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  1. Analisis Efisiensi Baitul Maal Wat Tamwil Dengan Pendekatan Two Stage Data Envelopment Analysis (Studi Kasus Kantor Cabang BMT MMU Dan BMT UGT Sidogiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahbubi Ali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur tingkat efisiensi Baitul Maal Wat Tamwil (BMT dengan mengambil studi kasus BMT MMU dan BMT UGT Sidogiri Pasuruan tingkat cabang dengan total sampel 50 cabang. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Two Stage DEA. Tahap pertama mengukur tingkat efisiensi BMT MMU dan BMT UGT dengan menggunakan DEA. Tahap kedua menguji faktor-faktor internal dan eksternal, yang mempengaruhi tingkat efisiensi BMT MMU dan BMT UGT dengan menggunakan pendekatan Tobit. Hasil penghitungan DEA menunjukkan, efisiensi overall technical BMT MMU (0,84 dan BMT UGT (0,88 pada tahun 2008 masih kurang optimal. Penyebab utama inefisiensi untuk BMT MMU adalah penyaluran pembiayaan, sementara sumber utama inefisiensi BMT UGT adalah penghimpunan dana pihak ketiga yang kurang maksimal. Hasil pengolahan Tobit menunjukkan bahwa kekuatan modal dan ukuran BMT memiliki pengaruh positif secara signifikan terhadap efisiensi overall technical pada dua BMT. Sementara dari sisi eksternal, PDRB perkapita memiliki pengaruh negatif secara signifikan. Adapun pertumbuhan pengangguran, tingkat pendidikan, dan komitmen keberagamaan tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan.JEL Classification : G21, R15Keywords : Efisiensi, BMT, Two Stage DEA

  2. Lagrangian formulation of classical BMT-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupasov-Maksimov, Andrey; Deriglazov, Alexei; Guzman, Walberto

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The most popular classical theory of electron has been formulated by Bargmann, Michel and Telegdi (BMT) in 1959. The BMT equations give classical relativistic description of a charged particle with spin and anomalous magnetic momentum moving in homogeneous electro-magnetic field. This allows to study spin dynamics of polarized beams in uniform fields. In particular, first experimental measurements of muon anomalous magnetic momentum were done using changing of helicity predicted by BMT equations. Surprisingly enough, a systematic formulation and the analysis of the BMT theory are absent in literature. In the present work we particularly fill this gap by deducing Lagrangian formulation (variational problem) for BMT equations. Various equivalent forms of Lagrangian will be discussed in details. An advantage of the obtained classical model is that the Lagrangian action describes a relativistic spinning particle without Grassmann variables, for both free and interacting cases. This implies also the possibility of canonical quantization. In the interacting case, an arbitrary electromagnetic background may be considered, which generalizes the BMT theory formulated to the case of homogeneous fields. The classical model has two local symmetries, which gives an interesting example of constrained classical dynamics. It is surprising, that the case of vanishing anomalous part of the magnetic momentum is naturally highlighted in our construction. (author)

  3. Manajemen Risiko Pembiayaan Murabahah di BMT Amanah Ummah

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    Endro Wibowo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine and analyze the process of murabahah financing risk management. Murabahah financing still dominates financing composition in sharia financial institutions, including BMT. BMT considers that murabahah financing process has a small risk so BMT expend more financing to this type. The composition of murabahah financing that is still very large in BMT and the existence of muamalah rules which states that "profit is in return from the readiness to bear losses" causing murabahah financing risk management process since prospective members or members of BMT proposed financing until the repayment of financing installments interesting to investigate. This research uses qualitative approach. Primary data comes from interviews with administrators and managers of BMT, participatory observation, and focus group discussions (FGD as well as documents related to murabahah financing. Secondary data comes from books, journals, magazines, newspapers, and documents or reports of research activities ever undertaken related to financing in BMT Amanah Ummah. This study concludes that: (1 BMT Amanah Ummah has not conducted risk management process properly because it has not documented risk management process. (2 Risks that are the main focus in murabahah financing in BMT Amanah Ummah are financing risks, namely the risk of failure of prospective members or members of financing in fulfilling the obligation to pay the installment of financing. (3 BMT Amanah Ummah has not applied sharia principles because the transaction contains riba jahiliyyah.

  4. Optimizing provider recruitment for influenza surveillance networks.

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    Samuel V Scarpino

    Full Text Available The increasingly complex and rapid transmission dynamics of many infectious diseases necessitates the use of new, more advanced methods for surveillance, early detection, and decision-making. Here, we demonstrate that a new method for optimizing surveillance networks can improve the quality of epidemiological information produced by typical provider-based networks. Using past surveillance and Internet search data, it determines the precise locations where providers should be enrolled. When applied to redesigning the provider-based, influenza-like-illness surveillance network (ILINet for the state of Texas, the method identifies networks that are expected to significantly outperform the existing network with far fewer providers. This optimized network avoids informational redundancies and is thereby more effective than networks designed by conventional methods and a recently published algorithm based on maximizing population coverage. We show further that Google Flu Trends data, when incorporated into a network as a virtual provider, can enhance but not replace traditional surveillance methods.

  5. Strategi Menyiasati Perubahan Bisnis: Kasus BMT Al-Ittihad

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    Nofrizal Nofrizal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to formulate and select BMT Al- Ittihad Rumbai strategy to face the changing of business environment both from internal environment such as organization resources, finance, member and external business such as competitor, economy, politics and others. This research method used Analysis of EFAS, IFAS, IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix, SPACE Matrix and TWOS Matrix. our hope from this research it can assist BMT Al-Ittihad in formulating and selecting strategies for the sustainability of BMT Al-Ittihad in the future. The sample in this research is manager and leader of BMT Al-Ittihad Rumbai Pekanbaru. The result of this research shows that the position of BMT Al-Ittihad using IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix and SPACE Matrix is in growth position, stabilization and aggressive. The choice of strategy after using TWOS Matrix is market penetration, market development, vertical integration, horizontal integration, and stabilization

  6. BMT Roadmap: A User-Centered Design Health Information Technology Tool to Promote Patient-Centered Care in Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runaas, Lyndsey; Hanauer, David; Maher, Molly; Bischoff, Evan; Fauer, Alex; Hoang, Tiffany; Munaco, Anna; Sankaran, Roshun; Gupta, Rahael; Seyedsalehi, Sajjad; Cohn, Amy; An, Larry; Tewari, Muneesh; Choi, Sung Won

    2017-05-01

    Health information technology (HIT) has great potential for increasing patient engagement. Pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a setting ripe for using HIT but in which little research exists. "BMT Roadmap" is a web-based application that integrates patient-specific information and includes several domains: laboratory results, medications, clinical trial details, photos of the healthcare team, trajectory of transplant process, and discharge checklist. BMT Roadmap was provided to 10 caregivers of patients undergoing first-time HCT. Research assistants performed weekly qualitative interviews throughout the patient's hospitalization and at discharge and day 100 to assess the impact of BMT Roadmap. Rigorous thematic analysis revealed 5 recurrent themes: emotional impact of the HCT process itself; critical importance of communication among patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers; ways in which BMT Roadmap was helpful during inpatient setting; suggestions for improving BMT Roadmap; and other strategies for organization and management of complex healthcare needs that could be incorporated into BMT Roadmap. Caregivers found the tool useful and easy to use, leading them to want even greater access to information. BMT Roadmap was feasible, with no disruption to inpatient care. Although this initial study is limited by the small sample size and single-institution experience, these initial findings are encouraging and support further investigation. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pembiayaan Bagi hasil Sektor Usaha Mikro di BMT Hasanah Ponorogo

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    Arlinta Prasetian Dewi

    2016-05-01

    Abstrak: Pembiayaan merupakan salah satu produk lembaga keuangan yang banyak diminati. BMT sebagai lembaga keuangan mikro yang menjalankan operasional kerjanya dengan prinsip syariah, identik dengan pembiayaan bagi hasil. Meskipun demikian, tingkat pembiayaan bagi hasil pada sebagian lembaga keuangan masih rendah. Hal ini dikarenakan pembiayaan bagi hasil masuk dalam kategorihigh risk, karena keuntungan maupun kerugian akan ditanggung oleh kedua belah pihak. Pembiayaan bermasalah di BMT Hasanah saat ini mecapai 10%, jika tidak segera diambil tindakan kemungkinan bertambah akan tinggi. Maka, penelitian memfokuskan bagaimana kesesuaian pembiayaan bagi hasil di BMT Hasanah dengan fatwa DSN MUI sekaligus manajemen resikonya terhadap pembiayaan yang bermasalah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, mekanisme pembiayaan bagi hasil di BMT Hasanah dibagi menjadi beberapa tahapan, tahap pemeriksaan, tahap analisa dan tahap pencairan dana. Siklus manajemen resiko diawali dengan Identifikasi resiko, pengukuran resiko dan pengelolaan resiko. Pengelolaan resiko BMT Hasanah melalui tindakan prefentif, revitalisasi dan kuratif/ pengambil alihan agunan. Untuk meminimalisir resiko, BMT mengelompokkan strategi kedalam tiga kelompok, yaitu: strategi penyaluran pembiayaan, strategi pengumpulan piutang dan strategi jaminan.

  8. PERAN BAITUL MAAL WA TAMWIL (BMT DALAM MENINGKATKAN KINERJA USAHA RUMAH TANGGA DI PURWOKERTO

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    Suyotoi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is titled The Role of Baitul Maal Wa Tamwil (BMT in Improving Business Performance Scale Households in Purwokerto, it’s carried out in order to determine the role of BMT in improving business performance household scale, the potential of BMT in household-scale enterprises development, and the contribution BMT in household-scale enterprises development From the research result shows that BMT has a strategic role to improve the business performance scale household because the financing needs of TMB bridge between bussiness with financial institutions. BMT has a good potential for business development so that developing domestic scale becomes larger. BMT gives contribute the development of household scale so it can encourage economic growth, employment, and other follow-up impact

  9. PERLAKUAN AKUNTANSI SYARIAH PSAK NOMOR 102 PADA BMT UMMAH BANJARMASIN

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    Hariyanto Hariyanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the accounting treatment of sharia PSAK 102 on BMT Ummah Banjarmasin. This type of research is the research field (Field Reseach, are qualitative. Retrieving data using interview techniques and documentation. While the analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis with interactive model of Miles and Huberman. Through techniques qualitative descriptive analysis, this study resulted in the finding that the accounting treatment of sharia in BMT Ummah Banjarmasin yet fully adopted PSAK 102, it can be proved the few that still needs to be improved such as the lack of accounting treatment urbun murabaha, the accounting treatment of pieces of early settlement, and not the accounting treatment of fines upon members (customers who are in arrears.

  10. Pengaruh Sharia Marketing terhadap Loyalitas Anggota KSPPS BMT Walisongo Semarang

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    Nurudin Nurudin

    2017-06-01

    to other places to get a lot of profit. The development of number of members in KSPPS BMT Walisongo Semarang experienced an increase in deposit products and decline in financing products in 2016.The formulation of the problem in this research is how the influence of sharia marketing (product, price, place, promotion toward the loyalty of members of KSPPS BMT Walisongo Semarang. The purpose of this research is to know the influence of sharia marketing (product, price, place, and promotion toward the loyalty of KSPPS BMT Walisongo Semarang.This research is a field research with quantitative approach. The population of this research is all members of KSPPS BMT Walisongo Semarang which is amounted 2,469. Sampling technique used in this research is Slovin formula amounted 100 people who will be selected to be respondents with certain criteria. The method used in this research is purposive sampling. The technique of analyzing the data is simple regression.From the simultaneous calculation results obtained t count is equal to (6,558 and p value (sig is equal to 0.000 below 5% which means that there is significant influence between sharia marketing (product, price, place, promotion toward member loyalty. The four dimensions of sharia marketing have a positive and significant influence on member loyalty. But in this study, products have a significant influence on loyalty members. Bisnis Islami pada hakikatnya selalu memegang asas keadilan dan eseimbangan. Mengingat semakin ketatnya persaingan bisnis sekarang ini, banyak lembaga keuangan dalam melakukan kegiatan pemasarannya menyimpang dari prinsip syariah hanya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan, keinginan dan memuaskan pelanggan agar mereka tidak beralih ke tempat lain serta untuk mendapatkan keuntungan yang banyak. Perkembangan jumlah anggota di KSPPS BMT Walisongo Semarang mengalami peningkatan pada produk simpanan dan mengalami penurunan pada produk pembiayaan pada tahun 2016. Rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini

  11. Pengaruh Total Quality Management (TQM) Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan Di BMT Taruna Sejahtera Ungaran, Jawa Tengah

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Abdul Aziz Nugraha; Maghfiroh, Fira Nur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the level of TQM and performance in BMT Youth Welfare as well as to determine the effect of TQM on performancein BMT Youth Welfare. Methods of data collection was conducted through a questionnaire distributed to employees of BMT Youth Welfare. Samples is taken as many as 85 respondents by random sampling technique. The data obtained and analyzed using SPSS version 18. This analysis includes test reliability,validity, regression, statistical test throu...

  12. Perlindungan Nasabah BMT Beringharjo Cabang Ponorogo Perspektif Hukum Positif Dan Hukum

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    Muhammad Isnan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The financial institution of Syari’ah is growing and developing rapidly in Indonesia. One of it is BMT (Baītul Māl wa Tamwīl. In the legal protection for clients, BMT has not yet had a legal protection particularly, but it still refers to another legal protections like koperasi and Financial Fervices Authority. The legal protection that is given for BMT Beringharjo branch Ponorogo is embodied through the ragulation of Koperasi . It is not appropriate according to the regulation No. 21. Year 2010 about Financial Fervices Authority and No. 1 Year 2013 about Micro Financial Fervices. According to that case, this article will study about the client protection given by BMT Beringharjo Branch Ponorogo in the perspective of positive and Islamic laws. According to study, so it can be deduced: first, the implementation of protection that is given by BMT Beringharjo is still less appropriate based on regulation No. 21 Year 2011 about OJK and No. 1 Year 2013 about LKM, but BMT Beringharjo has applied a legal protection of Koperasi and legal protection implicitly. Whereas the implementation of protection of Islamic law is the protection given by ilahi precepts which conveyed from Wahyu in Al-Qur’an and Sunnah. It is realized by BMT, because the clients of BMT Beringharjo less know the impact when the financial institution like BMT experinces a bankrupt. Abstrak:Lembaga Keuangan Syari’ah tumbuh dan berkembang pesat di Indonesia, salah satunya adalah BMT (Baītul Māl wa Tamwīl. Dalam perlindungan hukum kepada nasabahnya, BMT belum memiliki payung hukum secara khusus, namun masih mengacu pada beberapa payung hukum lain seperti koperasi dan Otoritas Jasa Keuangan. Perlindungan hukum yang diberikan BMT Beringharjo Cabang Ponorogo diwujudkan melalui Undang-undang perkoperasian. Hal ini ternyata tidak sesuai menurut Undang-undang No. 21 Tahun 2011 tentang Otoritas Jasa Keuangan dan Undang-undang No. 1 Tahun 2013 tentang Lembaga Keuangan Mikro

  13. Optimization of a Virtual Power Plant to Provide Frequency Support.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Delhotal, Jarod James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Increasing the penetration of distributed renewable sources, including photovoltaic (PV) sources, poses technical challenges for grid management. The grid has been optimized over decades to rely upon large centralized power plants with well-established feedback controls, but now non-dispatchable, renewable sources are displacing these controllable generators. This one-year study was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot program and is intended to better utilize those variable resources by providing electric utilities with the tools to implement frequency regulation and primary frequency reserves using aggregated renewable resources, known as a virtual power plant. The goal is to eventually enable the integration of 100s of Gigawatts into US power systems.

  14. Optimalisasi Intermediasi dan Pembiayaan BMT Menuju Pemberdayaan Ekonomi Masyarakat

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    Fahrur Ulum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to discuss the economic empowerment of society through the optimalization of BMT’s function of intermediating and financing. Using a descriptive and qualitative approach, this article reveals that the success of economic empowerment should be supported by strategy, tactics and stepping. The program should also be implemented through segmentation and training of clients, providing human resources that understand the vision and mission of empowerment, optimizing BMT’s function of intermediating, and providing a coordinated tool of saving. Intermediation is conducted through developing economic potentials of Muslim community (ummah, improving the quality of human resources, mobilizing societal resources, bridging the relation between the rich and the poor and between the fund owners and users, coaching and balancing in terms of financial support.

  15. Trajectories of Quality of Life after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Secondary Analysis of BMT CTN 0902 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Heather S.L.; Sutton, Steven K.; Small, Brent J.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Wood, William A.; Knight, Jennifer M.; Majhail, Navneet S.; Syrjala, Karen L.; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Quality of life is increasingly recognized as an important secondary endpoint of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The current study examined the extent to which attrition results in biased estimates of patient quality of life. The study also examined whether patients differ in terms of trajectories of quality of life in the first six months post-transplant. A secondary data analysis was conducted of 701 participants who enrolled in the Blood and Marrow Transplantation Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) 0902 trial. Participants completed the SF-36, a measure of quality of life, prior to transplant and 100 and 180 days post-transplant. Results indicated that attrition resulted in slightly biased overestimates of quality of life but the amount of overestimation remained stable over time. Patients could be grouped into three distinct classes based on physical quality of life: 1) low and stable; 2) average and declining, then stable; and 3) average and stable. Four classes of patients emerged for mental quality of life: 1) low and stable; 2) average, improving, then stable; 3) higher than average (by almost 1 SD) and stable; and 4) average and stable. Taken together, these data provide a more comprehensive understanding of quality of life that can be used to educate HCT recipients and their caregivers. PMID:27538374

  16. Pengaruh Karakteristik Marketing Syariah terhadap Keputusan menjadi Nasabah BMT UGT Sidogiri Cabang Pamekasan

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    Khafiatul Hasanah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Islamic financial institutions continue to plague the urban to the rural. No exception to the Baitul Maal Wat Tamwil (BMT in Pamekasan area. Consequently, all the processes required to implement management based on Islamic principles, as well as in marketing. That is why ethics and morals become a necessity in carrying out any business activity. BMT UGT Sidogiri Pamekasan branch is one of the BMT which has increased exponentially customers. Allegedly due to the increase in the number of customers continued to increase customer confidence. One of the flagship products owned BMT UGT Sidogiri Pamekasan branch in collecting funds is Islamic savings have minimum deposit Rp 1000 by the facility pick up the ball that is not offered by other BMT in Pamekasan. Based on this background, researchers interested in conducting research with the title "Influence of Characteristics Marketing Decision Against Sharia Become Customer BMT UGT Sidogiri Pamekasan branch". The problem that arises is there any influence of sharia marketing characteristics to the decision as a customer and what variables (theist, ethical, realistic, humanistic the dominant influence on a customer's decision. This type of research is field research using a quantitative approach. The study population were all customers of BMT UGT Sidogiri Pamekasan branch using simple random sampling method and the determination of the number of samples is determined by the formula slovin at an error rate of 10%. Mechanical analysis is multiple regression analysis. Simultaneous calculation results obtained Fhitung (39.081> Ftabel of (2.47 which means accepting the hypothesis of the influence of sharia marketing characteristics (theist, ethical, realistic, humanistic against the decision of a customer. While the partial test results obtained for thitung theistic, ethical, realistic and humanistic respectively 2.648, 3.622, 2.560, 2.938 greater than ttable (1.66123, which means either partially theistic

  17. Ringkasan Riset Kajian Terhadap Kepatuhan Syariah Dalam Praktik Pembiayaan Di BMT Sleman, YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Kholis, Nur

    2008-01-01

    This research is about Syariah compliance of the financing practice at Baitul Mal Wattamwil (BMT), Sleman, Yogyakarta. Objectives of this research are: (1) study to the practice of BMT's financing products, its procedures and its application in the BMTs, Sleman, Yogyakarta. The practices of them will be analyzed by Syariah's rules to prove its compliance to it or not, (2) study to mark up price and loss sharing method as a way to get profit in financing product to show its similarities or dif...

  18. Optimizing Tobacco Cessation Resource Awareness Among Patients and Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Laura; Donohue, Caitlin; DeNofrio, Tina; Vitale Pedulla, Lillian; Haddad, Robert I; Rabinowits, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Despite receiving a cancer diagnosis, many patients continue to use tobacco during treatment, negatively affecting their outcomes. We hypothesized that limited tobacco cessation (TC) discussion among patients and providers was partially the result of providers' lack of awareness of current TC resources available. We surveyed the head and neck oncology providers (HNOPs) at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute to evaluate their awareness of existing TC resources within the community and performed a 6-month medical record review of active tobacco users (ATUs) to evaluate the frequency of documented TC discussions in clinic. We educated the HNOPs about available TC resources, developed a TC resource teaching sheet, placed a provider alert page in examination rooms as a reminder of TC discussions, and built a TC discussion template to ease documentation. Four weeks postintervention, we resurveyed providers and again performed medical record reviews of ATUs. Preintervention, 13% of HNOPs were aware of TC resources available, and TC discussion documentation was 28%. Postintervention, 100% of HNOPs became aware of the TC resources available, and documentations increased to 56% at 5 months. Identification of ATUs increased from six to 13 per month to 17 to 33 per month post intervention. Eighty-eight percent of HNOPs felt the intervention prompted TC discussions in clinic with their ATUs. The limited number of TC discussions among patients and providers was at least partially the result of unawareness of TC resources available within the community. Educating HNOPs and alerting them to ATUs at their clinic visits successfully prompted TC discussions in clinic. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. Revitalization BMT and Cooperatives Function in Developing Syari'ah Economy

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    Ach Baihaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Islamic economics have been more improvement, as in infrastructure, assets and number of employee year of the year. But by that improvement, there are some problems to be payed attention, like development of quality of human resources in Islamic economics system with holistic approach. So that, to strengthen the character of Islamic economics system need to restore it’s concept to the nature of Islamic thought consider with the Islamic economics history and also accommodate local wisdom. To support the improvement of Islamic economics proper with ideology objectives of islam, cooperation and BMT should be have priority to increase their functions and responsibilities in economics development. Operational of cooperation and BMT will make variability of Islamic contracts more variative. Then Islamic contract by partnership approach based profit and losses sharing will have more proportions and cost of control also will be more efficient and worries about information asymmetry will be declined. It caused, awareness of partnership and togetherness to increase cooperation member welfare will be easily achived. Keywords: business entity, Islamic Financial Institutions, Cooperation, BMT Judul Asli : Revitalisasi Fungsi BMT dan Koperasi dalam Pengembangan Ekonomi Syari’ah

  20. ETIKA KERJA ISLAM DAN KEADILAN ORGANISASI: STUDI PADA BMT DI KABUPATEN KUDUS

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    Wahibur Rokhman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available WORK ETHICS OF ISLAM AND ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE: Study on a BMT in Kudus, This research aims to analyze the relationship of  work ethics of  Islam and organizational justice in BMT in Kudus. The organizational justice is measured using three dimensions of  justice developed by Cropanzano et al. (2007, they are: distribution justice, procedural fairness and interactional justice. Further, the study also tested the influence of  the three dimensions of justice against work ethics of  Islam felt by employees. The results of this research show that the level of  organizational justice and work ethics of Islam felt by employees working in the BMT in Holy is high enough. The results of the regression analysis also showed a significant positive influence on the distribution of Justice, procedural fairness and interactional justice against the work ethics of  Islam. Implications, limitations and suggestions for the next research are also discussed in this article. keywords: Distribution Justice, Procedural Justice, Work Ethics Of Islam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis  hubungan etika kerja Islam dan keadilan organisasi di Baitul mal wat tamwil (BMT di Kabupaten Kudus. Keadilan Organisasi disini diukur menggunakan tiga dimensi keadilan yang dikembangkan oleh Cropanzano dkk. (2007 yaitu: keadilan distribusi, keadilan prosedural dan keadilan interaksional. Lebih lanjut, penelitian ini juga menguji pengaruh tiga dimensi keadilan terhadap etika kerja Islam yang dirasakan oleh karyawan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tingkat keadilan organisasi dan etika kerja Islam yang dirasakan oleh karyawan yang bekerja di BMT di Kudus cukup tinggi. Hasil analisis regresi juga menunjukkan adanya pengaruh yang positif signifikan keadilan distribusi, keadilan prosedural dan keadilan interaksional terhadap etika kerja Islam. Implikasi, keterbatasan dan saran untuk penelitian yang akan datang  juga dibahas dalam artikel ini. kata kunci: Keadilan

  1. Analisis Penerapan Psak – 102 Murabahah (Studi Kasus Pada Ksu Bmt Rahmat Syariah Kediri

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    Inggrid Eka Pratiwi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find out whether the accounting practices which include the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of the murabaha transactions applied to the BMT Rahmat Syariah in accordance with PSAK 102 about accounting murabaha. The research method used is descriptive qualitative approach with this type of case study research. The Unit of analysis in this study is the accounting treatment of murabaha is applied to the BMT Rahmat Syariah. Analytical techniques used in this research is a domain analysis techniques. From the results of the research can be determined three related domains of contract i.e. the beginning of akkadian murabaha, during the process of installment and repayment. Research results can be concluded that BMT Rahmat Syariah in terms of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of early contract deal not in accordance with PSAK 102. During the process of contract, in terms of the measurement of profit murabaha were in accordance with PSAK 102, but in terms of recognition, presentation, and disclosure is not in accordance with PSAK 102. Whereas in the recognition, measurement and disclosure of fines (ta'zir is in compliance with PSAK 102 only served and which is not in accordance with PSAK 102. At the time of payment of the measurements were in accordance with PSAK 102, however, recognition, representation, and the disclosure is not in accordance with PSAK 102.

  2. Strategi Marketing Mix Baitul Mal wa Tamwil (BMT Unit Gabungan Terpadu (UGT Sidogiri Pasuruan

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    Cihwanul Kirom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the business realm, marketing is a key factor which determines the success of distribution. Therefore, strategy and innovation are a necessity. Marketing activity would ensure whether a certain product is delivered to the costumers. In order to achieve the desired goals of marketing, it is important to manufacturers to follow a set of marketing processes, which comprise market overview, marketing strategy, marketing mix, and evaluation. Marketing mix is a set of strategies consist of product, price, promotion, and distribution, which guarantee the success of marketing activities. All of these aspects are intended to attain responses from the targeted market. The article seeks to discuss the marketing mix strategy implemented by BMT UGT Sidogiri Pasuruan based on four “Ps”, namely product, price, place, and promotion. The study finds that the marketing mix strategy employed by BMT UGT has met the costumers’ needs in terms of product strategy, pricing strategy, distribution strategy, and promotion strategy. The study also concludes that the proper implementation of marketing mix strategy and its compatibility with Islamic sharîʻah as well as the organization’s obedience towards Islamic business ethics are among pivotal factors that have significantly influenced the development of BMT UGT Sidogiri

  3. WAJIB DAFTAR JAMINAN FIDUSIA DALAM PEMBIAYAAN MUDHARABAH Efektivitas Pelaksanaan Pasal 11 Undang-Undang RI Nomor 42 Tahun 1999 Tentang Jaminan Fidusia di BMT Kota Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Sofiani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of the implementation of compulsory registration of fiduciary insurance as the provisions of Article 11 of Law No. 42 of 1999 concerning fiduciary in Mudharabah in Baitul Maal Wat Tamwil (BMT Pekalongan and legal implication in terms of fiduciary insurance is not registered at the Office Registration Fiducia. Interviews and literary studies are used to collect data and data triangulation is used to check its credibility while Interactive Model is used to analyze data. The results showed that, as the fiduciary guarantee registration requirement contained in Article 11 (1 Fiduciary Insurance Law is not effective to be implemented, because: 1 substantially the article is not yet understood by all communities affected by the regulations; 2 law enforcement officials have not provided services to the fullest; 3 the legal infrastructure (legal facilities are available yet provide ease and convenience to be able to access in implementing such regulations and; 4 lack of legal awareness of the managers of BMT. Legal consequences will occur if the fiduciary is not registered to the fiduciary registration office, namely: 1 non-fulfillment of the principle of specialties and publicity; 2 no preferent rights (the right to precedence in the payment of the debt, if the debtor break a promise; 3 does not have the executorial power.

  4. Ringkasan Riset Kajian Terhadap Kepatuhan Syariah dalam Praktik Pembiayaan di BMT Sleman, Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Kholis, Nur

    2009-01-01

    This research is about Syariah compliance of the financing practice at Baitul Mal Wattamwil (BMT), Sleman, Yogyakarta. Objectives of this research are: (1) study to the practice of BMT’s financing products, its procedures and its application in the BMTs, Sleman, Yogyakarta. The practices of them will be analyzed by Syariah’s rules to prove its compliance to it or not, (2) study to mark up price and loss sharing method as a way to get profit in financing product to show its similarities or dif...

  5. Strategy BMT Al-Ittihad Using Matrix IE, Matrix SWOT 8K, Matrix SPACE and Matrix TWOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofrizal Nofrizal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to formulate and select BMT Al-Ittihad Rumbai strategy to face the changing of business environment both from internal environment such as organization resources, finance, member and external business such as competitor, economy, politics and others. This research method used Analysis of EFAS, IFAS, IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix, SPACE Matrix and TWOS Matrix. our hope from this research it can assist BMT Al-Ittihad in formulating and selecting strategies for the sustainability of BMT Al-Ittihad in the future. The sample in this research is using purposive sampling technique that is the manager and leader of BMT Al-IttihadRumbaiPekanbaru. The result of this research shows that the position of BMT Al-Ittihad using IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix and SPACE Matrix is in growth position, stabilization and aggressive. The choice of strategy after using TWOS Matrix is market penetration, market development, vertical integration, horizontal integration, and stabilization (careful.

  6. Optimal orientation in flows: providing a benchmark for animal movement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, James D; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Bouten, Willem

    2014-10-06

    Animal movements in air and water can be strongly affected by experienced flow. While various flow-orientation strategies have been proposed and observed, their performance in variable flow conditions remains unclear. We apply control theory to establish a benchmark for time-minimizing (optimal) orientation. We then define optimal orientation for movement in steady flow patterns and, using dynamic wind data, for short-distance mass movements of thrushes (Turdus sp.) and 6000 km non-stop migratory flights by great snipes, Gallinago media. Relative to the optimal benchmark, we assess the efficiency (travel speed) and reliability (success rate) of three generic orientation strategies: full compensation for lateral drift, vector orientation (single-heading movement) and goal orientation (continually heading towards the goal). Optimal orientation is characterized by detours to regions of high flow support, especially when flow speeds approach and exceed the animal's self-propelled speed. In strong predictable flow (short distance thrush flights), vector orientation adjusted to flow on departure is nearly optimal, whereas for unpredictable flow (inter-continental snipe flights), only goal orientation was near-optimally reliable and efficient. Optimal orientation provides a benchmark for assessing efficiency of responses to complex flow conditions, thereby offering insight into adaptive flow-orientation across taxa in the light of flow strength, predictability and navigation capacity.

  7. PENGARUH PENDAPATAN BAGI HASIL MUDHARABAH, MUSYARAKAH DAN MURABAHAH TERHADAP BAGI HASIL TABUNGAN (STUDI PADA KSU BMT TAMAN SURGA JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenudin Zaenudin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to see whether the effect mudharabah and musyarakah income share, and also murabahah margin income at mudhabahah saving deposit product at BMT Taman Surga Jakarta. The method analysis that used in this study is linier regression, with each variabel tested both concurrently (simultaneously or separately (partial. The result from this study is there is an positive and significat effect of mudharabah revenue sharing, musyarakah revenue sharing, and murabahah margin whether simultaneously and partial to mudharabah saving deposit share. BMT is expected to increase revenue for the results to further attract customers.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v13i1.1879

  8. SHARIAH MARKETING CHARACTERISTICS AND TRUST: STUDY ON CUSTOMER BMT IN MALANG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safitri S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Muslims in Indonesia is the largest Muslim who are the target market in the Islamic finance industry. In the context of Islamic financial product marketing, Muslim consumers being potential consumers. Muslim consumers have a unique character because they believe religious rules. This research aims to examine the effect of Shariah Marketing Characteristics on customer satisfaction and trust. This research used a quantitative approach with 375 respondents as sample BMT in Malang. The data were analyzed using Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA. The findings of this study is that the Theistic, Ethic, Realistic and Humanistic (Shariah Marketing Characteristics significantly affects the satisfaction and trust. There is a hypothesis that is not significant, which between Humanistic on customer trust.

  9. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Providing Early Optimal Treatment for the Individual Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Martin A; Habert, Jeffrey; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; McIntyre, Roger S; Blier, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder is an often chronic and recurring illness. Left untreated, major depressive disorder may result in progressive alterations in brain morphometry and circuit function. Recent findings, however, suggest that pharmacotherapy may halt and possibly reverse those effects. These findings, together with evidence that a delay in treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, underscore the urgency of rapidly treating depression to full recovery. Early optimized treatment, using measurement-based care and customizing treatment to the individual patient, may afford the best possible outcomes for each patient. The aim of this article is to present recommendations for using a patient-centered approach to rapidly provide optimal pharmacological treatment to patients with major depressive disorder. Offering major depressive disorder treatment determined by individual patient characteristics (e.g., predominant symptoms, medical history, comorbidities), patient preferences and expectations, and, critically, their own definition of wellness provides the best opportunity for full functional recovery. PMID:29024974

  10. IMPLEMENTASI PRODUK TABUNGAN UMUM SYARIAH DI KJKS BMT UGT SIDOGIRI CABANG PEMBANTU TLANAKAN PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafi'i Syafi'i

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available These shari’ah public savings products is entrusted (wadiah which in principle is pure deposits of from party saving or entrusting to the person receiving the deposit o be used or not used in accordance with the provisions. Safekeeping must be kept and maintained by the party that receives deposits, and this deposit can be taken at any time when required by the party who left it. The focus of this research are: 1 How does the products management of Shari’ah Public savings (Wadiah at Shari’ah Financial Service Cooperative of Baitul Maal Wat Tamwil Enterprises Joint Integrated Sidogiri of the Helper Branch Tlanakan Pamekasan. 2 How is the implementation of Shari’ah public savings (Wadiah at  Shari’ah Financial Service Cooperative Baitul Maal Wat Tamwil Enterprises Joint Integrated Sidogiri of the Helper Branch Tlanakan Pamekasan in the perspective of economic law of shari’ah. This research used a qualitative approach, this research used by some measures. First, adjust the qualitative methods more easily when faced with a double reality. second, this method presents the direct nature of the relationship between researchers and informants. Third, this method is more sensitive and can adjust to the research setting and able to do the sharpening of the patterns of values encountered. The result of this research is a contract of Mudharabah Musytarakah in KJKS BMT UGT Sidogiri of Helper Branch Tlanakan Pamekasan indeed most are in accordance with the Shari’ah banking system, but there is a small part that deviated from the Shari’ah banking system and Legal Aspects BMT lies on the source transparency for the results received by the Client savings and distribution transparency of funds all savers.

  11. Optimizing Team Dynamics: An Assessment of Physician Trainees and Advanced Practice Providers Collaborative Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cortney B; Simone, Shari; Bagdure, Dayanand; Garber, Nan A; Bhutta, Adnan

    2016-09-01

    The presence of advanced practice providers has become increasingly common in many ICUs. The ideal staffing model for units that contain both advanced practice providers and physician trainees has not been described. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ICU staffing models that include physician trainees and advanced practice providers and their effects on patient outcomes, resident and fellow education, and training experience. A second aim was to assess strategies to promote collaboration between team members. PubMed, CINAHL, OVID MEDLINE, and Cochrane Review from 2002 to 2015. Experimental study designs conducted in an ICU setting. Two reviewers screened articles for eligibility and independently abstracted data using the identified search terms. We found 21 articles describing ICU team structure and outcomes. Four articles were found describing the impact of advanced practice providers on resident or fellow education. Two articles were found discussing strategies to promote collaboration between advanced practice providers and critical care fellows or residents. Several articles were identified describing the utilization of advanced practice providers in the ICU and the impact of models of care on patient outcomes. Limited data exist describing the impact of advanced practice providers on resident and fellow education and training experience. In addition, there are minimal data describing methods to enhance collaboration between providers. Future research should focus on determining the optimal ICU team structure to improve patient outcomes, education of trainees, and job satisfaction of team members and methods to promote collaboration between advanced practice providers and physicians in training.

  12. Information provided to the operator via visual display screens: Optimization of alarm signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seisdedos, A.

    1983-01-01

    Present-day computers can be used for a range of applications, one of which is the alarm system for a power plant. Generally speaking, the number of alarms generated is excessive in relation to the amount of data that the operator can handle. Furthermore, the display screens become overloaded with signals, as a result of which they become less effective and the operator loses track of the real status of the plant. It is, therefore, necessary to optimize the number of alarms as well as the number of display screens to be incorporated in the system. One way of bringing about this optimization is to establish degrees of priority for the alarms in order to exclude from the display any signals which do not call for immediate action by the operator, although a case-by-case study cannot be entirely avoided. In addition, other criteria are formulated with a view to reducing the number of signals displayed and meeting the need and desirability to program on one and the same computer a large package of graphic signals providing a complete overview of the plant. It is also expedient to have, alongside the above system, a conventional alarm system, providing redundancy and support, which is also optimized and in which the number of signals is considerably less than the number handled by the computerized alarm system. The requirements which are being set in the wake of the Three Mile Island incident call for a combination of functions and instruments in order to make optimum use of each of them. (author)

  13. Optimal utilization of outages. The tasks of the OEM and/or service provider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobs, Norbert; Grauf, Eberhard

    1998-01-01

    The deregulation of Europe's power market on January 1, 1999 will force many electric utilities and especially nuclear power plant operators to introduce extensive cost-cutting measures in order that they can hold their own in the new competitive environment. Existing plants basically have three potential ways of reducing their power generating costs: by increasing availability, reducing fuel costs and cutting back operating costs. Optimizing plant outages provides considerable potential for raising plant availability but can also lower operating costs by reducing expenditure on maintenance. In order to optimize an outage in terms of performance time and cost, there are a number of starting points based on certain key factors: organization, planning, logistics, performance monitoring, plant and equipment enhancements as well as personnel motivation. To reach this goal it is necessary for the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and/or service provider to be involved in these activities to a much greater extent than before and for a closer form of partnership to be established with the consumer. For it is only within a team having a common set of goals that the successes of the past have been able to be achieved and new tasks can be efficiently handled in the future. (author)

  14. Borreliacidal activity of Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA binding small molecules by manganese transport inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagh D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dhananjay Wagh,* Venkata Raveendra Pothineni,* Mohammed Inayathullah, Song Liu, Kwang-Min Kim, Jayakumar Rajadas Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford Cardiovascular Pharmacology Division, Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work  Abstract: Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, utilizes manganese (Mn for its various metabolic needs. We hypothesized that blocking Mn transporter could be a possible approach to inhibit metabolic activity of this pathogen and eliminate the infection. We used a combination of in silico protein structure prediction together with molecular docking to target the Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA, a single known Mn transporter in Borrelia and screened libraries of FDA approved compounds that could potentially bind to the predicted BmtA structure with high affinity. Tricyclic antihistamines such as loratadine, desloratadine, and 3-hydroxydesloratadine as well as yohimbine and tadalafil demonstrated a tight binding to the in silico folded BmtA transporter. We, then, tested borreliacidal activity and dose response of the shortlisted compounds from this screen using a series of in vitro assays. Amongst the probed compounds, desloratadine exhibited potent borreliacidal activity in vitro at and above 78 µg/mL (250 µM. Borrelia treated with lethal doses of desloratadine exhibited a significant loss of intracellular Mn specifically and a severe structural damage to the bacterial cell wall. Our results support the possibility of developing a novel, targeted therapy to treat Lyme disease by targeting specific metabolic needs of Borrelia.  Keywords: Lyme disease, BmtA, Borrelia burgdorferi, desloratadine, Bac Titer-Glo assay

  15. Penerapan Prinsip Kehati-hatian dalam Pembiayaan dan Kredit di BRI Unit Mlarak dan BMT Hasanah Ponorogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Mujiono

    2016-05-01

    Abstrak: Bank Indonesia melalui PBI Nomor 6/10/PBI/2004 tanggal 12 April 2004 tentang sistem penilaian tingkat kesehatan lembaga keuangan, menetapkan  bahwa rasio kredit bermasalah (Non Performing Loan, NPL maupun Non Performing Finance, NPF adalah 5%. Dalam praktik pada BRI Unit Mlarak Kabupaten Ponorogo dengan rata-rata NPL hanya 1% sedangkan BMT Hasanah Kecamatan Mlarak rata-rata NPF 15%. Perbedaan angka NPL dan NPF diantarnya disebabkan oleh perbedaan penerapan prinsip kehati-hatian khususnya dalam pemberian pembiayaan/kredit. Penelitian ini mengkaji seputar penerapan prinsip kehati-hatian dalam proses pembiayaan dan kredit di kedua lembaga tersebut. Berdasarkan penelitian, temuan peneliti, Pertama, implementasi prinsip kehati-hatian di BRI Unit Mlarak melalui mekanisme PPKBM atau Pedoman Pelaksanaan Kredit Bisnis Mikro. Sementara pada BMT Hasanah belum melaksanakan prinsip kehati-hatian dengan benar karena belum adanya SOP pembiayaan. Kedua, Implikasi prinsip kehati-hatian di BRI Mlarak memberikan dampak positif secara bisnis dan reputasi. Sedangkan di BMT Hasanah berdampak negatif dengan NPF tinggi, karena kualitas SDM dan dukungan IT yang belum memadai sehingga perlu penerapan good corporate governance.

