indicate the microstructure of the composite and evidently confirms the presence of cubic boron nitride in the SS316 matrix where chromium nitride acted as a binder in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere. The Vickers hardness values of the developed MMCs with laser power 60 W and 65 W were found in the range of 276-478 HV{sub 0}.2 and 297-460 HV{sub 0}.2, respectively. It was found that Vickers hardness is directly proportional to the % of cBN in the powder mixture and the laser beam power. The wear resistance of the sintered MMCs increased with increasing cBN content in powder mixture and re- sults show that wear of MMCs are much lower than that of SS316. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the fabricated MMC confirms the presence of different phases such as cBN, CrN, CrB{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}N and Fe{sub 3}N as a consequence of a series of chemical reaction between cBN and different elements of SS316 in nitrogen atmosphere.

  7. Experimental study of microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of cBN particulates SS316 alloy based MMCs fabricated by DMLS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Mandal, V.; Singh, P. K.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, V.; Das, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Direct metal laser sintering process (DMLS) was chosen to develop cBN particulates reinforced SS316 based Metal matrix composite (MMC) with 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % cBN in the nitrogen gas atmosphere using continuous wave fibre laser of 400 W output capacity. Effects of process parameters such as laser power, beam scanning speed and the mixing ratio of powder on different physical properties of the developed MMC were investigated. It was found that the physical and mechanical properties such as friction and wear behavior, micro hardness and density come up with improved results. FESEM images indicate the microstructure of the composite and evidently confirms the presence of cubic boron nitride in the SS316 matrix where chromium nitride acted as a binder in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere. The Vickers hardness values of the developed MMCs with laser power 60 W and 65 W were found in the range of 276-478 HV_0.2 and 297-460 HV_0.2, respectively. It was found that Vickers hardness is directly proportional to the % of cBN in the powder mixture and the laser beam power. The wear resistance of the sintered MMCs increased with increasing cBN content in powder mixture and re- sults show that wear of MMCs are much lower than that of SS316. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the fabricated MMC confirms the presence of different phases such as cBN, CrN, CrB_2, Cr_2N and Fe_3N as a consequence of a series of chemical reaction between cBN and different elements of SS316 in nitrogen atmosphere.

  8. [Gastrointestinal diseases and abdominal pain in combat veterans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal'tsev, A I; Torgashov, M N; Popova, O S

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the role of consequences of combat stress in the development of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) diseases. One hundred and sixty-one combat veterans aged 24 to 69 years were examined. All underwent a clinical and neurological examination using the McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ), Beck depression inventory, Kotenev trauma stress questionnaire, and visual analogue scale to determine pain intensity. Anxiety, impairments in memory and sleep, and depression were identified. The SF-36 questionnaire was used to estimate quality of life in the patients. Gastric secretory function was investigated; esophagogastroduodenoscopy, X-ray and ultrasound studies, clinical and biochemical blood tests, coprological examinations, fecal tests for dysbiosis, if indicated, occult blood were made. Combat stress and its consequences as posttraumatic stress disorder have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GIT diseases and in the development of chronic abdominal pain. GIT diseases in combat veterans are in larger measure a sequel of impaired processes of adjustment to combat stress. Chronic abdominal pains were heterogeneous. On the one hand, chronic GIT disease serves as a source of pain syndrome; on the other hand, the central nervous system is of importance in the development of chronic abdominal pain. In addition to therapy for GIT and hepatobiliary diseases, the treatment of GIT diseases in this category of patients involves psychotherapy and neuroprotection, aimed at reducing the consequences of combat stress in combat veterans.

  9. Evaluation of the internalization kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-N2S2-Tat(49-57)Lys3-Bn with diagnostic purposes, using comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna G, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrin-rea leasing peptide receptors (GRP-r) are over expressed in breast and prostate cancer cells. Bombesin (Bn) binds specifically and strongly to GRP-r and this is the base for to label the Bn with radionuclides by gamma rays. Tat (49-57) is a peptide that across the cell membrane easily so that, when it is conjugated to different proteins, it can works as a Trojan horse, facilitating the drug internalization to the cells. The radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-N 2 S 2 -Tat(49-57)-Lys 3 -Bn was prepared for diagnosis and therapy at early stage of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the role of Tat in the internalization kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals measured by DNA damage induced by means of comet assay. Human lymphocytes were treated with the following protocols: a) Tat-Bn, b) 99m Tc-Bn, or c) 99m Tc-N 2 S 2 -Tat(49-57)-Lys 3 -Bn, also an untreated group was conformed. The internalization was evaluated at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min after exposure with three repetitions each one, and for radiopharmaceuticals with 2.9, 6.6, 9.0 and 14.8 MBq activities. DNA damage was scored in 100 cells per time and treatment, as tail length and tail moment. A Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis with p≤ 0.05 was applied for comparison between treatments. The results showed that the damage caused by 99m Tc-N 2 S 2 -Tat(49-57)-Lys 3 -Bn is significantly higher than that caused by 99m Tc-Bn and Tat-Bn, showing that Tat favors the internalization of the radiopharmaceutical. (Author)

  10. The concerted calculation of the BN-600 reactor for the deterministic and stochastic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, E. V.; Kuznetsov, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    The solution of the problem of increasing the safety of nuclear power plants implies the existence of complete and reliable information about the processes occurring in the core of a working reactor. Nowadays the Monte-Carlo method is the most general-purpose method used to calculate the neutron-physical characteristic of the reactor. But it is characterized by large time of calculation. Therefore, it may be useful to carry out coupled calculations with stochastic and deterministic codes. This article presents the results of research for possibility of combining stochastic and deterministic algorithms in calculation the reactor BN-600. This is only one part of the work, which was carried out in the framework of the graduation project at the NRC “Kurchatov Institute” in cooperation with S. S. Gorodkov and M. A. Kalugin. It is considering the 2-D layer of the BN-600 reactor core from the international benchmark test, published in the report IAEA-TECDOC-1623. Calculations of the reactor were performed with MCU code and then with a standard operative diffusion algorithm with constants taken from the Monte - Carlo computation. Macro cross-section, diffusion coefficients, the effective multiplication factor and the distribution of neutron flux and power were obtained in 15 energy groups. The reasonable agreement between stochastic and deterministic calculations of the BN-600 is observed.

  11. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  12. A naturalistic decision making model for simulated human combatants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUNTER, KEITH O.; HART, WILLIAM E.; FORSYTHE, JAMES C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe a naturalistic behavioral model for the simulation of small unit combat. This model, Klein's recognition-primed decision making (RPD) model, is driven by situational awareness rather than a rational process of selecting from a set of action options. They argue that simulated combatants modeled with RPD will have more flexible and realistic responses to a broad range of small-scale combat scenarios. Furthermore, they note that the predictability of a simulation using an RPD framework can be easily controlled to provide multiple evaluations of a given combat scenario. Finally, they discuss computational issues for building an RPD-based behavior engine for fully automated combatants in small conflict scenarios, which are being investigated within Sandia's Next Generation Site Security project

  13. Adsorption of Na, Mg, and Al atoms on BN nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beheshtian, Javad [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, P.O. Box: 16875-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Peyghan, Ali Ahmadi, E-mail: ahmadi.iau@gmail.com [Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri, Zargham [Physics group, Science department, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch, P.O. Box: 33135-369, Islamshahr, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-30

    Adsorption of three metals (Na, Mg, and Al) on the surface of BN nanotubes (BNNT) has been investigated by using density functional theory. Adsorption energies for Na and Al atoms have been calculated to be about - 0.22 to - 0.61 eV, respectively. Upon the metal adsorption, energy gap between highest occupied and lowest unoccupied orbitals of the tube is dramatically decreased, resulting in enhanced electrical conductivity. However, in the case of Mg atom, the low adsorption energy cannot change electronic property of the tube. The semi-conductive BNNT transform to n-type semiconductor after adsorption of Na atom. The metal adsorption modifies work function of the BNNT and consequently the field-emission current densities of metal-BNNT may be significantly enhanced. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption of Na, Mg, and Al atoms on the BN nanotubes (BNNT) was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption energies for Na and Al atoms are about - 0.22 to - 0.61 eV, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy gap of the tube dramatically decreases upon the metals adsorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semiconductor BNNT transform to n-type ones upon adsorption of Na and Al atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The field-emission current densities of metal-BNNT may be significantly enhanced.

  14. Friction and wear behavior of laser cladding Ni/hBN self-lubricating composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shitang; Zhou Jiansong; Guo Baogang; Zhou Huidi; Pu Yuping; Chen Jianmin

    2008-01-01

    Ni/hBN coating was successfully prepared on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate by means of laser cladding. The microhardness profile of the composite coating along the depth direction was measured, while its cross-sectional microstructures and phase compositions were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the friction and wear behavior of the composite coatings sliding against Si 3 N 4 from ambient to 800 deg. C was evaluated using a ball-on-disc friction and wear tester, and the worn surface morphologies of the composite coatings and counterpart ceramic balls were observed using a scanning electron microscope. At the same time, the worn surfaces of the ceramic balls were also analyzed using a 3D non-contact surface mapping profiler as well. It was found that the laser cladding Ni/hBN coating on the stainless steel substrate had high microhardness and good friction-reducing and antiwear abilities at elevated temperatures up to 800 deg. C. The composite coating registered slightly increased friction coefficient and wear rate as the temperature rose from ambient to 100 deg. C; then the friction coefficient and wear rate decreased with increasing temperature up to 800 deg. C (with the slight increase in the wear rate at 700 deg. C and 800 deg. C to be an exception). The laser cladding Ni/hBN coating was dominated by mixed adhesion and abrasive wear as it slid against the ceramic ball below 300 deg. C. With further increase in the test temperature up to 400 deg. C and above, it was characterized by mild adhesion wear and plastic deformation. Since the laser cladding Ni/hBN coating registered an increased wear rate at temperatures of 600 deg. C and above, it was not suggested to be used for wear prevention and protection of the stainless steel at elevated temperature above 800 deg. C

  15. Friction and wear behavior of laser cladding Ni/hBN self-lubricating composite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shitang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Jiansong [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo Baogang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Huidi [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Pu Yuping [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen Jianmin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: chenjm@lzb.ac.cn

    2008-09-15

    Ni/hBN coating was successfully prepared on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate by means of laser cladding. The microhardness profile of the composite coating along the depth direction was measured, while its cross-sectional microstructures and phase compositions were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the friction and wear behavior of the composite coatings sliding against Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} from ambient to 800 deg. C was evaluated using a ball-on-disc friction and wear tester, and the worn surface morphologies of the composite coatings and counterpart ceramic balls were observed using a scanning electron microscope. At the same time, the worn surfaces of the ceramic balls were also analyzed using a 3D non-contact surface mapping profiler as well. It was found that the laser cladding Ni/hBN coating on the stainless steel substrate had high microhardness and good friction-reducing and antiwear abilities at elevated temperatures up to 800 deg. C. The composite coating registered slightly increased friction coefficient and wear rate as the temperature rose from ambient to 100 deg. C; then the friction coefficient and wear rate decreased with increasing temperature up to 800 deg. C (with the slight increase in the wear rate at 700 deg. C and 800 deg. C to be an exception). The laser cladding Ni/hBN coating was dominated by mixed adhesion and abrasive wear as it slid against the ceramic ball below 300 deg. C. With further increase in the test temperature up to 400 deg. C and above, it was characterized by mild adhesion wear and plastic deformation. Since the laser cladding Ni/hBN coating registered an increased wear rate at temperatures of 600 deg. C and above, it was not suggested to be used for wear prevention and protection of the stainless steel at elevated temperature above 800 deg. C.

  16. Evidence of combat in triceratops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Farke

    Full Text Available The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull.We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns, for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002, but not in other cranial bones (P > 0.20.This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head.

  17. How to Increase the h-BN Crystallinity of Microfilms and Self-Standing Nanosheets: A Review of the Different Strategies Using the PDCs Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN is a well-known material whose use is almost restricted to lubricating applications in domains ranging from metallurgy to cosmetics. Howover, h-BN displays many other interesting properties, opening new perspectives for other engineering applications, such as as a solid lubricant in aeronautics, as the perfect substrate to graphene for electronic devices, etc. However, all these promising developments require tailored h-BN shapes displaying a high level of crystallization, ensuring its properties for the long term. Here, we developed three strategies, all associated with the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs route, to prepare highly crystallized supported thick coatings and self-standing nanosheets. The first strategy concerns the innovative implementation of a Rapid Thermal Annealing to prepare micrometric h-BN coatings on thermal sensitive substrates. Compared to conventional treatment the crystallization of h-BN has successfully lowered to about 300 °C. The second strategy consists of an additivation of the used polymer precursor. Effect of lithium nitride as a crystallization promoter was investigated lowering the onset crystallization temperature from 1400 °C (traditionally to 1000 °C. This novel synthetic route allows preparing self-standing highly crystallized h-BN nanolayers. Finally, the third strategy is based on a unique combination of the PDCs route with Spark Plasma Sintering to profit of both approaches. This original method leads to large and well-crystallized flakes available for a subsequent exfoliation.

  18. Technical-tactical and physiological demands of wrestling combats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianka Miarka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical-tactical and physiological demand analyses of wrestling combats are important because they reveal essential information for the development of contextual training and specific physical preparation of wrestlers. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the characteristics of wrestling combats in freestyle, female and Greco-roman styles. The time-motion analysis presented in this article is the main component to carry out inferences on intensity and effort: pause ratio of combat actions. After rules modification in 2013, wrestling combats showed quicker and more diversified actions, especially in the lighter categories. For Greco-roman wrestling, most studies showed takedowns as the most effective techniques in World competitions for the period 2009-2011. For the same period, foot/leg techniques were the most effective in female and freestyle wrestling, followed by takedown attacks. Recent analyses, developed after 2013 rules modification, showed that the decisive offensive actions were applied on foot and in par terre situations – especially gutwrenches techniques and derivatives of suplex movements. The knowledge on the determinant and predominant actions of wrestling combats can be applied in future research, as well as can be used practically for training, physical preparation and assessments of similar combat actions. It also allows interventions to prevent injuries resulting from technical and tactical wrestling actions.

  19. Self-Assembled BN and BCN Quantum Dots Obtained from High Intensity Ultrasound Exfoliated Nanosheets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Kormunda, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2014), s. 1106-1116 ISSN 1947-2935 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * BN * BCN * Quantum Dots Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.598, year: 2014

  20. Mid-IR Imaging of Orion BN/KL: Modeling of Physical Conditions and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezari, Daniel; Varosi, Frank; Dwek, Eli; Danchi, William C.; Tan, Jonathan; Okumura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We have modeled two mid-infrared imaging photometry data sets to determine the spatial distribution of physical conditions in the BN/KL (Becklin-Neugebauer / Kleinmann-Low) infrared complex. We observed the BN/KL region using the 10-meter Keck I telescope and the LWS (Living With a Star) in the direct imaging mode, over a 13 inch by 19 inch field . We also modeled images obtained with COMICS (Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer, Kataza et al. 2000) at the 8.2-meter SUBARU telescope, over a total field of view [which] is 31 inches by 41 inches in a total of nine bands: 7.8, 8.8, 9.7, 10.5, 11.7, 12.4, 18.5, 20.8 and 24.8 microns with 1-micron bandwidth interference filters.

  1. Barriers to Implementing a Single Joint Combat Camouflage Uniform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    opportunities, threats (SWOT), and political, economic, social, and technological (PEST) analyses; examines the requirements and role of each of the...SUBJECT TERMS ground combat uniform, combat camouflage uniform history , combat camouflage uniform pattern, camouflage pattern testing 15. NUMBER...methodology applies strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT), and political, economic, social, and technological (PEST) analyses

  2. Mussel-inspired immobilization of BN nanosheets onto poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) fibers: Multifunctional interface for photothermal self-healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qing; Hu, Zhen; Xu, Xirong; Yu, Long; Zhang, Dayu; Huang, Yudong

    2018-05-01

    The composites with interfacial self-healing ability are smart and promising materials in the future. Although some approaches have been used to heal the micro-cracks in composite materials, it is still a great challenge to develop a versatile strategy to fabricate multifunctional interface for self-healing. Here, boron nitride nanosheets (BN) are immobilized onto PBO fibers by facile polydopamine (PDA) chemistry. Benefiting from the photothermal effect of BN-PDA, the obtained surface layer displays interfacial self-healing properties under Xenon light irradiation.

  3. Interlayer coupling effects on electronic properties of the phosphorene/h-BN van der Walls heterostructure: A first principles investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Weiguang; Jia, Yu

    2018-04-01

    By using first-principles calculations, we systemically investigate the electronic properties of phosphorene/h-BN heterostructure with different interlayer distances. Our results show that the electronic states in the vicinity of the Fermi level are completely dominated by phosphorene, and the system exhibits type-I band alignment consequently. Moreover, we also reveal the variation of the band structure of phosphorene/h-BN heterostructure with different interlayer distances. The band gap undergoes a direct to indirect transition as decreasing the interlayer distance. The mechanism of the band gap transition can be attributed to the different energy levels shifts, according to different electronic orbital characters on the band edge. In specific, the energy level of the P_pz bonding state shifts up while that of the P_px,py bonding state falls down, along with the enhancement of the interactions between phosphorene and h-BN.

  4. Cloning and characterization of newly isolated lipase from Enterobacter sp. Bn12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokh, Parisa; Yakhchali, Bagher; Karkhane, Ali Asghar

    2014-01-01

    A mesophilic Enterobacter sp. Bn12 producing an alkaline thermostable lipase was isolated from soil in Tehran, Iran. The lipase gene (ELBn12) was identified from a genomic library. Sequence analysis of the DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame of 879 bp encoding a lipase with a molecular mass of 31.3 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 96% identity with a lipase of Enterobacter sp. Ag1 and the identity of their DNA sequences was 88.9%. ELBn12 belongs to the lipase subfamily I.1 and its catalytic triad consists of Ser82, Asp237 and His259. The lipase was expressed in Escherichia coli (BL21) pLysS and partially purified by anion exchange chromatography. The maximum activity of ELBn12 was obtained at temperature of 60 °C and pH 8.0 towards tricaprylin (C8) and its specific activity was around 2900 U/mg. ELBn12 was stable within a broad pH range from 6.0 to 11.0. The enzyme showed high stability in both polar and nonpolar organic solvents at 50% (v/v). The lipase activity was enhanced in the presence of 10 mM of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+), while heavy metals (Fe(3+) and Zn(2+)) had strong inhibitory effect. ELBn12 showed high activity in the presence of 1% (w/v) nonionic surfactants, however ionic surfactants inhibited the lipolytic activity. ELBn12 characteristics show that it has a potential to be used in various industrial processes.

  5. Enhancement of thermal neutron attenuation of nano-B4C, -BN dispersed neutron shielding polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaewoo; Lee, Byung-Chul; Uhm, Young Rang; Miller, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation of B 4 C and BN nanopowders using a simple ball milling process. • Homogeneous dispersion and strong adhesion of nano-B 4 C and -BN with polymer matrix. • Enhancement of mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to their micro counterparts. • Enhancement of thermal neutron attenuation of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Nano-sized boron carbide (B 4 C) and boron nitride (BN) powder were prepared using ball milling. Micro- and milled nano-powders were melt blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) using a polymer mixer followed by hot pressing to fabricate sheet composites. The tensile and flexural strengths of HDPE nanocomposites were ∼20% higher than their micro counterparts, while those for latter decreased compared to neat HDPE. Thermal neutrons attenuation of the prepared HDPE nanocomposites was evaluated using a monochromatic ∼0.025 eV neutron beam. Thermal neutron attenuation of the HDPE nanocomposites was greatly enhanced compared to their micro counterparts at the same B-10 areal densities. Monte Carlo n-Particles (MCNP) simulations based on the lattice structure modeling also shows the similar filler size dependent thermal neutron absorption

  6. Methodology for Applying Cyber Security Risk Evaluation from BN Model to PSA Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Youngin (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Dajeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joongbu University, Chubu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    There are several advantages to use digital equipment such as cost, convenience, and availability. It is inevitable to use the digital I and C equipment replaced analog. Nuclear facilities have already started applying the digital system to I and C system. However, the nuclear facilities also have to change I and C system even though it is difficult to use digital equipment due to high level of safety, irradiation embrittlement, and cyber security. A cyber security which is one of important concerns to use digital equipment can affect the whole integrity of nuclear facilities. For instance, cyber-attack occurred to nuclear facilities such as the SQL slammer worm, stuxnet, DUQU, and flame. The regulatory authorities have published many regulatory requirement documents such as U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 5.71, 1.152, IAEA guide NSS-17, IEEE Standard, and KINS Regulatory Guide. One of the important problem of cyber security research for nuclear facilities is difficulty to obtain the data through the penetration experiments. Therefore, we make cyber security risk evaluation model with Bayesian network (BN) for nuclear reactor protection system (RPS), which is one of the safety-critical systems to trip the reactor when the accident is happened to the facilities. BN can be used for overcoming these problems. We propose a method to apply BN cyber security model to probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model, which had been used for safety assessment of system, structure and components of facility. The proposed method will be able to provide the insight of safety as well as cyber risk to the facility.

  7. Methodology for Applying Cyber Security Risk Evaluation from BN Model to PSA Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Heo, Gyun Young; Kang, Hyun Gook; Son, Han Seong

    2014-01-01

    There are several advantages to use digital equipment such as cost, convenience, and availability. It is inevitable to use the digital I and C equipment replaced analog. Nuclear facilities have already started applying the digital system to I and C system. However, the nuclear facilities also have to change I and C system even though it is difficult to use digital equipment due to high level of safety, irradiation embrittlement, and cyber security. A cyber security which is one of important concerns to use digital equipment can affect the whole integrity of nuclear facilities. For instance, cyber-attack occurred to nuclear facilities such as the SQL slammer worm, stuxnet, DUQU, and flame. The regulatory authorities have published many regulatory requirement documents such as U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 5.71, 1.152, IAEA guide NSS-17, IEEE Standard, and KINS Regulatory Guide. One of the important problem of cyber security research for nuclear facilities is difficulty to obtain the data through the penetration experiments. Therefore, we make cyber security risk evaluation model with Bayesian network (BN) for nuclear reactor protection system (RPS), which is one of the safety-critical systems to trip the reactor when the accident is happened to the facilities. BN can be used for overcoming these problems. We propose a method to apply BN cyber security model to probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model, which had been used for safety assessment of system, structure and components of facility. The proposed method will be able to provide the insight of safety as well as cyber risk to the facility

  8. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30?years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health servi...

  9. JNC results of BN-600 benchmark calculation (phase 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.

    2002-01-01

    The present work is the result of phase 3 BN-600 core benchmark problem, meaning burnup and heterogeneity. Analytical method applied consisted of: JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library, group constants (70 group, ABBN type self shielding transport factors), heterogeneous cell model for fuel and control rod, basic diffusion calculation (CITATION code), transport theory and mesh size correction (NSHEX code based on SN transport nodal method developed by JNC). Burnup and heterogeneity calculation results are presented obtained by applying both diffusion and transport approach for beginning and end of cycle

  10. Combat sports for persons with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasum Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In literature, the term adapted sport indicates sports activities, modified and adapted to persons with disabilities. In spite of their highly prominent values, combat sports are underrepresented among persons with disabilities in Serbia. The benefits of combat sports practicing are numerous, and at some international hospitals, martial sports and arts already have an important role in the treatment of traumatized and disabled persons. Currently, the programme of Paralympic Games includes only two sports, these are fencing and judo, in male and female competition. Almost certainly, karate will also be included in the programme of Paralympic Games, and there are similar ambitions in the case of taekwondo as well. In addition to these sports, some martial arts, especially aikido, thai-chi-chuan and qigong, have obtained significant representation and interest among persons with disabilities. The reasons for weaker interest in other martial sports and arts, should be sought in the fact that they are underrepresented among this population, and that these persons are not offered the possibility of organized practice of such sports. Orientation towards a combat sport brings great refreshment and powerful emotional experience to each practitioner, and this fact has special significance to persons with disabilities. In Serbia, combat sports are not widely represented among persons with disabilities, and only the wrestlers with impaired hearing have achieved significant success on the international stage. On the other hand, the popularity of combat sports among persons with disabilities in the world is significantly growing. It is necessary to take concrete steps to make it so in Serbia as well.

