WorldWideScience

Sample records for bmp signaling inhibitors

  1. BMP signaling regulates satellite cell-dependent postnatal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantzou, Amalia; Schirwis, Elija; Swist, Sandra; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Polydorou, Ioanna; Zarrouki, Faouzi; Mouisel, Etienne; Beley, Cyriaque; Julien, Anaïs; Le Grand, Fabien; Garcia, Luis; Colnot, Céline; Birchmeier, Carmen; Braun, Thomas; Schuelke, Markus; Relaix, Frédéric; Amthor, Helge

    2017-08-01

    Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of noggin in postnatal mice (to antagonize BMP ligands), satellite cell-specific knockout of Alk3 (the gene encoding the BMP transmembrane receptor) or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth, and ultimately retarded muscle growth. Moreover, reduced BMP signaling diminished the adult satellite cell pool. Abrogation of BMP signaling in satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts strongly diminished cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p57 In conclusion, these results show that BMP signaling defines postnatal muscle development by regulating satellite cell-dependent myofiber growth and the generation of the adult muscle stem cell pool. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Co-expression of BMPs and BMP-inhibitors in human fractures and non-unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloen, Peter; Lauzier, Dominique; Hamdy, Reggie C

    2012-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are increasingly being used clinically to enhance fracture repair and healing of non-unions. However, the potential efficacy of supraphysiological dosing for clinical results warrants further clarification of the BMP signaling pathway in human fracture healing. As BMP signaling can be fine-tuned at numerous levels, the role of BMP-inhibitors has become a major focus. The aim of the present study was to document co-expression of BMPs, pSmad 1/5/8, and BMP-inhibitors in human fracture callus and human non-unions. Using human tissue of fracture callus (n=14) and non-unions (n=4) we documented expression of BMPs (BMP2, BMP3 and BMP7), pSmad 1/5/8 and the BMP-inhibitors noggin, gremlin, chordin, Smad-6, Smad-7 and BAMBI. Co-expression of pSmad 1/5/8, BMPs and BMP-inhibitors was noted in the osteoblasts of fracture callus as well as of non-unions. Expression of BMP-inhibitors was generally stronger in non-unions than in fracture callus. The most pertinent differences were noted in the cartilaginous tissue components. Expression of BMP2 in chondrocytes was markedly decreased in non-unions compared to fracture callus and that of BMP7 was almost completely absent. Expression of BMP-inhibitors was almost the same in osteoblasts, chondrocytes and fibroblasts of fracture callus and well as in non-unions. Interestingly, although BMP ligands were present in the chondrocytes and fibroblasts of non-unions, they did not co-express pSmad 1/5/8 suggesting that BMP signaling may have been inhibited at some point before Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation. These results suggest co-expression of BMP, pSmad 1/5/8 and BMP-inhibitors occurs in human fracture callus as well as non-unions but the relative expression of BMPs vs. BMP-inhibitors was different between these two tissue types. In contrast to our expectations, the expression of BMP inhibitors was comparable between fracture callus and non-unions, whereas the expression of BMPs was notably lower in the

  3. Bmp signaling represses Vegfa to promote outflow tract cushion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Wang, Jun; Morikawa, Yuka; Bonilla-Claudio, Margarita; Klysik, Elzbieta; Martin, James F

    2013-08-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a devastating anomaly that affects ∼1% of live births. Defects of the outflow tract (OFT) make up a large percentage of human CHD. We investigated Bmp signaling in mouse OFT development by conditionally deleting both Bmp4 and Bmp7 in the second heart field (SHF). SHF Bmp4/7 deficiency resulted in defective epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reduced cardiac neural crest ingress, with resultant persistent truncus arteriosus. Using a candidate gene approach, we found that Vegfa was upregulated in the Bmp4/7 mutant hearts. To determine if Vegfa is a downstream Bmp effector during EMT, we examined whether Vegfa is transcriptionally regulated by the Bmp receptor-regulated Smad. Our findings indicate that Smad directly binds to Vegfa chromatin and represses Vegfa transcriptional activity. We also found that Vegfa is a direct target for the miR-17-92 cluster, which is also regulated by Bmp signaling in the SHF. Deletion of miR-17-92 reveals similar phenotypes to Bmp4/7 SHF deletion. To directly address the function of Vegfa repression in Bmp-mediated EMT, we performed ex vivo explant cultures from Bmp4/7 and miR-17-92 mutant hearts. EMT was defective in explants from the Bmp4/7 double conditional knockout (dCKO; Mef2c-Cre;Bmp4/7(f/f)) and miR-17-92 null. By antagonizing Vegfa activity in explants, EMT was rescued in Bmp4/7 dCKO and miR-17-92 null culture. Moreover, overexpression of miR-17-92 partially suppressed the EMT defect in Bmp4/7 mutant embryos. Our study reveals that Vegfa levels in the OFT are tightly controlled by Smad- and microRNA-dependent pathways to modulate OFT development.

  4. BMP signaling mediates effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin T Gobeske

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to exercise or to environmental enrichment increases the generation of new neurons in the adult hippocampus and promotes certain kinds of learning and memory. While the precise role of neurogenesis in cognition has been debated intensely, comparatively few studies have addressed the mechanisms linking environmental exposures to cellular and behavioral outcomes. Here we show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling mediates the effects of exercise on neurogenesis and cognition in the adult hippocampus. Elective exercise reduces levels of hippocampal BMP signaling before and during its promotion of neurogenesis and learning. Transgenic mice with decreased BMP signaling or wild type mice infused with a BMP inhibitor both exhibit remarkable gains in hippocampal cognitive performance and neurogenesis, mirroring the effects of exercise. Conversely, transgenic mice with increased BMP signaling have diminished hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired cognition. Exercise exposure does not rescue these deficits, suggesting that reduced BMP signaling is required for environmental effects on neurogenesis and learning. Together, these observations show that BMP signaling is a fundamental mechanism linking environmental exposure with changes in cognitive function and cellular properties in the hippocampus.

  5. BMP2 and mechanical loading cooperatively regulate immediate early signalling events in the BMP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Jessica; Petersen, Ansgar; Duda, Georg N; Knaus, Petra

    2012-04-30

    Efficient osteogenic differentiation is highly dependent on coordinated signals arising from growth factor signalling and mechanical forces. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted proteins that trigger Smad and non-Smad pathways and thereby influence transcriptional and non-transcriptional differentiation cues. Crosstalk at multiple levels allows for promotion or attenuation of signalling intensity and specificity. Similar to BMPs, mechanical stimulation enhances bone formation. However, the molecular mechanism by which mechanical forces crosstalk to biochemical signals is still unclear. Here, we use a three-dimensional bioreactor system to describe how mechanical forces are integrated into the BMP pathway. Time-dependent phosphorylation of Smad, mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt in human fetal osteoblasts was investigated under loading and/or BMP2 stimulation conditions. The phosphorylation of R-Smads is increased both in intensity and duration under BMP2 stimulation with concurrent mechanical loading. Interestingly, the synergistic effect of both stimuli on immediate early Smad phosphorylation is reflected in the transcription of only a subset of BMP target genes, while others are differently affected. Together this results in a cooperative regulation of osteogenesis that is guided by both signalling pathways. Mechanical signals are integrated into the BMP signalling pathway by enhancing immediate early steps within the Smad pathway, independent of autocrine ligand secretion. This suggests a direct crosstalk of both mechanotransduction and BMP signalling, most likely at the level of the cell surface receptors. Furthermore, the crosstalk of both pathways over longer time periods might occur on several signalling levels.

  6. Arsenite suppression of BMP signaling in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Marjorie A.; Qin, Qin [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Hu, Qin; Zhao, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Rice, Robert H., E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Arsenic, a human skin carcinogen, suppresses differentiation of cultured keratinocytes. Exploring the mechanism of this suppression revealed that BMP-6 greatly increased levels of mRNA for keratins 1 and 10, two of the earliest differentiation markers expressed, a process prevented by co-treatment with arsenite. BMP also stimulated, and arsenite suppressed, mRNA for FOXN1, an important transcription factor driving early keratinocyte differentiation. Keratin mRNAs increased slowly after BMP-6 addition, suggesting they are indirect transcriptional targets. Inhibition of Notch1 activation blocked BMP induction of keratins 1 and 10, while FOXN1 induction was largely unaffected. Supporting a requirement for Notch1 signaling in keratin induction, BMP increased levels of activated Notch1, which was blocked by arsenite. BMP also greatly decreased active ERK, while co-treatment with arsenite maintained active ERK. Inhibition of ERK signaling mimicked BMP by inducing keratin and FOXN1 mRNAs and by increasing active Notch1, effects blocked by arsenite. Of 6 dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) targeting ERK, two were induced by BMP unless prevented by simultaneous exposure to arsenite and EGF. Knockdown of DUSP2 or DUSP14 using shRNAs greatly reduced FOXN1 and keratins 1 and 10 mRNA levels and their induction by BMP. Knockdown also decreased activated Notch1, keratin 1 and keratin 10 protein levels, both in the presence and absence of BMP. Thus, one of the earliest effects of BMP is induction of DUSPs, which increases FOXN1 transcription factor and activates Notch1, both required for keratin gene expression. Arsenite prevents this cascade by maintaining ERK signaling, at least in part by suppressing DUSP expression. - Highlights: • BMP induces FOXN1 transcription. • BMP induces DUSP2 and DUSP14, suppressing ERK activation. • Arsenite suppresses levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5 and FOXN1 and DUSP mRNA. • These actions rationalize arsenite suppression of keratinocyte

  7. BMP signaling and cellular dynamics during regeneration of airway epithelium from basal progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, Tomomi; Gao, Xia; Hong, Charles C; Hotten, Danielle; Hogan, Brigid L M

    2016-03-01

    The pseudostratified epithelium of the lung contains ciliated and secretory luminal cells and basal stem/progenitor cells. To identify signals controlling basal cell behavior we screened factors that alter their self-renewal and differentiation in a clonal organoid (tracheosphere) assay. This revealed that inhibitors of the canonical BMP signaling pathway promote proliferation but do not affect lineage choice, whereas exogenous Bmp4 inhibits proliferation and differentiation. We therefore followed changes in BMP pathway components in vivo in the mouse trachea during epithelial regeneration from basal cells after injury. The findings suggest that BMP signaling normally constrains proliferation at steady state and this brake is released transiently during repair by the upregulation of endogenous BMP antagonists. Early in repair, the packing of epithelial cells along the basal lamina increases, but density is later restored by active extrusion of apoptotic cells. Systemic administration of the BMP antagonist LDN-193189 during repair initially increases epithelial cell number but, following the shedding phase, normal density is restored. Taken together, these results reveal crucial roles for both BMP signaling and cell shedding in homeostasis of the respiratory epithelium. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. BMP9 signaling in stem cell differentiation and osteogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamplot, Joseph D; Qin, Jiaqiang; Nan, Guoxin; Wang, Jinhua; Liu, Xing; Yin, Liangjun; Tomal, Justin; Li, Ruidong; Shui, Wei; Zhang, Hongyu; Kim, Stephanie H; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhang, Jiye; Kong, Yuhan; Denduluri, Sahitya; Rogers, Mary Rose; Pratt, Abdullah; Haydon, Rex C; Luu, Hue H; Angeles, Jovito; Shi, Lewis L; He, Tong-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily and play a critical role in skeletal development, bone formation and stem cell differentiation. Disruptions in BMP signaling result in a variety of skeletal and extraskeletal anomalies. BMP9 is a poorly characterized member of the BMP family and is among the most osteogenic BMPs, promoting osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Recent findings from various in vivo and molecular studies strongly suggest that the mechanisms governing BMP9-mediated osteoinduction differ from other osteogenic BMPs. Many signaling pathways with diverse functions have been found to play a role in BMP9-mediated osteogenesis. Several of these pathways are also critical in the differentiation of other cell lineages, including adipocytes and chondrocytes. While BMP9 is known to be a potent osteogenic factor, it also influences several other pathways including cancer development, angiogenesis and myogenesis. Although BMP9 has been demonstrated as one of the most osteogenic BMPs, relatively little is known about the specific mechanisms responsible for these effects. BMP9 has demonstrated efficacy in promoting spinal fusion and bony non-union repair in animal models, demonstrating great translational promise. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge of BMP9-mediated osteogenesis by presenting recently completed work which may help us to further elucidate these pathways. PMID:23671813

  9. BMP2 and mechanical loading cooperatively regulate immediate early signalling events in the BMP pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopf Jessica

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient osteogenic differentiation is highly dependent on coordinated signals arising from growth factor signalling and mechanical forces. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are secreted proteins that trigger Smad and non-Smad pathways and thereby influence transcriptional and non-transcriptional differentiation cues. Crosstalk at multiple levels allows for promotion or attenuation of signalling intensity and specificity. Similar to BMPs, mechanical stimulation enhances bone formation. However, the molecular mechanism by which mechanical forces crosstalk to biochemical signals is still unclear. Results Here, we use a three-dimensional bioreactor system to describe how mechanical forces are integrated into the BMP pathway. Time-dependent phosphorylation of Smad, mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt in human fetal osteoblasts was investigated under loading and/or BMP2 stimulation conditions. The phosphorylation of R-Smads is increased both in intensity and duration under BMP2 stimulation with concurrent mechanical loading. Interestingly, the synergistic effect of both stimuli on immediate early Smad phosphorylation is reflected in the transcription of only a subset of BMP target genes, while others are differently affected. Together this results in a cooperative regulation of osteogenesis that is guided by both signalling pathways. Conclusions Mechanical signals are integrated into the BMP signalling pathway by enhancing immediate early steps within the Smad pathway, independent of autocrine ligand secretion. This suggests a direct crosstalk of both mechanotransduction and BMP signalling, most likely at the level of the cell surface receptors. Furthermore, the crosstalk of both pathways over longer time periods might occur on several signalling levels.

  10. BMP-2 Overexpression Augments Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Motility by Upregulating Myosin Va via Erk Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The disruption of physiologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration initiates atherosclerosis development. The biochemical mechanisms leading to dysfunctional VSMC motility remain unknown. Recently, cytokine BMP-2 has been implicated in various vascular physiologic and pathologic processes. However, whether BMP-2 has any effect upon VSMC motility, or by what manner, has never been investigated. Methods. VSMCs were adenovirally transfected to genetically overexpress BMP-2. VSMC motility was detected by modified Boyden chamber assay, confocal time-lapse video assay, and a colony wounding assay. Gene chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify genes potentially regulated by BMP-2. Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed myosin Va expression locale. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were recorded. Results. VSMC migration was augmented in VSMCs overexpressing BMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated knockdown of myosin Va inhibited VSMC motility. Both myosin Va mRNA and protein expression significantly increased after BMP-2 administration and were inhibited by Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126. BMP-2 induced Ca2+ oscillations, generated largely by a “cytosolic oscillator”. Conclusion. BMP-2 significantly increased VSMCs migration and myosin Va expression, via the Erk signaling pathway and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and inhibition of BMP-2-induced myosin Va expression may represent a potential therapeutic strategy.

  11. BMP signalling differentially regulates distinct haematopoietic stem cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); P. Solaimani Kartalaei (Parham); C.S. Vink (Chris); T. Yamada-Inagawa (Tomoko); K. Bollerot (Karine); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); R. Van Der Linden (Reinier); S.C. de Sousa Lopes (Susana Chuva); R. Monteiro (Rui); C.L. Mummery (Christine); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAdult haematopoiesis is the outcome of distinct haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subtypes with self-renewable repopulating ability, but with different haematopoietic cell lineage outputs. The molecular basis for this heterogeneity is largely unknown. BMP signalling regulates HSCs as they

  12. Opposing nodal and BMP signals regulate left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jyun Luo

    Full Text Available Nodal and BMP signals are important for establishing left-right (LR asymmetry in vertebrates. In sea urchins, Nodal signaling prevents the formation of the rudiment on the right side. However, the opposing pathway to Nodal signaling during LR axis establishment is not clear. Here, we revealed that BMP signaling is activated in the left coelomic pouch, specifically in the veg2 lineage, but not in the small micromeres. By perturbing BMP activities, we demonstrated that BMP signaling is required for activating the expression of the left-sided genes and the formation of the left-sided structures. On the other hand, Nodal signals on the right side inhibit BMP signaling and control LR asymmetric separation and apoptosis of the small micromeres. Our findings show that BMP signaling is the positive signal for left-sided development in sea urchins, suggesting that the opposing roles of Nodal and BMP signals in establishing LR asymmetry are conserved in deuterostomes.

  13. Efficient retina formation requires suppression of both Activin and BMP signaling pathways in pluripotent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Wong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retina formation requires the correct spatiotemporal patterning of key regulatory factors. While it is known that repression of several signaling pathways lead to specification of retinal fates, addition of only Noggin, a known BMP antagonist, can convert pluripotent Xenopus laevis animal cap cells to functional retinal cells. The aim of this study is to determine the intracellular molecular events that occur during this conversion. Surprisingly, blocking BMP signaling alone failed to mimic Noggin treatment. Overexpressing Noggin in pluripotent cells resulted in a concentration-dependent suppression of both Smad1 and Smad2 phosphorylation, which act downstream of BMP and Activin signaling, respectively. This caused a decrease in downstream targets: endothelial marker, xk81, and mesodermal marker, xbra. We treated pluripotent cells with dominant-negative receptors or the chemical inhibitors, dorsomorphin and SB431542, which each target either the BMP or Activin signaling pathway. We determined the effect of these treatments on retina formation using the Animal Cap Transplant (ACT assay; in which treated pluripotent cells were transplanted into the eye field of host embryos. We found that inhibition of Activin signaling, in the presence of BMP signaling inhibition, promotes efficient retinal specification in Xenopus tissue, mimicking the affect of adding Noggin alone. In whole embryos, we found that the eye field marker, rax, expanded when adding both dominant-negative Smad1 and Smad2, as did treating the cells with both dorsomorphin and SB431542. Future studies could translate these findings to a mammalian culture assay, in order to more efficiently produce retinal cells in culture.

  14. Histone deacetylases control neurogenesis in embryonic brain by inhibition of BMP2/4 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Shakèd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone-modifying enzymes are essential for a wide variety of cellular processes dependent upon changes in gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs lead to the compaction of chromatin and subsequent silencing of gene transcription, and they have recently been implicated in a diversity of functions and dysfunctions in the postnatal and adult brain including ocular dominance plasticity, memory consolidation, drug addiction, and depression. Here we investigate the role of HDACs in the generation of neurons and astrocytes in the embryonic brain. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a variety of HDACs are expressed in differentiating neural progenitor cells, we have taken a pharmacological approach to inhibit multiple family members. Inhibition of class I and II HDACs in developing mouse embryos with trichostatin A resulted in a dramatic reduction in neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and a modest increase in neurogenesis in the cortex. An identical effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of HDACs in in vitro-differentiating neural precursors derived from the same brain regions. A reduction in neurogenesis in ganglionic eminence-derived neural precursors was accompanied by an increase in the production of immature astrocytes. We show that HDACs control neurogenesis by inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/4 signaling pathway in radial glial cells. HDACs function at the transcriptional level by inhibiting and promoting, respectively, the expression of Bmp2 and Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibition of the BMP2/4 signaling pathway restored normal levels of neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis to both ganglionic eminence- and cortex-derived cultures in which HDACs were inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a transcriptionally-based regulation of BMP2/4 signaling by HDACs both in vivo and in vitro that is critical for neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and that modulates cortical

  15. Ucma/GRP inhibits phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification via SMAD-dependent BMP signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Brecht A; Furmanik, Malgorzata; Caron, Marjolein M J; Chatrou, Martijn L L; Kusters, Dennis H M; Welting, Tim J M; Stock, Michael; Rafael, Marta S; Viegas, Carla S B; Simes, Dina C; Vermeer, Cees; Reutelingsperger, Chris P M; Schurgers, Leon J

    2018-03-21

    Vascular calcification (VC) is the process of deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the blood vessel wall, with a central role for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VC is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and thought, in part, to be induced by phosphate imbalance. The molecular mechanisms that regulate VC are not fully known. Here we propose a novel role for the mineralisation regulator Ucma/GRP (Upper zone of growth plate and Cartilage Matrix Associated protein/Gla Rich Protein) in phosphate-induced VSMC calcification. We show that Ucma/GRP is present in calcified atherosclerotic plaques and highly expressed in calcifying VSMCs in vitro. VSMCs from Ucma/GRP -/- mice showed increased mineralisation and expression of osteo/chondrogenic markers (BMP-2, Runx2, β-catenin, p-SMAD1/5/8, ALP, OCN), and decreased expression of mineralisation inhibitor MGP, suggesting that Ucma/GRP is an inhibitor of mineralisation. Using BMP signalling inhibitor noggin and SMAD1/5/8 signalling inhibitor dorsomorphin we showed that Ucma/GRP is involved in inhibiting the BMP-2-SMAD1/5/8 osteo/chondrogenic signalling pathway in VSMCs treated with elevated phosphate concentrations. Additionally, we showed for the first time evidence of a direct interaction between Ucma/GRP and BMP-2. These results demonstrate an important role of Ucma/GRP in regulating osteo/chondrogenic differentiation and phosphate-induced mineralisation of VSMCs.

  16. Inhibition of BMP signaling in P-Cadherin positive hair progenitor cells leads to trichofolliculoma-like hair follicle neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lixin; Liu, Yijie; McGuire, Tammy L; Bonaguidi, Michael A; Kessler, John A

    2011-12-14

    Skin stem cells contribute to all three major lineages of epidermal appendages, i.e., the epidermis, the hair follicle, and the sebaceous gland. In hair follicles, highly proliferative committed progenitor cells, called matrix cells, are located at the base of the follicle in the hair bulb. The differentiation of these early progenitor cells leads to specification of a central hair shaft surrounded by an inner root sheath (IRS) and a companion layer. Multiple signaling molecules, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), have been implicated in this process. To further probe the contribution of BMP signaling to hair follicle development and maintenance we employed a transgenic mouse that expresses the BMP inhibitor, Noggin, to disrupt BMP signaling specifically in subset of hair follicle progenitors under the control of neuron specific enolase (Nse) promoter. We then studied the skin tumor phenotypes of the transgenic mice through histology, immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting to delineate the underlying mechanisms. Double transgenic mice expressing BMP as well as noggin under control of the Nse promoter were used to rescue the skin tumor phenotypes. We found that the transgene is expressed specifically in a subpopulation of P-cadherin positive progenitor cells in Nse-Noggin mice. Blocking BMP signaling in this cell population led to benign hair follicle-derived neoplasias resembling human trichofolliculomas, associated with down-regulation of E-cadherin expression and dynamic regulation of CD44. These observations further define a critical role for BMP signaling in maintaining the homeostasis of hair follicles, and suggest that dysregulation of BMP signaling in hair follicle progenitors may contribute to human trichofolliculoma.

  17. Comparison of newly developed anti-bone morphogenetic protein 4 llama-derived antibodies with commercially available BMP4 inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe, Silvia; Correia, Ana C. P.; Sancho-Serra, Maria del Carmen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to improved understanding of the role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in an increasing number of diseases, the development of selective inhibitors of BMP4 is an attractive therapeutic option. The currently available BMP4 inhibitors are not suitable as therapeutics because of their low specificity and low effectiveness. Here, we compared newly generated anti-BMP4 llama-derived antibodies (VHHs) with 3 different types of commercially available BMP4 inhibitors, natural antagonists, small molecule BMPR inhibitors and conventional anti-BMP4 monoclonal antibodies. We found that the anti-BMP4 VHHs were as effective as the natural antagonist or small molecule inhibitors, but had higher specificity. We also showed that commercial anti-BMP4 antibodies were inferior in terms of both specificity and effectiveness. These findings might result from the fact that the VHHs C4C4 and C8C8 target a small region within the BMPR1 epitope of BMP4, whereas the commercial antibodies target other areas of the BMP4 molecule. Our results show that the newly developed anti-BMP4 VHHs are promising antibodies with better specificity and effectivity for inhibition of BMP4, making them an attractive tool for research and for therapeutic applications. PMID:26967714

  18. An in vivo reporter of BMP signaling in organogenesis reveals targets in the developing kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolak Michele J

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate essential processes during organogenesis, and a functional understanding of these secreted proteins depends on identification of their target cells. In this study, we generate a transgenic reporter for organogenesis studies that we use to define BMP pathway activation in the developing kidney. Results Mouse strains reporting on BMP pathway activation were generated by transgenically expressing β-galactosidase under the control of BMP responsive elements from Id1. Reporter expression corresponds well with immunoassays for pathway activation in all organs studied, validating the model. Using these reporters we have generated a detailed map of cellular targets of BMP signaling in the developing kidney. We find that SMAD dependent BMP signaling is active in collecting duct trunks, but not tips. Furthermore, glomerular endothelial cells, and proximal nephron tubules from the renal vesicle stage onward show pathway activation. Surprisingly, little activation is detected in the nephrogenic zone of the kidney, and in organ culture BMP treatment fails to activate SMAD dependent BMP signaling in nephron progenitor cells. In contrast, signaling is efficiently induced in collecting duct tips. Conclusion Transgenic reporters driven by control elements from BMP responsive genes such as Id1 offer significant advantages in sensitivity and consistency over immunostaining for studies of BMP pathway activation. They also provide opportunities for analysis of BMP signaling in organ and primary cell cultures subjected to experimental manipulation. Using such a reporter, we made the surprising finding that SMAD dependent BMP signaling is inactive in nephron progenitors, and that these cells are refractory to activation by applied growth factors. Furthermore, we find that the BMP pathway is not normally active in collecting duct tips, but that it can be ectopically activated by BMP treatment, offering a

  19. Kaempferol induces chondrogenesis in ATDC5 cells through activation of ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Manoj; Li, Liang; Cho, Hyoung Kwon; Park, Jong Kun; Soh, Yunjo

    2013-12-01

    Endochondral bone formation occurs when mesenchymal cells condense to differentiate into chondrocytes, the primary cell types of cartilage. The aim of the present study was to identify novel factors regulating chondrogenesis. We investigated whether kaempferol induces chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Kaempferol treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. Kaempferol-treated ATDC5 cells stained more intensely with alcian blue staining than control cells, suggesting greater synthesis of matrix proteoglycans in the kaempferol-treated cells. Similarly, kaempferol induced greater activation of alkaline phosphatase activity than control cells, and it enhanced the expression of chondrogenic marker genes, such as collagen type I, collagen type X, OCN, Runx2, and Sox9. Kaempferol induced an acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-jun N-terminal kinase or p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK, decreased in stained cells treated with kaempferol. Furthermore, kaempferol greatly expressed the protein and mRNA levels of BMP-2, suggesting chondrogenesis was stimulated via a BMP-2 pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that kaempferol has chondromodulating effects via an ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for bone growth disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bmp signaling is at the heart of vertebrate left-right asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling is vitally important in many aspects of cardiac development. These include cardiac induction and differentiation and establishing the L/R axis. In this thesis, we focus on the role of Bmp signaling in securing proper cardiac asymmetry, by (1) establishing

  1. CRMP4 Inhibits Bone Formation by Negatively Regulating BMP and RhoA Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M.; Figeac, Florence; Larsen, Kenneth H.

    2017-01-01

    % increase in bone mass, increased mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate, compared to wild-type controls. Increased bone mass in Crmp4(-/-) mice was associated with enhanced BMP2 signaling and BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation in Crmp4(-/-) osteoblasts (OBs). Furthermore, Crmp4(-/-) OBs...

  2. Inhibition of Bmp signaling affects growth and differentiation in the anagen hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulessa, H; Turk, G; Hogan, B L

    2000-12-15

    Growth and differentiation of postnatal hair follicles are controlled by reciprocal interactions between the dermal papilla and the surrounding epidermal hair precursors. The molecular nature of these interactions is largely unknown, but they are likely to involve several families of signaling molecules, including Fgfs, Wnts and Bmps. To analyze the function of Bmp signaling in postnatal hair development, we have generated transgenic mice expressing the Bmp inhibitor, Noggin, under the control of the proximal Msx2 promoter, which drives expression in proliferating hair matrix cells and differentiating hair precursor cells. Differentiation of the hair shaft but not the inner root sheath is severely impaired in Msx2-Noggin transgenic mice. In addition to hair keratins, the expression of several transcription factors implicated in hair development, including Foxn1 and Hoxc13, is severely reduced in the transgenic hair follicles. Proliferating cells, which are normally restricted to the hair matrix surrounding the dermal papilla, are found in the precortex and hair shaft region. These results identify Bmps as key regulators of the genetic program controlling hair shaft differentiation in postnatal hair follicles.

  3. BMP signalling: agony and antagony in the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Derek P; Church, Rachel H; Surae, Satnam; Godson, Catherine; Martin, Finian

    2015-05-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated proteins that regulate a wide range of developmental processes, including limb and kidney formation. A critical element of BMP regulation is the presence of secreted antagonists that bind and inhibit BMP binding to their cognate Ser/Thr kinase receptors at the plasma membrane. Antagonists such as Noggin, Chordin, Gremlin (Grem1), and twisted gastrulation-1 (Twsg1) have been shown to inhibit BMP action in a range of different cell types and developmental stage-specific contexts. Here we review new developments in the field of BMP and BMP antagonist biology during mammalian development and suggest strategies for targeting these proteins in human disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dual role of BMP signaling in the regulation of Drosophila intestinal stem cell self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Aiguo; Jiang, Jin

    2017-10-02

    Many adult organs including Drosophila adult midguts rely on resident stem cells to replenish damaged cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Previous studies have shown that, upon injury, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the midguts can increase proliferation and lineage differentiation to meet the demand for tissue repair. Our recent study has demonstrated that, in response to certain injury, midguts can expand ISC population size as an additional regenerative mechanism. We found that injury elicited by bleomycin feeding or bacterial infection increased the production of two BMP ligands (Dpp and Gbb) in enterocytes (ECs), leading to elevated BMP signaling in progenitor cells that drove an expansion of ISCs by promoting their symmetric self-renewing division. Interestingly, we also found that BMP signaling in ECs inhibits the production of Dpp and Gbb, and that this negative feedback mechanism is required to reset ISC pool size to the homeostatic state. Our findings suggest that BMP signaling exerts two opposing influences on stem cell activity depending on where it acts: BMP signaling in progenitor cells promotes ISC self-renewal while BMP signaling in ECs restricts ISC self-renewal by preventing excessive production of BMP ligands. Our results further suggest that transient expansion of ISC population in conjunction with increasing ISC proliferation provides a more effective strategy for tissue regeneration.

  5. Timing is everything: Reiterative Wnt, BMP and RA signaling regulate developmental competence during endoderm organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Scott A; McCracken, Kyle W; Luedeke, David M; Han, Lu; Wells, James M; Shannon, John M; Zorn, Aaron M

    2018-02-01

    A small number of signaling pathways are used repeatedly during organogenesis, and they can have drastically different effects on the same population of cells depending on the embryonic stage. How cellular competence changes over developmental time is not well understood. Here we used Xenopus, mouse, and human pluripotent stem cells to investigate how the temporal sequence of Wnt, BMP, and retinoic acid (RA) signals regulates endoderm developmental competence and organ induction, focusing on respiratory fate. While Nkx2-1+ lung fate is not induced until late somitogenesis stages, here we show that lung competence is restricted by the gastrula stage as a result of Wnt and BMP-dependent anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning. These early Wnt and BMP signals make posterior endoderm refractory to subsequent RA/Wnt/BMP-dependent lung induction. We further mapped how RA modulates the response to Wnt and BMP in a temporal specific manner. In the gastrula RA promotes posterior identity, however in early somite stages of development RA regulates respiratory versus pharyngeal potential in anterior endoderm and midgut versus hindgut potential in posterior endoderm. Together our data suggest a dynamic and conserved response of vertebrate endoderm during organogenesis, wherein early Wnt/BMP/RA impacts how cells respond to later Wnt/BMP/RA signals, illustrating how reiterative combinatorial signaling can regulate both developmental competence and subsequent fate specification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. BMP-2 signaling in ovarian cancer and its association with poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Page Cécile

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously observed the over-expression of BMP-2 in primary cultures of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC cells as compared to normal epithelial cells based on Affymetrix microarray profiling 1. Here we investigate the effect of BMP-2 on several parameters of ovarian cancer tumorigenesis using the TOV-2223, TOV-1946 and TOV-112D EOC cell lines. Methods We treated each EOC cell line with recombinant BMP-2 and assayed various parameters associated with tumorigenesis. More specifically, cell signaling events induced by BMP-2 treatment were investigated by western-blot using anti-phosphospecific antibodies. Induction of Id1, Snail and Smad6 mRNA expression was investigated by real time RT-PCR. The ability of cells to migrate was tested using the scratch assay. Cell-cell adhesion was analyzed by the ability of cells to form spheroids. We also investigated BMP-2 expression in tissue samples from a series of EOC patients. Results Treatment of these cell lines with recombinant BMP-2 induced a rapid phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Erk MAPKs. Increased expression of Id1, Smad6 and Snail mRNAs was also observed. Only in the TOV-2223 cell line were these signaling events accompanied by an alteration in cell proliferation. We also observed that BMP-2 efficiently increased the motility of all three cell lines. In contrast, BMP-2 treatment decreased the ability of TOV-1946 and TOV-112D cell lines to form spheroids indicating an inhibition of cell-cell adhesion. The expression of BMP-2 in tumor tissues from patients was inversely correlated with survival. Conclusion These results suggest that EOC cell secretion of BMP-2 in the tumor environment contributes to a modification of tumor cell behavior through a change in motility and adherence. We also show that BMP-2 expression in tumor tissues is associated with a poorer prognosis for ovarian cancer patients.