  16. Respiratory syncytial virus infection outbreak among pediatric patients with oncologic diseases and/or BMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anak, Sema; Atay, Didem; Unuvar, Aysegul; Garipardic, Mesut; Agaoglu, Leyla; Ozturk, Gulyuz; Karakas, Zeynep; Devecioglu, Omer

    2010-03-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been reported to cause severe morbidity and mortality among cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with or without autologous/allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There have been few reports describing the outcome of RSV infection specifically among pediatric oncology patients. Two RSV infection outbreaks developed between February-April 2006 and January-March 2009 in hospitalized pediatric patients for various hemato-oncological diseases + or - HSCT. A survey of respiratory viruses was done using direct immunofluorescent antibody assay from nasopharyngeal washing aspirate. In two RSV infection outbreaks (2006 and 2009), RSV antigen was detected in 6/30 patients. Five of six patients with RSV antigen were all treated with 0.2-0.4 g/kg intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and specific antiviral therapy, oral ribavirin (20-25 mg/kg/day in three doses). Five patients recovered fully, although two were retreated due to recurrent (+) RSV antigen and respiratory symptoms within 2 weeks. We did not give oral ribavirin to one patient with (+) RSV antigen due to mild symptoms. All patients are alive and well. In contrast with the outcome of RSV infection in adult oncology patients, the mortality associated with RSV infection in pediatric oncology patients even in post bone marrow transplantation (BMT) period, is low when diagnosed and treated early enough. Oral ribavirin might be an option together with IVIG in the treatment of RSV especially when other forms of antivirals could not be obtained. This approach will make it possible to give the scheduled anti-neoplastic therapy on time.

  17. Voriconazole pharmacokinetics following HSCT: results from the BMT CTN 0101 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, William W; Walsh, Thomas J; Goodwin, Joanne; Peloquin, Charles A; Howard, Alan; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Mendizabal, Alan; Confer, Dennis L; Bulitta, Jürgen; Baden, Lindsey R; Neely, Michael N; Wingard, John R

    2016-08-01

    Voriconazole is a first-line agent for the prevention and treatment of a number of invasive fungal diseases. Relatively little is known about the relationship between drug exposure and the prevention of invasive fungal infections. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic substudy was performed as part of the BMT CTN 0101 trial, which was a randomized clinical trial comparing voriconazole with fluconazole for the prevention of invasive fungal infections in HSCT recipients. A previously described population pharmacokinetic model was used to calculate the maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimates for 187 patients. Drug exposure in each patient was quantified in terms of the average AUC and average trough concentrations. The relationship between drug exposure and the probability of breakthrough infection was investigated using logistic regression. AUC and trough concentrations in patients with and without breakthrough infection were compared. Pharmacokinetic data from each patient were readily described using the maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimates. There were only five patients that had a breakthrough infection while receiving voriconazole in the first 100 days post-HSCT. For these patients, there was no statistically significant relationship between the average AUC or average trough concentration and the probability of breakthrough infection [OR (95% CI) 1.026 (0.956-1.102) and 1.108 (0.475-2.581), respectively]. P value for these estimates was 0.474 and 0.813, respectively. Given the very small number of proven/probable infections, it was difficult to identify any differences in drug exposure in HSCT recipients with and without breakthrough fungal infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Objectively Optimized Observation Direction System Providing Situational Awareness for a Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulov, O.; Lary, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    There is great utility in having a flexible and automated objective observation direction system for the decadal survey missions and beyond. Such a system allows us to optimize the observations made by suite of sensors to address specific goals from long term monitoring to rapid response. We have developed such a prototype using a network of communicating software elements to control a heterogeneous network of sensor systems, which can have multiple modes and flexible viewing geometries. Our system makes sensor systems intelligent and situationally aware. Together they form a sensor web of multiple sensors working together and capable of automated target selection, i.e. the sensors “know” where they are, what they are able to observe, what targets and with what priorities they should observe. This system is implemented in three components. The first component is a Sensor Web simulator. The Sensor Web simulator describes the capabilities and locations of each sensor as a function of time, whether they are orbital, sub-orbital, or ground based. The simulator has been implemented using AGIs Satellite Tool Kit (STK). STK makes it easy to analyze and visualize optimal solutions for complex space scenarios, and perform complex analysis of land, sea, air, space assets, and shares results in one integrated solution. The second component is target scheduler that was implemented with STK Scheduler. STK Scheduler is powered by a scheduling engine that finds better solutions in a shorter amount of time than traditional heuristic algorithms. The global search algorithm within this engine is based on neural network technology that is capable of finding solutions to larger and more complex problems and maximizing the value of limited resources. The third component is a modeling and data assimilation system. It provides situational awareness by supplying the time evolution of uncertainty and information content metrics that are used to tell us what we need to observe and the

  19. Translation and validation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) version 4 quality of life instrument into Arabic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudy, Hussein; Maghfoor, Irfan; Elhassan, Tusneem Ahmed M; Abdullah, Eman; Rauf, Shahzad M; Al Zahrani, Ahmed; Akhtar, Saad

    2018-03-12

    Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) has been translated from English into several languages. Currently, there is no validated translation of FACT-BMT in Arabic. Here, we are reporting the first Arabic translation and validation of the FACT-BMT. The study was approved by the Institutional Research Advisory Council. The Arabic translation followed the standard Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT.org) translation methodology (with permission). Arabic FACT-BMT (50- items) was statistically validated. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, Spearman's rank correlation coefficients method for Inter-scale correlations and Principal Component Analysis for factorial construct validity was used. One hundred and eight consecutive relapsed /refractory lymphoma patients who underwent high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant were enrolled. There were 68 males (63%) and 40 females (37%) with a median age of 29 years (range 14-62). After Arabic questionnaire pre-testing (Cronbach's alpha 0.744), the study included 108 patients. Cronbach's alpha for the entire FACT-BMT indicated an excellent internal consistency (0.90); range (0.67 to 0.91). Cronbach's alpha for sub-groups of social (0.78), emotional (0.67) and functional wellbeing was (0.88). Cronbach's alpha for bone marrow transplant (0.81), FACT-General (0.89), and FACT- Trial Outcome Index (TOI); (0.91) also revealed excellent internal consistency. Patients had high scores in all domains of quality of life, indicating that most patients were leading a normal life. This translation of FACT-BMT in Arabic was reviewed and approved for submission by the FACIT.org. Our data reports the first translated, validated and approved Arabic version of FACT-BMT. This will help large numbers of Arabic speaking patients undergoing stem cell/bone marrow transplantation, across the globe.

  20. Optimal management of a forested catchment providing timber and carbon sequestration benefits: Climate change effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spring, D.A.; MacNally, R. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Australian Centre for Biodiversity: Analysis, Policy and Management; Kennedy, J.O.S. [La Trobe University, Melbourne (Australia). Department of Economics and Finance

    2005-10-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase fire frequency and exacerbate water scarcity. The effect of these changes on the tree harvest decision in a forested catchment is investigated using stochastic dynamic programming, taking a stand of mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans) in south-eastern Australia as a case study. We find that for a range of water and carbon sequestration values, it is optimal to cease harvesting in the absence of climate change. Whether it is optimal to do so under climate change will depend on the magnitude of the increases in fire frequency and water value. Potential increases in forest productivity also have a significant impact on the tree harvest decision. (author)

  1. Optimal orientation in flows : Providing a benchmark for animal movement strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaren, James D.; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M.; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Bouten, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Animal movements in air and water can be strongly affected by experienced flow. While various flow-orientation strategies have been proposed and observed, their performance in variable flow conditions remains unclear. We apply control theory to establish a benchmark for time-minimizing (optimal)

  2. Better movers and thinkers (BMT): A quasi-experimental study into the impact of physical education on children's cognition—A study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Andrew; Boyle, James; Mutrie, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    This study will extend on a pilot study and will evaluate the impact of a novel approach to PE, Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT), on students' cognition, physical activity habits, and gross motor coordination (GMC). The study will involve six mainstream state schools with students aged 9–11 years. Three schools will be allocated as the intervention condition and three as the control condition. The design of the study is a 16-week intervention with pre-, post- and 6 month follow-up measurements taken using the ‘Cognitive Assessment System (CAS)’ GMC tests, and the ‘Physical Activity Habits Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C).’ Qualitative data will be gathered using student focus groups and class teacher interviews in each of the six schools. ANCOVA will be used to evaluate any effect of intervention comparing pre-test scores with post-test scores and then pre-test scores with 6 month follow-up scores. Qualitative data will be analysed through an iterative process using grounded theory. This protocol provides the details of the rationale and design of the study and details of the intervention, outcome measures, and the recruitment process. The study will address gaps within current research by evaluating if a change of approach in the delivery of PE within schools has an effect on children's cognition, PA habits, and GMC within a Scottish setting. PMID:26844172

  3. Severity, course, and predictors of sleep disruption following hematopoietic cell transplantation: a secondary data analysis from the BMT CTN 0902 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Heather S L; Sutton, Steven; Majhail, Navneet S; Wood, William A; Jacobsen, Paul B; Wingard, John R; Wu, Juan; Knight, Jennifer M; Syrjala, Karen L; Lee, Stephanie J

    2018-03-07

    Sleep disruption has received little attention in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The goal of this study was to describe severity, course, and predictors of sleep disruption following HCT. A secondary data analysis was conducted of the Blood and Marrow Transplantation Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) 0902 study. Participants completed a modified version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index prior to transplant and 100 and 180 days posttransplant. Growth mixture models were used to characterize subgroups of patients based on baseline sleep disruption and change over time. A total of 570 patients (mean age 55 years, 42% female) were included in the current analyses. Patients could be grouped into four distinct classes based on sleep disruption: (1) clinically significant sleep disruption at baseline that did not improve over time (20%); (2) clinically significant sleep disruption at baseline that improved over time (22%); (3) sleep disruption that did not reach clinical significance at baseline and did not improve over time (45%); and (4) no sleep disruption at baseline or over time (13%). These data provide a more comprehensive understanding of sleep disruption that can be used to develop interventions to improve sleep in HCT recipients.

  4. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2012-12-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Methods for providing decision makers with optimal solutions for multiple objectives that change over time

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available maker with the set of optimal solutions. Vector eValuated PSo Kennedy and eberhart [1] introduced particle swarm optimisation (PSo) that is based on the social behaviour of bird flocks. each swarm has a number of particles, with each particle... (VePSo) is a multi-swarm variation of PSo [2]. each swarm optimises only one objective and then shares its knowledge with another swarm. this is illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1: VePSo swarm-sharing knowledge reSultS the set of solutions found...

  6. Optimizing the Use of Storage Systems Provided by Cloud Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J. H.; Potter, N.; Byrne, D. A.; Ogata, J.; Relph, J.

    2013-12-01

    Cloud computing systems present a set of features that include familiar computing resources (albeit augmented to support dynamic scaling of processing power) bundled with a mix of conventional and unconventional storage systems. The linux base on which many Cloud environments (e.g., Amazon) are based make it tempting to assume that any Unix software will run efficiently in this environment efficiently without change. OPeNDAP and NODC collaborated on a short project to explore how the S3 and Glacier storage systems provided by the Amazon Cloud Computing infrastructure could be used with a data server developed primarily to access data stored in a traditional Unix file system. Our work used the Amazon cloud system, but we strived for designs that could be adapted easily to other systems like OpenStack. Lastly, we evaluated different architectures from a computer security perspective. We found that there are considerable issues associated with treating S3 as if it is a traditional file system, even though doing so is conceptually simple. These issues include performance penalties because using a software tool that emulates a traditional file system to store data in S3 performs poorly when compared to a storing data directly in S3. We also found there are important benefits beyond performance to ensuring that data written to S3 can directly accessed without relying on a specific software tool. To provide a hierarchical organization to the data stored in S3, we wrote 'catalog' files, using XML. These catalog files map discrete files to S3 access keys. Like a traditional file system's directories, the catalogs can also contain references to other catalogs, providing a simple but effective hierarchy overlaid on top of S3's flat storage space. An added benefit to these catalogs is that they can be viewed in a web browser; our storage scheme provides both efficient access for the data server and access via a web browser. We also looked at the Glacier storage system and

  7. Optimizing the patient-centered environment: results of guided tours with health care providers and employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Sara M; Turcios, Stephanie; LaVela, Sherri L

    2015-01-01

    To examine providers' perspectives on the care environment and patient-centered care (PCC) through the eyes of the veteran patient, using guided tours qualitative methodology. Environmental factors, such as attractiveness and function, have the potential to improve patients' experiences. Participatory qualitative methods allow researchers to explore the environment and facilitate discussion. Guided tours were conducted with 25 health care providers/employees at two Veterans Affairs (VA) health care facilities. In guided tours, participants lead the researcher through an environment, commenting on their surroundings, thoughts, and feelings. The researcher walks along with the participant, asking open-ended questions as needed to foster discussion and gain an understanding of the participant's view. Participants were asked to walk through the facility as though they were a veteran. Tours were audio recorded, with participant permission, and transcribed verbatim by research assistants. Three qualitative researchers were responsible for codebook development and coding transcripts and used data-driven coding approaches. Participants discussed physical appearance of the environment and how that influences perceptions about care. Overall, participants highlighted the need to shed the "institutional" appearance. Differences between VA and non-VA health care facilities were discussed, including availability of private rooms and staff to assist with navigating the facility. They reviewed resources in the facility, such as the information desk to assist patients and families. Finally, they offered suggestions for future improvements, including improvements to waiting areas and quiet areas for patients to relax and "get away" from their rooms. Participants highlighted many small changes to the care environment that could enhance the patient experience. Additionally, they examined the environment from the patient's perspective, to identify elements that enhance, or detract from

  8. Providing an empirical basis for optimizing the verification and testing phases of software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Basili, Victor R.; Hetmanski, Christopher J.

    1992-01-01

    Applying equal testing and verification effort to all parts of a software system is not very efficient, especially when resources are limited and scheduling is tight. Therefore, one needs to be able to differentiate low/high fault density components so that the testing/verification effort can be concentrated where needed. Such a strategy is expected to detect more faults and thus improve the resulting reliability of the overall system. This paper presents an alternative approach for constructing such models that is intended to fulfill specific software engineering needs (i.e. dealing with partial/incomplete information and creating models that are easy to interpret). Our approach to classification is as follows: (1) to measure the software system to be considered; and (2) to build multivariate stochastic models for prediction. We present experimental results obtained by classifying FORTRAN components developed at the NASA/GSFC into two fault density classes: low and high. Also we evaluate the accuracy of the model and the insights it provides into the software process.

  9. Pulmonary rehabilitation and COPD: providing patients a good environment for optimizing therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corhay JL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Louis Corhay, Delphine Nguyen Dang, Hélène Van Cauwenberge, Renaud Louis Department of Pneumology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire du Sart-Tilman Liège, Liège, Belgium Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an obstructive and progressive airway disease associated with an important reduction in daily physical activity and psychological problems that contribute to the patient's disability and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Nowadays, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR plays an essential role in the management of symptomatic patients with COPD, by breaking the vicious circle of dyspnea–decreased activity–deconditioning–isolation. Indeed the main benefits of comprehensive PR programs for patients with COPD include a decrease in symptoms (dyspnea and fatigue, improvements in exercise tolerance and HRQoL, reduction of health care utilization (particularly bed-days, as well as an increase in physical activity. Several randomized studies and meta-analyses greatly established the benefits of PR, which additionally, is recommended in a number of influential guidelines. This review aimed to highlight the impact of PR on COPD patients, focusing on the clinical usefulness of PR, which provides patients a good support for change. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exercise training, physical activity, quality of life

  10. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2010-04-01

    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  11. Designing area optimized application-specific network-on-chip architectures while providing hard QoS guarantees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Gul Khawaja

    Full Text Available With the increase of transistors' density, popularity of System on Chip (SoC has increased exponentially. As a communication module for SoC, Network on Chip (NoC framework has been adapted as its backbone. In this paper, we propose a methodology for designing area-optimized application specific NoC while providing hard Quality of Service (QoS guarantees for real time flows. The novelty of the proposed system lies in derivation of a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model which is then used to generate a resource optimal Network on Chip (NoC topology and architecture while considering traffic and QoS requirements. We also present the micro-architectural design features used for enabling traffic and latency guarantees and discuss how the solution adapts for dynamic variations in the application traffic. The paper highlights the effectiveness of proposed method by generating resource efficient NoC solutions for both industrial and benchmark applications. The area-optimized results are generated in few seconds by proposed technique, without resorting to heuristics, even for an application with 48 traffic flows.

  12. A Multi-Period Optimization Model for Service Providers Using Online Reservation Systems: An Application to Hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Jiao, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Cao, Qingfeng; Wang, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-period optimization model for high margin and zero salvage products in online distribution channels with classifying customers based on number of products required. Taking hotel customers as an example, one is regular customers who reserve rooms for one day, and the other is long term stay (LTS) customers who reserve rooms for a number of days. LTS may guarantee a specific amount of demand and generate opportunity income for a certain number of periods, meanwhile with risk of punishment incurred by overselling. By developing an operational optimization model and exploring the effects of parameters on optimal decisions, we suggest that service providers should make decisions based on the types of customers, number of products required, and duration of multi-period to reduce the loss of reputation and obtain more profit; at the same time, multi-period buying customers should buy products early. Finally, the paper conducts a numerical experiment, and the results are consistent with prevailing situations. PMID:26147663

  13. Exploring health care providers' perceptions of the needs of stroke carers: informing development of an optimal health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Casey L; Moore, Gaye; Rolley, John X; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Gonzales, Graeme; Hsueh, Ya-Seng Arthur; Castle, David

    2014-01-01

    Health care provider experiences of the carer have been researched, but little is written about how these can inform development of support programs. This study aimed to (1) explore health care provider perceptions of stroke carer roles and support needs and (2) examine carer needs across the stroke care trajectory to assist with development of an Optimal Health Program (OHP) to support carers. This study is part of a staged program of research that will evaluate and refine the OHP. Four dual-moderated semi-structured focus groups of stroke health care providers across acute, subacute, and community rehabilitation services were conducted. Facilitators used a semi-structured focus group schedule to guide discussion. Sessions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic and content analysis. Three key themes emerged: transition, information, and impact of stroke. A number of subthemes highlighted the distinct roles of health care providers and carers. Specific elements of the OHP were identified as having the potential to advance support for carers across the stroke care trajectory. Findings support the integration of an OHP for carers within existing stroke care services in Australian public hospital and community settings. This study suggests how health care provider experiences could inform a self-management OHP to assist carers in navigating stroke services and to address their health-related concerns.

  14. Toward Optimal Decision Making among Vulnerable Patients Referred for Cardiac Surgery: A Qualitative Analysis of Patient and Provider Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Ryan A; Curran, Janet; Buth, Karen J; David, Jennie G; Légaré, Jean-Francois; Hirsch, Gregory M

    2017-07-01

    Comprehension of risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options has been shown to be poor among patients referred for cardiac interventions. Patients' values and preferences are rarely explicitly sought. An increasing proportion of frail and older patients are undergoing complex cardiac surgical procedures with increased risk of both mortality and prolonged institutional care. We sought input from patients and caregivers to determine the optimal approach to decision making in this vulnerable patient population. Focus groups were held with both providers and former patients. Three focus groups were convened for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG), Valve, or CABG +Valve patients ≥ 70 y old (2-y post-op, ≤ 8-wk post-op, complicated post-op course) (n = 15). Three focus groups were convened for Intermediate Medical Care Unit (IMCU) nurses, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses, surgeons, anesthesiologists and cardiac intensivists (n = 20). We used a semi-structured interview format to ask questions surrounding the informed consent process. Transcribed audio data was analyzed to develop consistent and comprehensive themes. We identified 5 main themes that influence the decision making process: educational barriers, educational facilitators, patient autonomy and perceived autonomy, patient and family expectations of care, and decision making advocates. All themes were influenced by time constraints experienced in the current consent process. Patient groups expressed a desire to receive information earlier in their care to allow time to identify personal values and preferences in developing plans for treatment. Both groups strongly supported a formal approach for shared decision making with a decisional coach to provide information and facilitate communication with the care team. Identifying the barriers and facilitators to patient and caretaker engagement in decision making is a key step in the development of a structured, patient-centered SDM approach. Intervention

  15. Combined analysis of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein expression and promoter methylation provides optimized prognostication of glioblastoma outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalezari, Shadi; Chou, Arthur P.; Tran, Anh; Solis, Orestes E.; Khanlou, Negar; Chen, Weidong; Li, Sichen; Carrillo, Jose A.; Chowdhury, Reshmi; Selfridge, Julia; Sanchez, Desiree E.; Wilson, Ryan W.; Zurayk, Mira; Lalezari, Jonathan; Lou, Jerry J.; Ormiston, Laurel; Ancheta, Karen; Hanna, Robert; Miller, Paul; Piccioni, David; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Buchanan, Colin; Mischel, Paul S.; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L.; Green, Richard; Wang, He-Jing; Pope, Whitney B.; Liau, Linda M.; Elashoff, Robert M.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Yong, William H.; Lai, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Background Promoter methylation of the DNA repair gene, O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), is associated with improved treatment outcome for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) treated with standard chemoradiation. To determine the prognostic significance of MGMT protein expression as assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and its relationship with methylation, we analyzed MGMT expression and promoter methylation with survival in a retrospective patient cohort. Methods We identified 418 patients with newly diagnosed GBM at University of California Los Angeles Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles, nearly all of whom received chemoradiation, and determined MGMT expression by IHC, and MGMT promoter methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite sequencing (BiSEQ) of 24 neighboring CpG sites. Results With use of the median percentage of cells staining by IHC as the threshold, patients with <30% staining had progression-free survival (PFS) of 10.9 months and overall survival (OS) of 20.5 months, compared with PFS of 7.8 months (P < .0001) and OS of 16.7 months (P < .0001) among patients with ≥30% staining. Inter- and intrareader correlation of IHC staining was high. Promoter methylation status by MSP was correlated with IHC staining. However, low IHC staining was frequently observed in the absence of promoter methylation. Increased methylation density determined by BiSEQ correlated with both decreased IHC staining and increased survival, providing a practical semiquantitative alternative to MSP. On the basis of multivariate analysis validated by bootstrap analysis, patients with tandem promoter methylation and low expression demonstrated improved OS and PFS, compared with the other combinations. Conclusions Optimal assessment of MGMT status as a prognostic biomarker for patients with newly diagnosed GBM treated with chemoradiation requires determination of both promoter methylation and IHC protein expression. PMID:23328811

  16. Least squares QR-based decomposition provides an efficient way of computing optimal regularization parameter in photoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Calvin B; Prakash, Jaya; Pramanik, Manojit; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K

    2013-08-01

    A computationally efficient approach that computes the optimal regularization parameter for the Tikhonov-minimization scheme is developed for photoacoustic imaging. This approach is based on the least squares-QR decomposition which is a well-known dimensionality reduction technique for a large system of equations. It is shown that the proposed framework is effective in terms of quantitative and qualitative reconstructions of initial pressure distribution enabled via finding an optimal regularization parameter. The computational efficiency and performance of the proposed method are shown using a test case of numerical blood vessel phantom, where the initial pressure is exactly known for quantitative comparison.

  17. Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Focuses on mathematical structure, and on real-world applications. This book includes developments in several optimization-related topics such as decision theory, linear programming, turnpike theory, duality theory, convex analysis, and queuing theory.

  18. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Implications of Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupling on the Near-Field Safety of a Nuclear Waste Repository. Report of BMT1A/WP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Nguyen, T.S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (eds.)

    2005-02-15

    This report presents the works performed for the first phase (BMT1A) of BMT1 of the DECOVALEX III project for the period of 1999-2002. The works of BMT1 is divided into three phases: BMT1A, BMT1B and BMT1C. The BMT1A concerns with calibration of the computer codes with a reference T-H-M experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The objective is to validate the numerical approaches, computer codes and material models, so that the teams simulating tools are at a comparable level of maturity and sophistication in order to perform the scooping calculations defined in BMT1B and BMT1C. Five teams participated in studying BMT1A: CNSC (Canada), JNC (Japan), IRSN/CEA (France), ANDRA/INERIS (France) and SKI/KTH (Sweden), using FEM approach except the INERIS team (Using FDM approach). A simplified calibration test case of the in-situ experiment was proposed and defined as an axisymmetric model. The case focuses on the THM behaviour along a radial line (with a radial distance r as the coordinate) from the centre of the heater. The desired output parameters are: temperature, radial displacement, pore pressure, water content, the total radial stress and the radial and tangential strains, respectively. Time histories of these output parameters were calculated for both the heating and cooling phases. A number of improvements to the modelling of the Kamaishi Mine heater test were suggested and tested in this study. Although the model geometry is much simplified compared to the field test conditions, improved simulation of the general THM responses were obtained, as compared with the Task 2C results of DECOVALEX II. The measures taken for improvement were: i) Parameter changes (reduced rock mass permeability and rock mass thermal expansion by the SKI/KTH team, and increased thermal expansion coefficient and reduced swelling pressure constant of the buffer by JNC team); ii) Inclusion of the sealing of rock fractures by penetrating bentonite by the SKI/KTH team, which can explain the

  19. Dispatch of distributed energy resources to provide energy and reserve in smart grids using a particle swarm optimization approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Pedro; Soares, Tiago; Pinto, Tiago

    2013-01-01

    grid operation. Computational intelligence methods can be used to give a suitable solution for the resources scheduling problem considering the time constraints. This paper proposes a methodology for a joint dispatch of demand response and distributed generation to provide energy and reserve...... are recognized. The increasing integration of demand response and distributed generation resources, all of them mostly with small scale distributed characteristics, leads to the need of aggregating entities such as Virtual Power Players. The operation business models become more complex in the context of smart...

  20. Optimization of the racking hitch knot: how many half hitches and which suture material provide the greatest security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, James D; Vaishnav, Suketu; Saunders, Bradley M; Schrumpf, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    Reliable methods of fixation of soft tissue and bone are of utmost importance in reconstructive shoulder surgery and in many orthopaedic applications. Current methods of securing lesser tuberosity osteotomies performed during shoulder arthroplasty and tuberosity fixation performed during repair of proximal humeral fractures often rely on alternating half hitches or surgeon's knots regardless of the suture configuration used passing through the tissue (eg, Mason-Allen, Krackow). The racking hitch knot in contrast to half hitches allows sequential tightening, even under tension, with minimal risk of knot slippage or premature locking. These knot characteristics allow the surgeon to stepwise improve their reduction before committing and locking a construct, preventing hanging knots or under-tensioned repairs. However, little data exist to support the use the racking hitch knot to guide decision making regarding how to back up the knot or to explain the effect of suture material on security and strength. The objectives of our study were (1) to identify the optimal number of half hitches necessary to maintain knot security for a single knot; (2) to evaluate if a difference exists in the relative behavior of racking hitch knots when tied using different suture materials; and (3) to define the biomechanical differences between the racking hitch and two other knot configurations commonly used in shoulder surgery (Weston and square knots). Using an Instron device we tested the effect of adding supplemental half hitches (from one to four) to the racking hitch. Additionally, a selection of commercially available braided nonabsorbable polyethylene sutures and different knot configurations (racking hitch, Weston knot, and square knot) also were tested. Data were compared using ANOVA. Increasing the number of half hitches improved knot performance in peak load testing and cyclic testing, revealing a significant difference between the racking hitch supplemented with one and four

  1. [A scientific providing for the system of hygienic optimization and anti-epidemic safety of rail ridership].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vil'k, M F; Korotich, L P; Polyakova, V

    2013-01-01

    The system of scientific and reasonable measures for hygienic and anti-epidemic providing of rail ridership is elaborated. The legal and methodical base for precautionary and current sanitary inspection in the field of hygiene and epidemiology of ridership has been created, standard and methodical documents have been introduced in practice of medical sanitary health services of the railroads and accepted to realization by the design, car-building and car-repair organizations. Sanitary and hygienic monitoring for rail ridership, including control for sanitary, hygienic and microbiological indices of the air environment of passenger and service premises of stations and passenger trains, and also control for indices of health of the workers providing ridership, with use of pre-nosological symptoms of pathology is organized. Features of a bacterial aero-plankton of passenger objects are revealed. The increase of indices of bacterial pollution of air in passenger objects during the summer-autumn periods of year in comparison with winter period is established. Direct relationship between levels of bacterial air pollution of passenger rooms of stations and integrated indices of anti-infectious stability of an organism of workers of the railway stations serving ridership, and also number of persons with the changed indices of the immune status is revealed.

  2. Providing Optimal Palliative Care for Persons Living with Dementia: A Comparison of Physician Perceptions in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Kevin; Galway, Karen; Carter, Gillian; van der Steen, Jenny T

    2017-05-01

    The European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) recently issued a framework that defines optimal palliative care in dementia. However, implementation of the guidelines may pose challenges for physicians working with dementia patients in practice. To measure and compare the perceptions of physicians in two European regions regarding the importance and challenges of implementing recommendations for optimal palliative care in dementia patients. Cross-sectional observational study. The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Physicians (n = 317) providing palliative care to patients with dementia. Postal survey. Physicians in the Netherlands and Northern Ireland (NI), United Kingdom, prioritized the same domains of optimal palliative care for dementia and these match the priorities in the EAPC-endorsed guidelines. Respondents in both countries rated lack of education of professional teams and lack of awareness of the general public among the most important barriers to providing palliative care in dementia. NI respondents also identified access to specialist support as a barrier. The results indicate that there is a strong consensus among experts, elderly care physicians, and general practitioners across a variety of settings in Europe that person-centered care involving optimal communication and shared decision making is the top priority for delivering optimal palliative care in dementia. The current findings both support and enhance the new recommendations ratified by the EAPC. To take forward the implementation of EAPC guidelines for palliative care for dementia, it will be necessary to assess the challenges more thoroughly at a country-specific level and to design and test interventions that may include systemic changes to help physicians overcome such challenges.

  3. Psychosocial interventions in opiate substitution treatment services: does the evidence provide a case for optimism or nihilism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ed; Mitcheson, Luke

    2017-08-01

    Clinical guidelines from around the world recommend the delivery of psychosocial interventions as part of routine care in opiate substitution treatment (OST) programmes. However, although individual studies demonstrate benefit for structured psychosocial interventions, meta-analytical reviews find no benefit for manual-based treatments beyond 'routine counselling'. We consider the question of whether OST medication alone is sufficient to produce the required outcomes, or whether greater efforts should be made to provide high-quality psychosocial treatment alongside medication. In so doing, we consider the nuances and limitations of the evidence and the organizational barriers to transferring it into routine practice. The evidence base for psychosocial interventions in opiate substitution treatment (OST) services can be interpreted both positively and negatively. Steering a path between overly optimistic or nihilistic interpretations of the value of psychosocial treatment in OST programmes is the most pragmatic approach. Greater attention should be paid to elements common to all psychological treatments (such as therapeutic alliance), but also to the sequencing and packaging of psychosocial elements and their linkage to peer-led interventions. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. The design of a high-efficiency neutron counter for waste drums to provide optimized sensitivity for plutonium assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.H.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    An advanced passive neutron counter has been designed to improve the accuracy and sensitivity for the nondestructive assay of plutonium in scrap and waste containers. The High-Efficiency Neutron Counter (HENC) was developed under a Cooperative Research Development Agreement between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Canberra Industries. The primary goal of the development was to produce a passive assay system for 200-L drums that has detectability limits and multiplicity counting features that are superior to previous systems. A detectability limit figure of merit (FOM) was defined that included the detector efficiency, the neutron die-away time, and the detector's active volume and density that determine the cosmic-ray background. Monte Carlo neutron calculations were performed to determine the parameters to provide an optimum FOM. The system includes the 252 Cf open-quotes add-a-sourceclose quotes feature to improve the accuracy as well as statistical filters to reduce the cosmic-ray spallation neutron background. The final decision gave an efficiency of 32% for plutonium with a detector 3 He tube volume that is significantly smaller than for previous high-efficiency systems for 200-L drums. Because of the high efficiency of the HENC, we have incorporated neutron multiplicity counting for matrix corrections for those cases where the plutonium is localized in nonuniform hydrogenous materials. The paper describes the design and performance testing of the advanced system. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  5. An imaging informatics-based ePR (electronic patient record) system for providing decision support in evaluating dose optimization in stroke rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Brent J.; Winstein, Carolee; Wang, Ximing; Konersman, Matt; Martinez, Clarisa; Schweighofer, Nicolas

    2012-02-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of death and disability in America. After stroke, about 65% of survivors still suffer from severe paresis, while rehabilitation treatment strategy after stroke plays an essential role in recovery. Currently, there is a clinical trial (NIH award #HD065438) to determine the optimal dose of rehabilitation for persistent recovery of arm and hand paresis. For DOSE (Dose Optimization Stroke Evaluation), laboratory-based measurements, such as the Wolf Motor Function test, behavioral questionnaires (e.g. Motor Activity Log-MAL), and MR, DTI, and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) imaging studies are planned. Current data collection processes are tedious and reside in various standalone systems including hardcopy forms. In order to improve the efficiency of this clinical trial and facilitate decision support, a web-based imaging informatics system has been implemented together with utilizing mobile devices (eg, iPAD, tablet PC's, laptops) for collecting input data and integrating all multi-media data into a single system. The system aims to provide clinical imaging informatics management and a platform to develop tools to predict the treatment effect based on the imaging studies and the treatment dosage with mathematical models. Since there is a large amount of information to be recorded within the DOSE project, the system provides clinical data entry through mobile device applications thus allowing users to collect data at the point of patient interaction without typing into a desktop computer, which is inconvenient. Imaging analysis tools will also be developed for structural MRI, DTI, and TMS imaging studies that will be integrated within the system and correlated with the clinical and behavioral data. This system provides a research platform for future development of mathematical models to evaluate the differences between prediction and reality and thus improve and refine the models rapidly and efficiently.

  6. A novel electrospun biphasic scaffold provides optimal three-dimensional topography for in vitro co-culture of airway epithelial and fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G E; Bridge, J C; Brace, L A; Knox, A J; Aylott, J W; Brightling, C E; Ghaemmaghami, A M; Rose, F R A J

    2014-09-01

    Conventional airway in vitro models focus upon the function of individual structural cells cultured in a two-dimensional monolayer, with limited three-dimensional (3D) models of the bronchial mucosa. Electrospinning offers an attractive method to produce defined, porous 3D matrices for cell culture. To investigate the effects of fibre diameter on airway epithelial and fibroblast cell growth and functionality, we manipulated the concentration and deposition rate of the non-degradable polymer polyethylene terephthalate to create fibres with diameters ranging from nanometre to micrometre. The nanofibre scaffold closely resembles the basement membrane of the bronchiole mucosal layer, and epithelial cells cultured at the air-liquid interface on this scaffold showed polarized differentiation. The microfibre scaffold mimics the porous sub-mucosal layer of the airway into which lung fibroblast cells showed good penetration. Using these defined electrospinning parameters we created a biphasic scaffold with 3D topography tailored for optimal growth of both cell types. Epithelial and fibroblast cells were co-cultured onto the apical nanofibre phase and the basal microfibre phase respectively, with enhanced epithelial barrier formation observed upon co-culture. This biphasic scaffold provides a novel 3D in vitro platform optimized to mimic the different microenvironments the cells encounter in vivo on which to investigate key airway structural cell interactions in airway diseases such as asthma.

  7. Numerical fluid-dynamic optimization of microchannel-provided porous scaffolds for the co-culture of adherent and non-adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Marco; Fiore, Gianfranco B; Redaelli, Alberto; Soncini, Monica

    2009-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques were used to optimize the microenvironment inside scaffolds for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) culture in a perfusion bioreactor. These matrices are meant to be seeded with adherent bone marrow stromal cells and then co-cultivated with HSCs; the scaffold micro-architecture and the fluid-dynamic conditions have to be optimized to avoid non-adherent stem cells being dragged away while ensuring adequate nutrient supply. The insertion of longitudinal microchannels was tested as a tool to improve perfusion in a homogeneous porous scaffold. Models of microchannel-provided scaffolds, characterized by different values of geometric parameters concerning pores and channels, were built, and numerical fluid-dynamic and oxygen-transfer analyses were carried out. The results of the computations indicated that the microchannels created preferential paths for culture medium flow, causing low shear stresses and drag forces within the pores; meanwhile, they improved oxygen delivery by forcing its penetration into the scaffold bulk. In particular, an 85% porous, 3-mm-thick scaffold with 175-microm-diameter pores was considered; at a constant average drag force guaranteeing stem cell suspension inside this porous bulk, the addition of approximately 260-microm-diameter, 700-microm-spaced channels resulted in 34% higher oxygen partial pressure at the exit (approximately 135 vs 101 mmHg), maintaining a wall shear stress median value of approximately 0.14 mPa. The present work demonstrates the capacity of microchannel-provided scaffolds to ensure suitable conditions for HSC culture and shows that CFD methods are a valuable tool to retrieve significant clues for the design of the culture environment.