  11. Preparation of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m} Tc-HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-BN; Preparacion del radiofarmaco {sup 99m} Tc-HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde S, E [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In accordance with their design, the radiopharmaceuticals can be divided in three generations. The radiopharmaceuticals of third generation are used in nuclear medicine to obtain images of specific molecular targets, and they are only in their capacity to detect in vivo such specific biochemical places as receivers and enzymes. The receivers of regulator peptides are over expressed in numerous carcinogenic cells. Those receivers have been used as molecular targets of radiolabelled peptides to locate cancerous tumors. The small peptide bombesin (BN, 14 amino acids) it was isolated of the frog skin and it belongs to a wide neuropeptides group with many biological functions. The equivalent human is the liberator peptide of the gastrin (GRP, 27 amino acids) and his receivers (r-GRP) that are on expressed in the membranes of the tumor cells. The receiving subtype 2 of bombesin (receiving GRP) it is on expressed in several human tumors including breast, prostate, lung cells and pancreatic cancer. Some radiopharmaceuticals similar of BN has been developed that were prepared to be used in nuclear medicine for the detection of wicked tumors and to evidence prostate cancers, breast and of lymphatic nodules. A technique was developed to allow the conjugation of HYNIC-[Lys3]-BN that allowed to obtain this product with a high purity. The identity was determined by HPLC chromatography. It was necessary the validation of the method and the HPLC system, to assure that the results were reliable. Linearity, specificity, accuracy and precision parameters were analyzed, that are those required by the Mexican pharmacopoeia for chromatographic methods. With this conjugated a formulation for lyophilized kits were analyzed, with the purpose of obtaining a radiochemical purity, after the labelled one with {sup 99m}Tc, bigger to 95%; the components used in the nucleus-equipment should favor the conjugation of the {sup 99m}Tc by means of a ligands exchange between the tricine and the

  12. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    4ID AVN BDE HQ, 41st Fires BDE, 4th Sustainment BDE, 7-158 AVN (-), 6-52 AVN (-), 11th MP BN, 308th MI BDE, 21st Cavalry BDE (Air Combat), TF Odin, 1st...Army Division West HQ, 120 Infantry BDE, 166th AVN , 479 FA BDE, 407 AFSB, 901 SPT BN, 15th Sustainment BDE, 36th EN BDE, 89th MP BDE, 57th SIG BDE...1st Maneuver Enhancement Brigade; 162nd Infantry Training Brigade; the JRTC Operations Group; the 115th CSH and the 5th AVN BN. Home station unit

  13. Immobilization of Cesium Traps from the BN-350 Fast Reactor (Aktau, Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Michelbacher; C. Knight; O. G. Romanenko; I. L. Tazhibaeva; I. L. Yakovlev; A. V. Rovneyko; V. I. Maev; D. Wells; A. Herrick

    2011-03-01

    During BN-350 reactor operations and also during the initial stages of decommissioning, cesium traps were used to decontaminate the reactor’s primary sodium coolant. Two different types of carbon-based trap were used – the MAVR series, low ash granulated graphite adsorber (LAG) contained in a carrier designed to be inserted into the reactor core during shutdown; and a series of ex-reactor trap accumulators(TAs) which used reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) to reduce Cs-137 levels in the sodium after final reactor shutdown. In total four MAVRs and seven TAs were used at BN-350 to remove an estimated cumulative 755 TBq of cesium. The traps, which also contain residual sodium, need to be immobilized in an appropriate way to allow them to be consigned as waste packages for long term storage and, ultimately, disposal. The present paper reports on the current status of the implementation phase, with particular reference to the work done to date on the trap accumulators, which have the most similarity with the cesium traps used at other reactors.

  14. Evaluation of the internalization kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat(49-57)Lys{sup 3}-Bn with diagnostic purposes, using comet assay; Evaluacion de la cinetica de internalizacion del radiofarmaco {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-TAT(49-57)Lys{sup 3}-BN con fines diagnosticos, empleando ensayo cometa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna G, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    Gastrin-rea leasing peptide receptors (GRP-r) are over expressed in breast and prostate cancer cells. Bombesin (Bn) binds specifically and strongly to GRP-r and this is the base for to label the Bn with radionuclides by gamma rays. Tat (49-57) is a peptide that across the cell membrane easily so that, when it is conjugated to different proteins, it can works as a Trojan horse, facilitating the drug internalization to the cells. The radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat(49-57)-Lys{sup 3}-Bn was prepared for diagnosis and therapy at early stage of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the role of Tat in the internalization kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals measured by DNA damage induced by means of comet assay. Human lymphocytes were treated with the following protocols: a) Tat-Bn, b) {sup 99m}Tc-Bn, or c) {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat(49-57)-Lys{sup 3}-Bn, also an untreated group was conformed. The internalization was evaluated at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min after exposure with three repetitions each one, and for radiopharmaceuticals with 2.9, 6.6, 9.0 and 14.8 MBq activities. DNA damage was scored in 100 cells per time and treatment, as tail length and tail moment. A Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis with p{<=} 0.05 was applied for comparison between treatments. The results showed that the damage caused by {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat(49-57)-Lys{sup 3}-Bn is significantly higher than that caused by {sup 99m}Tc-Bn and Tat-Bn, showing that Tat favors the internalization of the radiopharmaceutical. (Author)

  15. Urban Combat Advanced Training Technology Architecture (Architecture de technologie avancee pour l’entrainement au combat urbain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION AC/323(MSG-098)TP/740 www.sto.nato.int STO TECHNICAL...REPORT TR-MSG-098 Urban Combat Advanced Training Technology Architecture (Architecture de technologie avancée pour l’entraînement au combat urbain...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION AC/323(MSG-098)TP/740 www.sto.nato.int STO TECHNICAL

  16. Building Software Tools for Combat Modeling and Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuanxin, Chen

    2004-01-01

    ... (Meta-Language for Combat Simulations) and its associated parser and C++ code generator were designed to reduce the amount of time and developmental efforts needed to build sophisticated real world combat simulations. A C++...

  17. Natural Course of Co-Occurring PTSD and Alcohol Use Disorder Among Recent Combat Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possemato, Kyle; Maisto, Stephen A; Wade, Michael; Barrie, Kimberly; Johnson, Emily M; Ouimette, Paige C

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) commonly co-occur in veterans, yet little is known about the longitudinal course of PTSD and drinking in comorbid populations. This study assessed the natural course of daily alcohol consumption and weekly changes in PTSD symptoms in 112 recent combat veterans over the course of 11 months. Latent class growth mixture modeling was used to classify individuals into distinct classes with similar PTSD symptom and alcohol use growth trajectories. We then investigated theorized predictors of class membership including sociodemographics; pre-, peri-, and postdeployment factors; coping; symptom severity; and number of mental health/substance use appointments attended. Results revealed that most participants had severe and nonremitting PTSD. Trajectories for alcohol use included gradual and drastic declines, and chronic low-level drinking. The use of behavioral health services (odds ratio = 2.47) and fewer current stressors (odds ratio = 0.42) predicted AUD remission. Because little variation was observed in the PTSD course, our study did not observe coordinated fluctuations of PTSD symptoms and heavy drinking. Our findings suggest that treatment impacts the course of AUD and that recent combat veterans who do not seek PTSD treatment may have chronic and severe PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  18. Aristoteles Ve İbn Sînâ’nın Reenkarnasyonu Reddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Özalp

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu makalede düşünce tarihinin iki önemli düşünürü Aristoteles ve İbn Sînâ’nın reenkarnasyon/tenasüh hakkındaki görüşlerini inceledik. Her iki düşünürde reenkar-nasyonu reddetmektedir. Konuyu ele almadan önce kaynak olmaları bakımından Aristoteles ve İbn Sînâ’dan önceki bazı filozofların ruh ve reenkarnasyon hakkındaki görüşlerini araştırdık. Daha sonra da her iki filozofun ruh tanımlarım belirledikten sonra reenkarnasyone niçin reddettiklerini ortaya koymaya çalıştık. Nihayetinde görüşlerinde ki benzer ve farklı noktaları tespit için bir karşılaştırma yaptık

  19. Combats escènics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Rouba Billowicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available “Combats Escènics” és un treball que tracta sobre la interpretació artística de la violència d’artistes de l’espectacle per tal de divertir el públic i emetre un missatge humanista mitjançant una coreografia ritual. En aquest estudi es presenta una classificació del combat escènic des del doble vessant agonista/antagonista, es realitza un passeig històric de la representació artística del combat a través de les diferents etapes i de les diverses cultures, s’aborda la preparació escènica de l’actor i del coreògraf, i s’entreveuen les perspectives de futur d’aquesta modalitat artística. Estudi realitzat per Pawel Rouba Billewicz (Inowroclaw, Polònia, 1939 - Barcelona, 2007, director, coreògraf, actor, mestre d’armes, mestre del gest i de la pantomima i professor de l’INEF de Catalunya. Aquest article, editorialment inèdit, es publica postmortem per Apunts. Educació Física i Esports com a homenatge i reconeixement de l’autor per la seva extraordinària i polivalent aportació al camp de l’art i l’Activitat Física i l’Esport.

  20. Control of Nanoplane Orientation in voBN for High Thermal Anisotropy in a Dielectric Thin Film: A New Solution for Thermal Hotspot Mitigation in Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto, Olivier; Samani, Majid K; Liu, Bo; Sun, Shuangxi; Tsang, Siu Hon; Liu, Johan; Zhou, Kun; Teo, Edwin H T

    2017-03-01

    High anisotropic thermal materials, which allow heat to dissipate in a preferential direction, are of interest as a prospective material for electronics as an effective thermal management solution for hot spots. However, due to their preferential heat propagation in the in-plane direction, the heat spreads laterally instead of vertically. This limitation makes these materials ineffective as the density of hot spots increases. Here, we produce a new dielectric thin film material at room temperature, named vertically ordered nanocrystalline h-BN (voBN). It is produced such that its preferential thermally conductive direction is aligned in the vertical axis, which facilitates direct thermal extraction, thereby addressing the increasing challenge of thermal crosstalk. The uniqueness of voBN comes from its h-BN nanocrystals where all their basal planes are aligned in the direction normal to the substrate plane. Using the 3ω method, we show that voBN exhibits high anisotropic thermal conductivity (TC) with a 16-fold difference between through-film TC and in-plane TC (respectively 4.26 and 0.26 W·m -1 ·K -1 ). Molecular dynamics simulations also concurred with the experimental data, showing that the origin of this anisotropic behavior is due to the nature of voBN's plane ordering. While the consistent vertical ordering provides an uninterrupted and preferred propagation path for phonons in the through-film direction, discontinuity in the lateral direction leads to a reduced in-plane TC. In addition, we also use COMSOL to simulate how the dielectric and thermal properties of voBN enable an increase in hot spot density up to 295% compared with SiO 2 , without any temperature increase.

  1. Combating Desertification and Mitigating the Effects of Drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awuondo, C.O

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the effects of desertification and drought on the well-being of humankind and therefore it important for them to be combated and mitigated. Desertification is the process that turns fertile lands into desert; drought is defined as lack of sufficient precipitation to sustain plant and human life. In an effort to discuss how to combat desertification, the author has subdivided the paper into five sections namely; introduction, ecological crisis, strategies for combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought and finally the conclusion

  2. Analysis of Error Propagation Within Hierarchical Air Combat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    values alone are propagated through layers of combat models, the final results will likely be biased, and risk underestimated. An air-to-air...values alone are propagated through layers of combat models, the final results will likely be biased, and risk underestimated. An air-to-air engagement... PROPAGATION WITHIN HIERARCHICAL AIR COMBAT MODELS by Salih Ilaslan June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Thomas W. Lucas Second Reader: Jeffrey

  3. Unit Reconstitutions: Combat Stress as an Indicator of Unit Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    doctrinally “Combat and Operational Stress Reactions:” A. Shell shock B. War neurosis C. Battle fatigue D. Combat exhaustion E. Combat stress F...... neurosis . The approach that evolved–proximity, immediacy, and expectancy–was a formula that incorporated some of the best practices to increase the

  4. Selected Foreign Counterparts of U.S. Army Ground Combat Systems and Implications for Combat Operations and Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    responsibility is to defeat other nations’ combat formations on the battlefield. In order to accomplish this, nations indigenously develop, maintain, and improve...defeat other nations’ combat formations on the battlefield. In order to accomplish this, nations indigenously develop, maintain, and improve a variety...catastrophic kill. A number of foreign tracked IFVs mount either hard kill 13 or soft kill 14 APS and the Army is presently examining both non

  5. Nuclear power in Kazakhstan and current status of the BN-350 fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krechetov, S.

    1998-01-01

    Atomic scientific-industrial complex of Republic of Kazakhstan consist of: Number of natural uranium mines, two plants of U 3 O 8 production at Aktau and Stepnogorsk towns, metallurgical plant producing fuel pellets for RBMK and WWER fuel assemblies. Fast breeder reactor with sodium coolant BN - 350 at Aktau. The average share of BN-350 in total electricity production is 0.7%. Taking into account common condition industrial in Kazakhstan have no significant improvement the total electricity production on goal and oil station stayed on the same level as in 1996. According to government decision in 1998 the following structure of atomic complex have been established. Several rather serious events should be mentioned. In January 1998 the Provision of licensing in nuclear field was signed by Prime Ministry and now Kazakhstan have all necessary acts for starting this process. In April 1998 the General Program of development atomic scientific and industrial complex of Kazakhstan had been reported to Government and got approval in whole. In particular this program are including the design and construction NPP for electricity production on the lake Balhash, and two NPP for heating Almaty and new capital Akmola. In April 1998 the law on Radiation protection had got approval of Parliament and now President should sign it. In January the Nuclear Technologies Safety Center (NTSC) had been established by group of organizations such as KAEA, NNC, University, Nuclear Society of Kazakhstan, Center of standardization and Almaty local administration. NTSC have established as a society independent experts in the field nuclear safety. With cooperation with ANL an expertise on nuclear safety of BN-350 will be done related to long-term spent fuel storage

  6. Ab-initio study of structural and electronic properties of WS2/h-BN van der Waals heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi majd, Zahra; Amiri, Peiman; Taghizadeh, Seyed Fardin

    2018-06-01

    First-principle calculations with different exchange-correlation functionals, including LDA, GGA, semi-empirical and ab-initio van der Waals in the forms of vdW-DF2B86R and vdW-DF2 were performed to evaluate the performance of different functionals in describing the bonding mechanism, adsorption energy and interlayer distance of WS2 monolayer on and between h-BN layers. The finding was that the vdW-DF2B86R seems to be the approach best lending itself to this purpose. In order to include the van der Waals (vdW) interactions in our calculations, we used the DFT-D2 and vdW methods, which gave rise to a physical adsorption with no net charge transfer between the WS2 layer and the corresponding substrates. In addition, we investigated the electronic and structural properties of WS2 and h-BN heterolayers, using vdW-DF2B86R functional. Based on density functional theory calculations, WS2 on and between h-BN layers showed a direct band gap at the K-point, which was experimentally observed.

  7. Enhancement of thermal neutron attenuation of nano-B{sub 4}C, -BN dispersed neutron shielding polymer nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaewoo, E-mail: kimj@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111-989 Daeduck-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-si 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); WCI Quantum Beam based Radiation Research Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111-989 Daeduck-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-si 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Missouri University Research Reactor, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Lee, Byung-Chul [Nuclear Reactor Core Design Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111-989 Daeduck-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-si 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Uhm, Young Rang [Radioisotopes Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111-989 Daeduck-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-si 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Miller, William H. [Missouri University Research Reactor, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Preparation of B{sub 4}C and BN nanopowders using a simple ball milling process. • Homogeneous dispersion and strong adhesion of nano-B{sub 4}C and -BN with polymer matrix. • Enhancement of mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to their micro counterparts. • Enhancement of thermal neutron attenuation of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Nano-sized boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) and boron nitride (BN) powder were prepared using ball milling. Micro- and milled nano-powders were melt blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) using a polymer mixer followed by hot pressing to fabricate sheet composites. The tensile and flexural strengths of HDPE nanocomposites were ∼20% higher than their micro counterparts, while those for latter decreased compared to neat HDPE. Thermal neutrons attenuation of the prepared HDPE nanocomposites was evaluated using a monochromatic ∼0.025 eV neutron beam. Thermal neutron attenuation of the HDPE nanocomposites was greatly enhanced compared to their micro counterparts at the same B-10 areal densities. Monte Carlo n-Particles (MCNP) simulations based on the lattice structure modeling also shows the similar filler size dependent thermal neutron absorption.

  8. A first-principle investigation into effect of B-and BN-doped C60 in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    principle investigation into effect of B- and BN-doped C 60 in lowering dehydrogenation of MXH 4 (where M = Na, Li and X = Al, B). MEENAKSHI DEEPAK AGNIHOTRI KIRAN JEET HITESH SHARMA. Volume 40 Issue 7 December 2017 pp 1397-1403 ...

  9. BN interphase in composite materials with nicalon Si-C-O fibers and with vitro ceramic matrix of MAS type; L`interphase BN dans les materiaux composites a fibres Si-C-O nicalon et a matrice vitroceramique de type MAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricca, N

    1994-03-14

    BN has been suggested as an interphase in silica-based glass-ceramic matrix composites with a view to use these materials in oxidizing atmospheres at medium or high temperatures. The matrix had a boron-doped MAS (MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}) composition and was prepared from an hydrosol precursor. Pseudo-ID composites were prepared according to a sol impregnations/calcination/hot-pressing route. Chemical and microstructural characterizations of the fiber/matrix interfacial area were conducted by mean of TEM/EELS and AES analyses. The efficiency of BN as a coupling interphase for this particular composite system was successfully demonstrated through tensile tests performed on either as-processed or aged specimens (100 hours at 1000 deg C in air or under argon). In addition, composites maintained in air at 600 deg C, 800 deg C and 900 deg C while simultaneously loaded did not fail after 150 hours or more. Thus, a BN interphase appeared to be compatible with an oxidizing environment (i.e. the oxide matrix and/or air from 600 to 1000 deg C) and should therefore successfully replace the usual carbon interphase at least for use at medium temperatures. (author)

  10. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The mental health of UK ex-servicemen with a combat-related or a non-combat-related visual impairment: does the cause of visual impairment matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevelink, Sharon A M; Malcolm, Estelle M; Gill, Pashyca C; Fear, Nicola T

    2015-08-01

    Since the start of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, the numbers of young service personnel who have sustained a combat-related visual impairment have increased. This cross-sectional study examined the mental well-being of ex-servicemen (aged 22-55 years) with a visual impairment and determined if the mental health of those with a combat-related visual impairment differed from those whose visual impairment is not combat-related. Male ex-service personnel with a visual impairment completed a telephone interview assessing the presence of depressive symptomatology, probable anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and alcohol misuse. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. 77 participants were included in the study, reflecting a response rate of 76.2%. Of those with complete data (n=74), 20 ex-servicemen had a combat-related visual impairment. Among ex-service personnel with a combat-related visual impairment, 10.0% (95% CI 0 to 23.2) screened positive for a probable depression, 25.0% (95% CI 6.0 to 44.0) for probable anxiety and 10.0% (95% CI 0 to 23.2) for probable PTSD. The prevalence of probable depression and probable PTSD differed among those with a non-combat-related visual impairment, namely 18.5% (95% CI 8.1 to 28.9) and 16.7% (95% CI 6.8 to 26.7), respectively. Probable anxiety was 18.5% (95% CI 8.1 to 28.9) among non-combat-related visually impaired ex-service personnel. 45.0% (95% CI 23.2 to 66.8) of combat-related visually impaired personnel reported hazardous drinking, compared with 20.4% (95% CI 9.7 to 31.2) of those with a non-combat-related visual impairment. Mental health problems were prevalent among visually impaired younger ex-servicemen. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems among ex-servicemen with a combat-related visual impairment compared with those with a non-combat-related visual impairment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  12. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Social Anxiety in Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Meyer, Eric C.; DeBeer, Bryann B.; Mitchell, John T.; Kimbrel, Azure D.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The present study tested the hypothesis that low behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity is associated with social anxiety in combat veterans. Method Self-report measures of reinforcement sensitivity, combat exposure, social interaction anxiety, and social observation anxiety were administered to 197 Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans. Results As expected, combat exposure, behavioral inhibition system (BIS) sensitivity, and fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) sensitivity were positively associated with both social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety. In contrast, BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with social interaction anxiety only. An analysis of the BAS subscales revealed that the Reward Responsiveness subscale was the only BAS subscale associated with social interaction anxiety. BAS-Reward Responsiveness was also associated with social observation anxiety. Conclusion The findings from the present research provide further evidence that low BAS sensitivity may be associated with social anxiety over and above the effects of BIS and FFFS sensitivity. PMID:28966424

  13. Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document presents the Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents (NPK). Ch. 2 discusses some important starting points which are determining for the framework and the performance of the NPK, in particular the accident typology which underlies the plan. Also the new accident-classification system for the Dutch nuclear power plants, the standardization for the measures to be taken and the staging around nuclear power plants are pursued. In ch. 3 the legal framework of the combat nuclear accidents is described. In particular the Nuclear-power law, the Accident law and the Municipality law are pursued. Also the role of province and municipality are described. Ch. 4 deals with the role of the owner/licensee of the object where the accident occurs, in the combat of accident. In ch. 5 the structure of the nuclear-accident combat at national level is outlined, subdivided in alarm phase, combat phase and the winding-up phase. In ch.'s 6-12 these phases are elaborated more in detail. In ch.'s 10-13 the measures to be taken in nuclear accidents, are described. These measures are distinguished with regard to: protection of the population and medical aspects, water economy, drinking-water supply, agriculture and food supply. Ch. 14 describes the responsibility of the burgomaster. Ch.'s 15 and 16 present an overview of the personnel, material, procedural and juridical modifications and supplements of existing structures which are necessary with regard to the new and modified parts of the structure. Ch. 17 indicates how by means of the appropriate education and exercise it can be achieved that all personnel, services and institutes concerned possess the knowledge and experience necessary for the activities from the NKP to be executed as has been described. Ch. 18 contains a survey of activities to be performed and a proposal how these can be realized. (H.W.). figs.; tabs

  14. Personality Factors Affecting Pilot Combat Performance: A Preliminary Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siem, Frederick M; Murray, Michael W

    1997-01-01

    .... The present research was designed to examine the relationship between personality and combat performance using the "Big Five" model of personality and a multicomponent model of pilot combat performance...

  15. Combat desertification, arret deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Latt; Soe-Win-Hlaing

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the major progress on the actions of the Forest Department and Dry Zone Greening Department to arrest forestation and to combat desertification in the dry zone of central Myanmar

  16. Modulation of interfacial electronic properties in PbI{sub 2} and BN van der Waals heterobilayer via external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yaqiang [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Zhao, Xu, E-mail: zhaoxu@htu.cn [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Niu, Mengmeng [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Dai, Xianqi, E-mail: xqdai@htu.cn [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Zhengzhou Normal University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450044 (China); Li, Wei [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Wang, Xiaolong [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communication, Beijing University Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhao, Mingyu; Wang, Tianxing [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Tang, Yanan [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Zhengzhou Normal University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450044 (China)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • An atomically type-II heterobilayer which is suitable for optoelectronics and solar cell with wide bandgap was formed. • The charge redistribution is mainly on the surface and the amount of electrons depends on the strength of E{sub field}. • The bandgaps varying with E{sub field} can be divided into three ranges indicating different E{sub field}-sensitive which may possess potential in sensor. • Increasing the E{sub field} upon 0.07 V/Å, the band alignment converts from type-II to type-I heterojunction. - Abstract: The interfacial electronic properties of PbI{sub 2} and BN van der Waals (vdW) heterobilayer are explored by using density functional theory (DFT) method. An intrinsic type-II heterostructure with a wide bandgap is demonstrated. The spatial separation of the lowest energy electron-hole pairs can be actualised and make PbI{sub 2}/BN heterostructure as a good candidate for applications in optoelectronics and solar cell. A simulation of E{sub field} is actualized to modify its electronic properties. Band alignment converts from type-II to type-I heterostructure separated by a forward voltage with the value of about 0.07 V/Å. Three regions implying different E{sub field}-sensitive properties are obtained from the variations of bandgap with E{sub field}. The charge redistribution with an E{sub field} is mainly on the surface of PbI{sub 2} and BN layers as well as the amount of electrons depends on the strength of E{sub field}. In addition, the PbI{sub 2}/BN heterobilayer exhibits more outstanding optical conductivity capability. Our results could bring forward a new perspective on sensor and shed light on the design of novel nano- and optoelectronics based on the PbI{sub 2}/BN vdW heterostructure.

  17. Promotion of good governance and combating corruption and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melvin Mbao and G.G Komboni criticise the legal regime and institutional arrangements designed to promote good government and to combat corruption and maladministration in Botswana, a country widely acclaimed as Africa's success story. Using internationally accepted benchmarks on good governance and combating ...

  18. Combating student plagiarism an academic librarian's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lampert, Lynn D

    2014-01-01

    This practical book introduces readers to the current issues facing todays academic reference and instruction librarians grappling with the growing problem of student plagiarism. The book provides up-to-date overviews of student plagiarism, examples of ways in which librarians can educate students through proven instructional techniques, collaboration approaches and outreach methods, and discusses common problems and questions librarians may encounter when incorporating current anti-plagiarism instruction into their instructional services. Topics include: role of the academic librarian in combating student plagiarism, discipline-based approaches to combating student plagiarism, information literacy techniques and faculty/librarian collaboration. Investigates the issues surrounding the growth of instances of student plagiarism Discusses the academic librarian's role in combating student plagiarism Recommends effective outreach techniques and instructional methods for preventing plagiarism.

  19. Preparation of the radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-HYNIC-[Lys3]-BN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde S, E.

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with their design, the radiopharmaceuticals can be divided in three generations. The radiopharmaceuticals of third generation are used in nuclear medicine to obtain images of specific molecular targets, and they are only in their capacity to detect in vivo such specific biochemical places as receivers and enzymes. The receivers of regulator peptides are over expressed in numerous carcinogenic cells. Those receivers have been used as molecular targets of radiolabelled peptides to locate cancerous tumors. The small peptide bombesin (BN, 14 amino acids) it was isolated of the frog skin and it belongs to a wide neuropeptides group with many biological functions. The equivalent human is the liberator peptide of the gastrin (GRP, 27 amino acids) and his receivers (r-GRP) that are on expressed in the membranes of the tumor cells. The receiving subtype 2 of bombesin (receiving GRP) it is on expressed in several human tumors including breast, prostate, lung cells and pancreatic cancer. Some radiopharmaceuticals similar of BN has been developed that were prepared to be used in nuclear medicine for the detection of wicked tumors and to evidence prostate cancers, breast and of lymphatic nodules. A technique was developed to allow the conjugation of HYNIC-[Lys3]-BN that allowed to obtain this product with a high purity. The identity was determined by HPLC chromatography. It was necessary the validation of the method and the HPLC system, to assure that the results were reliable. Linearity, specificity, accuracy and precision parameters were analyzed, that are those required by the Mexican pharmacopoeia for chromatographic methods. With this conjugated a formulation for lyophilized kits were analyzed, with the purpose of obtaining a radiochemical purity, after the labelled one with 99m Tc, bigger to 95%; the components used in the nucleus-equipment should favor the conjugation of the 99m Tc by means of a ligands exchange between the tricine and the

  20. An Analysis on Combating Vat Fraud in The European Union Using New IT Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixăndroiu R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available European VAT fraud has been growing at an alarming rate [2]. The level of VAT losses for one year is between €60bn and €100bn for all member states. This level of fraud has created an urgent need for Europe to address the issue of the reform of the VAT system.