  7. Expression patterns of genes critical for BMP signaling pathway in developing human primary tooth germs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiuqing; Shen, Bin; Ruan, Ningsheng; Guan, Zhen; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, YiPing; Hu, Xuefeng

    2014-12-01

    The developing murine tooth has been used as an excellent model system to study the molecular mechanism of organ development and regeneration. While the expression patterns of numerous regulatory genes have been examined and their roles have begun to be revealed in the developing murine tooth, little is known about gene expression and function in human tooth development. In order to unveil the molecular mechanisms that regulate human tooth morphogenesis, we examined the expression patterns of the major BMP signaling pathway molecules in the developing human tooth germ at the cap and bell stages by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR. Expression of BMP ligands and antagonist, including BMP2, BMP3, BMP4, BMP7, and NOOGGIN, exhibited uniform patterns in the tooth germs of incisor and molar at the cap and bell stages with stronger expression in the inner dental epithelium than that in the dental mesenchyme. Both type I and type II BMP receptors were present in widespread expression pattern in the whole-enamel organ and the dental mesenchyme with the strongest expression in inner dental epithelium at the cap and bell stages. SMAD4 and SMAD1/5/8 showed an expression pattern similar to that of BMP ligands with more intensive signals in the inner dental epithelium. Despite some unique and distinct patterns as compared to the mouse, the intensive expression of BMP signaling pathway molecules in the developing human tooth strongly suggests conserved functions of BMP signaling during human odontogenesis, such as in mediating tissue interactions and regulating differentiation and organization of odontogenic tissues. Our results provide an important set of documents for studying molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying tooth development and regeneration in humans.

  8. BMP signaling and the maintenance of primordial germ cell identity in Drosophila embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Deshpande

    Full Text Available The specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs and subsequent maintenance of germ-line identity in Drosophila embryos has long been thought to occur solely under the control of cell-autonomous factors deposited in the posterior pole plasm during oogenesis. However, here we document a novel role for somatic BMP signaling in the maintenance of PGC fate during the period leading up to embryonic gonad coalescence. We find that PGCs fail to maintain their germline identity when BMP signaling is compromised. They initiate but are unable to properly assemble the germline stem cell-specific organelle, the spectrosome, and they lose expression of the germline-specific gene Vasa. BMP signaling must, however, be finely tuned as there are deleterious consequences to PGCs when the pathway is excessively active. We show that one mechanism used to calibrate the effects of BMP signals is dependent on the Ubc9 homolog Lesswright (Lwr.

  9. BMP Signaling and the Maintenance of Primordial Germ Cell Identity in Drosophila Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Girish; Willis, Elinor; Chatterjee, Sandip; Fernandez, Robert; Dias, Kristen; Schedl, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and subsequent maintenance of germ-line identity in Drosophila embryos has long been thought to occur solely under the control of cell-autonomous factors deposited in the posterior pole plasm during oogenesis. However, here we document a novel role for somatic BMP signaling in the maintenance of PGC fate during the period leading up to embryonic gonad coalescence. We find that PGCs fail to maintain their germline identity when BMP signaling is compromised. They initiate but are unable to properly assemble the germline stem cell-specific organelle, the spectrosome, and they lose expression of the germline-specific gene Vasa. BMP signaling must, however, be finely tuned as there are deleterious consequences to PGCs when the pathway is excessively active. We show that one mechanism used to calibrate the effects of BMP signals is dependent on the Ubc9 homolog Lesswright (Lwr). PMID:24551179

  10. Actin cytoskeleton mediates BMP2-Smad signaling via calponin 1 in preosteoblast under simulated microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongjie; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Hongyu; Yang, Chao; Li, Kai; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Honghui; Liu, Yue; Ding, Bai; Tan, Yingjun; Yuan, Ming; Li, Yinghui; Dai, Zhongquan

    2017-07-01

    Microgravity influences the activity of osteoblast, induces actin microfilament disruption and leads to bone loss during spaceflight. Mechanical stress such as gravity, regulates cell function, response and differentiation through dynamic cytoskeleton changes, but the mechanotransduction mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Previous, we demonstrated actin microfilament mediated osteoblast Cbfa1 responsiveness to BMP2 under simulated microgravity (SMG). Here, we explored a potential molecular and its detailed mechanism of actin cytoskeleton functioning on BMP2-Smad signaling in MC3T3-E1 under SMG. Results showed that the actin microfilament-disrupting agent, cytochalasin B (CB), reduced BMP2-induced activation, translocation of Smad1/5/8 and Runx2 expression. SMG also inhibited BMP2-Smad signaling, which was rescued by actin cytoskeleton stabilizing agent, Jasplakinolide (JAS). Furthermore, we found that siRNA mediated knockdown of calponin 1 (CNN1), an actin binding protein, markedly promoted BMP2-Smad signaling and abolished both inhibition of CB, SMG on BMP2-Smad signaling and the rescue action of JAS. Overexpression of CNN1 inhibited the p-Smad induced by BMP2. Bidirectional Co-IP experiments demonstrated CNN1 could interacted with Smad or p-Smad protein. Furthermore, CB or SMG decreased the phosphorylated CNN1 and increased its interaction with Smad or p-Smad. Combined with the phosphorylation of CNN1 inhibites its actin binding activity, these results indicate that actin cytoskeleton depolymerization inhibites BMP2 signaling via blocking of Smad by dephosphorylated CNN1 in osteoblast cells. Thus, we provide new important insights into the mechanism of mechanotransduction under SMG condition, which probably contribute to bone formation decrease induced by SMG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of BMP2 expression by the PTH-CREB signaling pathway in osteoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Zhang

    Full Text Available Intermittent application of parathyroid hormone (PTH has well established anabolic effects on bone mass in rodents and humans. Although transcriptional mechanisms responsible for these effects are not fully understood, it is recognized that transcriptional factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB mediates PTH signaling in osteoblasts, and that there is a communication between the PTH-CREB pathway and the BMP2 signaling pathway, which is important for osteoblast differentiation and bone formations. These findings, in conjunction with putative cAMP response elements (CREs in the BMP2 promoter, led us to hypothesize that the PTH-CREB pathway could be a positive regulator of BMP2 transcription in osteoblasts. To test this hypothesis, we first demonstrated that PTH signaling activated CREB by phosphorylation in osteoblasts, and that both PTH and CREB were capable of promoting osteoblastic differentiation of primary mouse osteoblast cells and multiple rodent osteoblast cell lines. Importantly, we found that the PTH-CREB signaling pathway functioned as an effective activator of BMP2 expression, as pharmacologic and genetic modulation of PTH-CREB activity significantly affected BMP2 expression levels in these cells. Lastly, through multiple promoter assays, including promoter reporter deletion, mutation, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, we identified a specific CRE in the BMP2 promoter which is responsible for CREB transactivation of the BMP2 gene in osteoblasts. Together, these results demonstrate that the anabolic function of PTH signaling in bone is mediated, at least in part, by CREB transactivation of BMP2 expression in osteoblasts.

  12. Signal mingle: Micropatterns of BMP-2 and fibronectin on soft biopolymeric films regulate myoblast shape and SMAD signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Vincent; Fourel, Laure; Destaing, Olivier; Gilde, Flora; Albigès-Rizo, Corinne; Picart, Catherine; Boudou, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In vivo, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) exists both in solution and bound to the extracellular matrix (ECM). While these two modes of presentation are known to influence cell behavior distinctly, their role in the niche microenvironment and their functional relevance in the genesis of a biological response has sparsely been investigated at a cellular level. Here we used the natural affinity of BMP-2 for fibronectin (FN) to engineer cell-sized micropatterns of BMP-2. This technique allowed the simultaneous control of the spatial presentation of fibronectin-bound BMP-2 and cell spreading. These micropatterns induced a specific actin and adhesion organization around the nucleus, and triggered the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of SMAD1/5/8 in C2C12 myoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells, an early indicator of their osteoblastic trans-differentiation. We found that cell spreading itself potentiated a BMP-2-dependent phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8. Finally, we demonstrated that FN/BMP-2-mediated early SMAD signaling depended on LIM kinase 2 and ROCK, rather than myosin II activation. Altogether, our results show that FN/BMP-2 micropatterns are a useful tool to study the mechanisms underlying BMP-2-mediated mechanotransduction. More broadly, our approach could be adapted to other combinations of ECM proteins and growth factors, opening an exciting avenue to recreate tissue-specific niches in vitro.

  13. Epsin 1 Promotes Synaptic Growth by Enhancing BMP Signal Levels in Motoneuron Nuclei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A Vanlandingham

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP retrograde signaling is crucial for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. However, how the BMP effector phospho-Mother against decapentaplegic (pMad is processed following receptor activation remains poorly understood. Here we show that Drosophila Epsin1/Liquid facets (Lqf positively regulates synaptic growth through post-endocytotic processing of pMad signaling complex. Lqf and the BMP receptor Wishful thinking (Wit interact genetically and biochemically. lqf loss of function (LOF reduces bouton number whereas overexpression of lqf stimulates bouton growth. Lqf-stimulated synaptic overgrowth is suppressed by genetic reduction of wit. Further, synaptic pMad fails to accumulate inside the motoneuron nuclei in lqf mutants and lqf suppresses synaptic overgrowth in spinster (spin mutants with enhanced BMP signaling by reducing accumulation of nuclear pMad. Interestingly, lqf mutations reduce nuclear pMad levels without causing an apparent blockage of axonal transport itself. Finally, overexpression of Lqf significantly increases the number of multivesicular bodies (MVBs in the synapse whereas lqf LOF reduces MVB formation, indicating that Lqf may function in signaling endosome recycling or maturation. Based on these observations, we propose that Lqf plays a novel endosomal role to ensure efficient retrograde transport of BMP signaling endosomes into motoneuron nuclei.

  14. Neural retina identity is specified by lens-derived BMP signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Tanushree; Jidigam, Vijay K; Patthey, Cedric; Gunhaga, Lena

    2015-05-15

    The eye has served as a classical model to study cell specification and tissue induction for over a century. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the induction and maintenance of eye-field cells, and the specification of neural retina cells are poorly understood. Moreover, within the developing anterior forebrain, how prospective eye and telencephalic cells are differentially specified is not well defined. In the present study, we have analyzed these issues by manipulating signaling pathways in intact chick embryo and explant assays. Our results provide evidence that at blastula stages, BMP signals inhibit the acquisition of eye-field character, but from neural tube/optic vesicle stages, BMP signals from the lens are crucial for the maintenance of eye-field character, inhibition of dorsal telencephalic cell identity and specification of neural retina cells. Subsequently, our results provide evidence that a Rax2-positive eye-field state is not sufficient for the progress to a neural retina identity, but requires BMP signals. In addition, our results argue against any essential role of Wnt or FGF signals during the specification of neural retina cells, but provide evidence that Wnt signals together with BMP activity are sufficient to induce cells of retinal pigment epithelial character. We conclude that BMP activity emanating from the lens ectoderm maintains eye-field identity, inhibits telencephalic character and induces neural retina cells. Our findings link the requirement of the lens ectoderm for neural retina specification with the molecular mechanism by which cells in the forebrain become specified as neural retina by BMP activity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Neural retina identity is specified by lens-derived BMP signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Tanushree; Jidigam, Vijay K.; Patthey, Cedric; Gunhaga, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The eye has served as a classical model to study cell specification and tissue induction for over a century. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the induction and maintenance of eye-field cells, and the specification of neural retina cells are poorly understood. Moreover, within the developing anterior forebrain, how prospective eye and telencephalic cells are differentially specified is not well defined. In the present study, we have analyzed these issues by manipulating signaling pathways in intact chick embryo and explant assays. Our results provide evidence that at blastula stages, BMP signals inhibit the acquisition of eye-field character, but from neural tube/optic vesicle stages, BMP signals from the lens are crucial for the maintenance of eye-field character, inhibition of dorsal telencephalic cell identity and specification of neural retina cells. Subsequently, our results provide evidence that a Rax2-positive eye-field state is not sufficient for the progress to a neural retina identity, but requires BMP signals. In addition, our results argue against any essential role of Wnt or FGF signals during the specification of neural retina cells, but provide evidence that Wnt signals together with BMP activity are sufficient to induce cells of retinal pigment epithelial character. We conclude that BMP activity emanating from the lens ectoderm maintains eye-field identity, inhibits telencephalic character and induces neural retina cells. Our findings link the requirement of the lens ectoderm for neural retina specification with the molecular mechanism by which cells in the forebrain become specified as neural retina by BMP activity. PMID:25968316

  16. Matrix-immobilized BMP-2 on microcontact printed fibronectin as in vitro tool to study BMP-mediated signaling and cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin eHauff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During development, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs exert important functions in several tissues by regulating signaling for cell differentiation and migration. In vivo the extracellular matrix (ECM not only provides a support for adherent cells, but also presents a reservoir of growth factors (GFs. Several constituents of the ECM provide adhesive cues, which serve as binding sites for cell transmembrane receptors, such as integrins, which convey adhesion-mediated signaling to the intracellular compartment. Integrins do not function alone but rather crosstalk and cooperate with other receptors, such as GF receptors, in regulating cell responses to extracellular signals. To this, we present here the immobilization of BMP-2 onto cellular fibronectin (cFN, a key protein of the ECM, to investigate their impact on GF-mediated signaling and migration.Following biotinylation, BMP-2 was linked to biotinylated cFN using NeutrAvidin (NA as cross-linker. Characterization with QCM-D and ELISA confirmed the efficient immobilization of BMP-2 on cFN over a period of 24 h.To validate the bioactivity of matrix-immobilized BMP-2 (iBMP-2 we investigated short- and long-term responses of C2C12 myoblasts in comparison to soluble BMP-2 (sBMP-2 or in absence of GFs. Similarly to sBMP-2, iBMP-2 triggered Smad 1/5 phosphorylation and translocation into the nucleus corresponding to the activation of BMP-mediated Smad-dependent pathway. Additionally, successful suppression of myotube formation was observed after six days.We next implemented this approach to fabricate cFN micro patterned stripes by soft lithography. These stripes only allowed cell-surface interaction on the pattern due to passivation of the surface in between, thus serving as platform for studies on directed cell migration. During a 10 h-period, cells showed an increased migratory activity upon BMP-2 exposure.Thus, this versatile tool retains the GF's bioactivity and allows the presentation of ECM

  17. Circadian period integrates network information through activation of the BMP signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban J Beckwith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms use biological clocks to maintain their internal temporal order and anticipate daily environmental changes. In Drosophila, circadian regulation of locomotor behavior is controlled by ∼150 neurons; among them, neurons expressing the PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF set the period of locomotor behavior under free-running conditions. To date, it remains unclear how individual circadian clusters integrate their activity to assemble a distinctive behavioral output. Here we show that the BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN (BMP signaling pathway plays a crucial role in setting the circadian period in PDF neurons in the adult brain. Acute deregulation of BMP signaling causes period lengthening through regulation of dClock transcription, providing evidence for a novel function of this pathway in the adult brain. We propose that coherence in the circadian network arises from integration in PDF neurons of both the pace of the cell-autonomous molecular clock and information derived from circadian-relevant neurons through release of BMP ligands.

  18. Abnormal Activation of BMP Signaling Causes Myopathy in Fbn2 Null Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengle, Gerhard; Carlberg, Valerie; Tufa, Sara F.; Charbonneau, Noe L.; Smaldone, Silvia; Carlson, Eric J.; Ramirez, Francesco; Keene, Douglas R.; Sakai, Lynn Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background) are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that fibrillin-2 can

  19. Abnormal Activation of BMP Signaling Causes Myopathy in Fbn2 Null Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Sengle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that

  20. Bmp signaling in colonic mesenchyme regulates stromal microenvironment and protects from polyposis initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Joannie M; Roy, Sébastien A B; Ouellet, Camille; Lemieux, Étienne; Jones, Christine; Paquet, Marilène; Boudreau, Francois; Perreault, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    In the colon, myofibroblasts are primary contributors in the establishment of the microenvironment involved in tissue homeostasis. Alterations in myofibroblast functions lead to changes resulting in a toxic microenvironment nurturing tumorigenesis. Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) are morphogens known to play key roles in adult gut homeostasis. Studies in genetically-modified mice have shown that Bmp disruption in all cell layers leads to the development of gut polyposis. In contrast, our studies showed that loss of Bmp exclusively in the gastrointestinal epithelium resulted in increased epithelial proliferation without polyposis initiation, thus suggesting a key role for mesenchymal Bmp signaling in polyposis initiation. In order to identify the role of mesenchymal Bmp signaling on the microenvironment and its impact on colonic mucosa, a mouse model was generated with suppression of Bmp signaling exclusively in myofibroblasts (Bmpr1aΔMES). Bmpr1aΔMES mice exhibited increased subepithelial proliferation with changes in cellular composition leading to the development of a primed stroma with modulation of extracellular matrix proteins, immune cells and cytokines as early as 90 days of age. This microenvironmental deregulation was associated with increased polyposis initiation at one year of age. These results are the first to demonstrate that mesenchymal Bmpr1a inactivation alone is sufficient to prompt an expansion of myofibroblasts leading to the development of a reactive mesenchyme that contributes to polyposis initiation in the colon. These findings support the novel concept that inhibition of Bmp signaling in mesenchymal cells surrounding the normal epithelium leads to important changes instructing a toxic microenvironment sufficient to induce colonic polyposis. © 2016 UICC.

  1. Asymmetric BMP4 signalling improves the realism of kidney organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher G; Lawrence, Melanie L; Munro, David A D; Elhendawi, Mona; Mullins, John J; Davies, Jamie A

    2017-11-01

    We present a strategy for increasing the anatomical realism of organoids by applying asymmetric cues to mimic spatial information that is present in natural embryonic development, and demonstrate it using mouse kidney organoids. Existing methods for making kidney organoids in mice yield developing nephrons arranged around a symmetrical collecting duct tree that has no ureter. We use transplant experiments to demonstrate plasticity in the fate choice between collecting duct and ureter, and show that an environment rich in BMP4 promotes differentiation of early collecting ducts into uroplakin-positive, unbranched, ureter-like epithelial tubules. Further, we show that application of BMP4-releasing beads in one place in an organoid can break the symmetry of the system, causing a nearby collecting duct to develop into a uroplakin-positive, broad, unbranched, ureter-like 'trunk' from one end of which true collecting duct branches radiate and induce nephron development in an arrangement similar to natural kidneys. The idea of using local symmetry-breaking cues to improve the realism of organoids may have applications to organoid systems other than the kidney.

  2. Reduced BMP signaling results in hindlimb fusion with lethal pelvic/urogenital organ aplasia: a new mouse model of sirenomelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Suzuki

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox and the Isl1 (Islet1-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.

  3. Reduced BMP Signaling Results in Hindlimb Fusion with Lethal Pelvic/Urogenital Organ Aplasia: A New Mouse Model of Sirenomelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Adachi, Yasuha; Numata, Tomokazu; Nakada, Shoko; Yanagita, Motoko; Nakagata, Naomi; Evans, Sylvia M.; Graf, Daniel; Economides, Aris; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Moon, Anne M.; Yamada, Gen

    2012-01-01

    Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4flox/flox) and the Isl1 (Islet1)-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4flox/flox conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme) and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia. PMID:23028455

  4. Reduced BMP signaling results in hindlimb fusion with lethal pelvic/urogenital organ aplasia: a new mouse model of sirenomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Adachi, Yasuha; Numata, Tomokazu; Nakada, Shoko; Yanagita, Motoko; Nakagata, Naomi; Evans, Sylvia M; Graf, Daniel; Economides, Aris; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Moon, Anne M; Yamada, Gen

    2012-01-01

    Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox)) and the Isl1 (Islet1)-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox) conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme) and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.

  5. Sox2 in the dermal papilla niche controls hair growth by fine-tuning Bmp signaling in differentiating hair shaft progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Carlos; Grisanti, Laura; Zemla, Roland; Rezza, Amelie; Barros, Rita; Sennett, Rachel; Mazloom, Amin; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Cai, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Chen-Leng; Pevny, Larysa; Nicolis, Silvia; Ma’ayan, Avi; Rendl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY How dermal papilla (DP) niche cells regulate hair follicle progenitors to control hair growth remains unclear. Using Tbx18Cre to target embryonic DP precursors, we ablate the transcription factor Sox2 early and efficiently, resulting in diminished hair shaft outgrowth. We find that DP niche expression of Sox2 controls the migration rate of differentiating hair shaft progenitors. Transcriptional profiling of Sox2 null DPs reveals increased Bmp6 and decreased Bmp inhibitor Sostdc1, a direct Sox2 transcriptional target. Subsequently, we identify upregulated Bmp signaling in knockout hair shaft progenitors and demonstrate that Bmps inhibit cell migration, an effect that can be attenuated by Sostdc1. A shorter and Sox2-negative hair type lacks Sostdc1 in the DP and shows reduced migration and increased Bmp activity of hair shaft progenitors. Collectively, our data identify Sox2 as a key regulator of hair growth that controls progenitor migration by fine-tuning Bmp-mediated mesenchymal-epithelial crosstalk. PMID:23153495

  6. BMP receptor signaling is required for postnatal maintenance of articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan B Rountree

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage plays an essential role in health and mobility, but is frequently damaged or lost in millions of people that develop arthritis. The molecular mechanisms that create and maintain this thin layer of cartilage that covers the surface of bones in joint regions are poorly understood, in part because tools to manipulate gene expression specifically in this tissue have not been available. Here we use regulatory information from the mouse Gdf5 gene (a bone morphogenetic protein [BMP] family member to develop new mouse lines that can be used to either activate or inactivate genes specifically in developing joints. Expression of Cre recombinase from Gdf5 bacterial artificial chromosome clones leads to specific activation or inactivation of floxed target genes in developing joints, including early joint interzones, adult articular cartilage, and the joint capsule. We have used this system to test the role of BMP receptor signaling in joint development. Mice with null mutations in Bmpr1a are known to die early in embryogenesis with multiple defects. However, combining a floxed Bmpr1a allele with the Gdf5-Cre driver bypasses this embryonic lethality, and leads to birth and postnatal development of mice missing the Bmpr1a gene in articular regions. Most joints in the body form normally in the absence of Bmpr1a receptor function. However, articular cartilage within the joints gradually wears away in receptor-deficient mice after birth in a process resembling human osteoarthritis. Gdf5-Cre mice provide a general system that can be used to test the role of genes in articular regions. BMP receptor signaling is required not only for early development and creation of multiple tissues, but also for ongoing maintenance of articular cartilage after birth. Genetic variation in the strength of BMP receptor signaling may be an important risk factor in human osteoarthritis, and treatments that mimic or augment BMP receptor signaling should be

  7. BMP4 Cross-talks With Estrogen/ERα Signaling to Regulate Adiposity and Glucose Metabolism in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-wen Qian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Similar to estrogens, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 promotes the accumulation of more metabolically active subcutaneous fat and reduction of visceral fat. However, whether there is a cross-talk between BMP4 and estrogen signaling remained unknown. Herein, we found that BMP4 deficiency in white adipose tissue (WAT increased the estrogen receptor α (ERα level and its signaling, which prevented adult female mice from developing high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance; estrogens depletion up regulated BMP4 expression to overcome overt adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity with aging, and failure of BMP4 regulation due to genetic knockout led to more fat gain in aged female mice. This mutual regulation between BMP4 and estrogen/ERα signaling may also happen in adipose tissue of women, since the BMP4 level significantly increased after menopause, and was inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI. These findings suggest a counterbalance between BMP4 and estrogen/ERα signaling in the regulation of adiposity and relative metabolism in females.

  8. Wnt and BMP signaling crosstalk in regulating dental stem cells: Implications in dental tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Fugui Zhang; Jinlin Song; Hongmei Zhang; Enyi Huang; Dongzhe Song; Viktor Tollemar; Jing Wang; Jinhua Wang; Maryam Mohammed; Qiang Wei; Jiaming Fan; Junyi Liao; Yulong Zou; Feng Liu; Xue Hu

    2016-01-01

    Tooth is a complex hard tissue organ and consists of multiple cell types that are regulated by important signaling pathways such as Wnt and BMP signaling. Serious injuries and/or loss of tooth or periodontal tissues may significantly impact aesthetic appearance, essential oral functions and the quality of life. Regenerative dentistry holds great promise in treating oral/dental disorders. The past decade has witnessed a rapid expansion of our understanding of the biological features of dental ...

  9. Co-ordinating Notch, BMP, and TGFβ Signalling During Heart Valve Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garside, Victoria C.; Chang, Alex C.; Karsan, Aly; Hoodless, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects affect approximately 1–5% of human newborns each year and of these cardiac defects, 20–30% are due to heart valve abnormalities. Recent literature indicates that key factors and pathways that regulate valve development are also implicated in congenital heart defects and valve disease. Currently, there are limited options for treatment of valve disease and therefore, having a better understanding of valve development can contribute critical insight into congenital valve defects and disease. There are three major signalling pathways required for early specification and initiation of Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transformation (EMT) in the cardiac cushions: BMP, TGFβ, and Notch signalling. BMPs secreted from the myocardium setup the environment for the overlying endocardium to become activated, Notch signalling initiates EMT, and both BMP and TGFβ signalling synergizes with Notch to promote the transition of endothelia to mesenchyme and to promote mesenchymal cell invasiveness. Together, these three essential signalling pathways help to form the cardiac cushions and populate them with mesenchyme and, consequently, set off the cascade of events required to develop mature heart valves. Furthermore, integration and cross-talk between these pathways generate highly stratified and delicate valve leaflets and septa of the heart. Here, we discuss BMP, TGFβ, and Notch signalling pathways during mouse cardiac cushion formation and how they together produce a coordinated EMT response in the developing mouse valves. PMID:23161060

  10. Patterning the embryonic kidney: BMP signaling mediates the differentiation of the pronephric tubules and duct in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Christina M; Mizeracka, Karolina; McLaughlin, Kelly A

    2008-01-01

    The Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) mediate a wide range of diverse cellular behaviors throughout development. Previous studies implicated an important role for BMP signaling during the differentiation of the definitive mammalian kidney, the metanephros. In order to examine whether BMP signaling also plays an important role during the patterning of earlier renal systems, we examined the development of the earliest nephric system, the pronephros. Using the amphibian model system Xenopus laevis, in combination with reagents designed to inhibit BMP signaling during specific stages of nephric development, we revealed an evolutionarily conserved role for this signaling pathway during renal morphogenesis. Our results demonstrate that conditional BMP inhibition after specification of the pronephric anlagen is completed, but prior to the onset of morphogenesis and differentiation of renal tissues, results in the severe malformation of both the pronephric duct and tubules. Importantly, the effects of BMP signaling on the developing nephron during this developmental window are specific, only affecting the developing duct and tubules, but not the glomus. These data, combined with previous studies examining metanephric development in mice, provide further support that BMP functions to mediate morphogenesis of the specified renal field during vertebrate embryogenesis. Specifically, BMP signaling is required for the differentiation of two types of nephric structures, the pronephric tubules and duct.

  11. BMP-7 Signaling and its Critical Roles in Kidney Development, the Responses to Renal Injury, and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Scott R; Austin, Paul F; Guo, Qiusha; Moore, Katelynn H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant health problem that most commonly results from congenital abnormalities in children and chronic renal injury in adults. The therapeutic potential of BMP-7 was first recognized nearly two decades ago with studies demonstrating its requirement for kidney development and ability to inhibit the pathogenesis of renal injury in models of CKD. Since this time, our understanding of CKD has advanced considerably and treatment strategies have evolved with the identification of many additional signaling pathways, cell types, and pathologic processes that contribute to disease progression. The purpose of this review is to revisit the seminal studies that initially established the importance of BMP-7, highlight recent advances in BMP-7 research, and then integrate this knowledge with current research paradigms. We will provide an overview of the evolutionarily conserved roles of BMP proteins and the features that allow BMP signaling pathways to function as critical signaling nodes for controlling biological processes, including those related to CKD. We will discuss the multifaceted functions of BMP-7 during kidney development and the potential for alterations in BMP-7 signaling to result in congenital abnormalities and pediatric kidney disease. We will summarize the renal protective effects of recombinant BMP-7 in experimental models of CKD and then propose a model to describe the potential physiological role of endogenous BMP-7 in the innate repair mechanisms of the kidneys that respond to renal injury. Finally, we will highlight emerging clinical approaches for applying our knowledge of BMP-7 toward improving the treatment of patients with CKD. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wnt and BMP Signaling Crosstalk in Regulating Dental Stem Cells: Implications in Dental Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fugui; Song, Jinglin; Zhang, Hongmei; Huang, Enyi; Song, Dongzhe; Tollemar, Viktor; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jinhua; Mohammed, Maryam; Wei, Qiang; Fan, Jiaming; Liao, Junyi; Zou, Yulong; Liu, Feng; Hu, Xue; Qu, Xiangyang; Chen, Liqun; Yu, Xinyi; Luu, Hue H; Lee, Michael J; He, Tong-Chuan; Ji, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Tooth is a complex hard tissue organ and consists of multiple cell types that are regulated by important signaling pathways such as Wnt and BMP signaling. Serious injuries and/or loss of tooth or periodontal tissues may significantly impact aesthetic appearance, essential oral functions and the quality of life. Regenerative dentistry holds great promise in treating oral/dental disorders. The past decade has witnessed a rapid expansion of our understanding of the biological features of dental stem cells, along with the signaling mechanisms governing stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. In this review, we first summarize the biological characteristics of seven types of dental stem cells, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, dental follicle precursor cells, periodontal ligament stem cells, alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and MSCs from gingiva. We then focus on how these stem cells are regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and/or Wnt signaling by examining the interplays between these pathways. Lastly, we analyze the current status of dental tissue engineering strategies that utilize oral/dental stem cells by harnessing the interplays between BMP and Wnt pathways. We also highlight the challenges that must be addressed before the dental stem cells may reach any clinical applications. Thus, we can expect to witness significant progresses to be made in regenerative dentistry in the coming decade.

  13. Wnt and BMP signaling crosstalk in regulating dental stem cells: Implications in dental tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugui Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tooth is a complex hard tissue organ and consists of multiple cell types that are regulated by important signaling pathways such as Wnt and BMP signaling. Serious injuries and/or loss of tooth or periodontal tissues may significantly impact aesthetic appearance, essential oral functions and the quality of life. Regenerative dentistry holds great promise in treating oral/dental disorders. The past decade has witnessed a rapid expansion of our understanding of the biological features of dental stem cells, along with the signaling mechanisms governing stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. In this review, we first summarize the biological characteristics of seven types of dental stem cells, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, dental follicle precursor cells, periodontal ligament stem cells, alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, and MSCs from gingiva. We then focus on how these stem cells are regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP and/or Wnt signaling by examining the interplays between these pathways. Lastly, we analyze the current status of dental tissue engineering strategies that utilize oral/dental stem cells by harnessing the interplays between BMP and Wnt pathways. We also highlight the challenges that must be addressed before the dental stem cells may reach any clinical applications. Thus, we can expect to witness significant progresses to be made in regenerative dentistry in the coming decade.

  14. crm-1 facilitates BMP signaling to control body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Wong Yan; Fat, Ko Frankie Chi; Eng, Cheah Kathryn Song; Lau, Chow King

    2007-11-01

    We have identified in Caenorhabditis elegans a homologue of the vertebrate Crim1, crm-1, which encodes a putative transmembrane protein with multiple cysteine-rich (CR) domains known to have bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) binding activity. Using the body morphology of C. elegans as an indicator, we showed that attenuation of crm-1 activity leads to a small body phenotype reminiscent of that of BMP pathway mutants. We showed that the crm-1 loss-of-function phenotype can be rescued by constitutive supply of sma-4 activity. crm-1 can enhance BMP signaling and this activity is dependent on the presence of the DBL-1 ligand and its receptors. crm-1 is expressed in neurons at the ventral nerve cord, where the DBL-1 ligand is produced. However, ectopic expression experiments reveal that crm-1 gene products act outside the DBL-1 producing cells and function non-autonomously to facilitate dbl/sma pathway signaling to control body size.