  8. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. The Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Responses to a Glacial Cycle and their Potential Implications for Deep Geological Disposal of Nuclear Fuel Waste in a Fractured Crystalline Rock Mass. Report of BMT3/WP4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, T.; Stanchell, F.W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, Toronto (Canada); Christiansson, R. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Figeholm (Sweden); Boulton, G.S. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of GeoSciences; Eriksson, L.O.; Vistrand, P.; Wallroth, T. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geology; Hartikainen, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Inst. of Mathematics; Jensen, M.R. [0ntario Power Generation, Toronto (Canada); Mas lvars, D. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Land and Water Resources engineering

    2005-02-15

    A number of studies related to past and on-going deep repository performance assessments have identified glaciation/deglaciation as major future events in the next few hundred thousand years capable of causing significant impact on the long term performance of the repository system. Benchmark Test 3 (BMT3) of the international DECOVALEX III project has been designed to provide an illustrative example that explores the mechanical and hydraulic response of a fractured crystalline rock mass to a period of glaciation. The primary purpose of this numerical study is to investigate whether transient events associated with a glacial cycle could significantly influence the performance of a deep geological repository in a crystalline shield setting. A conceptual site-scale (tens of kilometres) hydro-mechanical (HM) model was assembled based primarily on site-specific litho-structural, hydrogeological and geomechanical data from the Whiteshell Research Area in the Canadian Shield, with simplification and generalization. Continental glaciological modelling of the Laurentide ice sheet through the last glacial cycle lasting approximately 100,000 years suggests that this site was glaciated at about 60 ka and between about 22.5 ka and 11 ka before present with maximum ice sheet thickness reaching 2,500 m and maximum basal water pressure head reaching 2000 m. The ice-sheet/drainage model was scaled down to generate spatially and temporally variable hydraulic and mechanical glaciated surface boundary conditions for site-scale subsurface HM modelling and permafrost modelling. Under extreme periglacial conditions permafrost was able to develop down to the assumed 500-m repository horizon. Two- and three-dimensional coupled HM finite-element simulations indicate: during ice-sheet advance there is rapid rise in hydraulic head, high transient hydraulic gradients and high groundwater velocities 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than under nonglacial conditions; surface water recharges deeper

  9. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Approaches to Upscaling Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes in a Fractured Rock. Mass and its Significance for Large-Scale Repository Performance Assessment. Summary of Findings. Report of BMT2/WP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Staub, Isabelle; Knight, Les

    2005-02-01

    The Benchmark Test 2 of DECOVALEX III and Work Package 3 of BENCHPAR concerns the upscaling Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) processes in a fractured rock mass and its significance for large-scale repository performance assessment. The work is primarily concerned with the extent to which various thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings in a fractured rock mass adjacent to a repository are significant in terms of solute transport typically calculated in large-scale repository performance assessments. Since the presence of even quite small fractures may control the hydraulic, mechanical and coupled hydromechanical behaviour of the rock mass, a key of the work has been to explore the extent to which these can be upscaled and represented by 'equivalent' continuum properties appropriate PA calculations. From these general aims the BMT was set-up as a numerical study of a large scale reference problem. Analysing this reference problem should: help explore how different means of simplifying the geometrical detail of a site, with its implications on model parameters, ('upscaling') impacts model predictions of relevance to repository performance, explore to what extent the THM-coupling needs to be considered in relation to PA-measures, compare the uncertainties in upscaling (both to uncertainty on how to upscale or uncertainty that arises due to the upscaling processes) and consideration of THM couplings with the inherent uncertainty and spatial variability of the site specific data. Furthermore, it has been an essential component of the work that individual teams not only produce numerical results but are forced to make their own judgements and to provide the proper justification for their conclusions based on their analysis. It should also be understood that conclusions drawn will partly be specific to the problem analysed, in particular as it mainly concerns a 2D application. This means that specific conclusions may have limited applicability to real problems in

  10. DECOVALEX III III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Approaches to Upscaling Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes in a Fractured Rock. Mass and its Significance for Large-Scale Repository Performance Assessment. Summary of Findings. Report of BMT2/WP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (comp.) [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Staub, Isabelle (comp.) [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Knight, Les (comp.) [Nirex UK Ltd, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-15

    The Benchmark Test 2 of DECOVALEX III and Work Package 3 of BENCHPAR concerns the upscaling Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) processes in a fractured rock mass and its significance for large-scale repository performance assessment. The work is primarily concerned with the extent to which various thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings in a fractured rock mass adjacent to a repository are significant in terms of solute transport typically calculated in large-scale repository performance assessments. Since the presence of even quite small fractures may control the hydraulic, mechanical and coupled hydromechanical behaviour of the rock mass, a key of the work has been to explore the extent to which these can be upscaled and represented by 'equivalent' continuum properties appropriate PA calculations. From these general aims the BMT was set-up as a numerical study of a large scale reference problem. Analysing this reference problem should: help explore how different means of simplifying the geometrical detail of a site, with its implications on model parameters, ('upscaling') impacts model predictions of relevance to repository performance, explore to what extent the THM-coupling needs to be considered in relation to PA-measures, compare the uncertainties in upscaling (both to uncertainty on how to upscale or uncertainty that arises due to the upscaling processes) and consideration of THM couplings with the inherent uncertainty and spatial variability of the site specific data. Furthermore, it has been an essential component of the work that individual teams not only produce numerical results but are forced to make their own judgements and to provide the proper justification for their conclusions based on their analysis. It should also be understood that conclusions drawn will partly be specific to the problem analysed, in particular as it mainly concerns a 2D application. This means that specific conclusions may have limited applicability

  11. Optimization and Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Chinchuluun, Altannar; Enkhbat, Rentsen; Tseveendorj, Ider

    2010-01-01

    During the last four decades there has been a remarkable development in optimization and optimal control. Due to its wide variety of applications, many scientists and researchers have paid attention to fields of optimization and optimal control. A huge number of new theoretical, algorithmic, and computational results have been observed in the last few years. This book gives the latest advances, and due to the rapid development of these fields, there are no other recent publications on the same topics. Key features: Provides a collection of selected contributions giving a state-of-the-art accou

  12. Providing Optimal Palliative Care for Persons Living with Dementia: A Comparison of Physician Perceptions in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazil, K.; Galway, K.; Carter, G.; Steen, J.T. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) recently issued a framework that defines optimal palliative care in dementia. However, implementation of the guidelines may pose challenges for physicians working with dementia patients in practice. OBJECTIVE: To measure and compare the

  13. 'Outbreak Gold Standard' selection to provide optimized threshold for infectious diseases early-alert based on China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Ping; Jiang, Yong-Gen; Zhao, Gen-Ming; Guo, Xiao-Qin; Michael, Engelgau

    2017-12-01

    The China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) was successfully implemented and became operational nationwide in 2008. The CIDARS plays an important role in and has been integrated into the routine outbreak monitoring efforts of the Center for Disease Control (CDC) at all levels in China. In the CIDARS, thresholds are determined using the "Mean+2SD‟ in the early stage which have limitations. This study compared the performance of optimized thresholds defined using the "Mean +2SD‟ method to the performance of 5 novel algorithms to select optimal "Outbreak Gold Standard (OGS)‟ and corresponding thresholds for outbreak detection. Data for infectious disease were organized by calendar week and year. The "Mean+2SD‟, C1, C2, moving average (MA), seasonal model (SM), and cumulative sum (CUSUM) algorithms were applied. Outbreak signals for the predicted value (Px) were calculated using a percentile-based moving window. When the outbreak signals generated by an algorithm were in line with a Px generated outbreak signal for each week, this Px was then defined as the optimized threshold for that algorithm. In this study, six infectious diseases were selected and classified into TYPE A (chickenpox and mumps), TYPE B (influenza and rubella) and TYPE C [hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and scarlet fever]. Optimized thresholds for chickenpox (P 55 ), mumps (P 50 ), influenza (P 40 , P 55 , and P 75 ), rubella (P 45 and P 75 ), HFMD (P 65 and P 70 ), and scarlet fever (P 75 and P 80 ) were identified. The C1, C2, CUSUM, SM, and MA algorithms were appropriate for TYPE A. All 6 algorithms were appropriate for TYPE B. C1 and CUSUM algorithms were appropriate for TYPE C. It is critical to incorporate more flexible algorithms as OGS into the CIDRAS and to identify the proper OGS and corresponding recommended optimized threshold by different infectious disease types.

  14. NXFit: A program for simultaneously fitting X-ray and neutron diffraction pair-distribution functions to provide optimized structural parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Pickup, D.M.; Moss, R.; Newport, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    NXFit is a program for obtaining optimized structural parameters from amorphous materials by simultaneously fitting X-ray and neutron pair-distribution functions. Partial correlation functions are generated in Q space, summed and Fourier transformed for comparison with the experimental data in r space. NXFit uses the Nelder-Mead method to vary a set of 'best guess' parameters to achieve a fit to experimentally derived data. The output parameters from NXFit are coordination number, atomic sepa...

  15. Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf Ritonga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Titer and cloud point of Distilled Oleic Acid is higher than is the standard on feed composition palmitic acid (C15H31COOH or C16 11.2 %. Feed composition C16, top temperature precut and bottom main distiller column were optimized to produce DOA. A factorial design with 3 independent variables, 3 X 2 X 3, repeated twice as much, is applied to observe effects of feed composition C16 to quality parameters. In the optimum C16, feed composition at 5.20 % produced DOA with titer 6.8 oC, cloud point 5.0 oC (inside its specification.

  16. Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Yusuf Ritonga

    2010-01-01

    Titer and cloud point Distilled Oleic Acid’s higher than standard on feed composition palmitic acid (C15H31COOH) or C16 11.2 %. Feed composition C16, top temperature precut and bottom main distiller column were optimized to produce DOA. A factorial design 3 independent variables 3 X 2 X 3, twice repeating’s applied to observe effects of feed composition C16 to quality parameters. On the optimum C16 feed composition at 5.20 % was produced DOA with titer 6.8 oC, cloud point 5.0 oC (inside it...

  17. Providing and optimizing functional MR (Magnetic Resonance) of motor cortex of human brain by MRI ( Magnetic Resonance Imaging) facilities of Imam Khomeinie Hospital

    CERN Document Server

    Khosravie, H R

    2000-01-01

    During the stimulation, an observable increased signal (%2-%5)in respective sensory-motor cortex was obtained after correcting for partial volume effects, optimizing S/N,and incorporating small vowels. The 2 D F A S T functional image obtained by this method, showed an anatomical association of the increased signal with gray matter of sensory-motor cortex(in T 1 weighted image). The resultant data showed the feasibility of functional magnetic resonance imaging using optimized gradient echo sequences on a standard 1.5 T imager. Display of human brain cortical activity is accomplished using various techniques, by them different spatial and temporal resolution may be obtained. F MRI technique with proper spatial and temporal resolution due to its noninvasivity is one of the promising techniques for detection of brain activities. This can be used as an important tool by neurologists, since a great development has been achieved for display different brain function. This thesis report the results of simulation effe...

  18. Providing and optimizing functional MR (Magnetic Resonance) of motor cortex of human brain by MRI ( Magnetic Resonance Imaging) facilities of Imam Khomeinie Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosravie, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Display of human brain cortical activity is accomplished using various techniques, by them different spatial and temporal resolution may be obtained. F MRI technique with proper spatial and temporal resolution due to its noninvasivity is one of the promising techniques for detection of brain activities. This can be used as an important tool by neurologists, since a great development has been achieved for display different brain function. This thesis report the results of simulation effects of thumb motor cortex of normal volunteer by using conventional standard 1.5 T imager and optimized gradient echo techniques. Activating sensory and motor stimulations can be led to, respective cortical area of that stimulation by which oxygenated blood flow is increased in that area (Bold contrast). By designing of a T 2* sensitized gradient echo protocol, thumb's sensory and motor cortex activation is evaluated. A protocol known as F AST i n picker system with the following specifications was used for F MRI: Band Width:24 Hz/Pixel, Tr=101 m Sec , T E=49 m Sec , Flip Angle= 10 deg., N E X=1 ,Slice thickness=5-7 mm F O V=250 mm ,Matrix=128*128 and total scan time= 14 Sec. Stimulation of the motor cortex was performed by periodic movement of dominant thumb in up-down and right-left direction within a Ls hape trajectory of plastic sheet with a frequency about 2 Hz. Then, acquired images in rest and stimulation period were evaluated by S P M 97, S P M 99 b software. During the stimulation, an observable increased signal (%2-%5)in respective sensory-motor cortex was obtained after correcting for partial volume effects, optimizing S/N,and incorporating small vowels. The 2 D F A S T functional image obtained by this method, showed an anatomical association of the increased signal with gray matter of sensory-motor cortex(in T 1 weighted image). The resultant data showed the feasibility of functional magnetic resonance imaging using optimized gradient echo sequences on a standard 1.5 T

  19. Optimized droplet digital CFU assay (ddCFU) provides precise quantification of bacteria over a dynamic range of 6 logs and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, O; Pacocha, N; Debski, P R; Ruszczak, A; Kaminski, T S; Garstecki, P

    2017-05-31

    Standard digital assays need a large number of compartments for precise quantification of a sample over a broad dynamic range. We address this issue with an optimized droplet digital approach that uses a drastically reduced number of compartments for quantification. We generate serial logarithmic dilutions of an initial bacterial sample as an array of microliter-sized droplet plugs. In a subsequent step, these droplets are split into libraries of nanoliter droplets and pooled together for incubation and analysis. We show that our technology is at par with traditional dilution plate count for quantification of bacteria, but has the advantage of simplifying the experimental setup and reducing the manual workload. The method also has the potential to reduce the assay time significantly.

  20. Landscape resistance and habitat combine to provide an optimal model of genetic structure and connectivity at the range margin of a small mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrotte, R R; Gonzalez, A; Millien, V

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of habitat and landscape characteristics on the population genetic structure of the white-footed mouse. We develop a new approach that uses numerical optimization to define a model that combines site differences and landscape resistance to explain the genetic differentiation between mouse populations inhabiting forest patches in southern Québec. We used ecological distance computed from resistance surfaces with Circuitscape to infer the effect of the landscape matrix on gene flow. We calculated site differences using a site index of habitat characteristics. A model that combined site differences and resistance distances explained a high proportion of the variance in genetic differentiation and outperformed models that used geographical distance alone. Urban and agriculture-related land uses were, respectively, the most and the least resistant landscape features influencing gene flow. Our method detected the effect of rivers and highways as highly resistant linear barriers. The density of grass and shrubs on the ground best explained the variation in the site index of habitat characteristics. Our model indicates that movement of white-footed mouse in this region is constrained along routes of low resistance. Our approach can generate models that may improve predictions of future northward range expansion of this small mammal. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A CONTEXT AWARE BASED PRE-HANDOFF SUPPORT APPROACH TO PROVIDE OPTIMAL QOS FOR STREAMING APPLICATIONS OVER VEHICULAR AD HOC NETWORKS – HOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RAMESH BABU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large variations in network Quality of Service (QoS such as bandwidth, latency, jitter, and reliability may occur during media transfer over vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET. Usage of VANET over mobile and wireless computing applications experience “bursty” QoS behavior during the execution over distributed network scenarios. Applications such as streaming media services need to adapt their functionalities to any change in network status. Moreover, an enhanced software platform is necessary to provide adaptive network management services to upper software components. HOSA, a handoff service broker based architecture for QoS adaptation over VANET supports in providing awareness. HOSA is structured as a middleware platform both to provide QoS awareness to streaming applications as well to manage dynamic ad hoc network resources with support over handoff in an adaptive fashion. HOSA is well analyzed over routing schemes such as TIBSCRPH, SIP and ABSRP where performance of HOSA was measured using throughput, traffic intensity and end to end delay. HOSA has been analyzed using JXTA development toolkit over C++ implemented classes to demonstrate its performance over varying node mobility established using vehicular mobility based conference application.

  2. Immortalized prairie vole-derived fibroblasts (VMF-K4DTs) can be transformed into pluripotent stem cells and provide a useful tool with which to determine optimal reprogramming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Masafumi; Hirayama, Takashi; Kiyono, Tohru; Onuma, Manabu; Tani, Tetsuya; Takeda, Satoru; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Tomokazu

    2017-06-21

    The cellular conditions required to establish induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), such as the number of reprogramming factors and/or promoter selection, differ among species. The establishment of iPSCs derived from cells of previously unstudied species therefore requires the extensive optimization of programming conditions, including promoter selection and the optimal number of reprogramming factors, through a trial-and-error approach. While the four Yamanaka factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc are sufficient for iPSC establishment in mice, we reported previously that six reprogramming factors were necessary for the creation of iPSCs from primary prairie vole-derived cells. Further to this study, we now show detailed data describing the optimization protocol we developed in order to obtain iPSCs from immortalized prairie vole-derived fibroblasts. Immortalized cells can be very useful tools in the optimization of cellular reprogramming conditions, as cellular senescence is known to dramatically decrease the efficiency of iPSC establishment. The immortalized prairie vole cells used in this optimization were designated K4DT cells as they contained mutant forms of CDK4, cyclin D, and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). We show that iPSCs derived from these immortalized cells exhibit the transcriptional silencing of exogenous reprogramming factors while maintaining pluripotent cell morphology. There were no observed differences between the iPSCs derived from primary and immortalized prairie vole fibroblasts. Our data suggest that cells that are immortalized with mutant CDK4, cyclin D, and TERT provide a useful tool for the determination of the optimal conditions for iPSC establishment.

  3. Gly184 of the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein provides optimal context for both DNA binding and RNA polymerase interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Matt N; Gunasekara, Sanjiva; Serate, Jose; Park, Jin; Mosharaf, Pegah; Zhou, Yue; Lee, Jin-Won; Youn, Hwan

    2017-10-01

    The Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP) utilizes the helix-turn-helix motif for DNA binding. The CRP's recognition helix, termed F-helix, includes a stretch of six amino acids (Arg180, Glu181, Thr182, Val183, Gly184, and Arg185) for direct DNA contacts. Arg180, Glu181 and Arg185 are known as important residues for DNA binding and specificity, but little has been studied for the other residues. Here we show that Gly184 is another F-helix residue critical for the transcriptional activation function of CRP. First, glycine was repeatedly selected at CRP position 184 for its unique ability to provide wild type-level transcriptional activation activity. To dissect the glycine requirement, wild type CRP and mutants G184A, G184F, G184S, and G184Y were purified and their in vitro DNA-binding activity was measured. G184A and G184F displayed reduced DNA binding, which may explain their low transcriptional activation activity. However, G184S and G184Y displayed apparently normal DNA affinity. Therefore, an additional factor is needed to account for the diminished transcriptional activation function in G184S and G184Y, and the best explanation is perturbations in their interaction with RNA polymerase. The fact that glycine is the smallest amino acid could not fully warrant its suitability, as shown in this study. We hypothesize that Gly184 fulfills the dual functions of DNA binding and RNA polymerase interaction by conferring conformational flexibility to the F-helix.

  4. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  5. Exploring the Role of Islamic Microfinance Institution in Poverty Alleviation Through Microenterprises Development, A Case Study of Islamic Financial Cooperative (BMT) in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Indah Riwajanti

    2014-01-01

    Poverty alleviation might be carried out through many different approaches. Among others, provision of access to financing for microenterprises is likely to be important considering that the main problem of microenterprises is fast and easy access to financing. Taking into account that the majority of Indonesian population are Muslim, provision of Islamic micro financing, particularly through BMT (Baitul Maal wa Tamweel) to microenterprises could be one potential solution. This study aims to ...

  6. A technique for determining the optimum mix of logistics service providers of a make-to-order supply chain by formulating and solving a constrained nonlinear cost optimization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjoy Roy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a technique has been developed to determine the optimum mix of logistic service providers of a make-to-order (MTO supply chain. A serial MTO supply chain with different stages/ processes has been considered. For each stage different logistic service providers with different mean processing lead times, but same lead time variances are available. A realistic assumption that for each stage, the logistic service provider who charges more for his service consumes less processing lead time and vice-versa has been made in our study. Thus for each stage, for each service provider, a combination of cost and mean processing lead time is available. Using these combinations, for each stage, a polynomial curve, expressing cost of that stage as a function of mean processing lead time is fit. Cumulating all such expressions of cost for the different stages along with incorporation of suitable constraints arising out of timely delivery, results in the formulation of a constrained nonlinear cost optimization problem. On solving the problem using mathematica, optimum processing lead time for each stage is obtained. Using these optimum processing lead times and by employing a simple technique the optimum logistic service provider mix of the supply chain along with the corresponding total cost of processing is determined. Finally to examine the effect of changes in different parameters on the optimum total processing cost of the supply chain, sensitivity analysis has been carried out graphically.

  7. Better movers and thinkers (BMT: A quasi-experimental study into the impact of physical education on children's cognition—A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Dalziell

    2015-01-01

    This protocol provides the details of the rationale and design of the study and details of the intervention, outcome measures, and the recruitment process. The study will address gaps within current research by evaluating if a change of approach in the delivery of PE within schools has an effect on children's cognition, PA habits, and GMC within a Scottish setting.

  8. BMT Abatacept for Non-Malignant Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-29

    Hurler Syndrome; Fanconi Anemia; Glanzmann Thrombasthenia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Severe Congenital Neutropenia; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Dyskeratosis-congenita; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Severe Aplastic Anemia; Thalassemia Major; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; Sickle Cell Disease

  9. Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Gene Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) forms one of the neglected tropical disease of genetic aetiology. Unlike many complex genetic diseases inherited on a multiallelic pattern, SCA is a hemoglobinopathy of Mendelian type genetic inheritance. The SCA trait is inherited through a recessive autosomal link, with the ...

  10. Handbook of optimization in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos M

    2008-01-01

    Covers the field of optimization in telecommunications, and the optimization developments that are frequently applied to telecommunications. This book aims to provide a reference tool for scientists and engineers in telecommunications who depend upon optimization.

  11. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  12. Particle Swarm Optimization Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The Particle Swarm Optimization Toolbox is a library of evolutionary optimization tools developed in the MATLAB environment. The algorithms contained in the library include a genetic algorithm (GA), a single-objective particle swarm optimizer (SOPSO), and a multi-objective particle swarm optimizer (MOPSO). Development focused on both the SOPSO and MOPSO. A GA was included mainly for comparison purposes, and the particle swarm optimizers appeared to perform better for a wide variety of optimization problems. All algorithms are capable of performing unconstrained and constrained optimization. The particle swarm optimizers are capable of performing single and multi-objective optimization. The SOPSO and MOPSO algorithms are based on swarming theory and bird-flocking patterns to search the trade space for the optimal solution or optimal trade in competing objectives. The MOPSO generates Pareto fronts for objectives that are in competition. A GA, based on Darwin evolutionary theory, is also included in the library. The GA consists of individuals that form a population in the design space. The population mates to form offspring at new locations in the design space. These offspring contain traits from both of the parents. The algorithm is based on this combination of traits from parents to hopefully provide an improved solution than either of the original parents. As the algorithm progresses, individuals that hold these optimal traits will emerge as the optimal solutions. Due to the generic design of all optimization algorithms, each algorithm interfaces with a user-supplied objective function. This function serves as a "black-box" to the optimizers in which the only purpose of this function is to evaluate solutions provided by the optimizers. Hence, the user-supplied function can be numerical simulations, analytical functions, etc., since the specific detail of this function is of no concern to the optimizer. These algorithms were originally developed to support entry

  13. Geração de planos de produção via otimização seqüencial subótima Providing production plans via suboptimal sequential optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Salviano Silva Filho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são discutidos aspectos relacionados à tomada de decisão dentro de um processo hierárquico de planejamento da produção. Neste contexto, foi desenvolvido um modelo agregado para um problema de planejamento estocástico, com restrições de chances nas variáveis de decisão, que serve como meta de produção a ser atingida nos níveis inferiores da hierarquia. Solução ótima global para este tipo de problema seqüencial é muito difícil, a menos em casos de pequena dimensão via algoritmo de programação dinâmica estocástica. Assim, como alternativa, investigou-se a utilização de uma heurística subótima denominada open-loop feedback controller (OLFC, que é muito simples de ser implementada computacionalmente. Como exemplo de aplicação, um problema mono-produto de planejamento agregado da produção foi formulado e a política subótima OLFC foi comparada à solução ótima usando o algoritmo de programação dinâmica estocástica. Além dos aspectos numéricos, algumas propriedades são analisadas, como a quase adaptabilidade do procedimento OLFC.In this paper, the need for developing an aggregate production plan within a hierarchical decision process is discussed. A production planning problem formulated as a sequential stochastic optimal control model with chance constraints is introduced. A global optimal solution is only possible in particular cases with a small number of decision variables. As a consequence, near optimal solutions are usually developed and applied to solve sequential stochastic problems. A suboptimal approach, called Open-Loop Feedback Controller (OLFC, is proposed to solve the aggregate stochastic production planning problem. A simple example is used to evaluate the performance of the OLFC solution computationally in relation to the global (closed-loop and mean (open-loop optimal solutions. Quasi-adaptability property of the OLFC procedure is analysed in this example.

  14. Optimization Library for Interactive Multi-Criteria Optimization Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The commercial library Optimization 2.1 for interactive multi-criteria optimization tasks has been released along with Dymola 2013. The library offers several numerical optimization algorithms for solving different kinds of optimization tasks. User defined Modelica functions or models provide the basis for an interactive optimization process where the user keeps overview of complex multi-criteria optimization tasks that can take discrete parameters, several model operating points or trajector...

  15. Integrated controls design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl H.

    2015-09-01

    A control system (207) for optimizing a chemical looping process of a power plant includes an optimizer (420), an income algorithm (230) and a cost algorithm (225) and a chemical looping process models. The process models are used to predict the process outputs from process input variables. Some of the process in puts and output variables are related to the income of the plant; and some others are related to the cost of the plant operations. The income algorithm (230) provides an income input to the optimizer (420) based on a plurality of input parameters (215) of the power plant. The cost algorithm (225) provides a cost input to the optimizer (420) based on a plurality of output parameters (220) of the power plant. The optimizer (420) determines an optimized operating parameter solution based on at least one of the income input and the cost input, and supplies the optimized operating parameter solution to the power plant.

  16. Introduction to Continuous Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Niclas; Evgrafov, Anton; Patriksson, Michael

    Optimization, or mathematical programming, is a fundamental subject within decision science and operations research, in which mathematical decision models are constructed, analyzed, and solved. The book’s focus lies on providing a basis for the analysis of optimization models and of candidate...... optimal solutions for continuous optimization models. The main part of the mathematical material therefore concerns the analysis and linear algebra that underlie the workings of convexity and duality, and necessary/sufficient local/global optimality conditions for continuous optimization problems. Natural...... algorithms are then developed from these optimality conditions, and their most important convergence characteristics are analyzed. The book answers many more questions of the form “Why?” and “Why not?” than “How?”. We use only elementary mathematics in the development of the book, yet are rigorous throughout...

  17. An introduction to the COLIN optimization interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, William Eugene

    2003-03-01

    We describe COLIN, a Common Optimization Library INterface for C++. COLIN provides C++ template classes that define a generic interface for both optimization problems and optimization solvers. COLIN is specifically designed to facilitate the development of hybrid optimizers, for which one optimizer calls another to solve an optimization subproblem. We illustrate the capabilities of COLIN with an example of a memetic genetic programming solver.

  18. Optimization and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Pedregal, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a basic, initial resource, introducing science and engineering students to the field of optimization. It covers three main areas: mathematical programming, calculus of variations and optimal control, highlighting the ideas and concepts and offering insights into the importance of optimality conditions in each area. It also systematically presents affordable approximation methods. Exercises at various levels have been included to support the learning process.

  19. Sequential stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Cairoli, Renzo

    1996-01-01

    Sequential Stochastic Optimization provides mathematicians and applied researchers with a well-developed framework in which stochastic optimization problems can be formulated and solved. Offering much material that is either new or has never before appeared in book form, it lucidly presents a unified theory of optimal stopping and optimal sequential control of stochastic processes. This book has been carefully organized so that little prior knowledge of the subject is assumed; its only prerequisites are a standard graduate course in probability theory and some familiarity with discrete-paramet

  20. Integer and combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Nemhauser, George L

    1999-01-01

    Rave reviews for INTEGER AND COMBINATORIAL OPTIMIZATION ""This book provides an excellent introduction and survey of traditional fields of combinatorial optimization . . . It is indeed one of the best and most complete texts on combinatorial optimization . . . available. [And] with more than 700 entries, [it] has quite an exhaustive reference list.""-Optima ""A unifying approach to optimization problems is to formulate them like linear programming problems, while restricting some or all of the variables to the integers. This book is an encyclopedic resource for such f

  1. Optimization : insights and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkhuis, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This self-contained textbook is an informal introduction to optimization through the use of numerous illustrations and applications. The focus is on analytically solving optimization problems with a finite number of continuous variables. In addition, the authors provide introductions to classical and modern numerical methods of optimization and to dynamic optimization. The book's overarching point is that most problems may be solved by the direct application of the theorems of Fermat, Lagrange, and Weierstrass. The authors show how the intuition for each of the theoretical results can be s

  2. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research describes a quantitative methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. In order to arrive at out objective, we provide a plausible answer to the following question: "Which...

  3. Bayesian optimization for materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Packwood, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a short and concise introduction to Bayesian optimization specifically for experimental and computational materials scientists. After explaining the basic idea behind Bayesian optimization and some applications to materials science in Chapter 1, the mathematical theory of Bayesian optimization is outlined in Chapter 2. Finally, Chapter 3 discusses an application of Bayesian optimization to a complicated structure optimization problem in computational surface science. Bayesian optimization is a promising global optimization technique that originates in the field of machine learning and is starting to gain attention in materials science. For the purpose of materials design, Bayesian optimization can be used to predict new materials with novel properties without extensive screening of candidate materials. For the purpose of computational materials science, Bayesian optimization can be incorporated into first-principles calculations to perform efficient, global structure optimizations. While re...

  4. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  5. Website Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Remember when an optimized website was one that merely didn't take all day to appear? Times have changed. Today, website optimization can spell the difference between enterprise success and failure, and it takes a lot more know-how to achieve success. This book is a comprehensive guide to the tips, techniques, secrets, standards, and methods of website optimization. From increasing site traffic to maximizing leads, from revving up responsiveness to increasing navigability, from prospect retention to closing more sales, the world of 21st century website optimization is explored, exemplified a

  6. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  7. Optimal control for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Upreti, Simant Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control for Chemical Engineers gives a detailed treatment of optimal control theory that enables readers to formulate and solve optimal control problems. With a strong emphasis on problem solving, the book provides all the necessary mathematical analyses and derivations of important results, including multiplier theorems and Pontryagin's principle.The text begins by introducing various examples of optimal control, such as batch distillation and chemotherapy, and the basic concepts of optimal control, including functionals and differentials. It then analyzes the notion of optimality, de

  8. Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián

    2011-01-01

    Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.

  9. Medicinsk Optimering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkholm, Klavs

    2010-01-01

    En undersøgelse af anvendelsen af medicin til optimering af koncentration, hukommelse og følelsestonus. Efterfulgt af etiske overvejelser og anbefalinger til det politiske system......En undersøgelse af anvendelsen af medicin til optimering af koncentration, hukommelse og følelsestonus. Efterfulgt af etiske overvejelser og anbefalinger til det politiske system...

  10. Structural optimization

    CERN Document Server

    MacBain, Keith M

    2009-01-01

    Intends to supplement the engineer's box of analysis and design tools making optimization as commonplace as the finite element method in the engineering workplace. This title introduces structural optimization and the methods of nonlinear programming such as Lagrange multipliers, Kuhn-Tucker conditions, and calculus of variations.

  11. Dispositional Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Optimism is a cognitive construct (expectancies regarding future outcomes) that also relates to motivation: optimistic people exert effort, whereas pessimistic people disengage from effort. Study of optimism began largely in health contexts, finding positive associations between optimism and markers of better psychological and physical health. Physical health effects likely occur through differences in both health-promoting behaviors and physiological concomitants of coping. Recently, the scientific study of optimism has extended to the realm of social relations: new evidence indicates that optimists have better social connections, partly because they work harder at them. In this review, we examine the myriad ways this trait can benefit an individual, and our current understanding of the biological basis of optimism. PMID:24630971

  12. Solving Optimization Problems via Vortex Optimization Algorithm and Cognitive Development Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Demir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the fields which require finding the most appropriate value, optimization became a vital approach to employ effective solutions. With the use of optimization techniques, many different fields in the modern life have found solutions to their real-world based problems. In this context, classical optimization techniques have had an important popularity. But after a while, more advanced optimization problems required the use of more effective techniques. At this point, Computer Science took an important role on providing software related techniques to improve the associated literature. Today, intelligent optimization techniques based on Artificial Intelligence are widely used for optimization problems. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparative study on the employment of classical optimization solutions and Artificial Intelligence solutions for enabling readers to have idea about the potential of intelligent optimization techniques. At this point, two recently developed intelligent optimization algorithms, Vortex Optimization Algorithm (VOA and Cognitive Development Optimization Algorithm (CoDOA, have been used to solve some multidisciplinary optimization problems provided in the source book Thomas' Calculus 11th Edition and the obtained results have compared with classical optimization solutions. 

  13. Exposure of Early Pediatric Trainees to Blood and Marrow Transplantation Leads to Higher Recruitment to the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shereck, Evan; Shenoy, Shalini; Pulsipher, Michael; Burns, Linda; Bracey, Arthur; Chell, Jeffrey; Snyder, Edward; Nemecek, Eneida

    2013-01-01

    The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) projects the need for allogeneic unrelated blood and marrow transplants (BMT) in the United States is 10,000 per year. While the NMDP is preparing to facilitate that number by 2015, there are a number of barriers to meeting this need including recruiting additional health care personnel including BMT providers. To learn how best to recruit BMT physicians, we sought to understand why practicing BMT physicians chose to enter BMT, and why others did not. We conducted a web-based survey amongst Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (PHO) and BMT physician providers and trainees to determine the factors influencing their decision to choose or not choose a career in BMT. There were 259 respondents (48% male, 74% of Caucasian origin); 94 identified as BMT physicians, 112 as PHO physicians and 53 as PHO trainees. PHO and BMT providers spent an average of 53% of their time in clinical activities. More than 2/3 of PHO providers stated that they provide BMT services at their institutions, most commonly for inpatient coverage (73%). The proportion of providers exposed to BMT early in their training was significantly higher amongst BMT providers than PHO providers (51% vs. 18% during medical school [p<0.0001] and 70% vs. 50% during residency [p < 0.005]). Exposure during fellowship (94%) did not differ amongst groups. The decision to pursue a career in BMT was made before fellowship (medical school or residency) in 50% of the respondents. A lower proportion of BMT providers reported currently being involved in education of medical students and residents compared to PHO providers (98% vs. 76%, p<0.0001). Of 53 trainees, 64% reported that they were not contemplating a career in BMT. Of these, 68% stated that inadequate exposure to BMT prior to PHO fellowship was the reason. Only 26% reported BMT exposure in medical school and 43% during residency. The two most common reasons for the choice of a BMT career were the degree of intellectual and

  14. Providers? perspectives on collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Patricia; Waite, Roberta; Davey, Maureen P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Changes in models of health care are required to better meet the needs of diverse, underserved patient populations. Collaboration among providers is one way to promote accessible, comprehensive and continuous care in healthcare organizations. This paper describes the quantitative findings from two time points that examined providers' views of collaboration among a sample of diverse personnel (e.g. clinical nurses, social workers, dental providers, mental health providers, clerical ...

  15. Simulation-based optimization parametric optimization techniques and reinforcement learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gosavi, Abhijit

    2003-01-01

    Simulation-Based Optimization: Parametric Optimization Techniques and Reinforcement Learning introduces the evolving area of simulation-based optimization. The book's objective is two-fold: (1) It examines the mathematical governing principles of simulation-based optimization, thereby providing the reader with the ability to model relevant real-life problems using these techniques. (2) It outlines the computational technology underlying these methods. Taken together these two aspects demonstrate that the mathematical and computational methods discussed in this book do work. Broadly speaking, the book has two parts: (1) parametric (static) optimization and (2) control (dynamic) optimization. Some of the book's special features are: *An accessible introduction to reinforcement learning and parametric-optimization techniques. *A step-by-step description of several algorithms of simulation-based optimization. *A clear and simple introduction to the methodology of neural networks. *A gentle introduction to converg...

  16. Portfolio Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Frajtova-Michalikova, Katarina; Spuchľakova, Erika; Misankova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper Portfolio Optimization techniques were used to determine the most favorable investment portfolio. In particular, stock indices of three companies, namely Microsoft Corporation, Christian Dior Fashion House and Shevron Corporation were evaluated. Using this data the amounts invested in each asset when a portfolio is chosen on the efficient frontier were calculated. In addition, the Portfolio with minimum variance, tangency portfolio and optimal Markowitz portfolio are presented.

  17. OPTIMIZATION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia PECINGINA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the ages, man has continuously been involved with the process of optimization. In its earliest form, optimization consisted of unscientific rituals and prejudices like pouring libations and sacrificing animals to the gods, con- sulting the oracles, observing the positions of the stars, and watching the flight of birds. When the circumstances were appropriate, the timing was thought to be auspicious (or optimum for planting the crops or embarking on a war.

  18. Selective Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    vehicle routing [11], [6], probabilistic traveling salesman problems [9], location problems [10], and generalized assignment [1], among others. Next we...Mercure, A priori optimization of the probabilistic traveling salesman problem , Operations research 42 (1994), 543–549. [10] G. Laporte, F.V. Louveaux...standard mixed-integer programming (MIP) formulations of selective optimization problems . While such formulations can be attacked by commercial

  19. Optimization Program for Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Area-Wide Optimization Program (AWOP) provides tools and approaches for drinking water systems to meet water quality optimization goals and provide an increased – and sustainable – level of public health protection to their consumers.

  20. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  1. Provider Health and Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Wasan, Anita; Sussman, James

    Provider health and wellness is a significant issue and can impact patient care, including patient satisfaction, quality of care, medical errors, malpractice risk, as well as provider and office staff turnover and early retirement. Health and wellness encompasses various areas including burnout, depression, divorce, and suicide and affects providers of all specialties and at all levels of training. Providers deal with many everyday stresses, including electronic health records, office politics, insurance and billing issues, dissatisfied patients, and their own personal and family issues. Approximately half of all physicians suffer from burnout, and the rate of burnout among physicians of all specialties is increasing. An important first step in dealing with burnout is recognition and then seeking assistance. Strategies to prevent and treat burnout include increasing provider resiliency as well as implementing practical changes in the everyday practice of medicine. There is currently very little data regarding health and wellness specifically in the field of allergy and immunology, and studies are necessary to determine the prevalence of burnout and related issues in this field. Many medical specialties as well as state and national medical associations have health and wellness committees and other resources, which are essential for providers. Health and wellness programs should be introduced early in a provider's training and continued throughout a provider's career. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process of the ...

  3. Handbook of simulation optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Simulation Optimization presents an overview of the state of the art of simulation optimization, providing a survey of the most well-established approaches for optimizing stochastic simulation models and a sampling of recent research advances in theory and methodology. Leading contributors cover such topics as discrete optimization via simulation, ranking and selection, efficient simulation budget allocation, random search methods, response surface methodology, stochastic gradient estimation, stochastic approximation, sample average approximation, stochastic constraints, variance reduction techniques, model-based stochastic search methods and Markov decision processes. This single volume should serve as a reference for those already in the field and as a means for those new to the field for understanding and applying the main approaches. The intended audience includes researchers, practitioners and graduate students in the business/engineering fields of operations research, management science,...

  4. Stochastic optimization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marti, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    Optimization problems arising in practice involve random parameters. For the computation of robust optimal solutions, i.e., optimal solutions being insensitive with respect to random parameter variations, deterministic substitute problems are needed. Based on the distribution of the random data, and using decision theoretical concepts, optimization problems under stochastic uncertainty are converted into deterministic substitute problems. Due to the occurring probabilities and expectations, approximative solution techniques must be applied. Deterministic and stochastic approximation methods and their analytical properties are provided: Taylor expansion, regression and response surface methods, probability inequalities, First Order Reliability Methods, convex approximation/deterministic descent directions/efficient points, stochastic approximation methods, differentiation of probability and mean value functions. Convergence results of the resulting iterative solution procedures are given.

  5. Giga-Voxel Structural Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Andreassen, Erik; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2017-01-01

    The optimal topology of large structural systems has until now been concerned with the design of individual parts and not that of complete assemblies. However, due to recent advances in numerical algorithms tailored for large scale structural optimization this limitation can now be circumvented....... In this work we present several examplesdisplaying how high resolution topology optimization can be used to obtain new, as well as already known, insight within the field of structural optimization. To demonstrate the capabilities of the developed framework we apply it to the design of the supporting structure...... topology optimization provides new insight and possible weight savings forfuture aircraft designs....

  6. Practical methods of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, R

    2013-01-01

    Fully describes optimization methods that are currently most valuable in solving real-life problems. Since optimization has applications in almost every branch of science and technology, the text emphasizes their practical aspects in conjunction with the heuristics useful in making them perform more reliably and efficiently. To this end, it presents comparative numerical studies to give readers a feel for possibile applications and to illustrate the problems in assessing evidence. Also provides theoretical background which provides insights into how methods are derived. This edition offers rev

  7. Radiological optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.

    1998-01-01

    Radiological optimization is one of the basic principles in each radiation-protection system and it is a basic requirement in the safety standards for radiation protection in the European Communities. The objectives of the research, performed in this field at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, are: (1) to implement the ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for optimization techniques in decision-aiding; (3) to optimize radiological assessment models by validation and intercomparison; (4) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (5) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (6) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (7) to investigate existing software programmes in the domain of multi criteria analysis. The main achievements for 1997 are given

  8. Unconstrained Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, P. E.; Jonasson, K.; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1999-01-01

    This lecture note is intended for use in the course 04212 Optimization and Data Fitting at the Technincal University of Denmark. It covers about 25% of the curriculum. Hopefully, the note may be useful also to interested persons not participating in that course. The aim of the note is to give...... an introduction to algorithms for unconstrained optimization. We present Conjugate Gradient, Damped Newton and Quasi Newton methods together with the relevant theoretical background. The reader is assumed to be familiar with algorithms for solving linear and nonlinear system of equations, at a level corresponding...

  9. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  10. Topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Taking as a starting point a design case for a compliant mechanism (a force inverter), the fundamental elements of topology optimization are described. The basis for the developments is a FEM format for this design problem and emphasis is given to the parameterization of design as a raster image...

  11. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  12. care Providers in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception et pratique de la prophylaxie du paludisme pendant la grossesse chez les dispensateurs des soins de santé à Ibadan ... 2007; ll[2]:69-78). Key Words: malaria in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment, malaria control, health care providers ..... changing practice8; incorporating new strategies into routine ...

  13. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  14. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  15. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  16. Optimizing clozapine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Damkier, P; Lublin, H

    2011-01-01

    Clozapine treatment remains the gold standard for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but treatment with clozapine is associated with several side-effects that complicate the use of the drug. This clinical overview aims to provide psychiatrists with knowledge about how to optimize clozapine...