  1. Catalytic activity of Cu4-cluster to adsorb H2S gas: h-BN nanosheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansara, Shivam; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Sonvane, Yogesh

    2018-05-01

    We have investigated the electronic properties, adsorptions strength and charge transfer using first principles calculations using density functional theory (DFT). The hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate shows metallic behavior, which helps to enhance the absorption process. The adsorption of three different orientations (S, D and T) of the H2S gas molecules to analyze the maximum adsorption strength from them onto a copper cluster (Cu4) based on h-BN nanosheet. The maximum adsorption energy of the H2S gas molecule is -1.50 eV for the S orientation and for D and U, it is -0.71 eV and -0.78 eV, respectively. The results show that Cu4 cluster helps to capture H2S gas from the environment and results are useful for the cleaning environment from the toxic gases.

  2. Boride Formation Induced by pcBN Tool Wear in Friction-Stir-Welded Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Hwan C.; Sato, Yutaka S.; Kokawa, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Kazutaka; Hirano, Satoshi; Inagaki, Masahisa

    2009-03-01

    The wear of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (pcBN) tool and its effect on second phase formation were investigated in stainless steel friction-stir (FS) welds. The nitrogen content and the flow stress were analyzed in these welds to examine pcBN tool wear. The nitrogen content in stir zone (SZ) was found to be higher in the austenitic stainless steel FS welds than in the ferritic and duplex stainless steel welds. The flow stress of austenitic stainless steels was almost 1.5 times larger than that of ferritic and duplex stainless steels. These results suggest that the higher flow stress causes the severe tool wear in austenitic stainless steels, which results in greater nitrogen pickup in austenitic stainless steel FS welds. From the microstructural observation, a possibility was suggested that Cr-rich borides with a crystallographic structure of Cr2B and Cr5B3 formed through the reaction between the increased boron and nitrogen and the matrix during FS welding (FSW).

  3. Fresh whole blood transfusions in coalition military, foreign national, and enemy combatant patients during Operation Iraqi Freedom at a U.S. combat support hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Philip C; Perkins, Jeremy G; Grathwohl, Kurt W; Repine, Thomas; Beekley, Alec C; Sebesta, James; Jenkins, Donald; Azarow, Kenneth; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    United States military doctrine permits the use of fresh whole blood (FWB), donated by U.S. military personnel on site, for casualties with life-threatening injuries at combat support hospitals. U.S. Military Medical Department policy dictates that all patients treated at military facilities during combat (coalition military personnel, foreign nationals, and enemy combatants) are to be treated equally. The objectives of this study were to describe admission vital signs and laboratory values and injury location for patients transfused with FWB, and to determine if FWB was employed equally among all patient personnel categories at a combat support hospital. This retrospective cohort study evaluated admission vital signs and laboratory values, injury location, and personnel category for all patients receiving FWB at a U.S. Army combat support hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, between January and December 2004. Eighty-seven patients received 545 units of FWB. Upon admission, the average (+/-S.D.) heart rate was 144 bpm (+/-25); systolic blood pressure, 106 mmHg (+/-33); base deficit, 9 (+/-6.5); hemoglobin, 9.0 g/dl (+/-2.6); platelet concentration, 81.9 x 10(3)/mm(3) (+/-81); international normalized ratio (INR), 2.0 (+/-1.1); and temperature 95.7 degrees F (+/-2.6). The percentages of intensive care patients who received FWB by personnel category were as follows: coalition soldiers, 51/592 (8.6%); foreign nationals, 25/347 (7.2%); and enemy combatants, 11/128 (8.5% (p = 0.38). The amount of FWB transfused by personnel category was as follows: coalition soldier, 4 units (1-35); foreign national, 4 units (1-36); and enemy combatant, 4 units (1-11) (p = 0.9). Fresh whole blood was used for anemic, acidemic, hypothermic, coagulopathic patients with life-threatening traumatic injuries in hemorrhagic shock, and it was transfused in equal percentages and amounts for coalition soldiers, foreign nationals, and enemy combatants.

  4. The Mass1frings mutation underlies early onset hearing impairment in BUB/BnJ mice, a model for the auditory pathology of Usher syndrome IIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K.R.; Zheng, Q.Y.; Weston, M.D.; Ptacek, L.J.; Noben-Trauth, K.

    2010-01-01

    The human ortholog of the gene responsible for audiogenic seizure susceptibility in Frings and BUB/BnJ mice (mouse gene symbol Mass1) recently was shown to underlie Usher syndrome type IIC (USH2C). Here we report that the Mass1frings mutation is responsible for the early onset hearing impairment of BUB/BnJ mice. We found highly significant linkage of Mass1 with ABR threshold variation among mice from two backcrosses involving BUB/BnJ mice with mice of strains CAST/EiJ and MOLD/RkJ. We also show an additive effect of the Cdh23 locus in modulating the progression of hearing loss in backcross mice. Together, these two loci account for more than 70% of the total ABR threshold variation among the backcross mice at all ages. The modifying effect of the strain-specific Cdh23ahl variant may account for the hearing and audiogenic seizure differences observed between Frings and BUB/BnJ mice, which share the Mass1frings mutation. During postnatal cochlear development in BUB/BnJ mice, stereocilia bundles develop abnormally and remain immature and splayed into adulthood, corresponding with the early onset hearing impairment associated with Mass1frings. Progressive base–apex hair cell degeneration occurs at older ages, corresponding with the age-related hearing loss associated with Cdh23ahl. The molecular basis and pathophysiology of hearing loss suggest BUB/BnJ and Frings mice as models to study cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying USH2C auditory pathology. PMID:15820310

  5. Licensing Support Experience of the BN-600 Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, N.; Sintsov, A.

    2013-01-01

    License procedure - Main principle: • All works, including fatigue tests of new types of fuel, are carried out at the unit 3 Beloyarsk nuclear power plants with the BN-600 reactor with the justification of the regulatory body. • Justification procedure is standard for all power units and independent from the reactor types. • The regulatory body and independent experts or technical support organizations, which can be involved in this work by the regulatory body, review SAR, operational manuals and other operator documents. • Safety requirements (i.e. Federal rules and codes). The project and design documents shall meet safety requirements. • The technical and organizational measures for safety guarantee shall meet well-known results of the research investigations or shall be experimental validate

  6. A Tourist-like MITE insertion in the upstream region of the BnFLC.A10 gene is associated with vernalization requirement in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Raman, Harsh; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Jing; Dai, Shutao; Xiao, Qinqin; Li, Cong; Fan, Longjiang; Liu, Bin; Meng, Jinling

    2012-12-15

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has spring and winter genotypes adapted to different growing seasons. Winter genotypes do not flower before the onset of winter, thus leading to a longer vegetative growth period that promotes the accumulation and allocation of more resources to seed production. The development of winter genotypes enabled the rapeseed to spread rapidly from southern to northern Europe and other temperate regions of the world. The molecular basis underlying the evolutionary transition from spring- to winter- type rapeseed is not known, however, and needs to be elucidated. We fine-mapped the spring environment specific quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flowering time, qFT10-4,in a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population of rapeseed derived from a cross between Tapidor (winter-type) and Ningyou7 (semi-winter) and delimited the qFT10-4 to an 80-kb region on chromosome A10 of B. napus. The BnFLC.A10 gene, an ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in Arabidopsis, was cloned from the QTL. We identified 12 polymorphic sites between BnFLC.A10 parental alleles of the TN-DH population in the upstream region and in intron 1. Expression of both BnFLC.A10 alleles decreased during vernalization, but decreased more slowly in the winter parent Tapidor. Haplotyping and association analysis showed that one of the polymorphic sites upstream of BnFLC.A10 is strongly associated with the vernalization requirement of rapeseed (r2 = 0.93, χ2 = 0.50). This polymorphic site is derived from a Tourist-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) insertion/deletion in the upstream region of BnFLC.A10. The MITE sequence was not present in the BnFLC.A10 gene in spring-type rapeseed, nor in ancestral 'A' genome species B. rapa genotypes. Our results suggest that the insertion may have occurred in winter rapeseed after B. napus speciation. Our findings strongly suggest that (i) BnFLC.A10 is the gene underlying qFT10-4, the QTL for phenotypic diversity of flowering time in

  7. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.

  8. Spin filter effect of hBN/Co detector electrodes in a 3D topological insulator spin valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaklinova, Kristina; Polyudov, Katharina; Burghard, Marko; Kern, Klaus

    2018-03-01

    Topological insulators emerge as promising components of spintronic devices, in particular for applications where all-electrical spin control is essential. While the capability of these materials to generate spin-polarized currents is well established, only very little is known about the spin injection/extraction into/out of them. Here, we explore the switching behavior of lateral spin valves comprising the 3D topological insulator Bi2Te2Se as channel, which is separated from ferromagnetic Cobalt detector contacts by an ultrathin hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) tunnel barrier. The corresponding contact resistance displays a notable variation, which is correlated with a change of the switching characteristics of the spin valve. For contact resistances below ~5 kΩ, the hysteresis in the switching curve reverses upon reversing the applied current, as expected for spin-polarized currents carried by the helical surface states. By contrast, for higher contact resistances an opposite polarity of the hysteresis loop is observed, which is independent of the current direction, a behavior signifying negative spin detection efficiency of the multilayer hBN/Co contacts combined with bias-induced spin signal inversion. Our findings suggest the possibility to tune the spin exchange across the interface between a ferromagnetic metal and a topological insulator through the number of intervening hBN layers.

  9. From the combat medic to the forward surgical team: the Madigan model for improving trauma readiness of brigade combat teams fighting the Global War on Terror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Vance Y; Miller, Joseph P; Koeller, Craig A; Gibson, Steven O; Azarow, Kenneth S; Myers, Jerome B; Beekley, Alec C; Sebesta, James A; Christensen, Jon B; Rush, Robert M

    2007-03-01

    Medics assigned to combat units have a notable paucity of trauma experience. Our goal was to provide intense trauma refresher training for the conventional combat medic to better prepare them for combat casualty care in the War on Terror. Our Tactical Combat Casualty Care Course (TC3) consisted of the following five phases: (1) One and one-half-day didactic session; (2) Half-day simulation portion with interactive human surgical simulators for anatomical correlation of procedures and team building; (3) Half-day of case presentations and triage scenarios from Iraq/Afghanistan and associated skills stations; (4) Half-day live tissue lab where procedures were performed on live anesthetized animals in a controlled environment; and (5) One-day field phase where live anesthetized animals and surgical simulators were combined in a real-time, field-training event to simulate realistic combat injuries, evacuation problems, and mass casualty scenarios. Data collection consisted of surveys, pre- and posttests, and after-action comments. A total of 1317 personnel participated in TC3 from October 2003 through May 2005. Over the overlapping study period from December 2004 to April 2005, 327 soldiers participated in the formal five-phase course. Three hundred four (94%) students were combat medics who were preparing for combat operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. Of those completing the training, 97% indicated their confidence and ability to treat combat casualties were markedly improved. Moreover, of those 140 medics who took the course and deployed to Iraq for 1 year, 99% indicated that the principles taught in the TC3 course helped with battlefield management of injured casualties during their deployment. The hybrid training model is an effective method for training medical personnel to deal with modern battle injuries. This course increases the knowledge and confidence of combat medics deploying and fighting the Global War on Terrorism.

  10. Combating gender stereotypes in the education system: success stories

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    GEC 2015. Conferência realizada em Helsínquia, de 9-10 october 2014. Conferência de Abertura do Painel 2 – Combating gender stereotypes in the education system: success stories, da Conferência promovida pelo Conselho da Europa sobre “Combating gender stereotypes in and through education”. Apresentam-se alguns desafios decorrentes do combate ao sexismo na escola e propõem-se algumas linhas de ação, ao nível individual, coletivo, organizacional e institucional. info:eu-repo/semantics/pub...

  11. Differentiation of pain ratings in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Anja; Geuze, Elbert; Schmahl, Christian; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Bohus, Martin; Vermetten, Eric

    2009-06-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with chronic pain, preliminary evidence suggests reduced experimental pain sensitivity in this disorder. The questions addressed in the present study were whether pain perception would also be reduced in PTSD patients who are not suffering from chronic pain symptoms, and whether a reduction in pain sensitivity would also be present in combat veterans who did not develop PTSD. For this, we determined thermal detection and pain thresholds in 10 male combat-related PTSD patients, 10 combat control subjects (no PTSD) and 10 healthy controls without combat experience. All subjects were pain free. First, we measured thermal sensory thresholds with ramped heat and cold stimuli using the method of limits. Ramped thermal sensory stimulation revealed no deficits for the detection of (non-noxious) f2.1thermal stimuli between groups. In contrast, heat and cold pain thresholds in both combat groups (PTSD and combat controls) were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. However, these stimuli could not distinguish between the two groups due to ceiling effects. When using longer-lasting heat stimulation at different temperatures (30s duration; method of fixed stimuli), we found significantly lower frequency of pain reports in PTSD patients compared with both combat and healthy controls, as well as significantly lower pain ratings. Our results suggest an association of PTSD with reduced pain sensitivity, which could be related to PTSD-related (neuro-)psychological alterations or to a pre-existing risk factor for the disorder.

  12. Impact of Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan on Family Functioning: Findings from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Land Combat Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huge, Charles W; Castro, Carl A; Eaton, Karen M

    2006-01-01

    .... However, most studies of the impact of combat on military families have not been conducted proximal to the time of deployments, and there are many research gaps in understanding the full impact of combat deployment...

  13. University Research Initiative Program for Combat Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    microscope image of one of the lenses. This array was selected for testing because it is fabricated in a relatively inexpensive polyacrylic material, the...potent analogues of the potassium -sparing diuretic, amiloride. However, our results 179 University Reasearch Initiative for Combat Readiness Annual Report...for Combat Readiness Annual Report for the period June 1, 1998 - June 30, 1999 Roger H. Sawyer University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208 May

  14. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 72, Number 1, January 1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    1930-01-01

    of the 1st Bn. following will march_ at 7 :00 a. m. The 1st Bn. head ,vill not pass the BALTBWRE CITY LIXE on PHILADELPHIA AVE- KITE prior to 12 :00...down, the only dependable means of communication provided for combat is the runner . True, the company is provided with a cross-countrycar and two...can be seen that runner communicationis so slow as to practically paralyze the unit. The British have been experimenting for several years, and have

  15. LOS tercios en España: el combate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine WHITE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante el siglo ??? hubo un importante incremento de la actividad militar en la Península Ibérica. Las tropas hubieron de luchar en su propio territorio y contra otros subditos del rey de España. Este artículo se centra en el combate de los ejércitos españoles en la Península. Examina el componente humano de estas fuerzas, los motivos para servir o para desertar, el conflicto de lealtades, los riesgos y las realidades del combate, así como la asistencia médica y espiritual que recibían.ABSTRACT: There was a significant rise in military activity in the Iberian Peninsula during the seventeenth century. Troops fought on 'home' territory and against fellow subjects of the Spanish king. This article looks at combat in Spain's home-based armies. It explores the human component of these forces, the motives and disincentives for serving, the conflict of loyalties, the risks and realities of combat, and medical and spiritual care.

  16. Combating trafficking: the Swiss approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Rauber

    2006-01-01

    Switzerland is committed to combating and preventingtrafficking in human beings. Effective policy implementationin a federal structure depends on networking,effective information exchange and development ofrobust cooperation mechanisms.

  17. Crowd Behavior Algorithm Development for COMBAT XXI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    non-combatants to military operations in an urban area. We show how to link this model with COMBATXXI at the application programming interface (API...level so that the model can be run in tight conjunction with COMBATXXI. TRAC and other anaytic organizations can use this type of crowd model to... organizations , and materiel. crowd, agent-based modeling , combat models , COMBATXXI, NetLogo, mega-cities, civilians on the battlefield Unclassified U U U U 39

  18. Na-ion batteries based on the inorganic BN nanocluster anodes: DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, K; Hosseinian, A; Bekhradnia, A; Vessally, E; Edjlali, L

    2017-06-01

    It has been recently indicated that the Li-ion batteries may be replaced by Na-ion batteries because of their low safety, high cost, and low-temperature performance, and lack of the Li mineral reserves. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we studied the potential application of B 12 N 12 nanoclusters as anode in Na-ion batteries. Our calculations indicate that the adsorption energy of Na + and Na are about -23.4 and -1.4kcal/mol, respectively, and the pristine BN cage to improve suffers from a low cell voltage (∼0.92V) as an anode in Na-ion batteries. We presented a strategy to increase the cell voltage and performance of Na-ion batteries. We showed that encapsulation of different halides (X=F - , Cl - , or Br - ) into BN cage significantly increases the cell voltage. By increasing the atomic number of X, the Gibbs free energy change of cell becomes more negative and the cell voltage is increased up to 3.93V. The results are discussed based on the structural, energetic, frontier molecular orbital, charge transfer and electronic properties and compared with the performance of other nanostructured anodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 597 Days: A Division’s Morale During Sustained Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    The army broke combat exhaustion into two groups: new replacements and veterans. For new replacements the symptoms of combat exhaustion appeared...through the initial effects of combat to fall into the veteran group. The manifestation of symptoms for veterans generally occurred around the 120th...concentrated strength” that the German Army was simply overrun. The battle turned into a “ gigantic mopping- up operation,” one that saw the Red Bulls solidify

  20. A first-principle investigation into effect of B-and BN-doped C60 in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 7. A first-principle investigation into effect of B- and BN-doped C 60 in lowering dehydrogenation of MXH 4 ...

  1. High-Pressure Design of Advanced BN-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr O. Kurakevych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to highlight the state of the art in high-pressure design of new advanced materials based on boron nitride. Recent experimental achievements on the governing phase transformation, nanostructuring and chemical synthesis in the systems containing boron nitride at high pressures and high temperatures are presented. All these developments allowed discovering new materials, e.g., ultrahard nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride (nano-cBN with hardness comparable to diamond, and superhard boron subnitride B13N2. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high-pressure synthesis are described based on the data obtained by in situ and ex situ methods. Mechanical and thermal properties (hardness, thermoelastic equations of state, etc. are discussed. New synthetic perspectives, combining both soft chemistry and extreme pressure–temperature conditions are considered.

  2. A Tourist-like MITE insertion in the upstream region of the BnFLC.A10 gene is associated with vernalization requirement in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jinna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. has spring and winter genotypes adapted to different growing seasons. Winter genotypes do not flower before the onset of winter, thus leading to a longer vegetative growth period that promotes the accumulation and allocation of more resources to seed production. The development of winter genotypes enabled the rapeseed to spread rapidly from southern to northern Europe and other temperate regions of the world. The molecular basis underlying the evolutionary transition from spring- to winter- type rapeseed is not known, however, and needs to be elucidated. Results We fine-mapped the spring environment specific quantitative trait locus (QTL for flowering time, qFT10-4,in a doubled haploid (DH mapping population of rapeseed derived from a cross between Tapidor (winter-type and Ningyou7 (semi-winter and delimited the qFT10-4 to an 80-kb region on chromosome A10 of B. napus. The BnFLC.A10 gene, an ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC in Arabidopsis, was cloned from the QTL. We identified 12 polymorphic sites between BnFLC.A10 parental alleles of the TN-DH population in the upstream region and in intron 1. Expression of both BnFLC.A10 alleles decreased during vernalization, but decreased more slowly in the winter parent Tapidor. Haplotyping and association analysis showed that one of the polymorphic sites upstream of BnFLC.A10 is strongly associated with the vernalization requirement of rapeseed (r2 = 0.93, χ2 = 0.50. This polymorphic site is derived from a Tourist-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE insertion/deletion in the upstream region of BnFLC.A10. The MITE sequence was not present in the BnFLC.A10 gene in spring-type rapeseed, nor in ancestral ‘A’ genome species B. rapa genotypes. Our results suggest that the insertion may have occurred in winter rapeseed after B. napus speciation. Conclusions Our findings strongly suggest that (i BnFLC.A10 is the gene underlying qFT10

  3. Combating Training-Stress Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the nature and ramifications of various training stress syndromes (overtraining, under-recovery, distress, staleness, and burnout) that can accompany inappropriate training practices, examining the interventions that players and coaches can use to combat these syndromes (including physical, psychological, and performance interventions),…

  4. Room temperature performance of mid-wavelength infrared InAsSb nBn detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Hoglund, Linda; Rosenberg, Robert; Kowalczyk, Robert; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Fisher, Anita; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Gunapala, Sarath D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, California 91030 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    In this work, we investigate the high temperature performance of mid-wavelength infrared InAsSb-AlAsSb nBn detectors with cut-off wavelengths near 4.5 μm. The quantum efficiency of these devices is 35% without antireflection coatings and does not change with temperature in the 77–325 K temperature range, indicating potential for room temperature operation. The current generation of nBn detectors shows an increase of operational bias with temperature, which is attributed to a shift in the Fermi energy level in the absorber. Analysis of the device performance shows that operational bias and quantum efficiency of these detectors can be further improved. The device dark current stays diffusion limited in the 150 K–325 K temperature range and becomes dominated by generation-recombination processes at lower temperatures. Detector detectivities are D*(λ) = 1 × 10{sup 9} (cm Hz{sup 0.5}/W) at T = 300 K and D*(λ) = 5 × 10{sup 9} (cm Hz{sup 0.5}/W) at T = 250 K, which is easily achievable with a one stage TE cooler.

  5. Dynamic Negative Compressibility of Few-Layer Graphene, h-BN, and MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Bernardo; Barboza, Ana Paula; Chacham, Helio; Oliveira, Camilla; Fernandes, Thales; Martins Ferreira, Erlon; Archanjo, Braulio; Batista, Ronaldo; Oliveira, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We report a novel mechanical response of few-layer graphene, h-BN, and MoS2 to the simultaneous compression and shear by an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The response is characterized by the vertical expansion of these two-dimensional (2D) layered materials upon compression. Such effect is proportional to the applied load, leading to vertical strain values (opposite to the applied force) of up to 150%. The effect is null in the absence of shear, increases with tip velocity, and is anisotropic. It also has similar magnitudes in these solid lubricant materials (few-layer graphene, h-BN, and MoS2), but it is absent in single-layer graphene and in few-layer mica and Bi2Se3. We propose a physical mechanism for the effect where the combined compressive and shear stresses from the tip induce dynamical wrinkling on the upper material layers, leading to the observed flake thickening. The new effect (and, therefore, the proposed wrinkling) is reversible in the three materials where it is observed.[2] Financial support from CNPq, Fapemig, Rede Nacional de Pesquisa em Nanotubos de Carbono and INCT-Nano-Carbono

  6. Rapid degradation of azo dye Direct Black BN by magnetic MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC under microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jia; Yang, Shaogui, E-mail: yangsg@nju.edu.cn; Li, Na; Meng, Lingjun; Wang, Fei; He, Huan; Sun, Cheng

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC was first successfully synthesized. • MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC attained the maximum absorbing value of 13.32 dB at 2.57 GHz, which reached extremely high RL value at low frequency range. • Fast decolorization and high TOC removal of azo dye Direct Black BN with complicated structure could occur with MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC under MW radiation. • MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC had better MW absorbing property and higher MW catalytic activity than MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC under the same condition. • MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC was of practical use in the wastewater treatment. - Abstract: A novel microwave (MW) catalyst, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} loaded on SiC (MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC), was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method, and pure MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was used as reference. The MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption analyzer (BET specific surface area), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electromagnetic parameters of the prepared catalysts were measured by vector network analyzer. The reflection loss (RL) based on the electromagnetic parameters calculated in Matlab showed MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC attained the maximum absorbing value of 13.32 dB at 2.57 GHz, which reached extremely high RL value at low frequency range, revealing the excellent MW absorption property of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC. MW-induced degradation of Direct Black BN (DB BN) over as-synthesized MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC indicated that degradation efficiency of DB BN (20 mg L{sup −1}) in 5 min reached 96.5%, the corresponding TOC removal was 65%, and the toxicity of DB BN after degradation by MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC obviously decreased. The good stability and applicability of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiC on the degradation process were also discovered. Moreover, the ionic chromatogram during degradation

  7. Combating trafficking: the Swiss approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Rauber

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Switzerland is committed to combating and preventingtrafficking in human beings. Effective policy implementationin a federal structure depends on networking,effective information exchange and development ofrobust cooperation mechanisms.

  8. Time-resolved Polarimetry of the Superluminous SN 2015bn with the Nordic Optical Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Maund, Justyn R. [The Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Pursimo, Tapio [Nordic Optical Telescope, Apartado 474, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Hsiao, Eric [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Malesani, Daniele; De Ugarte Postigo, Antonio [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Patat, Ferdinando [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sollerman, Jesper [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Stritzinger, Maximilian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Wheeler, J. Craig [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    We present imaging polarimetry of the superluminous supernova SN 2015bn, obtained over nine epochs between −20 and +46 days with the Nordic Optical Telescope. This was a nearby, slowly evolving Type I superluminous supernova that has been studied extensively and for which two epochs of spectropolarimetry are also available. Based on field stars, we determine the interstellar polarization in the Galaxy to be negligible. The polarization of SN 2015bn shows a statistically significant increase during the last epochs, confirming previous findings. Our well-sampled imaging polarimetry series allows us to determine that this increase (from ∼0.54% to ≳1.10%) coincides in time with rapid changes that took place in the optical spectrum. We conclude that the supernova underwent a “phase transition” at around +20 days, when the photospheric emission shifted from an outer layer, dominated by natal C and O, to a more aspherical inner core, dominated by freshly nucleosynthesized material. This two-layered model might account for the characteristic appearance and properties of Type I superluminous supernovae.