  15. The Bmp signaling pathway regulates development of left-right asymmetry in amphioxus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Vladimír; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 1 (2018), s. 164-174 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20839P; GA MŠk LH12047; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA MŠk LO1419; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015040 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Bmp signaling * Nodal pathway * Amphioxus * Left-right asymmetry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Constitutive activation of BMP signalling abrogates experimental metastasis of OVCA429 cells via reduced cell adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Trevor G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP4 signalling in human ovarian cancer cells induces a number of phenotypic changes in vitro, including altered cell morphology, adhesion, motility and invasion, relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. From these in vitro analyses, we had hypothesized that active BMP signalling promotes the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer. Methods To test this directly, we engineered OVCA429 human ovarian cancer cells possessing doxycycline-inducible expression of a constitutively-active mutant BMP receptor, ALK3QD, and administered these cells to immunocompromised mice. Further characterization was performed in vitro to address the role of activated BMP signalling on the EOC phenotype, with particular emphasis on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and cell adhesion. Results Unexpectedly, doxycycline-induced ALK3QD expression in OVCA429 cells reduced tumour implantation on peritoneal surfaces and ascites formation when xenografted into immunocompromised mice by intraperitoneal injection. To determine the potential mechanisms controlling this in vivo observation, we followed with several cell culture experiments. Doxycycline-induced ALK3QD expression enhanced the refractile, spindle-shaped morphology of cultured OVCA429 cells eliciting an EMT-like response. Using in vitro wound healing assays, we observed that ALK3QD-expressing cells migrated with long, cytoplasmic projections extending into the wound space. The phenotypic alterations of ALK3QD-expressing cells correlated with changes in specific gene expression patterns of EMT, including increased Snail and Slug and reduced E-cadherin mRNA expression. In addition, ALK3QD signalling reduced β1- and β3-integrin expression, critical molecules involved in ovarian cancer cell adhesion. The combination of reduced E-cadherin and β-integrin expression correlates directly with the reduced EOC cell cohesion in spheroids and

  17. Anthraquinone Glycoside Aloin Induces Osteogenic Initiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells: Involvement of MAPK Mediated Wnt and Bmp Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjam, Yutthana; Madhyastha, Harishkumar; Madhyastha, Radha; Yamaguchi, Yuya; Nakajima, Yuichi; Maruyama, Masugi

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone pathology leading to increased fracture risk and challenging the quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an anthraquinone glycoside, aloin, on osteogenic induction of MC3T3-E1 cells. Aloin increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, an early differentiation marker of osteoblasts. Aloin also increased the ALP activity in adult human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC), indicating that the action of aloin was not cell-type specific.Alizarin red S staining revealed a signifiant amount of calcium deposition in cells treated with aloin. Aloin enhanced the expression of osteoblast differentiation genes, Bmp-2, Runx2 and collagen 1a, in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that noggin and inhibitors of p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK signals attenuated aloin-promoted expressions of Bmp-2 and Runx2 proteins. siRNA mediated blocking of Wnt-5a signaling pathway also annulled the influenceof aloin, indicating Wnt-5a dependent activity. Inhibition of the different signal pathways abrogated the influenceof aloin on ALP activity, confirmingthat aloin induced MC3T3-E1 cells into osteoblasts through MAPK mediated Wnt and Bmp signaling pathway.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells from osteoporotic patients feature impaired signal transduction but sustained osteoinduction in response to BMP-2 stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Wolf Christian; Haasters, Florian; Heggebö, Jostein; Polzer, Hans; Schwarz, Christina; Gassner, Christoph; Grote, Stefan; Anz, David; Jäger, Marcus; Mutschler, Wolf; Schieker, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    Osteoporotic fractures show reduced callus formation and delayed bone healing. Cellular sources of fracture healing are mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that differentiate into osteoblasts by stimulation with osteoinductive cytokines, such as BMP-2. We hypothesized that impaired signal transduction and reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity in response to BMP-2 may underlie the delayed fracture healing. Therefore, MSC were isolated from femoral heads of healthy and osteoporotic patients. Grouping was carried out by bone mineral densitometry in an age-matched manner. MSC were stimulated with BMP-2. Signal transduction was assessed by western blotting of pSMAD1/5/8 and pERK1/2 as well as by quantitative RT-PCR of Runx-2, Dlx5, and Osteocalcin. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by quantifying Alizarin Red staining. Osteoporotic MSC featured an accurate phosphorylation pattern of SMAD1/5/8 but a significantly reduced activation of ERK1/2 by BMP-2 stimulation. Furthermore, osteoporotic MSC showed significantly reduced basal expression levels of Runx-2 and Dlx5. However, Runx-2, Dlx5, and Osteocalcin expression showed adequate up-regulation due to BMP-2 stimulation. The global osteogenic differentiation in standard osteogenic differentiation media was reduced in osteoporotic MSC. Nevertheless, osteoporotic MSC were shown to feature an adequate induction of osteogenic differentiation due to BMP-2 stimulation. Taken together, we here demonstrate osteoporosis associated alterations in BMP-2 signaling but sustained specific osteogenic differentiation capacity in response to BMP-2. Therefore, BMP-2 may represent a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of fractures in osteoporotic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Disruption of Axonal Transport Perturbs Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) - Signaling and Contributes to Synaptic Abnormalities in Two Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Jung; Hansen, Timothy J.; Mickiewicz, Monique; Kaczynski, Tadeusz J.; Fye, Samantha; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2014-01-01

    Formation of new synapses or maintenance of existing synapses requires the delivery of synaptic components from the soma to the nerve termini via axonal transport. One pathway that is important in synapse formation, maintenance and function of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. Here we show that perturbations in axonal transport directly disrupt BMP signaling, as measured by its downstream signal, phospho Mad (p-Mad). We found that components of the BMP pathway genetically interact with both kinesin-1 and dynein motor proteins. Thick vein (TKV) vesicle motility was also perturbed by reductions in kinesin-1 or dynein motors. Interestingly, dynein mutations severely disrupted p-Mad signaling while kinesin-1 mutants showed a mild reduction in p-Mad signal intensity. Similar to mutants in components of the BMP pathway, both kinesin-1 and dynein motor protein mutants also showed synaptic morphological defects. Strikingly TKV motility and p-Mad signaling were disrupted in larvae expressing two human disease proteins; expansions of glutamine repeats (polyQ77) and human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with a familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutation (APPswe). Consistent with axonal transport defects, larvae expressing these disease proteins showed accumulations of synaptic proteins along axons and synaptic abnormalities. Taken together our results suggest that similar to the NGF-TrkA signaling endosome, a BMP signaling endosome that directly interacts with molecular motors likely exist. Thus problems in axonal transport occurs early, perturbs BMP signaling, and likely contributes to the synaptic abnormalities observed in these two diseases. PMID:25127478

  20. Disruption of axonal transport perturbs bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)--signaling and contributes to synaptic abnormalities in two neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Jung; Hansen, Timothy J; Mickiewicz, Monique; Kaczynski, Tadeusz J; Fye, Samantha; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2014-01-01

    Formation of new synapses or maintenance of existing synapses requires the delivery of synaptic components from the soma to the nerve termini via axonal transport. One pathway that is important in synapse formation, maintenance and function of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. Here we show that perturbations in axonal transport directly disrupt BMP signaling, as measured by its downstream signal, phospho Mad (p-Mad). We found that components of the BMP pathway genetically interact with both kinesin-1 and dynein motor proteins. Thick vein (TKV) vesicle motility was also perturbed by reductions in kinesin-1 or dynein motors. Interestingly, dynein mutations severely disrupted p-Mad signaling while kinesin-1 mutants showed a mild reduction in p-Mad signal intensity. Similar to mutants in components of the BMP pathway, both kinesin-1 and dynein motor protein mutants also showed synaptic morphological defects. Strikingly TKV motility and p-Mad signaling were disrupted in larvae expressing two human disease proteins; expansions of glutamine repeats (polyQ77) and human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with a familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutation (APPswe). Consistent with axonal transport defects, larvae expressing these disease proteins showed accumulations of synaptic proteins along axons and synaptic abnormalities. Taken together our results suggest that similar to the NGF-TrkA signaling endosome, a BMP signaling endosome that directly interacts with molecular motors likely exist. Thus problems in axonal transport occurs early, perturbs BMP signaling, and likely contributes to the synaptic abnormalities observed in these two diseases.

  1. BMP signaling-driven osteogenesis is critically dependent on Prdx-1 expression-mediated maintenance of chondrocyte prehypetrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yogesh; Biswas, Tathagata; Thacker, Gatha; Kanaujiya, Jitendra Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Shukla, Anukampa; Khan, Kainat; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha; Trivedi, Arun Kumar

    2018-02-13

    During endochondral ossification, cartilage template is eventually replaced by bone. This process involves several well characterized, stereotypic, molecular and cellular changes in the cartilage primordia. These steps involve transition from resting to proliferative and then pre-hypertrophic to finally hypertrophic cartilage. BMP signaling is necessary and sufficient for osteogenesis. However, the specific step(s) of endochondral ossification in which BMP signaling plays an essential role is not yet known. In this study we have identified Prdx1, a known scavenger of ROS, to be expressed in pre-hypertrophic chondrocytes in a BMP signaling-dependent manner. We demonstrate that BMP signaling inhibition increases ROS levels in osteogenic cells. Further, Prdx1 regulates osteogenesis in vivo by helping maintenance of Ihh expressing pre-hypertrophic cells, in turn regulating these cells' transition into hypertrophy. Therefore, our data suggests that one of the key roles of BMP signaling in endochondral ossification is to maintain pre-hypertrophic state. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Endoglin requirement for BMP9 signaling in endothelial cells reveals new mechanism of action for selective anti-endoglin antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Nolan-Stevaux

    Full Text Available Endoglin (ENG, a co-receptor for several TGFβ-family cytokines, is expressed in dividing endothelial cells alongside ALK1, the ACVRL1 gene product. ENG and ACVRL1 are both required for angiogenesis and mutations in either gene are associated with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangectasia, a rare genetic vascular disorder. ENG and ALK1 function in the same genetic pathway but the relative contribution of TGFβ and BMP9 to SMAD1/5/8 activation and the requirement of ENG as a co-mediator of SMAD phosphorylation in endothelial cells remain debated. Here, we show that BMP9 and TGFβ1 induce distinct SMAD phosphorylation responses in primary human endothelial cells and that, unlike BMP9, TGFβ only induces SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation in a subset of immortalized mouse endothelial cell lines, but not in primary human endothelial cells. We also demonstrate, using siRNA depletion of ENG and novel anti-ENG antibodies, that ENG is required for BMP9/pSMAD1 signaling in all human and mouse endothelial cells tested. Finally, anti-ENG antibodies that interfere with BMP9/pSMAD1 signaling, but not with TGFβ1/pSMAD3 signaling, also decrease in vitro HUVEC endothelial tube formation and inhibit BMP9 binding to recombinant ENG in vitro. Our data demonstrate that BMP9 signaling inhibition is a key and previously unreported mechanism of action of TRC105, an anti-angiogenic anti-Endoglin antibody currently evaluated in clinical trials.

  3. Patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis in echinoderms: insights into the evolution of the BMP-chordin signaling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Lapraz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the dorsal-ventral axis of the sea urchin embryo relies on cell interactions initiated by the TGFbeta Nodal. Intriguingly, although nodal expression is restricted to the ventral side of the embryo, Nodal function is required for specification of both the ventral and the dorsal territories and is able to restore both ventral and dorsal regions in nodal morpholino injected embryos. The molecular basis for the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is not understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is assured by a relay molecule synthesized in the ventral ectoderm, then translocated to the opposite side of the embryo. We identified this relay molecule as BMP2/4 based on the following arguments. First, blocking BMP2/4 function eliminated the long-range organizing activity of an activated Nodal receptor in an axis rescue assay. Second, we demonstrate that BMP2/4 and the corresponding type I receptor Alk3/6 functions are both essential for specification of the dorsal region of the embryo. Third, using anti-phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunostaining, we show that, despite its ventral transcription, the BMP2/4 ligand triggers receptor mediated signaling exclusively on the dorsal side of the embryo, one of the most extreme cases of BMP translocation described so far. We further report that the pattern of pSmad1/5/8 is graded along the dorsal-ventral axis and that two BMP2/4 target genes are expressed in nested patterns centered on the region with highest levels of pSmad1/5/8, strongly suggesting that BMP2/4 is acting as a morphogen. We also describe the very unusual ventral co-expression of chordin and bmp2/4 downstream of Nodal and demonstrate that Chordin is largely responsible for the spatial restriction of BMP2/4 signaling to the dorsal side. Thus, unlike in most organisms, in the sea urchin, a single ventral signaling centre is responsible for induction of ventral and dorsal cell fates. Finally

  4. Stiffness-dependent cellular internalization of matrix-bound BMP-2 and its relation to Smad and non-Smad signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilde, Flora; Fourel, Laure; Guillot, Raphael; Pignot-Paintrand, Isabelle; Okada, Takaharu; Fitzpatrick, Vincent; Boudou, Thomas; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Picart, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Surface coatings delivering BMP are a promising approach to render biomaterials osteoinductive. In contrast to soluble BMPs which can interact with their receptors at the dorsal side of the cell, BMPs presented as an insoluble cue physically bound to a biomimetic matrix, called here matrix-bound (bBMP-2), are presented to cells by their ventral side. To date, BMP-2 internalization and signaling studies in cell biology have always been performed by adding soluble (sBMP-2) to cells adhered on cell culture plates or glass slides, which will be considered here as a "reference" condition. However, whether and how matrix-bound BMP-2 can be internalized by cells and its relation to canonical (SMAD) and non-canonical signaling (ALP) remain open questions. In this study, we investigated the uptake and processing of BMP-2 by C2C12 myoblasts. This BMP-2 was presented either embedded in polyelectrolyte multilayer films (matrix-bound presentation) or as soluble form. Using fluorescently labeled BMP-2, we showed that the amount of matrix-bound BMP-2 internalized is dependent on the level of crosslinking of the polyelectrolyte films. Cav-1-mediated internalization is related to both SMAD and ALP signaling, while clathrin-mediated is only related to ALP signaling. BMP-2 internalization was independent of the presentation mode (sBMP-2 versus bBMP-2) for low crosslinked films (soft, EDC10) in striking contrast with high crosslinked (stiff, EDC70) films where internalization was much lower and slower for bBMP-2. As anticipated, internalization of sBMP-2 barely depended on the underlying matrix. Taken together, these results indicate that BMP-2 internalization can be tuned by the underlying matrix and activates downstream BMP-2 signaling, which is key for the effective formation of bone tissue. The presentation of growth factors from material surfaces currently presents significant challenges in academic research, clinics and industry. Being able to deliver efficiently these growth

  5. Zirconium ions up-regulate the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway and promote the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjuan Chen

    Full Text Available Zirconium (Zr is an element commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants either as zirconia (ZrO2 or in metal alloys. It can also be incorporated into calcium silicate-based ceramics. However, the effects of in vitro culture of human osteoblasts (HOBs with soluble ionic forms of Zr have not been determined. In this study, primary culture of human osteoblasts was conducted in the presence of medium containing either ZrCl4 or Zirconium (IV oxynitrate (ZrO(NO32 at concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 500 µM, and osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and calcium deposition were assessed. Incubation of human osteoblast cultures with Zr ions increased the proliferation of human osteoblasts and also gene expression of genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation. In 21 and 28 day cultures, Zr ions at concentrations of 50 and 500 µM increased the deposition of calcium phosphate. In addition, the gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors was increased in response to culture with Zr ions and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. Moreover, Noggin suppressed osteogenic gene expression in HOBs co-treated with Zr ions. In conclusion, Zr ions appear able to induce both the proliferation and the differentiation of primary human osteoblasts. This is associated with up-regulation of BMP2 expression and activation of BMP signaling suggesting this action is, at least in part, mediated by BMP signaling.

  6. BMP4 and BMP7 Suppress StAR and Progesterone Production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 in Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Klausen, Christian; Zhu, Hua; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-11-01

    Adequate production of progesterone by the corpus luteum is critical to the successful establishment of pregnancy. In animal models, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and BMP7 have been shown to suppress either basal or gonadotropin-induced progesterone production, depending on the species examined. However, the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on progesterone production in human granulosa cells are unknown. In the present study, we used immortalized (SVOG) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells to investigate the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production and to examine the underlying molecular mechanism. Treatment of primary and immortalized human granulosa cells with recombinant BMP4 or BMP7 decreased StAR expression and progesterone accumulation. In SVOG cells, the suppressive effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression were blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)2/3/6 (dorsomorphin) or ALK2/3 (DMH1) but not ALK4/5/7 (SB-431542). Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of ALK3, but not ALK2 or ALK6, reversed the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Likewise, BMP4- and BMP7-induced phosphorylation of SMAD 1/5/8 was reversed by treatment with DMH1 or small interfering RNA targeting ALK3. Knockdown of SMAD4, the essential common SMAD for BMP/TGF-β signaling, abolished the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Our results suggest that BMP4 and BMP7 down-regulate StAR and progesterone production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 signaling in human granulosa-lutein cells.

  7. MiRNA-20a promotes osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells by co-regulating BMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-fang; Fu, Wei-ming; He, Ming-liang; Xie, Wei-dong; Lv, Qing; Wan, Gang; Li, Guo; Wang, Hua; Lu, Gang; Hu, Xiang; Jiang, Su; Li, Jian-na; Lin, Marie C M; Zhang, Ya-ou; Kung, Hsiang-fu

    2011-01-01

    Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a complex process, which is regulated by various factors including microRNAs. Our preliminary data showed that the expression of endogenous miR-20a was increased during the course of osteogenic differentiation. Simultaneously, the expression of osteoblast markers and regulators BMP2, BMP4, Runx2, Osx, OCN and OPN was also elevated whereas adipocyte markers PPARγ and osteoblast antagonist, Bambi and Crim1, were downregulated, thereby suggesting that miR-20a plays an important role in regulating osteoblast differentiation. To validate this hypothesis, we tested its effects on osteogenic differentiation by introducing miR-20a mimics and lentiviral-miR20a-expression vectors into hMSCs. We showed that miR-20a promoted osteogenic differentiation by the upregulation of BMP/Runx2 signaling. We performed bioinformatics analysis and predicted that PPARγ, Bambi and Crim1 would be potential targets of miR-20a. PPARγ is a negative regulator of BMP/Runx2 signaling whereas Bambi or Crim1 are antagonists of the BMP pathway. Furthermore, we confirmed that all these molecules were indeed the targets of miR-20a by luciferase reporter, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot assays. Similarly to miR-20a overexpression, the osteogenesis was enhanced by the silence of PPARγ, Bambi or Crim1 by specific siRNAs. Taken together, for the first time, we demonstrated that miR-20a promoted the osteogenesis of hMSCs in a co-regulatory pattern by targeting PPARγ, Bambi and Crim1, the negative regulators of BMP signaling.

  8. Traf2 interacts with Smad4 and regulates BMP signaling pathway in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Koichi; Ikeda, Kyoko; Ito, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in osteoblast differentiation and maturation. In mammals, the BMP-induced receptor-regulated Smads form complexes with Smad4. These complexes translocate and accumulate in the nucleus, where they regulate the transcription of various target genes. However, the function of Smad4 remains unclear. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using Smad4 as bait and a cDNA library derived from bone marrow, to indentify the proteins interacting with Smad4. cDNA clones for Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 (Traf2) were identified, and the interaction between the endogenous proteins was confirmed in the mouse osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. To investigate the function of Traf2, we silenced it with siRNA. The level of BMP-2 protein in the medium, the expression levels of the Bmp2 gene and BMP-induced transcription factor genes, including Runx2, Dlx5, Msx2, and Sp7, and the phosphorylated-Smad1 protein level were increased in cells transfected with Traf2 siRNA. The nuclear accumulation of Smad1 increased with TNF-α stimulation for 30 min at Traf2 silencing. These results suggest that the TNF-α-stimulated nuclear accumulation of Smad1 may be dependent on Traf2. Thus, the interaction between Traf2 and Smad4 may play a role in the cross-talk between TNF-α and BMP signaling pathways.

  9. Morphogen and community effects determine cell fates in response to BMP4 signaling in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemashkalo, Anastasiia; Ruzo, Albert; Heemskerk, Idse; Warmflash, Aryeh

    2017-09-01

    Paracrine signals maintain developmental states and create cell fate patterns in vivo and influence differentiation outcomes in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro Systematic investigation of morphogen signaling is hampered by the difficulty of disentangling endogenous signaling from experimentally applied ligands. Here, we grow hESCs in micropatterned colonies of 1-8 cells ('µColonies') to quantitatively investigate paracrine signaling and the response to external stimuli. We examine BMP4-mediated differentiation in µColonies and standard culture conditions and find that in µColonies, above a threshold concentration, BMP4 gives rise to only a single cell fate, contrary to its role as a morphogen in other developmental systems. Under standard culture conditions BMP4 acts as a morphogen but this requires secondary signals and particular cell densities. We find that a 'community effect' enforces a common fate within µColonies, both in the state of pluripotency and when cells are differentiated, and that this effect allows a more precise response to external signals. Using live cell imaging to correlate signaling histories with cell fates, we demonstrate that interactions between neighbors result in sustained, homogenous signaling necessary for differentiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. The Pitx2:miR-200c/141:noggin pathway regulates Bmp signaling and ameloblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huojun; Jheon, Andrew; Li, Xiao; Sun, Zhao; Wang, Jianbo; Florez, Sergio; Zhang, Zichao; McManus, Michael T; Klein, Ophir D; Amendt, Brad A

    2013-08-01

    The mouse incisor is a remarkable tooth that grows throughout the animal's lifetime. This continuous renewal is fueled by adult epithelial stem cells that give rise to ameloblasts, which generate enamel, and little is known about the function of microRNAs in this process. Here, we describe the role of a novel Pitx2:miR-200c/141:noggin regulatory pathway in dental epithelial cell differentiation. miR-200c repressed noggin, an antagonist of Bmp signaling. Pitx2 expression caused an upregulation of miR-200c and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed endogenous Pitx2 binding to the miR-200c/141 promoter. A positive-feedback loop was discovered between miR-200c and Bmp signaling. miR-200c/141 induced expression of E-cadherin and the dental epithelial cell differentiation marker amelogenin. In addition, miR-203 expression was activated by endogenous Pitx2 and targeted the Bmp antagonist Bmper to further regulate Bmp signaling. miR-200c/141 knockout mice showed defects in enamel formation, with decreased E-cadherin and amelogenin expression and increased noggin expression. Our in vivo and in vitro studies reveal a multistep transcriptional program involving the Pitx2:miR-200c/141:noggin regulatory pathway that is important in epithelial cell differentiation and tooth development.

  11. BMP4 Signaling Is Able to Induce an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition-Like Phenotype in Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma through Induction of SNAIL2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kestens, C.; Siersema, P.D.; Offerhaus, G.J.; Baal, J.W.P.M. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling is involved in the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE), a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). In various cancers, BMP4 has been found to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) but its function in the development of EAC

  12. BMP4 signaling is able to induce an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenotype in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma through induction of SNAIL2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kestens, Christine; Siersema, Peter D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110603826; Offerhaus, G Johan A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070543283; van Baal, Jantine W P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298731533

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling is involved in the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE), a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). In various cancers, BMP4 has been found to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) but its function in the development of EAC

  13. Precise spatial restriction of BMP signaling in developing joints is perturbed upon loss of embryo movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratik Narendra Pratap; Shea, Claire A; Sonker, Shashank Kumar; Rolfe, Rebecca A; Ray, Ayan; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Pankaj; Murphy, Paula; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha

    2018-03-12

    Dynamic mechanical loading of synovial joints is necessary for normal joint development, as evidenced in certain clinical conditions, congenital disorders and animal models where dynamic muscle contractions are reduced or absent. Although the importance of mechanical forces on joint development is unequivocal, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Here, using chick and mouse embryos, we observed that molecular changes in expression of multiple genes analyzed in the absence of mechanical stimulation are consistent across species. Our results suggest that abnormal joint development in immobilized embryos involves inappropriate regulation of Wnt and BMP signaling during definition of the emerging joint territories, i.e. reduced β-catenin activation and concomitant upregulation of pSMAD1/5/8 signaling. Moreover, dynamic mechanical loading of the developing knee joint activates Smurf1 expression; our data suggest that Smurf1 insulates the joint region from pSMAD1/5/8 signaling and is essential for maintenance of joint progenitor cell fate. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Antagonistic crosstalk of Wnt/β–catenin/Bmp signaling within the Apical Ectodermal Ridge (AER) regulates interdigit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorte, Mylah; Suzuki, Kentaro; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; de Sousa-Lopes, Susana Chuva; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Taketo, Makoto; Nakagata, Naomi; Yamada, Gen

    2010-01-01

    Digit and interdigit (D/ID) development is one of the important research fields in molecular developmental biology. Interdigital cell death (ICD) is a morphogenetic event which has been considered as an essential process for D/ID formation. Although, some growth factors including Bmp and Fgf signaling can modulate ICD, growth factor crosstalk regulating ICD is poorly understood. Wnt canonical pathway and Bmp signal crosstalk has been considered as the essential growth factor crosstalk in organogenesis. To elucidate the crosstalk to regulate the D/ID formation, we analyzed conditional mutant mice with limb bud ectoderm expressing constitutively activated β-catenin signaling. We showed that modulation of Wnt/β–catenin signal in the limb ectoderm including the AER regulates ID apoptosis. We also demonstrated that Wnt/β–catenin signaling in the ectoderm can positively regulate Fgf8 possibly antagonizing the epithelial derived Bmp signaling. Human birth defects for digit abnormalities have been known to be affected by multiple parameters. Elucidation of the potential mechanisms underlying such D/ID development is an urgent medical issue to be solved. This work would be one of the first studies showing essential growth factor cascades in the D/ID formation. PMID:20043884

  15. Age-dependent shifts in renal response to injury relate to altered BMP6/CTGF expression and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Lucas L; Kinashi, Hiroshi; Dendooven, Amelie; Broekhuizen, Roel; Stoop, Reinout; Joles, Jaap A; Nguyen, Tri Q; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2016-11-01

    Age is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which, through progressive tissue damage and fibrosis, ultimately leads to loss of kidney function. Although much effort is put into studying CKD development experimentally, age has rarely been taken into account. Therefore, we investigated the effect of age on the development of renal tissue damage and fibrosis in a mouse model of obstructive nephropathy (i.e., unilateral ureter obstruction; UUO). We observed that after 14 days, obstructed kidneys of old mice had more tubulointerstitial atrophic damage but less fibrosis than those of young mice. This was associated with reduced connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and higher bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) expression and pSMAD1/5/8 signaling, while transforming growth factor-β expression and transcriptional activity were no different in obstructed kidneys of old and young mice. In vitro, CTGF bound to and inhibited BMP6 activity. In summary, our data suggest that in obstructive nephropathy atrophy increases and fibrosis decreases with age and that this relates to increased BMP signaling, most likely due to higher BMP6 and lower CTGF expression. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Embryonic Ethanol Exposure Dysregulates BMP and Notch Signaling, Leading to Persistent Atrio-Ventricular Valve Defects in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Muralidharan, Pooja; Marrs, James A

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), birth defects associated with ethanol exposure in utero, includes a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHDs), the most prevalent of which are septal and conotruncal defects. Zebrafish FASD model was used to dissect the mechanisms underlying FASD-associated CHDs. Embryonic ethanol exposure (3-24 hours post fertilization) led to defects in atrio-ventricular (AV) valvulogenesis beginning around 37 hpf, a morphogenetic event that arises long after ethanol withdrawal. Valve leaflets of the control embryos comprised two layers of cells confined at the compact atrio-ventricular canal (AVC). Ethanol treated embryos had extended AVC and valve forming cells were found either as rows of cells spanning the AVC or as unorganized clusters near the AV boundary. Ethanol exposure reduced valve precursors at the AVC, but some ventricular cells in ethanol treated embryos exhibited few characteristics of valve precursors. Late staged larvae and juvenile fish exposed to ethanol during embryonic development had faulty AV valves. Examination of AVC morphogenesis regulatory networks revealed that early ethanol exposure disrupted the Bmp signaling gradient in the heart during valve formation. Bmp signaling was prominent at the AVC in controls, but ethanol-exposed embryos displayed active Bmp signaling throughout the ventricle. Ethanol exposure also led to mislocalization of Notch signaling cells in endocardium during AV valve formation. Normally, highly active Notch signaling cells were organized at the AVC. In ethanol-exposed embryos, highly active Notch signaling cells were dispersed throughout the ventricle. At later stages, ethanol-exposed embryos exhibited reduced Wnt/β-catenin activity at the AVC. We conclude that early embryonic ethanol exposure alters Bmp, Notch and other signaling activities during AVC differentiation leading to faulty valve morphogenesis and valve defects persist in juvenile fish.

  17. Tendon Mineralization Is Progressive and Associated with Deterioration of Tendon Biomechanical Properties, and Requires BMP-Smad Signaling in the Mouse Achilles Tendon Injury Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kairui; Asai, Shuji; Hast, Michael W.; Liu, Min; Usami, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic tendon mineralization can develop following tendon rupture or trauma surgery. The pathogenesis of ectopic tendon mineralization and its clinical impact have not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we utilized a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to determine whether ectopic tendon mineralization alters the biomechanical properties of the tendon and whether BMP signaling is involved in this condition. A complete transverse incision was made at the midpoint of the right Achilles tendon in 8-week-old CD1 mice and the gap was left open. Ectopic cartilaginous mass formation was found in the injured tendon by 4 weeks post-surgery and ectopic mineralization was detected at 8–10 weeks post-surgery. Ectopic mineralization grew over time and volume of the mineralized materials of 25-weeks samples was about 2.5 fold bigger than that of 10-weeks samples, indicating that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive. In vitro mechanical testing showed that max force, max stress and mid-substance modulus in the 25-weeks samples were significantly lower than the 10-weeks samples. We observed substantial increases in expression of bone morphogenetic protein family genes in injured tendons 1 week post-surgery. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that phosphorylation of both Smad1 and Smad3 were highly increased in injured tendons as early as 1 week post-injury and remained high in ectopic chondrogenic lesions 4 weeks post-injury. Treatment with the BMP receptor kinase inhibitor (LDN193189) significantly inhibited injury-induced tendon mineralization. These findings indicate that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive, involves BMP signaling and associated with deterioration of tendon biomechanical properties. PMID:26825318

  18. A targeted glycan-related gene screen reveals heparan sulfate proteoglycan sulfation regulates WNT and BMP trans-synaptic signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Dani

    Full Text Available A Drosophila transgenic RNAi screen targeting the glycan genome, including all N/O/GAG-glycan biosynthesis/modification enzymes and glycan-binding lectins, was conducted to discover novel glycan functions in synaptogenesis. As proof-of-product, we characterized functionally paired heparan sulfate (HS 6-O-sulfotransferase (hs6st and sulfatase (sulf1, which bidirectionally control HS proteoglycan (HSPG sulfation. RNAi knockdown of hs6st and sulf1 causes opposite effects on functional synapse development, with decreased (hs6st and increased (sulf1 neurotransmission strength confirmed in null mutants. HSPG co-receptors for WNT and BMP intercellular signaling, Dally-like Protein and Syndecan, are differentially misregulated in the synaptomatrix of these mutants. Consistently, hs6st and sulf1 nulls differentially elevate both WNT (Wingless; Wg and BMP (Glass Bottom Boat; Gbb ligand abundance in the synaptomatrix. Anterograde Wg signaling via Wg receptor dFrizzled2 C-terminus nuclear import and retrograde Gbb signaling via synaptic MAD phosphorylation and nuclear import are differentially activated in hs6st and sulf1 mutants. Consequently, transcriptional control of presynaptic glutamate release machinery and postsynaptic glutamate receptors is bidirectionally altered in hs6st and sulf1 mutants, explaining the bidirectional change in synaptic functional strength. Genetic correction of the altered WNT/BMP signaling restores normal synaptic development in both mutant conditions, proving that altered trans-synaptic signaling causes functional differentiation defects.