  17. Achieving Provider Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Geva; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Harris, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The literature on integrated care is limited with respect to practical learning and experience. Although some attention has been paid to organizational processes and structures, not enough is paid to people, relationships, and the importance of these in bringing about integration. Little is known, for example, about provider engagement in the organizational change process, how to obtain and maintain it, and how it is demonstrated in the delivery of integrated care. Based on qualitative data from the evaluation of a large-scale integrated care initiative in London, United Kingdom, we explored the role of provider engagement in effective integration of services. Using thematic analysis, we identified an evolving engagement narrative with three distinct phases: enthusiasm, antipathy, and ambivalence, and argue that health care managers need to be aware of the impact of professional engagement to succeed in advancing the integrated care agenda. PMID:25212855

  18. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen

    2017-04-11

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  19. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  20. PROVIDING WOMEN, KEPT MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic and interview based fieldwork to explore accounts of intimate relationships between widowed women and poor young men that emerged in the wake of economic crisis and a devastating HIV epidemic among the Luo ethnic group in Western Kenya. I show how the cooptation of widow inheritance practices in the wake of an overwhelming number of widows as well as economic crisis resulted in widows becoming providing women and poor young men becoming kept men. I illustrate how widows in this setting, by performing a set of practices central to what it meant to be a man in this society – pursuing and providing for their partners - were effectively doing masculinity. I will also show how young men, rather than being feminized by being kept, deployed other sets of practices to prove their masculinity and live in a manner congruent with cultural ideals. I argue that ultimately, women’s practice of masculinity in large part seemed to serve patriarchal ends. It not only facilitated the fulfillment of patriarchal expectations of femininity – to being inherited – but also served, in the end, to provide a material base for young men’s deployment of legitimizing and culturally valued sets of masculine practice. PMID:25489121

  1. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  2. Optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Aschepkov, Leonid T; Kim, Taekyun; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures from a one-year course at the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok, Russia) as well as on workshops on optimal control offered to students at various mathematical departments at the university level. The main themes of the theory of linear and nonlinear systems are considered, including the basic problem of establishing the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimal processes. In the first part of the course, the theory of linear control systems is constructed on the basis of the separation theorem and the concept of a reachability set. The authors prove the closure of a reachability set in the class of piecewise continuous controls, and the problems of controllability, observability, identification, performance and terminal control are also considered. The second part of the course is devoted to nonlinear control systems. Using the method of variations and the Lagrange multipliers rule of nonlinear problems, the authors prove the Pontryagin maximum principle for prob...

  3. Response Surface Model Building and Multidisciplinary Optimization Using D-Optimal Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Resit; Lepsch, Roger A.; McMillin, Mark L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses response surface methods for approximation model building and multidisciplinary design optimization. The response surface methods discussed are central composite designs, Bayesian methods and D-optimal designs. An over-determined D-optimal design is applied to a configuration design and optimization study of a wing-body, launch vehicle. Results suggest that over determined D-optimal designs may provide an efficient approach for approximation model building and for multidisciplinary design optimization.

  4. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  5. [Optimization of oxytetracycline biosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, E A; Falkov, N N; Izmaĭlov, N N; Romanchuk, N N

    1988-06-01

    It was shown that rising of temperature up to 30 degrees C at the stage of the oxytetracycline-producing organism growth promoted acceleration of the culture growth rate and increasing of the antibiotic concentration by the 114th hour of the biosynthetic process. For the apparatus used in the study optimal aeration and agitation conditions were developed. To provide optimal parameters during biosynthesis of oxytetracycline, it was recommended to use the aeration rate of 1 v/v.min and the specific mechanical power for mixing of not less than 1 kW/m3.

  6. Power converter design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Lee, F. C. Y.; Triner, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizing the demonstrated capability of nonlinear programming algorithms, a practical design optimization approach for power converters is established to conceive a design to meet all power-circuit performance requirements and concurrently optimize a defined quantity such as weight or losses. In addition, to facilitate a cost-effective design, the computer-aided approach provides a means to readily assess (1) the weight-efficiency tradeoff, (2) impacts of converter requirements and component characteristics on a given design, and (3) optimum power system configurations.

  7. Constrained Optimal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, Ibrahim; Soner, H. Mete

    2018-03-01

    The classical duality theory of Kantorovich (C R (Doklady) Acad Sci URSS (NS) 37:199-201, 1942) and Kellerer (Z Wahrsch Verw Gebiete 67(4):399-432, 1984) for classical optimal transport is generalized to an abstract framework and a characterization of the dual elements is provided. This abstract generalization is set in a Banach lattice X with an order unit. The problem is given as the supremum over a convex subset of the positive unit sphere of the topological dual of X and the dual problem is defined on the bi-dual of X. These results are then applied to several extensions of the classical optimal transport.

  8. An introduction to optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, Edwin K P

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition "". . . guides and leads the reader through the learning path . . . [e]xamples are stated very clearly and the results are presented with attention to detail.""  -MAA Reviews  Fully updated to reflect new developments in the field, the Fourth Edition of Introduction to Optimization fills the need for accessible treatment of optimization theory and methods with an emphasis on engineering design. Basic definitions and notations are provided in addition to the related fundamental background for linear algebra, geometry, and calculus.  This new

  9. Introduction to Nonlinear and Global Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrix, E.M.T.; Tóth, B.

    2010-01-01

    This self-contained text provides a solid introduction to global and nonlinear optimization, providing students of mathematics and interdisciplinary sciences with a strong foundation in applied optimization techniques. The book offers a unique hands-on and critical approach to applied optimization

  10. Breve reflexão sobre autocuidado no planejamento de alta hospitalar pós-Transplante de medula óssea (TMO: relato de caso Breve reflexión sobre lo autocuidado en planeamiento de la alta después del Transplante de Médula Ósea: informe de caso A brief reflection on self-care in hospital discharge planning after a Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Marta Giunta da Silva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo construir um instrumento que caracterizasse as demandas de autocuidado terapêutico de um indivíduo submetido ao TMO, refletindo sobre as intervenções de enfermagem no planejamento de alta hospitalar na óptica da teoria de autocuidado de Orem. Pelos critérios de inclusão obteve-se um indivíduo pós-TMO alogênico, portador de Leucemia Mielóide Crônica. A análise dos dados possibilitou avaliar os requisitos de autocuidado alterados e as intervenções de enfermagem se inseriram no sistema apoio-educação e no sistema parcialmente compensatório. O instrumento deverá ser refinado, mas pode-se sugerir sua utilização como suporte para a elaboração do planejamento de alta para pacientes de TMO.Este estudio tuvo por objetivo construir un instrumento para caracterizar las demandas del autocuidado terapéutico de un individuo sometido al transplante de médula ósea, reflexionando acerca de las intervenciones de la enfermería en la planeación de la alta hospitalaria, desde la óptica de la teoría del autocuidado de Oren. Por los criterios de inclusión se obtuvo una persona sometida al transplante del médula ósea alogénico, Portador de Leucemia Mieloide Crónica. El análisis de los datos permitió la evaluación de los requisitos de autocuidado alterados y las intervenciones de enfermería se situaron en el sistema apoyo-educación y en el sistema parcialmente compensatorio. El instrumento deberá refinarse, pero se puede sugerir su utilización como apoyo para la elaboración de la planeación del alta hospitalaria, para los pacientes del transplante de médula ósea.The purpose of this work was to construct an instrument that would enable the characterization of therapeutic self-care needs of an individual submitted to bone marrow transplantation (BMT by reflecting on nursing interventions in the planning of hospital discharge based on Orem's self-care theory. The inclusion criteria consisted in the

  11. Investigations of quantum heuristics for optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffel, Eleanor; Hadfield, Stuart; Jiang, Zhang; Mandra, Salvatore; Venturelli, Davide; Wang, Zhihui

    We explore the design of quantum heuristics for optimization, focusing on the quantum approximate optimization algorithm, a metaheuristic developed by Farhi, Goldstone, and Gutmann. We develop specific instantiations of the of quantum approximate optimization algorithm for a variety of challenging combinatorial optimization problems. Through theoretical analyses and numeric investigations of select problems, we provide insight into parameter setting and Hamiltonian design for quantum approximate optimization algorithms and related quantum heuristics, and into their implementation on hardware realizable in the near term.

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF AEOLIAN ENERGY CONVERSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2010 ... turbine at optimum speed which corresponds to the maximum power provided by the steady wind turbine. To this end, the object is to preserve the position of any static operating point on the characteristic of optimal. To validate the model and algorithm for optimal conversion of wind energy, a series of.

  13. Inference Optimization using Relational Algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Fokkinga, M.M.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    Exact inference procedures in Bayesian networks can be expressed using relational algebra; this provides a common ground for optimizations from the AI and database communities. Specifically, the ability to accomodate sparse representations of probability distributions opens up the way to optimize

  14. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridham, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  15. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  16. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  17. Fuzzy logic controller optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael

    2004-03-23

    A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.

  18. Post-optimal analysis in linear semi-infinite optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Goberna, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Post-Optimal Analysis in Linear Semi-Infinite Optimization examines the following topics in regards to linear semi-infinite optimization: modeling uncertainty, qualitative stability analysis, quantitative stability analysis and sensitivity analysis. Linear semi-infinite optimization (LSIO) deals with linear optimization problems where the dimension of the decision space or the number of constraints is infinite. The authors compare the post-optimal analysis with alternative approaches to uncertain LSIO problems and provide readers with criteria to choose the best way to model a given uncertain LSIO problem depending on the nature and quality of the data along with the available software. This work also contains open problems which readers will find intriguing a challenging. Post-Optimal Analysis in Linear Semi-Infinite Optimization is aimed toward researchers, graduate and post-graduate students of mathematics interested in optimization, parametric optimization and related topics.

  19. Optimization of well field management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Kirstine

    for optimizing well field man- agement using multi-objective optimization is developed. The optimization uses the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2) to find the Pareto front be- tween the conflicting objectives. The Pareto front is a set of non-inferior optimal points and provides an important tool....... It is also possible to reduce the contamination risk if the distribution of the infiltrated water is changed, so that more water is infiltrated in the basins and less in the wells. However, if the waterworks want to be sure to avoid inflow of contaminated water it is necessary to increase the total amount...

  20. Discrete optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, R Gary

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the fundamental issues and algorithmic strategies emerging as the core of the discipline of discrete optimization in a comprehensive and rigorous fashion. Following an introductory chapter on computational complexity, the basic algorithmic results for the two major models of polynomial algorithms are introduced--models using matroids and linear programming. Further chapters treat the major non-polynomial algorithms: branch-and-bound and cutting planes. The text concludes with a chapter on heuristic algorithms.Several appendixes are included which review the fundamental ideas o

  1. Optimization of Metronidazole Emulgel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to develop and optimize the emulgel system for MTZ (Metronidazole, a poorly water soluble drug. The pseudoternary phase diagrams were developed for various microemulsion formulations composed of Capmul 908 P, Acconon MC8-2, and propylene glycol. The emulgel was optimized using a three-factor, two-level factorial design, the independent variables selected were Capmul 908 P, and surfactant mixture (Acconon MC8-2 and gelling agent, and the dependent variables (responses were a cumulative amount of drug permeated across the dialysis membrane in 24 h ( and spreadability (. Mathematical equations and response surface plots were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. The regression equations were generated for responses and . The statistical validity of the polynomials was established, and optimized formulation factors were selected. Validation of the optimization study with 3 confirmatory runs indicated a high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology. Emulgel system of MTZ was developed and optimized using 23 factorial design and could provide an effective treatment against topical infections.

  2. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.

    2011-11-10

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  3. Aircraft Trajectory Optimization Using Parametric Optimization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Romero, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a study of the optimization of aircraft trajectories using parametric optimization theory is presented. To that end, an approach based on the use of predefined trajectory patterns and parametric optimization is proposed. The trajectory pat

  4. Well-posed optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dontchev, Asen L

    1993-01-01

    This book presents in a unified way the mathematical theory of well-posedness in optimization. The basic concepts of well-posedness and the links among them are studied, in particular Hadamard and Tykhonov well-posedness. Abstract optimization problems as well as applications to optimal control, calculus of variations and mathematical programming are considered. Both the pure and applied side of these topics are presented. The main subject is often introduced by heuristics, particular cases and examples. Complete proofs are provided. The expected knowledge of the reader does not extend beyond textbook (real and functional) analysis, some topology and differential equations and basic optimization. References are provided for more advanced topics. The book is addressed to mathematicians interested in optimization and related topics, and also to engineers, control theorists, economists and applied scientists who can find here a mathematical justification of practical procedures they encounter.

  5. [SIAM conference on optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-10

    Abstracts are presented of 63 papers on the following topics: large-scale optimization, interior-point methods, algorithms for optimization, problems in control, network optimization methods, and parallel algorithms for optimization problems.

  6. Provider collaboration: cohesion, constellations, and shared patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Kenneth D; Olson, Karen L; Mines, Daniel; Liu, Chunfu; Tian, Fang

    2014-11-01

    There is a natural assumption that quality and efficiency are optimized when providers consistently work together and share patients. Diversity in composition and recurrence of groups that provide face-to-face care to the same patients has not previously been studied. Claims data enable identification of the constellation of providers caring for a single patient. To indirectly measure teamwork and provider collaboration, we measure recurrence of provider constellations and cohesion among providers. Retrospective analysis of commercial healthcare claims from a single insurer. Patients with claims for office visits and their outpatient providers. To maximize capture of provider panels, the cohort was drawn from the four regions with the highest plan coverage. Regional outpatient provider networks were constructed with providers as nodes and number of shared patients as links. Measures of cohesion and stability of provider constellations derived from the networks of providers to quantify patient sharing. For 10,325 providers and their 521,145 patients, there were 2,641,933 collaborative provider pairs sharing at least one patient. Fifty-four percent only shared a single patient, and 19 % shared two. Of 15,449,835 unique collaborative triads, 92 % shared one patient, 5 % shared two, and 0.2 % shared ten or more. Patient constellations had a median of four providers. Any precise constellation recurred rarely-89 % with exactly two providers shared just one patient and only 4 % shared over two; 97 % of constellations with exactly three providers shared just one patient. Four percent of constellations with 2+ providers were not at all cohesive, sharing only the hub patient. In the remaining constellations, a median of 93 % of provider pairs shared at least one additional patient beyond the hub patient. Stunning variability in the constellations of providers caring for patients may challenge underlying assumptions about the current state of teamwork in healthcare.

  7. Efficiency in Optimal Auctions with Common Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Lester M.K. Kwong

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers optimal auctions where individuals' valuations have both a private and common value component. We show that when the set of potential buyers and seller are symmetrically uninformed regarding the common value component, it may be socially optimal not to resolve this common uncertainty. Under the sufficient conditions provided to generate this outcome, efficiency will be restored in the optimal auction.

  8. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  9. Optimization of power system operation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    This book applies the latest applications of new technologies topower system operation and analysis, including new and importantareas that are not covered in the previous edition. Optimization of Power System Operation covers both traditional andmodern technologies, including power flow analysis, steady-statesecurity region analysis, security constrained economic dispatch,multi-area system economic dispatch, unit commitment, optimal powerflow, smart grid operation, optimal load shed, optimalreconfiguration of distribution network, power system uncertaintyanalysis, power system sensitivity analysis, analytic hierarchicalprocess, neural network, fuzzy theory, genetic algorithm,evolutionary programming, and particle swarm optimization, amongothers. New topics such as the wheeling model, multi-areawheeling, the total transfer capability computation in multipleareas, are also addressed. The new edition of this book continues to provide engineers andac demics with a complete picture of the optimization of techn...

  10. PWR fuel management optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, Michel.

    1981-10-01

    This report is aimed to the optimization of the refueling pattern of a nuclear reactor. At the beginning of a reactor cycle a batch of fuel assemblies is available: the physical properties of the assemblies are known: the mathematical problem is to determine the refueling pattern which maximizes the reactivity or which provides the flattest possible power distribution. The state of the core is mathematically characterized by a system of partial derivative equations, its smallest eigenvalue and the associated eigenvector. After a study of the convexity properties of the problem, two algorithms are proposed. The first one exhanges assemblies to improve the starting configurations. The enumeration of the exchanges is limited to the 2 by 2, 3 by 3, 4 by 4 permutations. The second one builds a solution in two steps: in the first step the discrete variables are replaced by continuous variables. The non linear optimization problem obtained is solved by ''the Method of Approximation Programming'' and in the second step, the refuelling pattern which provides the best approximation of the optimal power distribution is searched by a Branch an d Bound Method [fr

  11. Product Distributions for Distributed Optimization. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    With connections to bounded rational game theory, information theory and statistical mechanics, Product Distribution (PD) theory provides a new framework for performing distributed optimization. Furthermore, PD theory extends and formalizes Collective Intelligence, thus connecting distributed optimization to distributed Reinforcement Learning (FU). This paper provides an overview of PD theory and details an algorithm for performing optimization derived from it. The approach is demonstrated on two unconstrained optimization problems, one with discrete variables and one with continuous variables. To highlight the connections between PD theory and distributed FU, the results are compared with those obtained using distributed reinforcement learning inspired optimization approaches. The inter-relationship of the techniques is discussed.

  12. Design Optimization Toolkit: Users' Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilo Valentin, Miguel Alejandro [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Solid Mechanics and Structural Dynamics

    2014-07-01

    The Design Optimization Toolkit (DOTk) is a stand-alone C++ software package intended to solve complex design optimization problems. DOTk software package provides a range of solution methods that are suited for gradient/nongradient-based optimization, large scale constrained optimization, and topology optimization. DOTk was design to have a flexible user interface to allow easy access to DOTk solution methods from external engineering software packages. This inherent flexibility makes DOTk barely intrusive to other engineering software packages. As part of this inherent flexibility, DOTk software package provides an easy-to-use MATLAB interface that enables users to call DOTk solution methods directly from the MATLAB command window.

  13. Optimal control of ODEs and DAEs

    CERN Document Server

    Gerdts, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The intention of this textbook is to provide both, the theoretical and computational tools that are necessary to investigate and to solve optimal control problems with ordinary differential equations and differential-algebraic equations. An emphasis is placed on the interplay between the continuous optimal control problem, which typically is defined and analyzed in a Banach space setting, and discrete optimal control problems, which are obtained by discretization and lead to finite dimensional optimization problems.

  14. Optimal GENCO bidding strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng

    Electricity industries worldwide are undergoing a period of profound upheaval. The conventional vertically integrated mechanism is being replaced by a competitive market environment. Generation companies have incentives to apply novel technologies to lower production costs, for example: Combined Cycle units. Economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units becomes a non-convex optimization problem, which is difficult if not impossible to solve by conventional methods. Several techniques are proposed here: Mixed Integer Linear Programming, a hybrid method, as well as Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Algorithms share a common mechanism, stochastic searching per generation. The stochastic property makes evolutionary algorithms robust and adaptive enough to solve a non-convex optimization problem. This research implements GA, EP, and PS algorithms for economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units, and makes a comparison with classical Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The electricity market equilibrium model not only helps Independent System Operator/Regulator analyze market performance and market power, but also provides Market Participants the ability to build optimal bidding strategies based on Microeconomics analysis. Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) is attractive compared to traditional models. This research identifies a proper SFE model, which can be applied to a multiple period situation. The equilibrium condition using discrete time optimal control is then developed for fuel resource constraints. Finally, the research discusses the issues of multiple equilibria and mixed strategies, which are caused by the transmission network. Additionally, an advantage of the proposed model for merchant transmission planning is discussed. A market simulator is a valuable training and evaluation tool to assist sellers, buyers, and regulators to understand market performance and make better decisions. A traditional optimization model may not be enough to consider the distributed

  15. System floorplanning optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Browning, David W.

    2012-12-01

    Notebook and Laptop Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) place great emphasis on creating unique system designs to differentiate themselves in the mobile market. These systems are developed from the \\'outside in\\' with the focus on how the system is perceived by the end-user. As a consequence, very little consideration is given to the interconnections or power of the devices within the system with a mentality of \\'just make it fit\\'. In this paper we discuss the challenges of Notebook system design and the steps by which system floor-planning tools and algorithms can be used to provide an automated method to optimize this process to ensure all required components most optimally fit inside the Notebook system. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Group leaders optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskin, Anmer; Kais, Sabre

    2011-03-01

    We present a new global optimization algorithm in which the influence of the leaders in social groups is used as an inspiration for the evolutionary technique which is designed into a group architecture. To demonstrate the efficiency of the method, a standard suite of single and multi-dimensional optimization functions along with the energies and the geometric structures of Lennard-Jones clusters are given as well as the application of the algorithm on quantum circuit design problems. We show that as an improvement over previous methods, the algorithm scales as N 2.5 for the Lennard-Jones clusters of N-particles. In addition, an efficient circuit design is shown for a two-qubit Grover search algorithm which is a quantum algorithm providing quadratic speedup over the classical counterpart.

  17. System floorplanning optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Browning, David W.

    2013-01-10

    Notebook and Laptop Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) place great emphasis on creating unique system designs to differentiate themselves in the mobile market. These systems are developed from the \\'outside in\\' with the focus on how the system is perceived by the end-user. As a consequence, very little consideration is given to the interconnections or power of the devices within the system with a mentality of \\'just make it fit\\'. In this paper we discuss the challenges of Notebook system design and the steps by which system floor-planning tools and algorithms can be used to provide an automated method to optimize this process to ensure all required components most optimally fit inside the Notebook system.

  18. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  19. Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Dong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems examines its subject in the context of the presence of a variety of uncertainties. Numerous examples with intuitive illustrations and tables are provided, to demonstrate the structural characteristics of the optimal control policies in various stochastic supply chains and to show how to make use of these characteristics to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal policies.                 In Part I, a general introduction to stochastic supply chain systems is provided. Analytical models for various stochastic supply chain systems are formulated and analysed in Part II. In Part III the structural knowledge of the optimal control policies obtained in Part II is utilized to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal control policies for various stochastic supply chain systems accordingly. Finally, Part IV discusses the optimisation of threshold-type control policies and their robustness. A key feature of the book is its tying together of ...

  20. Optimization of neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, E.B.

    1993-11-09

    I consider here the optimization of the two component neutron source, allowing beam species and energy to vary. A simple model is developed, based on the earlier publications, that permits the optimum to be obtained simply. The two component plasma, with one species of hot ion (D{sup +} or T{sup +}) and the complementary species of cold ion, is easy to analyze in the case of a spatially uniform cold plasma, as to good approximation the total number of hot ions is important but not their spatial distribution. Consequently, the optimization can ignore spatial effects. The problem of a plasma with both types of hot ions and cold ions is rather more difficult, as the neutron production by hot-hot interactions is sensitive to their spatial distributions. Consequently, consideration of this problem will be delayed to a future memorandum. The basic model is that used in the published articles on the two-component, beam-plasma mirror source. I integrate the Fokker-Planck equation analytically, obtaining good agreement with previous numerical results. This simplifies the optimization, by providing a functional form for the neutron production. The primary result is expressed in terms of the power efficiency: watts of neutrons/watts of primary power. The latter includes the positive ion neutralization efficiency. At 150 keV, the present model obtains an efficiency of 0.66%, compared with 0.53% of the earlier calculation.

  1. Optimization in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta Perez, Clarice de Freitas

    1996-01-01

    The optimization concept in radiation protection is, in its essence, practical. In each aspect that we deal with the man, it is necessary to take frequent decisions such as: what is the protection level to be pursued, since the protection levels under consideration provide doses lower than the appropriate annual limits. The optimization gives a basic framework of the minding that is appropriate to conduct to a balance kind of the resources available for the protection and protection level obtained against a multitude of factors and constrains in a manner to obtain the best result. In this work, was performed the optimization, from the radiation protection point of view, of a facility project who enclose two shielded hot cells where will be handled UO 2 small plate with 50% of U-235 burn-up, irradiated in the research swimming pool reactor, IEA-R1. To obtain this goal were specified the relevant factors and criteria, were applied the main techniques used in a decision-making in radiological protection, presently adopted and was performed a sensibility study of the factors and criteria used in this work. In order to obtain a greater agility in applying the techniques for decision-making was developed a micro computer program. (author)

  2. Nonlinear optimization in electrical engineering with applications in Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Bakr, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optimization in Electrical Engineering with Applications in MATLAB® provides an introductory course on nonlinear optimization in electrical engineering, with a focus on applications such as the design of electric, microwave, and photonic circuits, wireless communications, and digital filter design. Basic concepts are introduced using a step-by-step approach and illustrated with MATLAB® codes that the reader can use and adapt. Topics covered include: classical optimization methods; one dimensional optimization; unconstrained and constrained optimization; global optimization; space map

  3. Optimization Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, H Ronald

    2011-01-01

    A thorough and highly accessible resource for analysts in a broad range of social sciences. Optimization: Foundations and Applications presents a series of approaches to the challenges faced by analysts who must find the best way to accomplish particular objectives, usually with the added complication of constraints on the available choices. Award-winning educator Ronald E. Miller provides detailed coverage of both classical, calculus-based approaches and newer, computer-based iterative methods. Dr. Miller lays a solid foundation for both linear and nonlinear models and quickly moves on to dis

  4. Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín

    2016-01-01

    To shed light on the relation between fundamentals and adopted institutions we examine institutional choice across the ``Big Four'' US sports leagues. Despite having very similar business models and facing the same economic and legal environment, these leagues exhibit large differences in their use...... of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides...

  5. Optimization modeling with spreadsheets

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Kenneth R

    2015-01-01

    An accessible introduction to optimization analysis using spreadsheets Updated and revised, Optimization Modeling with Spreadsheets, Third Edition emphasizes model building skills in optimization analysis. By emphasizing both spreadsheet modeling and optimization tools in the freely available Microsoft® Office Excel® Solver, the book illustrates how to find solutions to real-world optimization problems without needing additional specialized software. The Third Edition includes many practical applications of optimization models as well as a systematic framework that il

  6. Portfolio Optimization and Mortgage Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Britt Nordfang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal mortgage choice of an investor in a simple bond market with a stochastic interest rate and access to term life insurance. The study is based on advances in stochastic control theory, which provides analytical solutions to portfolio problems with a stochastic interest rate. We derive the optimal portfolio of a mortgagor in a simple framework and formulate stylized versions of mortgage products offered in the market today. This allows us to analyze the optimal investment strategy in terms of optimal mortgage choice. We conclude that certain extreme investors optimally choose either a traditional fixed rate mortgage or an adjustable rate mortgage, while investors with moderate risk aversion and income prefer a mix of the two. By matching specific investor characteristics to existing mortgage products, our study provides a better understanding of the complex and yet restricted mortgage choice faced by many household investors. In addition, the simple analytical framework enables a detailed analysis of how changes to market, income and preference parameters affect the optimal mortgage choice.

  7. Teaching antenatal counseling skills to neonatal providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Theophil A; Watson, Katie L; Boss, Renee D

    2014-02-01

    Counseling a family confronted with the birth of a periviable neonate is one of the most difficult tasks that a neonatologist must perform. The neonatologist's goal is to facilitate an informed, collaborative decision about whether life-sustaining therapies are in the best interest of this baby. Neonatologists are trained to provide families with a detailed account of the morbidity and mortality data they believe are necessary to facilitate a truly informed decision. Yet these complicated and intensely emotional conversations require advanced communication and counseling skills that our current fellowship-training strategies are not adequately providing. We review educational models for training neonatology fellows to provide antenatal counseling at the threshold of viability. We believe that training aimed at teaching these skills should be incorporated into the neonatal-perinatal medicine fellowship. The optimal approaches for teaching these skills remain uncertain, and there is a need for continued innovation and outcomes-based research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Configurable intelligent optimization algorithm design and practice in manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Fei; Laili, Yuanjun

    2014-01-01

    Presenting the concept and design and implementation of configurable intelligent optimization algorithms in manufacturing systems, this book provides a new configuration method to optimize manufacturing processes. It provides a comprehensive elaboration of basic intelligent optimization algorithms, and demonstrates how their improvement, hybridization and parallelization can be applied to manufacturing. Furthermore, various applications of these intelligent optimization algorithms are exemplified in detail, chapter by chapter. The intelligent optimization algorithm is not just a single algorit

  9. Optimization methods in structural design

    CERN Document Server

    Rothwell, Alan

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to numerical optimization methods in structural design. Employing a readily accessible and compact format, the book presents an overview of optimization methods, and equips readers to properly set up optimization problems and interpret the results. A ‘how-to-do-it’ approach is followed throughout, with less emphasis at this stage on mathematical derivations. The book features spreadsheet programs provided in Microsoft Excel, which allow readers to experience optimization ‘hands-on.’ Examples covered include truss structures, columns, beams, reinforced shell structures, stiffened panels and composite laminates. For the last three, a review of relevant analysis methods is included. Exercises, with solutions where appropriate, are also included with each chapter. The book offers a valuable resource for engineering students at the upper undergraduate and postgraduate level, as well as others in the industry and elsewhere who are new to these highly practical techniques.Whi...

  10. Optimal hedging via large deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzer, Michael

    2013-08-01

    The criterion of minimizing the cumulative hedged returns’ probability of underperforming a benchmark provides a framework for evaluating short-term hedges that are rolled over to produce longer-term hedges. Large deviations theory can be used to either parametrically or nonparametrically estimate underperformance probabilities for cumulative hedged returns produced by roll-overs, providing a straightforward way to find optimal hedge ratios. Optimal hedges using soybean futures are constructed to illustrate the procedures, and their relationship to the popular hedging criteria that are motivated by normality.

  11. Multi-net optimization of VLSI interconnect

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, Konstantin; Wimer, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    This book covers layout design and layout migration methodologies for optimizing multi-net wire structures in advanced VLSI interconnects. Scaling-dependent models for interconnect power, interconnect delay and crosstalk noise are covered in depth, and several design optimization problems are addressed, such as minimization of interconnect power under delay constraints, or design for minimal delay in wire bundles within a given routing area. A handy reference or a guide for design methodologies and layout automation techniques, this book provides a foundation for physical design challenges of interconnect in advanced integrated circuits.  • Describes the evolution of interconnect scaling and provides new techniques for layout migration and optimization, focusing on multi-net optimization; • Presents research results that provide a level of design optimization which does not exist in commercially-available design automation software tools; • Includes mathematical properties and conditions for optimal...

  12. Optimization of multi-objective micro-grid based on improved particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Gan, Yang

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents a multi-objective optimal configuration model for independent micro-grid with the aim of economy and environmental protection. The Pareto solution set can be obtained by solving the multi-objective optimization configuration model of micro-grid with the improved particle swarm algorithm. The feasibility of the improved particle swarm optimization algorithm for multi-objective model is verified, which provides an important reference for multi-objective optimization of independent micro-grid.

  13. vZ - An Optimizing SMT Solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Nikolaj; Dung, Phan Anh; Fleckenstein, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Z provides a portfolio of approaches for solving linear optimization problems over SMT formulas, MaxSMT, and their combinations. Objective functions are combined as either Pareto fronts, lexicographically, or each objective is optimized independently. We describe usage scenarios of vZ, outline the tool......vZ is a part of the SMT solver Z3. It allows users to pose and solve optimization problems modulo theories. Many SMT applications use models to provide satisfying assignments, and a growing number of these build on top of Z3 to get optimal assignments with respect to objective functions. v...

  14. Nursing Home Provider Perceptions of Telemedicine for Providing Specialty Consults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Julia; Chang, Woody; Patel, Palak; Wright, Rollin M; Ernst, Kambria; Handler, Steven M

    2018-01-02

    Nursing homes (NHs) provide care to a complex patient population and face the ongoing challenge of meeting resident needs for specialty care. A NH telemedicine care model could improve access to remote specialty providers. Little is known about provider interest in telemedicine for specialty consults in the NH setting. The goal of this study was to survey a national sample of NH physicians and advanced practice providers to document their views on telemedicine for providing specialty consults in the NH. We surveyed physician and advanced practice providers who attended the 2016 AMDA-The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine Annual Conference about their likelihood of referral to and perceptions of a telemedicine program for providing specialty consults in the NH. We received surveys from 524 of the 1,274 conference attendees for a 41.1% response rate. Respondents expressed confidence in the ability of telemedicine to fill existing service gaps and provide appropriate, timelier care. Providers showed the highest level of interest in telemedicine for dermatology, geriatric psychiatry, and infectious disease. Only 13% of respondents indicated that telemedicine was available for use in one of their facilities. There appears to be unmet demand for telemedicine in NHs for providing specialty consults to residents. The responses of NH providers suggest support for the concept of telemedicine as a modality of care that can be used to offer specialty consults to NH residents.

  15. An Efficient Chemical Reaction Optimization Algorithm for Multiobjective Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechikh, Slim; Chaabani, Abir; Ben Said, Lamjed

    2015-10-01

    Recently, a new metaheuristic called chemical reaction optimization was proposed. This search algorithm, inspired by chemical reactions launched during collisions, inherits several features from other metaheuristics such as simulated annealing and particle swarm optimization. This fact has made it, nowadays, one of the most powerful search algorithms in solving mono-objective optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a multiobjective variant of chemical reaction optimization, called nondominated sorting chemical reaction optimization, in an attempt to exploit chemical reaction optimization features in tackling problems involving multiple conflicting criteria. Since our approach is based on nondominated sorting, one of the main contributions of this paper is the proposal of a new quasi-linear average time complexity quick nondominated sorting algorithm; thereby making our multiobjective algorithm efficient from a computational cost viewpoint. The experimental comparisons against several other multiobjective algorithms on a variety of benchmark problems involving various difficulties show the effectiveness and the efficiency of this multiobjective version in providing a well-converged and well-diversified approximation of the Pareto front.

  16. Optimal Tax Depreciation under a Progressive Tax System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielhouwer, J.L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Kort, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the effect of a progressive tax system on optimal tax depreciation. By using dynamic optimization we show that an optimal strategy exists, and we provide an analytical expression for the optimal depreciation charges. Depreciation charges initially decrease over time,

  17. Applications of combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Paschos, Vangelis Th

    2013-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management. The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aims to cover a wide range of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization. "Applications of Combinatorial Optimization" is presenting a certain number among the most common and well-known applications of Combinatorial Optimization.

  18. Would it provide Free Education?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Would it provide Free Education? Would it provide Free Education? Would it provide Compulsory Education? Would it guarantee education of equitable quality? Would it prevent discrimination? Would it stop schools that promote inequality & discrimination? NO! NO!

  19. Discontinuation of Buprenorphine Maintenance Therapy: Perspectives and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzley, Brandon S.; Barth, Kelly S.; Back, Sudie E.; Book, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Buprenorphine maintenance therapy (BMT) is increasingly the preferred opioid maintenance agent due to its reduced toxicity and availability in an office-based setting in the United States. Although BMT has been shown to be highly efficacious, it is often discontinued soon after initiation. No current systematic review has yet investigated providers’ or patients’ reasons for BMT discontinuation or the outcomes that follow. Hence, provider and patient perspectives associated with BMT discontinuation after a period of stable buprenorphine maintenance and the resultant outcomes were systematically reviewed with specific emphasis on pre-buprenorphine-taper parameters predictive of relapse following BMT discontinuation. Few identified studies address provider or patient perspectives associated with buprenorphine discontinuation. Within the studies reviewed providers with residency training in BMT were more likely to favor long term BMT instead of detoxification, and providers were likely to consider BMT discontinuation in the face of medication misuse. Patients often desired to remain on BMT because of fear of relapse to illicit opioid use if they were to discontinue BMT. The majority of patients who discontinued BMT did so involuntarily, often due to failure to follow strict program requirements, and 1 month following discontinuation, rates of relapse to illicit opioid use exceeded 50% in every study reviewed. Only lower buprenorphine maintenance dose, which may be a marker for attenuated addiction severity, predicted better outcomes across studies. Relaxed BMT program requirements and frequent counsel on the high probability of relapse if BMT is discontinued may improve retention in treatment and prevent the relapse to illicit opioid use that is likely to follow BMT discontinuation. PMID:25601365

  20. Do pastoral care providers recognize nurses as spiritual care providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavendish, Roberta; Edelman, Maryann; Naradovy, Linda; Bajo, Maryann McPartlan; Perosi, Irene; Lanza, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explicate pastoral care providers' perceptions of nurses as spiritual providers. Spirituality is especially meaningful in contemporary society as a whole with spiritual care an expectation of hospitalized patients. Spiritual care given by nurses is grounded in nursing's history, inherent in its philosophical framework, and supported by research and professional mandates. In hospitals today, the primary responsibility for the spiritual care of patients resides with pastoral care providers. Collaboration between pastoral care providers and nurses may improve patients' spiritual care outcomes. Before collaboration can occur, it is important to learn whether pastoral care providers recognize nurses as spiritual providers. Guided by qualitative research methods, participants were sought until data saturation occurred. This qualitative study consisted of 8 participants who were experienced, full-time pastoral care providers from general and religious-affiliated hospitals. Data were collected through audiotaped open-ended interviews, a demographic data form, and exploratory questions or probes. The analysis included concurrent data collection, constant examination of conceptual interactions, linkages, and the conditions under which they occurred. Themes emerged: quest, conscious response, and essence of caring. Pastoral care providers perceive nurses as spiritual providers. Few felt comfortable initiating collaboration. Study findings are not generalizable.

  1. AFRICAN BUFFALO OPTIMIZATION ico-pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Beneoluchi Odili

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is an introductory paper to the newly-designed African Buffalo Optimization (ABO algorithm for solving combinatorial and other optimization problems. The algorithm is inspired by the behavior of African buffalos, a species of wild cows known for their extensive migrant lifestyle. This paper presents an overview of major metaheuristic algorithms with the aim of providing a basis for the development of the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm which is a nature-inspired, population-based metaheuristic algorithm. Experimental results obtained from applying the novel ABO to solve a number of benchmark global optimization test functions as well as some symmetric and asymmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problems when compared to the results obtained from using other popular optimization methods show that the African Buffalo Optimization is a worthy addition to the growing number of swarm intelligence optimization techniques.

  2. Global Optimization using Interval Analysis : Interval Optimization for Aerospace Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kampen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Optimization is an important element in aerospace related research. It is encountered for example in trajectory optimization problems, such as: satellite formation flying, spacecraft re-entry optimization and airport approach and departure optimization; in control optimization, for example in

  3. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Optimal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using the adjo...... reservoir using water ooding and smart well technology. Compared to the uncontrolled case, the optimal operation increases the Net Present Value of the oil field by 10%.......Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using...

  4. Mechanical Design Optimization Using Advanced Optimization Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, R Venkata

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical design includes an optimization process in which designers always consider objectives such as strength, deflection, weight, wear, corrosion, etc. depending on the requirements. However, design optimization for a complete mechanical assembly leads to a complicated objective function with a large number of design variables. It is a good practice to apply optimization techniques for individual components or intermediate assemblies than a complete assembly. Analytical or numerical methods for calculating the extreme values of a function may perform well in many practical cases, but may fail in more complex design situations. In real design problems, the number of design parameters can be very large and their influence on the value to be optimized (the goal function) can be very complicated, having nonlinear character. In these complex cases, advanced optimization algorithms offer solutions to the problems, because they find a solution near to the global optimum within reasonable time and computational ...

  5. A Grassroots Resource Locator System for Rural Healthcare Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Jameson P.; Gentry, Chet; Talbert, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    We present a model for a health resource locator to help rural primary healthcare providers care for patients. We identify some unique needs of rural providers, argue that a grassroots effort, driven by the community, is the optimal way to address some of those needs, and propose a centralized Internet-based system to drive the whole process.

  6. Stochastic global optimization as a filtering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    We present a reformulation of stochastic global optimization as a filtering problem. The motivation behind this reformulation comes from the fact that for many optimization problems we cannot evaluate exactly the objective function to be optimized. Similarly, we may not be able to evaluate exactly the functions involved in iterative optimization algorithms. For example, we may only have access to noisy measurements of the functions or statistical estimates provided through Monte Carlo sampling. This makes iterative optimization algorithms behave like stochastic maps. Naive global optimization amounts to evolving a collection of realizations of this stochastic map and picking the realization with the best properties. This motivates the use of filtering techniques to allow focusing on realizations that are more promising than others. In particular, we present a filtering reformulation of global optimization in terms of a special case of sequential importance sampling methods called particle filters. The increasing popularity of particle filters is based on the simplicity of their implementation and their flexibility. We utilize the flexibility of particle filters to construct a stochastic global optimization algorithm which can converge to the optimal solution appreciably faster than naive global optimization. Several examples of parametric exponential density estimation are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the approach.