  9. h-BN/graphene van der Waals vertical heterostructure: a fully spin-polarized photocurrent generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xixi; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaohong; Hao, Hua; Wang, Xianlong; Song, Lingling; Zeng, Zhi; Guo, Hong

    2017-12-21

    By constructing transport junctions using graphene-based van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures in which a zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) is sandwiched between two hexagonal boron-nitride sheets, we computationally demonstrate a new scheme for generating perfect spin-polarized quantum transport in ZGNRs by light irradiation. The mechanism lies in the lift of spin degeneracy of ZGNR induced by the stagger potential it receives from the BN sheets and the subsequent possibility of single spin excitation of electrons from the valence band to the conduction band by properly tuning the photon energy. This scheme is rather robust in that we always achieve desirable results irrespective of whether we decrease or increase the interlayer distance by applying compressive or tensile strain vertically to the sheets or shift the BN sheets in-plane relative to the graphene nanoribbons. More importantly, this scheme overcomes the long-standing difficulties in traditional ways of using solely electrical field or chemical modification for obtaining half-metallic transport in ZGNRs and thus paves a more feasible way for their application in spintronics.

  10. Most effective way to improve the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-decorated BN sheets: applying external biaxial strain and an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunmei; Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2017-02-15

    Density functional calculations were used to investigate the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-atoms-decorated BN sheets under both external biaxial strain and a vertical electric field. The Na atom generally has the weakest binding strength to a given substrate compared with the other elements in the periodic table [PANS, 2016, 113, 3735]. Consequently, it is understudied in comparison to other elements and there are few reports about the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-decorated nanomaterials. We calculated that the average binding energy (E b ) of Na atoms to the pure BN sheet is 1.08 eV, which is smaller than the cohesive energy of bulk Na (1.11 eV). However, the E b can be increased to 1.15 eV under 15% biaxial strain, and further up to 1.53 eV with the control of both 15% biaxial strain and a 5.14 V nm -1 electric field (E-field). Therefore, the application of biaxial strain and an external upward E-field can prevent clustering of the Na atoms on the surface of a BN sheet, which is crucial for the hydrogen storage. Each Na atom on the surface of a BN sheet can adsorb only one H 2 molecule when no strain or E-field is applied; however, the absorption increases to five H 2 molecules under 15% biaxial strain and six H 2 molecules under both 15% biaxial strain combined with a 5.14 V nm -1 E-field. The average adsorption energies for H 2 of BN-(Na-mH 2 ) (m = 1-6) are within the range of practical applications (0.2-0.6 eV). The hydrogen gravimetric density of the periodic BN-(Na-6H 2 ) 4 structure is 9 wt%, which exceeds the 5.5 wt% value that should be met by 2017 as specified by the US Department of Energy. On the other side, removal of the biaxial strain and E-field can help to desorb the H 2 molecule. These findings suggest a new route to design hydrogen storage materials under near-ambient conditions.

  11. Accidental situations analysis in BN-800 reactor bounded with an untimely ascension of the control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, V.S.; Zaets, N.P.

    1987-12-01

    In this document the conditions and the results of one or more control rods untimely ascension out of the BN-800 core are examined. The mathematical model which describes the reactor kinetic, the temperature core and the feedback is presented [fr

  12. Studies of 99mTc-BnAO (HL-91): a non-nitroaromatic compound for hypoxic cell detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Melo, T.; Ballinger, J.R.; Rauth, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Solid tumours of similar type and stage can vary widely in their hypoxic cell fraction. Such cells may be prognostic for aggressive, metastatic, and radiation-resistant disease. A 99m technetium ( 99m Tc)-labelled non-nitroaromatic agent, butyleneamine oxime ( 99m Tc-BnAO) or HL-91 (Amersham International, Inc., Amersham, UK) has been evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for its possible efficacy as a noninvasive marker for the clinical detection of hypoxic cells in solid tumours. Materials and Methods: Suspension cultures of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells under controlled levels of oxygen were used to measure the oxygen dependency of 99m Tc-BnAO accumulation. V79 cells grown as multilayers on a semipermeable membrane served as an in vitro model for drug penetration through the extravascular space of the tumour. C3H mice bearing KHT-C leg tumours were the in vivo models for selective drug accumulation as a function of time after i.v. administration of 99m Tc-BnAO. Results: 99m Tc accumulated selectively in hypoxic vs. aerobic cells, resulting in a 9 ± 2-fold differential in radioactivity per cell at 4 h. The k m for this selective accumulation was 20 ppm of oxygen. The labelled drug was equally effective in penetrating the cellular multilayer under aerobic or hypoxic conditions. In vivo measurements indicated favourable labelling of solid tumours containing hypoxic cells with 1% of the total activity per g of tumour, a tumour-to-blood ratio of 1.2, and a tumour-to-muscle ratio of 4.6 at 4 to 6 h after drug administration. In contrast to more lipophilic 99m Tc- labelled compounds, excretion was primarily via the urinary tract. Nitro-L-arginine selectively increased solid tumour labelling over normal tissue. Conclusions: 99m Tc-BnAO or HL-91 is a promising agent for clinical studies of tumour hypoxia, although the mechanism of its selective hypoxic cell accumulation remains unexplained

  13. Amplification of the active site of BnLIP3 gene of Brassica napus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipases are useful enzymes that are responsible for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides and play an important role in plant growth. In this study, we report a rapid molecular method to amplify a partial sequence of the lipase class 3 family designated BnLIP3 gene of Brassica napus L. in order to follow its expression and ...

  14. New Technologies for Treating Severe Bleeding in Far-Forward Combat Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    conditions have been utilized to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Combat Gauze. Combat Gauze ( kaolin -coated gauze) was recently distributed by US...woven medical gauze (50% polyester and 50% rayon) impregnated with a contact (intrinsic) pathway activating clotting agent, kaolin . The prototype...Military Tourniquet (EMT). 5.0 CONCLUSION Future combat scenarios where the troops will be more dispersed , imply that evacuation times of

  15. The use of QuikClot combat gauze in cervical and vaginal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Vilardo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available QuikClot combat gauze is a synthetic hemostatic dressing used for hemorrhage control. There is a paucity of data describing the clinical use and hemostatic results of combat gauze in the obstetric and gynecologic setting. This case series demonstrates the use of combat gauze as an effective hemostatic agent when used as vaginal packing in cervical and vaginal hemorrhage. Hemostasis was achieved rapidly in all cases and further interventions were avoided. The combat gauze remained in place for a mean time of 15 h with no adverse side effects observed. The use of combat gauze as vaginal packing may provide an alternative option in the treatment of cervical and vaginal hemorrhage when other traditional conservative and surgical interventions fail or are unavailable.

  16. An experience of cleaning and decontamination of the BN-350 reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, K.T.; Kochetkov, L.A.; Arkhipov, V.M.; Baklushin, R.P.; Gorlov, A.I.; Kiselev, G.V.; Rezinkin, P.S.; Samarkin, A.A.; Tverdovsky, N.D.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of start-up, adjustment and operation of the BN-350 reactor there arose a need for cleaning from sodium and decontamination of primary and secondary equipment components. Design schemes of the systems provided for this purpose as well as those specially designed for cleaning of steam generator evaporators are considered. Technological processes of cleaning and decontamination for some reactor components (removable parts of circulating pumps, evaporators, valves) are described, the results are presented. (author)

  17. Criticality safety issues in the disposition of BN-350 spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, R. W.; Klann, R. T.; Koltyshev, S. M.; Krechetov, S.

    2000-01-01

    A criticality safety analysis has been performed as part of the BN-350 spent fuel disposition project being conducted jointly by the DOE and Kazakhstan. The Kazakhstan regulations are reasonably consistent with those of the DOE. The high enrichment and severe undermoderation of this fast reactor fuel has significant criticality safety consequences. A detailed modeling approach was used that showed some configurations to be safe that otherwise would be rejected. Reasonable requirements for design and operations were needed, and with them, all operations were found to be safe

  18. Measuring the background acoustic noise in the BN-600 steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugaj, V.S.; Zhukovets, V.N.; Ivannikov, V.I.; Vylomov, V.V.; Ryabinin, F.; Chernykh, P.G.; Flejsher, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic noises in the lower chambers of evaporation and intermediate overheating moduli of the BN-600 reactor steam generator are measured. Bachground noises are registered in the whole range of frequencies studied, from 0.63 to 160 kHz. The comparison of noise spectra in evaporator and overheater has revealed a certain difference. However the general tendency is the reduction of the noise level at high frequencies > 8 kHz. The increase of the noise level at low steam content is observed only in a narrow of frequency range of 3-6 kHz

  19. Combatant Commanders Informational Series, USEUCOM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, Steven

    1996-01-01

    ...) and the diverse challenges it faces require it to maintain one of the highest operational and personnel tempos of the combatant command, are limited in the opportunity of personnel new to the command...

  20. Casualties of War: Combat Trauma and the Return of the Combat Veteran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Denis O.; Swift, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The experience of the combat soldier and the road back to civilian life are recurrent themes in American literature and cinema. Whether the treatment is tragic (Stephen Crane's "Red Badge of Courage", Tim O'Brien's "The Things They Carried", or Tony Scott's "Blackhawk Down"), satirical (Joseph Heller's "Catch Twenty-Two" and Robert Altman's…

  1. Release of radioactive fission products from BN-600 reactor untight fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, S.L.; Tsikunov, A.G.; Lisitsin, E.C.

    1996-01-01

    The experimental data on the release of radioactive fission products from BN-600 reactor untight fuel elements are given in the report. Various groups of radionuclides: inert gases Xe, Kr, volatile Cs, J, non-volatile Nb, and La are considered. The results of calculation-experimental study of transfer and distribution of radionuclides in the reactor primary circuit, gas system and sodium coolant are considered. It is shown that some complex radioactivity transfer processes can be described by simple mathematical models. (author)

  2. The Measurement of Combat Stress in the Field: A Product Development Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cotton, A

    1998-01-01

    .... In the early nineties, however, a need was perceived to improve the individual combat capability of the infantry soldier in order to improve the combat capability of the Army as a whole. This led to the creation of Project WUNDURRA (an aboriginal word meaning "warrior"), which subsequently became known as Project LAND125 (Soldier Combat System Enhancement Study).

  3. Smoking among troops deployed in combat areas and its association with combat exposure among navy personnel in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Varuni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among military personnel alcohol consumption and binge-drinking have increased but cigarette smoking has declined in the recent past. Although there is a strong association between smoking and PTSD the association between combat exposure and smoking is not clear. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas. Both Special Forces and regular forces were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to end of combat operations were included in the study. Females were not included in the sample. The study assessed several mental health outcomes as well as alcohol use, smoking and cannabis use. Sample was classified according to smoking habits as never smokers, past smokers (those who had smoked in the past but not within the past year and current smokers (those smoking at least one cigarette within the past 12 months. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. Prevalence of current smoking was 17.9% (95% CI 14.9-20.8. Of the sample 58.4% had never smoked and 23.7% were past smokers. Prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among Special Forces personnel compared to regular forces. (OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.20-3.02. Personnel aged ≥35 years had the lowest prevalence of smoking (14.0%. Commissioned officers had a lower prevalence (12.1% than non commissioned officers or other ranks. After adjustment for demographic variables and service type there was significant association between smoking and combat experiences of seeing dead or wounded [OR 1.79 (95%CI 1.08-2.9], handling dead bodies [OR 2.47(95%CI 1.6-3.81], coming under small arms fire [OR 2.01(95%CI 1.28-3.15] and coming under mortar, missile and artillery fire [OR 2.02(95%CI 1.29-3.17]. There was significant association between the number of

  4. Assessment of dissociation among combat-exposed soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaros Özdemir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissociation is a disruption of and/or discontinuity in the normal, subjective integration of one or more aspects of psychological functioning, including memory, identity, consciousness, perception, and motor control. A limited number of studies investigated combat-related dissociation. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dissociative symptoms and combat-related trauma. Method: This study included 184 individuals, including 84 patients who were exposed to combat and diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD (Group I, 50 subjects who were exposed to combat but were not diagnosed with PTSD (Group II, and 50 healthy subjects without combat exposure (Group III. The participants were evaluated using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES to determine their total and sub-factor (i.e., amnesia, depersonalization/derealization, and absorption dissociative symptom levels. In addition, Group I and Group II were compared with respect to the relationship between physical injury and DES scores. Results: The mean DES scores (i.e., total and sub-factors of Group I were higher than those of Group II (p30 was highest in Group I, followed by Group II and Group III. When we compared combat-exposed subjects with high total DES scores, Group I had higher scores than Group II. In contrast, no relationship between the presence of bodily injury and total DES scores could be demonstrated. In addition, our results demonstrated that high depersonalization/derealization factor scores were correlated with bodily injury in PTSD patients. A similar relationship was found between high absorption factor scores and bodily injury for Group II. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the level of dissociation was significantly higher in subjects with combat-related PTSD than in subjects without combat-related PTSD. In addition, combat-exposed subjects without PTSD also had higher dissociation levels than

  5. Technical-tactical and physiological demands of wrestling combats

    OpenAIRE

    Bianka Miarka

    2016-01-01

    Technical-tactical and physiological demand analyses of wrestling combats are important because they reveal essential information for the development of contextual training and specific physical preparation of wrestlers. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the characteristics of wrestling combats in freestyle, female and Greco-roman styles. The time-motion analysis presented in this article is the main component to carry out inferences on intensity and effort: pause ratio of comb...

  6. Effect of magnesium aluminum silicate glass on the thermal shock resistance of BN matrix composite ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Delong; Jia, Dechang; Yang, Zhihua; Zhu, Qishuai; Ocelik, Vaclav; Vainchtein, Ilia D.; De Hosson, Jeff Th M.; Zhou, Yu

    The effects of magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) glass on the thermal shock resistance and the oxidation behavior of h-BN matrix composites were systematically investigated at temperature differences from 600 degrees C up to 1400 degrees C. The retained strength rate of the composites rose with the

  7. Island shape, size and interface dependency on electronic and magnetic properties of graphene hexagonal-boron nitride (h-BN) in-plane hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Nurten; Özdoğan, Cem

    2018-04-01

    We systematically investigate the energetics of ion implantation, stability, electronic, and magnetic properties of graphene/hexagonal boron nitrate (h-BN) in-plane hybrids through first principle calculations. We consider hexagonal and triangular islands in supercells of graphene and h-BN layouts. In the case of triangular islands, both phases mix with each other by either solely Csbnd N or Csbnd B bonds. We also patterned triangles with predominating Csbnd N or Csbnd B bonds at their interfaces. The energetics of island implantation is discussed in detail. Formation energies point out that the island implantation could be even exothermic for all hybrids studied in this work. Effects of size and shape of the island, and dominating bonding sort at the island-layout interfaces on the stability, band gap, and magnetic properties of hybrids are studied particularly. The hybrids become more stable with increasing island size. Regardless of the layout, hybrids with hexagonal islands are all non-magnetic and semiconducting. One can thus open a band gap in the semimetallic graphene by mixing it with the h-BN phase. In general, hybrids containing graphene triangles show metallic property and exhibit considerable amount of magnetic moments for possible localized spin utilizations. Total magnetic moment of hybrids with both graphene and h-BN layouts increases with growing triangle island as well. The spin densities of magnetic hybrids are derived from interfaces of the islands and diminish towards their center. We suggest that the increase in stability and magnetic moment depend on the number of atoms at the interfaces rather than the island size.

  8. Note nuclear accidents combat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In this document the starting points are described which underlie the new framework for the nuclear-accident combat in the Netherlands. All the elaboration of this is indicated in main lines. The juridical consequences of the proposed structure are enlightened and the sequel activities are indicated. (H.W.). 6 figs.; 8 tabs

  9. Physical, mechanical and neutron shielding properties of h-BN/Gd2O3/HDPE ternary nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    İrim, Ş. Gözde; Wis, Abdulmounem Alchekh; Keskin, M. Aker; Baykara, Oktay; Ozkoc, Guralp; Avcı, Ahmet; Doğru, Mahmut; Karakoç, Mesut

    2018-03-01

    In order to prepare an effective neutron shielding material, not only neutron but also gamma absorption must be taken into account. In this research, a polymer nanocomposite based novel type of multifunctional neutron shielding material is designed and fabricated. For this purpose, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was compounded with different amounts of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and Gd2O3 nanoparticles having average particle size of 100 nm using melt-compounding technique. The mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of nanocomposites were investigated. As filler content increased, the absorption of both neutron and gamma fluxes increased despite fluctuating neutron absorption curves. Adding h-BN and Gd2O3 nano particles had a significant influence on both neutron and gamma attenuation properties (Σ, cm-1 and μ/ρ, cm-2/g) of ternary shields and they show an enhancement of 200-280%, 14-52% for neutron and gamma radiations, respectively, in shielding performance.

  10. Formation of graphene on BN substrate by vapor deposition method and size effects on its structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Nguyen Hoang; Hanh, Tran Thi Thu; Ngoc, Le Nhu; Nga, Nguyen To; Van Hoang, Vo

    2018-04-01

    We report MD simulation of the growth of graphene by the vapor deposition on a two-dimensional hBN substrate. The systems (containing carbon vapor and hBN substrate) are relaxed at high temperature (1500 K), and then it is cooled down to room one (300 K). Carbon atoms interact with the substrate via the Lennard-Jones potential while the interaction between carbon atoms is computed via the Tersoff potential. Depending on the size of the model, different crystalline honeycomb structures have been found. Structural properties of the graphene obtained at 300 K are studied by analyzing radial distribution functions (RDFs), coordination numbers, ring statistics, interatomic distances, bond-angle distributions and 2D visualization of atomic configurations. We find that the models containing various numbers of atoms have a honeycomb structure. Besides, differences in structural properties of graphene formed by the vapor deposition on the substrate and free standing one are found. Moreover, the size effect on the structure is significant.

  11. Meeting the Challenge - Developing Leaders for Army National Guard Combat Units

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keolanui, Stan

    2000-01-01

    ...). Capable and qualified leaders are a necessity in complex organizations like the eSB. These leaders will insure that Guard combat units meet all readiness and deployment standards necessary for future combat...

  12. New Russian Combat Small Boats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr F. Mitrofanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of small combat boats. The author provides a description and gives an analysis of the characteristics of the boat "Raptor", boat "BK-16", boat "Strizh-4-1 DSh", and assault boat "BK-10".

  13. [International cooperation in combatting illicit drugs in Mozambique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvana, Flávia; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2011-06-01

    Countries from Southern Africa have formed a Development Community (SADC) to stimulate common actions in several areas, among them illicit drugs combat. In this context, the goal of this qualitative study was to identify information and perception about the cooperation set up between Mozambique and other SADC members in combatting illicit drugs. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with public employees developing actions directed at the implementation of the Protocol to Combat Drugs in SADC. After transcriptions, the interviews were analyzed by content analysis and resulted in the categories: "Mozambique as a drugs corridor", "Cooperation Initiatives on Drugs among African countries", "Cooperation Difficulties in Africa", "Problems in Protocol Implementation" and "Difficulties to implement a control policy". As a consequence, there is a need to review and update the policies and strategies in the drugs area, as they are not contextualized in the country's current reality.

  14. Airport Flight Departure Delay Model on Improved BN Structure Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weidong; Fang, Xiangnong

    An high score prior genetic simulated annealing Bayesian network structure learning algorithm (HSPGSA) by combining genetic algorithm(GA) with simulated annealing algorithm(SAA) is developed. The new algorithm provides not only with strong global search capability of GA, but also with strong local hill climb search capability of SAA. The structure with the highest score is prior selected. In the mean time, structures with lower score are also could be choice. It can avoid efficiently prematurity problem by higher score individual wrong direct growing population. Algorithm is applied to flight departure delays analysis in a large hub airport. Based on the flight data a BN model is created. Experiments show that parameters learning can reflect departure delay.

  15. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  16. THE POSSIBLY PREVENTION AND COMBATING TAX EVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela P. POPA

    2014-11-01

    - A faulty legislation that allows them to circumvent the failure to pay taxes. Measures to combat tax evasion must act in the areas of legislative, administrative and educational. The legislative drafting tax legislation seeks appropriate, clear, concise, stable and consistent. It is also necessary to eliminate or withdrawal of exemptions, reductions and deductions that give rise to multiple interpretations. In terms of administrative measures aimed at creating a comprehensive and operational information system, ensuring adequate administrative structures and instruments effectively combating tax evasion and training specialists with morality and professionalism required of shapes and sizes evasion.

  17. Meta-path based heterogeneous combat network link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jichao; Ge, Bingfeng; Yang, Kewei; Chen, Yingwu; Tan, Yuejin

    2017-09-01

    The combat system-of-systems in high-tech informative warfare, composed of many interconnected combat systems of different types, can be regarded as a type of complex heterogeneous network. Link prediction for heterogeneous combat networks (HCNs) is of significant military value, as it facilitates reconfiguring combat networks to represent the complex real-world network topology as appropriate with observed information. This paper proposes a novel integrated methodology framework called HCNMP (HCN link prediction based on meta-path) to predict multiple types of links simultaneously for an HCN. More specifically, the concept of HCN meta-paths is introduced, through which the HCNMP can accumulate information by extracting different features of HCN links for all the six defined types. Next, an HCN link prediction model, based on meta-path features, is built to predict all types of links of the HCN simultaneously. Then, the solution algorithm for the HCN link prediction model is proposed, in which the prediction results are obtained by iteratively updating with the newly predicted results until the results in the HCN converge or reach a certain maximum iteration number. Finally, numerical experiments on the dataset of a real HCN are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed HCNMP, in comparison with 30 baseline methods. The results show that the performance of the HCNMP is superior to those of the baseline methods.

  18. Combating corruption in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian; Lewis, Maureen; Vian, Taryn

    2017-08-09

    Corruption is a critical challenge to global health efforts, and combating it requires international action, advocacy, and research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Testing of the dual slab verification detector for attended measurements of the BN-350 dry storage casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Peter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browne, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Richard B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Parker, Robert F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Dual Slab Verification Detector (DSVD) has been developed and built by Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as part of the dry storage safeguards system for the spent fuel from the BN-350 fast reactor. The detector consists of two rows of {sup 3}He tubes embedded in a slab of polyethylene which has been designed to be placed on the outer surface of the dry storage cask. The DSVD will be used to perform measurements of the neutron flux emanating from inside the dry storage cask at several locations around each cask to establish a neutron 'fingerprint' that is sensitive to the contents of the cask. The sensitivity of the fingerprinting technique to the removal of specific amount of nuclear material from the cask is determined by the characteristics of the detector that is used to perform the measurements, the characteristics of the spent fuel being measured, and systematic uncertainties that are associated with the dry storage scenario. MCNPX calculations of the BN-350 dry storage asks and layout have shown that the neutron fingerprint verification technique using measurements from the DSVD would be sensitive to both the amount and location of material that is present within an individual cask. To confirm the performance of the neutron fingerprint technique in verifying the presence of BN-350 spent fuel in dry storage, an initial series of measurements have been performed to test the performance and characteristics of the DSVD. Results of these measurements will be presented and compared with MCNPX results.

  20. Is Persuasive Advertising Always Combative in a Distribution Channel?

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Cheng Wu; Ying-Ju Chen; Chih-Jen Wang

    2009-01-01

    The existing marketing literature suggests that persuasive advertising elicits counteractions from competing manufacturers and consequently leads to wasteful cancellation of the advertising effects. Thus, persuasive advertising is widely perceived to be combative in nature. A series of previously published papers demonstrates that appropriate targeting may partially mitigate the combative nature of persuasive advertising in that either the rival manufacturer or the retailer may benefit. In th...

  1. Trained and Ready Combat Forces: The Role of Training Devices in Sustaining Combat Force Proficiency During Deployments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, James

    1997-01-01

    ... (MOOTW). The Army's ground combat forces, even while engaged in MOOTW activities, must maintain proficiency to wage war in the event that peacetime engagement, deterrence and conflict prevention fail...

  2. Prevalence estimates of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder: critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lisa K; Frueh, B Christopher; Acierno, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a critical review of prevalence estimates of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel and veterans, and of the relevant factors that may account for the variability of estimates within and across cohorts, including methodological and conceptual factors accounting for differences in prevalence rates across nations, conflicts/wars, and studies. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were examined for literature on combat-related PTSD. The following terms were used independently and in combinations in this search: PTSD, combat, veterans, military, epidemiology, prevalence. The point prevalence of combat-related PTSD in US military veterans since the Vietnam War ranged from approximately 2% to 17%. Studies of recent conflicts suggest that combat-related PTSD afflicts between 4% and 17% of US Iraq War veterans, but only 3-6% of returning UK Iraq War veterans. Thus, the prevalence range is narrower and tends to have a lower ceiling among combat veterans of non-US Western nations. Variability in prevalence is likely due to differences in sampling strategies; measurement strategies; inclusion and measurement of the DSM-IV clinically significant impairment criterion; timing and latency of assessment and potential for recall bias; and combat experiences. Prevalence rates are also likely affected by issues related to PTSD course, chronicity, and comorbidity; symptom overlap with other psychiatric disorders; and sociopolitical and cultural factors that may vary over time and by nation. The disorder represents a significant and costly illness to veterans, their families, and society as a whole. Further carefully conceptualized research, however, is needed to advance our understanding of disorder prevalence, as well as associated information on course, phenomenology, protective factors, treatment, and economic costs.