  19. Essential role of Bmp signaling and its positive feedback loop in the early cell fate evolution of chordates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozmiková, Iryna; Candiani, S.; Fabian, Peter; Gurská, Daniela; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 382, č. 2 (2013), s. 538-554 ISSN 0012-1606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP305/10/J064; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0027 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Bmp signaling * axial patterning * cell fate * chordates * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2013

  20. FGF and BMP signaling are required for specifying pre-chondrogenic identity in neural crest derived mesenchyme and initiating the chondrogenic program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Megha; Ray, Poulomi; Chapman, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The pharyngeal endoderm is hypothesized as the source of local signals that specify the identity of neural crest-derived mesenchyme in the arches. Sox9 is induced and maintained in pre-chondrogenic cells during condensation formation and endochondral ossification. Using explant culture we determined that pharyngeal endoderm was sufficient, but not necessary for specifying pre-chondrogenic identity, as surrounding tissues including the otic vesicle can compensate for signals from the pharyngeal endoderm. Multiple Fgf genes are expressed specifically in the pharyngeal endoderm subjacent to the neural crest-derived mesenchyme. FGF signaling is both sufficient and required for specification of Sox9 expression and specification of pre-chondrogenic identity, as demonstrated by the addition of recombinant FGF protein or the FGF receptor inhibitor (SU5402) to explanted tissue, respectively. However, FGF signaling cannot maintain Sox9 expression or initiate the chondrogenic program as indicated by the absence of Col2a1 transcripts. BMP4 signaling can induce and maintain Sox9 expression in isolated mesenchyme, but only in combination with FGF signaling induce Col2a1 expression, and thus, chondrogenesis. Given the spatio-temporal expression patterns of FGFs and BMPs in the pharyngeal arches, we suggest that this may represent a general mechanism of local signals specifying pre-chondrogenic identity and initiation of the chondrogenic program. PMID:22411638

  1. LRP4 association to bone properties and fracture and interaction with genes in the Wnt- and BMP signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitender; Swanberg, Maria; McGuigan, Fiona; Callreus, Mattias; Gerdhem, Paul; Akesson, Kristina

    2011-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a common complex disorder in postmenopausal women leading to changes in the micro-architecture of bone and increased risk of fracture. Members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) gene family regulates the development and physiology of bone through the Wnt/β-catenin (Wnt) pathway that in turn cross-talks with the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. In two cohorts of Swedish women: OPRA (n=1002; age 75 years) and PEAK-25 (n=1005; age 25 years), eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Wnt pathway genes (LRP4; LRP5; G protein-coupled receptor 177, GPR177) were analyzed for association with Bone Mineral Density (BMD), rate of bone loss, hip geometry, quantitative ultrasound and fracture. Additionally, interaction of LRP4 with LRP5, GPR177 and BMP2 were analyzed. LRP4 (rs6485702) was associated with higher total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD in the PEAK-25 cohort (p=0.006 and 0.005 respectively), and interaction was observed with LRP5 (p=0.007) and BMP2 (p=0.004) for TB BMD. LRP4 also showed significant interaction with LRP5 for femoral neck (FN) and LS BMD in this cohort. In the OPRA cohort, LRP4 polymorphisms were associated with significantly lower fracture incidence overall (p=0.008-0.001) and fewer hip fractures (rs3816614, p=0.006). Significant interaction in the OPRA cohort was observed for LRP4 with BMP2 and GPR177 for FN BMD as well as for rate of bone loss at TB and FN (p=0.007-0.0001). In conclusion, LRP4 and interaction between LRP4 and genes in the Wnt and BMP signaling pathways modulate bone phenotypes including peak bone mass and fracture, the clinical endpoint of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. BMP pathway regulation of and by macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Talati

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a disease of progressively increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, associated with mutations of the type 2 receptor for the BMP pathway, BMPR2. The canonical signaling pathway for BMPR2 is through the SMAD family of transcription factors. BMPR2 is expressed in every cell type, but the impact of BMPR2 mutations affecting SMAD signaling, such as Bmpr2delx4+, had only previously been investigated in smooth muscle and endothelium. In the present study, we created a mouse with universal doxycycline-inducible expression of Bmpr2delx4+ in order to determine if broader expression had an impact relevant to the development of PAH. We found that the most obvious phenotype was a dramatic, but patchy, increase in pulmonary inflammation. We crossed these double transgenic mice onto an NF-κB reporter strain, and by luciferase assays on live mice, individual organs and isolated macrophages, we narrowed down the origin of the inflammatory phenotype to constitutive activation of tissue macrophages. Study of bone marrow-derived macrophages from mutant and wild-type mice suggested a baseline difference in differentiation state in Bmpr2 mutants. When activated with LPS, both mutant and wild-type macrophages secrete BMP pathway inhibitors sufficient to suppress BMP pathway activity in smooth muscle cells (SMC treated with conditioned media. Functionally, co-culture with macrophages results in a BMP signaling-dependent increase in scratch closure in cultured SMC. We conclude that SMAD signaling through BMP is responsible, in part, for preventing macrophage activation in both live animals and in cells in culture, and that activated macrophages secrete BMP inhibitors in sufficient quantity to cause paracrine effect on vascular smooth muscle.

  3. The VEGF and BMP-2 levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and the relationship to treatment with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošovský, Marian; Bradna, Petr; Andrýs, Ctirad; Andrýsová, Kateřina; Cermáková, Eva; Soukup, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease characterized by the development of osteoproductive changes in the spine which could possibly result in ankylosis. Treatment with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitors has proved to be an important step forward in the treatment of this disease, but for the time being it is not clear whether it favourably influences radiographic progression of the disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor most probably plays a role in the development of osteoproductive changes and recently its predictive influence on radiographic progression has been demonstrated. Bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) participates in the regulation of bone proliferation and its increased serum level has been demonstrated in patients with advanced AS and correlated with the degree of radiographic changes. The study aims to evaluate the VEGF and BMP-2 levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and how these levels relate to the concurrent treatment with TNFα inhibitors. Sera were evaluated from patients at the Rheumatologic Clinic of the Hradec Králové Faculty Hospital who fulfilled the modified New York Criteria for AS (n = 55). In these patients, the parameters of the activity of the disease (BASDAI = Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, CRP = C-reactive protein) and the concurrent therapy (TNFα inhibitors, n = 21, vs. non-anti TNFα, n = 34) were recorded. The levels of VEGF and BMP-2 were analyzed using the ELISA method. In patients treated with TNFα inhibitors, a significantly lower VEGF level was found when compared to untreated patients (140.3 (109.4; 262.2) vs. 261 (172.4; 396.6) pg/ml; p = 0.02). No difference was found between BMP-2 levels in both groups (treated vs. untreated patients) (254.8 (2301; 267.3) vs. 261.1 (248.6; 273.5) pg/ml; p = 0.24). A correlation analysis did not reveal any relationship between VEG F and BMP-2 (r = 0.057; p = 0.68). Serum levels of VEGF correlated with serum

  4. Augmented BMPRIA-mediated BMP signaling in cranial neural crest lineage leads to cleft palate formation and delayed tooth differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Li

    Full Text Available The importance of BMP receptor Ia (BMPRIa mediated signaling in the development of craniofacial organs, including the tooth and palate, has been well illuminated in several mouse models of loss of function, and by its mutations associated with juvenile polyposis syndrome and facial defects in humans. In this study, we took a gain-of-function approach to further address the role of BMPR-IA-mediated signaling in the mesenchymal compartment during tooth and palate development. We generated transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of BmprIa (caBmprIa in cranial neural crest (CNC cells that contributes to the dental and palatal mesenchyme. Mice bearing enhanced BMPRIa-mediated signaling in CNC cells exhibit complete cleft palate and delayed odontogenic differentiation. We showed that the cleft palate defect in the transgenic animals is attributed to an altered cell proliferation rate in the anterior palatal mesenchyme and to the delayed palatal elevation in the posterior portion associated with ectopic cartilage formation. Despite enhanced activity of BMP signaling in the dental mesenchyme, tooth development and patterning in transgenic mice appeared normal except delayed odontogenic differentiation. These data support the hypothesis that a finely tuned level of BMPRIa-mediated signaling is essential for normal palate and tooth development.

  5. Laminin and integrin expression in the ventral ectodermal ridge of the mouse embryo: implications for regulation of BMP signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Escobar, Beatriz; de Felipe, Beatriz; Sanchez-Alcazar, Jose Antonio; Sasaki, Takako; Copp, Andrew J.; Ybot-Gonzalez, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background The ventral ectodermal ridge (VER) is an important signalling centre in the mouse tail-bud following completion of gastrulation. BMP regulation is essential for VER function, but how these signals are transmitted between adjacent tissues is unclear. Results We investigated the idea that extracellular matrix components might be involved, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation to detect all known α, β and γ laminin chains and their mRNAs in the early tail bud. We identified an apparently novel laminin variant, comprising α5, β3 and γ2 chains, as a major component of the VER basement membrane at E9.5. Strikingly, only the mRNAs for these chains were co-expressed in VER cells, suggesting that lamin532 may be the sole basement membrane laminin at this stage. Since α6 integrin was also expressed in VER cells, this raises the possibility of cell-matrix interactions regulating BMP signalling at this site of caudal morphogenesis. Conclusions Laminin532 could interact with α6-containing integrin to direct differentiation of the specialised VER cells from surface ectoderm. PMID:22911573

  6. Endogenous WNT Signals Mediate BMP-Induced and Spontaneous Differentiation of Epiblast Stem Cells and Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kurek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic application of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs requires precise control over their differentiation. However, spontaneous differentiation is prevalent, and growth factors induce multiple cell types; e.g., the mesoderm inducer BMP4 generates both mesoderm and trophoblast. Here we identify endogenous WNT signals as BMP targets that are required and sufficient for mesoderm induction, while trophoblast induction is WNT independent, enabling the exclusive differentiation toward either lineage. Furthermore, endogenous WNT signals induce loss of pluripotency in hESCs and their murine counterparts, epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs. WNT inhibition obviates the need to manually remove differentiated cells to maintain cultures and improves the efficiency of directed differentiation. In EpiSCs, WNT inhibition stabilizes a pregastrula epiblast state with novel characteristics, including the ability to contribute to blastocyst chimeras. Our findings show that endogenous WNT signals function as hidden mediators of growth factor-induced differentiation and play critical roles in the self-renewal of hESCs and EpiSCs.

  7. The response of early neural genes to FGF signaling or inhibition of BMP indicate the absence of a conserved neural induction module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Crystal D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanism that initiates the formation of the vertebrate central nervous system has long been debated. Studies in Xenopus and mouse demonstrate that inhibition of BMP signaling is sufficient to induce neural tissue in explants or ES cells respectively, whereas studies in chick argue that instructive FGF signaling is also required for the expression of neural genes. Although additional signals may be involved in neural induction and patterning, here we focus on the roles of BMP inhibition and FGF8a. Results To address the question of necessity and sufficiency of BMP inhibition and FGF signaling, we compared the temporal expression of the five earliest genes expressed in the neuroectoderm and determined their requirements for induction at the onset of neural plate formation in Xenopus. Our results demonstrate that the onset and peak of expression of the genes vary and that they have different regulatory requirements and are therefore unlikely to share a conserved neural induction regulatory module. Even though all require inhibition of BMP for expression, some also require FGF signaling; expression of the early-onset pan-neural genes sox2 and foxd5α requires FGF signaling while other early genes, sox3, geminin and zicr1 are induced by BMP inhibition alone. Conclusions We demonstrate that BMP inhibition and FGF signaling induce neural genes independently of each other. Together our data indicate that although the spatiotemporal expression patterns of early neural genes are similar, the mechanisms involved in their expression are distinct and there are different signaling requirements for the expression of each gene.

  8. LY2109761 attenuates radiation-induced pulmonary murine fibrosis via reversal of TGF-β and BMP-associated proinflammatory and proangiogenic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechsig, Paul; Dadrich, Monika; Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Jenne, Jürgen; Hauser, Kai; Timke, Carmen; Peschke, Peter; Hahn, Eric W; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Yingling, Jonathan; Lahn, Michael; Wirkner, Ute; Huber, Peter E

    2012-07-01

    Radiotherapy is used for the treatment of lung cancer, but at the same time induces acute pneumonitis and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis, where TGF-β signaling is considered to play an important role. We irradiated thoraces of C57BL/6 mice (single dose, 20 Gy) and administered them a novel small-molecule TGF-β receptor I serine/threonine kinase inhibitor (LY2109761) orally for 4 weeks before, during, or after radiation. Noninvasive lung imaging including volume computed tomography (VCT) and MRI was conducted 6, 16, and 20 weeks after irradiation and was correlated to histologic findings. Expression profiling analysis and protein analysis was conducted in human primary fibroblasts. Radiation alone induced acute pulmonary inflammation and lung fibrosis after 16 weeks associated with reduced life span. VCT, MRI, and histology showed that LY2109761 markedly reduced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis resulting in prolonged survival. Mechanistically, we found that LY2109761 reduced p-SMAD2 and p-SMAD1 expression, and transcriptomics revealed that LY2109761 suppressed expression of genes involved in canonical and noncanonical TGF-β signaling and downstream signaling of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP). LY2109761 also suppressed radiation-induced inflammatory [e.g., interleukin (IL)-6, IL-7R, IL-8] and proangiogenic genes (e.g., ID1) indicating that LY2109761 achieves its antifibrotic effect by suppressing radiation-induced proinflammatory, proangiogenic, and profibrotic signals. Small-molecule inhibitors of the TGF-β receptor I kinase may offer a promising approach to treat or attenuate radiation-induced lung toxicity or other diseases associated with fibrosis. ©2012 AACR.

  9. Combination of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Platelet-rich Fibrin Promotes the Odontoblastic Differentiation and Mineralization of Human Dental Pulp Cells via BMP/Smad Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Su-Mi; Kim, Won-Jae; Lim, Hae-Soon; Choi, Nam-Ki; Kim, Sun-Hun; Kim, Seon-Mi; Jung, Ji-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the combined use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), an autologous fibrin matrix, and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as root filling material is beneficial for the endodontic management of an open apex. However, the potential of the combination of MTA and PRF as an odontogenic inducer in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) in vitro has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combination of MTA and PRF on odontoblastic maturation in HDPCs. HDPCs extracted from third molars were directly cultured with MTA and PRF extract (PRFe). Odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs was evaluated by measuring the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the expression of odontogenesis-related genes was detected using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction or Western blot. Mineralization formation was assessed by alizarin red staining. HDPCs treated with MTA and PRFe significantly up-regulated the expression of dentin sialoprotein and dentin matrix protein-1 and enhanced ALP activity and mineralization compared with those with MTA or PRFe treatment alone. In addition, the combination of MTA and PRFe induced the activation of bone morphogenic proteins (BMP)/Smad, whereas LDN193189, the bone morphogenic protein inhibitor, attenuated dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin matrix protein-1 expression, ALP activity, and mineralization enhanced by MTA and PRFe treatment. This study shows that the combination of MTA and PRF has a synergistic effect on the stimulation of odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs via the modulation of the BMP/Smad signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. BMP and BMP receptor expression during murine organogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, Shahab M.; Villasenor, Alethia; Chong, Diana; Soukup, Carrie; Cleaver, Ondine

    2009-01-01

    Cell-cell communication is critical for regulating embryonic organ growth and differentiation. The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) family of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) molecules represents one class of such cell-cell signaling molecules that regulate the morphogenesis of several organs. Due to high redundancy between the myriad BMP ligands and receptors in certain tissues, it has been challenging to address the role of BMP signaling using targeting of single Bmp genes in mouse models. Here, we present a detailed study of the developmental expression profiles of three BMP ligands (Bmp2, Bmp4, Bmp7) and three BMP receptors (Bmpr1a, Bmpr1b, and BmprII), as well as their molecular antagonist (noggin), in the early embryo during the initial steps of murine organogenesis. In particular, we focus on the expression of Bmp family members in the first organs and tissues that take shape during embryogenesis, such as the heart, vascular system, lungs, liver, stomach, nervous system, somites and limbs. Using in situ hybridization, we identify domains where ligand(s) and receptor(s) are either singly or co-expressed in specific tissues. In addition, we identify a previously unnoticed asymmetric expression of Bmp4 in the gut mesogastrium, which initiates just prior to gut turning and the establishment of organ asymmetry in the gastrointestinal tract. Our studies will aid in the future design and/or interpretation of targeted deletion of individual Bmp or Bmpr genes, since this study identifies organs and tissues where redundant BMP signaling pathways are likely to occur. PMID:19393343

  11. BMP and Delta/Notch signaling control the development of amphioxus epidermal sensory neurons: insights into the evolution of the peripheral sensory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsai-Ming; Luo, Yi-Jyun; Yu, Jr-Kai

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of the nervous system has been a topic of great interest. To gain more insight into the evolution of the peripheral sensory system, we used the cephalochordate amphioxus. Amphioxus is a basal chordate that has a dorsal central nervous system (CNS) and a peripheral nervous system (PNS) comprising several types of epidermal sensory neurons (ESNs). Here, we show that a proneural basic helix-loop-helix gene (Ash) is co-expressed with the Delta ligand in ESN progenitor cells. Using pharmacological treatments, we demonstrate that Delta/Notch signaling is likely to be involved in the specification of amphioxus ESNs from their neighboring epidermal cells. We also show that BMP signaling functions upstream of Delta/Notch signaling to induce a ventral neurogenic domain. This patterning mechanism is highly similar to that of the peripheral sensory neurons in the protostome and vertebrate model animals, suggesting that they might share the same ancestry. Interestingly, when BMP signaling is globally elevated in amphioxus embryos, the distribution of ESNs expands to the entire epidermal ectoderm. These results suggest that by manipulating BMP signaling levels, a conserved neurogenesis circuit can be initiated at various locations in the epidermal ectoderm to generate peripheral sensory neurons in amphioxus embryos. We hypothesize that during chordate evolution, PNS progenitors might have been polarized to different positions in various chordate lineages owing to differential regulation of BMP signaling in the ectoderm.

  12. BMP antagonists enhance myogenic differentiation and ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype in a DMD mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, SongTing; Hoogaars, Willem M H; de Gorter, David J J; van Heiningen, Sandra H; Lin, Herbert Y; Hong, Charles C; Kemaladewi, Dwi U; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; ten Dijke, Peter; 't Hoen, Peter A C

    2011-02-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle wasting disease characterized by muscle fiber degeneration and necrosis. The progressive pathology of DMD can be explained by an insufficient regenerative response resulting in fibrosis and adipose tissue formation. BMPs are known to inhibit myogenic differentiation and in a previous study we found an increased expression of a BMP family member BMP4 in DMD myoblasts. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate whether inhibition of BMP signaling could be beneficial for myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration processes in a DMD context. All tested BMP inhibitors, Noggin, dorsomorphin and LDN-193189, were able to accelerate and enhance myogenic differentiation. However, dorsomorphin repressed both BMP and TGFβ signaling and was found to be toxic to primary myoblast cell cultures. In contrast, Noggin was found to be a potent and selective BMP inhibitor and was therefore tested in vivo in a DMD mouse model. Local adenoviral-mediated overexpression of Noggin in muscle resulted in an increased expression of the myogenic regulatory genes Myog and Myod1 and improved muscle histology. In conclusion, our results suggest that repression of BMP signaling may constitute an attractive adjunctive therapy for DMD patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Syncrip/hnRNP Q influences synaptic transmission and regulates BMP signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Halstead

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity involves the modulation of synaptic connections in response to neuronal activity via multiple pathways. One mechanism modulates synaptic transmission by retrograde signals from the post-synapse that influence the probability of vesicle release in the pre-synapse. Despite its importance, very few factors required for the expression of retrograde signals, and proper synaptic transmission, have been identified. Here, we identify the conserved RNA binding protein Syncrip as a new factor that modulates the efficiency of vesicle release from the motoneuron and is required for correct synapse structure. We show that syncrip is required genetically and its protein product is detected only in the muscle and not in the motoneuron itself. This unexpected non-autonomy is at least partly explained by the fact that Syncrip modulates retrograde BMP signals from the muscle back to the motoneuron. We show that Syncrip influences the levels of the Bone Morphogenic Protein ligand Glass Bottom Boat from the post-synapse and regulates the pre-synapse. Our results highlight the RNA-binding protein Syncrip as a novel regulator of synaptic output. Given its known role in regulating translation, we propose that Syncrip is important for maintaining a balance between the strength of presynaptic vesicle release and postsynaptic translation.

  14. BMP signaling regulates the fate of chondro-osteoprogenitor cells in facial mesenchyme in a stage-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celá, Petra; Buchtová, Marcela; Veselá, Iva; Fu, Kathy; Bogardi, Jean-Philippe; Song, Yiping; Barlow, Amanda; Buxton, Paul; Medalová, Jirina; Francis-West, Philippa; Richman, Joy M

    2016-09-01

    Lineage tracing has shown that most of the facial skeleton is derived from cranial neural crest cells. However, the local signals that influence postmigratory, neural crest-derived mesenchyme also play a major role in patterning the skeleton. Here, we study the role of BMP signaling in regulating the fate of chondro-osteoprogenitor cells in the face. A single Noggin-soaked bead inserted into stage 15 chicken embryos induced an ectopic cartilage resembling the interorbital septum within the palate and other midline structures. In contrast, the same treatment in stage 20 embryos caused a loss of bones. The molecular basis for the stage-specific response to Noggin lay in the simultaneous up-regulation of SOX9 and downregulation of RUNX2 in the maxillary mesenchyme, increased cell adhesiveness as shown by N-cadherin induction around the beads and increased RA pathway gene expression. None of these changes were observed in stage 20 embryos. These experiments demonstrate how slight changes in expression of growth factors such as BMPs could lead to gain or loss of cartilage in the upper jaw during vertebrate evolution. In addition, BMPs have at least two roles: one in patterning the skull and another in regulating the skeletogenic fates of neural crest-derived mesenchyme. Developmental Dynamics 245:947-962, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sonic hedgehog promotes somitic chondrogenesis by altering the cellular response to BMP signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaugh, L. Charles; Chyung, Jay H.; Lassar, Andrew B.

    1999-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that signals from the floor plate and notochord promote chondrogenesis of the somitic mesoderm. These tissues, acting through the secreted signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh), appear to be critical for the formation of the sclerotome. Later steps in the differentiation of sclerotome into cartilage may be independent of the influence of these axial tissues. Although the signals involved in these later steps have not yet been pinpointed, there is substantial evid...

  16. Synthetic PAMPS gel activates BMP/Smad signaling pathway in ATDC5 cells, which plays a significant role in the gel-induced chondrogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Keiko; Kimura, Taichi; Kitamura, Nobuto; Semba, Shingo; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Aburatani, Sachiyo; Matsukura, Satoko; Tsuda, Masumi; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Ping Gong, Jian; Tanaka, Shinya; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify signaling pathways that were specifically activated in ATDC5 cells cultured on poly (2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) gel in insulin-free maintenance medium and to evaluate the significance of the determined signaling pathways in the chondrogenic differentiation induced by this gel. In this study, ATDC5 cells cultured on PAMPS gel using the maintenance medium without insulin (PAMPS Culture) were compared with cells cultured on polystyrene using the differentiation medium containing insulin (PS-I Culture). The microarray analysis, Western blot analysis, and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the TGF-β/BMP signaling pathway was significantly enhanced at Days 1, 2, and 3 in the PAMPS Culture when compared with the PS-I Culture. Inhibition of the BMP type-I receptor reduced the phosphorylation level of Smad1/5 and expression of type-2 collagen and aggrecan mRNA in the cells accompanied by a reduction in cell aggregation at Day 13 in the PAMPS Culture. The inhibition of the TGF-β/BMP signaling pathway significantly inhibited the chondrogenic differentiation induced by the PAMPS gel. The present study demonstrated that synthetic PAMPS gel activates the TGF-β/BMP/Smad signaling pathway in the ATDC5 cells in the absence of insulin, and that this activation plays a significant role in the chondrogenic differentiation induced by PAMPS gel. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 734-746, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A SHH-FOXF1-BMP4 signaling axis regulating growth and differentiation of epithelial and mesenchymal tissues in ureter development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bohnenpoll

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The differentiated cell types of the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the mature ureter of the mouse arise in a precise temporal and spatial sequence from uncommitted precursor cells of the distal ureteric bud epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme. Previous genetic efforts identified a member of the Hedgehog (HH family of secreted proteins, Sonic hedgehog (SHH as a crucial epithelial signal for growth and differentiation of the ureteric mesenchyme. Here, we used conditional loss- and gain-of-function experiments of the unique HH signal transducer Smoothened (SMO to further characterize the cellular functions and unravel the effector genes of HH signaling in ureter development. We showed that HH signaling is not only required for proliferation and SMC differentiation of cells of the inner mesenchymal region but also for survival of cells of the outer mesenchymal region, and for epithelial proliferation and differentiation. We identified the Forkhead transcription factor gene Foxf1 as a target of HH signaling in the ureteric mesenchyme. Expression of a repressor version of FOXF1 in this tissue completely recapitulated the mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation and differentiation defects associated with loss of HH signaling while re-expression of a wildtype version of FOXF1 in the inner mesenchymal layer restored these cellular programs when HH signaling was inhibited. We further showed that expression of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme depends on HH signaling and Foxf1, and that exogenous BMP4 rescued cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation in ureters with abrogated HH signaling or FOXF1 function. We conclude that SHH uses a FOXF1-BMP4 module to coordinate the cellular programs for ureter elongation and differentiation, and suggest that deregulation of this signaling axis occurs in human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT.

  18. A SHH-FOXF1-BMP4 signaling axis regulating growth and differentiation of epithelial and mesenchymal tissues in ureter development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittern, Anna B.; Weiss, Anna-Carina; Rudat, Carsten; Schuster-Gossler, Karin; Wojahn, Irina; Lüdtke, Timo H.-W.; Trowe, Mark-Oliver

    2017-01-01

    The differentiated cell types of the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the mature ureter of the mouse arise in a precise temporal and spatial sequence from uncommitted precursor cells of the distal ureteric bud epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme. Previous genetic efforts identified a member of the Hedgehog (HH) family of secreted proteins, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) as a crucial epithelial signal for growth and differentiation of the ureteric mesenchyme. Here, we used conditional loss- and gain-of-function experiments of the unique HH signal transducer Smoothened (SMO) to further characterize the cellular functions and unravel the effector genes of HH signaling in ureter development. We showed that HH signaling is not only required for proliferation and SMC differentiation of cells of the inner mesenchymal region but also for survival of cells of the outer mesenchymal region, and for epithelial proliferation and differentiation. We identified the Forkhead transcription factor gene Foxf1 as a target of HH signaling in the ureteric mesenchyme. Expression of a repressor version of FOXF1 in this tissue completely recapitulated the mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation and differentiation defects associated with loss of HH signaling while re-expression of a wildtype version of FOXF1 in the inner mesenchymal layer restored these cellular programs when HH signaling was inhibited. We further showed that expression of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme depends on HH signaling and Foxf1, and that exogenous BMP4 rescued cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation in ureters with abrogated HH signaling or FOXF1 function. We conclude that SHH uses a FOXF1-BMP4 module to coordinate the cellular programs for ureter elongation and differentiation, and suggest that deregulation of this signaling axis occurs in human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). PMID:28797033

  19. A SHH-FOXF1-BMP4 signaling axis regulating growth and differentiation of epithelial and mesenchymal tissues in ureter development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenpoll, Tobias; Wittern, Anna B; Mamo, Tamrat M; Weiss, Anna-Carina; Rudat, Carsten; Kleppa, Marc-Jens; Schuster-Gossler, Karin; Wojahn, Irina; Lüdtke, Timo H-W; Trowe, Mark-Oliver; Kispert, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    The differentiated cell types of the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the mature ureter of the mouse arise in a precise temporal and spatial sequence from uncommitted precursor cells of the distal ureteric bud epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme. Previous genetic efforts identified a member of the Hedgehog (HH) family of secreted proteins, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) as a crucial epithelial signal for growth and differentiation of the ureteric mesenchyme. Here, we used conditional loss- and gain-of-function experiments of the unique HH signal transducer Smoothened (SMO) to further characterize the cellular functions and unravel the effector genes of HH signaling in ureter development. We showed that HH signaling is not only required for proliferation and SMC differentiation of cells of the inner mesenchymal region but also for survival of cells of the outer mesenchymal region, and for epithelial proliferation and differentiation. We identified the Forkhead transcription factor gene Foxf1 as a target of HH signaling in the ureteric mesenchyme. Expression of a repressor version of FOXF1 in this tissue completely recapitulated the mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation and differentiation defects associated with loss of HH signaling while re-expression of a wildtype version of FOXF1 in the inner mesenchymal layer restored these cellular programs when HH signaling was inhibited. We further showed that expression of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme depends on HH signaling and Foxf1, and that exogenous BMP4 rescued cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation in ureters with abrogated HH signaling or FOXF1 function. We conclude that SHH uses a FOXF1-BMP4 module to coordinate the cellular programs for ureter elongation and differentiation, and suggest that deregulation of this signaling axis occurs in human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT).

  20. Smad4 mediated BMP2 signal is essential for the regulation of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 by affecting the histone H3 acetylation in H9c2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Lina; Shi, Jin; Gao, Wenqun; Zheng, Min; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhu, Jing; Tian, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • BMP2 can upregulated cardiac related gene GATA4, Nkx2.5, MEF2c and Tbx5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased BMP2-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. • Inhibition of Smad4 diminished BMP2-induced overexpression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased hyperacetylated H3 in the promoter of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Smad4 is essential for BMP2 induced hyperacetylated histone H3. - Abstract: BMP2 signaling pathway plays critical roles during heart development, Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a pivotal nuclear mediator. Our previous studies showed that BMP2 enhanced the expression of cardiac transcription factors in part by increasing histone H3 acetylation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Smad4 mediated BMP2 signaling pathway is essential for the expression of cardiac core transcription factors by affecting the histone H3 acetylation. We successfully constructed a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA interference vector targeting Smad4 (Lv-Smad4) in rat H9c2 embryonic cardiac myocytes (H9c2 cells) and demonstrated that it suppressed the expression of the Smad4 gene. Cultured H9c2 cells were transfected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human BMP2 (AdBMP2) with or without Lv-Smad4. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 substantially inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not MEF2c and Tbx5. Similarly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal histone H3 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not of Tbx5 and MEF2c. In addition, Lv-Smad4 selectively suppressed AdBMP2-induced expression of HAT p300, but not of HAT GCN5 in H9c2 cells. The data indicated that inhibition of Smad4 diminished both AdBMP2 induced and basal histone acetylation levels in the promoter regions of

  1. Smad4 mediated BMP2 signal is essential for the regulation of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 by affecting the histone H3 acetylation in H9c2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Lina; Shi, Jin; Gao, Wenqun [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Zheng, Min [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Liu, Lingjuan; Zhu, Jing [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Tian, Jie, E-mail: jietian@cqmu.edu.cn [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • BMP2 can upregulated cardiac related gene GATA4, Nkx2.5, MEF2c and Tbx5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased BMP2-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. • Inhibition of Smad4 diminished BMP2-induced overexpression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased hyperacetylated H3 in the promoter of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Smad4 is essential for BMP2 induced hyperacetylated histone H3. - Abstract: BMP2 signaling pathway plays critical roles during heart development, Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a pivotal nuclear mediator. Our previous studies showed that BMP2 enhanced the expression of cardiac transcription factors in part by increasing histone H3 acetylation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Smad4 mediated BMP2 signaling pathway is essential for the expression of cardiac core transcription factors by affecting the histone H3 acetylation. We successfully constructed a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA interference vector targeting Smad4 (Lv-Smad4) in rat H9c2 embryonic cardiac myocytes (H9c2 cells) and demonstrated that it suppressed the expression of the Smad4 gene. Cultured H9c2 cells were transfected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human BMP2 (AdBMP2) with or without Lv-Smad4. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 substantially inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not MEF2c and Tbx5. Similarly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal histone H3 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not of Tbx5 and MEF2c. In addition, Lv-Smad4 selectively suppressed AdBMP2-induced expression of HAT p300, but not of HAT GCN5 in H9c2 cells. The data indicated that inhibition of Smad4 diminished both AdBMP2 induced and basal histone acetylation levels in the promoter regions of

  2. The zinc transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 is required for connective tissue development; its involvement in BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Fukada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element and it is abundant in connective tissues, however biological roles of Zn and its transporters in those tissues and cells remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that mice deficient in Zn transporter Slc39a13/Zip13 show changes in bone, teeth and connective tissue reminiscent of the clinical spectrum of human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS. The Slc39a13 knockout (Slc39a13-KO mice show defects in the maturation of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, and fibroblasts. In the corresponding tissues and cells, impairment in bone morphogenic protein (BMP and TGF-beta signaling were observed. Homozygosity for a SLC39A13 loss of function mutation was detected in sibs affected by a unique variant of EDS that recapitulates the phenotype observed in Slc39a13-KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hence, our results reveal a crucial role of SLC39A13/ZIP13 in connective tissue development at least in part due to its involvement in the BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways. The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-beta signaling and connective tissue dysfunction.