  7. Babesiosis for Health Care Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  8. Perspectives of addiction treatment providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. General practitioners are referring patients with codeine-related problems to specialist treatment facilities, but little is known about the addiction treatment providers, the kinds of treatment they provide, and whether training or other interventions are needed to strengthen this sector. Objectives. To investigate the ...

  9. Convex Optimization in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Koenker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Convex optimization now plays an essential role in many facets of statistics. We briefly survey some recent developments and describe some implementations of these methods in R . Applications of linear and quadratic programming are introduced including quantile regression, the Huber M-estimator and various penalized regression methods. Applications to additively separable convex problems subject to linear equality and inequality constraints such as nonparametric density estimation and maximum likelihood estimation of general nonparametric mixture models are described, as are several cone programming problems. We focus throughout primarily on implementations in the R environment that rely on solution methods linked to R, like MOSEK by the package Rmosek. Code is provided in R to illustrate several of these problems. Other applications are available in the R package REBayes, dealing with empirical Bayes estimation of nonparametric mixture models.

  10. PLZT Microfibers Technology Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozielski L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrocaloric (EC structures for a new generation of cooling or heating elements utilize the temperature dependence of spontaneous polarization in some ferroelectric materials to convert waste heat into electricity and vice versa. A (Pb0.93La0.07 (Zr0.65Ti0.35O3 material, have the largest recorded pyroelectric coefficient. An effective predicted form for such applications is fiber, due to small heat capacitance and quick response time, even for nano second laser excitation. Consequently, the presented work provides a description of the optimization of structural, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of obtained fibers, finally concluding on necessity of sintering temperature reduction in 100°C in contrast to bulk form to effectively prevent its destruction.

  11. Puncture panel optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; Longenbaugh, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories developed the TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT) to transport defense contact-handled transuranic wastes. The package has been designed to meet the normal and hypothetical accident conditions in 10CFR71 which includes the demonstrated ability to survive a 1-meter drop onto a mild steel pin. The puncture protection is provided by puncture resistant panels. In conjunction with the development of TRUPACT, a series of experiments has been conducted to reduce the weight of the puncture resistant panels. The initial scoping tests resulted in a preliminary design incorporating 30 layers of Kevlar. This design has been shown to meet the regulatory puncture test. To reduce the weight of this panel, subscale tests were conducted on panels utilizing Kevlar yarns with varying mass per unit length (denier) as well as different resins. This paper reviews the testing undertaken in the original panel development and discusses the results obtained from the recent subscale and full-scale optimization tests

  12. Incentives and provider payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, H; Kutzin, J; Saxenian, H

    1995-01-01

    The mode of payment creates powerful incentives affecting provider behavior and the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health finance reforms. This article examines provider incentives as well as administrative costs, and institutional conditions for successful implementation associated with provider payment alternatives. The alternatives considered are budget reforms, capitation, fee-for-service, and case-based reimbursement. We conclude that competition, whether through a regulated private sector or within a public system, has the potential to improve the performance of any payment method. All methods generate both adverse and beneficial incentives. Systems with mixed forms of provider payment can provide tradeoffs to offset the disadvantages of individual modes. Low-income countries should avoid complex payment systems requiring higher levels of institutional development.

  13. SYSTEM ORGANIZATION OF MATERIAL PROVIDING OF BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rаdkеvich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of scientific-methodical bases to the design of rational management of material streams in the field of building providing taking into account intersystem connections with the enterprises of building industry. Methodology. The analysis of last few years of functioning of building industry in Ukraine allows distinguishing a number of problems that negatively influence the steady development of building, as the component of the state economics system. Therefore the research of existent organization methods of the system of building objects providing with material resources is extremely necessary. In connection with this the article justifies the use of method of hierarchies analysis (Saati method for finding the optimal task solution of fixing the enterprises of building industry after building objects. Findings. Results give an opportunity to guidance of building organization to estimate and choose advantageous suppliers - enterprises of building industry, to conduct their rating, estimation taking into account basic descriptions, such as: quality, price, reliability of deliveries, specialization, financial status etc. Originality. On the basis of Saati method the methodologies of organization are improved, planning and managements of the reliable system of providing of building necessary material resources that meet the technological requirements of implementation of building and installation works. Practical value. Contribution to the decisions of many intricate organizational problems that are accompanied by the problems of development of building, provided due to organization of the reliable system of purchase of material resources.

  14. Multiple Satellite Trajectory Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendy Jr, Paul B

    2004-01-01

    This thesis develops and validates a satellite trajectory optimization model. A summary is given of the general mathematical principles of dynamic optimal control to minimize fuel consumed or transfer time...

  15. Optimal Alarm Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system is simply an optimal level-crossing predictor that can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability. It...

  16. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM...

  17. Euler's fluid equations: Optimal control vs optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, Darryl D.

    2009-01-01

    An optimization method used in image-processing (metamorphosis) is found to imply Euler's equations for incompressible flow of an inviscid fluid, without requiring that the Lagrangian particle labels exactly follow the flow lines of the Eulerian velocity vector field. Thus, an optimal control problem and an optimization problem for incompressible ideal fluid flow both yield the same Euler fluid equations, although their Lagrangian parcel dynamics are different. This is a result of the gauge freedom in the definition of the fluid pressure for an incompressible flow, in combination with the symmetry of fluid dynamics under relabeling of their Lagrangian coordinates. Similar ideas are also illustrated for SO(N) rigid body motion.

  18. Load flow optimization and optimal power flow

    CERN Document Server

    Das, J C

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the major aspects of load flow, optimization, optimal load flow, and culminates in modern heuristic optimization techniques and evolutionary programming. In the deregulated environment, the economic provision of electrical power to consumers requires knowledge of maintaining a certain power quality and load flow. Many case studies and practical examples are included to emphasize real-world applications. The problems at the end of each chapter can be solved by hand calculations without having to use computer software. The appendices are devoted to calculations of line and cable constants, and solutions to the problems are included throughout the book.

  19. Food processing optimization using evolutionary algorithms | Enitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evolutionary algorithms are widely used in single and multi-objective optimization. They are easy to use and provide solution(s) in one simulation run. They are used in food processing industries for decision making. Food processing presents constrained and unconstrained optimization problems. This paper reviews the ...

  20. A New Version of Optimism for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojesen, Emile

    2018-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to outline the conceptual means by which it is possible to be optimistic about education. To provide this outline I turn to Ian Hunter and David Blacker, after a brief introduction to Nietzsche's conceptions of optimism and pessimism, to show why certain forms of optimism in education are either intellectually…

  1. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-23

    Dec 23, 2008 ... The Formal Darwinism Project aims to provide a formal argument linking population genetics to fitness optimization, which of necessity includes defining fitness. This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those ...

  2. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those biologists who believe on theoretical grounds that there is no sense of fitness that can usefully be said to be optimized. The current paper's main objective is to provide a careful ...

  3. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Formal Darwinism Project aims to provide a formal argument linking population genetics to fitness optimization, which of necessity includes defining fitness. This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those biologists who believe ...

  4. A risk-based approach to optimize autologous hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) collection with the use of plerixafor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, S; DeJarnette, S; Aljitawi, O; Ganguly, S; Merkel, D; McGuirk, J

    2012-04-01

    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant is an effective treatment for patients with hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, 15-30% of patients fail to mobilize a sufficient number of HSCs for the transplant. Plerixafor is now used as a salvage mobilization regimen, with good success. We describe here a risk-based approach for the use of plerixafor, based on the circulating CD34(+) cell count and the CD34(+) cell dose collected after 4 days of G-CSF, that identifies potential poor HSC mobilizers upfront. A total of 159 patients underwent HSC collections using this approach. Of these, 55 (35%) were identified as high risk owing to low CD34(+) cell number or low yield on day 1 of collection, and received plerixafor on the subsequent days of collection. Of the 159 patients, 151 (95%) were able to provide adequate collections with the first mobilization attempt in a median of 1.7 days using this approach. Of the eight who failed initial mobilization, 5 successfully underwent re-mobilization with plerixafor and G-CSF and 3 (1.9%) were mobilization failures. This approach helped to control the overall cost of HSC collections for our BMT program by decreasing the need for remobilization, reducing the number of collection days and avoiding the use of plerixafor in all patients.

  5. Hope, optimism and delusion

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire-Snieckus, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Optimism is generally accepted by psychiatrists, psychologists and other caring professionals as a feature of mental health. Interventions typically rely on cognitive-behavioural tools to encourage individuals to ‘stop negative thought cycles’ and to ‘challenge unhelpful thoughts’. However, evidence suggests that most individuals have persistent biases of optimism and that excessive optimism is not conducive to mental health. How helpful is it to facilitate optimism in individuals who are lik...

  6. Pseudolinear functions and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Shashi Kant

    2015-01-01

    Pseudolinear Functions and Optimization is the first book to focus exclusively on pseudolinear functions, a class of generalized convex functions. It discusses the properties, characterizations, and applications of pseudolinear functions in nonlinear optimization problems.The book describes the characterizations of solution sets of various optimization problems. It examines multiobjective pseudolinear, multiobjective fractional pseudolinear, static minmax pseudolinear, and static minmax fractional pseudolinear optimization problems and their results. The authors extend these results to locally

  7. Optimization algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Choose the Correct Solution Method for Your Optimization ProblemOptimization: Algorithms and Applications presents a variety of solution techniques for optimization problems, emphasizing concepts rather than rigorous mathematical details and proofs. The book covers both gradient and stochastic methods as solution techniques for unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It discusses the conjugate gradient method, Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm, Powell method, penalty function, augmented Lagrange multiplier method, sequential quadratic programming, method of feasible direc

  8. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  9. Pyomo optimization modeling in Python

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, William E; Watson, Jean-Paul; Woodruff, David L; Hackebeil, Gabriel A; Nicholson, Bethany L; Siirola, John D

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a complete and comprehensive guide to Pyomo (Python Optimization Modeling Objects) for beginning and advanced modelers, including students at the undergraduate and graduate levels, academic researchers, and practitioners. Using many examples to illustrate the different techniques useful for formulating models, this text beautifully elucidates the breadth of modeling capabilities that are supported by Pyomo and its handling of complex real-world applications. This second edition provides an expanded presentation of Pyomo’s modeling capabilities, providing a broader description of the software that will enable the user to develop and optimize models. Introductory chapters have been revised to extend tutorials; chapters that discuss advanced features now include the new functionalities added to Pyomo since the first edition including generalized disjunctive programming, mathematical programming with equilibrium constraints, and bilevel programming. Pyomo is an open source software package fo...

  10. Cyclus Optimization Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Some preliminary deployment optimization techniques and analysis for nuclear fuel cycle transition scenarios.  Also discusses high throughput computing (highly parallel) optimization with Cyclus.  Finishes with brief discussion of risk mitigation optimization for disruption scenarios.  Presented as part of the 2014 Cyclus Review Meeting, October 23, 2014, Argonne National Laboratory.

  11. Optical ordinal optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2000-07-01

    Ordinal optimization is a relatively new field of mathematics that seems never to have been applied to optics. Optics has made extensive use of traditional cardinal optimization. This paper explores the possibility that ordinal optimization might be useful in optics. The conclusion is: Not directly but indirectly.

  12. Symmetries in Optimal Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that the existence of symmetries may simplify, as in classical mechanics, the solution of optimal control problems. A procedure for obtaining symmetries for the optimal Hamiltonian resulting from the Maximum Principle is given; this avoids the actual calculation of the optimal

  13. Medicare Referring Provider DMEPOS PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset, which is part of CMSs Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data, details information on Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and...

  14. TERRAIN, PROVIDENCE COUNTY, RHODE ISLAND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Providence AOI consists of the costal portion of the county, and meshes up seamlessly with the Kent county AOI directly south. Ground Control is collected...

  15. Types of health care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... article describes health care providers involved in primary care, nursing care, and specialty care. ... MD) or a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO). NURSING CARE Licensed practical nurses (LPNs) are state-licensed caregivers ...

  16. Evolutionary computation for dynamic optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a compilation on the state-of-the-art and recent advances of evolutionary computation for dynamic optimization problems. The motivation for this book arises from the fact that many real-world optimization problems and engineering systems are subject to dynamic environments, where changes occur over time. Key issues for addressing dynamic optimization problems in evolutionary computation, including fundamentals, algorithm design, theoretical analysis, and real-world applications, are presented. "Evolutionary Computation for Dynamic Optimization Problems" is a valuable reference to scientists, researchers, professionals and students in the field of engineering and science, particularly in the areas of computational intelligence, nature- and bio-inspired computing, and evolutionary computation.

  17. Optimization and optimal control in automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya; Steinbuch, Maarten; Re, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book demonstrates the use of the optimization techniques that are becoming essential to meet the increasing stringency and variety of requirements for automotive systems. It shows the reader how to move away from earlier  approaches, based on some degree of heuristics, to the use of  more and more common systematic methods. Even systematic methods can be developed and applied in a large number of forms so the text collects contributions from across the theory, methods and real-world automotive applications of optimization. Greater fuel economy, significant reductions in permissible emissions, new drivability requirements and the generally increasing complexity of automotive systems are among the criteria that the contributing authors set themselves to meet. In many cases multiple and often conflicting requirements give rise to multi-objective constrained optimization problems which are also considered. Some of these problems fall into the domain of the traditional multi-disciplinary optimization applie...

  18. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  19. Generalized massive optimal data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsing, Justin; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Data compression has become one of the cornerstones of modern astronomical data analysis, with the vast majority of analyses compressing large raw datasets down to a manageable number of informative summaries. In this paper we provide a general procedure for optimally compressing N data down to n summary statistics, where n is equal to the number of parameters of interest. We show that compression to the score function - the gradient of the log-likelihood with respect to the parameters - yields n compressed statistics that are optimal in the sense that they preserve the Fisher information content of the data. Our method generalizes earlier work on linear Karhunen-Loéve compression for Gaussian data whilst recovering both lossless linear compression and quadratic estimation as special cases when they are optimal. We give a unified treatment that also includes the general non-Gaussian case as long as mild regularity conditions are satisfied, producing optimal non-linear summary statistics when appropriate. As a worked example, we derive explicitly the n optimal compressed statistics for Gaussian data in the general case where both the mean and covariance depend on the parameters.

  20. Optimal control with aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Longuski, James M; Prussing, John E

    2014-01-01

    Want to know not just what makes rockets go up but how to do it optimally? Optimal control theory has become such an important field in aerospace engineering that no graduate student or practicing engineer can afford to be without a working knowledge of it. This is the first book that begins from scratch to teach the reader the basic principles of the calculus of variations, develop the necessary conditions step-by-step, and introduce the elementary computational techniques of optimal control. This book, with problems and an online solution manual, provides the graduate-level reader with enough introductory knowledge so that he or she can not only read the literature and study the next level textbook but can also apply the theory to find optimal solutions in practice. No more is needed than the usual background of an undergraduate engineering, science, or mathematics program: namely calculus, differential equations, and numerical integration. Although finding optimal solutions for these problems is a...

  1. Methods of mathematical optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    The fundamental principles of numerical optimization methods are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential engineering applications. The basic optimization process is described; unconstrained and constrained minimization problems are defined; a general approach to the design of optimization software programs is outlined; and drawings and diagrams are shown for examples involving (1) the conceptual design of an aircraft, (2) the aerodynamic optimization of an airfoil, (3) the design of an automotive-engine connecting rod, and (4) the optimization of a 'ski-jump' to assist aircraft in taking off from a very short ship deck.

  2. Introduction to Continuous Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Niclas; Evgrafov, Anton; Patriksson, Michael

    optimal solutions for continuous optimization models. The main part of the mathematical material therefore concerns the analysis and linear algebra that underlie the workings of convexity and duality, and necessary/sufficient local/global optimality conditions for continuous optimization problems. Natural...... algorithms are then developed from these optimality conditions, and their most important convergence characteristics are analyzed. The book answers many more questions of the form “Why?” and “Why not?” than “How?”. We use only elementary mathematics in the development of the book, yet are rigorous throughout...

  3. Concepts of combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Paschos, Vangelis Th

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management.  The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aim to cover a wide range  of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization.Concepts of Combinatorial Optimization, is divided into three parts:- On the complexity of combinatorial optimization problems, presenting basics about worst-case and randomi

  4. Optimization theory with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pierre, Donald A

    1987-01-01

    Optimization principles are of undisputed importance in modern design and system operation. They can be used for many purposes: optimal design of systems, optimal operation of systems, determination of performance limitations of systems, or simply the solution of sets of equations. While most books on optimization are limited to essentially one approach, this volume offers a broad spectrum of approaches, with emphasis on basic techniques from both classical and modern work.After an introductory chapter introducing those system concepts that prevail throughout optimization problems of all typ

  5. Topology Optimization Methods for Acoustic-Mechanical Coupling Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Dilgen, Cetin Batur; Dilgen, Sümer Bartug

    2017-01-01

    A comparative overview of methods for topology optimization of acoustic mechanical coupling problems is provided. The goal is to pave the road for developing efficient optimization schemes for the design of complex acoustic devices such as hearingaids.......A comparative overview of methods for topology optimization of acoustic mechanical coupling problems is provided. The goal is to pave the road for developing efficient optimization schemes for the design of complex acoustic devices such as hearingaids....

  6. Optimization in engineering models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Sioshansi, Ramteen

    2017-01-01

    This textbook covers the fundamentals of optimization, including linear, mixed-integer linear, nonlinear, and dynamic optimization techniques, with a clear engineering focus. It carefully describes classical optimization models and algorithms using an engineering problem-solving perspective, and emphasizes modeling issues using many real-world examples related to a variety of application areas. Providing an appropriate blend of practical applications and optimization theory makes the text useful to both practitioners and students, and gives the reader a good sense of the power of optimization and the potential difficulties in applying optimization to modeling real-world systems. The book is intended for undergraduate and graduate-level teaching in industrial engineering and other engineering specialties. It is also of use to industry practitioners, due to the inclusion of real-world applications, opening the door to advanced courses on both modeling and algorithm development within the industrial engineering ...

  7. Polarimetric Coherence Optimization for Multibaseline SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, M.; Ferro-Famil, L.; Reigber, A.

    2007-03-01

    This paper analyzes different approaches for polarimetric optimization of multibaseline interferometric coherences. Two general methods are developed which simultaneously optimize coherences for more than two datasets. The first method is based on multiset canonical correlation analysis, and it provides every dataset with a distinguished dominant scattering mechanism. The second optimization method is constrained to the use of an identical scattering mechanism for every dataset. A framework for a multibaseline orthogonal optimal scattering mechanisms decomposition is presented. The both methods are evaluated on real data acquired by DLR's ESAR sensor at L-band. As experimental results indicate, preferring simultaneous multibaseline coherence optimization to single-baseline optimization improves the estimation of the dominant scattering mechanisms and their interferometric phases.

  8. Dependability of self-optimizing mechatronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rammig, Franz; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Sextro, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent technical systems, which combine mechanical, electrical and software engineering with control engineering and advanced mathematics, go far beyond the state of the art in mechatronics and open up fascinating perspectives. Among these systems are so-called self-optimizing systems, which are able to adapt their behavior autonomously and flexibly to changing operating conditions. Self-optimizing systems create high value for example in terms of energy and resource efficiency as well as reliability. The Collaborative Research Center 614 "Self-optimizing Concepts and Structures in Mechanical Engineering" pursued the long-term aim to open up the active paradigm of self-optimization for mechanical engineering and to enable others to develop self-optimizing systems. This book is directed to researchers and practitioners alike. It provides a design methodology for the development of self-optimizing systems consisting of a reference process, methods, and tools. The reference process is divided into two phase...

  9. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

  10. Choosing a health care provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine M; Beeuwkes Buntin, Melinda

    2008-05-01

    In a consumer-driven health care model, consumers, armed with information, would select providers based on quality and cost, thus increasing competition. This synthesis examines the availability of quality information and the evidence of how consumers use such information to choose a provider. Key findings include: information is publicly available from multiple sources regarding hospitals, but not individual doctors. Hospital information is predominantly made available online; but this limits awareness and access. Awareness is low overall, but highest among well-educated, healthy people. Even when consumers are aware of the data available, they rarely use it because they do not find it relevant: they do not foresee needing a hospital soon; are happy with their current provider; or did not find information pertinent to their specific health condition or hospital. While there is some evidence that hospitals that do poorly on public quality scorecards lose market share, there is better evidence that the providers themselves react to the quality scores by addressing care problems. Studies consistently show that consumers value health care quality and want information, but instead they rely on input from friends, family and their personal physicians about the quality of providers.

  11. Ancillary Services Provided from DER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.B.

    2005-12-21

    Distributed energy resources (DER) are quickly making their way to industry primarily as backup generation. They are effective at starting and then producing full-load power within a few seconds. The distribution system is aging and transmission system development has not kept up with the growth in load and generation. The nation's transmission system is stressed with heavy power flows over long distances, and many areas are experiencing problems in providing the power quality needed to satisfy customers. Thus, a new market for DER is beginning to emerge. DER can alleviate the burden on the distribution system by providing ancillary services while providing a cost adjustment for the DER owner. This report describes 10 types of ancillary services that distributed generation (DG) can provide to the distribution system. Of these 10 services the feasibility, control strategy, effectiveness, and cost benefits are all analyzed as in the context of a future utility-power market. In this market, services will be provided at a local level that will benefit the customer, the distribution utility, and the transmission company.

  12. Ecosystem services provided by waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy J; Elmberg, Johan

    2014-02-01

    Ecosystem services are ecosystem processes that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being. There has been much recent literature identifying different services and the communities and species that provide them. This is a vital first step towards management and maintenance of these services. In this review, we specifically address the waterbirds, which play key functional roles in many aquatic ecosystems, including as predators, herbivores and vectors of seeds, invertebrates and nutrients, although these roles have often been overlooked. Waterbirds can maintain the diversity of other organisms, control pests, be effective bioindicators of ecological conditions, and act as sentinels of potential disease outbreaks. They also provide important provisioning (meat, feathers, eggs, etc.) and cultural services to both indigenous and westernized societies. We identify key gaps in the understanding of ecosystem services provided by waterbirds and areas for future research required to clarify their functional role in ecosystems and the services they provide. We consider how the economic value of these services could be calculated, giving some examples. Such valuation will provide powerful arguments for waterbird conservation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  13. Evolutionary constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2015-01-01

    This book makes available a self-contained collection of modern research addressing the general constrained optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms. Broadly the topics covered include constraint handling for single and multi-objective optimizations; penalty function based methodology; multi-objective based methodology; new constraint handling mechanism; hybrid methodology; scaling issues in constrained optimization; design of scalable test problems; parameter adaptation in constrained optimization; handling of integer, discrete and mix variables in addition to continuous variables; application of constraint handling techniques to real-world problems; and constrained optimization in dynamic environment. There is also a separate chapter on hybrid optimization, which is gaining lots of popularity nowadays due to its capability of bridging the gap between evolutionary and classical optimization. The material in the book is useful to researchers, novice, and experts alike. The book will also be useful...

  14. Interactive Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten

    Interactivity is the continuous interaction between the user and the application to solve a task. Topology optimization is the optimization of structures in order to improve stiffness or other objectives. The goal of the thesis is to explore how topology optimization can be used in applications...... in an interactive and intuitive way. By creating such applications with an intuitive and simple user interface we allow non-engineers like designers and architects to easily experiment with boundary conditions, design domains and other optimization settings. This is in contrast to commercial topology optimization...... software where the users are assumed to be well-educated both in the finite element method and topology optimization. This dissertation describes how various topology optimization methods have been used for creating cross-platform applications with high performance. The user interface design is based...

  15. Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Gerhard; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski Jaroslaw

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the search algorithm known as particle swarm optimization performs. Here, particle swarm optimization is applied to structural design problems, but the method has a much wider range of possible applications. The paper's new contributions are improvements to the particle swarm optimization algorithm and conclusions and recommendations as to the utility of the algorithm, Results of numerical experiments for both continuous and discrete applications are presented in the paper. The results indicate that the particle swarm optimization algorithm does locate the constrained minimum design in continuous applications with very good precision, albeit at a much higher computational cost than that of a typical gradient based optimizer. However, the true potential of particle swarm optimization is primarily in applications with discrete and/or discontinuous functions and variables. Additionally, particle swarm optimization has the potential of efficient computation with very large numbers of concurrently operating processors.

  16. Optimal Control Strategies for Constrained Relative Orbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irvin , Jr, David J

    2007-01-01

    .... This research finds optimal trajectories, produced with discrete-thrusts, that minimize fuel spent per unit time and stay within the user-defened volume, thus providing a practical hover capability...

  17. Enstore with Chimera namespace provider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvintsev, Dmitry [Fermilab; Moibenko, Alexander [Fermilab; Oleynik, Gene [Fermilab; Zalokar, Michael [Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Enstore is a mass storage system developed by Fermilab that provides distributed access and management of data stored on tapes. It uses a namespace service, PNFS, developed by DESY to provide a filesystem-like view of the stored data. PNFS is a legacy product and is being replaced by a new implementation, called Chimera, which is also developed by DESY. Chimera offers multiple advantages over PNFS in terms of performance and functionality. The Enstore client component, encp, has been modified to work with Chimera, as well as with any other namespace provider. We performed high load end-to-end acceptance test of Enstore with the Chimera namespace. This paper describes the modifications to Enstore, the test procedure and the results of the acceptance testing.

  18. Optimal design of pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Leon; Ogungbenro, Kayode

    2010-03-01

    Experimental design is fundamental to successful scientific investigation. Poorly designed experiments lead to the loss of information, which is costly and potentially unethical. Experiments can be designed in an optimal fashion to maximize the amount of information they provide. Optimal design theory uses prior information about the model and parameter estimates to optimize a function of the Fisher information matrix to obtain the best combination of the design factors. In the case of population pharmacokinetic experiments, this involves the selection and a careful balance of a number of design factors, including the number and location of measurement times and the number of subjects to include in the study. It is expected that as the awareness about the benefits of this approach increases, more people will embrace it and ultimately will lead to more efficient population pharmacokinetic experiments and can also help to reduce both cost and time during drug development. This MiniReview provides an introduction to optimal design using examples taken from different pharmacokinetic experiments.

  19. Optimization of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsubo, Masaaki

    1990-01-01

    In radiotherapy, dose optimization is to give adequate dose uniformly over target volume and minimize the dose to normal and adjacent critical organs. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze dose distribution in detail. This paper presents a method for quantitatively assessing treatment planning by analysis of dose distribution. For this purpose, several parameters were introduced, such as D T, min (minimum target absorbed dose), NUF (nonuniformity factor), volume rate of damaged lung and spinal cord, R T/T (ratio of target volume to treatment volume), LE (local efficiency), integral dose, etc. And some criteria were made using these parameters, and were applied to evaluate various plans in external beam radiation therapy for lung and esophagus cancer. In these parameters, NUF was especially useful to obtain three-dimensional dose information of target volume, and value of NUF was in agreement with the information provided by dose volume histogram. AP-PA parallel opposed fields technique was inferior in D T,min and NUF. In lung cancer, there was no spinal cord injury in oblique parallel opposed fields technique, and this technique is particularly useful when target volume is in posterior. In these two techniques, R T/T was small and hot spots were frequently observed. R T/T was largest in oblique wedged two-fields technique, but this technique was inferior in D T, min and NUF. About D T, min and NUF, four fields technique was the best, but in this technique spinal cord complication often occurred in case that target volume was in the middle. In moving beam technique (360deg rotation or arc), integral dose is large, and the more target volume is in posterior, the more often spinal cord complication occurs. In esophageal cancer, three fields technique was the best to avoid spinal cord injury. It seems that this method is very useful for optimization in radiation treatment planning. (author)

  20. Device provides controlled gas leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, S. K.; King, H. J.

    1968-01-01

    Modified palladium leak device provides a controlled release /leak/ of very small quantities of gas at low or medium pressures. It has no moving parts, requires less than 5 watts to operate, and is capable of releasing the gas either continuously or in pulses at adjustable flow rates.

  1. Twitter for travel medicine providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran

    2013-09-01

    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  3. Optimal experimental design with r

    CERN Document Server

    Rasch, Dieter; Verdooren, L R; Gebhardt, Albrecht

    2011-01-01

    Experimental design is often overlooked in the literature of applied and mathematical statistics: statistics is taught and understood as merely a collection of methods for analyzing data. Consequently, experimenters seldom think about optimal design, including prerequisites such as the necessary sample size needed for a precise answer for an experimental question. Providing a concise introduction to experimental design theory, Optimal Experimental Design with R: Introduces the philosophy of experimental design Provides an easy process for constructing experimental designs and calculating necessary sample size using R programs Teaches by example using a custom made R program package: OPDOE Consisting of detailed, data-rich examples, this book introduces experimenters to the philosophy of experimentation, experimental design, and data collection. It gives researchers and statisticians guidance in the construction of optimum experimental designs using R programs, including sample size calculations, hypothesis te...

  4. Optimal experimental design with R

    CERN Document Server

    Rasch, Dieter; Verdooren, L R; Gebhardt, Albrecht

    2011-01-01

    Experimental design is often overlooked in the literature of applied and mathematical statistics: statistics is taught and understood as merely a collection of methods for analyzing data. Consequently, experimenters seldom think about optimal design, including prerequisites such as the necessary sample size needed for a precise answer for an experimental question. Providing a concise introduction to experimental design theory, Optimal Experimental Design with R: Introduces the philosophy of experimental design Provides an easy process for constructing experimental designs and calculating necessary sample size using R programs Teaches by example using a custom made R program package: OPDOE Consisting of detailed, data-rich examples, this book introduces experimenters to the philosophy of experimentation, experimental design, and data collection. It gives researchers and statisticians guidance in the construction of optimum experimental designs using R programs, including sample size calculations, hypothesis te...

  5. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Software Design Document - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa; Jones, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    This document describes the final software design of the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype. Its purpose is to provide the overall architecture of the software and the logic behind this architecture. Documentation for the individual classes is provided in the application Javadoc. The Contingency Contractor Optimization project is intended to address Department of Defense mandates by delivering a centralized strategic planning tool that allows senior decision makers to quickly and accurately assess the impacts, risks, and mitigation strategies associated with utilizing contract support. The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype was developed in Phase 3 of the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization project to support strategic planning for contingency contractors. The planning tool uses a model to optimize the Total Force mix by minimizing the combined total costs for selected mission scenarios. The model optimizes the match of personnel types (military, DoD civilian, and contractors) and capabilities to meet mission requirements as effectively as possible, based on risk, cost, and other requirements.

  6. Management systems for service providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokonya, Herbert Chiwalo

    2015-02-01

    In the field of radiation safety and protection there are a number of institutions that are involved in achieving different goals and strategies. These strategies and objectives are achieved based on a number of tools and systems, one of these tools and systems is the use of a management system. This study aimed at reviewing the management system concept for Technical Service Providers in the field of radiation safety and protection. The main focus was on personal monitoring services provided by personal dosimetry laboratories. A number of key issues were found to be prominent to make the management system efficient. These are laboratory accreditation, approval; having a customer driven operating criteria; and controlling of records and good reporting. (au)

  7. Providing solutions to engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connop, R.P.P.

    1991-01-01

    BNFL has acquired unique experience over a period of 40 years in specifying, designing and constructing spent fuel reprocessing and associated waste management plant. This experience is currently used to support a pound 5.5 billion capital investment programme. This paper reviews a number of engineering problems and their solutions to highlight BNFL experience in providing comprehensive specification, design and engineering and project management services. (author)

  8. Benchmarking optimization solvers for structural topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Labanda, Susana; Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    sizes is developed for this benchmarking. The problems are based on a material interpolation scheme combined with a density filter. Different optimization solvers including Optimality Criteria (OC), the Method of Moving Asymptotes (MMA) and its globally convergent version GCMMA, the interior point...... solvers in IPOPT and FMINCON, and the sequential quadratic programming method in SNOPT, are benchmarked on the library using performance profiles. Whenever possible the methods are applied to both the nested and the Simultaneous Analysis and Design (SAND) formulations of the problem. The performance...... profiles conclude that general solvers are as efficient and reliable as classical structural topology optimization solvers. Moreover, the use of the exact Hessians in SAND formulations, generally produce designs with better objective function values. However, with the benchmarked implementations solving...

  9. Supercomputer optimizations for stochastic optimal control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Siu-Leung; Hanson, Floyd B.; Xu, Huihuang

    1991-01-01

    Supercomputer optimizations for a computational method of solving stochastic, multibody, dynamic programming problems are presented. The computational method is valid for a general class of optimal control problems that are nonlinear, multibody dynamical systems, perturbed by general Markov noise in continuous time, i.e., nonsmooth Gaussian as well as jump Poisson random white noise. Optimization techniques for vector multiprocessors or vectorizing supercomputers include advanced data structures, loop restructuring, loop collapsing, blocking, and compiler directives. These advanced computing techniques and superconducting hardware help alleviate Bellman's curse of dimensionality in dynamic programming computations, by permitting the solution of large multibody problems. Possible applications include lumped flight dynamics models for uncertain environments, such as large scale and background random aerospace fluctuations.

  10. Space-optimized texture atlases

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Bayona, Jonàs

    2009-01-01

    Texture atlas parameterization provides an effective way to map a variety of colour and data attributes from 2D texture domains onto polygonal surface meshes. Most of the existing literature focus on how to build seamless texture atlases for continuous photometric detail, but little e ort has been devoted to devise e cient techniques for encoding self-repeating, uncontinuous signals such as building facades. We present a perception-based scheme for generating space-optimized texture ...

  11. Performance-based shape optimization of continuum structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Qingquan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a performance-based optimization (PBO) method for optimal shape design of continuum structures with stiffness constraints. Performance-based design concepts are incorporated in the shape optimization theory to achieve optimal designs. In the PBO method, the traditional shape optimization problem of minimizing the weight of a continuum structure with displacement or mean compliance constraints is transformed to the problem of maximizing the performance of the structure. The optimal shape of a continuum structure is obtained by gradually eliminating inefficient finite elements from the structure until its performance is maximized. Performance indices are employed to monitor the performance of optimized shapes in an optimization process. Performance-based optimality criteria are incorporated in the PBO method to identify the optimum from the optimization process. The PBO method is used to produce optimal shapes of plane stress continuum structures and plates in bending. Benchmark numerical results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PBO method for generating the maximum stiffness shape design of continuum structures. It is shown that the PBO method developed overcomes the limitations of traditional shape optimization methods in optimal design of continuum structures. Performance-based optimality criteria presented can be incorporated in any shape and topology optimization methods to obtain optimal designs of continuum structures.

  12. Optimal placement of FACTS devices using optimization techniques: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Dipesh; Mathew, Lini

    2018-03-01

    Modern power system is dealt with overloading problem especially transmission network which works on their maximum limit. Today’s power system network tends to become unstable and prone to collapse due to disturbances. Flexible AC Transmission system (FACTS) provides solution to problems like line overloading, voltage stability, losses, power flow etc. FACTS can play important role in improving static and dynamic performance of power system. FACTS devices need high initial investment. Therefore, FACTS location, type and their rating are vital and should be optimized to place in the network for maximum benefit. In this paper, different optimization methods like Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA) etc. are discussed and compared for optimal location, type and rating of devices. FACTS devices such as Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC), Static Var Compensator (SVC) and Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) are considered here. Mentioned FACTS controllers effects on different IEEE bus network parameters like generation cost, active power loss, voltage stability etc. have been analyzed and compared among the devices.

  13. Optimal placement of capacito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gnanasekaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimal size and location of shunt capacitors in the distribution system plays a significant role in minimizing the energy loss and the cost of reactive power compensation. This paper presents a new efficient technique to find optimal size and location of shunt capacitors with the objective of minimizing cost due to energy loss and reactive power compensation of distribution system. A new Shark Smell Optimization (SSO algorithm is proposed to solve the optimal capacitor placement problem satisfying the operating constraints. The SSO algorithm is a recently developed metaheuristic optimization algorithm conceptualized using the shark’s hunting ability. It uses a momentum incorporated gradient search and a rotational movement based local search for optimization. To demonstrate the applicability of proposed method, it is tested on IEEE 34-bus and 118-bus radial distribution systems. The simulation results obtained are compared with previous methods reported in the literature and found to be encouraging.

  14. Energy optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; de Bedout, Juan Manuel; Kern, John Michael; Biyik, Emrah; Chandra, Ramu Sharat

    2013-01-22

    A system for optimizing customer utility usage in a utility network of customer sites, each having one or more utility devices, where customer site is communicated between each of the customer sites and an optimization server having software for optimizing customer utility usage over one or more networks, including private and public networks. A customer site model for each of the customer sites is generated based upon the customer site information, and the customer utility usage is optimized based upon the customer site information and the customer site model. The optimization server can be hosted by an external source or within the customer site. In addition, the optimization processing can be partitioned between the customer site and an external source.

  15. Optimization aspects of carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutovsky, B; Horvath, D

    2010-05-01

    Any process in which competing solutions replicate with errors and numbers of their copies depend on their respective fitnesses is the evolutionary optimization process. As during carcinogenesis mutated genomes replicate according to their respective qualities, carcinogenesis obviously qualifies as the evolutionary optimization process and conforms to common mathematical basis. The optimization view accents statistical nature of carcinogenesis proposing that during it the crucial role is actually played by the allocation of trials. Optimal allocation of trials requires reliable schemas' fitnesses estimations which necessitate appropriate, fitness landscape dependent, statistics of population. In the spirit of the applied conceptual framework, features which are known to decrease efficiency of any evolutionary optimization procedure (or inhibit it completely) are anticipated as "therapies" and reviewed. Strict adherence to the evolutionary optimization framework leads us to some counterintuitive implications which are, however, in agreement with recent experimental findings, such as sometimes observed more aggressive and malignant growth of therapy surviving cancer cells.

  16. Workshop on Computational Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Our everyday life is unthinkable without optimization. We try to minimize our effort and to maximize the achieved profit. Many real world and industrial problems arising in engineering, economics, medicine and other domains can be formulated as optimization tasks. This volume is a comprehensive collection of extended contributions from the Workshop on Computational Optimization 2013. It presents recent advances in computational optimization. The volume includes important real life problems like parameter settings for controlling processes in bioreactor, resource constrained project scheduling, problems arising in transport services, error correcting codes, optimal system performance and energy consumption and so on. It shows how to develop algorithms for them based on new metaheuristic methods like evolutionary computation, ant colony optimization, constrain programming and others.

  17. Optimality conditions for the numerical solution of optimization problems with PDE constraints :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilo Valentin, Miguel Alejandro; Ridzal, Denis

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical framework for the numerical solution of partial di erential equation (PDE) constrained optimization problems is presented in this report. This theoretical framework embodies the fundamental infrastructure required to e ciently implement and solve this class of problems. Detail derivations of the optimality conditions required to accurately solve several parameter identi cation and optimal control problems are also provided in this report. This will allow the reader to further understand how the theoretical abstraction presented in this report translates to the application.

  18. Pareto-optimal alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bligaard, Thomas; Johannesson, Gisli Holmar; Ruban, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    Large databases that can be used in the search for new materials with specific properties remain an elusive goal in materials science. The problem is complicated by the fact that the optimal material for a given application is usually a compromise between a number of materials properties and the ......, the Pareto-optimal set, to determine optimal alloy solutions for the compromise between low compressibility, high stability, and cost....

  19. Dictionary descent in optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Temlyakov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The problem of convex optimization is studied. Usually in convex optimization the minimization is over a d-dimensional domain. Very often the convergence rate of an optimization algorithm depends on the dimension d. The algorithms studied in this paper utilize dictionaries instead of a canonical basis used in the coordinate descent algorithms. We show how this approach allows us to reduce dimensionality of the problem. Also, we investigate which properties of a dictionary are beneficial for t...

  20. Optimization Aspects of Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Brutovsky, B.; Horvath, D.

    2009-01-01

    Any process in which competing solutions replicate with errors and numbers of their copies depend on their respective fitnesses is the evolutionary optimization process. As during carcinogenesis mutated genomes replicate according to their respective qualities, carcinogenesis obviously qualifies as the evolutionary optimization process and conforms to common mathematical basis. The optimization view accents statistical nature of carcinogenesis proposing that during it the crucial role is actu...

  1. Optimization of Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    PROKOPOVÁ, Nikola

    2017-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is optimization of inventory in selected organization. Inventory optimization is a very important topic in each organization because it reduces storage costs. At the beginning the inventory theory is presented. It shows the meaning and types of inventory, inventory control and also different methods and models of inventory control. Inventory optimization in the enterprise can be reached by using models of inventory control. In the second part the company on which is...