  3. INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE ON COMBAT SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Combat Sports Special Issue Editorial INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE ON COMBAT SPORT The World heavyweight professional boxing championship is arguable the biggest prize in sport. Why is this the case? It is not just the glamour that is appealing, but also the intriguing appeal of two combatants in a fixed environment. All combat sports share this similarity and in doing so, combat sports become appealing for spectators to watch, provide competitors with their ultimate challenge, and provide sport scientists and medics with a rich environment to apply their work. The role of research and theory driven interventions is key to the credibility of sport science and sports medicine. An intervention and/or treatment must be based on sound reason and the effects should be considered beforehand, both positive and negative. Equally, the nature of combat sport, where the aim is to strike, throw, or grapple with an opponent which can lead to injury, invariably raises questions on whether it is morally acceptable for these activities to be called a sport. Therefore, thorough investigation of the nature of medical issues is needed. The case for banning boxing in inextricably linked to the notion that the aim of the sport is to cause harm to the opponent; if harm was minimized and injury became less of an injury, the case for banning boxing would be weak. Quite clearly there are a plethora of arguments that point to a need for theory driven research in combat sport, and plugging this gap in the literature is an aim of this special issue of the Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. Possibly the most convincing argument for me to get involved in driving this issue stems from experiences in applied work with professional boxers (Hall and Lane, 2001; Lane and Hall, 2003, amateur boxers (Lane, 2002, kickboxers (Lane, et al., 1999 and tae-kwon-do athletes (Chapman et al., 1997 in which a raft of situations and issues were presented that required answers based

  4. Combat Internist: The Internal Medicine Experience in a Combat Hospital in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    massive trans- fusion protocol.6 As such, critical care included frequent monitoring of hemoglobin and coagulation parameters with administration of...ongoing resuscitation. With the rise in nutritional supplement use, it was no sur- prise that they were frequently used in the combat zone. Numerous...recommendations on standard precautions and further care of his vaccine site. Education and Administration There were many opportunities to train and

  5. Personality traits and combat exposure as predictors of psychopathology over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffel, E; Kramer, M D; Arbisi, P A; Erbes, C R; Kaler, M; Polusny, M A

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that personality traits have both direct and indirect effects on the development of psychological symptoms, with indirect effects mediated by stressful or traumatic events. This study models the direct influence of personality traits on residualized changes in internalizing and externalizing symptoms following a stressful and potentially traumatic deployment, as well as the indirect influence of personality on symptom levels mediated by combat exposure. We utilized structural equation modeling with a longitudinal prospective study of 522 US National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq. Analyses were based on self-report measures of personality, combat exposure, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Both pre-deployment Disconstraint and externalizing symptoms predicted combat exposure, which in turn predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. There was a significant indirect effect for pre-deployment externalizing symptoms on post-deployment externalizing via combat exposure (p personality on residualized changes in externalizing symptoms were found. Baseline symptom dimensions had significant direct and indirect effects on post-deployment symptoms. Controlling for both pre-exposure personality and symptoms, combat experiences remained positively related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Implications for diagnostic classification are discussed.

  6. Stigma associated with PTSD: perceptions of treatment seeking combat veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Dinesh; Drummond, Karen L; Blevins, Dean; Curran, Geoffrey; Corrigan, Patrick; Sullivan, Greer

    2013-06-01

    Although stigma associated with serious mental illness, substance abuse disorders, and depression has been studied very little is known about stigma associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This study explored stigma related to PTSD among treatment-seeking Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combat veterans. Sixteen treatment-seeking OEF/OIF veterans with combat-related PTSD participated in focus groups. We used qualitative methods to explore PTSD-related stigma. Common perceived stereotypes of treatment-seeking veterans with PTSD included labels such as "dangerous/violent," or "crazy," and a belief that combat veterans are responsible for having PTSD. Most participants reported avoiding treatment early on to circumvent a label of mental illness. Participants initially reported experiencing some degree of self-stigma; however, following engagement in treatment they predominantly resisted these stereotypes. Although most participants considered combat-related PTSD as less stigmatizing than other mental illnesses, they reported difficulties with reintegration. Such challenges likely stem from both PTSD symptoms and veterans' perceptions of how the public views them. Most reported that fellow combat veterans best understood them. Awareness of public stereotypes impacts help seeking at least early in the course of illness. Peer-based outreach and therapy groups may help veterans engage in treatment early and resist stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Wetting Behavior and Reactivity of Molten Silicon with h-BN Substrate at Ultrahigh Temperatures up to 1750 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowski, Wojciech; Sobczak, Natalia; Nowak, Rafał; Kudyba, Artur; Bruzda, Grzegorz; Polkowska, Adelajda; Homa, Marta; Turalska, Patrycja; Tangstad, Merete; Safarian, Jafar; Moosavi-Khoonsari, Elmira; Datas, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    For a successful implementation of newly proposed silicon-based latent heat thermal energy storage systems, proper ceramic materials that could withstand a contact heating with molten silicon at temperatures much higher than its melting point need to be developed. In this regard, a non-wetting behavior and low reactivity are the main criteria determining the applicability of ceramic as a potential crucible material for long-term ultrahigh temperature contact with molten silicon. In this work, the wetting of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) by molten silicon was examined for the first time at temperatures up to 1750 °C. For this purpose, the sessile drop technique combined with contact heating procedure under static argon was used. The reactivity in Si/h-BN system under proposed conditions was evaluated by SEM/EDS examinations of the solidified couple. It was demonstrated that increase in temperature improves wetting, and consequently, non-wetting-to-wetting transition takes place at around 1650 °C. The contact angle of 90° ± 5° is maintained at temperatures up to 1750 °C. The results of structural characterization supported by a thermodynamic modeling indicate that the wetting behavior of the Si/h-BN couple during heating to and cooling from ultrahigh temperature of 1750 °C is mainly controlled by the substrate dissolution/reprecipitation mechanism.

  8. Joint European contribution to phase 5 of the BN600 hybrid reactor benchmark core analysis (European ERANOS formulaire for fast reactor core analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimpault, G.

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid UOX/MOX fueled core of the BN-600 reactor was endorsed as an international benchmark. BFS-2 critical facility was designed for full size simulation of core and shielding of large fast reactors (up tp 3000 MWe). Wide experimental programme including measurements of criticality, fission rates, rod worths, and SVRE was established. Four BFS-62 critical assemblies have been designed to study changes in BN-600 reactor physics-when moving to a hybrid MOX core. BFS-62-3A assembly is a full scale model of the BN-600 reactor hybrid core. it consists of three regions of UO 2 fuel, axial and radial fertile blankets, MOX fuel added in a ring between MC and OC zones, 120 deg sector of stainless steel reflector included within radial blanket. Joint European contribution to the Phase 5 benchmark analysis was performed by Serco Assurance Winfrith (UK) and CEA Cadarache (France). Analysis was carried out using Version 1.2 of the ERANOS code; and data system for advanced and fast reactor core applications. Nuclear data is based on the JEF2.2 nuclear data evaluation (including sodium). Results for Phase 5 of the BN-600 benchmark have been determined for criticality and SVRE in both diffusion and transport theory. Full details of the results are presented in a paper posted on the IAEA Business Collaborator website nad a brief summary is provided in this paper

  9. İbn Haldun'un mukaddimequot123sinde toplumun yasalarını keşfeden bir düşünce etkinliği olarak tarih

    OpenAIRE

    KARACA, Çağlar

    2011-01-01

    ÖZET Bu çalıĢmada, Ġbn Haldun‟un tarih anlayıĢı ve toplumun yasalarını keĢfeden bir tarih bilimine katkısı incelenmiĢtir. Ġbn Haldun, kendinden sonraki birçok tarih görüĢüne esin kaynağı olmuĢtur. Ancak onun ününün yanında, Mukaddime‟deki fikirlerin ve tarihsel etkinliğin kuramsal bir değerlendirmesi sönük kalmıĢtır. Ġbn Haldun, kurucusu olduğu umran biliminde tarihsel zorunlulukları, toplumun hal ve tavırlarını keĢfetmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Bir Ġslam bilgini olarak, Aristoteles‟ten et...

  10. 2006 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-25

    stressed or worn out beyond economic repair due to combat operations by repairing, rebuilding, or procuring replacement equipment. These...lives Vehicle Hardening Logistics Solutions for the Warfighter • Unique and economical surge capability • Support in coordination with op tempo...Speed, • Diagnostics Indicators – DECU Health Check Indicator, Utility Bus Comm Failure, 1553 Bus Comm Failure; MPU Critical Failure, Cautions and

  11. Improving Relative Combat Power Estimation: The Road to Victory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    was unthinkable before. Napoleon Bonaparte achieved a superior warfighting system compared to his opponents, which resulted in SOF. Napoleon’s...observations about combat power estimation and force empoloyment, remain valid. Napoleon also offered thoughts about combat power and superiority whe he...force. However, Napoleon did not think one- sidedly about the problem. He also said: “The moral is to the physical as three to one.”11 This dual

  12. Transfusion-Associated Microchimerism in Combat Casualties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunne, James R; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Burns, Christopher; Cardo, Lisa J; Curry, Kathleen; Busch, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    ...) in civilian trauma patients receiving allogenic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. We explored the incidence of TA-MC in combat casualties receiving FrWB compared with patients receiving standard stored RBC transfusions. Methods...

  13. Study on combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system based on queuing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Q.; Hao, J. X.; Li, L. J.

    2017-01-01

    Queuing Theory is a method to analyze the combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system. The model of service probability based on the queuing theory was constructed, and applied to analyzing the combat effectiveness of "Sidewinder" and "Tor-M1" air defense missile weapon system. Finally aimed at different targets densities, the combat effectiveness of different combat units of two types' defense missile weapon system is calculated. This method can be used to analyze the usefulness of air defense missile weapon system.

  14. A Quantum Mechanical Analysis of the Electronic Response of BN Nanocluster to Formaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Vahabi, Vahid; Soleymanabadi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: It has been previously demonstrated that the electronic properties of pristine BN nanotubes and graphene-like sheets are not sensitive toward presence of H2CO gas. Here, the adsorption of H2CO on the external surface of B12N12 nano-cage is studied using X3LYP and Minnesota density functional calculations. Three different adsorption behaviors were found including physisorption, chemisorption, and chemical functionalization. Gibbs free energy changes at room temperature and 1 atm pres...

  15. The effect of transition metals on the structure of h-BN intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budak, Erhan; Bozkurt, Cetin

    2004-01-01

    In this study, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) were synthesized by the modified O'Connor method in the presence of various metal nitrates [M(NO 3 ) x , M=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ag]. The composites were analyzed by FTIR, XRF, XRD, and SEM techniques. XRD results indicated a change in the interlayer spacing due to the intercalation of Cr, Mn, Fe and Ag. SEM analyses illustrated the grain growth upon metal intercalation even at a temperature of 1320 K

  16. Regulating and Combating Underground Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    In combating and regulating underground banking, a choice can be made of roughly two models, the risk model and the assimilation model. The risk model comes down to a complete prohibition of underground banking combined with an active investigation and prosecution policy. In the assimilation model,

  17. Detecting and combating malicious email

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Julie JCH

    2014-01-01

    Malicious email is, simply put, email with a malicious purpose. The malicious purpose could be fraud, theft, espionage, or malware injection. The processes by which email execute the malicious activity vary widely, from fully manual (e.g. human-directed) to fully automated. One example of a malicious email is one that contains an attachment which the recipient is directed to open. When the attachment is opened, malicious software is installed on the recipient's computer. Because malicious email can vary so broadly in form and function, automated detection is only marginally helpful. The education of all users to detect potential malicious email is important to containing the threat and limiting the damage. It is increasingly necessary for all email users to understand how to recognize and combat malicious email. Detecting and Combating Malicious Email describes the different types of malicious email, shows how to differentiate malicious email from benign email, and suggest protective strategies for both perso...

  18. Naphthalene degradation and biosurfactant activity by Bacillus cereus 28BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleva, B.; Christova, N. [Inst. of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jordanov, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-08-01

    Biosurfactant activity and naphthalene degradation by a new strain identified as Bacillus cereus 28BN were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of n-alkanes, naphthalene, crude oil and vegetable oils. The biosurfactants were detected by the surface tension lowering of the medium, thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analysis. With (2%) naphthalene as the sole carbon source, high levels of rhamnolipids at a concentration of 2.3 g l{sup -1} were determined in the stationary growth. After 20 d of incubation 72 {+-} 4% of the initial naphthalene was degraded. This is the first report for a Bacillus cereus rhamnolipid producing strain that utilized naphthalene under aerobic conditions. The strain looks promising for application in environmental technologies. (orig.)

  19. Using agility to combat cyber attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kerry

    2017-06-01

    Some incident response practitioners feel that they have been locked in a battle with cyber criminals since the popular adoption of the internet. Initially, organisations made great inroads in preventing and containing cyber attacks. In the last few years, however, cyber criminals have become adept at eluding defence security technologies and rapidly modifying their exploit strategies for financial or political gains. Similar to changes in military combat tactics, cyber criminals utilise distributed attack cells, real-time communications, and rapidly mutating exploits to minimise the potential for detection. Cyber criminals have changed their attack paradigm. This paper describes a new incident response paradigm aimed at combating the new model of cyber attacks with an emphasis on agility to increase the organisation's ability to respond rapidly to these new challenges.

  20. Combat Risk and Pay: Theory and Some Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    1776) theory of compensating differences, and Rosen (1986) devised what has become the standard neoclassical economic theory relating wages to the...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-4774 October 2011 Combat Risk and Pay: Theory and Some Evidence Curtis J. Simon...OCT 2011 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Combat Risk and Pay: Theory and Some Evidence 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  1. Combat Resource Management (11bm) Applied Research Project (ARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    tactiques de combat embarquées, comme partie du processus C2 naval militaire, définit un domaine application qui implique à la fois des décideurs humains ...combat ships defending against incoming threats and where coordination of their respective resources is a complex problem of capital importance...the case of the several frigates defending against incoming threats, multi-agent coordi- nation is a complex problem of capital importance. Better

  2. PG BN 1600 sodium fire protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Urbancik, L.

    1978-12-01

    A design was developed of a fire protection system for steam generator of a 1600 MW sodium cooled fast reactor (BN-1600). Chemical reactions are described of liquid sodium with atmospheric components and solid materials coming into contact with sodium in its release from the steam generator, and in safeguarding protection against sodium fires. The requirements for the purity of nitrogen as an atmosphere inert to liquid sodium are given. Characteristics and basic parameters are shown of level and spray fires, elementary terms are explained concerning the properties of aerosols formed during fires, the methods and means of release signalling and fire alarm are described as are fire precautions using fire-fighting equipment, modifying the support tank and the cell bottom and building sewage pits. The design of the system comprises an alarm system for liquid sodium using point and line electric contact sensors and flame photometer based aerosol sensors as well as a fire-fighting system based on the system of channelling liquid sodium into emergency discharge tanks filled with an inert gas, a set of fire extinguishers and other fire fighting material, and measures for the elimination of sodium fire consequences. (J.B.)

  3. The food and weight combat. A problematic fight for the elite combat sports athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Pipping Ekström, Marianne; Berg, Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Weight reduction in athletes is motivated by optimisation of performance, aesthetic reasons or to achieve a pre-designated weight. Previous research has shown that dietary restraint and short term weight regulation frequently takes place among combat sports athletes such as wrestlers and judokas. The aim of this study was to explore negative experiences related to dietary strategies and weight-making practises used by elite combat sports athletes. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 Swedish national team athletes in wrestling, judo and taekwondo were asked about their dietary intake and their engagement in both long- and short-term weight regulation practises. Content analysis of the transcribed interviews, display a constant struggle regarding nutritional standpoints. Sport demands such as achieving an optimal weight and nutritional intake were considered as central in order for excellent performance. Adhering to these demands was found to be problematic however, primarily because of; (1) negative physiological responses and (2) opposing ideals of a non-sport related nature, such as the importance of the athletes to be healthy and social in their everyday lives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. "Shell Shock": An Entity that Predated Combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragul Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last century, numerous soldiers had been diagnosed with various post combat disorders. The terminology that has been utilized to describe such patients include combat fatigue, combat stress reaction, soldier′s heart, effort syndrome, non-ulcer dyspepsia, effects of agent orange and gulf war syndrome. The initial description of such post combat disorder was probably ′shell shock′ which came into vogue during the World War I. The soldiers, undergoing unyielding artillery bombardment, in the trenches suffered persistent symptoms of headache, behavioural changes and memory impairment, and was designated at the time as ′shell shock′. Myers and Mott, independently studied numerous soldiers to elucidate the features and aetiology of the entity. An attempt was made to restrict the usage of the term, but the psychological distress of the soldiers persisted to be addressed in some manner or the other, culminating in the genesis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

  5. Fuel component of electricity generation cost for the BN-800 reactor with MOX fuel and uranium oxide fuel with increasing of fuel burnup and removing of radial breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskach, A.

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays there are two completed design concepts of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) with the BN-800 type reactors developed with due regard for advanced safety requirements. One of them is the design of the fourth unit of the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant; the other one is the design of three units of the South Ural Nuclear Power Plant. The both concepts are to use mixed oxide fuel (MOX fuel) based on civil plutonium. Studies on any project include economical analyses and cost of fuel is an essential parameter. In the course of the design works on the both projects such evaluations were done. For BN-800 on the Beloyarsk site nuclear fuel costs were taken from actual expenses of the BN-600 reactor and converted to rated thermal power and design capacity factor of the BN-800 and then increased by 20% in connection with turning to MOX fuel. Then this methodology was rewarding, but the ratio of uranium fuel and MOX fuel costs might change for the last years. For the project of three units of the South Ural Nuclear Power Plant nuclear fuel expenses were calculated from the data on a MOX fuel fabrication production facility (Complex-300). However, investigations performed recently shown that the methodology of economical assessments should be revised, as well as design and technology of MOX fuel fabrication at Complex-300 should be revised to meet all the existing safety requirements. Excepting there is a great bulk of civil plutonium to be reproduced, now we came up against the problem to utilize the exceeding ex-weapons plutonium that obviously can be used for MOX fuel fabrication as well. Construction of the MOX fuel fabrication facility - Complex-300 - was started in 1983. Its design output was planned to provide simultaneously 4 fast reactors of the BN-800 type with MOX fuel. By now about 50% of construction works (taking into account auxiliary buildings and arrangements) and 20% of installation works have been done at Complex-300. Along this, first works to construct

  6. Translation and pilot validation of Hindi translation of assessing quality of life in patients with primary brain tumours using EORTC brain module (BN-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budrukkar Ashwini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To translate and validate the European Organisation for Research and Treatment for Cancer (EORTC brain cancer module (BN-20 into Hindi to make it available for patients and scientific community. Methods and Results: The EORTC BN-20 was translated into Hindi using standard guidelines by EORTC. The process included forward translation by two translators, discussion with the translators in case of discrepancies and formation of first intermediate questionnaire. This questionnaire was then given to two more translators who translated this questionnaire back into English. These 2 questionnaires were then compared with the original EORTC questionnaire and the second intermediate questionnaire was formed. The second intermediate questionnaire was subsequently administered in 10 patients with brain tumors who had never seen the questionnaire before, for pilot-testing. Each of these 10 patients after filling up the questionnaire themselves was then interviewed for any difficulty encountered during the filling up of the questionnaire. These were in the form of specific modules including difficulty in answering, confusion while answering and difficulty to understand, whether the questions were upsetting and if patients would have asked the question in any different way. There were major suggestions in three questions, which were incorporated into the second intermediate questionnaire to form the final Hindi BN-20 questionnaire. Conclusion: The final Hindi BN-20 has been approved by EORTC and can be used in clinical practice and studies for patients with brain tumors.

  7. 2001 Industry Studies: Land Combat Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alyaqout, Faisal

    2001-01-01

    .... The days when production lines and factories hummed at peak capacity are gone. Orders for land combat systems have been reduced by nearly two-thirds since 1990, and competition for what few procurement dollars remain is stiff...

  8. The consistency of combat exposure reporting and course of PTSD in Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, K C; Stellman, S D; Dohrenwend, B P; Sommer, J F; Stellman, J M

    2007-02-01

    Self-reports of traumatic events are often used in clinical and epidemiologic studies. Nevertheless, research suggests combat exposure reports may be biased by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, leading to an inflated dose-response relation between combat exposure and PTSD. The authors examined the consistency in combat exposure reports and their relation to PTSD symptoms in Vietnam Veteran American Legionnaires who responded to two mailed surveys (1984, 1998; N = 1,462). Combat exposure reports were highly reliable (test-retest correlation = 0.87). However, changes in exposure reporting were related to changes in PTSD symptoms, specifically reexperiencing symptoms. The effect size of the dose-response relation attributable to changes in reporting was smaller for continuous than categorical measures. Findings are discussed in relation to recent controversies over veterans' combat exposure reports.

  9. Women in Combat: The Medical and Behavioral Health Effects on Women Who Have Served in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    urinary tract infections or bacterial vaginosis while deployed, and with limited medical care available, could lead to long-term reproductive issues......experience (Gaylord 2006). Several studies have been conducted on pregnancy outcomes in female Soldiers who have deployed to combat, such as fertility

  10. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referre...

  11. Stakeholder Analysis of Integrating Women Into Ground Combat Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    number 21 was titled, “ Nike Store, Men’s Clearance Shoes, Clothing and Gear.” If a link to an article or media site did not work, then that data...Brown, K. (2007). Co-ed combat: The new evidence that women shouldn’t fight the nation’s wars. New York: Penguin Group (USA), Inc . Burrelli, David...L. (2013). Deadly consequences: How cowards are pushing women into combat. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, Inc . 110 Maginnis, R. L. (n.d

  12. FELIN: tailored optronics and systems solutions for dismounted combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcent, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    The FELIN French modernization program for dismounted combat provides the Armies with info-centric systems which dramatically enhance the performances of the soldier and the platoon. Sagem now has available a portfolio of various equipments, providing C4I, data and voice digital communication, and enhanced vision for day and night operations, through compact high performance electro-optics. The FELIN system provides the infantryman with a high-tech integrated and modular system which increases significantly their detection, recognition, identification capabilities, their situation awareness and information sharing, and this in any dismounted close combat situation. Among the key technologies used in this system, infrared and intensified vision provide a significant improvement in capability, observation performance and protection of the ground soldiers. This paper presents in detail the developed equipments, with an emphasis on lessons learned from the technical and operational feedback from dismounted close combat field tests.

  13. Use of recombinant factor VIIA for control of combat-related haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Susan I; Dougherty, Amber L; Dye, Judy L; Mohrle, Charlene R; Galarneau, Michael R

    2010-02-01

    Recombinant activated human coagulation factor VII (rFVIIa), an intravascular strategy to promote clotting, is being used as an adjunct to surgical control of bleeding in combat trauma patients. To describe the initial experiences with rFVIIa administered to combat casualties at US Navy-Marine Corps medical treatment facilities in Iraq, and to compare survival outcomes of those treated with rFVIIa to controls not receiving rFVIIa. Medical encounter data from the US Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry were retrospectively reviewed to identify all battle-injured patients documented as having received rFVIIa during the period May 2004 to January 2006 of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Available clinical and injury related data are presented to characterise the patients. To assess effects of rFVIIa on survival outcomes, rFVIIa cases were matched to controls on injury severity and age. 22 battle-injured patients from the Combat Trauma Registry received rFVIIa. Primarily young US Marines, these patients typically had penetrating injuries from improvised explosive devices and gunshot wounds. Injuries were often abdominal. The average dose used was similar to that reported in another study of civilian trauma patients, although dosing varies widely in the existing experimental and anecdotal literature. Over two-thirds (68%) of the rFVIIa patients survived-an identical outcome seen for a matched control group of 22 patients. Survival of seriously injured combat casualties was good, although identical to that of a control group. Methodological limitations of this retrospective study preclude making firm conclusions about the effectiveness of rFVIIa. Future controlled studies are needed for safety and efficacy testing of rFVIIa in combat trauma patients.

  14. Combat Neurosis in the Battered Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Investigates the effect of school violence on classroom teachers. The study of 253 Los Angeles inner city classroom teachers reveals that many of them have developed conditions similar to the combat neurosis found in soldiers at war. (HM)

  15. Cultural and Religious Awareness: The Key to Analyzing and Combating the Relative Combat Power for Islamic-Based Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Muhammad M

    2005-01-01

    ... terrorists. Second, the United States must conduct cultural awareness/cultural intelligence training for all military personnel who are deploying to combat the GWOT, and for all staff in the regional standing...

  16. Is effective mass in combat sports punching above its weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenetsky, Seth; Nates, Roy J; Brughelli, Matt; Harris, Nigel K

    2015-04-01

    The segmental and muscular complexity of the human body can result in challenges when examining the kinetics of impacts. To better understand this complexity, combat sports literature has selected effective mass as a measure of an athlete's inertial contribution to the momentum transfer during the impact of strikes. This measure helps to clarify the analysis of striking kinetics in combat sports. This paper will review: (1) effective mass as a concept and its usage as a measure of impact intensity in combat sports, (2) the neuromuscular pattern known as "double peak muscle activation" which has been theorized to help enhance initial hand velocity upon impact and joint stiffening during impact, (3) the methods and equations used to calculate effective mass, and (4) practitioner recommendations based on the literature. We will argue in this manuscript that the act of punching presents unique challenges to the current understanding of effective mass due to additional force application during impact. This review will improve the understanding of effective mass and its roles in effective striking serving to underpin future research into performance enhancement in striking based combat sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of combating-desertification strategies using the linear assignment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Sadeghravesh, Mohammad; Khosravi, Hassan; Ghasemian, Soudeh

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays desertification, as a global problem, affects many countries in the world, especially developing countries like Iran. With respect to increasing importance of desertification and its complexity, the necessity of attention to the optimal combating-desertification alternatives is essential. Selecting appropriate strategies according to all effective criteria to combat the desertification process can be useful in rehabilitating degraded lands and avoiding degradation in vulnerable fields. This study provides systematic and optimal strategies of combating desertification by use of a group decision-making model. To this end, the preferences of indexes were obtained through using the Delphi model, within the framework of multi-attribute decision making (MADM). Then, priorities of strategies were evaluated by using linear assignment (LA) method. According to the results, the strategies to prevent improper change of land use (A18), development and reclamation of plant cover (A23), and control overcharging of groundwater resources (A31) were identified as the most important strategies for combating desertification in this study area. Therefore, it is suggested that the aforementioned ranking results be considered in projects which control and reduce the effects of desertification and rehabilitate degraded lands.