  3. CXXC5 is a novel BMP4-regulated modulator of Wnt signaling in neural stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andersson, T.; Södersten, E.; Duckworth, J.K.; Cascante, A.; Fritz, N.; Sacchetti, P.; Červenka, I.; Bryja, Vítězslav; Hermanson, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 6 (2008), s. 3672-3681 ISSN 0021-9258 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB501630801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Wnt signaling * CXXC5 * neural stem cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2008

  4. Tfap2a promotes specification and maturation of neurons in the inner ear through modulation of Bmp, Fgf and notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Husniye; Edlund, Renee K; Groves, Andrew K; Riley, Bruce B

    2015-03-01

    Neurons of the statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) transmit auditory and vestibular information from the inner ear to the hindbrain. SAG neuroblasts originate in the floor of the otic vesicle. New neuroblasts soon delaminate and migrate towards the hindbrain while continuing to proliferate, a phase known as transit amplification. SAG cells eventually come to rest between the ear and hindbrain before terminally differentiating. Regulation of these events is only partially understood. Fgf initiates neuroblast specification within the ear. Subsequently, Fgf secreted by mature SAG neurons exceeds a maximum threshold, serving to terminate specification and delay maturation of transit-amplifying cells. Notch signaling also limits SAG development, but how it is coordinated with Fgf is unknown. Here we show that transcription factor Tfap2a coordinates multiple signaling pathways to promote neurogenesis in the zebrafish inner ear. In both zebrafish and chick, Tfap2a is expressed in a ventrolateral domain of the otic vesicle that includes neurogenic precursors. Functional studies were conducted in zebrafish. Loss of Tfap2a elevated Fgf and Notch signaling, thereby inhibiting SAG specification and slowing maturation of transit-amplifying cells. Conversely, overexpression of Tfap2a inhibited Fgf and Notch signaling, leading to excess and accelerated SAG production. However, most SAG neurons produced by Tfap2a overexpression died soon after maturation. Directly blocking either Fgf or Notch caused less dramatic acceleration of SAG development without neuronal death, whereas blocking both pathways mimicked all observed effects of Tfap2a overexpression, including apoptosis of mature neurons. Analysis of genetic mosaics showed that Tfap2a acts non-autonomously to inhibit Fgf. This led to the discovery that Tfap2a activates expression of Bmp7a, which in turn inhibits both Fgf and Notch signaling. Blocking Bmp signaling reversed the effects of overexpressing Tfap2a. Together, these data

  5. A selection fit mechanism in BMP receptor IA as a possible source for BMP ligand-receptor promiscuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Harth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the TGF-β superfamily are characterized by a highly promiscuous ligand-receptor interaction as is readily apparent from the numeral discrepancy of only seven type I and five type II receptors available for more than 40 ligands. Structural and functional studies have been used to address the question of how specific signals can be deduced from a limited number of receptor combinations and to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the protein-protein recognition that allow such limited specificity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we have investigated how an antigen binding antibody fragment (Fab raised against the extracellular domain of the BMP receptor type IA (BMPR-IA recognizes the receptor's BMP-2 binding epitope and thereby neutralizes BMP-2 receptor activation. The crystal structure of the complex of the BMPR-IA ectodomain bound to the Fab AbD1556 revealed that the contact surface of BMPR-IA overlaps extensively with the contact surface for BMP-2 interaction. Although the structural epitopes of BMPR-IA to both binding partners coincides, the structures of BMPR-IA in the two complexes differ significantly. In contrast to the structural differences, alanine-scanning mutagenesis of BMPR-IA showed that the functional determinants for binding to the antibody and BMP-2 are almost identical. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the structures of BMPR-IA bound to BMP-2 or bound to the Fab AbD1556 with the structure of unbound BMPR-IA shows that binding of BMPR-IA to its interaction partners follows a selection fit mechanism, possibly indicating that the ligand promiscuity of BMPR-IA is inherently encoded by structural adaptability. The functional and structural analysis of the BMPR-IA binding antibody AbD1556 mimicking the BMP-2 binding epitope may thus pave the way for the design of low-molecular weight synthetic receptor binders/inhibitors.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of chicken cochleae after gentamicin damage and the involvement of four signaling pathways (Notch, FGF, Wnt and BMP) in hair cell regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingling; Xu, Jincao; Jin, Ran; Bai, Huanju; Zhang, Meiguang; Yang, Siyuan; Zhang, Xuebo; Zhang, Xinwen; Han, Zhongming; Zeng, Shaoju

    2018-04-01

    Unlike mammalian hair cells, which are essentially unable to regenerate after damage, avian hair cells have a robust capacity for regeneration. The prerequisite for understanding the above difference is knowing the genetic programming of avian hair cell regeneration. Although the major processes have been known, the precise molecular signaling that induces regeneration remains unclear. To address this issue, we performed a high-throughput transcriptomic analysis of gene expression during hair cell regeneration in the chick cochlea after antibiotic injury in vivo. A total of 16,588 genes were found to be expressed in the cochlea, of which about 1000 genes were differentially expressed among the four groups studied, i.e., 2 days (d) or 3 d post-treatment with gentamicin or physiological saline. The differentially expressed genes were distributed across approximately one hundred signaling pathways, including the Notch, MAPK (FGF), Wnt and TGF-β (BMP) pathways that have been shown to play important roles in embryonic development. Some differentially expressed genes (2-3 in each pathway) were further verified by qRT-PCR. After blocking Notch, FGF or BMP signaling, the number of regenerating hair cells and mitotic supporting cells increased. However, the opposite effect was observed after suppressing the Wnt pathway or enhancing BMP signaling. To our knowledge, the present study provided a relatively complete dataset of candidate genes and signaling pathways most likely involved in hair cell regeneration and should be a useful start in deciphering the genetic circuitry for inducing hair cell regeneration in the chick cochlea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A clinically relevant model of osteoinduction: a process requiring calcium phosphate and BMP/Wnt signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyckmans, J; Roberts, S J; Schrooten, J; Luyten, F P

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we investigated a clinically relevant model of in vivo ectopic bone formation utilizing human periosteum derived cells (HPDCs) seeded in a Collagraft carrier and explored the mechanisms by which this process is driven. Bone formation occurred after eight weeks when a minimum of one million HPDCs was loaded on Collagraft carriers and implanted subcutaneously in NMRI nu/nu mice. De novo bone matrix, mainly secreted by the HPDCs, was found juxta-proximal of the calcium phosphate (CaP) granules suggesting that CaP may have triggered the 'osteoinductive program'. Indeed, removal of the CaP granules by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid decalcification prior to cell seeding and implantation resulted in loss of bone formation. In addition, inhibition of endogenous bone morphogenetic protein and Wnt signalling by overexpression of the secreted antagonists Noggin and Frzb, respectively, also abrogated osteoinduction. Proliferation of the engrafted HPDCs was strongly reduced in the decalcified scaffolds or when seeded with adenovirus-Noggin/Frzb transduced HPDCs indicating that cell division of the engrafted HPDCs is required for the direct bone formation cascade. These data suggest that this model of bone formation is similar to that observed during physiological intramembranous bone development and may be of importance when investigating tissue engineering strategies.

  8. Two novel type II receptors mediate BMP signalling and are required to establish left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro, R.; van Dinther, M.; Bakkers, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Patient, R.; ten Dijke, P.; Mummery, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Ligands of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily, like Nodal and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), are pivotal to establish left-right (LR) asymmetry in vertebrates. However, the receptors mediating this process are unknown. Here we identified two new type II receptors for BMPs

  9. New assignments for multitasking signal transduction inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Meier, Kathryn E

    2006-05-01

    An article presented in this issue of Molecular Pharmacology (p. 1527) provides an intriguing example of how tyrosine kinase inhibitors can be put to many uses. In this article, the action of dasatinib (BMS-354825) is contrasted with that of imatinib, a kinase inhibitor that is currently being used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia and other disorders. Both pharmacologic inhibitors target several tyrosine kinases, including Bcr-Abl and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). Up to this point, the PDGFR has not been a primary therapeutic target for this class of agents. The work of Chen and colleagues shows that dasatinib is a particularly potent inhibitor of PDGFR and that the compound also targets Src kinase. The authors suggest that this combination of activities could be useful in the treatment of vascular obstructive diseases. Although a lack of absolute specificity has typically been regarded as a pharmacologic drawback, this study exemplifies how drugs with multiple molecular targets can potentially provide a very beneficial spectrum of therapeutic activities in multiple disease states.

  10. C. elegans DAF-16/FOXO interacts with TGF-ß/BMP signaling to induce germline tumor formation via mTORC1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenjing; Yan, Yijian; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Donner V Gromoff, Erika; Wang, Yimin; Maier, Wolfgang; Baumeister, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Activation of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 by reduced insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) is considered to be beneficial in C. elegans due to its ability to extend lifespan and to enhance stress resistance. In the germline, cell-autonomous DAF-16 activity prevents stem cell proliferation, thus acting tumor-suppressive. In contrast, hypodermal DAF-16 causes a tumorous germline phenotype characterized by hyperproliferation of the germline stem cells and rupture of the adjacent basement membrane. Here we show that cross-talk between DAF-16 and the transforming growth factor ß (TGFß)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling pathway causes germline hyperplasia and results in disruption of the basement membrane. In addition to activating MADM/NRBP/hpo-11 gene alone, DAF-16 also directly interacts with both R-SMAD proteins SMA-2 and SMA-3 in the nucleus to regulate the expression of mTORC1 pathway. Knocking-down of BMP genes or each of the four target genes in the hypodermis was sufficient to inhibit germline proliferation, indicating a cell-non-autonomously controlled regulation of stem cell proliferation by somatic tissues. We propose the existence of two antagonistic DAF-16/FOXO functions, a cell-proliferative somatic and an anti-proliferative germline activity. Whereas germline hyperplasia under reduced IIS is inhibited by DAF-16 cell-autonomously, activation of somatic DAF-16 in the presence of active IIS promotes germline proliferation and eventually induces tumor-like germline growth. In summary, our results suggest a novel pathway crosstalk of DAF-16 and TGF-ß/BMP that can modulate mTORC1 at the transcriptional level to cause stem-cell hyperproliferation. Such cell-type specific differences may help explaining why human FOXO activity is considered to be tumor-suppressive in most contexts, but may become oncogenic, e.g. in chronic and acute myeloid leukemia.

  11. C. elegans DAF-16/FOXO interacts with TGF-ß/BMP signaling to induce germline tumor formation via mTORC1 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Qi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 by reduced insulin/IGF signaling (IIS is considered to be beneficial in C. elegans due to its ability to extend lifespan and to enhance stress resistance. In the germline, cell-autonomous DAF-16 activity prevents stem cell proliferation, thus acting tumor-suppressive. In contrast, hypodermal DAF-16 causes a tumorous germline phenotype characterized by hyperproliferation of the germline stem cells and rupture of the adjacent basement membrane. Here we show that cross-talk between DAF-16 and the transforming growth factor ß (TGFß/bone morphogenic protein (BMP signaling pathway causes germline hyperplasia and results in disruption of the basement membrane. In addition to activating MADM/NRBP/hpo-11 gene alone, DAF-16 also directly interacts with both R-SMAD proteins SMA-2 and SMA-3 in the nucleus to regulate the expression of mTORC1 pathway. Knocking-down of BMP genes or each of the four target genes in the hypodermis was sufficient to inhibit germline proliferation, indicating a cell-non-autonomously controlled regulation of stem cell proliferation by somatic tissues. We propose the existence of two antagonistic DAF-16/FOXO functions, a cell-proliferative somatic and an anti-proliferative germline activity. Whereas germline hyperplasia under reduced IIS is inhibited by DAF-16 cell-autonomously, activation of somatic DAF-16 in the presence of active IIS promotes germline proliferation and eventually induces tumor-like germline growth. In summary, our results suggest a novel pathway crosstalk of DAF-16 and TGF-ß/BMP that can modulate mTORC1 at the transcriptional level to cause stem-cell hyperproliferation. Such cell-type specific differences may help explaining why human FOXO activity is considered to be tumor-suppressive in most contexts, but may become oncogenic, e.g. in chronic and acute myeloid leukemia.

  12. BMP-7 induces apoptosis in human germinal center B cells and is influenced by TGF-β receptor type I ALK5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise K Bollum

    Full Text Available Selection and maturation of B cells into plasma cells producing high-affinity antibodies occur in germinal centers (GC. GCs form transiently in secondary lymphoid organs upon antigen challenge, and the GC reaction is a highly regulated process. TGF-β is a potent negative regulator, but the influence of other family members including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs is less known. Studies of human peripheral blood B lymphocytes showed that BMP-6 suppressed plasmablast differentiation, whereas BMP-7 induced apoptosis. Here, we show that human naïve and GC B cells had a strikingly different receptor expression pattern. GC B cells expressed high levels of BMP type I receptor but low levels of type II receptors, whereas naïve B cells had the opposite pattern. Furthermore, GC B cells had elevated levels of downstream signaling components SMAD1 and SMAD5, but reduced levels of the inhibitory SMAD7. Functional assays of GC B cells revealed that BMP-7 suppressed the viability-promoting effect of CD40L and IL-21, but had no effect on CD40L- and IL-21-induced differentiation into plasmablasts. BMP-7-induced apoptosis was counteracted by a selective TGF-β type I receptor (ALK4/5/7 inhibitor, but not by a selective BMP receptor type I inhibitor. Furthermore, overexpression of truncated ALK5 in a B-cell line counteracted BMP-7-induced apoptosis, whereas overexpression of truncated ALK4 had no effect. BMP-7 mRNA and protein was readily detected in tonsillar B cells, indicating a physiological relevance of the study. Altogether, we identified BMP-7 as a negative regulator of GC B-cell survival. The effect was counteracted by truncated ALK5, suggesting greater complexity in regulating BMP-7 signaling than previously believed.

  13. Breast cancer cells obtain an osteomimetic feature via epithelial-mesenchymal transition that have undergone BMP2/RUNX2 signaling pathway induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li-Duan; Du, Xin; Li, Xiao-Qing; He, Rui; Wang, Qing-Shan; Feng, Yu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common organs of breast cancer metastasis. Cancer cells that mimic osteoblasts by expressing bone matrix proteins and factors have a higher likelihood of metastasizing to bone. However, the molecular mechanisms of osteomimicry formation of cancer cells remain undefined. Herein, we identified a set of bone-related genes (BRGs) that are ectopically co-expressed in primary breast cancer tissues and determined that osteomimetic feature is obtained due to the osteoblast-like transformation of epithelial breast cancer cells that have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) followed by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that breast cancer cells that transformed into osteoblast-like cells with high expression of BRGs showed enhanced chemotaxis, adhesion, proliferation and multidrug resistance in an osteoblast-mimic bone microenvironment in vitro. During these processes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) functioned as a master mediator by suppressing or activating the transcription of BRGs that underlie the dynamic antagonism between the TGF-β/SMAD and BMP/SMAD signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of osteomimicry formation that arises in primary breast tumors, which may explain the propensity of breast cancer to metastasize to the skeleton and contribute to potential strategies for predicting and targeting breast cancer bone metastasis and multidrug resistance. PMID:27806311

  14. Microstructured Titanium Regulates Interleukin Production by Osteoblasts, an Effect Modulated by Exogenous BMP-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyzy, Sharon; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Hutton, Daphne L.; Tan, Christian; Boyan, Barbara D.; Schwartz, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    Microtextured implant surfaces increase osteoblast differentiation in vitro and enhance bone-to-implant contact in vivo and clinically. These implants may be used in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) to enhance peri-implant bone formation. However, the effect of surface modifications alone or in combination with rhBMP-2 on osteoblast-produced inflammatory microenvironment is unknown. MG63 cells were cultured on tissue culture polystyrene or titanium substrates: smooth pretreated (PT, Ra=0.2μm), sandblasted/acid-etched (SLA, Ra=3.2μm), or hydrophilic-SLA (modSLA). Expression and protein production of pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL1b, IL6, IL8, IL17) and anti-inflammatory interleukins (IL10) were measured in cells with or without rhBMP-2. To determine which BMP signaling pathways were involved, cultures were incubated with BMP pathway inhibitors to blocking Smad (dorsomorphin), TAB/TAK1 ((5Z)-7-oxozeaenol), or PKA (H-8) signaling. Culture on rough SLA and modSLA surfaces decreased pro-inflammatory interleukins and increased anti-inflammatory IL10. This effect was negated in cells treated with rhBMP-2, which caused an increase in pro-inflammatory interleukins and a decrease in anti-inflammatory interleukins through TAB/TAK signaling. The results suggest that surface microtexture modulates the inflammatory process during osseointegration, an effect that may enhance healing. However, rhBMP-2 in combination with microtextured titanium implants can influence the effect of cells on these surfaces, and may adversely affect cells involved in osseointegration. PMID:23123301

  15. Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT provides protection against acute craniocerebral injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Zhang

    Full Text Available Notch signaling pathway is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. The γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT inhibits Notch signaling pathway and promotes nerve regeneration after cerebral ischemia. However, neuroprotective effects of DAPT against acute craniocerebral injury remain unclear. In this study, we established rat model of acute craniocerebral injury, and found that with the increase of damage grade, the expression of Notch and downstream protein Hes1 and Hes5 expression gradually increased. After the administration of DAPT, the expression of Notch, Hes1 and Hes5 was inhibited, apoptosis and oxidative stress decreased, neurological function and cognitive function improved. These results suggest that Notch signaling can be used as an indicator to assess the severity of post-traumatic brain injury. Notch inhibitor DAPT can reduce oxidative stress and apoptosis after acute craniocerebral injury, and is a potential drug for the treatment of acute craniocerebral injury.

  16. A computational model for BMP movement in sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijster, Peter; Hardway, Heather; Kaper, Tasso J; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2014-12-21

    Bone morphogen proteins (BMPs) are distributed along a dorsal-ventral (DV) gradient in many developing embryos. The spatial distribution of this signaling ligand is critical for correct DV axis specification. In various species, BMP expression is spatially localized, and BMP gradient formation relies on BMP transport, which in turn requires interactions with the extracellular proteins Short gastrulation/Chordin (Chd) and Twisted gastrulation (Tsg). These binding interactions promote BMP movement and concomitantly inhibit BMP signaling. The protease Tolloid (Tld) cleaves Chd, which releases BMP from the complex and permits it to bind the BMP receptor and signal. In sea urchin embryos, BMP is produced in the ventral ectoderm, but signals in the dorsal ectoderm. The transport of BMP from the ventral ectoderm to the dorsal ectoderm in sea urchin embryos is not understood. Therefore, using information from a series of experiments, we adapt the mathematical model of Mizutani et al. (2005) and embed it as the reaction part of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. We use it to study aspects of this transport process in sea urchin embryos. We demonstrate that the receptor-bound BMP concentration exhibits dorsally centered peaks of the same type as those observed experimentally when the ternary transport complex (Chd-Tsg-BMP) forms relatively quickly and BMP receptor binding is relatively slow. Similarly, dorsally centered peaks are created when the diffusivities of BMP, Chd, and Chd-Tsg are relatively low and that of Chd-Tsg-BMP is relatively high, and the model dynamics also suggest that Tld is a principal regulator of the system. At the end of this paper, we briefly compare the observed dynamics in the sea urchin model to a version that applies to the fly embryo, and we find that the same conditions can account for BMP transport in the two types of embryos only if Tld levels are reduced in sea urchin compared to fly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) plus BMP-2 upregulates intervertebral disc-cell matrix synthesis more than either BMP-2 alone or PEMF alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Motohiro; Kim, Jin Hwan; Yoon, Sangwook Tim; Hutton, William C

    2013-08-01

    An in vitro study using human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells. To determine if pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) plus bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 could upregulate IVD-cell matrix synthesis more than either BMP-2 alone or PEMF alone. BMP-7 and BMP-2 can both upregulate IVD-cell matrix synthesis. There are problems associated with using either BMP-2 or BMP-7. They can diffuse away rather quickly after injection into the IVD space, they cost a lot, and they have side effects such as soft-tissue inflammation and swelling. PEMF has been reported to stimulate various types of cells. PEMF is safe, inexpensive, and noninvasive, thus multiple use is possible. However, PEMF alone has a rather weak effect on disc cells. We decided to carry out an experiment whereby we combined PEMF with BMP-2. Our thoughts were that BMP-2 plus PEMF could be better than either alone. The PEMF signal used was similar to that used in the clinical treatment of fracture nonunions or delayed fracture healing. Human disc cells were treated with BMP-2 alone or PEMF alone or PEMF plus BMP-2. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to determine mRNA expression levels of aggrecan, collagen-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, BMP-2, and BMP-7. Sulfated glycosaminoglycansynthesis was analyzed using the dimethylmethylene blue method. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the protein levels of TGF-β, BMP-2, and BMP-7. PEMF plus BMP-2 upregulates IVD-cell matrix synthesis more than BMP-2 alone or PEMF alone, and the effect seems to be synergistic. Also, PEMF plus BMP-2 induces more endogenous BMP-7 and BMP-2 mRNA levels as well as protein levels, as compared with either PEMF alone or BMP-2 alone. PEMF plus BMP-2 acts in synergy to upregulate intervertebral disc-cell matrix synthesis more than either BMP-2 alone or PEMF alone.

  18. Regulatory role of melatonin and BMP-4 in prolactin production by rat pituitary lactotrope GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Ochi, Kanako; Fujisawa, Satoshi; Iwata, Nahoko; Komatsubara, Motoshi; Nishiyama, Yuki; Tsukamoto-Yamauchi, Naoko; Inagaki, Kenichi; Wada, Jun; Otsuka, Fumio

    2017-08-01

    The effects of melatonin on prolactin production and its regulatory mechanism remain uncertain. We investigated the regulatory role of melatonin in prolactin production using rat pituitary lactotrope GH3 cells by focusing on the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system. Melatonin receptor activation, induced by melatonin and its receptor agonist ramelteon, significantly suppressed basal and forskolin-induced prolactin secretion and prolactin mRNA expression in GH3 cells. The melatonin MT2 receptor was predominantly expressed in GH3 cells, and the inhibitory effects of melatonin on prolactin production were reversed by treatment with the receptor antagonist luzindole, suggesting functional involvement of MT2 action in the suppression of prolactin release. Melatonin receptor activation also suppressed BMP-4-induced prolactin expression by inhibiting phosphorylation of Smad and transcription of the BMP-target gene Id-1, while BMP-4 treatment upregulated MT2 expression. Melatonin receptor activation suppressed basal, BMP-4-induced and forskolin-induced cAMP synthesis; however, BtcAMP-induced prolactin mRNA expression was not affected by melatonin or ramelteon, suggesting that MT2 activation leads to inhibition of prolactin production through the suppression of Smad signaling and cAMP synthesis. Experiments using intracellular signal inhibitors revealed that the ERK pathway is, at least in part, involved in prolactin induction by GH3 cells. Thus, a new regulatory role of melatonin involving BMP-4 in prolactin secretion was uncovered in lactotrope GH3 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Twisted gastrulation, a BMP antagonist, exacerbates podocyte injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Yamada

    Full Text Available Podocyte injury is the first step in the progression of glomerulosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7 in podocyte injury and the existence of native Bmp signaling in podocytes. Local activity of Bmp7 is controlled by cell-type specific Bmp antagonists, which inhibit the binding of Bmp7 to its receptors. Here we show that the product of Twisted gastrulation (Twsg1, a Bmp antagonist, is the central negative regulator of Bmp function in podocytes and that Twsg1 null mice are resistant to podocyte injury. Twsg1 was the most abundant Bmp antagonist in murine cultured podocytes. The administration of Bmp induced podocyte differentiation through Smad signaling, whereas the simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. The administration of Bmp also inhibited podocyte proliferation, whereas simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. Twsg1 was expressed in the glomerular parietal cells (PECs and distal nephron of the healthy kidney, and additionally in damaged glomerular cells in a murine model of podocyte injury. Twsg1 null mice exhibited milder hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, and milder histological changes while maintaining the expression of podocyte markers during podocyte injury model. Taken together, our results show that Twsg1 plays a critical role in the modulation of protective action of Bmp7 on podocytes, and that inhibition of Twsg1 is a promising means of development of novel treatment for podocyte injury.

  20. Bmp4 from the Optic Vesicle Specifies Murine Retina Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jie; Liu, Ying; Oltean, Alina; Beebe, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of mouse embryos concluded that after the optic vesicle evaginates from the ventral forebrain and contacts the surface ectoderm, signals from the ectoderm specify the distal region of the optic vesicle to become retina and signals from the optic vesicle induce the lens. Germline deletion of Bmp4 resulted in failure of lens formation. We performed conditional deletion of Bmp4 from the optic vesicle to test the function of Bmp4 in murine eye development. The optic vesicle evagi...

  1. Interactions of regenerative, inflammatory and biomechanical signals on bone morphogenetic protein-2 in periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhbehsaim, M; Deschner, B; Winter, J; Bourauel, C; Rath, B; Jäger, A; Jepsen, S; Deschner, J

    2011-06-01

    Regeneration of periodontal tissues by EMD remains a major challenge because a number of modifying factors are as yet unknown. The effects of EMD seem to be mediated, at least in part, by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). This in vitro study was performed to examine whether the effects of EMD on BMP-2 activity are modulated by inflammatory and/or biomechanical signals.   Periodontal ligament cells were seeded on BioFlex(®) plates and exposed to EMD under normal, inflammatory or biomechanical loading conditions for 1 and 6 d. In order to mimic proinflammatory or biomechanical loading conditions in vitro, cells were stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which is increased at inflamed periodontal sites, and cyclic tensile strain of various magnitudes, respectively. The synthesis of BMP-2, its receptors (BMPR-1A, BMPR-1B and BMPR-2) and its inhibitors (follistatin, matrix gla protein and noggin) were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. In EMD-treated cells, BMP-2 synthesis was increased significantly at 1 d. EMD also induced the expression of all BMP receptors, and of the BMP inhibitors follistatin and noggin. In general, IL-1β and biomechanical loading neither down-regulated BMP-2 nor up-regulated BMP inhibitors in EMD-stimulated cells. However, IL-1β and biomechanical loading, when applied for a longer time period, caused a down-regulation of EMD-induced BMP receptors. EMD induces not only BMP-2, but also its receptors and inhibitors, in PDL cells. IL-1β and biomechanical forces may counteract the beneficial effects of EMD on BMP-2 activity via the down-regulation of BMP receptors. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. A MicroRNA-124 Polymorphism is Associated with Fracture Healing via Modulating BMP6 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: miR-124-3p has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases by modulating a variety of signaling pathways. In this study, we aimed to understand the impact of miR-124-3p expression level on the fracture healing in the patients of metaphyseal fracture of distal tibia, who received minimal invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis. Methods: We firstly collected 195 patients of metaphyseal fracture of distal tibia, and the genotype of rs531564 was determined: GG (n=124 and GC+CC (n=71. We collected information of the participants including age, gender, total in-hospital time, smoking and alcohol consumption. Subsequently, we searched the miRNA database online to identify the possible binding sequence of miR-124-3p located within the 3’-UTR of the target gene. We did correlation analysis and luciferase to understand the regulatory relationship between miR-124-3p and BMP6. Meanwhile, we also conducted real time PCR and western blotting analysis to study the mRNA and protein expression level of BMP6 in different genotype groups. We then treated the cells with scramble control, miR-124-3p mimics, BMP6 siRNA and miR-124-3p inhibitors to investigate the influence of miR-124-3p on the expression of BMP6, viability and apoptosis of cells. Results: Total in-hospital time was significantly longer in GC+CC group than GG group. MiR-124-3p was up-regulated in GG group than GC and CC groups. BMP6 was virtual target of miR-124-3p. There existed negative regulatory relationship betweenmiR-124-3p and BMP6. The mRNA and protein expression level of BMP6 decreased in GG group. MiR-124-3p decreased the expression of BMP6. MiR-124-3p negatively interfered with the viability of cells and BMP6 positively interfered with the viability of cells. MiR-124-3p reduced apoptosis and BMP6 promoted apoptosis. Conclusion: These data proved the expression of miR-124-3p was associated with the healing of metaphyseal fracture of distal tibia, and

  3. Emerging roles of BMP9 and BMP10 in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle eTillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT, is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. Three genes are causally related to HHT: the ENG gene encoding endoglin, a co-receptor of the TGFß family (HHT1, the ACVRL1 gene encoding ALK1 (activin receptor-like kinase 1, a type I receptor of the TGFß family (HHT2, and the SMAD4 gene, encoding a transcription factor critical for this signaling pathway. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are growth factors of the TGFß family. Among them, BMP9 and BMP10 have been shown to bind directly with high affinity to ALK1 and endoglin, and BMP9 mutations have recently been linked to a vascular-anomaly syndrome that has phenotypic overlap with HHT. BMP9 and BMP10 are both circulating cytokines in blood, and the current working model is that BMP9 and BMP10 maintain a quiescent endothelial state that is dependent on the level of ALK1/endoglin activation on endothelial cells. In accordance with this model, to explain the etiology of HHT we hypothesize that a deficient BMP9/BMP10/ALK1/endoglin pathway may lead to re-activation of angiogenesis or a greater sensitivity to an angiogenic stimulus. Resulting endothelial hyperproliferation and hypermigration may lead to vasodilatation and formation of arteriovenous malformation (AVM. HHT would thus result from a defect in the angiogenic balance. This review will focus on the emerging role played by BMP9 and BMP10 in the development of this disease and the therapeutic approaches that this opens.

  4. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation enhances BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Chieri [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsuyo-i@huhs.ac.jp [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P

  5. High-performance scaffolds on titanium surfaces: Osteoblast differentiation and mineralization promoted by a globular fibrinogen layer through cell-autonomous BMP signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horasawa, Noriko; Yamashita, Teruhito; Uehara, Shunsuke; Udagawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Titanium has been widely used as a dental implant material. However, it takes several months for the implant body to bind with the jawbone. To develop new bioactive modification on titanium surfaces to achieve full osseointegration expeditiously, we used fibrinogen and fibronectin as bioactive scaffolds on the titanium plate, which are common extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. We analyzed the features of the surface of ECM-modified titanium plates by atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. We also evaluated the effect of ECM modification on promoting the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts on these surfaces. Fibrinogen had excellent adsorption on titanium surfaces even at low concentrations, due to the binding ability of fibrinogen via its RGD motif. The surface was composed of a fibrinogen monolayer, in which the ratio of β-sheets was decreased. Osteoblast proliferation on ECM-modified titanium surface was significantly promoted compared with titanium alone. Calcification on the modified surface was also accelerated. These ECM-promoting effects correlated with increased expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) by the osteoblasts themselves and were inhibited by Noggin, a BMP inhibitor. These results suggest that the fibrinogen monolayer-modified titanium surface is recognized as bioactive scaffolds and promotes bone formation, resulting in the acceleration of osseointegration. - Highlights: • Fibrinogen had an excellent adsorption on titanium at low concentrations. • Fibrinogen on titanium formed composite layer with a decrease in β-sheet structure. • Osteoblast proliferation and calcification on the ECM-modified titanium plates were significant. • These effects of fibrinogen were increased of BMPs by osteoblasts themselves. • The scaffolds of fibrinogen on titanium might accelerate osseointegration

  6. High-performance scaffolds on titanium surfaces: Osteoblast differentiation and mineralization promoted by a globular fibrinogen layer through cell-autonomous BMP signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horasawa, Noriko, E-mail: horasawa@po.mdu.ac.jp [Department of Dental Materials, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Hiro-oka Gobara, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan); Yamashita, Teruhito [Institute for Oral Science, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Hiro-oka Gobara, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan); Uehara, Shunsuke; Udagawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Biochemistry, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Hiro-oka Gobara, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Titanium has been widely used as a dental implant material. However, it takes several months for the implant body to bind with the jawbone. To develop new bioactive modification on titanium surfaces to achieve full osseointegration expeditiously, we used fibrinogen and fibronectin as bioactive scaffolds on the titanium plate, which are common extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. We analyzed the features of the surface of ECM-modified titanium plates by atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. We also evaluated the effect of ECM modification on promoting the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts on these surfaces. Fibrinogen had excellent adsorption on titanium surfaces even at low concentrations, due to the binding ability of fibrinogen via its RGD motif. The surface was composed of a fibrinogen monolayer, in which the ratio of β-sheets was decreased. Osteoblast proliferation on ECM-modified titanium surface was significantly promoted compared with titanium alone. Calcification on the modified surface was also accelerated. These ECM-promoting effects correlated with increased expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) by the osteoblasts themselves and were inhibited by Noggin, a BMP inhibitor. These results suggest that the fibrinogen monolayer-modified titanium surface is recognized as bioactive scaffolds and promotes bone formation, resulting in the acceleration of osseointegration. - Highlights: • Fibrinogen had an excellent adsorption on titanium at low concentrations. • Fibrinogen on titanium formed composite layer with a decrease in β-sheet structure. • Osteoblast proliferation and calcification on the ECM-modified titanium plates were significant. • These effects of fibrinogen were increased of BMPs by osteoblasts themselves. • The scaffolds of fibrinogen on titanium might accelerate osseointegration.

  7. L51P - A BMP2 variant with osteoinductive activity via inhibition of Noggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Christoph E; Hofstetter, Wilhelm; Sebald, Hans-Jörg; Sebald, Walter; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Klenke, Frank M

    2012-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) have to be applied at high concentrations to stimulate bone healing. The limited therapeutic efficacy may be due to the local presence of BMP antagonists such as Noggin. Thus, inhibiting BMP antagonists is an attractive therapeutic option. We hypothesized that the engineered BMP2 variant L51P stimulates osteoinduction by antagonizing Noggin-mediated inhibition of BMP2. Primary murine osteoblasts (OB) were treated with L51P, BMP2, and Noggin. OB proliferation and differentiation were quantified with XTT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays. BMP receptor dependent intracellular signaling in OB was evaluated with Smad and p38 MAPK phosphorylation assays. BMP2, Noggin, BMP receptor Ia/Ib/II, osteocalcin, and ALP mRNA expressions were analyzed with real-time PCR. L51P stimulated OB differentiation by blocking Noggin mediated inhibition of BMP2. L51P did not induce OB differentiation directly and did not activate BMP receptor dependent intracellular signaling via the Smad pathway. Treatment of OB cultures with BMP2 but not with L51P resulted in an increased expression of ALP, BMP2, and Noggin mRNA. By inhibiting the BMP antagonist Noggin, L51P enhances BMP2 activity and stimulates osteoinduction without exhibiting direct osteoinductive function. Indirect osteoinduction with L51P seems to be advantageous to osteoinduction with BMP2 as BMP2 stimulates the expression of Noggin thereby self-limiting its own osteoinductive activity. Treatment with L51P is the first protein-based approach available to augment BMP2 induced bone regeneration through inhibition of BMP antagonists. The described strategy may help to decrease the amounts of exogenous BMPs currently required to stimulate bone healing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Drosophila motor neuron retraction during metamorphosis is mediated by inputs from TGF-β/BMP signaling and orphan nuclear receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Boulanger

    Full Text Available Larval motor neurons remodel during Drosophila neuro-muscular junction dismantling at metamorphosis. In this study, we describe the motor neuron retraction as opposed to degeneration based on the early disappearance of β-Spectrin and the continuing presence of Tubulin. By blocking cell dynamics with a dominant-negative form of Dynamin, we show that phagocytes have a key role in this process. Importantly, we show the presence of peripheral glial cells close to the neuro-muscular junction that retracts before the motor neuron. We show also that in muscle, expression of EcR-B1 encoding the steroid hormone receptor required for postsynaptic dismantling, is under the control of the ftz-f1/Hr39 orphan nuclear receptor pathway but not the TGF-β signaling pathway. In the motor neuron, activation of EcR-B1 expression by the two parallel pathways (TGF-β signaling and nuclear receptor triggers axon retraction. We propose that a signal from a TGF-β family ligand is produced by the dismantling muscle (postsynapse compartment and received by the motor neuron (presynaptic compartment resulting in motor neuron retraction. The requirement of the two pathways in the motor neuron provides a molecular explanation for the instructive role of the postsynapse degradation on motor neuron retraction. This mechanism insures the temporality of the two processes and prevents motor neuron pruning before postsynaptic degradation.