  2. POSTDOC : THE HUMAN OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Gajawada

    2013-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to everyone who is interested in the Artificial Intelligence. John Henry Holland proposed Genetic Algorithm in the early 1970s. Ant Colony Optimization was proposed by Marco Dorigo in 1992. Particle Swarm Optimization was introduced by Kennedy and Eberhart in 1995. Storn and Price introduced Differential Evolution in 1996. K.M. Passino introduced Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm in 2002. In 2003, X.L. Li proposed Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm....

  3. Nuclear Fuel Management Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karve, A.A.; Keller, P.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Maldonado, G.I.

    2001-06-17

    The nuclear fuel management design optimization problem has grown more challenging and important with the passage of time. In this paper, we summarize our research on this design optimization problem. A suite of computer codes that aid in making nuclear fuel management decisions has been developed. These codes utilize stochastic optimization techniques to search the decision space for determining the family of near-optimum decisions in the suboptimization problem being solved.

  4. Optimization of Freight Procurement.

    OpenAIRE

    Ndahi Mubiri, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Freight and logistics industries have seen a significant growth over the last decade, and this growth requires better and more optimized solutions. The present study aimed at examining strategies that could be used in the optimization of the procurement at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport. The study aimed at presenting an effective framework for addressing the challenges in procurement and optimizing the performance of the department. This was hoped to result in an effective perfor...

  5. Optimized ventilation-on-demand (VOD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, M. [Simsmart Technologies Inc., Brossard, PQ (Canada); Cervinka, A. [Newtrax Technologies Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described how the combination of 2 innovative technologies can help optimize mine ventilation. Newtrax Technologies has developed a self-contained battery-powered wireless electronic system designed to operate in harsh industrial environments, including underground mines. Simsmart Technologies has created an advanced process and control simulation based design tool used in industrial applications, including mine ventilation systems. This presentation described the system components and how they work. These included the wireless mesh network designed for dynamic diesel machinery tracking and operating status monitoring; the real-time ventilation model and fan speed optimizer; the OPC server for information interchange; the OPC linkage to existing control infrastructure; a human machine interface that provide data archiving capability; live MS-Excel to interrogate the simulation, controls and optimizer; and, the battery-powered network mesh that provides SCADA functionality to route optimized setpoints. Details of the user interface were also provided. 1 tab., 20 figs.

  6. Allocation of advertising space by a web service provider using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    in the literature addressing the winner-determination problem in the context of advertising over the internet. In the current work, we address the problem faced by the web-page service provider on “how to optimally allocate the advertising space available on her web-page so as to maximize the overall revenue of the system.

  7. Deterministic Global Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This monograph deals with a general class of solution approaches in deterministic global optimization, namely the geometric branch-and-bound methods which are popular algorithms, for instance, in Lipschitzian optimization, d.c. programming, and interval analysis.It also introduces a new concept for the rate of convergence and analyzes several bounding operations reported in the literature, from the theoretical as well as from the empirical point of view. Furthermore, extensions of the prototype algorithm for multicriteria global optimization problems as well as mixed combinatorial optimization

  8. Stochastic optimization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marti, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Optimization problems arising in practice involve random model parameters. This book features many illustrations, several examples, and applications to concrete problems from engineering and operations research.

  9. Control and optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinsheng, Lou

    2013-02-12

    A system for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input parameter (270) and an output for outputting an output parameter (280), a control system operably connected to the chemical loop and having a multiple controller part (230) comprising a model-free controller. The control system receives the output parameter (280), optimizes the input parameter (270) based on the received output parameter (280), and outputs an optimized input parameter (270) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  10. Optimization under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez, Rafael H.

    2016-01-06

    The goal of this poster is to present the main approaches to optimization of engineering systems in the presence of uncertainties. We begin by giving an insight about robust optimization. Next, we detail how to deal with probabilistic constraints in optimization, the so called the reliability based design. Subsequently, we present the risk optimization approach, which includes the expected costs of failure in the objective function. After that the basic description of each approach is given, the projects developed by CORE are presented. Finally, the main current topic of research of CORE is described.

  11. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  12. Global optimization of digital circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandera, Richard

    1991-12-01

    This thesis was divided into two tasks. The first task involved developing a parser which could translate a behavioral specification in Very High-Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) into the format used by an existing digital circuit optimization tool, Boolean Reasoning In Scheme (BORIS). Since this tool is written in Scheme, a dialect of Lisp, the parser was also written in Scheme. The parser was implemented is Artez's modification of Earley's Algorithm. Additionally, a VHDL tokenizer was implemented in Scheme and a portion of the VHDL grammar was converted into the format which the parser uses. The second task was the incorporation of intermediate functions into BORIS. The existing BORIS contains a recursive optimization system that optimizes digital circuits by using circuit outputs as inputs into other circuits. Intermediate functions provide a greater selection of functions to be used as circuits inputs. Using both intermediate functions and output functions, the costs of the circuits in the test set were reduced by 43 percent. This is a 10 percent reduction when compared to the existing recursive optimization system. Incorporating intermediate functions into BORIS required the development of an intermediate-function generator and a set of control methods to keep the computation time from increasing exponentially.

  13. Topology optimization based on the harmony search method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Min; Han, Seog-Young

    2017-01-01

    A new topology optimization scheme based on a Harmony search (HS) as a metaheuristic method was proposed and applied to static stiffness topology optimization problems. To apply the HS to topology optimization, the variables in HS were transformed to those in topology optimization. Compliance was used as an objective function, and harmony memory was defined as the set of the optimized topology. Also, a parametric study for Harmony memory considering rate (HMCR), Pitch adjusting rate (PAR), and Bandwidth (BW) was performed to find the appropriate range for topology optimization. Various techniques were employed such as a filtering scheme, simple average scheme and harmony rate. To provide a robust optimized topology, the concept of the harmony rate update rule was also implemented. Numerical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the HS by comparing the optimal layouts of the HS with those of Bidirectional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) and Artificial bee colony algorithm (ABCA). The following conclu- sions could be made: (1) The proposed topology scheme is very effective for static stiffness topology optimization problems in terms of stability, robustness and convergence rate. (2) The suggested method provides a symmetric optimized topology despite the fact that the HS is a stochastic method like the ABCA. (3) The proposed scheme is applicable and practical in manufacturing since it produces a solid-void design of the optimized topology. (4) The suggested method appears to be very effective for large scale problems like topology optimization.

  14. Topology optimization based on the harmony search method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Min; Han, Seog-Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    A new topology optimization scheme based on a Harmony search (HS) as a metaheuristic method was proposed and applied to static stiffness topology optimization problems. To apply the HS to topology optimization, the variables in HS were transformed to those in topology optimization. Compliance was used as an objective function, and harmony memory was defined as the set of the optimized topology. Also, a parametric study for Harmony memory considering rate (HMCR), Pitch adjusting rate (PAR), and Bandwidth (BW) was performed to find the appropriate range for topology optimization. Various techniques were employed such as a filtering scheme, simple average scheme and harmony rate. To provide a robust optimized topology, the concept of the harmony rate update rule was also implemented. Numerical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the HS by comparing the optimal layouts of the HS with those of Bidirectional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) and Artificial bee colony algorithm (ABCA). The following conclu- sions could be made: (1) The proposed topology scheme is very effective for static stiffness topology optimization problems in terms of stability, robustness and convergence rate. (2) The suggested method provides a symmetric optimized topology despite the fact that the HS is a stochastic method like the ABCA. (3) The proposed scheme is applicable and practical in manufacturing since it produces a solid-void design of the optimized topology. (4) The suggested method appears to be very effective for large scale problems like topology optimization.

  15. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...... is arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein the additional electrical output power is taken from kinetic energy stored in the rotor and without...... changing the operation of the wind turbine to a more efficient working point.; When the rotational speed of the rotor reaches a minimum value, the wind turbine enters a recovery period to re-accelerate the rotor to the nominal rotational speed while further contributing to the stability of the electrical...

  16. The Dual Role of Money and Optimal Financial Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the optimal taxation of money and other financial assets.The optimal tax formulae reflect that money provides liquidity services and is a saving vehicle.In fact, it is useful to reformulate the optimal tax problem to allow for separate taxes on the liquidity and saving

  17. Topology Optimization of Metamaterial-Based Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    A topology optimized metamaterial-based electrically small antenna configuration that is independent of a specific spherical and/or cylindrical metamaterial shell design is demonstrated. Topology optimization is shown to provide the optimal value and placement of a given ideal metamaterial in space...

  18. Time optimal paths for a constant speed unicycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed unicycle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of arcs of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduced concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Identity Development and Worldview: Toward an Optimal Conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Linda J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Postulates new way of describing identity development process under oppression using optimal theory. From this optimal worldview, oppression is perceived as self-alienating and yielding a fragmented sense of self, based upon devaluation by self and others. Describes optimal theory as providing new inclusive model of identity development. Describes…

  20. Optimal investment horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, I.; Jensen, M. H.; Johansen, A.

    2002-06-01

    In stochastic finance, one traditionally considers the return as a competitive measure of an asset, i.e., the profit generated by that asset after some fixed time span Δt, say one week or one year. This measures how well (or how bad) the asset performs over that given period of time. It has been established that the distribution of returns exhibits ``fat tails'' indicating that large returns occur more frequently than what is expected from standard Gaussian stochastic processes [1-3]. Instead of estimating this ``fat tail'' distribution of returns, we propose here an alternative approach, which is outlined by addressing the following question: What is the smallest time interval needed for an asset to cross a fixed return level of say 10%? For a particular asset, we refer to this time as the investment horizon and the corresponding distribution as the investment horizon distribution. This latter distribution complements that of returns and provides new and possibly crucial information for portfolio design and risk-management, as well as for pricing of more exotic options. By considering historical financial data, exemplified by the Dow Jones Industrial Average, we obtain a novel set of probability distributions for the investment horizons which can be used to estimate the optimal investment horizon for a stock or a future contract.

  1. Optimization of surface maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeverland, E.

    1990-01-01

    The present conference paper deals with methods of optimizing the surface maintenance of steel-made offshore installations. The paper aims at identifying important approaches to the problems regarding the long-range planning of an economical and cost effective maintenance program. The methods of optimization are based on the obtained experiences from the maintenance of installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. 3 figs

  2. Natural selection and optimality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    It is assumed that Darwin's principle translates into optimal regimes of operation along metabolical pathways in an ecological system. Fitness is then defined in terms of the distance of a given individual's thermodynamic parameters from their optimal values. The method is illustrated testing maximum power as a criterion of merit satisfied in ATP synthesis. (author). 26 refs, 2 figs

  3. Numerical Optimization in Microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg

    2017-01-01

    Numerical modelling can illuminate the working mechanism and limitations of microfluidic devices. Such insights are useful in their own right, but one can take advantage of numerical modelling in a systematic way using numerical optimization. In this chapter we will discuss when and how numerical...... optimization is best used....

  4. Asymptotically Optimal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimore, Tor; Hutter, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Artificial general intelligence aims to create agents capable of learning to solve arbitrary interesting problems. We define two versions of asymptotic optimality and prove that no agent can satisfy the strong version while in some cases, depending on discounting, there does exist a non-computable weak asymptotically optimal agent.

  5. Optimization in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Geraldo R.M. da [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses, partially, the advantages and the disadvantages of the optimal power flow. It shows some of the difficulties of implementation and proposes solutions. An analysis is made comparing the power flow, BIGPOWER/CESP, and the optimal power flow, FPO/SEL, developed by the author, when applied to the CEPEL-ELETRONORTE and CESP systems. (author) 8 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...

  7. Maintenance optimization with AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostroun, Frank; Herzing, Karl-Heinz; Buschart, Rufus [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Driven by the economic expectations of an energy market that becomes increasingly unregulated, the optimization of the maintenance in a nuclear power plant is a more demand practice. This paper describes on three exemplary product lines of AREVA, how AREVA can support its customers optimizing its maintenance.

  8. OPTIMIZING HOTEL DYNAMIC PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bandalouski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to solvе a problem of determining optimal dynamic prices for hotel rooms is suggested. It includes selection of input parameters for the succeeding mathematical analysis, disaggregation of the demand into several categories, demand forecasting, simulation of demand- price relations, and a mathematical programming model for price optimization.

  9. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  10. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  11. Workshop on Computational Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive collection of extended contributions from the Workshop on Computational Optimization 2014, held at Warsaw, Poland, September 7-10, 2014. The book presents recent advances in computational optimization. The volume includes important real problems like parameter settings for controlling processes in bioreactor and other processes, resource constrained project scheduling, infection distribution, molecule distance geometry, quantum computing, real-time management and optimal control, bin packing, medical image processing, localization the abrupt atmospheric contamination source and so on. It shows how to develop algorithms for them based on new metaheuristic methods like evolutionary computation, ant colony optimization, constrain programming and others. This research demonstrates how some real-world problems arising in engineering, economics, medicine and other domains can be formulated as optimization tasks.

  12. System performance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarz, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The System Performance Optimization has become an important and difficult field for large scientific computer centres. Important because the centres must satisfy increasing user demands at the lowest possible cost. Difficult because the System Performance Optimization requires a deep understanding of hardware, software and workload. The optimization is a dynamic process depending on the changes in hardware configuration, current level of the operating system and user generated workload. With the increasing complication of the computer system and software, the field for the optimization manoeuvres broadens. The hardware of two manufacturers IBM and CDC is discussed. Four IBM and two CDC operating systems are described. The description concentrates on the organization of the operating systems, the job scheduling and I/O handling. The performance definitions, workload specification and tools for the system stimulation are given. The measurement tools for the System Performance Optimization are described. The results of the measurement and various methods used for the operating system tuning are discussed. (Auth.)

  13. Modern optimization with R

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this book is to gather in a single document the most relevant concepts related to modern optimization methods, showing how such concepts and methods can be addressed using the open source, multi-platform R tool. Modern optimization methods, also known as metaheuristics, are particularly useful for solving complex problems for which no specialized optimization algorithm has been developed. These methods often yield high quality solutions with a more reasonable use of computational resources (e.g. memory and processing effort). Examples of popular modern methods discussed in this book are: simulated annealing; tabu search; genetic algorithms; differential evolution; and particle swarm optimization. This book is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students in Computer Science, Information Technology, and related areas, as well as data analysts interested in exploring modern optimization methods using R.

  14. Overall bolt stress optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with International Organization for Standardization metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue, so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength....... Maximum stress in the bolt is found at the fillet under the head, at the thread start, or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration, shape optimization is applied. Nut shape optimization also has a positive effect on the maximum stress. The optimization results show that designing a nut......, which results in a more evenly distribution of load along the engaged thread, has a limited influence on the maximum stress due to the stress concentration at the first thread root. To further reduce the maximum stress, the transition from bolt shank to the thread must be optimized. Stress reduction...

  15. Providing global WLCG transfer monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Campana, S; Flix, J; Flix, J; Keeble, O; Magini, N; Molnar, Z; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Ro, G; Saiz, P; Salichos, M; Tuckett, D; Uzhinsky, A; Wildish, T

    2012-01-01

    The WLCG[1] Transfers Dashboard is a monitoring system which aims to provide a global view of WLCG data transfers and to reduce redundancy in monitoring tasks performed by the LHC experiments. The system is designed to work transparently across LHC experiments and across the various technologies used for data transfer. Currently each LHC experiment monitors data transfers via experiment-specific systems but the overall cross-experiment picture is missing. Even for data transfers handled by FTS, which is used by 3 LHC experiments, monitoring tasks such as aggregation of FTS transfer statistics or estimation of transfer latencies are performed by every experiment separately. These tasks could be performed once, centrally, and then served to all experiments via a well-defined set of APIs. In the design and development of the new system, experience accumulated by the LHC experiments in the data management monitoring area is taken into account and a considerable part of the code of the ATLAS DDM Dashboard is being...

  16. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, E.; Kirshner, E.

    1993-01-01

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. open-quotes It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000 close-quote, says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. open-quote We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions close-quote. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard

  17. Providing global WLCG transfer monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, J; Dieguez Arias, D; Campana, S; Keeble, O; Magini, N; Molnar, Z; Ro, G; Saiz, P; Salichos, M; Tuckett, D; Flix, J; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Uzhinsky, A; Wildish, T

    2012-01-01

    The WLCG[1] Transfers Dashboard is a monitoring system which aims to provide a global view of WLCG data transfers and to reduce redundancy in monitoring tasks performed by the LHC experiments. The system is designed to work transparently across LHC experiments and across the various technologies used for data transfer. Currently each LHC experiment monitors data transfers via experiment-specific systems but the overall cross-experiment picture is missing. Even for data transfers handled by FTS, which is used by 3 LHC experiments, monitoring tasks such as aggregation of FTS transfer statistics or estimation of transfer latencies are performed by every experiment separately. These tasks could be performed once, centrally, and then served to all experiments via a well-defined set of APIs. In the design and development of the new system, experience accumulated by the LHC experiments in the data management monitoring area is taken into account and a considerable part of the code of the ATLAS DDM Dashboard is being re-used. The paper describes the architecture of the Global Transfer monitoring system, the implementation of its components and the first prototype.

  18. Providing value in ambulatory anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosnot, Caroline D; Fleisher, Lee A; Keogh, John

    2015-12-01

    colonoscopies. With this projected increase in the demand for anesthesia services nationwide comes the analysis of its financial feasibility. Some early data looking at endoscopist-administered sedation conclude that it offers higher patient satisfaction, there were less adverse effects than anesthesiologist-administered sedation, and is economically advantageous. This and future retrospective studies will help to guide healthcare policymakers and physicians to come to a conclusion about providing ambulatory services for these millions of patients. Ambulatory anesthesia's popularity continues to rise and anesthetic techniques will continue to morph and adapt to the needs of patients seeking ambulatory surgery. Alterations in already existing medications are promising as these modifications allow for quicker recovery from anesthesia or minimization of the already known undesirable side-effects. PONV, pain, obstructive sleep apnea, and chronic comorbidities (hypertension, cardiac disease, and diabetes mellitus) are perioperative concerns in ambulatory settings as more patients are safely being treated in ambulatory settings. Regional anesthesia stands out as a modality that has multiple advantages to general anesthesia, providing a minimal recovery period and a decrease in postanesthesia care unit stay. The implementation of the Affordable Healthcare Act specifically affects ambulatory settings as the demand and need for patients to have screening procedures with anesthesia. The question remains what the best strategy is to meet the needs of our future patients while preserving economically feasibility within an already strained healthcare system.

  19. Advanced Topology Optimization Methods for Conceptual Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Amir, Oded; Clausen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    in topological optimization: Interactive control and continuous visualization; embedding flexible voids within the design space; consideration of distinct tension / compression properties; and optimization of dual material systems. In extension, optimization procedures for skeletal structures such as trusses......This paper presents a series of new, advanced topology optimization methods, developed specifically for conceptual architectural design of structures. The proposed computational procedures are implemented as components in the framework of a Grasshopper plugin, providing novel capacities...

  20. A Novel Consensus-Based Particle Swarm Optimization-Assisted Trust-Tech Methodology for Large-Scale Global Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Feng; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2017-09-01

    A novel three-stage methodology, termed the "consensus-based particle swarm optimization (PSO)-assisted Trust-Tech methodology," to find global optimal solutions for nonlinear optimization problems is presented. It is composed of Trust-Tech methods, consensus-based PSO, and local optimization methods that are integrated to compute a set of high-quality local optimal solutions that can contain the global optimal solution. The proposed methodology compares very favorably with several recently developed PSO algorithms based on a set of small-dimension benchmark optimization problems and 20 large-dimension test functions from the CEC 2010 competition. The analytical basis for the proposed methodology is also provided. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can rapidly obtain high-quality optimal solutions that can contain the global optimal solution. The scalability of the proposed methodology is promising.

  1. Search for the optimal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Gerard E

    2010-12-01

    Since the beginning of time, we have been searching for diets that satisfy our palates while simultaneously optimizing health and well-being. Every year, there are hundreds of new diet books on the market that make a wide range of promises but rarely deliver. Unfortunately, consumers are gullible and believe much of the marketing hype because they are desperately seeking ways to maximize their health. As a result, they continue to purchase these diet books, sending many of them all the way to the bestseller list. Because many of these meal plans are not sustainable and are questionable in their approaches, the consumer is ultimately left to continue searching, only able to choose from the newest "fad" promoted by publicists rather than being grounded in science. Thus, the search for the optimal diet continues to be the "holy grail" for many of us today, presenting a challenge for nutritionists and practitioners to provide sound advice to consumers.

  2. Combinatorial optimization theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Korte, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook on combinatorial optimization places special emphasis on theoretical results and algorithms with provably good performance, in contrast to heuristics. It is based on numerous courses on combinatorial optimization and specialized topics, mostly at graduate level. This book reviews the fundamentals, covers the classical topics (paths, flows, matching, matroids, NP-completeness, approximation algorithms) in detail, and proceeds to advanced and recent topics, some of which have not appeared in a textbook before. Throughout, it contains complete but concise proofs, and also provides numerous exercises and references. This sixth edition has again been updated, revised, and significantly extended. Among other additions, there are new sections on shallow-light trees, submodular function maximization, smoothed analysis of the knapsack problem, the (ln 4+ɛ)-approximation for Steiner trees, and the VPN theorem. Thus, this book continues to represent the state of the art of combinatorial opti...

  3. Optimal intervention strategies for tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowong, Samuel; Aziz Alaoui, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of optimal control of a deterministic model of tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus). We first present and analyze an uncontrolled tuberculosis model which incorporates the essential biological and epidemiological features of the disease. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where a stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with one or more stable endemic equilibria when the associated basic reproduction number is less than the unity. Based on this continuous model, the tuberculosis control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how control terms on the chemoprophylaxis and detection should be introduced in the population to reduce the number of individuals with active TB. Results provide a framework for designing the cost-effective strategies for TB with two intervention methods.

  4. Shearlets and Optimally Sparse Approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutyniok, Gitta; Lemvig, Jakob; Lim, Wang-Q

    2012-01-01

    of such functions. Recently, cartoon-like images were introduced in 2D and 3D as a suitable model class, and approximation properties were measured by considering the decay rate of the $L^2$ error of the best $N$-term approximation. Shearlet systems are to date the only representation system, which provide...... optimally sparse approximations of this model class in 2D as well as 3D. Even more, in contrast to all other directional representation systems, a theory for compactly supported shearlet frames was derived which moreover also satisfy this optimality benchmark. This chapter shall serve as an introduction...... to and a survey about sparse approximations of cartoon-like images by band-limited and also compactly supported shearlet frames as well as a reference for the state-of-the-art of this research field....

  5. Finding Multiple Optimal Solutions to Optimal Load Distribution Problem in Hydropower Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhao Jiang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimal load distribution (OLD among generator units of a hydropower plant is a vital task for hydropower generation scheduling and management. Traditional optimization methods for solving this problem focus on finding a single optimal solution. However, many practical constraints on hydropower plant operation are very difficult, if not impossible, to be modeled, and the optimal solution found by those models might be of limited practical uses. This motivates us to find multiple optimal solutions to the OLD problem, which can provide more flexible choices for decision-making. Based on a special dynamic programming model, we use a modified shortest path algorithm to produce multiple solutions to the problem. It is shown that multiple optimal solutions exist for the case study of China’s Geheyan hydropower plant, and they are valuable for assessing the stability of generator units, showing the potential of reducing occurrence times of units across vibration areas.

  6. The ethics of providing hope in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Justine Sarah; Clemens, Norman A

    2013-07-01

    The instillation of hope is a common factor in most psychotherapies. A considerable literature exists on the ethics of providing false or positively biased hope in non-psychiatric medical settings, and ethicists have generally concluded that this practice is unethical. However, the literature on the ethics of encouraging hope in psychotherapy, especially in the case of treatment-resistant mental illness, is sparse. The author explores two clinical cases with the intention of examining the nature of hope, false hope, positive illusions, and denial, as they relate to our definitions of mental health and psychotherapy. The cases highlight the ethics of balancing an acknowledgment of likely treatment futility with a desire to hope. Clinical psychological studies on depressive realism and optimistic bias indicate that some degree of positive bias, referred to by some authors as "the optimal margin of illusion," is in fact necessary to promote what we define as "good mental health;" conversely, stark realism is correlated with mild to moderate depression. An examination of the existential literature, including Ernest Becker's work, The Denial of Death, indicates that without the defense mechanism of denial, human beings tend to experience paralytic despair as a result of being fallible, mortal creatures in a frightening world. The combination of these diverse bodies of literature, along with the surprising outcomes of our case examples, leads to an unexpected conclusion: it may occasionally be ethical to encourage some degree of optimistic bias, and perhaps even positive illusion, when treating patients in psychotherapy.

  7. 4th Optimization Day

    CERN Document Server

    Eberhard, Andrew; Ralph, Daniel; Glover, Barney M

    1999-01-01

    Although the monograph Progress in Optimization I: Contributions from Aus­ tralasia grew from the idea of publishing a proceedings of the Fourth Optimiza­ tion Day, held in July 1997 at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, the focus soon changed to a refereed volume in optimization. The intention is to publish a similar book annually, following each Optimization Day. The idea of having an annual Optimization Day was conceived by Barney Glover; the first of these Optimization Days was held in 1994 at the University of Ballarat. Barney hoped that such a yearly event would bring together the many, but widely dispersed, researchers in Australia who were publishing in optimization and related areas such as control. The first Optimization Day event was followed by similar conferences at The University of New South Wales (1995), The University of Melbourne (1996), the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (1997), and The University of Western Australia (1998). The 1999 conference will return to Ballarat ...

  8. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  9. Stochastic optimization algorithms for barrier dividend strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, G.; Song, Q. S.; Yang, H.

    2009-01-01

    This work focuses on finding optimal barrier policy for an insurance risk model when the dividends are paid to the share holders according to a barrier strategy. A new approach based on stochastic optimization methods is developed. Compared with the existing results in the literature, more general surplus processes are considered. Precise models of the surplus need not be known; only noise-corrupted observations of the dividends are used. Using barrier-type strategies, a class of stochastic optimization algorithms are developed. Convergence of the algorithm is analyzed; rate of convergence is also provided. Numerical results are reported to demonstrate the performance of the algorithm.

  10. Big data optimization recent developments and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to provide the necessary background to work with big data by introducing some novel optimization algorithms and codes capable of working in the big data setting as well as introducing some applications in big data optimization for both academics and practitioners interested, and to benefit society, industry, academia, and government. Presenting applications in a variety of industries, this book will be useful for the researchers aiming to analyses large scale data. Several optimization algorithms for big data including convergent parallel algorithms, limited memory bundle algorithm, diagonal bundle method, convergent parallel algorithms, network analytics, and many more have been explored in this book.

  11. Variable ordering structures in vector optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Eichfelder, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to vector optimization with variable ordering structures, i.e., to optimization problems with a vector-valued objective function where the elements in the objective space are compared based on a variable ordering structure: instead of a partial ordering defined by a convex cone, we see a whole family of convex cones, one attached to each element of the objective space. The book starts by presenting several applications that have recently sparked new interest in these optimization problems, and goes on to discuss fundamentals and important results on a wide ra

  12. Optimizing reversible simulation of injective functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Bennett showed that a clean reversible simulation of injective programs is possible without returning the input of a program as additional output. His method involves two computation and two uncomputation phases. This paper proposes an optimization of Bennett’s simulation that requires only half ......-coding program is further optimized by conserving the model over the text-generation phase. This paper may thus provide a newviewon developing efficient reversible simulations for a certain class of injective functions....

  13. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  14. Metaheuristics for bi-level optimization

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a complete background on metaheuristics to solve complex bi-level optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale bi-level optimization problems by efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics and mathematical programming approaches. Numerous real-world examples of problems demonstrate how metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, engineering design, finance and security.

  15. Supply chain management and optimization in manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Pirim, Harun; Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces general supply chain terminology particularly for novice readers, state of the art supply chain management and optimization issues and problems in manufacturing. The book provides insights for making supply chain decisions, planning and scheduling through supply chain network. It introduces optimization problems, i.e. transportation of raw materials, products and location, inventory of plants, warehouses and retailers, faced throughout the supply chain network.

  16. Encyclopedia of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos

    2001-01-01

    Optimization problems are widespread in the mathematical modeling of real world systems and their applications arise in all branches of science, applied science and engineering. The goal of the Encyclopedia of Optimization is to introduce the reader to a complete set of topics in order to show the spectrum of recent research activities and the richness of ideas in the development of theories, algorithms and the applications of optimization. It is directed to a diverse audience of students, scientists, engineers, decision makers and problem solvers in academia, business, industry, and government.

  17. What is unrealistic optimism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anneli; Bortolotti, Lisa; Kuzmanovic, Bojana

    2017-04-01

    Here we consider the nature of unrealistic optimism and other related positive illusions. We are interested in whether cognitive states that are unrealistically optimistic are belief states, whether they are false, and whether they are epistemically irrational. We also ask to what extent unrealistically optimistic cognitive states are fixed. Based on the classic and recent empirical literature on unrealistic optimism, we offer some preliminary answers to these questions, thereby laying the foundations for answering further questions about unrealistic optimism, such as whether it has biological, psychological, or epistemic benefits. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  19. Optimization of Antivirus Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main techniques used in development of computer antivirus software applications. For this particular category of software, are identified and defined optimum criteria that helps determine which solution is better and what are the objectives of the optimization process. From the general viewpoint of software optimization are presented methods and techniques that are applied at code development level. Regarding the particularities of antivirus software, the paper analyzes some of the optimization concepts applied to this category of applications

  20. Optimizing Infant Development: Strategies for Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine

    This guide for infant day care providers examines the importance of early experience for brain development and strategies for providing optimal infant care. The introduction discusses the current devaluation of day care and idealization of maternal care and identifies benefits of quality day care experience for intellectual development, sleep…

  1. Optimization of modular coils for stellarator fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.; Furth, H.P.; Johnson, J.L.; Ludescher, C.; Weimer, K.E.

    1982-02-01

    Introduction of a non-sinusoidal deformation can enhance the efficacy of modular coils for generating magnetic fields with a built-in rotational transform. Techniques are developed that provide an understanding of how specific deformations affect the harmonic content of the magnetic field and thus the properties of the vacuum configuration. This provides an optimization procedure for coil design

  2. Optimization of photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present optimization of photonic crystal cavities. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the Purcell factor of a photonic crystal cavity. Both topology optimization and air-hole-based shape optimization are utilized for the design process. Numerical results demonstrate...... that the Purcell factor of the photonic crystal cavity can be significantly improved through optimization....

  3. Evolution strategies for robust optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruisselbrink, Johannes Willem

    2012-01-01

    Real-world (black-box) optimization problems often involve various types of uncertainties and noise emerging in different parts of the optimization problem. When this is not accounted for, optimization may fail or may yield solutions that are optimal in the classical strict notion of optimality, but

  4. Robust Optimization of Database Queries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JAYANT

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... join order [ ((S R) C) or ((R C) S) ? ] join techniques [ Nested-Loops or Sort-Merge or Hash ? ] ○ DBMS query optimizer identifies the optimal. ○ DBMS query optimizer identifies the optimal evaluation strategy: “query execution plan”. July 2011. Robust Query Optimization (IASc Mid-year Meeting). 6 ...

  5. A Feedback Optimal Control Algorithm with Optimal Measurement Time Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Jost

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear model predictive control has been established as a powerful methodology to provide feedback for dynamic processes over the last decades. In practice it is usually combined with parameter and state estimation techniques, which allows to cope with uncertainty on many levels. To reduce the uncertainty it has also been suggested to include optimal experimental design into the sequential process of estimation and control calculation. Most of the focus so far was on dual control approaches, i.e., on using the controls to simultaneously excite the system dynamics (learning as well as minimizing a given objective (performing. We propose a new algorithm, which sequentially solves robust optimal control, optimal experimental design, state and parameter estimation problems. Thus, we decouple the control and the experimental design problems. This has the advantages that we can analyze the impact of measurement timing (sampling independently, and is practically relevant for applications with either an ethical limitation on system excitation (e.g., chemotherapy treatment or the need for fast feedback. The algorithm shows promising results with a 36% reduction of parameter uncertainties for the Lotka-Volterra fishing benchmark example.

  6. Helicopter mission optimization study. [portable computer technology for flight optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using low-cost, portable computer technology to help a helicopter pilot optimize flight parameters to minimize fuel consumption and takeoff and landing noise was demonstrated. Eight separate computer programs were developed for use in the helicopter cockpit using a hand-held computer. The programs provide the helicopter pilot with the ability to calculate power required, minimum fuel consumption for both range and endurance, maximum speed and a minimum noise profile for both takeoff and landing. Each program is defined by a maximum of two magnetic cards. The helicopter pilot is required to key in the proper input parameter such as gross weight, outside air temperature or pressure altitude.

  7. Dynamic stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ermoliev, Yuri; Pflug, Georg

    2004-01-01

    Uncertainties and changes are pervasive characteristics of modern systems involving interactions between humans, economics, nature and technology. These systems are often too complex to allow for precise evaluations and, as a result, the lack of proper management (control) may create significant risks. In order to develop robust strategies we need approaches which explic­ itly deal with uncertainties, risks and changing conditions. One rather general approach is to characterize (explicitly or implicitly) uncertainties by objec­ tive or subjective probabilities (measures of confidence or belief). This leads us to stochastic optimization problems which can rarely be solved by using the standard deterministic optimization and optimal control methods. In the stochastic optimization the accent is on problems with a large number of deci­ sion and random variables, and consequently the focus ofattention is directed to efficient solution procedures rather than to (analytical) closed-form solu­ tions. Objective an...

  8. Stochastic and global optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dzemyda, Gintautas; Šaltenis, Vydūnas; Zhilinskas, A; Mockus, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    ... and Effectiveness of Controlled Random Search E. M. T. Hendrix, P. M. Ortigosa and I. García 129 9. Discrete Backtracking Adaptive Search for Global Optimization B. P. Kristinsdottir, Z. B. Zabinsky and...

  9. Optimization in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... still more complex decision problems, based on big data sets and going across several organizational entities. Moreover, liner shipping optimization problems are pushing the limits of optimization methods, creating a new breeding ground for advanced modelling and solution methods. Starting from liner...... shipping network design, we consider the problem of container routing and speed optimization. Next, we consider empty container repositioning and stowage planning as well as disruption management. In addition, the problem of bunker purchasing is considered in depth. In each section we give a clear problem...

  10. Topology optimized microbioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäpper, Daniel; Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the fusion of two hitherto unrelated fields—microbioreactors and topology optimization. The basis for this study is a rectangular microbioreactor with homogeneously distributed immobilized brewers yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that produce a recombinant protein....... Topology optimization is then used to change the spatial distribution of cells in the reactor in order to optimize for maximal product flow out of the reactor. This distribution accounts for potentially negative effects of, for example, by-product inhibition. We show that the theoretical improvement...... in productivity is at least fivefold compared with the homogeneous reactor. The improvements obtained by applying topology optimization are largest where either nutrition is scarce or inhibition effects are pronounced....

  11. Snow route optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Route optimization is a method of creating a set of winter highway treatment routes to meet a range of targets, including : service level improvements, resource reallocation and changes to overriding constraints. These routes will allow the : operato...

  12. Optimization of CR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Masamitsu

    1993-01-01

    The conventional screen/film system combines sensor, display and storage functions all together in one unit, which makes it difficult to optimize these functions separately. With the computed radiography (CR) system, on the other hand, these three functions are separated from each other into units, so that individual functions can be readily optimized by digital image processing techniques. The basic principle of CR system is to produce images optimized for various kinds of diagnosis consistently. The image processing is performed to automatically normalize digital image data so that consistent image total density and contrast is always ensured irrespective of variations in X-ray dose and energy. The image processing optimized for each set of exposure menus is performed, i.e., gradation processing, frequency processing, and dynamic range control processing. Finally, the relationships between patient dose and the image quality of CR system are described. (author)

  13. Optimal Aerocapture Guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of my research is to develop, implement, verify, and validate an optimal numerical predictor-corrector aerocapture guidance algorithm that is...

  14. Fast Optimal Motion Planning

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computationally-efficient, fast and real-time, and provably-optimal motion planner for systems with highly nonlinear dynamics that can be extended for cooperative...

  15. Nuclear Energy Density Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortelainen, Erno M [ORNL; Lesinski, Thomas [ORNL; More, J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Nazarewicz, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sarich, J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schunck, N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stoitsov, M. V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wild, S. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2010-01-01

    We carry out state-of-the-art optimization of a nuclear energy density of Skyrme type in the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory. The particle-hole and particle-particle channels are optimized simultaneously, and the experimental data set includes both spherical and deformed nuclei. The new model-based, derivative-free optimization algorithm used in this work has been found to be significantly better than standard optimization methods in terms of reliability, speed, accuracy, and precision. The resulting parameter set UNEDFpre results in good agreement with experimental masses, radii, and deformations and seems to be free of finite-size instabilities. An estimate of the reliability of the obtained parameterization is given, based on standard statistical methods. We discuss new physics insights offered by the advanced covariance analysis.

  16. Bolt Thread Stress Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2012-01-01

    Designs of threaded fasteners are controlled by different standards, and the number of different thread definitions is large. The most commonly used thread is probably the metric ISO thread, and this design is therefore used in this paper. Thread root design controls the stress concentration factor...... of threads and therefore indirectly the bolt fatigue life. The root shape is circular, and from shape optimization for minimum stress concentration it is well known that the circular shape is seldom optimal. An axisymmetric Finite Element (FE) formulation is used to analyze the bolted connection, and a study...... is performed to establish the need for contact modeling with regard to finding the correct stress concentration factor. Optimization is performed with a simple parameterization with two design variables. Stress reduction of up to 9% is found in the optimization process, and some similarities are found...

  17. Optimal mixture experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, B K; Pal, Manisha; Das, P

    2014-01-01

    The book dwells mainly on the optimality aspects of mixture designs. As mixture models are a special case of regression models, a general discussion on regression designs has been presented, which includes topics like continuous designs, de la Garza phenomenon, Loewner order domination, Equivalence theorems for different optimality criteria and standard optimality results for single variable polynomial regression and multivariate linear and quadratic regression models. This is followed by a review of the available literature on estimation of parameters in mixture models. Based on recent research findings, the volume also introduces optimal mixture designs for estimation of optimum mixing proportions in different mixture models, which include Scheffé’s quadratic model, Darroch-Waller model, log- contrast model, mixture-amount models, random coefficient models and multi-response model.  Robust mixture designs and mixture designs in blocks have been also reviewed. Moreover, some applications of mixture desig...

  18. Rotorcraft Optimization Tools: Incorporating Rotorcraft Design Codes into Multi-Disciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Larry A.

    2018-01-01

    One of the goals of NASA's Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology Project (RVLT) is to provide validated tools for multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization (MDAO) of vertical lift vehicles. As part of this effort, the software package, RotorCraft Optimization Tools (RCOTOOLS), is being developed to facilitate incorporating key rotorcraft conceptual design codes into optimizations using the OpenMDAO multi-disciplinary optimization framework written in Python. RCOTOOLS, also written in Python, currently supports the incorporation of the NASA Design and Analysis of RotorCraft (NDARC) vehicle sizing tool and the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics II (CAMRAD II) analysis tool into OpenMDAO-driven optimizations. Both of these tools use detailed, file-based inputs and outputs, so RCOTOOLS provides software wrappers to update input files with new design variable values, execute these codes and then extract specific response variable values from the file outputs. These wrappers are designed to be flexible and easy to use. RCOTOOLS also provides several utilities to aid in optimization model development, including Graphical User Interface (GUI) tools for browsing input and output files in order to identify text strings that are used to identify specific variables as optimization input and response variables. This paper provides an overview of RCOTOOLS and its use

  19. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...

  20. What is unrealistic optimism?

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, Anneli; Bortolotti, Lisa; Kuzmanovic, Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Here we consider the nature of unrealistic optimism and other related positive illusions. We are interested in whether cognitive states that are unrealistically optimistic are belief states, whether they are false, and whether they are epistemically irrational. We also ask to what extent unrealistically optimistic cognitive states are fixed. Based on the classic and recent empirical literature on unrealistic optimism, we offer some preliminary answers to these questions, thereby laying the fo...