  18. Effective Protection or Effective Combat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    alternative routes. On the other hand, European border control and its ‘combat against smugglers’ has emerged as a massively lucrative market for the European arms industry, both in terms of contracts to guard the EU’s external borders and in terms of the export of weapons and control systems to North African...

  19. Teaching Combative Sports through Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozub, Francis M.; Kozub, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…

  20. Tuning Electronic Structures of BN and C Double-Wall Hetero-Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueran Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First principle calculations based on density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation were carried out to investigate the energetic and electronic properties of carbon and boron nitride double-wall hetero-nanotubes (C/BN-DWHNTs with different chirality and size, including an armchair (n, n carbon nanotube (CNT enclosed in (m, m boron nitride nanotube (BNNT and a zigzag (n, 0 CNT enclosed in (m, 0 BNNT. The electronic structure of these DWHNTs under a transverse electric field was also investigated. The ability to tune the band gap with changing the intertube distance (di and imposing an external electric field (F of zigzag DWHNTs provides the possibility for future electronic and electrooptic nanodevice applications.

  1. Heavy-heavy and heavy-light quarks interactions generated by QCD vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musakhanov Mirzayusuf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The QCD vacuum is populated by instantons that correspond to the tunneling processes in the vacuum. This mechanism creates the strong vacuum gluon fields. As result, the QCD vacuum instantons induce very strong interactions between light quarks, initially almost massless. Such a strong interactions bring a large dynamical mass M of the light quarks and bound them to produce almost massless pions in accordance with the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry (SBCS. On the other hand, the QCD vacuum instantons also interact with heavy quarks and responsible for the generation of the heavy-heavy and heavy-light quarks interactions, with a traces of the SBCS. If we take the average instanton size ρ¯=0.33$\\bar \\rho = 0.33$ fm, and the average inter-instanton distance R¯=1$\\bar R = 1$ fm we obtain the dynamical light quark mass to be M = 365 MeV and the instanton media contribution to the heavy quark mass ΔM=70 MeV. These factors define the coupling between heavy-light and heavy-heavy quarks induced by the QCD vacuum instantons. We consider first the instanton effects on the heavy-heavy quarks potential, including its spin-dependent part. We also discuss those effects on the masses of the charmonia and their hyperfine mass splittings. At the second part we discuss the interaction between a heavy and light quarks generated by instantons and it’s effects.

  2. ¹¹¹In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab with/without modification with nuclear translocation sequence (NLS) peptides: an Auger electron-emitting radioimmunotherapeutic agent for EGFR-positive and trastuzumab (Herceptin)-resistant breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasih, Aisha; Fonge, Humphrey; Cai, Zhongli; Leyton, Jeffrey V; Tikhomirov, Ilia; Done, Susan J; Reilly, Raymond M

    2012-08-01

    Increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in breast cancer (BC) is often associated with trastuzumab (Herceptin)-resistant forms of the disease and represents an attractive target for novel therapies. Nimotuzumab is a humanized IgG(1) monoclonal antibody that is in clinical trials for treatment of EGFR-overexpressing malignancies. We show here that nimotuzumab derivatized with benzylisothiocyanate diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for labelling with the subcellular range Auger electron-emitter, (111)In and modified with nuclear translocation sequence (NLS) peptides ((111)In-NLS-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab) was bound, internalized and transported to the nucleus of EGFR-positive BC cells. Emission of Auger electrons in close proximity to the nucleus caused multiple DNA double-strand breaks which diminished the clonogenic survival (CS) of MDA-MB-468 cells that have high EGFR density (2.4 × 10(6) receptors/cell) to less than 3 %. (111)In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab without NLS peptide modification was sevenfold less effective for killing MDA-MB-468 cells. (111)In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab with/without NLS peptide modification were equivalently cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 and TrR1 BC cells that have moderate EGFR density (5.4 × 10(5) or 4.2 × 10(5) receptors/cell, respectively) reducing their CS by twofold. MDA-MB-231 cells have intrinsic trastuzumab resistance due to low HER2 density, whereas TrR1 cells have acquired resistance despite HER2 overexpression. Biodistribution and microSPECT/CT imaging revealed that (111)In-NLS-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab exhibited more rapid elimination from the blood and lower tumour uptake than (111)In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab. Tumour uptake of the radioimmunoconjugates in mice with MDA-MB-468 xenografts was high (8-16 % injected dose/g) and was blocked by administration of an excess of unlabelled nimotuzumab, demonstrating EGFR specificity. We conclude that (111)In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab with/without NLS peptide modification are promising Auger

  3. Weight Loss Strategies in Combat Sports and Concerning Habits in Mixed Martial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Oliver R; Chapman, Dale W; Abbiss, Chris R

    2017-12-28

    Combat sports are typically divided into weight classes and body mass manipulation to reach a weight class is commonplace. Previous research suggests that mixed martial arts (MMA) weight loss practices may be more extreme than other combat sports. We sought to investigate the magnitude of weight lost and prevalence of weight loss strategies in different combat sports. Competitors (n=637) from Brazilian jiu jitsu (BJJ), boxing, judo, MMA, muay Thai/kickboxing (MT/K), taekwondo (TKD) and wrestling completed an online questionnaire seeking information regarding their weight loss practices. Body mass manipulation was commonly undertaken by all combat sports athletes, with a particularly high incidence of gradual dieting, increased exercise and fluid restriction. Skipping meals was higher in TKD and wrestling (84%) compared with the other combat sports (~58%), whilst training in heated rooms and forced oral fluid loss (spitting) was higher in wrestling (83% and 47%, respectively) compared with other combat sports (~45% and ~19%, respectively). MMA athletes reported the highest usage of sauna (76%) and water loading (67%) whilst also reporting the second highest use of training in rubber/plastic suits (63%). Body mass manipulation was present in all combat sports with the prevalence and magnitude of acute weight loss greater in MMA. The incidence of and practices reported will assist support staff to be fully aware of the variety of methods these athletes and coaches may use to achieve weight loss. Additionally, the results could aid regulatory bodies in the further development of policies on weight cutting.

  4. A Pilot Project Demonstrating that Combat Medics Can Safely Administer Parenteral Medications in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Steven G; Cunningham, Cord W; Fisher, Andrew D; DeLorenzo, Robert A

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Select units in the military have improved combat medic training by integrating their functions into routine clinical care activities with measurable improvements in battlefield care. This level of integration is currently limited to special operations units. It is unknown if regular Army units and combat medics can emulate these successes. The goal of this project was to determine whether US Army combat medics can be integrated into routine emergency department (ED) clinical care, specifically medication administration. Project Design This was a quality assurance project that monitored training of combat medics to administer parenteral medications and to ensure patient safety. Combat medics were provided training that included direct supervision during medication administration. Once proficiency was demonstrated, combat medics would prepare the medications under direct supervision, followed by indirect supervision during administration. As part of the quality assurance and safety processes, combat medics were required to document all medication administrations, supervising provider, and unexpected adverse events. Additional quality assurance follow-up occurred via complete chart review by the project lead. Data During the project period, the combat medics administered the following medications: ketamine (n=13), morphine (n=8), ketorolac (n=7), fentanyl (n=5), ondansetron (n=4), and other (n=6). No adverse events or patient safety events were reported by the combat medics or discovered during the quality assurance process. In this limited case series, combat medics safely administered parenteral medications under indirect provider supervision. Future research is needed to further develop this training model for both the military and civilian setting. Schauer SG , Cunningham C W, Fisher AD , DeLorenzo RA . A pilot project demonstrating that combat medics can safely administer parenteral medications in the emergency department. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):679-681.

  5. Combat aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  6. Device Performance and Reliability Improvements of AlGaBN/GaN/Si MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0037 Device Performance and Reliablity Improvements of AlGaBN/GaN/Si MOSFET Robert Wallace UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT DALLAS Final...GaN/Si MOSFET 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4069 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert Wallace 5d.  PROJECT...AOARD Grant FA2386-14-1-4069 Device Performance and Reliability Improvements of AlGaN/GaN/Si MOSFET US 12 month extension (2014 – 2015) for current

  7. The role of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in committing violence during combat: A cross-sectional study with former combatants in the DR Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Roos; Hermenau, Katharin; Elbert, Thomas; Moran, James K; Hecker, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    It has been postulated that the violent behavior that characterizes armed conflict is reinforced by the possibility of receiving rewards. The present study examined the potential influence of two types of rewards in an ongoing setting of conflict: extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Former combatants active in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (N = 198) were interviewed and questioned about the way they were recruited, the offenses they committed during combat, their level of perceived intrinsic rewards (i.e., appetitive perception of violence), and the number of received extrinsic rewards during their time in the armed group (e.g., money, extra food, alcohol, or drugs). A moderated multiple regression analysis showed that the number of received extrinsic rewards and the level of intrinsic rewards were significantly positively related to the number of different types of offenses committed. In contrast to our expectations and previous findings, the recruitment type (forced conscription vs. voluntary enlistment) did not moderate this relation. Our findings suggest that both types of rewards play a role in committing violence during combat. We suggest, therefore, that reintegration programs should not only consider the influence of extrinsic rewards, but also need to address the influence of intrinsic rewards to counter violent behavior among former combatants. Aggr. Behav. 43:241-250, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Littoral Combat Ship: Need to Address Fundamental Weaknesses in LCS and Frigate Acquisition Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP Need to Address Fundamental Weaknesses in LCS and Frigate Acquisition Strategies Report to...Office Highlights of GAO-16-356, a report to congressional committees June 2016 LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP Need to Address Fundamental Weaknesses in...capabilities of the LCS—a small surface combatant (SSC) consisting of a ship and reconfigurable mission packages built by two shipyards as different

  9. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudko, David

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is to provide the Navy with an affordable, small, multi-mission ship capable of independent, interdependent, and integrated operations inside the littorals...

  10. Rushing to Failure Impacts of a Gender-Neutral Military on Combat Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    muscular strength and aerobic capacity place women at a distinct disadvantage when performing tasks required for direct ground combat specialties...order to preserve readiness, grow the talented pool of women, and ensure combat effectiveness of the military force. Proponents that advocate for

  11. New approaches to combat Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Evelien; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In nature, bacteria predominantly reside in structured, surface-attached communities embedded in a self-produced, extracellular matrix. These so-called biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many infections, as they are difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to antimicrobials and host defense mechanisms. This review focusses on the biofilm-forming periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Current knowledge on the virulence mechanisms underlying P. gingivalis biofilm formation is presented. In addition, oral infectious diseases in which P. gingivalis plays a key role are described, and an overview of conventional and new therapies for combating P. gingivalis biofilms is given. More insight into this intriguing pathogen might direct the development of better strategies to combat oral infections. PMID:28473880

  12. Towards a theory of ex-combatant reintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Torjesen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper encourages the development of a theoretical framework for the study of the reintegration of ex-combatants after war. It takes the first steps towards this by proposing a new definition of reintegration, where the processes ex-combatants experience, rather than the programmatic support offered by international and national agencies, take centre stage. The article links the study of reintegration to two broader disciplines; political economy and sociology, and in particular to the two disciplines’ account of power and group belonging. It argues that a political economy approach is particularly useful for making sense of the context in which reintegration processes unfold. The article also suggests some relevant research questions and highlights methodological concerns related to research on reintegration.

  13. Planning the annual cycle in groups of cadet combat sports perfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananchenko Konstantin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within a large training cycle in conditions of high general level of stress the authors recommend optimal implementation of planning undulating dynamics of cadets’ combat exercise stress. The article proves the efficiency of one-cycle construction of training highly- qualified single-combat cadets at the stage of maximal realization of sporting possibilities, which includes both features of traditional cycles (preparatory, competitional, transitional and module-sectional composition of training. It scientifically substantiates, that the choice of those or other types of microcycles which present the structure of mesocycles is determined by a few basic factors which must be necessarily taken into account while planning the training process of sportsmen of different qualification. It is suggested to use certain varieties of microcycles in the practice of preparation of single combat cadets. It is substantiated that accounting in planning the annual cycle in groups of sporting perfection of students of the educed types of microcycles for every type of single combats is an actual task of further scientific research.

  14. Excellence in fleet combat replacement squadrons: predicting carrier qualification success

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Martin P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-part analysis of excellence criteria for fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part one focuses on the qualitative issues and management techniques identified in outstanding fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part two develops and presents a regression model for predicting a fleet replacement squadron pilot's carrier qualification grade. The model was derived using standard linear regression techniques and the SPSSx software package of the Naval Postgraduate School. ...

  15. U.S. Navy Bloodhounds: Establishing A New Maritime Security Combatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    economy- car ’ standards, but it would move on Corvette engines: twin HP General Electric LM2500 gas turbine engines.”55 Considered sports cars of...and defense leaders craving something more high tech than inexpensive combat workhorses. Based on this assumption, the Perry class’ high-end...to restructure the LCS program for development of a new small surface combatant.195 This brief identifies that, beginning with FY 2019 construction

  16. Medical capability team: the clinical microsystem for combat healthcare delivery in counterinsurgency operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susz; Van Steenvort, Jon K

    2008-01-01

    Today's operational environment in the support of counterinsurgency operations requires greater tactical and operational flexibility and diverse medical capabilities. The skills and organizations required for full spectrum medical operations are different from those of the past. Combat healthcare demands agility and the capacity for rapid change in clinical systems and processes to better support the counterinsurgency environment. This article proposes the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) develop and implement the medical capability team (MCT) for combat healthcare delivery. It discusses using the concept of the brigade combat team to develop medical capability teams as the unit of effectiveness to transform frontline care; provides a theoretical overview of the MCT as a "clinical microsystem"; discusses MCT leadership, training, and organizational support, and the deployment and employment of the MCT in a counterinsurgency environment. Additionally, this article proposes that the AMEDD initiate the development of an AMEDD Combat Training Center of Excellence to train and validate the MCTs. The complexity of combat healthcare demands an agile and campaign quality AMEDD with joint expeditionary capability in order to promote the best patient outcomes in a counterinsurgency environment.

  17. A New Approach to Weapon-Target Assignment in Cooperative Air Combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-zhe Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to solving weapon-target assignment (WTA problem is proposed in this paper. Firstly, relative superiority that lays the foundation for assignment is calculated based on the combat power energy of the fighters. Based on the relative superiority, WTA problem is formulated. Afterwards, a hybrid algorithm consisting of improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA and improved harmony search (HS is introduced and furthermore applied to solve the assignment formulation. Finally, the proposed approach is validated by eight representative benchmark functions and two concrete cooperative air combat examples. The results show that the approach proposed in this paper achieves good performances in solving WTA problem in cooperative air combat.

  18. Heavy quark effective theory and heavy baryon transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.

    1992-01-01

    The heavy quark effective theory (HQET) is applied to study the weak decay of heavy mesons and heavy baryons and to predict the form factors for heavy to heavy and heavy to light transitions. 28 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Enhancing Brigade Combat Team Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Developing Learning Infrastructures (Training, Education , Practice, Research, Doctrine) -Create a shared vision -Build the business case (assess/Buy...To effectively respond to the characteristics of the operational environment, Brigade Combat Teams must be able to learn constantly from experience...behavior. Organizational adaptive behavior consists of three supporting emergent behaviors which are: self-organization, learning , and organizational

  20. Maturity In The Petrochemical Industry Features, Motives And Combating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; El Messirie, A.

    2004-01-01

    Petrochemicals give the highest value from crude oil and natural gas but suffers from maturity like any other business. Petrochemicals companies are promoting their business in the direction from oil and gas commodities. Specialities and life science. Reasons of maturity are expired patents, low demand, over capacity, intense competition. Actions to combat maturity are to restructure capacity achieving mega sizes, do downstream, and restructuring business practices. Strategies followed by some companies to combat maturity include exit, focus on core business and exploit a competitive advantage

  1. Effect of Parachute Jump in the Psychophysiological Response of Soldiers in Urban Combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Molina, Joaquín; Robles-Pérez, José J; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J

    2017-06-01

    The study of organic and psychological response during combat situations has been poorly reported despite its importance for soldiers training and specific instruction, so it was proposed as aim of the present investigation to analyze the effect of a tactical parachute simulated jump in psycho-physiological response of paratroopers' warfighters during an urban combat simulation. 19 male paratroopers (31.9 ± 6.2 year old; 173.6 ± 5.3 cm; 73.8 ± 8.3 Kg) of the Spanish Army were divided in two groups: parachute jump group (n:11) that conducted a simulated parachute jump and a urban combat maneuver and a non-parachute jump group (n:8) that only conducted an urban combat maneuver. We analyzed before and after the maneuver the rated perceived exertion, legs strength manifestation, blood lactate, cortical activation, heart rate variability, blood oxygen saturation and pressure, skin temperature, fine motor skills, and anxiety state. A tactical parachute simulated jump prior to an urban combat maneuver produce significantly (p jump situation in professional Army paratroopers. Independently of the parachute jump, an urban combat maneuver produces a significant increase in rated perceived exertion, blood lactate, heart rate, legs strength, sympathetic modulation and anxiety response as well as a significant decrease in blood oxygen saturation and parasympathetic modulation.

  2. Suppression of self-heating effect in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by substrate-transfer technology using h-BN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Masanobu; Kumakura, Kazuhide; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Akasaka, Tetsuya; Makimoto, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on h-BN/sapphire substrates and transferred them from the host substrates to copper plates using h-BN as a release layer. In current–voltage characteristics, the saturation drain current decreased by about 30% under a high-bias condition before release by self-heating effect. In contrast, after transfer, the current decrement was as small as 8% owing to improved heat dissipation: the device temperature increased to 50 °C in the as-prepared HEMT, but only by several degrees in the transferred HEMT. An effective way to improve AlGaN/GaN HEMT performance by a suppression of self-heating effect has been demonstrated

  3. Suppression of self-heating effect in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by substrate-transfer technology using h-BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroki, Masanobu, E-mail: hiroki.masanobu@lab.ntt.co.jp; Kumakura, Kazuhide; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Akasaka, Tetsuya; Makimoto, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Hideki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi 243-0198 (Japan)

    2014-11-10

    We fabricated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on h-BN/sapphire substrates and transferred them from the host substrates to copper plates using h-BN as a release layer. In current–voltage characteristics, the saturation drain current decreased by about 30% under a high-bias condition before release by self-heating effect. In contrast, after transfer, the current decrement was as small as 8% owing to improved heat dissipation: the device temperature increased to 50 °C in the as-prepared HEMT, but only by several degrees in the transferred HEMT. An effective way to improve AlGaN/GaN HEMT performance by a suppression of self-heating effect has been demonstrated.

  4. Project VALOR: Trajectories of Change in PTSD in Combat-Exposed Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), military sexual trauma (MST), suicide, combat-exposed veterans, PTSD ...develop the first longitudinal registry of combat-exposed men and women with post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), 1649 participants from across the...Keane, T. M. (2012). Project VALOR: Design and methods of a longitudinal registry of post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) in

  5. Assured communications and combat resiliency: the relationship between effective national communications and combat efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Nutaro, James; Saffold, Jay

    2009-05-01

    Combat resiliency is the ability of a commander to prosecute, control, and consolidate his/her's sphere of influence in adverse and changing conditions. To support this, an infrastructure must exist that allows the commander to view the world in varying degrees of granularity with sufficient levels of detail to permit confidence estimates to be levied against decisions and course of actions. An infrastructure such as this will include the ability to effectively communicate context and relevance within and across the battle space. To achieve this will require careful thought, planning, and understanding of a network and its capacity limitations in post-event command and control. Relevance and impact on any existing infrastructure must be fully understood prior to deployment to exploit the system's full capacity and capabilities. In this view, the combat communication network is considered an integral part of or National communication network and infrastructure. This paper will describe an analytical tool set developed at ORNL and RNI incorporating complexity theory, advanced communications modeling, simulation, and visualization technologies that could be used as a pre-planning tool or post event reasoning application to support response and containment.

  6. EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0220 TITLE: EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mark Henkemeyer...as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Ad 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...neuronal and has functions in vascular endothelial cells. 6. We have also carried out computational analysis of potantial docking/binding of chemical

  7. Mechanical response of cross-ply Si3N4/BN fibrous monoliths under uniaxial and biaxial loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Cruse, T. A.; Hermanson, D. J.; Goretta, K. C.; Zok, F. W.; McNulty, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical properties of hot-pressed Si 3 N 4 /BN fibrous monoliths (FMs) were evaluated under ambient conditions in four-point and biaxial flexure modes. Effects of cell orientation, 0degree/90degree and ±45degree, on elastic modulus and fracture strength of the FMs were investigated. Fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy

  8. MEDICIÓN DE LA IRA EN EL DEPORTE DE COMBATE: VALIDACIÓN DEL STAXI-2 EN DEPORTISTAS MEXICANOS/ MEASUREMENT OF ANGER IN COMBAT SPORT:VALIDATION OF STAXI-2 IN MEXICAN SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazira Calleja Bello**

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa ira es una emoción que juega un papel fundamental en la ejecución de los deportes de combate. El propósito delpresente estudio fue desarrollar una versión para deportistas de combate del Inventario de Expresión de la Ira Estado-Rasgo, STAXI-2, versión española. La muestra estuvo conformada por 303 deportistas que formaban parte de las seleccionesnacionales mexicanas de cinco deportes de combate. Los resultados mostraron una estructura factorial similar a la versiónespañola, que reporta tres escalas: Ira-Estado, Ira-Rasgo y Expresión de Ira; sin embargo, de los 49 reactivos iniciales sólose conservaron 28, que se agruparon en siete factores y no en las nueve subescalas que conformaban el instrumento original.Los índices de consistencia interna fueron aceptables y se obtuvieron correlaciones significativas entre los factores, exceptocon el Control de la ira. El inventario obtenido es un instrumento válido y confiable para su utilización en la medición de laira en el deporte de combate.ABSTRACTThe anger is an emotion that plays a fundamental role in combat sports execution. The purpose of the present study wasto develop a version for combat sportsmen of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, STAXI-2, Spanish version. Thesample was conformed by 303 sportsmen that were part of the selections national Mexicans of five combat sports. Theresults showed a similar factorial structure to the Spanish version which reports three scales: Anger-State, Anger-Trait andAnger-Expression; however, of the 49 initial items only 28 were conserved that grouped in seven factors and not in the ninesubscales that consisted the original instrument. The indexes of internal consistency were acceptable and significantcorrelations were obtained among the factors, except with the Anger-Control. The obtained inventory is a reliable and validfor its use in anger mensuration in combat sports.

  9. Critical concerns in Iraq/Afghanistan war veteran-forensic interface: combat-related postdeployment criminal violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas; McGuire, James; Smee, Daniel E; Dow, Daniel; Woehl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Identifying whether there is a nexus between Iraq and Afghanistan combat injuries and civilian violence on return from deployment is complicated by differences in reactions of individuals to combat exposure, the overlapping effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the low base rate of civilian violence after combat exposure. Moreover, the overall prevalence of violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan combat war veterans has not been well documented. Malingered symptoms and either exaggeration or outright fabrication of war zone exposure are challenges to rendering forensic opinions, with the risk reduced by accessing military documents that corroborate war zone duties and exposure. This article serves as a first step toward understanding what may potentiate violence among returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. We offer a systematic approach toward the purpose of forensic case formulation that addresses whether combat duty/war zone exposure and associated clinical conditions are linked to criminal violence on return to civilian life.

  10. Wafer-scale controlled exfoliation of metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown InGaN/GaN multi quantum well structures using low-tack two-dimensional layered h-BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayari, Taha; Li, Xin; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah, E-mail: aougazza@georgiatech-metz.fr [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Georgia Tech Lorraine, UMI 2958, Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef [Georgia Tech Lorraine, UMI 2958, Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Salvestrini, Jean Paul [Georgia Tech Lorraine, UMI 2958, Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France)

    2016-04-25

    Recent advances in epitaxial growth have led to the growth of III-nitride devices on 2D layered h-BN. This advance has the potential for wafer-scale transfer to arbitrary substrates, which could improve the thermal management and would allow III-N devices to be used more flexibly in a broader range of applications. We report wafer scale exfoliation of a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown InGaN/GaN Multi Quantum Well (MQW) structure from a 5 nm thick h-BN layer that was grown on a 2-inch sapphire substrate. The weak van der Waals bonds between h-BN atomic layers break easily, allowing the MQW structure to be mechanically lifted off from the sapphire substrate using a commercial adhesive tape. This results in the surface roughness of only 1.14 nm on the separated surface. Structural characterizations performed before and after the lift-off confirm the conservation of structural properties after lift-off. Cathodoluminescence at 454 nm was present before lift-off and 458 nm was present after. Electroluminescence near 450 nm from the lifted-off structure has also been observed. These results show that the high crystalline quality ultrathin h-BN serves as an effective sacrificial layer—it maintains performance, while also reducing the GaN buffer thickness and temperature ramps as compared to a conventional two-step growth method. These results support the use of h-BN as a low-tack sacrificial underlying layer for GaN-based device structures and demonstrate the feasibility of large area lift-off and transfer to any template, which is important for industrial scale production.

  11. Defense Acquisitions: 2009 Review of Future Combat System Is Critical to Program's Direction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francis, Paul L

    2008-01-01

    The Future Combat System (FCS) program which comprises 14 integrated weapon systems and an advanced information network is the centerpiece of the Army's effort to transition to a lighter, more agile, and more capable combat force...