  9. BMP type I receptor ALK2 is required for angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolli, Ester; Ernande, Laura; Thoonen, Robrecht; Kolodziej, Starsha A.; Leyton, Patricio A.; Cheng, Juan; Tainsh, Robert E. T.; Mayeur, Claire; Rhee, David K.; Wu, Mei. X.; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Zapol, Warren M.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Bloch, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling contributes to the development of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the identity of the BMP type I receptor involved in cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. By using quantitative PCR and immunoblotting, we demonstrated that BMP signaling increased during phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs), as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of Smads 1 and 5 and induction of Id1 gene expression. Inhibition of BMP signaling with LDN193189 or noggin, and silencing of Smad 1 or 4 using small interfering RNA diminished the ability of phenylephrine to induce hypertrophy in NRCs. Conversely, activation of BMP signaling with BMP2 or BMP4 induced hypertrophy in NRCs. Luciferase reporter assay further showed that BMP2 or BMP4 treatment of NRCs repressed atrogin-1 gene expression concomitant with an increase in calcineurin protein levels and enhanced activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, providing a mechanism by which BMP signaling contributes to cardiac hypertrophy. In a model of cardiac hypertrophy, C57BL/6 mice treated with angiotensin II (A2) had increased BMP signaling in the left ventricle. Treatment with LDN193189 attenuated A2-induced cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition in left ventricles. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of BMP type I receptor ALK2 (activin-like kinase 2), but not ALK1 or ALK3, inhibited BMP signaling and mitigated A2-induced cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular fibrosis in mice. The results suggest that BMP signaling upregulates the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell pathway via BMP type I receptor ALK2, contributing to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. PMID:26873969

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling promotes morphogenesis of blood vessels, wound epidermis, and actinotrichia during fin regeneration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorimbert, Valentine; König, Désirée; Marro, Jan; Ruggiero, Florence; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish fin regeneration involves initial formation of the wound epidermis and the blastema, followed by tissue morphogenesis. The mechanisms coordinating differentiation of distinct tissues of the regenerate are poorly understood. Here, we applied pharmacologic and transgenic approaches to address the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling during fin restoration. To map the BMP transcriptional activity, we analyzed the expression of the evolutionarily conserved direct phospho-Smad1 target gene, id1, and its homologs id2a and id3. This analysis revealed the BMP activity in the distal blastema, wound epidermis, osteoblasts, and blood vessels of the regenerate. Blocking the BMP function with a selective chemical inhibitor of BMP type I receptors, DMH1, suppressed id1 and id3 expression and arrested regeneration after blastema formation. We identified several previously uncharacterized functions of BMP during fin regeneration. Specifically, BMP signaling is required for remodeling of plexus into structured blood vessels in the rapidly growing regenerate. It organizes the wound epithelium by triggering wnt5b expression and promoting Collagen XIV-A deposition into the basement membrane. BMP represents the first known signaling that induces actinotrichia formation in the regenerate. Our data reveal a multifaceted role of BMP for coordinated morphogenesis of distinct tissues during regeneration of a complex vertebrate appendage. © FASEB.

  11. A dynamic Shh expression pattern, regulated by SHH and BMP signaling, coordinates fusion of primordia in the amniote face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Diane; Young, Nathan M.; Li, Xin; Xu, Yanhua; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Marcucio, Ralph S.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of morphogenesis are not well understood, yet shaping structures during development is essential for establishing correct organismal form and function. Here, we examine mechanisms that help to shape the developing face during the crucial period of facial primordia fusion. This period of development is a time when the faces of amniote embryos exhibit the greatest degree of similarity, and it probably results from the necessity for fusion to occur to establish the primary palate. Our results show that hierarchical induction mechanisms, consisting of iterative signaling by Sonic hedgehog (SHH) followed by Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), regulate a dynamic expression pattern of Shh in the ectoderm covering the frontonasal (FNP) and maxillary (MxP) processes. Furthermore, this Shh expression domain contributes to the morphogenetic processes that drive the directional growth of the globular process of the FNP toward the lateral nasal process and MxP, in part by regulating cell proliferation in the facial mesenchyme. The nature of the induction mechanism that we discovered suggests that the process of fusion of the facial primordia is intrinsically buffered against producing maladaptive morphologies, such as clefts of the primary palate, because there appears to be little opportunity for variation to occur during expansion of the Shh expression domain in the ectoderm of the facial primordia. Ultimately, these results might explain why this period of development constitutes a phylotypic stage of facial development among amniotes. PMID:25605783

  12. BMP regulates vegetal pole induction centres in early xenopus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachaliel, N; Re'Em-Kalma, Y; Eshed, O; Elias, S; Frank, D

    1998-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) plays an important role in mesoderm patterning in Xenopus. The ectopic expression of BMP-4 protein hyperventralizes embryos, whereas embryos expressing a BMP-2/4 dominant-negative receptor (DNR) are hyperdorsalized. Mesoderm is initially induced in the marginal zone by cells in the underlying vegetal pole. While much is known about BMP's expression and role in patterning the marginal zone, little is known about its early role in regulating vegetal mesoderm induction centre formation. The role of BMP in regulating formation of vegetal mesoderm inducing centres during early Xenopus development was examined. Ectopic BMP-4 expression in vegetal pole cells inhibited dorsal mesoderm induction but increased ventral mesoderm induction when recombined with animal cap ectoderm in Nieuwkoop explants. 32-cell embryos injected with BMP-4 RNA in the most vegetal blastomere tier were not hyperdorsalized by LiCl treatment. The ectopic expression of Smad or Mix.1 proteins in the vegetal pole also inhibited dorsal mesoderm induction in explants and embryos. Expression of the BMP 2/4 DNR in the vegetal pole increased dorsal mesoderm induction and inhibited ventral mesoderm induction in explants and embryos. These results support a role for BMP signalling in regulating ventral vegetal and dorsal vegetal mesoderm induction centre formation during early Xenopus development.

  13. Drm/Gremlin, a BMP antagonist, defines the interbud region during feather development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardot, Boris; Lecoin, Laure; Fliniaux, Ingrid; Huillard, Emmanuelle; Marx, Maria; Viallet, Jean P

    2004-01-01

    The pattern of feather buds in a tract is thought to result from the relative ratios between activator and inhibitor signals through a lateral inhibition process. We analyse the role of Drm/Gremlin, a BMPs antagonist expressed during feather pattern formation, in the dermal precursor, the dense dermis, the interbud dermis and in the posterior dermal condensation. We have altered the activity of Drm in embryonic chick skin using retroviral vectors expressing drm/ gremlin and bmps. We show that expression of endogenous drm is under the control of a feedback loop induced by the BMP pathway, and that overexpression of drm results in fusion between adjacent feather buds. We propose that endogenous BMP proteins induce drm expression in the interbud dermis. In turn, the Drm/Gremlin protein limits the inhibitory effect of BMPs, allowing the adjacent row of feathers to form. Thus, the balance between BMPs and its antagonist Drm would regulate the size and spacing of the buds.

  14. Restoration of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Human Prostate Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qian, Zheng D

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the current grant is to investigate the potential antitumor activity of histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 along with the activation of TGFb signaling pathway with the restoration of TGFb receptor II...

  15. Restoration of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Human Prostate Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qian, Zheng D

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the current grant is to investigate the potential antitumor activity of histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 a with the activation of TGFb signaling pathway with the restoration of TGFbeta receptor II...

  16. The BMP Pathway Participates in Human Naive CD4+ T Cell Activation and Homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor G Martínez

    Full Text Available Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs form a group of secreted factors that belongs to the TGF-β superfamily. Among different roles in a number of immune cell types, BMPs are known to regulate T cell development within the thymus, although the role of BMP signaling in human mature T cells remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that canonical BMP signaling is necessary during two critical events that regulate the size and function of human naive CD4+ T cell population: activation and homeostasis. Upon stimulation via TCR, naive CD4+ T cells upregulate the expression of BMP ligands triggering canonical BMP signaling in CD25+ cells. Blockade of BMP signaling severely impairs CD4+ T cell proliferation after activation mainly through regulation of IL-2, since the addition of this cytokine recuperates normal T cell expansion after inhibition of BMP signaling. Similarly, activation of canonical BMP pathway is required for both the maintenance of cell survival and the homeostatic proliferation induced by IL-7, a key factor for T cell homeostasis. Moreover, upregulation of two critical receptors for T cell homeostasis, CXCR4 and CCR9, triggered by IL-7 is also abrogated in the absence of BMP signaling. Collectively, we describe important roles of the canonical BMP signaling in human naive CD4+ T cell activation and homeostasis that could be valuable for clinical application.

  17. A new molecular logic for BMP-mediated dorsoventral patterning in the leech Helobdella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Dian-Han; Weisblat, David A

    2011-08-09

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is broadly implicated in dorsoventral (DV) patterning of bilaterally symmetric animals [1-3], and its role in axial patterning apparently predates the birth of Bilateria [4-7]. In fly and vertebrate embryos, BMPs and their antagonists (primarily Sog/chordin) diffuse and interact to generate signaling gradients that pattern fields of cells [8-10]. Work in other species reveals diversity in essential facets of this ancient patterning process, however. Here, we report that BMP signaling patterns the DV axis of segmental ectoderm in the leech Helobdella, a clitellate annelid (superphylum Lophotrochozoa) featuring stereotyped developmental cell lineages, but the detailed mechanisms of DV patterning in Helobdella differ markedly from fly and vertebrates. In Helobdella, BMP2/4s are expressed broadly, rather than in dorsal territory, whereas a dorsally expressed BMP5-8 specifies dorsal fate by short-range signaling. A BMP antagonist, gremlin, is upregulated by BMP5-8 in dorsolateral, rather than ventral territory, and yet the BMP-antagonizing activity of gremlin is required for normal ventral cell fates. Gremlin promotes ventral fates without disrupting dorsal fates by selectively inhibiting BMP2/4s, not BMP5-8. Thus, DV patterning in the development of the leech revealed unexpected evolutionary plasticity of the conserved BMP patterning system, presumably reflecting its adaptation to different modes of embryogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. TNF-alpha upregulates expression of BMP-2 and BMP-3 genes in the rat dental follicle--implications for tooth eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shaomian; Prpic, Veronica; Pan, Fenghui; Wise, Gary E

    2010-01-01

    The dental follicle appears to regulate both the alveolar bone resorption and bone formation needed for tooth eruption. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expression is maximally upregulated at postnatal day 9 in the rat dental follicle of the first mandibular molar, a time that correlates with rapid bone growth at the base of the tooth crypt, as well as a minor burst of osteoclastogenesis. TNF-alpha expression is correlated with the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a molecule expressed in the dental follicle that can promote bone formation. Because BMP-2 signaling may be augmented by bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP-3), our objective in this study was to determine if the dental follicle expresses BMP-3 and if TNF-alpha stimulates the dental follicle cells to express BMP-2 and BMP-3. Dental follicles were collected from different postnatal ages of rat pups. Dental follicle cells were incubated with TNF-alpha to study its dosage and time-course effects on gene expression of BMP-2 and BMP-3, as determined by real-time RT-PCR. Next, immunostaining was conducted to confirm if the protein was synthesized and ELISA of the conditioned medium was conducted to determine if BMP-2 was secreted. We found that BMP-3 expression is correlated with the expression of TNF-alpha in the dental follicle and TNF-alpha significantly increased BMP-2 and BMP-3 expression in vitro. Immunostaining and ELISA showed that BMP-2 and BMP-3 were synthesized and secreted. This study suggests that TNF-alpha can upregulate the expression of bone formation genes that may be needed for tooth eruption.

  19. TNF-α Upregulates Expression of BMP-2 and BMP-3 Genes in the Rat Dental Follicle – Implications for Tooth Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shaomian; Prpic, Veronica; Pan, Fenghui; Wise, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    The dental follicle appears to regulate both the alveolar bone resorption and bone formation needed for tooth eruption. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-α) gene expression is maximally upregulated at postnatal day 9 in the rat dental follicle of the 1st mandibular molar, a time that correlates with rapid bone growth at the base of the tooth crypt, as well as a minor burst of osteoclastogenesis. TNF-α expression is correlated with the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a molecule expressed in the dental follicle that can promote bone formation. Because BMP-2 signaling may be augmented by bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP-3), it was the objective of this study to determine 1) if the dental follicle expresses BMP-3 and 2) if TNF-α stimulates the dental follicle cells to express BMP-2 and BMP-3. Dental follicles were collected from different postnatal ages of rat pups. Dental follicle cells were incubated with TNF-α to study its dosage and time-course effects on gene expression of BMP-2 and BMP-3, as determined by real-time RT-PCR. Next, immunostaining was conducted to confirm if the protein was synthesized and ELISA of the conditioned medium was conducted to determine if BMP-2 was secreted. We found that BMP-3 expression is correlated with the expression of TNF-α in the dental follicle and TNF-α significantly increased BMP-2 and BMP-3 expression in vitro. Immunostaining and ELISA showed that BMP-2 and BMP-3 were synthesized and secreted. This study suggests that TNF-α can upregulate the expression of bone formation genes that may be needed for tooth eruption. PMID:20067418

  20. Hydroxyapatite paste Ostim, without elevation of full-thickness flaps, improves alveolar healing stimulating BMP- and VEGF-mediated signal pathways: an experimental study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, R A; Pol, R; Martinasso, G; Muzio, G; Gallesio, G; Mozzati, M

    2013-08-01

    Tooth extraction is considered as the starting point of jaw atrophy via osteoclast activity stimulation. The maintenance of dental alveolar bone depends on surgery procedure and use of materials to maintain prior space favoring bone regeneration. Among substitutes used in dentistry to fill bone defects, Ostim-Pastes (Ostim) is a nanocrystalline paste tested for treatment of severe clinical conditions. This research first investigated the effect of Ostim on alveolar healing, comparing in the same healthy subjects, an Ostim-filled socket with a not-filled one. Moreover, it also proposed a new surgical protocol for the post-extractive socket treatment using the graft materials without elevation of full-thickness flaps. Fourteen patients were enrolled to bilateral maxillary or mandibular extraction that was performed without elevation of full-thickness flaps. In each patient, one socket was filled using Ostim, and the other one was allowed to undergo natural healing. No suture was carried out. Clinical and biologic parameters were screened at 1, 7, and 14 days. Obtained results evidenced that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite supports bone regeneration, increasing the synthesis of pro-osteogenic factors as bone morphogenetics protein (BMP)-4, BMP-7, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin. Moreover, filling post-extractive socket with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste leads to a complete epithelialization already at 7 days after extraction, despite the fact that the teeth were extracted without elevation of full-thickness flaps . The improved epithelialization is mediated by increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. No significant change was observed in inflammatory parameters, with exception of an early and transient IL-1β induction, that could trigger and improve alveolar healing. Clinical and biomolecular observations of this explorative study evidenced that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite improves alveolar socket healing, increasing angiogenesis

  1. Wnt/beta-Catenin Signaling and Small Molecule Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronkov, Andrey; Krauss, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a branch of a functional network that dates back to the first metazoans and it is involved in a broad range of biological systems including stem cells, embryonic development and adult organs. Deregulation of components involved in Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in a wide spectrum of diseases including a number of cancers and degenerative diseases. The key mediator of Wnt signaling, β-catenin, serves several cellular functions. It functions in a dynamic mode at multiple cellular locations, including the plasma membrane, where β-catenin contributes to the stabilization of intercellular adhesive complexes, the cytoplasm where β-catenin levels are regulated and the nucleus where β-catenin is involved in transcriptional regulation and chromatin interactions. Central effectors of β-catenin levels are a family of cysteine-rich secreted glycoproteins, known as Wnt morphogens. Through the LRP5/6-Frizzled receptor complex, Wnts regulate the location and activity of the destruction complex and consequently intracellular β- catenin levels. However, β-catenin levels and their effects on transcriptional programs are also influenced by multiple other factors including hypoxia, inflammation, hepatocyte growth factor-mediated signaling, and the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. The broad implications of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in development, in the adult body and in disease render the pathway a prime target for pharmacological research and development. The intricate regulation of β-catenin at its various locations provides alternative points for therapeutic interventions. PMID:23016862

  2. Enhanced expression of BMP6 inhibits hepatic fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Stephanie; Wacker, Eva; Dorn, Christoph; Koch, Andreas; Saugspier, Michael; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Hartmann, Arndt; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2015-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) has been identified as crucial regulator of iron homeostasis. However, its further role in liver pathology including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its advanced form non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of BMP6 in chronic liver disease. BMP6 was analysed in hepatic samples from murine models of chronic liver injury and patients with chronic liver diseases. Furthermore, a tissue microarray comprising 110 human liver tissues with different degree of steatosis and inflammation was assessed. BMP6-deficient (BMP6(-/-)) and wild-type mice were compared in two dietary NASH-models, that is, methionine choline-deficient (MCD) and high-fat (HF) diets. BMP6 was solely upregulated in NAFLD but not in other murine liver injury models or diseased human livers. In NAFLD, BMP6 expression correlated with hepatic steatosis but not with inflammation or hepatocellular damage. Also, in vitro cellular lipid accumulation in primary human hepatocytes induced increased BMP6 expression. MCD and HF diets caused more hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in BMP6(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. However, only in the MCD and not in the HF diet model BMP6(-/-) mice developed marked hepatic iron overload, suggesting that further mechanisms are responsible for protective BMP6 effect. In vitro analysis revealed that recombinant BMP6 inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and reduced proinflammatory and profibrogenic gene expression in already activated HSCs. Steatosis-induced upregulation of BMP6 in NAFLD is hepatoprotective. Induction of BMP6-signalling may be a promising antifibrogenic strategy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. A Bmp/Admp regulatory circuit controls maintenance and regeneration of dorsal-ventral polarity in planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviño, Michael A.; Reddien, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    Animal embryos have diverse anatomy and vary greatly in size. It is therefore remarkable that a common signaling pathway – BMP signaling – controls development of the dorsoventral (DV) axis throughout the Bilateria [1-8]. In vertebrates, spatially opposed expression of the BMP-family signaling proteins Bmp4 and Admp (anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein) can promote restoration of DV pattern following tissue removal [9-11]. bmp4 orthologs have been identified in all three groups of the Bilateria (deuterostomes, ecdysozoans, and lophotrochozoans) [12]. By contrast, the absence of admp orthologs in ecdysozoans such as Drosophila and C. elegans has suggested that a DV regulatory circuit of oppositely expressed bmp4 and admp genes represents an innovation specific to deuterostomes. Here we describe the existence of spatially opposed bmp and admp expression in a protostome. An admp ortholog (Smed-admp) is expressed at the ventral pole and laterally in adult Schmidtea mediterranea planarians, spatially opposing the dorsal-pole domain of Smed-bmp4 expression. Smed-admp is required for planarian regeneration following parasagittal amputation. Furthermore, Smed-admp promotes Smed-bmp4 expression and Smed-bmp4 inhibits Smed-admp expression, generating a regulatory circuit that buffers against perturbations of Bmp signaling. These results suggest that a Bmp/Admp regulatory circuit is a central feature of the Bilateria, used broadly for the establishment, maintenance, and regeneration of the DV axis. PMID:21295483

  4. Genetic analysis reveals an unexpected role of BMP7 in initiation of ureteric bud outgrowth in mouse embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gonçalves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic analysis in the mouse revealed that GREMLIN1 (GREM1-mediated antagonism of BMP4 is essential for ureteric epithelial branching as the disruption of ureteric bud outgrowth and renal agenesis in Grem1-deficient embryos is restored by additional inactivation of one Bmp4 allele. Another BMP ligand, BMP7, was shown to control the proliferative expansion of nephrogenic progenitors and its requirement for nephrogenesis can be genetically substituted by Bmp4. Therefore, we investigated whether BMP7 in turn also participates in inhibiting ureteric bud outgrowth during the initiation of metanephric kidney development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic inactivation of one Bmp7 allele in Grem1-deficient mouse embryos does not alleviate the bilateral renal agenesis, while complete inactivation of Bmp7 restores ureteric bud outgrowth and branching. In mouse embryos lacking both Grem1 and Bmp7, GDNF/WNT11 feedback signaling and the expression of the Etv4 target gene, which regulates formation of the invading ureteric bud tip, are restored. In contrast to the restoration of ureteric bud outgrowth and branching, nephrogenesis remains aberrant as revealed by the premature loss of Six2 expressing nephrogenic progenitor cells. Therefore, very few nephrons develop in kidneys lacking both Grem1 and Bmp7 and the resulting dysplastic phenotype is indistinguishable from the one of Bmp7-deficient mouse embryos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study reveals an unexpected inhibitory role of BMP7 during the onset of ureteric bud outgrowth. As BMP4, BMP7 and GREM1 are expressed in distinct mesenchymal and epithelial domains, the localized antagonistic interactions of GREM1 with BMPs could restrict and guide ureteric bud outgrowth and branching. The robustness and likely significant redundancy of the underlying signaling system is evidenced by the fact that global reduction of Bmp4 or inactivation of Bmp7 are both able to restore ureteric bud outgrowth

  5. A BMP responsive transcriptional region in the chicken type X collagen gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, S W; Luvalle, P; Leask, T; Leboy, P S

    1998-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were originally identified by their ability to induce ectopic bone formation and have been shown to promote both chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy. BMPs have recently been found to activate a membrane serine/threonine kinase signaling mechanism in a variety of cell types, but the downstream effectors of BMP signaling in chondrocyte differentiation remain unidentified. We have previously reported that BMP-2 markedly stimulates type X collagen expression in prehypertrophic chick sternal chondrocytes, and that type X collagen mRNA levels in chondrocytes cultured under serum-free (SF) conditions are elevated 3- to 5-fold within 24 h. To better define the molecular mechanisms of induction of chondrocyte hypertrophy by BMPs, we examined the effect of BMPs on type X collagen production by 15-day chick embryo sternal chondrocytes cultured under SF conditions in the presence or absence of 30 ng/ml BMP-2, BMP-4, or BMP-7. Two populations of chondrocytes were used: one representing resting cartilage isolated from the caudal third of the sterna and the second representing prehypertrophic cartilage from the cephalic third of the sterna. BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7 all effectively promoted chondrocyte maturation of cephalic sternal chondrocytes as measured by high levels of alkaline phosphatase, diminished levels of type II collagen, and induction of the hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific marker, type X collagen. To test whether BMP control of type X collagen expression occurs at the transcriptional level, we utilized plasmid constructs containing the chicken collagen X promoter and 5' flanking regions fused to a reporter gene. Constructs were transiently transfected into sternal chondrocytes cultured under SF conditions in the presence or absence of 30 ng/ml BMP-2, BMP-4, or BMP-7. A 533 bp region located 2.4-2.9 kb upstream from the type X collagen transcriptional start site was both necessary and sufficient for strong BMP responsiveness

  6. Burst BMP triggered receptor kinase activity drives Smad1 mediated long-term target gene oscillation in C2C12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Schul

    Full Text Available Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs are important growth factors that regulate many cellular processes. During embryogenesis they act as morphogens and play a critical role during organ development. They influence cell fates via concentration-gradients in the embryos where cells transduce this extracellular information into gene expression profiles and cell fate decisions. How receiving cells decode and quantify BMP2/4 signals is hardly understood. There is little data on the quantitative relationships between signal input, transducing molecules, their states and location, and ultimately their ability to integrate graded systemic inputs and generate qualitative responses. Understanding this signaling network on a quantitative level should be considered a prerequisite for efficient pathway modulation, as the BMP pathway is a prime target for therapeutic invention. Hence, we quantified the spatial distribution of the main signal transducer of the BMP2/4 pathway in response to different types and levels of stimuli in c2c12 cells. We found that the subcellular localization of Smad1 is independent of ligand concentration. In contrast, Smad1 phosphorylation levels relate proportionally to BMP2 ligand concentrations and they are entirely located in the nucleus. Interestingly, we found that BMP2 stimulates target gene expression in non-linear, wave-like forms. Amplitudes showed a clear concentration-dependency, for sustained and transient stimulation. We found that even burst-stimulation triggers gene-expression wave-like modulations that are detectable for at least 30 h. Finally, we show here that target gene expression oscillations depend on receptor kinase activity, as the kinase drives further expression pulses without receptor reactivation and the target gene expression breaks off after inhibitor treatment in c2c12 cells.

  7. Burst BMP triggered receptor kinase activity drives Smad1 mediated long-term target gene oscillation in C2C12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schul, Daniela; Schmitt, Alexandra; Regneri, Janine; Schartl, Manfred; Wagner, Toni Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are important growth factors that regulate many cellular processes. During embryogenesis they act as morphogens and play a critical role during organ development. They influence cell fates via concentration-gradients in the embryos where cells transduce this extracellular information into gene expression profiles and cell fate decisions. How receiving cells decode and quantify BMP2/4 signals is hardly understood. There is little data on the quantitative relationships between signal input, transducing molecules, their states and location, and ultimately their ability to integrate graded systemic inputs and generate qualitative responses. Understanding this signaling network on a quantitative level should be considered a prerequisite for efficient pathway modulation, as the BMP pathway is a prime target for therapeutic invention. Hence, we quantified the spatial distribution of the main signal transducer of the BMP2/4 pathway in response to different types and levels of stimuli in c2c12 cells. We found that the subcellular localization of Smad1 is independent of ligand concentration. In contrast, Smad1 phosphorylation levels relate proportionally to BMP2 ligand concentrations and they are entirely located in the nucleus. Interestingly, we found that BMP2 stimulates target gene expression in non-linear, wave-like forms. Amplitudes showed a clear concentration-dependency, for sustained and transient stimulation. We found that even burst-stimulation triggers gene-expression wave-like modulations that are detectable for at least 30 h. Finally, we show here that target gene expression oscillations depend on receptor kinase activity, as the kinase drives further expression pulses without receptor reactivation and the target gene expression breaks off after inhibitor treatment in c2c12 cells.

  8. Alphavbeta integrins play an essential role in BMP-2 induction of osteoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chung-Fang; Cheng, Su-Li

    2005-02-01

    of matrix mineralization. Although BMP-2 retains its receptor-binding capability in the presence of L230, BMP-2 stimulation of Smad signaling is abolished by L230. BMP-2 upregulates the expression of alphavbeta integrins, and these integrins, in turn, play a critical role in BMP-2 function in osteoblasts.

  9. Dual Inhibition of Activin/Nodal/TGF-β and BMP Signaling Pathways by SB431542 and Dorsomorphin Induces Neuronal Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedavathi Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the nervous system can cause devastating diseases or musculoskeletal dysfunctions and transplantation of progenitor stem cells can be an excellent treatment option in this regard. Preclinical studies demonstrate that untreated stem cells, unlike stem cells activated to differentiate into neuronal lineage, do not survive in the neuronal tissues. Conventional methods of inducing neuronal differentiation of stem cells are complex and expensive. We therefore sought to determine if a simple, one-step, and cost effective method, previously reported to induce neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells, can be applied to adult stem cells. Indeed, dual inhibition of activin/nodal/TGF-β and BMP pathways using SB431542 and dorsomorphin, respectively, induced neuronal differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs as evidenced by formation of neurite extensions, protein expression of neuron-specific gamma enolase, and mRNA expression of neuron-specific transcription factors Sox1 and Pax6 and matured neuronal marker NF200. This process correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of p38, Erk1/2, PI3K, and Akt1/3. Additionally, in vitro subcutaneous implants of SB431542 and dorsomorphin treated hADSCs displayed significantly higher expression of active-axonal-growth-specific marker GAP43. Our data offers novel insights into cell-based therapies for the nervous system repair.

  10. A Bmp/Admp regulatory circuit controls maintenance and regeneration of dorsal-ventral polarity in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviño, Michael A; Reddien, Peter W

    2011-02-22

    Animal embryos have diverse anatomy and vary greatly in size. It is therefore remarkable that a common signaling pathway, BMP signaling, controls development of the dorsoventral (DV) axis throughout the Bilateria. In vertebrates, spatially opposed expression of the BMP family proteins Bmp4 and Admp (antidorsalizing morphogenetic protein) can promote restoration of DV pattern following tissue removal. bmp4 orthologs have been identified in all three groups of the Bilateria (deuterostomes, ecdysozoans, and lophotrochozoans). By contrast, the absence of admp orthologs in ecdysozoans such as Drosophila and C. elegans has suggested that a regulatory circuit of oppositely expressed bmp4 and admp genes represents a deuterostome-specific innovation. Here we describe the existence of spatially opposed bmp and admp expression in a protostome. An admp ortholog (Smed-admp) is expressed ventrally and laterally in adult Schmidtea mediterranea planarians, opposing the dorsal-pole expression of Smed-bmp4. Smed-admp is required for regeneration following parasagittal amputation. Furthermore, Smed-admp promotes Smed-bmp4 expression and Smed-bmp4 inhibits Smed-admp expression, generating a regulatory circuit that buffers against perturbations of Bmp signaling. These results suggest that a Bmp/Admp regulatory circuit is a central feature of the Bilateria, used broadly for the establishment, maintenance, and regeneration of the DV axis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A dual-color fluorescence-based platform to identify selective inhibitors of Akt signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazú Rosado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inhibition of Akt signaling is considered one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for many cancers. However, rational target-orientated approaches to cell based drug screens for anti-cancer agents have historically been compromised by the notorious absence of suitable control cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to address this fundamental problem, we have developed BaFiso, a live-cell screening platform to identify specific inhibitors of this pathway. BaFiso relies on the co-culture of isogenic cell lines that have been engineered to sustain interleukin-3 independent survival of the parental Ba/F3 cells, and that are individually tagged with different fluorescent proteins. Whilst in the first of these two lines cell survival in the absence of IL-3 is dependent on the expression of activated Akt, the cells expressing constitutively-activated Stat5 signaling display IL-3 independent growth and survival in an Akt-independent manner. Small molecules can then be screened in these lines to identify inhibitors that rescue IL-3 dependence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BaFiso measures differential cell survival using multiparametric live cell imaging and permits selective inhibitors of Akt signaling to be identified. BaFiso is a platform technology suitable for the identification of small molecule inhibitors of IL-3 mediated survival signaling.

  12. BMP7 Induces Dormancy of Prostatic Tumor Stem Cell in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    well as age- related decline in androgens may cause the change in expres- sion of BMP7 that allows the recurrent growth of dormant cancer cells... Hedgehog (Visvader and Lindeman, 2008; Rosen and Jordan, 2009). Understanding the signaling pathway of BMP7-induced dormancy is an intriguing question

  13. Synthetic Small Molecule Inhibitors of Hh Signaling As Anti-Cancer Chemotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschinot, C.A.; Pace, J.R.; Hadden, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) pathway is a developmental signaling pathway that is essential to the proper embryonic development of many vertebrate systems. Dysregulation of Hh signaling has been implicated as a causative factor in the development and progression of several forms of human cancer. As such, the development of small molecule inhibitors of Hh signaling as potential anti-cancer chemotherapeutics has been a major area of research interest in both academics and industry over the past ten years. Through these efforts, synthetic small molecules that target multiple components of the Hh pathway have been identified and advanced to preclinical or clinical development. The goal of this review is to provide an update on the current status of several synthetic small molecule Hh pathway inhibitors and explore the potential of several recently disclosed inhibitory scaffolds. PMID:26310919

  14. Global effects of kinase inhibitors on signaling networks revealed by quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Cuiping; Olsen, Jesper V; Daub, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    to identify the direct targets of kinase inhibitors upon affinity purification from cellular extracts. Here we introduce a complementary approach to evaluate the effects of kinase inhibitors on the entire cell signaling network. We used triple labeling SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell......-ABL, which is the cause of chronic myelogenous leukemia, affected nearly 1,000 phosphopeptides. In addition to the proximal effects on ABL and its immediate targets, dasatinib broadly affected the downstream MAPK pathways. Pathway mapping of regulated sites implicated a variety of cellular functions...