  1. Multidisciplinary Free Material Optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haslinger, J.; Kočvara, Michal; Leugering, G.; Stingl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 70 (2010), s. 2709-2728 ISSN 0036-1399 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Grant - others:EU FP6(XE) 30717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : structural optimization * material optimization * H-convergence * semidefinite programming Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.529, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/kocvara-0421361.pdf

  2. Guided randomness in optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Clerc, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The performance of an algorithm used depends on the GNA. This book focuses on the comparison of optimizers, it defines a stress-outcome approach which can be derived all the classic criteria (median, average, etc.) and other more sophisticated.   Source-codes used for the examples are also presented, this allows a reflection on the ""superfluous chance,"" succinctly explaining why and how the stochastic aspect of optimization could be avoided in some cases.

  3. Optimization of Bolt Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with ISO metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength. Maximum stress in the bolt is found at, the fillet...... under the head, at the thread start or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration shape optimization is applied....

  4. Benzodiazepines II: Waking Up on Sedatives: Providing Optimal Care When Inheriting Benzodiazepine Prescriptions in Transfer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Guina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses risks, benefits, and alternatives in patients already taking benzodiazepines when care transfers to a new clinician. Prescribers have the decision—sometimes mutually agreed-upon and sometimes unilateral—to continue, discontinue, or change treatment. This decision should be made based on evidence-based indications (conditions and timeframes, comorbidities, potential drug-drug interactions, and evidence of adverse effects, misuse, abuse, dependence, or diversion. We discuss management tools involved in continuation (e.g., monitoring symptoms, laboratory testing, prescribing contracts, state prescription databases, stages of change and discontinuation (e.g., tapering, psychotherapeutic interventions, education, handouts, reassurance, medications to assist with discontinuation, and alternative treatments.

  5. Use of adaptive optimal control to provide energy conservation in large buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farris, D.R.; Miller, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    The use of an adaptive linear regulator approach for controlling heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in large buildings is discussed. The control manifestations of this approach are compared with those found in conventional applications. The salient features of the approach are discussed, and simulation results are presented. Implementation is discussed, and economic estimates for commercial use of this approach are also presented.

  6. Location Optimization of Mobile Cold-Formed Steel Systems to Provide Humanitarian Relief After Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    national or international level for external assistance; an unforeseen and often sudden event that causes great damage, destruction and human...Persons affected,” is the number of total affected according to the EM- DAT definitions. Total affected is the sum of injured, homeless , and affected... Homeless ” is defined as people needing immediate assistance for shelter. ‘“Affected” is defined as people requiring immediate assistance during a

  7. THE DESIGN AND OPTIMIZING THE HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT PROVIDING A STABLE POSITION CARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta SAPIETOVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a hydraulic device, which ensures stable contact of the working member with transported material – pile of metal chips formed during machining of oversized bearing rings. Virtual prototype of the conveyor is modeled in the working environment of MSC.ADAMS.

  8. Optimized protocol of chicken antibody (IgY) purification providing electrophoretically homogenous preparations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hodek, P.; Trefil, P.; Šimůnek, Jiří; Hudeček, J.; Stiborová, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), 113-124 ISSN 1452-3981 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/G163 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : yolk immunoglobulin * purification protocol * bio-compatible chemicals Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013

  9. Optimization of the velocity of air providing dynamic containment at openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, J.C.; Berne, P.; Dupoux, N.

    1992-01-01

    The handling of toxic, radioactive or dangerous substances in industry of research laboratories necessitates the use of techniques for protecting the workers involved. The risks arise from these substances being airborne particles and from their transfer, essentially through turbulent diffusion. One way of limiting this risk is to employ the principle of dynamic containment, whereby a particular direction of air flow is imposed at inlets and outlets in order to prevent the back flow of the pollutant to areas where it may be breathed by the operators. The air velocity normally used to prevent back flow of pollutant is 0.5 m.s. The 'Service d'Etudes et de Recherches en Aerocontamination et en Confinement' (SERAC) has begun an evaluation of the effect of a reduction in air inlet velocity on the risk of pollutant back diffusion. This should lead to energy savings through the use of a minimum air flow rate concomitant with appropriate protection. The paper gives the results obtained with openings of different geometries and shapes. It is also proposed a simulation of this phenomenon using a calculation code of air flow in a ventilated room (the TRIO code), so that the results may be compared with the experimental data. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  10. Optimizing the analysis of routing oversize/overweight loads to provide efficient freight corridors : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The subject of this report is limited specifically to Kansas highways. Current features of the State Highway System were looked at to determine corridors that do not limit Oversize/Overweight (OS/OW) vehicles, or that limit loads to varying degree...

  11. Providing optimal conditions in vegetable production by use of renewable sources of energy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrev, Sasa

    2008-01-01

    Soil diseases and pests are one of the most limiting factors for the development of vegetable production. They cause plant damages at all stages of development, from seedlings until final harvest. Their extinction is difficult and requires usage of pesticides which cause severe soil and underground water pollution. One of the ways for their extinction is the usage of physical resources through the usage of steam or solarization. Steam generators consume much energy, which greatly burdens the...

  12. Neutron Scattering Provides a New Model for Optimal Morphologies in Organic Photovoltaics: Rivers and Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadmun, Mark; Henry, Nathan; Yin, Wen; Xiao, Kai; Ankner, John

    2011-03-01

    The current model for the ideal morphology of a conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) is a phase-separated structure that consists of two pure phases, one an electron donor, the other an acceptor, that form an interpenetrating, bicontinuous, network on the length scale of 10-20 nm. In this talk, neutron scattering experiments that demonstrate that this model is incorrect for the archetypal conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction, poly[3-hexylthiophene] (P3HT) and the fullerene 1-(3-methyloxycarbonyl)propy(1-phenyl [6,6]) C61 (PCBM) will be presented. These studies show that the miscibility of PCBM in P3HT approaches 20 wt%, a result that is counter to the standard model of efficient organic photovoltaics. The implications of this finding on the ideal morphology of conjugated polymer bulk heterojunctions will be discussed, where these results are interpreted to present a model that agrees with this data, and conforms to structural and functional information in the literature. Furthermore, the thermodynamics of conjugated polymer:fullerene mixtures dominate the formation of this hierarchical morphology and must be more thoroughly understood to rationally design and fabricate optimum morphologies for OPV activity.

  13. Do Cuticular Hydrocarbons Provide Sufficient Information for Optimal Sex Allocation in the Ant Formica exsecta?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Vitikainen, Emma; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    translates accurately into chemical variability. However, in genetically heterogeneous colonies, too accurate information may encourage the pursuit of individual interests through nepotistic behavior and reduce colony efficiency or cause social disruption. In this study, we estimated how well variability...... of CHC recognition cues reflects colony kin structure in the ant Formica exsecta. Our results show that CHC variability does not covary with kin structure or the overall genetic diversity of the colony, and that patrilines and matrilines can have distinct CHC profiles in some but not all colonies...

  14. Optimization and anti-optimization of structures under uncertainty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elishakoff, Isaac; Ohsaki, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The volume presents a collaboration between internationally recognized experts on anti-optimization and structural optimization, and summarizes various novel ideas, methodologies and results studied over 20 years...

  15. Learning optimal embedded cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberian, Mohammad Javad; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2012-10-01

    The problem of automatic and optimal design of embedded object detector cascades is considered. Two main challenges are identified: optimization of the cascade configuration and optimization of individual cascade stages, so as to achieve the best tradeoff between classification accuracy and speed, under a detection rate constraint. Two novel boosting algorithms are proposed to address these problems. The first, RCBoost, formulates boosting as a constrained optimization problem which is solved with a barrier penalty method. The constraint is the target detection rate, which is met at all iterations of the boosting process. This enables the design of embedded cascades of known configuration without extensive cross validation or heuristics. The second, ECBoost, searches over cascade configurations to achieve the optimal tradeoff between classification risk and speed. The two algorithms are combined into an overall boosting procedure, RCECBoost, which optimizes both the cascade configuration and its stages under a detection rate constraint, in a fully automated manner. Extensive experiments in face, car, pedestrian, and panda detection show that the resulting detectors achieve an accuracy versus speed tradeoff superior to those of previous methods.

  16. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  17. 5th Optimization Day

    CERN Document Server

    Mees, Alistair; Fisher, Mike; Jennings, Les

    2000-01-01

    'Optimization Day' (OD) has been a series of annual mini-conferences in Australia since 1994. The purpose of this series of events is to gather researchers in optimization and its related areas from Australia and their collaborators, in order to exchange new developments of optimization theories, methods and their applications. The first four OD mini-conferences were held in The Uni­ versity of Ballarat (1994), The University of New South Wales (1995), The University of Melbourne (1996) and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (1997), respectively. They were all on the eastern coast of Australia. The fifth mini-conference Optimization Days was held at the Centre for Ap­ plied Dynamics and Optimization (CADO), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Western Australia, Perth, from 29 to 30 June 1998. This is the first time the OD mini-conference has been held at the west­ ern coast of Australia. This fifth OD preceded the International Conference on Optimization: Techniques and Applica...

  18. Microwave tomography global optimization, parallelization and performance evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Noghanian, Sima; Desell, Travis; Ashtari, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a detailed overview on the use of global optimization and parallel computing in microwave tomography techniques. The book focuses on techniques that are based on global optimization and electromagnetic numerical methods. The authors provide parallelization techniques on homogeneous and heterogeneous computing architectures on high performance and general purpose futuristic computers. The book also discusses the multi-level optimization technique, hybrid genetic algorithm and its application in breast cancer imaging.

  19. On Symmetries in Optimal Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1986-01-01

    We discuss the use of symmetries in solving optimal control problems. In particular a procedure for obtaining symmetries is given which can be performed before the actual calculation of the optimal control and optimal Hamiltonian.

  20. Robust Portfolio Optimization Using Pseudodistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The presence of outliers in financial asset returns is a frequently occurring phenomenon which may lead to unreliable mean-variance optimized portfolios. This fact is due to the unbounded influence that outliers can have on the mean returns and covariance estimators that are inputs in the optimization procedure. In this paper we present robust estimators of mean and covariance matrix obtained by minimizing an empirical version of a pseudodistance between the assumed model and the true model underlying the data. We prove and discuss theoretical properties of these estimators, such as affine equivariance, B-robustness, asymptotic normality and asymptotic relative efficiency. These estimators can be easily used in place of the classical estimators, thereby providing robust optimized portfolios. A Monte Carlo simulation study and applications to real data show the advantages of the proposed approach. We study both in-sample and out-of-sample performance of the proposed robust portfolios comparing them with some other portfolios known in literature. PMID:26468948

  1. Cogeneration system simulation/optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puppa, B.A.; Chandrashekar, M.

    1992-01-01

    Companies are increasingly turning to computer software programs to improve and streamline the analysis o cogeneration systems. This paper introduces a computer program which originated with research at the University of Waterloo. The program can simulate and optimize any type of layout of cogeneration plant. An application of the program to a cogeneration feasibility study for a university campus is described. The Steam and Power Plant Optimization System (SAPPOS) is a PC software package which allows users to model any type of steam/power plant on a component-by-component basis. Individual energy/steam balances can be done quickly to model any scenario. A typical days per month cogeneration simulation can also be carried out to provide a detailed monthly cash flow and energy forecast. This paper reports that SAPPOS can be used for scoping, feasibility, and preliminary design work, along with financial studies, gas contract studies, and optimizing the operation of completed plants. In the feasibility study presented, SAPPOS is used to evaluate both diesel engine and gas turbine combined cycle options

  2. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  3. Patient Perspectives of Midlevel Providers in Orthopaedic Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Blaine T; Bohl, Daniel D; Hannon, Charles P; Redondo, Michael L; Christian, David R; Forsythe, Brian; Nho, Shane J; Bach, Bernard R

    2018-04-01

    Midlevel providers (eg, nurse practitioners and physician assistants) have been integrated into orthopaedic systems of care in response to the increasing demand for musculoskeletal care. Few studies have examined patient perspectives toward midlevel providers in orthopaedic sports medicine. To identify perspectives of orthopaedic sports medicine patients regarding midlevel providers, including optimal scope of practice, reimbursement equity with physicians, and importance of the physician's midlevel provider to patients when initially selecting a physician. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 690 consecutive new patients of 3 orthopaedic sports medicine physicians were prospectively administered an anonymous questionnaire prior to their first visit. Content included patient perspectives regarding midlevel provider importance in physician selection, optimal scope of practice, and reimbursement equity with physicians. Of the 690 consecutive patients who were administered the survey, 605 (87.7%) responded. Of these, 51.9% were men and 48.1% were women, with a mean age of 40.5 ± 15.7 years. More than half (51.2%) perceived no differences in training levels between physician assistants and nurse practitioners. A majority of patients (62.9%) reported that the physician's midlevel provider is an important consideration when choosing a new orthopaedic sports medicine physician. Patients had specific preferences regarding which services should be physician provided. Patients also reported specific preferences regarding those services that could be midlevel provided. There lacked a consensus on reimbursement equity for midlevel practitioners and physicians, despite 71.7% of patients responding that the physician provides a higher-quality consultation. As health care becomes value driven and consumer-centric, understanding patient perspectives on midlevel providers will allow orthopaedic sports medicine physicians to optimize efficiency and patient

  4. Optimal decisions principles of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Oskar

    1971-01-01

    Optimal Decisions: Principles of Programming deals with all important problems related to programming.This book provides a general interpretation of the theory of programming based on the application of the Lagrange multipliers, followed by a presentation of the marginal and linear programming as special cases of this general theory. The praxeological interpretation of the method of Lagrange multipliers is also discussed.This text covers the Koopmans' model of transportation, geometric interpretation of the programming problem, and nature of activity analysis. The solution of t

  5. Optimization of Medical Teaching Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the goal of medical education, medicine and adapt to changes in the way doctors work, with the rapid medical teaching methods of modern science and technology must be reformed. Based on the current status of teaching in medical colleges method to analyze the formation and development of medical teaching methods, characteristics, about how to achieve optimal medical teaching methods for medical education teachers and management workers comprehensive and thorough change teaching ideas and teaching concepts provide a theoretical basis.

  6. A case study on topology optimized design for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebisa, A. W.; Lemu, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    Topology optimization is an optimization method that employs mathematical tools to optimize material distribution in a part to be designed. Earlier developments of topology optimization considered conventional manufacturing techniques that have limitations in producing complex geometries. This has hindered the topology optimization efforts not to fully be realized. With the emergence of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, the technology that builds a part layer upon a layer directly from three dimensional (3D) model data of the part, however, producing complex shape geometry is no longer an issue. Realization of topology optimization through AM provides full design freedom for the design engineers. The article focuses on topologically optimized design approach for additive manufacturing with a case study on lightweight design of jet engine bracket. The study result shows that topology optimization is a powerful design technique to reduce the weight of a product while maintaining the design requirements if additive manufacturing is considered.

  7. Assessing the consequences of unrealistic optimism: Challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A; Pogge, Gabrielle; Howell, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    Of the hundreds of studies published on unrealistic optimism (i.e., expecting a better personal future than is reasonably likely), most have focused on demonstrating the phenomenon, examining boundary conditions, or documenting causes. Few studies have examined the consequences of unrealistic optimism. In this article, we provide an overview of the measurement of unrealistic optimism, review possible consequences, and identify numerous challenges confronting investigators attempting to understand the consequences. Assessing the consequences of unrealistic optimism is tricky, and ultimately probably impossible when researchers assess unrealistic optimism at the group level (which reveals if a group of people is displaying unrealistic optimism on average) rather than the individual level (which reveals whether a specific individual displays unrealistic optimism). We offer recommendations to researchers who wish to examine the consequences of unrealistic optimism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Control parameter optimization for AP1000 reactor using Particle Swarm Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pengfei; Wan, Jiashuang; Luo, Run; Zhao, Fuyu; Wei, Xinyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The PSO algorithm is applied for control parameter optimization of AP1000 reactor. • Key parameters of the MSHIM control system are optimized. • Optimization results are evaluated though simulations and quantitative analysis. - Abstract: The advanced mechanical shim (MSHIM) core control strategy is implemented in the AP1000 reactor for core reactivity and axial power distribution control simultaneously. The MSHIM core control system can provide superior reactor control capabilities via automatic rod control only. This enables the AP1000 to perform power change operations automatically without the soluble boron concentration adjustments. In this paper, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm has been applied for the parameter optimization of the MSHIM control system to acquire better reactor control performance for AP1000. System requirements such as power control performance, control bank movement and AO control constraints are reflected in the objective function. Dynamic simulations are performed based on an AP1000 reactor simulation platform in each iteration of the optimization process to calculate the fitness values of particles in the swarm. The simulation platform is developed in Matlab/Simulink environment with implementation of a nodal core model and the MSHIM control strategy. Based on the simulation platform, the typical 10% step load decrease transient from 100% to 90% full power is simulated and the objective function used for control parameter tuning is directly incorporated in the simulation results. With successful implementation of the PSO algorithm in the control parameter optimization of AP1000 reactor, four key parameters of the MSHIM control system are optimized. It has been demonstrated by the calculation results that the optimized MSHIM control system parameters can improve the reactor power control capability and reduce the control rod movement without compromising AO control. Therefore, the PSO based optimization

  9. A Novel Optimal Control Method for Impulsive-Correction Projectile Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisheng Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new parametric optimization approach based on a modified particle swarm optimization (PSO to design a class of impulsive-correction projectiles with discrete, flexible-time interval, and finite-energy control. In terms of optimal control theory, the task is described as the formulation of minimum working number of impulses and minimum control error, which involves reference model linearization, boundary conditions, and discontinuous objective function. These result in difficulties in finding the global optimum solution by directly utilizing any other optimization approaches, for example, Hp-adaptive pseudospectral method. Consequently, PSO mechanism is employed for optimal setting of impulsive control by considering the time intervals between two neighboring lateral impulses as design variables, which makes the briefness of the optimization process. A modification on basic PSO algorithm is developed to improve the convergence speed of this optimization through linearly decreasing the inertial weight. In addition, a suboptimal control and guidance law based on PSO technique are put forward for the real-time consideration of the online design in practice. Finally, a simulation case coupled with a nonlinear flight dynamic model is applied to validate the modified PSO control algorithm. The results of comparative study illustrate that the proposed optimal control algorithm has a good performance in obtaining the optimal control efficiently and accurately and provides a reference approach to handling such impulsive-correction problem.

  10. Providing care for critically ill surgical patients: challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisherman, Samuel A; Kaplan, Lewis; Gracias, Vicente H; Beilman, Gregory J; Toevs, Christine; Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-07-01

    Providing optimal care for critically ill and injured surgical patients will become more challenging with staff shortages for surgeons and intensivists. This white paper addresses the historical issues behind the present situation, the need for all intensivists to engage in dedicated critical care per the intensivist model, and the recognition that intensivists from all specialties can provide optimal care for the critically ill surgical patient, particularly with continuing involvement by the surgeon of record. The new acute care surgery training paradigm (including trauma, surgical critical care, and emergency general surgery) has been developed to increase interest in trauma and surgical critical care, but the number of interested trainees remains too few. Recommendations are made for broadening the multidisciplinary training and practice opportunities in surgical critical care for intensivists from all base specialties and for maintaining the intensivist model within acute care surgery practice. Support from academic and administrative leadership, as well as national organizations, will be needed.

  11. A bidirectional Optimality Theoretic analysis of multiple negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IT

    In the next section, we provide our analysis of this variation, first providing a brief motivation for the use of. (bidirectional) OT as a framework for the analysis. 3. A bidirectional OT account of multiple indefinites in the scope of negation in Afrikaans. 3.1. (Bidirectional) Optimality Theory. Optimality Theory is a general theory of ...

  12. Optimization of 3D Field Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Nikolas; Zhu, Caoxiang

    2017-10-01

    Recent progress in 3D tokamak modeling is now leveraged to create a conceptual design of new external 3D field coils for the DIII-D tokamak. Using the IPEC dominant mode as a target spectrum, the Finding Optimized Coils Using Space-curves (FOCUS) code optimizes the currents and 3D geometry of multiple coils to maximize the total set's resonant coupling. The optimized coils are individually distorted in space, creating toroidal ``arrays'' containing a variety of shapes that often wrap around a significant poloidal extent of the machine. The generalized perturbed equilibrium code (GPEC) is used to determine optimally efficient spectra for driving total, core, and edge neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque and these too provide targets for the optimization of 3D coil designs. These conceptual designs represent a fundamentally new approach to 3D coil design for tokamaks targeting desired plasma physics phenomena. Optimized coil sets based on plasma response theory will be relevant to designs for future reactors or on any active machine. External coils, in particular, must be optimized for reliable and efficient fusion reactor designs. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. Mathematical model of highways network optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with the issue of highways network design. Studies show that the main requirement from road transport for the road network is to ensure the realization of all the transport links served by it, with the least possible cost. The goal of optimizing the network of highways is to increase the efficiency of transport. It is necessary to take into account a large number of factors that make it difficult to quantify and qualify their impact on the road network. In this paper, we propose building an optimal variant for locating the road network on the basis of a mathematical model. The article defines the criteria for optimality and objective functions that reflect the requirements for the road network. The most fully satisfying condition for optimality is the minimization of road and transport costs. We adopted this indicator as a criterion of optimality in the economic-mathematical model of a network of highways. Studies have shown that each offset point in the optimal binding road network is associated with all other corresponding points in the directions providing the least financial costs necessary to move passengers and cargo from this point to the other corresponding points. The article presents general principles for constructing an optimal network of roads.

  14. Fair Optimization and Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz Ogryczak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization models related to designing and operating complex systems are mainly focused on some efficiency metrics such as response time, queue length, throughput, and cost. However, in systems which serve many entities there is also a need for respecting fairness: each system entity ought to be provided with an adequate share of the system’s services. Still, due to system operations-dependant constraints, fair treatment of the entities does not directly imply that each of them is assigned equal amount of the services. That leads to concepts of fair optimization expressed by the equitable models that represent inequality averse optimization rather than strict inequality minimization; a particular widely applied example of that concept is the so-called lexicographic maximin optimization (max-min fairness. The fair optimization methodology delivers a variety of techniques to generate fair and efficient solutions. This paper reviews fair optimization models and methods applied to systems that are based on some kind of network of connections and dependencies, especially, fair optimization methods for the location problems and for the resource allocation problems in communication networks.

  15. Optimal covariate designs theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Premadhis; Mandal, Nripes Kumar; Sinha, Bikas Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book primarily addresses the optimality aspects of covariate designs. A covariate model is a combination of ANOVA and regression models. Optimal estimation of the parameters of the model using a suitable choice of designs is of great importance; as such choices allow experimenters to extract maximum information for the unknown model parameters. The main emphasis of this monograph is to start with an assumed covariate model in combination with some standard ANOVA set-ups such as CRD, RBD, BIBD, GDD, BTIBD, BPEBD, cross-over, multi-factor, split-plot and strip-plot designs, treatment control designs, etc. and discuss the nature and availability of optimal covariate designs. In some situations, optimal estimations of both ANOVA and the regression parameters are provided. Global optimality and D-optimality criteria are mainly used in selecting the design. The standard optimality results of both discrete and continuous set-ups have been adapted, and several novel combinatorial techniques have been applied for...

  16. Decoding suprathreshold stochastic resonance with optimal weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Liyan; Vladusich, Tony; Duan, Fabing; Gunn, Lachlan J.; Abbott, Derek; McDonnell, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate an array of stochastic quantizers for converting an analog input signal into a discrete output in the context of suprathreshold stochastic resonance. A new optimal weighted decoding is considered for different threshold level distributions. We show that for particular noise levels and choices of the threshold levels optimally weighting the quantizer responses provides a reduced mean square error in comparison with the original unweighted array. However, there are also many parameter regions where the original array provides near optimal performance, and when this occurs, it offers a much simpler approach than optimally weighting each quantizer's response. - Highlights: • A weighted summing array of independently noisy binary comparators is investigated. • We present an optimal linearly weighted decoding scheme for combining the comparator responses. • We solve for the optimal weights by applying least squares regression to simulated data. • We find that the MSE distortion of weighting before summation is superior to unweighted summation of comparator responses. • For some parameter regions, the decrease in MSE distortion due to weighting is negligible

  17. Decoding suprathreshold stochastic resonance with optimal weights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liyan, E-mail: xuliyan@qdu.edu.cn [Institute of Complexity Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Vladusich, Tony [Computational and Theoretical Neuroscience Laboratory, Institute for Telecommunications Research, School of Information Technology and Mathematical Sciences, University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Duan, Fabing [Institute of Complexity Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Gunn, Lachlan J.; Abbott, Derek [Centre for Biomedical Engineering (CBME) and School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); McDonnell, Mark D. [Computational and Theoretical Neuroscience Laboratory, Institute for Telecommunications Research, School of Information Technology and Mathematical Sciences, University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Centre for Biomedical Engineering (CBME) and School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2015-10-09

    We investigate an array of stochastic quantizers for converting an analog input signal into a discrete output in the context of suprathreshold stochastic resonance. A new optimal weighted decoding is considered for different threshold level distributions. We show that for particular noise levels and choices of the threshold levels optimally weighting the quantizer responses provides a reduced mean square error in comparison with the original unweighted array. However, there are also many parameter regions where the original array provides near optimal performance, and when this occurs, it offers a much simpler approach than optimally weighting each quantizer's response. - Highlights: • A weighted summing array of independently noisy binary comparators is investigated. • We present an optimal linearly weighted decoding scheme for combining the comparator responses. • We solve for the optimal weights by applying least squares regression to simulated data. • We find that the MSE distortion of weighting before summation is superior to unweighted summation of comparator responses. • For some parameter regions, the decrease in MSE distortion due to weighting is negligible.

  18. Soap-bubble Optimization of Gaits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Suresh; Hatton, Ross

    We present a geometric gait optimizer that applies Lie bracket theory to identify optimal cost-of-transport (displacement divided by effort) gaits. This optimizer builds on our previous work, where we have shown that for drag-dominated systems, the efficiency of a gait corresponds to a ratio between ``metric-weighted perimeter length of the cycle and the area integral of the Lie bracket it encloses. In this work, we encode this geometric insight into a variational gait optimizer. For a system with two shape variables, the dynamics of this optimizer are similar to the dynamics of a soap bubble, with the Lie bracket providing internal pressure which causes the boundary of the bubble to expand, the metric-weighted path length providing surface tension constraining the growth of the soap bubble, and a pace-balancing term corresponding to the concentration gradient that evenly distributes soap across the surface of the bubble. In systems with three shape variables, the dynamics are more akin to a windsock, capturing maximum flux through a loop. The variational form of the optimizer allows us to extend it to higher dimensional shape spaces beyond these physical analogies.

  19. A Structural Optimization Framework for Multidisciplinary Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kurdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development of a structural optimization framework adept at accommodating diverse customer requirements. The purpose is to provide a framework accessible to the optimization research analyst. The framework integrates the method of moving asymptotes into the finite element analysis program (FEAP by exploiting the direct interface capability in FEAP. Analytic sensitivities are incorporated to provide a robust and efficient optimization search. User macros are developed to interface the design algorithm and analytic sensitivity with the finite element analysis program. To test the optimization tool and sensitivity calculations, three sizing and one topology optimization problems are considered. In addition, flutter analysis of a heated panel is analyzed as an example of coupling to nonstructural discipline. In sizing optimization, the calculated semianalytic sensitivities match analytic and finite difference calculations. Differences between analytic designs and numerical ones are less than 2.0% and are attributed to discrete nature of finite elements. In the topology problem, quadratic elements are found robust at resolving checkerboard patterns.

  20. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics (pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger design.

  1. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  2. Optimization of educational paths for higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasyev, Alexandr A.; Agarkov, Gavriil; Medvedev, Aleksandr

    2017-11-01

    In our research, we combine the theory of economic behavior and the methodology of increasing efficiency of the human capital to estimate the optimal educational paths. We provide an optimization model for higher education process to analyze possible educational paths for each rational individual. The preferences of each rational individual are compared to the best economically possible educational path. The main factor of the individual choice, which is formed by the formation of optimal educational path, deals with higher salaries level in the chosen economic sector after graduation. Another factor that influences on the economic profit is the reduction of educational costs or the possibility of the budget support for the student. The main outcome of this research consists in correction of the governmental policy of investment in human capital based on the results of educational paths optimal control.

  3. Stochastic optimization of loading pattern for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuc, T.; Pevec, D.

    1994-01-01

    The application of stochastic optimization methods in solving in-core fuel management problems is restrained by the need for a large number of proposed solutions loading patterns, if a high quality final solution is wanted. Proposed loading patterns have to be evaluated by core neutronics simulator, which can impose unrealistic computer time requirements. A new loading pattern optimization code Monte Carlo Loading Pattern Search has been developed by coupling the simulated annealing optimization algorithm with a fast one-and-a-half dimensional core depletion simulator. The structure of the optimization method provides more efficient performance and allows the user to empty precious experience in the search process, thus reducing the search space size. Hereinafter, we discuss the characteristics of the method and illustrate them on the results obtained by solving the PWR reload problem. (authors). 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  4. Bayesian optimization for computationally extensive probability distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Ryo; Hukushima, Koji

    2018-01-01

    An efficient method for finding a better maximizer of computationally extensive probability distributions is proposed on the basis of a Bayesian optimization technique. A key idea of the proposed method is to use extreme values of acquisition functions by Gaussian processes for the next training phase, which should be located near a local maximum or a global maximum of the probability distribution. Our Bayesian optimization technique is applied to the posterior distribution in the effective physical model estimation, which is a computationally extensive probability distribution. Even when the number of sampling points on the posterior distributions is fixed to be small, the Bayesian optimization provides a better maximizer of the posterior distributions in comparison to those by the random search method, the steepest descent method, or the Monte Carlo method. Furthermore, the Bayesian optimization improves the results efficiently by combining the steepest descent method and thus it is a powerful tool to search for a better maximizer of computationally extensive probability distributions.

  5. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit SARUHAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief study of the information from the published literature and author's works regarding rotor-bearing systems analysis with respect to optimization. The main goal of this work is to motivate and give an idea to designers who are willing to deal with optimization of rotor-bearing sytems. The results obtained and presented in this study are to provide a comparison with numerical optimum design methods such as gradientbased method, and to show the potential of genetic algorithms in optimization of rotor-bearing systems. Genetic algorithms have been used as optimization problem solving techniques. They are parameter search procedures based on the idea of natural selection and genetics. These robust methods have increasingly recognized and applied in many applications.

  6. Time-optimal control with finite bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, M.; Cappellaro, P.

    2018-04-01

    Time-optimal control theory provides recipes to achieve quantum operations with high fidelity and speed, as required in quantum technologies such as quantum sensing and computation. While technical advances have achieved the ultrastrong driving regime in many physical systems, these capabilities have yet to be fully exploited for the precise control of quantum systems, as other limitations, such as the generation of higher harmonics or the finite response time of the control apparatus, prevent the implementation of theoretical time-optimal control. Here we present a method to achieve time-optimal control of qubit systems that can take advantage of fast driving beyond the rotating wave approximation. We exploit results from time-optimal control theory to design driving protocols that can be implemented with realistic, finite-bandwidth control fields, and we find a relationship between bandwidth limitations and achievable control fidelity.

  7. Novelty-driven Particle Swarm Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galvao, Diana; Lehman, Joel Anthony; Urbano, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a well-known population-based optimization algorithm. Most often it is applied to optimize objective-based fitness functions that reward progress towards a desired objective or behavior. As a result, search increasingly focuses on higher-fitness areas. However......, in problems with many local optima, such focus often leads to premature convergence that precludes reaching the intended objective. To remedy this problem in certain types of domains, this paper introduces Novelty-driven Particle Swarm Optimization (NdPSO), which is motivated by the novelty search algorithm...... in genetic programming, this paper implements NdPSO as an extension of the grammatical swarm method, which combines PSO with genetic programming. The resulting NdPSO implementation is tested in three different domains representative of those in which it might provide advantage over objective-driven PSO...

  8. Optimal control novel directions and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aronna, Maria; Kalise, Dante

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on applications to science and engineering, this book presents the results of the ITN-FP7 SADCO network’s innovative research in optimization and control in the following interconnected topics: optimality conditions in optimal control, dynamic programming approaches to optimal feedback synthesis and reachability analysis, and computational developments in model predictive control. The novelty of the book resides in the fact that it has been developed by early career researchers, providing a good balance between clarity and scientific rigor. Each chapter features an introduction addressed to PhD students and some original contributions aimed at specialist researchers. Requiring only a graduate mathematical background, the book is self-contained. It will be of particular interest to graduate and advanced undergraduate students, industrial practitioners and to senior scientists wishing to update their knowledge.

  9. 9th International Conference on Optimization : Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Song; Wu, Soon-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest research findings and state-of-the-art solutions on optimization techniques and provides new research direction and developments. Both the theoretical and practical aspects of the book will be much beneficial to experts and students in optimization and operation research community. It selects high quality papers from The International Conference on Optimization: Techniques and Applications (ICOTA2013). The conference is an official conference series of POP (The Pacific Optimization Research Activity Group; there are over 500 active members). These state-of-the-art works in this book authored by recognized experts will make contributions to the development of optimization with its applications.

  10. Antenna Design by Means of the Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Polo-López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a heuristic optimization algorithm known as the Fruit fly Optimization Algorithm is applied to antenna design problems. The original formulation of the algorithm is presented and it is adapted to array factor and horn antenna optimization problems. Specifically, it is applied to the array factor synthesis of uniformly-fed, non-equispaced arrays and to the profile optimization of multimode horn antennas. Several numerical examples are presented and the obtained results are compared with those provided by a deterministic optimization based on a simplex method and another well-known heuristic approach, the Genetic Algorithm.

  11. Optimal hydrogenerator governor tuning with a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansberry, J.E.; Wozniak, L.; Goldberg, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Many techniques exist for developing optimal controllers. This paper investigates genetic algorithms as a means of finding optimal solutions over a parameter space. In particular, the genetic algorithm is applied to optimal tuning of a governor for a hydrogenerator plant. Analog and digital simulation methods are compared for use in conjunction with the genetic algorithm optimization process. It is shown that analog plant simulation provides advantages in speed over digital plant simulation. This speed advantage makes application of the genetic algorithm in an actual plant environment feasible. Furthermore, the genetic algorithm is shown to possess the ability to reject plant noise and other system anomalies in its search for optimizing solutions

  12. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process influence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity...... and life expectancy in the same year ("the Preston curve"); cross-country income differences can explain differences in life expectancy at age 20 of up to a decade. Moreover, technological change in health care of about 1.1% per year can account for the observed shift in the Preston curve between 1980...

  13. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  14. Optimal data verification procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.; Busse, S.; Piehlmeier, G.

    1991-01-01

    In order to verify the material balance data reported by plant operators, the safeguards authority performs independent measurements on a random sampling basis and compares the resulting data with the reported ones. It is shown that the so-called D-statistic, which originally has been justified with heuristic arguments and since then has been used in practice for many years, is optimal if the total assumed falsification is small. Furthermore, numerical calculations indicate that for larger total falsification, where a more complicated test procedure would be optimal, the D-test is still useful from a practical point of view. For very large total falsification, the optimal test statistic is complicated; this, however, is not so important since here one is approaching the attribute sampling area

  15. First course in optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles L

    2014-01-01

    Optimization without Calculus Chapter Summary The Arithmetic Mean-Geometric Mean Inequality An Application of the AGM Inequality: the Number e Extending the AGM Inequality Optimization Using the AGM Inequality The Holder and Minkowski Inequalities Cauchy's Inequality Optimizing using Cauchy's Inequality An Inner Product for Square Matrices Discrete Allocation Problems Geometric Programming Chapter Summary An Example of a GP Problem Posynomials and the GP Problem The Dual GP Problem Solving the GP Problem Solving the DGP Problem Constrained Geometric Programming Basic Analysis Chapter Summary Minima and Infima Limits Completeness Continuity Limsup and Liminf Another View Semi-Continuity Convex Sets Chapter SummaryThe Geometry of Real Euclidean Space A Bit of Topology Convex Sets in RJ More on Projections Linear and Affine Operators on RJ The Fundamental Theorems Block-Matrix Notation Theorems of the Alternative Another Proof of Farkas' Lemma Gordan's Theorem Revisited Vector Spaces and Matrices Chapter Summary...

  16. Optimal Power Flow Pursuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Simonetto, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    This paper considers distribution networks featuring inverter-interfaced distributed energy resources, and develops distributed feedback controllers that continuously drive the inverter output powers to solutions of AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. Particularly, the controllers update the power setpoints based on voltage measurements as well as given (time-varying) OPF targets, and entail elementary operations implementable onto low-cost microcontrollers that accompany power-electronics interfaces of gateways and inverters. The design of the control framework is based on suitable linear approximations of the AC power-flow equations as well as Lagrangian regularization methods. Convergence and OPF-target tracking capabilities of the controllers are analytically established. Overall, the proposed method allows to bypass traditional hierarchical setups where feedback control and optimization operate at distinct time scales, and to enable real-time optimization of distribution systems.

  17. Dualities in Nonholonomic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udrişte Constantin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with optimizing problems whose restrictions are nonholonomic. The central issue relates to dual nonholonomic programs (what they mean and how they are solved? when the nonholonomic constraints are given by Pfaff equations. We emphasize that nonholonomic critical points are not the classical ones and that the nonholonomic Lagrange multipliers are not the classical (holonomic Lagrange multipliers. Topological significance of Lagrange multipliers and dual function theory introduced by EDO and EDP are key results. Also new Riemannian geometries attached to a given nonholonomic constrained optimization problem are introduced. The original results are surprising and include: (i aspects derived from the Vranceanu theory of nonholonomic manifolds, and from the geometric distributions theory, (ii optimal problems in Darboux canonical coordinates.

  18. Determining Optimal Decision Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ioana Amariei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we start from the calculation of the product cost, applying the method of calculating the cost of hour- machine (THM, on each of the three cutting machines, namely: the cutting machine with plasma, the combined cutting machine (plasma and water jet and the cutting machine with a water jet. Following the calculation of cost and taking into account the precision of manufacturing of each machine, as well as the quality of the processed surface, the optimal decisional version needs to be determined regarding the product manufacturing. To determine the optimal decisional version, we resort firstly to calculating the optimal version on each criterion, and then overall using multiattribute decision methods.

  19. Nonlinear Inertia Weighted Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization for Solving Global Optimization Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zong-Sheng; Fu, Wei-Ping; Xue, Ru

    2015-01-01

    Teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm is proposed in recent years that simulates the teaching-learning phenomenon of a classroom to effectively solve global optimization of multidimensional, linear, and nonlinear problems over continuous spaces. In this paper, an improved teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm is presented, which is called nonlinear inertia weighted teaching-learning-based optimization (NIWTLBO) algorithm. This algorithm introduces a nonlinear inertia weighted factor into the basic TLBO to control the memory rate of learners and uses a dynamic inertia weighted factor to replace the original random number in teacher phase and learner phase. The proposed algorithm is tested on a number of benchmark functions, and its performance comparisons are provided against the basic TLBO and some other well-known optimization algorithms. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm has a faster convergence rate and better performance than the basic TLBO and some other algorithms as well.