  12. Indirect Relations Between Transgressive Acts and General Combat Exposure and Moral Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankfurt, Sheila B; Frazier, Patricia; Engdahl, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Moral injury describes the deleterious effects of acts of commission (e.g., killing noncombatants), omission (e.g., failing to prevent a massacre), or betrayal (i.e., by a trusted authority figure) during military service that transgress accepted behavioral boundaries and norms. Transgressive acts are proposed to lead to a guilt- and shame-based syndrome consisting of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, demoralization, self-handicapping, and self-injury. In this study, we tested a frequently cited model of moral injury and assessed the associations between potentially transgressive acts, moral injury outcomes, and guilt and fear. Additionally, we sought to clarify the relative contribution of transgressive and nontransgressive/general combat exposure to moral injury. On the basis of previous research and theory, we anticipated that the transgressive acts would be related to outcomes through guilt and that nontransgressive combat exposure would be related to outcomes through fear. Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a sample of combat-exposed male veterans at a Midwestern Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center (N = 190) who participated in a larger parent study on postdeployment readjustment. Structural equation modeling was used to test the pathways from transgressive and nontransgressive combat exposure to PTSD symptoms and suicidality through combat-related guilt and combat-related fear. The institutional review boards of the Midwestern VA medical center and the university of the affiliated researchers approved the study. In total, 38% (n = 72) of the sample reported a potentially transgressive act as one of their three worst traumatic events. The most common potentially transgressive act was killing an enemy combatant (17%; n = 32). In structural equation modeling analyses. potentially transgressive acts were indirectly related to both suicidality (β = 0.09, p < 0.01) and PTSD symptoms (β = 0.06, p < 0.05) through guilt. General combat

  13. Women in Combat Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    support area • Location of unit TOC or HQ • Location of actual combat operations • No basis to answer this question 4. Given the U.S. Army’s current...welfare issue. I recall that part of General Order #1 was no sexual relations when deployed. Obviously, soldiers discovering pregnancy in the middle of...and had discussion about sexual relations and the 60 effect on unit cohesion, pregnancy testing, and affairs of the heart; whether appropriate or

  14. Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2) Defense Acquisition...Secretary of Defense PB - President’s Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD - To Be...Date Assigned: Program Information Program Name Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2) DoD Component Army Responsible

  15. Combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.L.; Grama, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) is the national authority, which is contact point for illicit trafficking and coordinates all measures and activities to combat and prevent illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources. Legal framework regarding illicit trafficking has been improved due to new Physical Protection Regulations, Regulations on using the DBT, Regulations on requirements for qualification of guards and physical protection personnel, Design Basis Threat for each nuclear facility to avoid the unauthorized removal or theft of nuclear material or radioactive sources. New amendments of the Law for the safe deployment of nuclear activities, Law no. 111/1996, republished, in respect of illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources are in the process to be approved by the Parliament. CNCAN is member of the Romanian Non-proliferation Group that is an interdepartmental mechanism of cooperation entered into force in August 1999. During the sessions of this group there are discussions focused on the preventing and combating illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources. CNCAN is member of the Interministerial Council that controls import and export with strategic products including nuclear material, non nuclear material and equipment pertinent for proliferation of nuclear weapons. An Emergency Mobile Unit has been created in 2001 that contains instruments (gamma dose rate instruments portable and personal, contaminometers, mini MCA with CdZnTe detector, a CANBERRA Inspector with Nal, CdZnTe and HPGe detectors and 2 FiedSPEC, a mobile laboratory, 2 cars and individual equipment). CNCAN is cooperating with the Police through a National Plan to verify the authorization holders in order to prevent and combat illicit trafficking, and to find the orphan sources. CNCAN is the beneficiary of the PECO Project initiated by the European Commission in cooperation with the IAEA and

  16. External Qi therapy to treat symptoms of Agent Orange Sequelae in Korean combat veterans of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Woo, Won-Hong; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Hong, Sung-Soo; Kim, Hye-Jung; Moon, Sun-Rock

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of Qi therapy as a non-pharmacological treatment for various symptoms presented by Korean combat veterans of the Vietnam War with Agent Orange Sequelae. Nine subjects volunteered to receive 30 minutes of Qi therapy, twice per day for 7 days. There was marked improvement in 89% of the patients with impaired physical activity, 86% of those with psychological disorder, 78% of those with heavy drug use, and 67% of those with fatigue, indigestion and high blood glucose levels. This data suggests that Qi therapy combined with conventional treatment has positive effects in reducing and managing the pain, psychosomatic disorders, and substance abuse in patients with Agent Orange Sequelae. We cannot completely discount the possible influence of the placebo effect, and more objective, clinical measures are needed to study the long-term effects of Qi therapy.

  17. Integrated Assessment of Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, S.; Orr, B. J.; Vallejo, R.

    2009-12-01

    Recent advances in desertification and land degradation research have provided valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks, degradation indicators, assessment tools and surveillance systems with respect to desertification drivers, processes, and impacts. These findings, together with stakeholders’ perceptions and local/regional knowledge, have helped to define and propose measures and strategies to combat land degradation. However, integrated and comprehensive assessment and evaluation of prevention and restoration strategies and techniques to combat desertification is still lacking, and knowledge on the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the proposed strategies over a wide range of environmental and socio-economic conditions is very scarce. To address this challenge, we have launched a multinational project (PRACTICE - Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification. An Integrated Assessment), funded by the European Commission, in order to link S & T advances and traditional knowledge on prevention and restoration practices to combat desertification with sound implementation, learning and adaptive management, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of best practices. The key activities for pursuing this goal are (1) to establish a platform and information system of long-term monitoring sites for assessing sustainable management and actions to combat desertification, (2) to define an integrated protocol for the assessment of these actions, and (3) to link project assessment and evaluation with training and education, adaptive management, and knowledge sharing and dissemination through a participatory approach involving scientists, managers, technicians, financial officers, and members of the public who are/were impacted by the desertification control projects. Monitoring sites are distributed in the Mediterranean Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal), Africa (Morocco, Namibia, South Africa), Middle East (Israel), China, and South and North

  18. Innovative contracting strategies for combating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The state of Maryland has made a strong commitment to combating climate change and reducing : greenhouse gas emissions. This research investigated the state of practice of innovative contracting : solutions to reduce emissions from highway constructi...

  19. Neutronic safety parameters of the BN-600 type reactor with hybrid core. Diffusion and transport approach. R-Z homogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherny, V.; Danilytchev, A.; Korobeinikov, V.; Korobeinikova, L.; Stogov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper includes the results of neutronic safety calculations of the BN-600 hybrid core benchmark problem. Results presented include: multiplication factors, Doppler coefficients, fuel and structure density coefficients, expansion coefficients, power distribution, beta-effective values, reaction rate distributions

  20. Code HEX-Z-DMG for support of accounting for and control of nuclear material software system as part of international safeguards system at BN-350 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushmakin, A.G.; Schaefer, B.

    1999-01-01

    A code for the computation of the global neutron distribution in the three-dimensional hexagonal-z geometry and multi-group diffusion approximation was developed at BN-350 as the main part of the BN-350 accounting for and control of nuclear material software system. This software system includes: the model for stationary distributions of neutrons; the model to calculate isotope compositions changing; the model of refueling operations; To develop this system next two principal problems were solved: to make a micro cross sections library for all nuclides for the BN-350 reactor core; to develop the code for the computation of the global neutron distribution. To solve first task the twenty-six-energy-groups micro cross sections library for more than seventy nuclides was produced. To solve second task the three-dimensional hexagonal-z geometry and multi-group diffusion approximation code was developed. This code (HEX-Z-DMG) was based on the solution of the multi groups diffusion equation using the standard net approach. The series of calculations was performed in the twenty-six-energy-groups representation using this code. We compared eigenvalues (k eff ), a worth added during refueling operations, spatial and energy-group-dependent neutron flux distributions with results of calculation using other code (DIF3D). After the series of these calculations we can say that the HEX-Z-DMG code is well established to use as the part of the BN-350 accounting for and control of nuclear material software system. (author)

  1. The Aftermath of Combat-Related PTSD: Toward an Understanding of Transgenerational Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearrow, Melissa; Cosgrove, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The number of military personnel who are involved in combat situations continues to increase. As a result, researchers have identified risk factors associated with the development of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors of this article review some of the characteristics of military personnel involved in these conflicts,…

  2. Interference of WEB 2086 and BN 52021 with Paf-induced effects on guinea-pig trachea.

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelleschi, S.; Renzi, D.; Ledda, F.; Giotti, A.; Fantozzi, R.; Brink, C.; Benveniste, J.

    1989-01-01

    1. The thienotriazolodiazepine WEB 2086 and the gingkolide BN52021 have been evaluated as antagonists of Paf-acether (Paf) by studying their effects on Paf-induced relaxation and Paf-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in histamine-contracted guinea-pig tracheal preparations. 2. Relaxation induced by Paf 4 microM in histamine-contracted guinea-pig tracheal preparations was 39.67 +/- 3.5% (n = 30). At the same concentration, Paf significantly increased PGE2 production from histamine-con...

  3. Effectiveness of battlefield-ethics training during combat deployment: a programme assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Christopher H; Appenzeller, George N; Mobbs, Angela; Parker, Jessica R; Warner, Carolynn M; Grieger, Thomas; Hoge, Charles W

    2011-09-03

    Breakdowns in the ethical conduct of soldiers towards non-combatants on the battlefield are of grave concern in war. Evidence-based training approaches to prevent unethical conduct are scarce. We assessed the effectiveness of battlefield-ethics training and factors associated with unethical battlefield conduct. The training package, based on movie vignettes and leader-led discussions, was administered 7 to 8 months into a 15-month high-intensity combat deployment in Iraq, between Dec 11, 2007, and Jan 30, 2008. Soldiers from an infantry brigade combat team (total population about 3500) were randomly selected, on the basis of company and the last four digits of each soldier's social security number, and invited to complete an anonymous survey 3 months after completion of the training. Reports of unethical behaviour and attitudes in this sample were compared with a randomly selected pre-training sample from the same brigade. The response patterns for ethical behaviour and reporting of ethical violations were analysed with chi-square analyses. We developed two logistic regression models using self-reported unethical behaviours as dependent variables. Factors associated with unethical conduct, including combat experiences and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), were assessed with validated scales. Of 500 randomly selected soldiers 421 agreed to participate in the anonymous post-training survey. A total of 397 soldiers of the same brigade completed the pre-training survey. Training was associated with significantly lower rates of unethical conduct of soldiers and greater willingness to report and address misconduct than in those before training. For example, reports of unnecessary damage or destruction of private property decreased from 13·6% (54 of 397; 95% CI 10·2-17·0) before training to 5·0% (21 of 421; 2·9-7·1) after training (percent difference -63·2%; pethics training positively influenced soldiers' understanding of how to interact with and treat non-combatants

  4. Weight Management Practices of Australian Olympic Combat Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Reid; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2017-09-05

    Combat sport athletes undertake chronic and rapid weight loss (RWL) practices to qualify for weight divisions lower than their training weight. Variation between sports in the prevalence, methods, and magnitude of weight loss as well as recovery practices may be influenced by factors including competition level and culture. Differences in methodologies of previous research in combat sports make direct comparisons difficult, thus this study aimed to examine weight loss practices among all Olympic combat sports in Australia, using standardised methodology. High calibre competitors in wrestling, boxing, judo and taekwondo (n=260) at Australian competitions were surveyed using a validated tool which provides quantification of how extreme an athlete's weight loss practices are; the RWL score (RWLS). Additional qualitative and quantitative survey data were also collected. Neither sport, sex or weight division group had an effect on RWLS however a significant effect of athlete calibre was detected [F (2,215) = 4.953, MSE = 4.757, p = 0.00792]. Differences between sports were also evident for: most weight ever lost in order to compete [H = 19.92, p = 0.0002), age at which weight cutting began (H = 16.34, p = 0.001) and selected methods/patterns of RWL (p < 0.001). Weight cycling between competitions was common among all sports as were influences on athlete's behaviours. While many similarities in weight loss practices and experiences exist between combat sports, specific differences were evident. Nuanced, context/culturally specific guidelines should be devised to assist fighters' in optimising performance while minimising health implications.

  5. Scintillating screens study for LEIR/LHC heavy ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, C; Lefèvre, T; Scrivens, R; Taborelli, M

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed on different machines that scintillating ceramic screens (like chromium doped alumina) are quickly damaged by low energy ion beams. These particles are completely stopped on the surface of the screens, inducing both a high local temperature increase and the electrical charging of the material. A study has been initiated to understand the limiting factors and the damage mechanisms. Several materials, ZrO2, BN and Al2O3, have been tested at CERN on LINAC3 with 4.2MeV/u lead ions. Alumina (Al2O3) is used as the reference material as it is extensively used in beam imaging systems. Boron nitride (BN) has better thermal properties than Alumina and Zirconium oxide (ZrO2). BN has in fact the advantage of increasing its electrical conductivity when heated. This contribution presents the results of the beam tests, including the post-mortem analysis of the screens and the outlook for further measurements. The strategy for the choice of the screens for the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), currently under ...

  6. Transition metal atoms absorbed on MoS2/h-BN heterostructure: stable geometries, band structures and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanbing; Huang, Zongyu; Liu, Huating; He, Chaoyu; Xue, Lin; Qi, Xiang; Zhong, Jianxin

    2018-06-15

    We have studied the stable geometries, band structures and magnetic properties of transition-metal (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) atoms absorbed on MoS2/h-BN heterostructure systems by first-principles calculations. By comparing the adsorption energies, we find that the adsorbed transition metal (TM) atoms prefer to stay on the top of Mo atoms. The results of the band structure without spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interaction indicate that the Cr-absorbed systems behave in a similar manner to metals, and the Co-absorbed system exhibits a half-metallic state. We also deduce that the V-, Mn-, Fe-absorbed systems are semiconductors with 100% spin polarization at the HOMO level. The Ni-absorbed system is a nonmagnetic semiconductor. In contrast, the Co-absorbed system exhibits metallic state, and the bandgap of V-absorbed system decreases slightly according to the SOC calculations. In addition, the magnetic moments of all the six TM atoms absorbed on the MoS2/h-BN heterostructure systems decrease when compared with those of their free-standing states.

  7. Unusual occurrences during the whole operation of BN-250 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andropenkov, S.

    2000-01-01

    Unusual occurrences during the whole operation BN-350 NPP. 1. Oil ingress in high pressure receiver for the not reveled reason, 12.05.1994. 2. lncrease of water radioactivity of circulating water supply system due to heat exchanger leak of spent fuel assembly washing out system, 17.09.1993. 3. Lack of passableness of sodium drain header of primary circuit reveled during inspection on scheduled preventative maintenance, 28.11.1996. 4. Destruction of the blow-off line of MCP-6 due to corrosion damage of the pipeline while unit was being operated at rated power, 23.04.1993. 5. Lack of passableness of blow-down pipeline connecting reactor gas cover with gas-type pressurizer while unit was being operated at rated power, 17.11.1994. 6. Sodium ingress in blow-down pipeline of loop-5 intermediate heat exchanger while loop-5 was being fed of sodium during scheduled preventative maintenance, 27.06.1994. 7. Resistance deterioration of electro heating zones of loop-4 due to heat exchanger leak and water ingress in air-pipeline of primary circuit boxes recirculating air system, 02.05.1997. 8. Resistance deterioration of electro heating zones of sodium drain header of secondary circuit was sopped in the water for the extinguishing the fire of blowing ventilation oil-strainer, 23.12.1994. 9. Sodium ingress in gas-type pressurizer through pipeline of primary sodium cleanup system and blow-down pipeline of failed MCP-2 while primary sodium cleanup system was being connected to the primary circuit, 17.08.1976. As a rule, the main reactor systems are scrutinized more carefully than the auxiliary reactor systems and the order actions are existed for eliminating and mitigating of consequences of main reactor system fails. Therefore the auxiliary reactor system fails may impact on the main reactor systems through places of its contact in significant measure. The influence of auxiliary reactor system fails on main reactor systems and its possible consequences for behavior of the main

  8. A Simple Probabilistic Combat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. This page intentionally left blank. ABSTRACT The Lanchester ...page intentionally left blank. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No.Abstract iii List of Illustrations vii 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. DETERMINISTIC LANCHESTER MODEL...This page intentionally left blank. 1. INTRODUCTION The Lanchester combat model1 is a simple way to assess the effects of quantity and quality

  9. Characterizing Center of Mass and Moment of Inertia of Soldiers' Loads Packed for Combat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hasselquist, Leif; Bensel, Carolyn K; Norton, Karen; Piscitelle, Louis; Schiffman, Jeffrey M

    2004-01-01

    ...) location and moment of inertia (MOI) may be influenced in combat load packing. In addition, the physical properties of the combat loads were compared to the properties of a laboratory fabricated backpack...

  10. Quick Maintenance for High Voltage Equipment with the New Not Toxic Boron Nitride Powder (BN100) Superior Thermal Conductive and Lightweight Filler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boer, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    .... The BN100 superior thermal conductive and lightweight filler technology is a new filler technology, that not only lets Users a full access for maintenance because cure-free being compounded by loose...

  11. Strategic Misstep: ’Immortal’ Robotic Warfare, Inviting Combat to Suburban America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    locations of those combatants.59 Predator “ Porn ” – Immoral, or Just “Freaking Cool” Air Force RPA combatant operators and those around them will likely...accessed February 4, 2010). Predator “feeds” have been renamed in military circles to Predator “ porn ”. For reference see Mockenhaupt, “We’ve Seen the

  12. Contributions of Women to U.S. Combat Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burnes, Thresa

    2008-01-01

    .... combat operations from the Revolutionary War to present-day conflicts. The U.S. military continues to fight a transnational, dispersed enemy that employs irregular tactics and asymmetric warfare...

  13. Combat veterans and the death penalty: a forensic neuropsychiatric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortzel, Hal S; Arciniegas, David B

    2010-01-01

    With our nation's present conflicts, a new generation of veterans are returning home, many of whom have substantial psychopathology and are encountering significant barriers in accessing care. Headlines from around the nation reflect that some of these wounded warriors go on to commit offenses that are potentially punishable by death. Existing circumstances speak to the urgency with which the subject of combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), or both facing capital crimes ought to be addressed. This publicity has led to a recent call for a legislatively or judicially enacted, narrow, categorical exclusion for combat veterans who were affected by either PTSD or TBI at the time of their capital offenses. In the present article, we illustrate the reality that combat veterans who commit capital offenses may face execution, summarize legal arguments offered in favor of a categorical exclusion, and provide a neuropsychiatric perspective on PTSD, TBI, and aggression, to help inform further dialogue on this weighty subject.

  14. Systems Engineering Approach To Ground Combat Vehicle Survivability In Urban Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    GROUND COMBAT VEHICLE SURVIVABILITY IN URBAN OPERATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Luhai Wong 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...distance of 100m in the model , which is reasonable due to the constrained nature of an urban environment. This thesis also uses the key parameters...ENGINEERING APPROACH TO GROUND COMBAT VEHICLE SURVIVABILITY IN URBAN OPERATIONS by Luhai Wong September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Christopher A

  15. Rebelle De Fatou Keita Ou le Combat Feminin Contre la Patriarchie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le combat féministe est un sujet d'actualité dans une Afrique toujours gouvernée par des systèmes phallocentriques qui emprisonnent la femme ou l'enterrent dans la misère. L'écriture, parmi d'autres moyens, est une arme par excellence utilisée dans le combat contre le système patriarcal. L'écrivaine féministe s'en sert ...

  16. Injuries associated with combat sports, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries.

  17. Comparison of fuel cycles characteristics for nuclear energy systems based on WWER-TOI and BN-1200 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagramanyan, V.S.; Kalashnikov, A.G.; Kapranova, Eh.N.; Puzakov, A.Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Authors determine the characteristics of the fuel cycle (FC) based on stationary nuclear power system based on WWER-TOI and BN-1200 reactors with fuel of different composition. Characteristics of reactor systems with partial or complete spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and recycling of plutonium are compared to those of the reference system consisting only of WWER-TOI with uranium oxide fuel, operating in an open FC [ru

  18. Object-Oriented Modular Architecture for Ground Combat Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luqi; Berzins, V; Shing, M; Saluto, M; Williams, J

    2000-01-01

    .... It describes the effective use of computer-aided prototyping techniques for re-engineering the legacy software to develop an object-oriented modular architecture for the Janus combat simulation system. Janus...

  19. Networked sensors for the combat forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klager, Gene

    2004-11-01

    Real-time and detailed information is critical to the success of ground combat forces. Current manned reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) capabilities are not sufficient to cover battlefield intelligence gaps, provide Beyond-Line-of-Sight (BLOS) targeting, and the ambush avoidance information necessary for combat forces operating in hostile situations, complex terrain, and conducting military operations in urban terrain. This paper describes a current US Army program developing advanced networked unmanned/unattended sensor systems to survey these gaps and provide the Commander with real-time, pertinent information. Networked Sensors for the Combat Forces plans to develop and demonstrate a new generation of low cost distributed unmanned sensor systems organic to the RSTA Element. Networked unmanned sensors will provide remote monitoring of gaps, will increase a unit"s area of coverage, and will provide the commander organic assets to complete his Battlefield Situational Awareness (BSA) picture for direct and indirect fire weapons, early warning, and threat avoidance. Current efforts include developing sensor packages for unmanned ground vehicles, small unmanned aerial vehicles, and unattended ground sensors using advanced sensor technologies. These sensors will be integrated with robust networked communications and Battle Command tools for mission planning, intelligence "reachback", and sensor data management. The network architecture design is based on a model that identifies a three-part modular design: 1) standardized sensor message protocols, 2) Sensor Data Management, and 3) Service Oriented Architecture. This simple model provides maximum flexibility for data exchange, information management and distribution. Products include: Sensor suites optimized for unmanned platforms, stationary and mobile versions of the Sensor Data Management Center, Battle Command planning tools, networked communications, and sensor management software. Details

  20. Virtual Individual Combatant Trainer for Embedded Rehearsal (VICTER)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barham, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Report developed under SBIR contract. Reality by Design, Inc. (RBD) presents its Phase 2 Plus results of developing a modular, man-in-the-loop, embedded simulation system for Individual Combatant (IC...

  1. Combat exposure severity as a moderator of genetic and environmental liability to post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, E J; Mitchell, K S; Koenen, K C; Miller, M W

    2014-05-01

    Twin studies of veterans and adults suggest that approximately 30-46% of the variance in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is attributable to genetic factors. The remaining variance is attributable to the non-shared environment, which, by definition, includes combat exposure. This study used a gene by measured environment twin design to determine whether the effects of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the etiology of PTSD are dependent on the level of combat exposure. The sample was drawn from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry (VETR) and included 620 male-male twin pairs who served in the US Military in South East Asia during the Vietnam War era. Analyses were based on data from a clinical diagnostic interview of lifetime PTSD symptoms and a self-report measure of combat exposure. Biometric modeling revealed that the effects of genetic and non-shared environment factors on PTSD varied as a function of level of combat exposure such that the association between these factors and PTSD was stronger at higher levels of combat exposure. Combat exposure may act as a catalyst that augments the impact of hereditary and environmental contributions to PTSD. Individuals with the greatest exposure to combat trauma were at increased risk for PTSD as a function of both genetic and environmental factors. Additional work is needed to determine the biological and environmental mechanisms driving these associations.

  2. Neural indicators of interpersonal anger as cause and consequence of combat training stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilam, G; Lin, T; Fruchter, E; Hendler, T

    2017-07-01

    Angry outbursts are an important feature of various stress-related disorders, and commonly lead to aggression towards other people. Findings regarding interpersonal anger have linked the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to anger regulation and the locus coeruleus (LC) to aggression. Both regions were previously associated with traumatic and chronic stress symptoms, yet it is unclear if their functionality represents a consequence of, or possibly also a cause for, stress symptoms. Here we investigated the relationship between the neural trajectory of these indicators of anger and the development and manifestation of stress symptoms. A total of 46 males (29 soldiers, 17 civilians) participated in a prospective functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in which they played a modified interpersonal anger-provoking Ultimatum Game (UG) at two-points. Soldiers were tested at the beginning and end of combat training, while civilians were tested at the beginning and end of civil service. We assumed that combat training would induce chronic stress and result in increased stress symptoms. Soldiers showed an increase in stress symptoms following combat training while civilians showed no such change following civil service. All participants were angered by the modified UG irrespective of time point. Higher post-combat training stress symptoms were associated with lower pre-combat training vmPFC activation and with higher activation increase in the LC between pre- and post-combat training. Results suggest that during anger-provoking social interactions, flawed vmPFC functionality may serve as a causal risk factor for the development of stress symptoms, and heightened reactivity of the LC possibly reflects a consequence of stress-inducing combat training. These findings provide potential neural targets for therapeutic intervention and inoculation for stress-related psychopathological manifestations of anger.

  3. Regenerative medicine applications in combat casualty care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mark E; Bharmal, Husain; Valerio, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe regenerative medicine applications in the management of complex injuries sustained by service members injured in support of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Improvements in body armor, resuscitative techniques and faster transport have translated into increased patient survivability and more complex wounds. Combat-related blast injuries have resulted in multiple extremity injuries, significant tissue loss and amputations. Due to the limited availability and morbidity associated with autologous tissue donor sites, the introduction of regenerative medicine has been critical in managing war extremity injuries with composite massive tissue loss. Through case reports and clinical images, this report reviews the application of regenerative medicine modalities employed to manage combat-related injuries. It illustrates that the novel use of hybrid reconstructions combining traditional and regenerative medicine approaches are an effective tool in managing wounds. Lessons learned can be adapted to civilian care.