  15. BMP-2 Induced Expression of Alx3 That Is a Positive Regulator of Osteoblast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate many aspects of skeletal development, including osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation, cartilage and bone formation, and cranial and limb development. Among them, BMP-2, one of the most potent osteogenic signaling molecules, stimulates osteoblast differentiation, while it inhibits myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells. To evaluate genes involved in BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation, we performed cDNA microarray analyses to compare BMP-2-treated and -untreated C2C12 cells. We focused on Alx3 (aristaless-like homeobox 3 which was clearly induced during osteoblast differentiation. Alx3, a homeobox gene related to the Drosophilaaristaless gene, has been linked to developmental functions in craniofacial structures and limb development. However, little is known about its direct relationship with bone formation. In the present study, we focused on the mechanisms of Alx3 gene expression and function during osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. In C2C12 cells, BMP-2 induced increase of Alx3 gene expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the BMP receptors-mediated SMAD signaling pathway. In addition, silencing of Alx3 by siRNA inhibited osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2, as showed by the expressions of alkaline phosphatase (Alp, Osteocalcin, and Osterix, while over-expression of Alx3 enhanced osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. These results indicate that Alx3 expression is enhanced by BMP-2 via the BMP receptors mediated-Smad signaling and that Alx3 is a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2.

  16. Comparative genomics identifies the mouse Bmp3 promoter and an upstream evolutionary conserved region (ECR in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W Lowery

    Full Text Available The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP pathway is a multi-member signaling cascade whose basic components are found in all animals. One member, BMP3, which arose more recently in evolution and is found only in deuterostomes, serves a unique role as an antagonist to both the canonical BMP and Activin pathways. However, the mechanisms that control BMP3 expression, and the cis-regulatory regions mediating this regulation, remain poorly defined. With this in mind, we sought to identify the Bmp3 promoter in mouse (M. musculus through functional and comparative genomic analyses. We found that the minimal promoter required for expression in resides within 0.8 kb upstream of Bmp3 in a region that is highly conserved with rat (R. norvegicus. We also found that an upstream region abutting the minimal promoter acts as a repressor of the minimal promoter in HEK293T cells and osteoblasts. Strikingly, a portion of this region is conserved among all available eutherian mammal genomes (47/47, but not in any non-eutherian animal (0/136. We also identified multiple conserved transcription factor binding sites in the Bmp3 upstream ECR, suggesting that this region may preserve common cis-regulatory elements that govern Bmp3 expression across eutherian mammals. Since dysregulation of BMP signaling appears to play a role in human health and disease, our findings may have application in the development of novel therapeutics aimed at modulating BMP signaling in humans.

  17. 3-OST-7 regulates BMP-dependent cardiac contraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiela C Samson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 3-O-sulfotransferase (3-OST family catalyzes rare modifications of glycosaminoglycan chains on heparan sulfate proteoglycans, yet their biological functions are largely unknown. Knockdown of 3-OST-7 in zebrafish uncouples cardiac ventricular contraction from normal calcium cycling and electrophysiology by reducing tropomyosin4 (tpm4 expression. Normal 3-OST-7 activity prevents the expansion of BMP signaling into ventricular myocytes, and ectopic activation of BMP mimics the ventricular noncontraction phenotype seen in 3-OST-7 depleted embryos. In 3-OST-7 morphants, ventricular contraction can be rescued by overexpression of tropomyosin tpm4 but not by troponin tnnt2, indicating that tpm4 serves as a lynchpin for ventricular sarcomere organization downstream of 3-OST-7. Contraction can be rescued by expression of 3-OST-7 in endocardium, or by genetic loss of bmp4. Strikingly, BMP misregulation seen in 3-OST-7 morphants also occurs in multiple cardiac noncontraction models, including potassium voltage-gated channel gene, kcnh2, affected in Romano-Ward syndrome and long-QT syndrome, and cardiac troponin T gene, tnnt2, affected in human cardiomyopathies. Together these results reveal 3-OST-7 as a key component of a novel pathway that constrains BMP signaling from ventricular myocytes, coordinates sarcomere assembly, and promotes cardiac contractile function.

  18. Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Icon View public health webinars on blood disorders Inhibitors Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... because treatment of bleeds becomes less effective. About Inhibitors People with hemophilia, and many with VWD type ...

  19. Signal transductions induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor-beta in normal human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chung-Fang; Cheng, Su-Li

    2002-05-03

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) activates Ras/MAPK signaling in many cell types. Because TGF-beta and BMP-2 exert similar effects, we examined if this signaling is stimulated by both factors and analyzed the relationship between this signaling and the Smads in osteoblasts. BMP-2 and TGF-beta stimulated Ras, MAPK, and AP-1 activities. The DNA binding activities of c-Fos, FosB/Delta FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2, and JunB were up-regulated whereas JunD activity was decreased. c-Fos, FosB/Delta FosB, and JunB were associated with Smad4. The stimulation of AP-1 by BMP-2 and TGF-beta was dependent on Smad signaling, and anti-Smad4 antibody interfered with AP-1 activity. Thus, BMP-2 and TGF-beta activate both Ras/MAPK/AP-1 and Smad signaling in osteoblasts with Smads modulating AP-1 activity. To determine the roles of MAPK in BMP-2 and TGF-beta function, we analyzed the effect of ERK and p38 inhibitors on the regulation of bone matrix protein expression and JunB and JunD levels by these two factors. ERK and p38 mediated TGF-beta suppression of osteocalcin and JunD as well as stimulation of JunB. p38 was essential in BMP-2 up-regulation of type I collagen, fibronectin, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase activity whereas ERK mediated BMP-2 stimulation of fibronectin and osteopontin. Thus, ERK and p38 differentially mediate TGF-beta and BMP-2 function in osteoblasts.

  20. Genetic variation in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and colon and rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Kadlubar, Susan; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.; Wolff, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are part of the TGF-β-signaling pathway; genetic variation in these genes may be involved in colorectal cancer. In this study we evaluated the association between genetic variation in BMP1 (11 tagSNPs), BMP2 (5 tagSNPs), BMP4 (3 tagSNPs), BMPR1A (9 tagSNPs), BMPR1B (21 tagSNPs), BMPR2 (11 tagSNPs), and GDF10 (7 tagSNPs) with risk of colon and rectal cancer and tumor molecular phenotype. We used data from population-based case-control studies (colon cancer n=1574 cases, 1970 controls; rectal cancer n=791 cases, 999 controls). We observed that genetic variation in BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, BMP2, and BMP4 was associated with risk of developing colon cancer, with 20 to 30% increased risk for most high-risk genotypes. A summary of high-risk genotypes showed over a twofold increase in colon cancer risk at the upper risk category (OR 2.49 95% CI 1.95, 3.18). BMPR2, BMPR1B, BMP2, and GDF10 were associated with rectal cancer. BMPR2 rs2228545 was associated with an almost twofold increased risk of rectal cancer. The risk associated with the highest category of the summary score for rectal cancer was 2.97 (95% CI 1.87, 4.72). Genes in the BMP-signaling pathway were consistently associated with CIMP+ status in combination with both KRAS-mutated and MSI tumors. BMP genes interacted statistically significantly with other genes in the TGF-β-signaling pathway, including TGFβ1, TGFβR1, Smad 3, Smad 4, and Smad 7. Our data support a role for genetic variation in BMP-related genes in the etiology of colon and rectal cancer. One possible mechanism is via the TGF-β-signaling pathway. PMID:21387313

  1. Bioinformatic mining of kinase inhibitors that regulate autophagy through kinase signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ma, Biao; Jin, Ye; Ben, Wei; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Keping; Feng, Shujun; Huang, Lu; Zheng, Jianhua

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the kinase inhibitors that may regulate autophagy. A total of 62 kinases were obtained through text mining by importing the keyword 'autophagy' and a 'protein kinase' Excel file to PubMed. Subsequently, 146 kinases were derivated through screening in the PubMed database by importing the 'autophagy‑associated gene' and 'protein kinase' files. Following intersection of the above two methods, 54 candidate autophagy‑associated kinases were obtained. Enrichment analysis indicated that these candidate autophagy‑associated kinases were mainly enriched in pathways such as the calcium, Wnt, HIF‑1 and mTOR signaling pathways. Among the 54 kinases, 24 were identified through text mining to have specific kinase inhibitors that regulate the corresponding functions; a total of 56 kinase inhibitors were found to be involved in the regulation of these 24 kinases. In total, nine of these 56 kinase inhibitors identified had been widely reported in autophagy regulation studies, 23 kinase inhibitors had been seldom reported and 24 had never been reported. Therefore, introducing these kinases into autophagy regulation analysis in subsequent studies may produce important results.

  2. DNA Damage Signalling and Repair Inhibitors: The Long-Sought-After Achilles’ Heel of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velic, Denis; Couturier, Anthony M.; Ferreira, Maria Tedim; Rodrigue, Amélie; Poirier, Guy G.; Fleury, Fabrice; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    For decades, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were the two only approaches exploiting DNA repair processes to fight against cancer. Nowadays, cancer therapeutics can be a major challenge when it comes to seeking personalized targeted medicine that is both effective and selective to the malignancy. Over the last decade, the discovery of new targeted therapies against DNA damage signalling and repair has offered the possibility of therapeutic improvements in oncology. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of DNA damage signalling and repair inhibitors, their molecular and cellular effects, and future therapeutic use. PMID:26610585

  3. Combining RNA interference and kinase inhibitors against cell signalling components involved in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, Michael; Raha, Debasish; Hanson, Bonnie J; Bunting, Michaeline; Hanson, George T

    2005-01-01

    The transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) has been implicated in a large variety of biological processes including oncogenic transformation. The tyrosine kinases of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) constitute the beginning of one signal transduction cascade leading to AP-1 activation and are known to control cell proliferation and differentiation. Drug discovery efforts targeting this receptor and other pathway components have centred on monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. Resistance to such inhibitors has already been observed, guiding the prediction of their use in combination therapies with other targeted agents such as RNA interference (RNAi). This study examines the use of RNAi and kinase inhibitors for qualification of components involved in the EGFR/AP-1 pathway of ME180 cells, and their inhibitory effects when evaluated individually or in tandem against multiple components of this important disease-related pathway. AP-1 activation was assessed using an ME180 cell line stably transfected with a beta-lactamase reporter gene under the control of AP-1 response element following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. Immunocytochemistry allowed for further quantification of small molecule inhibition on a cellular protein level. RNAi and RT-qPCR experiments were performed to assess the amount of knockdown on an mRNA level, and immunocytochemistry was used to reveal cellular protein levels for the targeted pathway components. Increased potency of kinase inhibitors was shown by combining RNAi directed towards EGFR and small molecule inhibitors acting at proximal or distal points in the pathway. After cellular stimulation with EGF and analysis at the level of AP-1 activation using a β-lactamase reporter gene, a 10–12 fold shift or 2.5–3 fold shift toward greater potency in the IC 50 was observed for EGFR and MEK-1 inhibitors, respectively, in the presence of RNAi targeting EGFR. EGFR pathway components were qualified as

  4. Multiple common susceptibility variants near BMP pathway loci GREM1, BMP4, and BMP2 explain part of the missing heritability of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian P M Tomlinson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified 14 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs that are associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and several of these tagSNPs are near bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathway loci. The penalty of multiple testing implicit in GWAS increases the attraction of complementary approaches for disease gene discovery, including candidate gene- or pathway-based analyses. The strongest candidate loci for additional predisposition SNPs are arguably those already known both to have functional relevance and to be involved in disease risk. To investigate this proposition, we searched for novel CRC susceptibility variants close to the BMP pathway genes GREM1 (15q13.3, BMP4 (14q22.2, and BMP2 (20p12.3 using sample sets totalling 24,910 CRC cases and 26,275 controls. We identified new, independent CRC predisposition SNPs close to BMP4 (rs1957636, P = 3.93×10(-10 and BMP2 (rs4813802, P = 4.65×10(-11. Near GREM1, we found using fine-mapping that the previously-identified association between tagSNP rs4779584 and CRC actually resulted from two independent signals represented by rs16969681 (P = 5.33×10(-8 and rs11632715 (P = 2.30×10(-10. As low-penetrance predisposition variants become harder to identify-owing to small effect sizes and/or low risk allele frequencies-approaches based on informed candidate gene selection may become increasingly attractive. Our data emphasise that genetic fine-mapping studies can deconvolute associations that have arisen owing to independent correlation of a tagSNP with more than one functional SNP, thus explaining some of the apparently missing heritability of common diseases.

  5. Inhibition of TGF-β Signaling in Tumor Cells by Small Molecule Src Family Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartscht, Tobias; Rosien, Benjamin; Rades, Dirk; Kaufmann, Roland; Biersack, Harald; Lehnerta, Hendrik; Ungefroren, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    In a series of studies carried out over the last couple of years in various cell types, it was observed that the experimentally used Src family kinase inhibitors PP1 and PP2 and the clinically used Src/Abl inhibitors AZM475271 and dasatinib are potent inhibitors of TGF-β mediated cellular responses such as Smad and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, Smad-dependent transcriptional activation, growth inhibition, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell motility. While for PP1/PP2 it was demonstrated that these agents directly inhibit the kinase activity of the TGF-β type I receptor activin receptor-like kinase 5, the mechanism of the anti-TGF-β effect of AZM475271 and dasatinib is less clear. In contrast, the anti-TGF-β effect of yet another Src/Abl inhibitor, bosutinib, is more variable with respect to the type of the TGF-β response and the cell type affected, and lacks a clear dose-dependency. In the light of their strong anti-activin receptor-like kinase 5 kinase effect, PP1 and PP2 should not be used when studying the role of c-Src as downstream mediators in TGF-β/activin receptor-like kinase 5 signaling. On the other hand, based upon in vitro findings, it is conceivable that part of the therapeutic effects of AZM475271 and dasatinib seen in preclinical and clinical studies with solid tumors was caused by inhibition of prometastatic TGF-β rather than Src signaling. If AZM475271 and dasatinib can indeed act as dual Src / TGF-β inhibitors in vivo, this may be beneficial for prevention of metastatic disease in more advanced tumor stages. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Endocardial to myocardial notch-wnt-bmp axis regulates early heart valve development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Wang

    Full Text Available Endocardial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT is a fundamental cellular process required for heart valve formation. Notch, Wnt and Bmp pathways are known to regulate this process. To further address how these pathways coordinate in the process, we specifically disrupted Notch1 or Jagged1 in the endocardium of mouse embryonic hearts and showed that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in the endocardium is essential for EMT and early valvular cushion formation. qPCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays reveal that endocardial Jagged1-Notch1 signaling regulates Wnt4 expression in the atrioventricular canal (AVC endocardium and Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium. Whole embryo cultures treated with Wnt4 or Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1 show that Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium is dependent on Wnt activity; Wnt4 also reinstates Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium of endocardial Notch1 null embryos. Furthermore, while both Wnt4 and Bmp2 rescue the defective EMT resulting from Notch inhibition, Wnt4 requires Bmp for its action. These results demonstrate that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in endocardial cells induces the expression of Wnt4, which subsequently acts as a paracrine factor to upregulate Bmp2 expression in the adjacent AVC myocardium to signal EMT.

  7. Unveiling novel genes upregulated by both rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 during early osteoblastic transdifferentiation of C2C12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogayar Mari C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Findings We set out to analyse the gene expression profile of pre-osteoblastic C2C12 cells during osteodifferentiation induced by both rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 using DNA microarrays. Induced and repressed genes were intercepted, resulting in 1,318 induced genes and 704 repressed genes by both rhBMP2 and rhBMP7. We selected and validated, by RT-qPCR, 24 genes which were upregulated by rhBMP2 and rhBMP7; of these, 13 are related to transcription (Runx2, Dlx1, Dlx2, Dlx5, Id1, Id2, Id3, Fkhr1, Osx, Hoxc8, Glis1, Glis3 and Cfdp1, four are associated with cell signalling pathways (Lrp6, Dvl1, Ecsit and PKCδ and seven are associated with the extracellular matrix (Ltbp2, Grn, Postn, Plod1, BMP1, Htra1 and IGFBP-rP10. The novel identified genes include: Hoxc8, Glis1, Glis3, Ecsit, PKCδ, LrP6, Dvl1, Grn, BMP1, Ltbp2, Plod1, Htra1 and IGFBP-rP10. Background BMPs (bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGFβ (transforming growth factor-β super-family of proteins, which regulate growth and differentiation of different cell types in various tissues, and play a critical role in the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. In particular, rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 promote osteoinduction in vitro and in vivo, and both proteins are therapeutically applied in orthopaedics and dentistry. Conclusion Using DNA microarrays and RT-qPCR, we identified both previously known and novel genes which are upregulated by rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 during the onset of osteoblastic transdifferentiation of pre-myoblastic C2C12 cells. Subsequent studies of these genes in C2C12 and mesenchymal or pre-osteoblastic cells should reveal more details about their role during this type of cellular differentiation induced by BMP2 or BMP7. These studies are relevant to better understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying osteoblastic differentiation and bone repair.

  8. Angoline: a selective IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway inhibitor isolated from Zanthoxylum nitidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiawei; Zhang, Qing; Ye, Yushan; Li, Wuguo; Qiu, Junxin; Liu, Jingli; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen; Yu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 signaling pathway is an important target for human cancer therapy. Thus, the identification of small-molecules that target STAT3 signaling will be of great interests in the development of anticancer agents. The aim of this study was to identify novel inhibitors of STAT3 pathway from the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC. The bioassay-guided fractionation of MeOH extract of Z. nitidum using a STAT3-responsive gene reporter assay led to the isolation of angoline (1) as a potent and selective inhibitor of the STAT3 signaling pathway (IC50=11.56 μM). Angoline inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and its target gene expression and consequently induced growth inhibition of human cancer cells with constitutively activated STAT3 (IC50=3.14-4.72 μM). This work provided a novel lead for the development of anti-cancer agents targeting the STAT3 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Signaling by TGF-betas in tubule cultures of adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Hui; Galuska, Sebastian P; Kudipudi, Pradeep Kumar; Riaz, Mohammad Assad; Loveland, Kate L; Konrad, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    Although signal transduction of transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-βs) is well characterized in individual cell types, data about TGF-β signaling in a cellular context is still scarce. In this study, we used ex vivo tubule cultures from adult rat testis to investigate TGF-β signaling. We show for the first time in testicular tubules, that TGF-βs also signal via the BMP type I receptors, with ALK2 used by TGF-β1 and ALK3 and ALK6 by TGF-β2. This signal transduction is mediated via Smad3 as well as via Smad1. In contrast, BMPs (BMP2 and BMP7) do not signal via the high-affinity type I and type II TGFβ receptors, TBR1 or TBR2. Furthermore, treatment of tubule cultures with either TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 had profound significant stimulatory effects on secretion of plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1) through utilization of TGF-β and BMP receptors. Specific inhibitors for either TBR1 or BMP receptors yielded nearly complete inhibition of TGF-β signaling. The TBR1-TBR2 signalosome was detected with Duolink upon stimulation with either TGF-β1 or TGF-β2, predominantly in spermatogenic cells of the adult rat testis, particularly in elongated spermatids. In summary, this examination of intact rat testicular tubules demonstrated for the first time that TGF-βs signal mainly through TBR1 and TBR2 but also use BMP receptors, including for secretion of PAI-1. Whereas ALK2 participates in the TGF-β1-induced TBR1-TBR2 signalosome, ALK3 and ALK6 are involved in signaling of TGF-β2. Detection of the TBR1-TBR2 signalosome in late spermiogenic cells indicates a post-meiotic activity.

  10. CEP128 Localizes to the Subdistal Appendages of the Mother Centriole and Regulates TGF-β/BMP Signaling at the Primary Cilium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mönnich, Maren; Borgeskov, Louise; Breslin, Loretta

    2018-01-01

    The centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing center in animal cells and comprises a mother and daughter centriole surrounded by pericentriolar material. During formation of primary cilia, the mother centriole transforms into a basal body that templates the ciliary axoneme. Ciliogenesis depends...... on mother centriole-specific distal appendages, whereas the role of subdistal appendages in ciliary function is unclear. Here, we identify CEP128 as a centriole subdistal appendage protein required for regulating ciliary signaling. Loss of CEP128 did not grossly affect centrosomal or ciliary structure...

  11. Progesterone receptor activates Msx2 expression by downregulating TNAP/Akp2 and activating the Bmp pathway in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Fleming

    Full Text Available Previously we demonstrated that EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells induced the homeobox transcription factor Msx2 either when transfected with the progesterone receptor (PR or when treated with Bmp2/4. Msx2 upregulation was unaffected by Wnt inhibitors s-FRP or Dkk1, but was inhibited by the Bmp antagonist Noggin. We therefore hypothesized that PR signaling to Msx2 acts through the Bmp receptor pathway. Herein, we confirm that transcripts for Alk2/ActR1A, a non-canonical BmpR Type I, are upregulated in mammary epithelial cells overexpressing PR (EpH4-PR. Increased phosphorylation of Smads 1,5, 8, known substrates for Alk2 and other BmpR Type I proteins, was observed as was their translocation to the nucleus in EpH4-PR cells. Analysis also showed that Tissue Non-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP/Akp2 was also found to be downregulated in EpH4-PR cells. When an Akp2 promoter-reporter construct containing a ½PRE site was transfected into EpH4-PR cells, its expression was downregulated. Moreover, siRNA mediated knockdown of Akp2 increased both Alk2 and Msx2 expression. Collectively these data suggest that PR inhibition of Akp2 results in increased Alk2 activity, increased phosphorylation of Smads 1,5,8, and ultimately upregulation of Msx2. These studies imply that re-activation of the Akp2 gene could be helpful in downregulating aberrant Msx2 expression in PR+ breast cancers.

  12. ER Stress Signaling Promotes the Survival of Cancer "Persister Cells" Tolerant to EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Hideki; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Potter, Danielle S; Matsui, Yusuke; Quiceno, Laura Gutierrez; Chen, Ting; Kim, Tae-Jung; Rusan, Maria; Thai, Tran C; Piccioni, Federica; Donovan, Katherine A; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Hinohara, Kunihiko; Wei, Guo; Gray, Nathanael S; Fischer, Eric S; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Shimamura, Teppei; Letai, Anthony; Hammerman, Peter S; Barbie, David A

    2018-02-15

    An increasingly recognized component of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) involves persistence of a drug-tolerant subpopulation of cancer cells that survive despite effective eradication of the majority of the cell population. Multiple groups have demonstrated that these drug-tolerant persister cells undergo transcriptional adaptation via an epigenetic state change that promotes cell survival. Because this mode of TKI drug tolerance appears to involve transcriptional addiction to specific genes and pathways, we hypothesized that systematic functional screening of EGFR TKI/transcriptional inhibitor combination therapy would yield important mechanistic insights and alternative drug escape pathways. We therefore performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 enhancer/suppressor screen in EGFR-dependent lung cancer PC9 cells treated with erlotinib + THZ1 (CDK7/12 inhibitor) combination therapy, a combination previously shown to suppress drug-tolerant cells in this setting. As expected, suppression of multiple genes associated with transcriptional complexes (EP300, CREBBP, and MED1) enhanced erlotinib/THZ1 synergy. Unexpectedly, we uncovered nearly every component of the recently described ufmylation pathway in the synergy suppressor group. Loss of ufmylation did not affect canonical downstream EGFR signaling. Instead, absence of this pathway triggered a protective unfolded protein response associated with STING upregulation, promoting protumorigenic inflammatory signaling but also unique dependence on Bcl-xL. These data reveal that dysregulation of ufmylation and ER stress comprise a previously unrecognized TKI drug tolerance pathway that engages survival signaling, with potentially important therapeutic implications. Significance: These findings reveal a novel function of the recently described ufmylation pathway, an ER stress survival signaling in drug-tolerant persister cells, which has important biological and therapeutic implications. Cancer Res; 78(4); 1044

  13. Interactions between BMP-7 and USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 regulate supernumerary organ formations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoka Kiso

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are highly conserved signaling molecules that are part of the transforming growth factor (TGF-beta superfamily, and function in the patterning and morphogenesis of many organs including development of the dentition. The functions of the BMPs are controlled by certain classes of molecules that are recognized as BMP antagonists that inhibit BMP binding to their cognate receptors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 suppresses deciduous incisors by inhibition of BMP-7 function. We learned that USAG-1 and BMP-7 were expressed within odontogenic epithelium as well as mesenchyme during the late bud and early cap stages of tooth development. USAG-1 is a BMP antagonist, and also modulates Wnt signaling. USAG-1 abrogation rescued apoptotic elimination of odontogenic mesenchymal cells. BMP signaling in the rudimentary maxillary incisor, assessed by expressions of Msx1 and Dlx2 and the phosphorylation of Smad protein, was significantly enhanced. Using explant culture and subsequent subrenal capsule transplantation of E15 USAG-1 mutant maxillary incisor tooth primordia supplemented with BMP-7 demonstrated in USAG-1+/- as well as USAG-1-/- rescue and supernumerary tooth development. Based upon these results, we conclude that USAG-1 functions as an antagonist of BMP-7 in this model system. These results further suggest that the phenotypes of USAG-1 and BMP-7 mutant mice reported provide opportunities for regenerative medicine and dentistry.

  14. Inhibitor-induced oxidation of the nucleus and cytosol in Arabidopsis thaliana: implications for organelle to nucleus retrograde signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinska, Barbara; Alomrani, Sarah Owdah; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-09-26

    Concepts of organelle-to-nucleus signalling pathways are largely based on genetic screens involving inhibitors of chloroplast and mitochondrial functions such as norflurazon, lincomycin (LINC), antimycin A (ANT) and salicylhydroxamic acid. These inhibitors favour enhanced cellular oxidation, but their precise effects on the cellular redox state are unknown. Using the in vivo reduction-oxidation (redox) reporter, roGFP2, inhibitor-induced changes in the glutathione redox potentials of the nuclei and cytosol were measured in Arabidopsis thaliana root, epidermal and stomatal guard cells, together with the expression of nuclear-encoded chloroplast and mitochondrial marker genes. All the chloroplast and mitochondrial inhibitors increased the degree of oxidation in the nuclei and cytosol. However, inhibitor-induced oxidation was less marked in stomatal guard cells than in epidermal or root cells. Moreover, LINC and ANT caused a greater oxidation of guard cell nuclei than the cytosol. Chloroplast and mitochondrial inhibitors significantly decreased the abundance of LHCA1 and LHCB1 transcripts. The levels of WHY1 , WHY3 and LEA5 transcripts were increased in the presence of inhibitors. Chloroplast inhibitors decreased AOXA1 mRNA levels, while mitochondrial inhibitors had the opposite effect. Inhibitors that are used to characterize retrograde signalling pathways therefore have similar general effects on cellular redox state and gene expression.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Inhibitors of BCR signalling interrupt the survival signal mediated by the micro-environment in mantle cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Sophie; Danglade, Damien; Gardano, Laura; Laguillier, Christelle; Lazarian, Gregory; Roger, Claudine; Thieblemont, Catherine; Marzec, Jacek; Gribben, John; Cymbalista, Florence; Varin-Blank, Nadine; Ledoux, Dominique; Baran-Marszak, Fanny

    2015-06-15

    Several studies provide evidences for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cell survival relying on B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated signalling pathways, whereas the nature of this activation is unknown. Significant progress in MCL treatment is achieved through therapies targeting BCR-associated kinases, i.e., Ibrutinib and Fostamatinib, inhibitors of BTK and SYK, respectively. Our study addresses survival signals emanating from the BCR or the tumour environment and how inhibiting BCR signalling effectors might impact these survival signals. We found that BTK was constitutively activated and that SYK phosphorylation was highly increased and sustained upon BCR activation of primary MCL cells. Moreover, MCL cells from leukaemic patients secreted high amount of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and CCL5. Activation of the BCR induced (i) cell survival, (ii) STAT3 activation and (iii) increased autocrine secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, CCL5, IL-10, TNFα and VEGF. Specific inhibition of BTK by Ibrutinib or SYK by Fostamatinib (R406) reversed these protective effects and decreased both basal and BCR-induced autocrine cytokine secretions associated with STAT3 phosphorylation. Interestingly, targeting BTK and SYK prevented and inhibited BCR-induced MCL cell adhesion to human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs) in short- and long-term co-culture. We demonstrated that BCR-induced survival relies on autocrine secretion of IL-1β, TNFα and CCL5 that might facilitate adhesion of MCL cells to HMSC. Treatment with Ibrutinib or Fostamatinib blocked the chemotactic signal thus increasing apoptosis. © 2014 UICC.

  16. RGM regulates BMP-mediated secondary axis formation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclère, Lucas; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2014-12-11

    Patterning of the metazoan dorsoventral axis is mediated by a complex interplay of BMP signaling regulators. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is a conserved BMP coreceptor that has not been implicated in axis specification. We show that NvRGM is a key positive regulator of BMP signaling during secondary axis establishment in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. NvRGM regulates first the generation and later the shape of a BMP-dependent Smad1/5/8 gradient with peak activity on the side opposite the NvBMP/NvRGM/NvChordin expression domain. Full knockdown of Smad1/5/8 signaling blocks the formation of endodermal structures, the mesenteries, and the establishment of bilateral symmetry, while altering the gradient through partial NvRGM or NvBMP knockdown shifts the boundaries of asymmetric gene expression and the positioning of the mesenteries along the secondary axis. These findings provide insight into the diversification of axis specification mechanisms and identify a previously unrecognized role for RGM in BMP-mediated axial patterning. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Delivery of dexamethasone from bioactive nanofiber matrices stimulates odontogenesis of human dental pulp cells through integrin/BMP/mTOR signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim HC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyun-Chang Lim,1,* Ok Hyung Nam,2,* Mi-joo Kim,3 Ahmed El-Fiqi,4,5 Hyung-Mun Yun,3 Yoo-Mi Lee,3 Guang-Zhen Jin,4,5 Hae-Hyoung Lee,5,6 Hae-Won Kim,4–6 Eun-Cheol Kim3 1Department of Periodontology, 2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Research Center for Tooth and Periodontal Regeneration (MRC, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 4Department of Nanobiomedical Science, BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, 5Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, 6Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work as first authors Abstract: Therapeutically relevant design of scaffolds is of special importance in the repair and regeneration of tissues including dentin and pulp. Here we exploit nanofiber matrices that incorporate bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNs and deliver the odontogenic drug dexamethasone (DEX to stimulate the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs. DEX molecules were first loaded onto the BGN, and then the DEX-BGN complex was incorporated within the biopolymer nanofiber matrix through electrospinning. The release of DEX continued over a month, showing a slow releasing profile. HDPCs cultured on the DEX-releasing BGN matrices were viable, proliferating well up to 14 days. The odontogenic differentiation, as assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity, mRNA expression of genes, and mineralization, was significantly stimulated on the matrices incorporating BGN and further on those releasing DEX. The DEX-releasing BGN matrices highly upregulated the expression of the integrin subsets α1, α5, and β3 as well as integrin downstream signaling molecules, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK, Paxillin, and RhoA, and activated bone morphogenetic protein mRNA and phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. Furthermore, the DEX-releasing BGN

  18. Snail regulates BMP and TGFβ pathways to control the differentiation status of glioma-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caja, Laia; Tzavlaki, Kalliopi; Dadras, Mahsa S; Tan, E-Jean; Hatem, Gad; Maturi, Naga P; Morén, Anita; Wik, Lotta; Watanabe, Yukihide; Savary, Katia; Kamali-Moghaddan, Masood; Uhrbom, Lene; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2018-02-16

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a brain malignancy characterized by high heterogeneity, invasiveness, and resistance to current therapies, attributes related to the occurrence of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) promotes self-renewal and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) induces differentiation of GSCs. BMP7 induces the transcription factor Snail to promote astrocytic differentiation in GSCs and suppress tumor growth in vivo. We demonstrate that Snail represses stemness in GSCs. Snail interacts with SMAD signaling mediators, generates a positive feedback loop of BMP signaling and transcriptionally represses the TGFB1 gene, decreasing TGFβ1 signaling activity. Exogenous TGFβ1 counteracts Snail function in vitro, and in vivo promotes proliferation and re-expression of Nestin, confirming the importance of TGFB1 gene repression by Snail. In conclusion, novel insight highlights mechanisms whereby Snail differentially regulates the activity of the opposing BMP and TGFβ pathways, thus promoting an astrocytic fate switch and repressing stemness in GSCs.

  19. Clinical development of VEGF signaling pathway inhibitors in childhood solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade Bender, Julia; Yamashiro, Darrell J; Fox, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a target shared by both adult epithelial cancers and the mesenchymal or embryonal tumors of childhood. Development of antiangiogenic agents for the pediatric population has been complicated by largely theoretical concern for toxicities specific to the growing child and prioritization among the many antiangiogenic agents being developed for adults. This review summarizes the mechanism of action and preclinical data relevant to childhood cancers and early-phase clinical trials in childhood solid tumors. Single-agent adverse event profiles in adults and children are reviewed with emphasis on cardiovascular, bone health, and endocrine side effects. In addition, pharmacological factors that may be relevant for prioritizing clinical trials of these agents in children are reviewed. Considerations for further clinical evaluation should include preclinical data, relative potency, efficacy in adults, and the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval status. Toxicity profiles of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway inhibitors may be age dependent and ultimately, their utility in the treatment of childhood cancer will require combination with standard cytotoxic drugs or other molecularly targeted agents. In combination studies, toxicity profiles, potential drug interactions, and late effects must be considered. Studies to assess the long-term impact of VEGF signaling pathway inhibitors on cardiovascular, endocrine, and bone health in children with cancer are imperative if these agents are to be administered to growing children and adolescents with newly diagnosed cancers.