  20. Optimizing WFIRST Coronagraph Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Bruce

    We propose an in-depth scientific investigation that will define how the WFIRST coronagraphic instrument will discover and characterize nearby planetary systems and how it will use observations of planets and disks to probe the diversity of their compositions, dynamics, and formation. Given the enormous diversity of known planetary systems it is not enough to optimize a coronagraph mission plan for the characterization of solar system analogs. Instead, we must design a mission to characterize a wide variety of planets, from gas and ice giant planets at a range of separations to mid-sized planets with no analogs in our solar system. We must consider updated planet distributions based on the results of the Kepler mission, long-term radial velocity (RV) surveys and updated luminosity distributions of exo-zodiacal dust from interferometric thermal infrared surveys of nearby stars. The properties of all these objects must be informed by our best models of planets and disks, and the process of using WFIRST observations to measure fundamental planetary properties such as composition must derive from rigorous methods. Our team brings a great depth of expertise to inform and accomplish these and all of the other tasks enumerated in the SIT proposal call. We will perform end-to-end modeling that starts with model spectra of planets and images of disks, simulates WFIRST data using these models, accounts for geometries of specific star / planet / disk systems, and incorporates detailed instrument performance models. We will develop and implement data analysis techniques to extract well-calibrated astrophysical signals from complex data, and propose observing plans that maximize the mission's scientific yield. We will work with the community to build observing programs and target lists, inform them of WFIRSTs capabilities, and supply simulated scientific observations for data challenges. Our work will be informed by the experience we have gained from building and observing with

  1. Optimization of Combinatorial Mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew S.; Griswold, Karl E.; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    Protein engineering by combinatorial site-directed mutagenesis evaluates a portion of the sequence space near a target protein, seeking variants with improved properties (stability, activity, immunogenicity, etc.). In order to improve the hit-rate of beneficial variants in such mutagenesis libraries, we develop methods to select optimal positions and corresponding sets of the mutations that will be used, in all combinations, in constructing a library for experimental evaluation. Our approach, OCoM (Optimization of Combinatorial Mutagenesis), encompasses both degenerate oligonucleotides and specified point mutations, and can be directed accordingly by requirements of experimental cost and library size. It evaluates the quality of the resulting library by one- and two-body sequence potentials, averaged over the variants. To ensure that it is not simply recapitulating extant sequences, it balances the quality of a library with an explicit evaluation of the novelty of its members. We show that, despite dealing with a combinatorial set of variants, in our approach the resulting library optimization problem is actually isomorphic to single-variant optimization. By the same token, this means that the two-body sequence potential results in an NP-hard optimization problem. We present an efficient dynamic programming algorithm for the one-body case and a practically-efficient integer programming approach for the general two-body case. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in designing libraries for three different case study proteins targeted by previous combinatorial libraries - a green fluorescent protein, a cytochrome P450, and a beta lactamase. We found that OCoM worked quite efficiently in practice, requiring only 1 hour even for the massive design problem of selecting 18 mutations to generate 107 variants of a 443-residue P450. We demonstrate the general ability of OCoM in enabling the protein engineer to explore and evaluate trade-offs between quality and

  2. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  3. Towards Optimal PDE Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, David

    2009-01-01

    The Terascale Optimal PDE Solvers (TOPS) Integrated Software Infrastructure Center (ISIC) was created to develop and implement algorithms and support scientific investigations performed by DOE-sponsored researchers. These simulations often involve the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) on terascale computers. The TOPS Center researched, developed and deployed an integrated toolkit of open-source, optimal complexity solvers for the nonlinear partial differential equations that arise in many DOE application areas, including fusion, accelerator design, global climate change and reactive chemistry. The algorithms created as part of this project were also designed to reduce current computational bottlenecks by orders of magnitude on terascale computers, enabling scientific simulation on a scale heretofore impossible.

  4. Distributed Optimization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, John E.; Dohrmann, Clark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2004-11-30

    A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.

  5. Advanced backend optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Touati, Sid

    2014-01-01

    This book is a summary of more than a decade of research in the area of backend optimization. It contains the latest fundamental research results in this field. While existing books are often more oriented toward Masters students, this book is aimed more towards professors and researchers as it contains more advanced subjects.It is unique in the sense that it contains information that has not previously been covered by other books in the field, with chapters on phase ordering in optimizing compilation; register saturation in instruction level parallelism; code size reduction for software pipe

  6. Optimization by record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barettin, Daniele; Sibani, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Large dynamical changes in thermalizing glassy systems are triggered by trajectories crossing record sized barriers, a behavior revealing the presence of a hierarchical structure in configuration space. The observation is here turned into a novel local search optimization algorithm dubbed record...... dynamics optimization,or RDO. RDO uses the Metropolis rule to accept or reject candidate solutions depending on the value of a parameter akin to the temperature and minimizes the cost function of the problem at hand through cycles where its ‘temperature’ is raised and subsequently decreased in order...

  7. Analytical methods of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Lawden, D F

    2006-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this text surveys the classical theory of the calculus of variations. It takes the approach most appropriate for applications to problems of optimizing the behavior of engineering systems. Two of these problem areas have strongly influenced this presentation: the design of the control systems and the choice of rocket trajectories to be followed by terrestrial and extraterrestrial vehicles.Topics include static systems, control systems, additional constraints, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and the accessory optimization problem. Prereq

  8. Optimization of dental implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dol, Aleksandr V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.

    2017-02-01

    Modern dentistry can not exist without dental implantation. This work is devoted to study of the "bone-implant" system and to optimization of dental prostheses installation. Modern non-invasive methods such as MRI an 3D-scanning as well as numerical calculations and 3D-prototyping allow to optimize all of stages of dental prosthetics. An integrated approach to the planning of implant surgery can significantly reduce the risk of complications in the first few days after treatment, and throughout the period of operation of the prosthesis.

  9. Disturbance by optimal discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the disturbance by measurements which unambiguously discriminate between given candidate states. We prove that such an optimal measurement necessarily changes distinguishable states indistinguishable when the inconclusive outcome is obtained. The result was previously shown by Chefles [Phys. Lett. A 239, 339 (1998), 10.1016/S0375-9601(98)00064-4] under restrictions on the class of quantum measurements and on the definition of optimality. Our theorems remove these restrictions and are also applicable to infinitely many candidate states. Combining with our previous results, one can obtain concrete mathematical conditions for the resulting states. The method may have a wide variety of applications in contexts other than state discrimination.

  10. Optimization Modeling with Spreadsheets

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    This introductory book on optimization (mathematical programming) includes coverage on linear programming, nonlinear programming, integer programming and heuristic programming; as well as an emphasis on model building using Excel and Solver.  The emphasis on model building (rather than algorithms) is one of the features that makes this book distinctive. Most books devote more space to algorithmic details than to formulation principles. These days, however, it is not necessary to know a great deal about algorithms in order to apply optimization tools, especially when relying on the sp

  11. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible...... investment model identified. Implications of the altered investment problem are investigated when the dynamics between portfolio risk, expected return and responsibility is considered. Relying on the definition of a responsible investor, it is shown how superior investment opportunities can emerge when...

  12. Optimization of Truss Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ulitinas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the task in truss height and in the optimization of the cross-sections of their elements. Element cross-sections are designed of steel profiles considering requirements for strength, stability and rigidity. A mathematical model is formulated as a nonlinear mathematical programming problem. It is solved as an iterative process, using mathematical software package “MATLAB” routine “fmincon”. The ratio of buckling is corrected in the each iteration. Optimization results are compared with those obtained applying software package “Robot Millennium”.Article in Lithuanian

  13. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  14. Java Processor Optimized for RTSJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Shiliang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the preeminent work of the real-time specification for Java (RTSJ, Java is increasingly expected to become the leading programming language in real-time systems. To provide a Java platform suitable for real-time applications, a Java processor which can execute Java bytecode is directly proposed in this paper. It provides efficient support in hardware for some mechanisms specified in the RTSJ and offers a simpler programming model through ameliorating the scoped memory of the RTSJ. The worst case execution time (WCET of the bytecodes implemented in this processor is predictable by employing the optimization method proposed in our previous work, in which all the processing interfering predictability is handled before bytecode execution. Further advantage of this method is to make the implementation of the processor simpler and suited to a low-cost FPGA chip.

  15. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2012-01-01

    of the article is to provide possible explanations for the puzzle of why small retail investors hold structured bonds. The investment universe consists of a stock index, a risk-free bank account, and a structured bond containing an option written on another index. We apply expected utility maximization......Retail structured products regularly receive much criticism from financial experts but seem to remain popular with investors. This article considers a generic structured product: the principal-protected index-linked note (structured bond), which resembles a portfolio insurance contract. The purpose...... and consider different utility functions and trading strategies. Our results show that investors should include structured bonds in their optimal portfolio only if they cannot access the index underlying the option directly and only if the products then provide sufficient diversification to compensate...

  16. Optimized mine ventilation on demand (OMVOD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provided an overview of the Optimized Mine Ventilation on Demand (OMVOD) system that is being installed at Xstrata Nickel Rim South Project and at Vale Inco's Totten Mine in Sudbury. The OMVOD system is designed to dynamically monitor and control air quality and quantity in real time and dilute and remove hazardous substances including diesel particulate matter (DPM), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO 2 ). It is also designed to control the thermal environment and provide ventilation for humans as well as mobile equipment engine combustion according to regulatory standards. The paper highlighted the OMVOD system optimization of energy, air quality measurement and control and production management of the mines through real time dynamic automation. Topics of discussion included real-time tracking and monitoring of diesel equipment; real-time tracking of underground miners; real-time evaluation of mine ventilation networks; and real-time control and optimization of ventilation equipment. ABB and Simsmart Technologies have joined forces to provide underground mining customers with a ventilation optimization solution. Simsmart's OMVOD provides proven real time/dynamic automation technology to significantly reduce energy costs, provide health and safety benefits as well as major capital cost savings while realizing an increase in production.

  17. Duality based contact shape optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vondrák, Vít; Dostal, Zdenek; Rasmussen, John

    2001-01-01

    An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization.......An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization....

  18. Superiorization: an optimization heuristic for medical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Gabor T; Garduno, Edgar; Davidi, Ran; Censor, Yair

    2012-09-01

    To describe and mathematically validate the superiorization methodology, which is a recently developed heuristic approach to optimization, and to discuss its applicability to medical physics problem formulations that specify the desired solution (of physically given or otherwise obtained constraints) by an optimization criterion. The superiorization methodology is presented as a heuristic solver for a large class of constrained optimization problems. The constraints come from the desire to produce a solution that is constraints-compatible, in the sense of meeting requirements provided by physically or otherwise obtained constraints. The underlying idea is that many iterative algorithms for finding such a solution are perturbation resilient in the sense that, even if certain kinds of changes are made at the end of each iterative step, the algorithm still produces a constraints-compatible solution. This property is exploited by using permitted changes to steer the algorithm to a solution that is not only constraints-compatible, but is also desirable according to a specified optimization criterion. The approach is very general, it is applicable to many iterative procedures and optimization criteria used in medical physics. The main practical contribution is a procedure for automatically producing from any given iterative algorithm its superiorized version, which will supply solutions that are superior according to a given optimization criterion. It is shown that if the original iterative algorithm satisfies certain mathematical conditions, then the output of its superiorized version is guaranteed to be as constraints-compatible as the output of the original algorithm, but it is superior to the latter according to the optimization criterion. This intuitive description is made precise in the paper and the stated claims are rigorously proved. Superiorization is illustrated on simulated computerized tomography data of a head cross section and, in spite of its generality

  19. A Collective Neurodynamic Approach to Constrained Global Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Fan, Jianchao; Wang, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Global optimization is a long-lasting research topic in the field of optimization, posting many challenging theoretic and computational issues. This paper presents a novel collective neurodynamic method for solving constrained global optimization problems. At first, a one-layer recurrent neural network (RNN) is presented for searching the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker points of the optimization problem under study. Next, a collective neuroydnamic optimization approach is developed by emulating the paradigm of brainstorming. Multiple RNNs are exploited cooperatively to search for the global optimal solutions in a framework of particle swarm optimization. Each RNN carries out a precise local search and converges to a candidate solution according to its own neurodynamics. The neuronal state of each neural network is repetitively reset by exchanging historical information of each individual network and the entire group. Wavelet mutation is performed to avoid prematurity, add diversity, and promote global convergence. It is proved in the framework of stochastic optimization that the proposed collective neurodynamic approach is capable of computing the global optimal solutions with probability one provided that a sufficiently large number of neural networks are utilized. The essence of the collective neurodynamic optimization approach lies in its potential to solve constrained global optimization problems in real time. The effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed approach are illustrated by using benchmark optimization problems.

  20. Optimal Pattern Synthesis of Linear Antenna Array Using Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the grey wolf optimization (GWO algorithm to the electromagnetics and antenna community. GWO is a new nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the social hierarchy and hunting behavior of grey wolves. It has potential to exhibit high performance in solving not only unconstrained but also constrained optimization problems. In this work, GWO has been applied to linear antenna arrays for optimal pattern synthesis in the following ways: by optimizing the antenna positions while assuming uniform excitation and by optimizing the antenna current amplitudes while assuming spacing and phase as that of uniform array. GWO is used to achieve an array pattern with minimum side lobe level (SLL along with null placement in the specified directions. GWO is also applied for the minimization of the first side lobe nearest to the main beam (near side lobe. Various examples are presented that illustrate the application of GWO for linear array optimization and, subsequently, the results are validated by benchmarking with results obtained using other state-of-the-art nature-inspired evolutionary algorithms. The results suggest that optimization of linear antenna arrays using GWO provides considerable enhancements compared to the uniform array and the synthesis obtained from other optimization techniques.

  1. Fourier Series Optimization Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the introduction of Fourier series as an immediate application of optimization of a function of more than one variable. Specifically, it is shown how the study of Fourier series can be motivated to enrich a multivariable calculus class. This is done through discovery learning and use of technology wherein students build the…

  2. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Strulik, Holger

    the representative consumer is subject to physiological aging. In modeling aging we draw on recent research in the fields of biology and medicine. The speed of the aging process, and thus the time of death, are endogenously determined by optimal health investments. We calibrate the model to US data and proceed...

  3. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...

  4. Advanced BDD optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ebendt, Rudiger; Drechsler, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    BDD and SAT are major concepts in VLSI CADNew objective functions for design space exploration require new algorithms for BDD optimizationLatest trend: fusion of the concepts BDD and SATMajor impulses come from Artificial Intelligence (AI)Unifying view, transfers the latest theoretical insights into practical applications.

  5. Solving nonconvex optimization problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henrion, Didier; Lasserre, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2004), s. 72-83 ISSN 0272-1708 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : nonconvex optimization * LMI methods Subject RIV: BC - Control System s Theory Impact factor: 1.803, year: 2004

  6. Optimal Market Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Goeree, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces three methodological advances to study the optimal design of static and dynamic markets. First, we apply a mechanism design approach to characterize all incentive-compatible market equilibria. Second, we conduct a normative analysis, i.e. we evaluate alternative competition and

  7. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    can potentially be optimized to create capacitors with unprecedented energy density. 14. SUBJECT TERMS capacitor , supercapacitor, super ... Capacitor -Increase Area (A)............8 b. Multi-layer Ceramic Capacitor -Decrease Thickness (d) .......10 c. Super Dielectric Material-Increase...EDLC and far above ceramic capacitors , after [5] ............................................9 Table 3. Super Dielectric Material Capacitors from

  8. optimal exact designs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    A Combinatorial Procedure for Constructing D-Optimal Experimental. Designs. Statistica, to appear. Rao, C. R., 1973. Linear Statistical Inference and its Applications, second edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 23. Searle, S. R., 1982. Matrix Algebra Useful for Statistics. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York, pp 95.

  9. Is Optimism Real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Joseph P.; Massey, Cade

    2012-01-01

    Is optimism real, or are optimistic forecasts just cheap talk? To help answer this question, we investigated whether optimistic predictions persist in the face of large incentives to be accurate. We asked National Football League football fans to predict the winner of a single game. Roughly half (the partisans) predicted a game involving their…

  10. Optimal Ski Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebilas, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Consider a skier who goes down a takeoff ramp, attains a speed "V", and jumps, attempting to land as far as possible down the hill below (Fig. 1). At the moment of takeoff the angle between the skier's velocity and the horizontal is [alpha]. What is the optimal angle [alpha] that makes the jump the longest possible for the fixed magnitude of the…

  11. Optimal decoupling controllers revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-16 ISSN 0324-8569 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020197 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : linear systems * fractional representations * decoupling controller s * stabilizing controller s * optimal controller s Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  12. Toward Optimal Transport Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Kincaid, Rex K.; Vargo, Erik P.

    2008-01-01

    Strictly evolutionary approaches to improving the air transport system a highly complex network of interacting systems no longer suffice in the face of demand that is projected to double or triple in the near future. Thus evolutionary approaches should be augmented with active design methods. The ability to actively design, optimize and control a system presupposes the existence of predictive modeling and reasonably well-defined functional dependences between the controllable variables of the system and objective and constraint functions for optimization. Following recent advances in the studies of the effects of network topology structure on dynamics, we investigate the performance of dynamic processes on transport networks as a function of the first nontrivial eigenvalue of the network's Laplacian, which, in turn, is a function of the network s connectivity and modularity. The last two characteristics can be controlled and tuned via optimization. We consider design optimization problem formulations. We have developed a flexible simulation of network topology coupled with flows on the network for use as a platform for computational experiments.

  13. Optimizing Computer Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon-Marable, Elizabeth; Valentine, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand what optimal computer technology integration looks like in adult basic skills education (ABSE). One question guided the research: How is computer technology integration best conceptualized and measured? The study used the Delphi method to map the construct of computer technology integration and…

  14. Slope constrained Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, J.; Sigmund, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The problem of minimum compliance topology optimization of an elastic continuum is considered. A general continuous density-energy relation is assumed, including variable thickness sheet models and artificial power laws. To ensure existence of solutions, the design set is restricted by enforcing...

  15. Topology optimization approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Maute, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Topology optimization has undergone a tremendous development since its introduction in the seminal paper by Bendsøe and Kikuchi in 1988. By now, the concept is developing in many different directions, including “density”, “level set”, “topological derivative”, “phase field”, “evolutionary...

  16. Cyclic Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.P. Peeters (Leon)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCyclic Railway Timetable Optimization describes mathematical models and solution methods for constructing high quality cyclic railway timetables. In a cyclic timetable, a train for a certain destination leaves a certain station at the same time every cycle time, say every half an hour,

  17. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  18. Danfoss: Scroll Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Henriksen, Christian; Howell, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The standard scroll compressor consists of two identical spirals (circle involutes) running inside each other.The task from Danfoss was to investigate how a change in the basic geometry of the scrolss and the orbit influence the compressor performnce and efficiency, and then try to optimize...

  19. Calculating Optimal Inventory Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Perez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the project is to find the optimal value for the Economic Order Quantity Model and then use a lean manufacturing Kanban equation to find a numeric value that will minimize the total cost and the inventory size.

  20. Towards Optimal Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P. Vargo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Our ultimate goal is to design transportation net- works whose dynamic performance metrics (e.g. pas- senger throughput, passenger delay, and insensitivity to weather disturbances are optimized. Here the fo- cus is on optimizing static features of the network that are known to directly affect the network dynamics. First, we present simulation results which support a connection between maximizing the first non-trivial eigenvalue of a network's Laplacian and superior air- port network performance. Then, we explore the ef- fectiveness of a tabu search heuristic for optimizing this metric by comparing experimental results to the- oretical upper bounds. We also consider generating upper bounds on a network's algebraic connectivity via the solution of semidefinite programming (SDP relaxations. A modification of an existing subgraph extraction algorithm is implemented to explore the underlying regional structures in the U.S. airport net- work, with the hope that the resulting localized struc- tures can be optimized independently and reconnected via a "backbone" network to achieve superior network performance.

  1. Optimal human capital policies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim; Kapička, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-16 ISSN 0304-3932 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : dynamic optimal taxation * income taxation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2008

  2. Optimality-theoretic pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blutner, R.; Zeevat, H.; Benz, A; Blutner, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article aims to give an overview about the application of Optimality Theory (OT) to the domain of pragmatics. In the introductory part we discuss different ways to view the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. Rejecting the doctrine of literal meaning we conform to (i) semantic

  3. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...

  4. Optimalization of IGBT Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Spanik

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents IGBT switch off process in order to reduce power loss in the structure. The soft switching method using switch-off after current reduction is used. Process mentioned above is optimized to minimize the power loss that is determined by experiment. Results obtained in the experiment can be helpful in a converter and controller design process.

  5. Optimal fault signal estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Niemann, H.H.; Saberi, A.; Sannuti, P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider here both fault identification and fault signal estimation. Regarding fault identification, we seek either exact or almost fault identification. On the other hand, regarding fault signal estimation, we seek either $H_2$ optimal, $H_2$ suboptimal or Hinfinity suboptimal estimation. By

  6. Optimal crowd evacuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Daamen, W.; Duives, D.C.; Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal allocation of routes, destination, and departure times to members of a crowd, for instance in case of an evacuation or another hazardous situation in which the people need to leave the area as quickly as possible. The generic approach minimizes the evacuation times,

  7. Dynamic optimization deterministic and stochastic models

    CERN Document Server

    Hinderer, Karl; Stieglitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book explores discrete-time dynamic optimization and provides a detailed introduction to both deterministic and stochastic models. Covering problems with finite and infinite horizon, as well as Markov renewal programs, Bayesian control models and partially observable processes, the book focuses on the precise modelling of applications in a variety of areas, including operations research, computer science, mathematics, statistics, engineering, economics and finance. Dynamic Optimization is a carefully presented textbook which starts with discrete-time deterministic dynamic optimization problems, providing readers with the tools for sequential decision-making, before proceeding to the more complicated stochastic models. The authors present complete and simple proofs and illustrate the main results with numerous examples and exercises (without solutions). With relevant material covered in four appendices, this book is completely self-contained.

  8. Efficient Job Provisioning for a Cloud Service Provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Dharmvir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is a very fast emerging technology as every enterprise is moving fast towards this system. Cloud Computing is known as a provider of dynamic services. It optimizes a very large, scalable and virtualized resource. So lots of industries have joined this bandwagon nowadays. One of the major research issues is to maintain good Quality of Service (QoS of a Cloud Service Provider (CSP. The QoS encompasses different parameters, like, smart job allocation strategy, efficient load balancing, response time optimization, reduction in wastage of bandwidth, accountability of the overall system, etc. The efficient allocation strategy of the independent computational jobs among different Virtual Machines (VM in a Data center (DC is a distinguishable challenge in the Cloud Computing domain and finding out an optimal job allocation strategy guided by a good scheduling heuristic for such an environment is a mape-k loop problem. So different heuristic approaches may be used for better result and in this result we paper we implement worst fit in mape-k and evaluated the results.

  9. (Too) optimistic about optimism: the belief that optimism improves performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Elizabeth R; Logg, Jennifer M; Moore, Don A

    2015-03-01

    A series of experiments investigated why people value optimism and whether they are right to do so. In Experiments 1A and 1B, participants prescribed more optimism for someone implementing decisions than for someone deliberating, indicating that people prescribe optimism selectively, when it can affect performance. Furthermore, participants believed optimism improved outcomes when a person's actions had considerable, rather than little, influence over the outcome (Experiment 2). Experiments 3 and 4 tested the accuracy of this belief; optimism improved persistence, but it did not improve performance as much as participants expected. Experiments 5A and 5B found that participants overestimated the relationship between optimism and performance even when their focus was not on optimism exclusively. In summary, people prescribe optimism when they believe it has the opportunity to improve the chance of success-unfortunately, people may be overly optimistic about just how much optimism can do. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Power system optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdan, Zeljko; Cehil, Mislav

    2007-01-01

    Long-term gas purchase contracts usually determine delivery and payment for gas on the regular hourly basis, independently of demand side consumption. In order to use fuel gas in an economically viable way, optimization of gas distribution for covering consumption must be introduced. In this paper, a mathematical model of the electric utility system which is used for optimization of gas distribution over electric generators is presented. The utility system comprises installed capacity of 1500 MW of thermal power plants, 400 MW of combined heat and power plants, 330 MW of a nuclear power plant and 1600 MW of hydro power plants. Based on known demand curve the optimization model selects plants according to the prescribed criteria. Firstly it engages run-of-river hydro plants, then the public cogeneration plants, the nuclear plant and thermal power plants. Storage hydro plants are used for covering peak load consumption. In case of shortage of installed capacity, the cross-border purchase is allowed. Usage of dual fuel equipment (gas-oil), which is available in some thermal plants, is also controlled by the optimization procedure. It is shown that by using such a model it is possible to properly plan the amount of fuel gas which will be contracted. The contracted amount can easily be distributed over generators efficiently and without losses (no breaks in delivery). The model helps in optimizing of fuel gas-oil ratio for plants with combined burners and enables planning of power plants overhauls over a year in a viable and efficient way. (author)

  11. Constrained optimization via simulation models for new product innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujowidianto, Nugroho A.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the problem of constrained optimization where the decision makers aim to optimize the primary performance measure while constraining the secondary performance measures. This paper provides a brief overview of stochastically constrained optimization via discrete event simulation. Most review papers tend to be methodology-based. This review attempts to be problem-based as decision makers may have already decided on the problem formulation. We consider constrained optimization models as there are usually constraints on secondary performance measures as trade-off in new product development. It starts by laying out different possible methods and the reasons using constrained optimization via simulation models. It is then followed by the review of different simulation optimization approach to address constrained optimization depending on the number of decision variables, the type of constraints, and the risk preferences of the decision makers in handling uncertainties.

  12. Factors influencing the profitability of optimizing control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broussaud, A.; Guyot, O.

    1999-01-01

    Optimizing control systems supplement conventional Distributed Control Systems and Programmable Logic Controllers. They continuously implement set points, which aim at maximizing the profitability of plant operation. They are becoming an integral part of modern mineral processing plants. This trend is justified by economic considerations, optimizing control being among the most cost-effective methods of improving metallurgical plant performance. The paper successively analyzes three sets of factors, which influence the profitability of optimizing control systems, and provides guidelines for analyzing the potential value of an optimizing control system at a given operation: external factors, such as economic factors and factors related to plant feed; features of the optimizing control system; and subsequent maintenance of the optimizing control system. It is shown that pay back times for optimization control projects are typically measured in days. The OCS software used by the authors for their applications is described briefly. (author)

  13. Factors influencing the profitability of optimizing control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussaud, A.; Guyot, O. [Svedala Cisa, Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    1999-07-01

    Optimizing control systems supplement conventional Distributed Control Systems and Programmable Logic Controllers. They continuously implement set points, which aim at maximizing the profitability of plant operation. They are becoming an integral part of modern mineral processing plants. This trend is justified by economic considerations, optimizing control being among the most cost-effective methods of improving metallurgical plant performance. The paper successively analyzes three sets of factors, which influence the profitability of optimizing control systems, and provides guidelines for analyzing the potential value of an optimizing control system at a given operation: external factors, such as economic factors and factors related to plant feed; features of the optimizing control system; and subsequent maintenance of the optimizing control system. It is shown that pay back times for optimization control projects are typically measured in days. The OCS software used by the authors for their applications is described briefly. (author)

  14. A Stochastic Multiobjective Optimization Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibo He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, there generally exist many different objective functions to be optimized. In this paper, we propose a stochastic multiobjective optimization approach to solve such kind of problem. We first formulate a general multiobjective optimization problem. We then decompose the optimization formulation through Lagrange dual decomposition and adopt the stochastic quasigradient algorithm to solve the primal-dual problem in a distributed way. We show theoretically that our algorithm converges to the optimal solution of the primal problem by using the knowledge of stochastic programming. Furthermore, the formulation provides a general stochastic multiobjective optimization framework for WSNs. We illustrate how the general framework works by considering an example of the optimal rate allocation problem in multipath WSNs with time-varying channel. Extensive simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  15. OPTIMIZED PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION BASED DEADLINE CONSTRAINED TASK SCHEDULING IN HYBRID CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is a dominant way of sharing of computing resources that can be configured and provisioned easily. Task scheduling in Hybrid cloud is a challenge as it suffers from producing the best QoS (Quality of Service when there is a high demand. In this paper a new resource allocation algorithm, to find the best External Cloud provider when the intermediate provider’s resources aren’t enough to satisfy the customer’s demand is proposed. The proposed algorithm called Optimized Particle Swarm Optimization (OPSO combines the two metaheuristic algorithms namely Particle Swarm Optimization and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO. These metaheuristic algorithms are used for the purpose of optimization in the search space of the required solution, to find the best resource from the pool of resources and to obtain maximum profit even when the number of tasks submitted for execution is very high. This optimization is performed to allocate job requests to internal and external cloud providers to obtain maximum profit. It helps to improve the system performance by improving the CPU utilization, and handle multiple requests at the same time. The simulation result shows that an OPSO yields 0.1% - 5% profit to the intermediate cloud provider compared with standard PSO and ACO algorithms and it also increases the CPU utilization by 0.1%.

  16. Notes on Static and Dynamic Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1981-01-01

    This book pretends to be a unified presentation of the main theoretical and numerical results on optimization, and at the same time it provides an outlook to the many areas of application. It contains what I believe is the minimum knowledge required for a serious use of normative mathematical mod...

  17. Method for optimizing harvesting of crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    In order e.g. to optimize harvesting crops of the kind which may be self dried on a field prior to a harvesting step (116, 118), there is disclosed a method of providing a mobile unit (102) for working (114, 116, 118) the field with crops, equipping the mobile unit (102) with crop biomass measuring...

  18. Optimal mechanisms for single machine scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, B.; Mishra, D.; Müller, R.; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Papadimitriou, C.; Zhang, S.

    2008-01-01

    We study the design of optimal mechanisms in a setting here job-agents compete for being processed by a service provider that can handle one job at a time. Each job has a processing time and incurs a waiting cost. Jobs need to be compensated for waiting. We consider two models, one where only the

  19. Structural optimization for nonlinear dynamic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Suguang; Strachan, B. Scott; Shaw, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    resonant behaviour is being used for a variety of applications in sensing and signal conditioning. In this work, we describe a computational method that provides a systematic means for manipulating and optimizing features of nonlinear resonant responses of mechanical structures that are described...

  20. Graphic Interface for LCP2 Optimization Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolae, Taropa Laurentiu; Gaunholt, Hans

    1998-01-01

    This report provides information about the software interface that is programmed for the Optimization Program LCP2. The first part is about the general description of the program followed by a guide for using the interface. The last chapters contain a discussion about problems or futute extensions...

  1. Fuzziness and randomness in an optimization framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhandjula, M.K.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a semi-infinite approach for linear programming in the presence of fuzzy random variable coefficients. As a byproduct a way for dealing with optimization problems including both fuzzy and random data is obtained. Numerical examples are provided for the sake of illustration. (author). 13 refs

  2. Optimization of nutritional requirements and ammonium feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tounukarin

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... defined medium and to develop an ammonium control strategy to optimize the specific vitamin B12 production rate (Yp) ... Key words: Statistical designs, Pseudomonas denitrificans, chemically defined medium, ammonium controlling strategy ... analysis provides a powerful tool for effective quanti- fication of ...

  3. RAOPS: Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safegurards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardecki, A.; Markin, J.T.

    1994-03-01

    RAOPS--Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safeguards is extended to a multiobjective return function having the detection probability and expected detection time as criteria. The expected detection time is included as a constraint, based on the well-known Avenhaus model of the optimum number of inventory periods. Examples of computation are provided.

  4. SOL - SIZING AND OPTIMIZATION LANGUAGE COMPILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    SOL is a computer language which is geared to solving design problems. SOL includes the mathematical modeling and logical capabilities of a computer language like FORTRAN but also includes the additional power of non-linear mathematical programming methods (i.e. numerical optimization) at the language level (as opposed to the subroutine level). The language-level use of optimization has several advantages over the traditional, subroutine-calling method of using an optimizer: first, the optimization problem is described in a concise and clear manner which closely parallels the mathematical description of optimization; second, a seamless interface is automatically established between the optimizer subroutines and the mathematical model of the system being optimized; third, the results of an optimization (objective, design variables, constraints, termination criteria, and some or all of the optimization history) are output in a form directly related to the optimization description; and finally, automatic error checking and recovery from an ill-defined system model or optimization description is facilitated by the language-level specification of the optimization problem. Thus, SOL enables rapid generation of models and solutions for optimum design problems with greater confidence that the problem is posed correctly. The SOL compiler takes SOL-language statements and generates the equivalent FORTRAN code and system calls. Because of this approach, the modeling capabilities of SOL are extended by the ability to incorporate existing FORTRAN code into a SOL program. In addition, SOL has a powerful MACRO capability. The MACRO capability of the SOL compiler effectively gives the user the ability to extend the SOL language and can be used to develop easy-to-use shorthand methods of generating complex models and solution strategies. The SOL compiler provides syntactic and semantic error-checking, error recovery, and detailed reports containing cross-references to show where

  5. Optimizing a reconfigurable material via evolutionary computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Sam; Miskin, Marc Z.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2015-08-01

    Rapid prototyping by combining evolutionary computation with simulations is becoming a powerful tool for solving complex design problems in materials science. This method of optimization operates in a virtual design space that simulates potential material behaviors and after completion needs to be validated by experiment. However, in principle an evolutionary optimizer can also operate on an actual physical structure or laboratory experiment directly, provided the relevant material parameters can be accessed by the optimizer and information about the material's performance can be updated by direct measurements. Here we provide a proof of concept of such direct, physical optimization by showing how a reconfigurable, highly nonlinear material can be tuned to respond to impact. We report on an entirely computer controlled laboratory experiment in which a 6 ×6 grid of electromagnets creates a magnetic field pattern that tunes the local rigidity of a concentrated suspension of ferrofluid and iron filings. A genetic algorithm is implemented and tasked to find field patterns that minimize the force transmitted through the suspension. Searching within a space of roughly 1010 possible configurations, after testing only 1500 independent trials the algorithm identifies an optimized configuration of layered rigid and compliant regions.

  6. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alen

    2008-12-01

    The Formal Darwinism Project aims to provide a formal argument linking population genetics to fitness optimization, which of necessity includes defining fitness. This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those biologists who believe on theoretical grounds that there is no sense of fitness that can usefully be said to be optimized. The current paper's main objective is to provide a careful mathematical introduction to the project, and it also reflects on the project's scope and limitations. The central argument is the proof of close ties between the mathematics of motion, as embodied in the Price equation, and the mathematics of optimization, as represented by optimization programmes. To make these links, a general and abstract model linking genotype, phenotype and number of successful gametes is assumed. The project has begun with simple dynamic models and simple linking models, and its progress will involve more realistic versions of them. The versions given here are fully mathematically rigorous, but elementary enough to serve as an introduction.

  7. Flattening an object algebra to provide performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, P.; Wilschut, A.N.; Kersten, M.L.

    Algebraic transformation and optimization techniques have been the method of choice in relational query execution, but applying them in object-oriented (OO) DBMSs is difficult due to the complexity of OO query languages. This paper demonstrates that the problem can be simplified by mapping an OO

  8. Multicore-Optimized Wavefront Diamond Blocking for Optimizing Stencil Updates

    KAUST Repository

    Malas, T.

    2015-07-02

    The importance of stencil-based algorithms in computational science has focused attention on optimized parallel implementations for multilevel cache-based processors. Temporal blocking schemes leverage the large bandwidth and low latency of caches to accelerate stencil updates and approach theoretical peak performance. A key ingredient is the reduction of data traffic across slow data paths, especially the main memory interface. In this work we combine the ideas of multicore wavefront temporal blocking and diamond tiling to arrive at stencil update schemes that show large reductions in memory pressure compared to existing approaches. The resulting schemes show performance advantages in bandwidth-starved situations, which are exacerbated by the high bytes per lattice update case of variable coefficients. Our thread groups concept provides a controllable trade-off between concurrency and memory usage, shifting the pressure between the memory interface and the CPU. We present performance results on a contemporary Intel processor.

  9. Optimal scope of supply chain network & operations design

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, N.

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly complex supply chain networks and operations call for the development of decision support systems and optimization techniques that take a holistic view of supply chain issues and provide support for integrated decision-making. The economic impacts of optimized supply chain are significant and that has attracted considerable research attention since the late 1990s. This doctoral thesis focuses on developing manageable and realistic optimization models for solving four contempo...

  10. CLUSTER ENERGY OPTIMIZATION: A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Vikram Yadav; G. Sahoo

    2013-01-01

    The optimization of energy consumption in the cloud computing environment is the question how to use various energy conservation strategies to efficiently allocate resources. The need of differentresources in cloud environment is unpredictable. It is observed that load management in cloud is utmost needed in order to provide QOS. The jobs at over-loaded physical machine are shifted to under-loadedphysical machine and turning the idle machine off in order to provide green cloud. For energy opt...

  11. EAF Management Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costoiu, M.; Ioana, A.; Semenescu, A.; Marcu, D.

    2016-11-01

    The article presents the main advantages of electric arc furnace (EAF): it has a great contribution to reintroduce significant quantities of reusable metallic materials in the economic circuit, it constitutes itself as an important part in the Primary Materials and Energy Recovery (PMER), good productivity, good quality / price ratio, the possibility of developing a wide variety of classes and types of steels, including special steels and high alloy. In this paper it is presented some important developments of electric arc furnace: vacuum electric arc furnace, artificial intelligence expert systems for pollution control Steelworks. Another important aspect presented in the article is an original block diagram for optimization the EAF management system. This scheme is based on the original objective function (criterion function) represented by the price / quality ratio. The article presents an original block diagram for optimization the control system of the EAF. For designing this concept of EAF management system, many principles were used.

  12. Optimizing well intervention routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis J.; Bordalo, Sergio N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO)]. E-mail: denis@dep.fem.unicamp.br; bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a method for optimizing the itinerary of work over rigs, i.e., the search for the route of minimum total cost, and demonstrates the importance of the dynamics of reservoir behaviour. The total cost of a route includes the rig expenses (transport, assembly and operation), which are functions of time and distances, plus the losses of revenue in wells waiting for the rig, which are also dependent of time. A reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the monetary influence of the well shutdown on the present value of the production curve. Finally, search algorithms are employed to determine the route of minimal cost. The Simulated Annealing algorithm was also successful in optimizing the distribution of a list of wells among different work over rigs. The rational approach presented here is recommended for management teams as a standard procedure to define the priority of wells scheduled for work over. (author)

  13. Optimally frugal foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénichou, O.; Bhat, U.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2018-02-01

    We introduce the frugal foraging model in which a forager performs a discrete-time random walk on a lattice in which each site initially contains S food units. The forager metabolizes one unit of food at each step and starves to death when it last ate S steps in the past. Whenever the forager eats, it consumes all food at its current site and this site remains empty forever (no food replenishment). The crucial property of the forager is that it is frugal and eats only when encountering food within at most k steps of starvation. We compute the average lifetime analytically as a function of the frugality threshold and show that there exists an optimal strategy, namely, an optimal frugality threshold k* that maximizes the forager lifetime.

  14. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  15. Radiological assessment and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.; Sohier, A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological assessment and optimization are (1) to implement ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for radiological optimization in decision-aiding; (3) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (4) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (5) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (6) to investigate computer codes in the area of multi criteria analysis; (7) to organise courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in these areas for 1997 are summarised

  16. Multistage stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pflug, Georg Ch

    2014-01-01

    Multistage stochastic optimization problems appear in many ways in finance, insurance, energy production and trading, logistics and transportation, among other areas. They describe decision situations under uncertainty and with a longer planning horizon. This book contains a comprehensive treatment of today’s state of the art in multistage stochastic optimization.  It covers the mathematical backgrounds of approximation theory as well as numerous practical algorithms and examples for the generation and handling of scenario trees. A special emphasis is put on estimation and bounding of the modeling error using novel distance concepts, on time consistency and the role of model ambiguity in the decision process. An extensive treatment of examples from electricity production, asset liability management and inventory control concludes the book

  17. Radiological assessment and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Sohier, A

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological assessment and optimization are (1) to implement ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for radiological optimization in decision-aiding; (3) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (4) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (5) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (6) to investigate computer codes in the area of multi criteria analysis; (7) to organise courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in these areas for 1997 are summarised.

  18. Ligand-guided receptor optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Rueda, Manuel; Abagyan, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Receptor models generated by homology or even obtained by crystallography often have their binding pockets suboptimal for ligand docking and virtual screening applications due to insufficient accuracy or induced fit bias. Knowledge of previously discovered receptor ligands provides key information that can be used for improving docking and screening performance of the receptor. Here, we present a comprehensive ligand-guided receptor optimization (LiBERO) algorithm that exploits ligand information for selecting the best performing protein models from an ensemble. The energetically feasible protein conformers are generated through normal mode analysis and Monte Carlo conformational sampling. The algorithm allows iteration of the conformer generation and selection steps until convergence of a specially developed fitness function which quantifies the conformer's ability to select known ligands from decoys in a small-scale virtual screening test. Because of the requirement for a large number of computationally intensive docking calculations, the automated algorithm has been implemented to use Linux clusters allowing easy parallel scaling. Here, we will discuss the setup of LiBERO calculations, selection of parameters, and a range of possible uses of the algorithm which has already proven itself in several practical applications to binding pocket optimization and prospective virtual ligand screening.

  19. CRM System Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Fučík, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is focused on CRM solutions in small and medium-sized organizations with respect to the quality of their customer relationship. The main goal of this work is to design an optimal CRM solution in the environment of real organization. To achieve this goal it is necessary to understand the theoretical basis of several topics, such as organizations and their relationship with customers, CRM systems, their features and trends. On the basis of these theoretical topics it is possible to ...

  20. Teradata Database System Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Krejčík, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The Teradata database system is specially designed for data warehousing environment. This thesis explores the use of Teradata in this environment and describes its characteristics and potential areas for optimization. The theoretical part is tended to be a user study material and it shows the main principles Teradata system operation and describes factors significantly affecting system performance. Following sections are based on previously acquired information which is used for analysis and ...