  4. Advanced protection technology for ground combat vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Timothy G

    2012-01-01

    Just as highway drivers use radar detectors to attempt to stay ahead of police armed with the latest radar technology, the Armed Forces are locked in a spiral to protect combat vehicles and their crews against the latest threats in both the contemporary operating environment and the anticipated operating environment (ie, beyond 2020). In response to bigger, heavier, or better-protected vehicles, adversaries build and deploy larger explosive devices or bombs. However, making improvements to combat vehicles is much more expensive than deploying larger explosives. In addition, demand is increasing for lighter-weight vehicles capable of rapid deployment. Together, these two facts give the threat a clear advantage in the future. To protect vehicles and crews, technologies focusing on detection and hit avoidance, denial of penetration, and crew survivability must be combined synergistically to provide the best chance of survival on the modern battlefield.

  5. [Psychiatric, Cognitive and Emotional Profile in Ex-combatants of Illegal Armed Groups in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón, Carlos; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel Camilo; Velilla, Lina; Duque, Jon; Ramos, Claudia Patricia; Pineda, David

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to armed conflict produces biological adaptations oriented to handle the highly stressful conditions in war environments. The special features of The Colombian armed create a special scenario to evaluate the human behavior. In this study, psychiatric, cognitive and emotional processing characteristics of a group of Colombian armed illegal forces of ex-combatants are described. Sixty-three ex combatants and 22 controls were assessed with WAIS (IQ), INECO frontal screening (executive functions), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (empathy), emotional features recognition and MINI (psychiatric profile). When compared to the control group, ex-combatants showed higher frequency of antisocial personality disorder (P=.031) and behavioral dissocial disorder (P=.017). In cognitive profile, the ex-combatants showed a lower score in the executive function test (Me=18.50; RQ=4.00), control (Me=23.00; RQ=5.25), with a poor personal distress in emphatic profile (Me=10.00; RQ=5.00) compared to control group (Me=37.00; RQ=7.25). We found differences in cognitive and psychiatric profile in ex-combatants in comparison with controls. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. THE HARMONISATION OF LEGISLATION ON COMBATTING TAX EVASION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA IANCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Combating tax evasion is part of the Lisbon Strategy. Tax fraud created a significant distortion in the functioning of the internal market and prevented fair competition.In its resolution of 2th of September 2008 on a coordinated strategy to improve the fight against fiscal fraud (2008/2033 (INI the European Parliament stressed that the Member States cannot combat cross-border fraud in isolation and called on the Commission to propose mechanisms to promote cooperation between Member States.This paper aims to analyse the main mechanisms to combat the tax evasion at the European level and, also, the changes that our country had to make in the field of legislation in order to achieve the EU standard on the fight against tax evasion.

  7. Worldwide actions to combat abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports several developments on the global efforts to combat abuse and violence against women and children. It is noted that in South Africa, Belem, Brazil, and Lesotho, protest actions were conducted against women and child abuse. Although the protests were made separately, the protests generally called for implementation of initiatives from the government to address the issue of child and women abuse. In the context of preventing abusive behaviors, a study by the University of Cape Town in South Africa on the appropriateness and feasibility of short-term community-based group therapy concluded that such an approach might be effective in treating delinquent behavior. In Indonesia, the Rifka Annisa Women's Crisis Centre is working to combat violence against women by providing services to victims; while in Israel, a media campaign is aiming to increase awareness and support for women's help centers. In addition, the government of Bangladesh has established a Cell Against Violence Against Women that provides legal counseling and assistance for civil and criminal cases related to violence against women. Furthermore, the WHO and the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have collaborated to conduct a joint workshop to explore how violence against women can be eliminated.

  8. Cross section measurement for the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) three-body reaction at 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 MeV. II. Experimental setup and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhimin; Bai, Huaiyong; Zhang, Luyu; Jiang, Haoyu; Lu, Yi; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Guohui; Gledenov, Yu. M.; Sedysheva, M. V.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.

    2017-10-01

    Cross sections of the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) three-body reaction were measured at En=4.0 , 4.5, and 5.0 MeV using a twin gridded ionization chamber and a thin-film 10B sample. The present paper is the second part of the work. A digital data-acquisition system was developed for the gridded ionization chamber based on the waveform digitizer. A thin-film 10B sample was designed and prepared. The number of 10B atoms in the sample was determined by the relative method using the thermal neutron induced 10B(nt h,α )7Li and 6Li(nt h,t )4He reactions with a 6LiF sample as the reference. The measurement of the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) reaction was performed at the 4.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of Peking University. In the measurement, the double-coincidence technique was used, which involves the forward-backward and the grid-anode coincidence. In the data processing, the effective event area in the forward two-dimensional spectrum and the time window in the drift-time spectrum were employed to reject the background events. Cross sections of the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) and 10B(n ,α )7Li reactions were obtained. The present results are compared with the data of existing measurements and evaluations.

  9. Heavy baryon transitions and the heavy quark effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy baryon decays are studied in the context of the Bethe-Salpeter approach to the heavy quark effective theory. A drastic reduction, in the number of independent form factors, is found. Results are presented both for heavy to heavy and heavy to light baryon decays. (orig.)

  10. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  11. Heavy Chain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of heavy chain produced: Alpha Gamma Mu Alpha Heavy Chain Disease Alpha heavy chain disease (IgA heavy ... the disease or lead to a remission. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease Gamma heavy chain disease (IgG heavy ...

  12. Predictive Methods for Dense Polymer Networks: Combating Bias with Bio-Based Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    Combating bias with bio - based structures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew J. Guenthner...unlimited. PA Clearance 16152 Integrity  Service  Excellence Predictive methods for dense polymer networks: Combating bias with bio -based...Architectural Bias • Comparison of Petroleum-Based and Bio -Based Chemical Architectures • Continuing Research on Structure-Property Relationships using

  13. Guilt is more strongly associated with suicidal ideation among military personnel with direct combat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie; Morrow, Chad E; Etienne, Neysa

    2013-05-15

    Suicide rates in the U.S. military have been rising rapidly in the past decade. Research suggests guilt is a significant predictor of suicidal ideation among military personnel, and may be especially pronounced among those who have been exposure to combat-related traumas. The current study explored the interactive effect of direct combat exposure and guilt on suicidal ideation in a clinical sample of military personnel. Ninety-seven active duty U.S. Air Force personnel receiving outpatient mental health treatment at two military clinics completed self-report symptom measures of guilt, depression, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation. Generalized multiple regression analyses indicated a significant interaction of guilt and direct combat exposure (B=.124, SE=.053, p=.020), suggesting a stronger relationship of guilt with suicidal ideation among participants who had direct combat exposure as compared to those who had not. The interactions of direct combat exposure with depression (B=.004, SE=.040, p=.926), PTSD symptoms (B=.016, SE=.018, p=.382), perceived burdensomeness (B=.159, SE=.152, p=.300) and hopelessness (B=.069, SE=.036, p=.057) were nonsignificant. Although guilt is associated with more severe suicidal ideation in general among military personnel, it is especially pronounced among those who have had direct combat exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estratégias utilizadas no combate a resistência bacteriana Recent achievements to combat bacterial resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Pozza Silveira; Faruk Nome; José Carlos Gesser; Marcus Mandolesi Sá; Hernán Terenzi

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview on the recent achievements to combat Gram-positive bacteria and the mechanisms related to antimicrobial activity and bacterial resistance. Selected synthetic methodologies to access structurally diverse bioactive compounds are presented in order to emphasize the most important substances currently developed to overcome multiresistant strains. The main properties of vancomycin and related glycopeptide antibiotics are also discussed as a background to understan...

  15. New Equipping Strategies for Combat Support Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Combat and Doctrine Development and COL Timothy Lamb , supported by MAJ Gary Cooper, included members of our team in visits to Sierra Army Depot and...aspect of improving materiel stew - ardship is improving the quality of data related to the procurement, maintenance, and upgrading of equipment

  16. On shelterbelt design for combating sand invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammed, A.E.; Stigter, C.J.; Adam, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    After a review of the scarce literature on using trees against sand encroachment, a quantitative experiment with a wide shelterbelt to combat sand invasion is reported on. Experimental work was carried out at the northwestern border of the Gezira Scheme (Sudan), an area of severe land degradation

  17. A novel ionic liquid-tolerant Fusarium oxysporum BN secreting ionic liquid-stable cellulase: consolidated bioprocessing of pretreated lignocellulose containing residual ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaxing; Wang, Xinfeng; Hu, Lei; Xia, Jun; Wu, Zhen; Xu, Ning; Dai, Benlin; Wu, Bin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, microbial communities from chemicals polluted microhabitats were cultured with the addition of imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) to enrich for IL-tolerant microbes. A strain of Fusarium oxysporum BN producing cellulase from these enrichments was capable of growing in 10% (w/v) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium phosphinate, much higher than the normal IL concentrations in the lignocellulose regenerated from ILs. Cellulase secreted by the strain showed high resistance to ILs based on phosphate and sulfate radicals, evidencing of a high conformational stability in relevant media. Gratifyingly, F. oxysporum BN can directly convert IL-pretreated rice straw to bioethanol via consolidated bioprocessing (I-CBP). At optimum fermentation condition, a maximum ethanol yield of 0.125 g ethanol g(-1) of rice straw was finally obtained, corresponding to 64.2% of the theoretical yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heavy leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.H.L.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility that a new lepton may exist is discussed under the headings; theoretical reasons for the introduction of heavy leptons, classification of heavy leptons (ortho and paraleptons), discrimination between different types of lepton, decays of charged heavy leptons, production of charged heavy leptons (in e + e - storage rings, neutrino production, photoproduction, and hadroproduction), neutral heavy leptons, and hadroleptons. (U.K.)

  19. Unintended Relevance: The Role of the Stryker Brigade Combat Team in the Decisive Action Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    its_time_to_create_a_megacities_combat_unit_110717.html. 47 Steve Krippel and Chris Ricci, “The Stryker Brigade Combat Team: America’s Early Entry Force,” Infantry, July...vehicles to transport the large amounts of equipment to do their job , which is to fight dismounted in complex terrain. Light infantry is necessary...2015_National_Military_Strategy.pdf. Krippel, Steve , and Chris Ricci. “The Stryker Brigade Combat Team: America’s Early Entry Force.” Infantry, July-September 2014

  20. Analytical and Experimental Study for Validation of the Device to Confine BN Reactor Melted Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozhkin, S.; Osipov, S.; Sobolev, V.; Shepelev, S.; Kozhaev, A.; Mavrin, M.; Ryabov, A.

    2013-01-01

    To validate the design and confirm the design characteristics of the special retaining device (core catcher) used for protection of BN reactor vessel in the case of a severe beyond-design basis accident with core melting, computational and experimental studies were carried out. The Tray test facility that uses water as coolant was developed and fabricated by OKBM; experimental studies were performed. To verify the methodical approach used for the computational study, experimental results obtained in the Tray test facility were compared with numerical simulation results obtained by the STAR-CCM+ CFD code

  1. High-pressure lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties of zinc-blende BN from first-principles calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huanyou; Xu Hui; Wang Xianchun; Jiang Chunzhi

    2009-01-01

    The density function perturbation theory (DFPT) is employed to study the lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties (with quasiharmonic approximation) of zinc-blende BN. First we discuss the structural properties and compare the phonon spectrum with available Raman scattering experiments. Thereafter using the calculated phonon dispersions we obtain the PTV equation of state from the free energy. Our results for the above properties are generally speaking in good agreement with experiments and with similar theoretical calculations. Owing to the anharmonic effect at high temperature, the calculated linear thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) are low to experimental data.

  2. Decolorization and detoxification of Synozol red HF-6BN azo dye, by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Ilyas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation the fungi, Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were employed for decolorization of Synazol red HF-6BN. Decolorization study showed that Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were able to decolorize 88% and 96% Synazol red 6BN, respectively, in 24 days. It was also studied that 86% and 90% Synazol red containing of dye effluent was decolorized by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. after 28 days of incubation at room temperature. A fungal-based protein with relative molecular mass of 70 kDa was partially purified and examined for enzymatic characteristics. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at temperature ranging from 40-50[degree sign]C and at pH=6.0. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of metal cations. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that these fungal strains are capable to degrade Synazol red dye into metabolites. No zones of inhibition on agar plates and growth of Vigna radiata in the presence of dye extracted sample, indicated that the fungal degraded dye metabolites are nontoxic to beneficial micro-flora and plant growth. Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. have promising potential in color removal from textile wastewater-containing azo dyes.

  3. Roles of scholars in the practice of combating-desertification: a case study in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua; Lan, Zhiyong; Wu, Jianguo

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the perceived importance of scholars' participation in combating-desertification programs in northwest China and analyzed the underlying factors and mechanisms. Our results show that, while various experts, professors, and researchers have participated in combating-desertification programs, their actions were often not effective. Only those scholars who understood the local situations adequately had important and positive impacts. These scholars served as information brokers between the governments and other stakeholders, entrepreneurial activity organizers for farmers, governmental representatives, or advocators for local affairs themselves. They played indispensible roles in facilitating efforts in combating desertification. The study also identified key factors that led to the success of scholars' participation in combating-desertification activities. Our findings have practical implications for improving the effectiveness of scholars' participation in land restoration and environmental management.

  4. Training Strategies to Mitigate Expectancy-Induced Response Bias in Combat Identification: A Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Andrews, Dee H.

    2008-04-15

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situational awareness, emotions, and lack of training. This paper discusses what and how improvements in combat identification (CID) may be achieved through training. In addition to skill-based training, CID training must focus on countering the negative effects of expectancy in the face of heightened anxiety and stressors of continuous operations that lead to combat errors or fratricide. The paper examines possible approaches to training for overcoming erroneous expectancies and emotional factors that may distort or limit accurate "blue force" identification.

  5. Training Strategies to Mitigate Expectancy-Induced Response Bias in Combat Identification: A Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Andrews, Dee H.

    2009-12-01

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situational awareness, emotions, and lack of training. This paper discusses what and how improvements in combat identification (CID) may be achieved through training. In addition to skill-based training, CID training must focus on countering the negative effects of expectancy in the face of heightened anxiety and stressors of continuous operations that lead to combat errors or fratricide. The paper examines possible approaches to training for overcoming erroneous expectancies and emotional factors that may distort or limit accurate "blue force" identification.

  6. Marksmanship Requirements from the Perspective of Combat Veterans - Volume 2: Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    M. McInroy who provided input to the questionnaire and insured that the Army’s Centers of Excellence were aware of the importance of their students ...combat gear Qualify with weapon in combat gear Hit targets at night using aiming lights & night vision goggles Hit targets at night with thermal ...conditions, the junior and some of the senior enlisted were not comfortable under these conditions making it unsatisfactory. 10 Engineer. Different

  7. Glasgow Coma Scores, Early Opioids, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Combat Amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    extracted from in- theater patient encounter forms by Expeditionary Medical En- counter Database trauma nurses . GCS scores of 3 to 12 in- dicate moderate to...that may negatively impact hemodynamics (Fox et al., 1995). Combat-trauma anes- thesiologists are advised to minimize these side effects when managing...the most seriously injured and/or hemodynamically unstable patients. The present findings are consistent with this principle of combat casualty care by

  8. Heavy Flavor Physics in Heavy-Ion Collisions with STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yifei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Heavy quarks are a unique tool to probe the strongly interacting matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. Due to their large mass, energetic heavy quarks are predicted to lose less energy than light quarks by gluon radiation when they traverse a Quark-Gluon Plasma. In contrast, recent measurements of non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays at high transverse momentum (p T ) show a jet quenching level similar to that of the light hadrons. Heavy quark are produced mainly at early stage in heavy-ion collisions, thus they are proposed to probe the QCD medium and to be sensitive to bulk medium properties. Ultimately, their flow behavior may help establish whether light quarks thermalize. But due to the absence of the measurement of B-mesons and precise measurement of D-mesons, it is difficult to separate bottom and charm contributions experimentally in current non-photonic electron measurements for both spectra and elliptic flow v 2 . Therefore, topological reconstruction of D-mesons and identification of electrons from charm and bottom decays are crucial to understand the heavy flavor production and their in medium properties. The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a micro-vertex detector utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precise measurement of charmed and bottom hadrons. We present a study on the open charm nuclear modification factor, elliptic flow v 2 and λ c measurement as well as the measurement of bottom mesons via a semi-leptonic decay. (author)

  9. Conforming and nonconforming personality and stress coping styles in combat athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernacka Ryszarda Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the personality dimension of conformism/nonconformism was a predictor of stress coping styles in athletes training combat sports, and to present the characteristics of this personality dimension in the context of the competitors’ adaptive/innovative sport performance. Scores of 346 males practising combat sports such as kick boxing, MMA, thai boxing, boxing and wrestling were analyzed. The participants completed the Creative Behaviour Questionnaire (KANH III measuring the conformity/nonconformity personality dimension and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS measuring stress coping styles. The comparative analyses were conducted only for the groups of conformists and nonconformists. Differences in stress coping styles between conformists and nonconformists training combat sports were found as nonconformists tended to prefer the task-oriented coping style. Conclusively, a higher rate of nonconformity was associated with increasingly frequent occurrence of task-oriented coping and decreasingly frequent emotion-oriented coping.

  10. Combatives for Alienated Youth: Problems and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellison, Don

    Combative activities (boxing, wrestling, kung fu, etc.) are seen as having a positive influence on alienated inner city youth. Potential contributions of such activities in a school curriculum or recreation program include involvement, security, self-concept, and self-realization. Participants may be able to free themselves from such stereotype…

  11. Processing and characterization of laser sintered hybrid B4C/cBN reinforced Ti-based metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankit; Hussain, Manowar; Misra, Saurav; Das, Alok Kumar; Mandal, Amitava

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a boron carbide (B4C) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) reinforced Ti6Al4V metal matrix composites (MMC's) by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique using the continuous wave (CW) SPI fiber laser and to check the feasibility of the formation of three dimensional objects by this process. For this study, the process parameters like laser power density (3.528-5.172 W/cm2 (×104), scanning speed (3500-4500 mm/min), composition of the reinforced materials B4C (5-25% by volume) and cBN (3% by volume) were taken as input variables and hatching gap (0.2 mm), spot diameter (0.4 mm), layer thickness (0.4 mm) were taken as constant. It was analyzed that surface characteristic, density and the mechanical properties of sintered samples were greatly influenced by varying the input process parameters. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) were performed for microstructural analysis, elemental analysis, and recognition of intermetallic compounds respectively. Mechanical properties like micro-hardness & wear rate were examined by Vickers micro-hardness tester & pin on disc arrangement respectively. From hardness tests, it was observed that hardness property of the sintered specimens was increased as compared to the parent material. The XRD results show that there is a good affinity between Ti6Al4V-B4C-cBN to produce various intermetallic compounds which themselves enhance the mechanical properties of the samples. From FESEM analysis, we can conclude that there is a uniform distribution of reinforcements in the titanium alloy matrix. Furthermore, the coefficient of friction (COF) was characterized by the irregular pattern and it tends to decrease with an increase in the volume % of reinforcement. The results obtained in this work may be useful in preparing the MMC's with improved mechanical properties and overall characteristics.

  12. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc.), site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc.), dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion), causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and χ(2), ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%), aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years), had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma), dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion), and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%), 55 (45.1%), 53 (44.2%), and 8 (6.7%) cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7%) were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7%) was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%). Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather than amateur athletes. In this study

  13. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirani Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc., site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc., dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion, causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and c2 , ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Results: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%, aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years, had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma, dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion, and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%, 55 (45.1%, 53 (44.2%, and 8 (6.7% cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7% were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7% was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%. Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather

  14. Disruption of bradycardia associated with discriminative conditioning in combat veterans with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P Ginsberg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Jay P Ginsberg1,2, Edwin Ayers3, Louisa Burriss1, Donald A Powell1,41Shirley L. Buchanan Neuroscience Laboratory, Dorn VA Medical Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Neuroscience, School of Medicine, 4Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, South Carolina State University, Orangeburg, SC, USAAbstract: The effects of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on heart rate (HR responding associated with a discriminative delay eyeblink (EB conditioning paradigm are reported. Combat PTSD+, Combat PTSD−, and Noncombat PTSD− veterans were assessed with psychometric self-report measures, and baseline heart rate variability (HRV was measured before receiving a 72-trial session of discriminative EB classical conditioning. Two types (red or green light of conditioned stimuli (CS were used: one (CS+ predicted a tone, followed immediately by an aversive stimulus (corneal airpuff; the other (CS− predicted a tone alone, not followed by the airpuff. The light signal was presented for 5 seconds, during which HR was measured. On all psychometric measures, the PTSD+ subgroup was significantly different from the PTSD− subgroups (Combat + Noncombat, and the PTSD− subgroups did not significantly differ from each other. A linear deceleration in HR to CS+ and CS− signals was found in the combined PTSD− subgroup and on CS− trials in the PTSD+ subgroup, but was not present on CS+ trials in the PTSD+ subgroup. Results are interpreted with respect to a behavioral stages model of conditioned bradycardia and in terms of neural substrates which are both critical to HR conditioning and known to be abnormal in PTSD.Keywords: bradycardia, PTSD, combat veterans, classical conditioning

  15. Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Somali ex-combatants: A validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockstroh Brigitte

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Somalia, a large number of active and former combatants are affected by psychological problems such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. This disorder impairs their ability to re-integrate into civilian life. However, many screening instruments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder used in post-conflict settings have limited validity. Here we report on development and validation of a screening tool for PTSD in Somali language with a sample of ex-combatants. Methods We adapted the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS to reflect linguistic and cultural differences within the Somali community so that local interviewers could be trained to administer the scale. For validation purposes, a randomly selected group of 135 Somali ex-combatants was screened by trained local interviewers; 64 of them were then re-assessed by trained clinical psychologists using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Results The screening instrument showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .86, convergent validity with the CIDI (sensitivity = .90; specificity = .90 as well as concurrent validity: positive cases showed higher SRQ-20 scores, higher prevalence of psychotic symptoms, and higher levels of intake of the local stimulant drug khat. Compared to a single cut-off score, the multi-criteria scoring, in keeping with the DSM-IV, produced more diagnostic specificity. Conclusion The results provide evidence that our screening instrument is a reliable and valid method to detect PTSD among Somali ex-combatants. A future Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Program in Somalia is recommended to screen for PTSD in order to identify ex-combatants with special psycho-social needs.

  16. Role of Occupational Therapy in Combating Human Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen W; Hatkevich, Beth Ann

    Human trafficking is a modern-day form of slavery that includes sex trafficking, labor trafficking, and trafficking of children. It is estimated that 35.8 million people are enslaved around the world. Because of the traumatic experiences that victims of human trafficking encounter, the needs of victims are extensive and require the services of several providers, including health care providers, for victims to transform into survivors and thrivers. Currently, the role of occupational therapy is minimal and unexplored. The profession of occupational therapy has the capacity of having a profound role in both providing client-centered care services to victims and survivors of human trafficking and partaking in preventive advocacy efforts to combat human trafficking. Further advocacy efforts are required to promote the profession of occupational therapy in combating human trafficking. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  17. Candid Voices - Agile Combat Support From the OC-ALC Engine Shop Viewpoint. Volume XXII, Number 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larvick, Jon

    1998-01-01

    .... This article will take the Agile Combat Support initiative -the focus of combat support shifts from maintaining massive inventories to establishing a response capability-as the goal and will focus...

  18. Combating Corruption Relates Money Laundering Activities in Indonesia: a Hope and Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Handoyo, Sigit

    2008-01-01

    Corruption in Indonesia has become a culture and systemic so that it could not be eradicated in the short period of time. As corruption is closely related to money laundering activities, it is not impossible that combating corruption also means combating money laun-dering activities. PPATK (Pusat Pengkajian dan Analisis Transaksi Keuangan) as the Indone-sia's FIU (Financial Intelligence Unit) has hard works to reveal those money laundering and corruptions activities. Beside its obstacles, PPA...

  19. PTSD, combat injury, and headache in Veterans Returning from Iraq/Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afari, Niloofar; Harder, Laura H; Madra, Naju J; Heppner, Pia S; Moeller-Bertram, Tobias; King, Clay; Baker, Dewleen G

    2009-10-01

    To examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder, combat injury, and headache in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom veterans at the VA San Diego Healthcare System. Previous investigations suggest that a relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and primary headache disorders exists and could be complicated by the contribution of physical injury, especially one that results in loss of consciousness. These associations have not been systematically examined in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom veterans. In this observational cross-sectional study, a battery of self-report, standardized questionnaires was completed by 308 newly registered veterans between March and October 2006. The Davidson Trauma Scale was used to determine the degree of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and combat-related physical injury was assessed by self-report. The presence of headache was based on a symptom checklist measure and self-reported doctor diagnoses. Logistic regression analysis was performed to predict presence of headache and determine odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with demographic, military, in-theatre, and mental health characteristics. About 40% of the veterans met the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder; 40% self-reported current headache, 10% reported a physician diagnosis of migraine, 12% a physician diagnosis of tension-type headache, and 6% reported both types of headache. Results from the logistic regression model indicated that combat-related physical injury (odds ratio: 2.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.17-4.33) and posttraumatic stress disorder (odds ratio: 4.13; 95% confidence interval: 2.44-6.99) were independent predictors of self-reported headache. Additional analyses found that veterans with both tension and migraine headache had higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (chi-square [d.f. = 3] = 15.89; P = .001) whereas veterans with migraine headache alone had

  20. A Theory of Combative Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Yuxin Chen; Yogesh V. Joshi; Jagmohan S. Raju; Z. John Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In mature markets with competing firms, a common role for advertising is to shift consumer preferences towards the advertiser in a tug-of-war, with no effect on category demand. In this paper, we analyze the effect of such “combative” advertising on market power. We show that, depending on the nature of consumer response, combative advertising can reduce price competition to benefit competing firms. However, it can also lead to a procompetitive outcome where individual firms advertise to incr...