  20. Targeting the Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Pathway: Review of Smoothened and GLI Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas K. Rimkus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling pathway is a major regulator of cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and tissue polarity. Aberrant activation of the Shh pathway has been shown in a variety of human cancers, including, basal cell carcinoma, malignant gliomas, medulloblastoma, leukemias, and cancers of the breast, lung, pancreas, and prostate. Tumorigenesis, tumor progression and therapeutic response have all been shown to be impacted by the Shh signaling pathway. Downstream effectors of the Shh pathway include smoothened (SMO and glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI family of zinc finger transcription factors. Both are regarded as important targets for cancer therapeutics. While most efforts have been devoted towards pharmacologically targeting SMO, developing GLI-targeted approach has its merit because of the fact that GLI proteins can be activated by both Shh ligand-dependent and -independent mechanisms. To date, two SMO inhibitors (LDE225/Sonidegib and GDC-0449/Vismodegib have received FDA approval for treating basal cell carcinoma while many clinical trials are being conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this exciting class of targeted therapy in a variety of cancers. In this review, we provide an overview of the biology of the Shh pathway and then detail the current landscape of the Shh-SMO-GLI pathway inhibitors including those in preclinical studies and clinical trials.

  1. MiR-22 Suppresses BMP7 in the Development of Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: New strategies for the prevention and treatment of cirrhosis are urgently needed for improving therapeutic outcome. A role of microRNAs (miRNAs in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis has been recently acknowledged, whereas the exact involved miRNAs as well as the associated molecular signaling pathways have not been determined. Specifically, the studies on the relationship between miR-22 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the development of cirrhosis are lacking. Methods: We examined the correlation of the levels of miR-22 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the liver biopsies from patients with cirrhosis. We examined overexpression or suppression of miR-22 on BMP7 in hepatocytes. We examined the binding of miR-22 to the 3'-UTR of BMP7 mRNA. Finally, in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced cirrhosis model in mice, we gave mice adeno-associated viruses carrying antisense of miR-22, and examined its effects on BMP7 levels and the hallmarks of cirrhosis. Results: The levels of miR-22 and BMP7 in the liver biopsies from patients were strongly and inversely correlated. MiR-22 inhibited BMP7 expression in hepatocytes, through directly binding the 3'-UTR of BMP7 mRNA. Expression of antisense miR-22 significantly attenuated the levels of liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and sodium retention caused by CCl4, possibly through upregulation of BMP7. Conclusions: MiR-22 promotes the development of cirrhosis through BMP7 suppression.

  2. Small Molecules Inspired by the Natural Product Withanolides as Potent Inhibitors of Wnt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet, Michael; Kapoor, Shobhna; Schröder, Peter; Kumar, Kamal; Ziegler, Slava; Waldmann, Herbert

    2017-09-19

    Wnt signaling is a fundamental pathway that drives embryonic development and is essential for stem cell maintenance and tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of Wnt signaling is linked to various diseases, and a constitutively active Wnt pathway drives tumorigenesis. Thus, disruption of the Wnt response is deemed a promising strategy for cancer drug discovery. However, only few clinical drug candidates that target Wnt signaling are available so far, and new small-molecule modulators of Wnt-related processes are in high demand. Here we describe the synthesis of small molecules inspired by withanolide natural products by using a pregnenolone-derived β-lactone as the key intermediate that was transformed into a δ-lactone appended to the D-ring of the steroidal scaffold. This natural-product-inspired compound library contained potent inhibitors of Wnt signaling that act upstream of the destruction complex to stabilize Axin in a tankyrase-independent manner. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. BMP9/COX-2 axial mediates high phosphate-induced calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells via Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Wang, Han; Ren, Wen-Yan; Ma, Yan; Liao, Yun-Peng; Zhu, Jia-Hui; Cui, Jin; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Su, Yu-Xi; Gan, Hua; He, Bai-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Vascular calcification is a notable risk factor for cardiovascular system. High phosphate can induce calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but the detail mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the relationship between high phosphate and bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) in VSMCs, the effect of BMP9 on calcification in VSMCs and the effect of COX-2 on BMP9 induced calcification in VSMCs, as well as the possible mechanism underlying this biological process. We found that high phosphate obviously up-regulates the expression of BMP9 in VSMCs. Over-expression of BMP9 decreases the level of alpha-smooth muscle cell actin (α-SMA) apparently, but increases the level of Runx-2, Dlx-5, and ALP in VSMCs. Meanwhile, BMP9 increases the level of OPN and OCN, promotes mineralization in VSMCs and induces calcification in thoracic aorta. High phosphate and over-expression of BMP9 increases the level of COX-2. Over-expression of COX-2 enhances the inhibitory effect of BMP9 on α-SAM and increases the level of OPN and OCN induced by BMP9. However, inhibition of COX-2 decreases the BMP9-induced calcification in VSMCs and thoracic aorta. For mechanism, we found that high phosphate or BMP9 increases the level of β-catenin and p-GSK3β in VSMCs, but no substantial effect on GSK3β. However, COX-2 inhibitor decreases the expression of β-catenin induced by BMP9. Our findings indicated that BMP9 is involved in the phosphate-induced calcification in VSMCs and COX-2 partly mediates the BMP9-induced calcification in VSMCs through activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between calcineurin inhibitors and proliferation signal inhibitors with anti-microbial agents: implications for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert L; Mueller, Scott W; Levi, Marilyn E; Lindenfeld, Joann

    2011-02-01

    Infections account for 15% to 20% of deaths in transplant recipients; thus, rapid and appropriate therapeutic intervention is required. However, many anti-microbial agents can interact significantly with a transplant recipient's immunosuppressive regimen, placing them at risk for a potential adverse drug reaction and prolonged hospitalization. This investigation highlights the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between the calcineurin inhibitors and proliferation signal inhibitors with commonly used anti-microbial agents, specifically addressing mechanism, management, onset of action, magnitude of effect and strength of evidence for each interaction. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preclinical testing of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling inhibitors in a mouse model of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong; Hu, Tom C; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Fearon, Eric R; Cho, Kathleen R

    2011-12-01

    Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of ovarian cancer that closely recapitulate their human tumor counterparts may be invaluable tools for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. We studied murine ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas (OEA) arising from conditional dysregulation of canonical WNT and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway signaling to investigate their response to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and mTOR or AKT inhibitors. OEAs were induced by injection of adenovirus expressing Cre recombinase (AdCre) into the ovarian bursae of Apc(flox/flox); Pten(flox/flox) mice. Tumor-bearing mice or murine OEA-derived cell lines were treated with cisplatin and paclitaxel, mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, or AKT inhibitors API-2 or perifosine. Treatment effects were monitored in vivo by tumor volume and bioluminescence imaging, in vitro by WST-1 proliferation assays, and in OEA tissues and cells by immunoblotting and immunostaining for levels and phosphorylation status of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway components. Murine OEAs developed within 3 weeks of AdCre injection and were not preceded by endometriosis. OEAs responded to cisplatin + paclitaxel, rapamycin, and AKT inhibitors in vivo. In vitro studies showed that response to mTOR and AKT inhibitors, but not conventional cytotoxic drugs, was dependent on the status of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. AKT inhibition in APC(-)/Pten(-) tumor cells resulted in compensatory upregulation of ERK signaling. The studies show the utility of this GEM model of ovarian cancer for preclinical testing of novel PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling inhibitors and provide evidence for compensatory signaling, suggesting that multiple rather than single agent targeted therapy will be more efficacious for treating ovarian cancers with activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. ©2011 AACR.

  6. Reactive oxygen species are involved in BMP-induced dendritic growth in cultured rat sympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Lea, Charlotte; Sosa, Jose Carlo; Higgins, Dennis; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) promote dendritic growth in sympathetic neurons; however, the downstream signaling molecules that mediate the dendrite promoting activity of BMPs are not well characterized. Here we test the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling links BMP receptor activation to dendritic growth. In cultured rat sympathetic neurons, exposure to any of the three mechanistically distinct antioxidants, diphenylene iodinium (DPI), nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NGA) or desferroxamine (DFO), blocked de novo BMP-induced dendritic growth. Addition of DPI to cultures previously induced with BMP to extend dendrites caused dendritic retraction while DFO and NGA prevented further growth of dendrites. The inhibition of the dendrite promoting activity of BMPs by antioxidants was concentration-dependent and occurred without altering axonal growth or neuronal cell survival. Antioxidant treatment did not block BMP activation of SMAD 1,5 as determined by nuclear localization of these SMADs. While BMP treatment did not cause a detectable increase in intracellular ROS in cultured sympathetic neurons as assessed using fluorescent indicator dyes, BMP treatment increased the oxygen consumption rate in cultured sympathetic neurons as determined using the Seahorse XF24 Analyzer, suggesting increased mitochondrial activity. In addition, BMPs upregulated expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and either pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of NOX2 significantly decreased BMP-7 induced dendritic growth. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that ROS are involved in the downstream signaling events that mediate BMP7-induced dendritic growth in sympathetic neurons, and suggest that ROS-mediated signaling positively modulates dendritic complexity in peripheral neurons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage is required for AV endocardial cushion maturation and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Jacob G; Baer, Daniel R; Barton, Julie A; Hawkins, Travis; Wu, Bingruo; Trusk, Thomas C; Harris, Stephen E; Zhou, Bin; Mishina, Yuji; Sugi, Yukiko

    2017-10-01

    Distal outgrowth, maturation and remodeling of the endocardial cushion mesenchyme in the atrioventricular (AV) canal are the essential morphogenetic events during four-chambered heart formation. Mesenchymalized AV endocardial cushions give rise to the AV valves and the membranous ventricular septum (VS). Failure of these processes results in several human congenital heart defects. Despite this clinical relevance, the mechanisms governing how mesenchymalized AV endocardial cushions mature and remodel into the membranous VS and AV valves have only begun to be elucidated. The role of BMP signaling in the myocardial and secondary heart forming lineage has been well studied; however, little is known about the role of BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage. To fill this knowledge gap, we generated Bmp2 endocardial lineage-specific conditional knockouts (referred to as Bmp2 cKO Endo ) by crossing conditionally-targeted Bmp2 flox/flox mice with a Cre-driver line, Nfatc1 Cre , wherein Cre-mediated recombination was restricted to the endocardial cells and their mesenchymal progeny. Bmp2 cKO Endo mouse embryos did not exhibit failure or delay in the initial AV endocardial cushion formation at embryonic day (ED) 9.5-11.5; however, significant reductions in AV cushion size were detected in Bmp2 cKO Endo mouse embryos when compared to control embryos at ED13.5 and ED16.5. Moreover, deletion of Bmp2 from the endocardial lineage consistently resulted in membranous ventricular septal defects (VSDs), and mitral valve deficiencies, as evidenced by the absence of stratification of mitral valves at birth. Muscular VSDs were not found in Bmp2 cKO Endo mouse hearts. To understand the underlying morphogenetic mechanisms leading to a decrease in cushion size, cell proliferation and cell death were examined for AV endocardial cushions. Phospho-histone H3 analyses for cell proliferation and TUNEL assays for apoptotic cell death did not reveal significant differences between control and

  8. Enhanced Inhibition of ERK Signaling by a Novel Allosteric MEK Inhibitor, CH5126766, That Suppresses Feedback Reactivation of RAF Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Eric W.; Ohara, Kazuhiro; Miura, Takaaki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Yutaka; Tomii, Yasushi; Tachibana-Kondo, Yukako; Iikura, Hitoshi; Aoki, Toshihiro; Shimma, Nobuo; Arisawa, Mikio; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Poulikakos, Poulikos I.; Rosen, Neal; Aoki, Yuko; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Tumors with mutant RAS are often dependent on extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) signaling for growth; however, MEK inhibitors have only marginal antitumor activity in these tumors. MEK inhibitors relieve ERK-dependent feedback inhibition of RAF and cause induction of MEK phosphorylation. We have now identified a MEK inhibitor, CH5126766 (RO5126766), that has the unique property of inhibiting RAF kinase as well. CH5126766 binding causes MEK to adopt a conformation in which it cannot be phosphorylated by and released from RAF. This results in formation of a stable MEK/RAF complex and inhibition of RAF kinase. Consistent with this mechanism, this drug does not induce MEK phosphorylation. CH5126766 inhibits ERK signaling output more effectively than a standard MEK inhibitor that induces MEK phosphorylation and has potent antitumor activity as well. These results suggest that relief of RAF feedback limits pathway inhibition by standard MEK inhibitors. CH5126766 represents a new type of MEK inhibitor that causes MEK to become a dominant-negative inhibitor of RAF and that, in doing so, may have enhanced therapeutic activity in ERK-dependent tumors with mutant RAS. PMID:23667175

  9. Small molecule inhibitor regorafenib inhibits RET signaling in neuroblastoma cells and effectively suppresses tumor growthin vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenghu; Zhao, Yanling; Yu, Yang; Pang, Jonathan C; Woodfield, Sarah E; Tao, Ling; Guan, Shan; Zhang, Huiyuan; Bieerkehazhi, Shayahati; Shi, Yan; Patel, Roma; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A; Yi, Joanna S; Muscal, Jodi A; Xu, Guo-Tong; Yang, Jianhua

    2017-11-28

    Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor, continues to cause significant cancer-related morbidity and mortality in children. Dysregulation of oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis in various human cancers and targeting these RTKs has had therapeutic benefit. RET is an RTK which is commonly expressed in NB, and high expression of RET correlates with poor outcomes in patients with NB. Herein we report that RET is required for NB cell proliferation and that the small molecule inhibitor regorafenib (BAY 73-4506) blocks glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-induced RET signaling in NB cells and inhibits NB growth both in vitro and in vivo . We found that regorafenib significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation ability of NB cells. Moreover, regorafenib suppressed tumor growth in both an orthotopic xenograft NB mouse model and a TH-MYCN transgenic NB mouse model. Finally, regorafenib markedly improved the overall survival of TH-MYCN transgenic tumor-bearing mice. In summary, our study suggests that RET is a potential therapeutic target in NB, and that using a novel RET inhibitor, like regorafenib, should be investigated as a therapeutic treatment option for children with NB.

  10. Autophagic dedifferentiation induced by cooperation between TOR inhibitor and retinoic acid signals in budding tunicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kaz; Yoshida, Takuto; Sekida, Satoko

    2018-01-15

    Asexual bud development in the budding tunicate Polyandrocarpa misakiensis involves transdifferentiation of multipotent epithelial cells, which is triggered by retinoic acid (RA), and thrives under starvation after bud isolation from the parent. This study aimed to determine cell and molecular mechanisms of dedifferentiation that occur during the early stage of transdifferentiation. During dedifferentiation, the numbers of autophagosomes, lysosomes, and secondary lysosomes increased remarkably. Mitochondrial degradation and exosome discharge also occurred in the atrial epithelium. Autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7) and lysosomal proton pump A gene (PumpA) were activated during the dedifferentiation stage. When target of rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor was administered to growing buds without isolating them from the parent, phagosomes and secondary lysosomes became prominent. TOR inhibitor induced Atg7 only in the presence of RA. In contrast, when growing buds were treated with RA, lysosomes, secondary lysosomes, and mitochondrial degradation were prematurely induced. RA significantly activated PumpA in a retinoid X receptor-dependent manner. Our results indicate that in P. misakiensis, TOR inhibition and RA signals act in synergy to accomplish cytoplasmic clearance for dedifferentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fibrin Hydrogel Based Bone Substitute Tethered with BMP-2 and BMP-2/7 Heterodimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay S. Karfeld-Sulzer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Current clinically used delivery methods for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are collagen based and require large concentrations that can lead to dangerous side effects. Fibrin hydrogels can serve as osteoinductive bone substitute materials in non-load bearing bone defects in combination with BMPs. Two strategies to even further optimize such a fibrin based system include employing more potent BMP heterodimers and engineering growth factors that can be covalently tethered to and slowly released from a fibrin matrix. Here we present an engineered BMP-2/BMP-7 heterodimer where an N-terminal transglutaminase substrate domain in the BMP-2 portion provides covalent attachment to fibrin together with a central plasmin substrate domain, a cleavage site for local release of the attached BMP-2/BMP-7 heterodimer under the influence of cell-activated plasmin. In vitro and in vivo results revealed that the engineered BMP-2/BMP-7 heterodimer induces significantly more alkaline phosphatase activity in pluripotent cells and bone formation in a rat calvarial model than the engineered BMP-2 homodimer. Therefore, the engineered BMP-2/BMP-7 heterodimer could be used to reduce the amount of BMP needed for clinical effect.

  12. Rhamnazin, a novel inhibitor of VEGFR2 signaling with potent antiangiogenic activity and antitumor efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yao; Cai, Wei; Pei, Chong-gang; Shao, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Anti-angiogenesis targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) has emerged as an important tool for cancer therapy. The identification of new drugs from natural products has a long and successful history. In this study, we described a novel VEGFR2 inhibitor, rhamnazin, which inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth. Rhamnazin significantly inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro as well as inhibited sprouts formation of rat aorta ring. In addition, it inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling regulator in HUVECs. Moreover, rhamnazin could directly inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo. Oral administration of rhamnazin at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day could markedly inhibited human tumor xenograft growth and decreased microvessel densities (MVD) in tumor sections. Taken together, these preclinical evaluations suggest that rhamnazin inhibits angiogenesis and may be a promising anticancer drug candidate. - Highlights: • Rhamnazin inhibits the response of HUVECs to VEGF in vitro. • Rhamnazin inhibits VEGFR2 kinase activity and its downstream signaling. • Rhamnazin prevents the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor and reduces micro-vessel density in vivo

  13. Foxc1 Expression in Early Osteogenic Differentiation Is Regulated by BMP4-SMAD Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Alexander; Mirzayans, Freda; Berry, Fred

    2016-07-01

    FOXC1 is an important regulator of the initial steps in intramembranous and endochondral ossification processes. As BMP signalling is a key initiator of these processes, we sought to determine whether Foxc1 expression is regulated by such signalling factors. BMP4 treatment of C2C12 cells resulted in an induction in Foxc1 mRNA levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that SMAD proteins interacted with the mouse Foxc1 promoter approximately 300 bp upstream of the transcription start site. This ChIP positive region was cloned into a luciferase reporter and demonstrated to be responsive to BMP4 stimulation. Reduction of Foxc1 levels in C2C12 cells though siRNA impaired BMP4 osteogenic differentiation. In contrast, BMP4 treatment repressed Foxc1 expression in 10T1/2 or D1-ORL mesenchymal cells and MC3T3 preosteoblasts. Finally, siRNA knock-down of Foxc1 in MC3T3 cells resulted in an induction of markers of osteoblast differentiation and an accelerated mineralization. These data indicate that Foxc1 expression is regulated by BMP4 and FOXC1 functions in the commitment of progenitor cells to the osteoblast fate and its expression is reduced when differentiation proceeds. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1707-1717, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) induces growth suppression and enhances chemosensitivity of human colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Yue, Shijun; Alfayez, Musaad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Molecular profiling of colorectal cancer (CRC) based on global gene expression has revealed multiple dysregulated signalling pathways associated with drug resistance and poor prognosis. However, the role of BMP2 signaling in CRC is not fully characterised. METHODS: Bioinformatics data...... datasets revealed significant downregulation of BMP2 in metastatic recurrent compared to non-metastatic cancer (p = 0.02). Global gene expression analysis in CRC cells over-expressing BMP2 revealed multiple dysregulated pathways mostly affecting cell cycle and DNA damage response. Concordantly, lentiviral...

  15. Inhibition of TLR2 signaling by small molecule inhibitors targeting a pocket within the TLR2 TIR domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pragnesh; Laird, Michelle H. W.; Schwarz, Ryan S.; Greene, Shannon; Dyson, Tristan; Snyder, Greg A.; Xiao, Tsan Sam; Chauhan, Jay; Fletcher, Steven; Toshchakov, Vladimir Y.; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Vogel, Stefanie N.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is initiated by dimerization of intracellular Toll/IL-1 receptor resistance (TIR) domains. For all TLRs except TLR3, recruitment of the adapter, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), to TLR TIR domains results in downstream signaling culminating in proinflammatory cytokine production. Therefore, blocking TLR TIR dimerization may ameliorate TLR2-mediated hyperinflammatory states. The BB loop within the TLR TIR domain is critical for mediating certain protein–protein interactions. Examination of the human TLR2 TIR domain crystal structure revealed a pocket adjacent to the highly conserved P681 and G682 BB loop residues. Using computer-aided drug design (CADD), we sought to identify a small molecule inhibitor(s) that would fit within this pocket and potentially disrupt TLR2 signaling. In silico screening identified 149 compounds and 20 US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs based on their predicted ability to bind in the BB loop pocket. These compounds were screened in HEK293T-TLR2 transfectants for the ability to inhibit TLR2-mediated IL-8 mRNA. C16H15NO4 (C29) was identified as a potential TLR2 inhibitor. C29, and its derivative, ortho-vanillin (o-vanillin), inhibited TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 signaling induced by synthetic and bacterial TLR2 agonists in human HEK-TLR2 and THP-1 cells, but only TLR2/1 signaling in murine macrophages. C29 failed to inhibit signaling induced by other TLR agonists and TNF-α. Mutagenesis of BB loop pocket residues revealed an indispensable role for TLR2/1, but not TLR2/6, signaling, suggesting divergent roles. Mice treated with o-vanillin exhibited reduced TLR2-induced inflammation. Our data provide proof of principle that targeting the BB loop pocket is an effective approach for identification of TLR2 signaling inhibitors. PMID:25870276

  16. The BMP antagonist follistatin-like 1 is required for skeletal and lung organogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylva, M.; Li, V.S.; Buffing, A.A.; van Es, J.H.; van den Born, M.M.W.; van der Velden, S.; Gunst, Q.; Koolstra, J.H.; Moorman, A.F.; Clevers, H.; van den Hoff, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a secreted protein of the BMP inhibitor class. During development, expression of Fstl1 is already found in cleavage stage embryos and becomes gradually restricted to mesenchymal elements of most organs during subsequent development. Knock down experiments in chicken and

  17. Screen for chemical modulators of autophagy reveals novel therapeutic inhibitors of mTORC1 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna D Balgi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 is a protein kinase that relays nutrient availability signals to control numerous cellular functions including autophagy, a process of cellular self-eating activated by nutrient depletion. Addressing the therapeutic potential of modulating mTORC1 signaling and autophagy in human disease requires active chemicals with pharmacologically desirable properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an automated cell-based assay, we screened a collection of >3,500 chemicals and identified three approved drugs (perhexiline, niclosamide, amiodarone and one pharmacological reagent (rottlerin capable of rapidly increasing autophagosome content. Biochemical assays showed that the four compounds stimulate autophagy and inhibit mTORC1 signaling in cells maintained in nutrient-rich conditions. The compounds did not inhibit mTORC2, which also contains mTOR as a catalytic subunit, suggesting that they do not inhibit mTOR catalytic activity but rather inhibit signaling to mTORC1. mTORC1 inhibition and autophagosome accumulation induced by perhexiline, niclosamide or rottlerin were rapidly reversed upon drug withdrawal whereas amiodarone inhibited mTORC1 essentially irreversibly. TSC2, a negative regulator of mTORC1, was required for inhibition of mTORC1 signaling by rottlerin but not for mTORC1 inhibition by perhexiline, niclosamide and amiodarone. Transient exposure of immortalized mouse embryo fibroblasts to these drugs was not toxic in nutrient-rich conditions but led to rapid cell death by apoptosis in starvation conditions, by a mechanism determined in large part by the tuberous sclerosis complex protein TSC2, an upstream regulator of mTORC1. By contrast, transient exposure to the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin caused essentially irreversible mTORC1 inhibition, sustained inhibition of cell growth and no selective cell killing in starvation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The observation that drugs already

  18. Sequential Treatment with SDF-1 and BMP-2 Potentiates Bone Formation in Calvarial Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hee-Don; Lee, Jung-Tae; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Jung, Hong-Moon; Lee, Heon-Jin; Kwon, Tae-Geon

    2015-07-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) protein and its receptor, CXCR-4, play an important role in tissue repair and regeneration in various organs, including the bone. SDF-1 is indispensable for bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced osteogenic differentiation. However, SDF-1 is not needed after the osteogenic induction has been activated. Since the precise condition for the additive effects of combined DF-1 and BMP-2 in bone healing had not been fully investigated, we aimed to determine the optimal conditions for SDF-1- and BMP-2-mediated bone regeneration. We examined the in vitro osteoblastic differentiation and cell migration after sequential treatments with SDF-1 and BMP-2. Based on the in vitro additive effects of SDF-1 and BMP-2, the critical size defects of mice calvaria were treated with these cytokines in various sequences. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-, SDF-1-, or BMP-2-soaked collagen scaffolds were implanted into the calvarial defects (n=36). Periodic percutaneous injections of PBS or the cytokine SDF-1 and BMP-2 into the implanted scaffolds were performed on days 3 and 6, postoperatively. Six experimental groups were used according to the types and sequences of the cytokine treatments. After 28 days, the mice were euthanized and bone formation was evaluated with microcomputed tomography and histology. The molecular mechanism of the additive effect of SDF-1 and BMP-2 was evaluated by analyzing intracellular signal transduction through Smad and Erk phosphorylation. The in vitro experiments revealed that, among all the treatments, the treatment with BMP-2 after SDF-1 showed the strongest osteoblastic differentiation and enhanced cell migration. Similarly, in the animal model, the treatment with SDF-1 followed by BMP-2 treatment showed the highest degree of new bone regeneration than any other groups, including the one with continuous BMP-2 treatment. This new bone formation can be partially explained by the activation of Smad and Erk pathways

  19. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for skeletal patterning and for left-right but not dorsal-ventral specification in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Michael L; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Zuch, Daniel T; Yu, Jia; Conaway, Evan A; Reyna, Arlene E; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires coordinated signaling between the pattern-dictating ectoderm and the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs); recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for this process. Using an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen, we have previously identified the TGF-ß superfamily ligand, LvBMP5-8, as a skeletal patterning gene in Lytechinus variegatus embryos. This result is surprising, since both BMP5-8 and BMP2/4 ligands have been implicated in sea urchin dorsal-ventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axis specification. Here, we demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for normal skeletal patterning on the left side, as well as for normal PMC positioning during gastrulation. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for expression of the left-side marker soxE, suggesting that LvBMP5-8 is required for left-side specification. Interestingly, we also find that LvBMP5-8 knockdown suppresses serotonergic neurogenesis on the left side. While LvBMP5-8 overexpression is sufficient to dorsalize embryos, we find that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is not required for normal DV specification or development. In addition, ectopic LvBMP5-8 does not dorsalize LvBMP2/4 morphant embryos, indicating that, in the absence of BMP2/4, BMP5-8 is insufficient to specify dorsal. Taken together, our data demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 signaling is essential for left-side specification, and for normal left-side skeletal and neural patterning, but not for DV specification. Thus, while both BMP2/4 and BMP5-8 regulate LR axis specification, BMP2/4 but not zygotic BMP5-8 regulates DV axis specification in sea urchin embryos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Discovering Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeted to Ligand-Stimulated RAGE-DIAPH1 Signaling Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinhong

    The receptor of advanced glycation end product (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules, which plays an important role in immune responses. Full-length RAGE includes three extracellular immunoglobulin domains, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain. It is a pattern recognition receptor that can bind diverse ligands. NMR spectroscopy and x-ray crystallization studies of the extracellular domains of RAGE indicate that RAGE ligands bind by distinct charge- and hydrophobicity-dependent mechanisms. It is found that calgranulin binding to the C1C2 domain or AGEs binding to the V domain activates extracellular signaling, which triggers interactions of the RAGE cytoplasmic tail (ctRAGE) with intracellular effector, such as diaphanous 1 (DIAPH1), to initiate signal transduction cascades. ctRAGE is essential for RAGE-ligand-mediated signal transduction and consequent modulation of gene expression and cellular properties. RAGE is over-expressed in diseased tissues of most RAGE-associated pathogenic conditions, such as complications of Alzheimer's diseases, diabetes, vascular diseases, inflammation, cancers and neurodegeneration. They are the major diseases affecting a large population worldwide. RAGE can function as a biomarker or drug target for these diseases. The cytoplasmic tail of RAGE can be used as a drug target to inhibit RAGE-induced intracellular signaling by small molecule inhibitors to treat RAGE-associated diseases. We developed a high throughput screening assay with which we probed a small molecule library of 58,000 compounds to find that 777 small molecules displayed 50% inhibition and 97 compounds demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of the binding of ctRAGE-DIAPH1. Eventually, there were 13 compounds which displayed dose-dependent inhibition of ctRAGE binding to DIAPH1 and direct binding to ctRAGE analyzed by 15N HSQC-NMR and native tryptophan fluorescence titration experiments; thus, they were

  1. Strontium doping promotes bioactivity of rhBMP-2 upon calcium phosphate cement via elevated recognition and expression of BMPR-IA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baolin; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Wenjing; Ma, Yifan; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2017-11-01

    Preserving and improving osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) upon implants remains one of the key limitations in bone regeneration. With calcium phosphate cement (CPC) as model, we have developed a series of strontium (Sr)-doped CPC (SCPC) to address this issue. The effects of fixed Sr on the bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) as well as the underlying mechanism were investigated. The results suggested that the rhBMP-2-induced osteogenic activity was significantly promoted upon SCPCs, especially with a low amount of fixed Sr (SrCO 3 content IA (BMPR-IA) to rhBMP-2 and an increased expression of BMPR-IA in C2C12 model cells. As a result, the activations of BMP-induced signaling pathways were different in C2C12 cells incubated upon CPC/rhBMP-2 and SCPCs/rhBMP-2. These findings explicitly decipher the mechanism of SCPCs promoting osteogenic bioactivity of rhBMP-2 and signify the promising application of the SCPCs/rhBMP-2 matrix in bone regeneration implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of osteogenesis by the canonical Wnt and BMP pathways in vivo: cooperation and antagonism between the canonical Wnt and BMP pathways as cells differentiate from osteochondroprogenitors to osteoblasts and osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Sylvain; Henriquez, Juan Pablo; Bertin, Ariana

    2012-11-01

    Although many regulators of skeletogenesis have been functionally characterized, one current challenge is to integrate this information into regulatory networks. Here, we discuss how the canonical Wnt and Smad-dependent BMP pathways interact together and play antagonistic or cooperative roles at different steps of osteogenesis, in the context of the developing vertebrate embryo. Early on, BMP signaling specifies multipotent mesenchymal cells into osteochondroprogenitors. In turn, the function of Wnt signaling is to drive these osteochondroprogenitors towards an osteoblastic fate. Subsequently, both pathways promote osteoblast differentiation, albeit with notable mechanistic differences. In osteocytes, the ultimate stage of osteogenic differentiation, the Wnt and BMP pathways exert opposite effects on the control of bone resorption by osteoclasts. We describe how the dynamic molecular wiring of the canonical Wnt and Smad-dependent BMP signaling into the skeletal cell genetic programme is critical for the generation of bone-specific cell types during development. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Physalin H from Solanum nigrum as an Hh signaling inhibitor blocks GLI1–DNA-complex formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori A. Arai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling plays an important role in embryonic development, cell maintenance and cell proliferation. Moreover, Hh signaling contributes to the growth of cancer cells. Physalins are highly oxidized natural products with a complex structure. Physalins (1–7 were isolated from Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae collected in Bangladesh by using our cell-based assay. The isolated physalins included the previously reported Hh inhibitors 5 and 6. Compounds 1 and 4 showed strong inhibition of GLI1 transcriptional activity, and exhibited cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines with an aberrant activation of Hh signaling. Compound 1 inhibited the production of the Hh-related proteins patched (PTCH and BCL2. Analysis of the structures of different physalins showed that the left part of the physalins was important for Hh inhibitory activity. Interestingly, physalin H (1 disrupted GLI1 binding to its DNA binding domain, while the weak inhibitor physalin G (2 did not show inhibition of GLI1-DNA complex formation.

  4. Recurrent chromosome 22 deletions in osteoblastoma affect inhibitors of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Karolin H; Nilsson, Jenny; Arbajian, Elsa; Vult von Steyern, Fredrik; Brosjö, Otte; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Szuhai, Karoly; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W

    2013-01-01

    Osteoblastoma is a bone forming tumor with histological features highly similar to osteoid osteoma; the discrimination between the tumor types is based on size and growth pattern. The vast majority of osteoblastomas are benign but there is a group of so-called aggressive osteoblastomas that can be diagnostically challenging at the histopathological level. The genetic aberrations required for osteoblastoma development are not known and no genetic difference between conventional and aggressive osteoblastoma has been reported. In order to identify recurrent genomic aberrations of importance for tumor development we applied cytogenetic and/or SNP array analyses on nine conventional and two aggressive osteoblastomas. The conventional osteoblastomas showed few or no acquired genetic aberrations while the aggressive tumors displayed heavily rearranged genomes. In one of the aggressive osteoblastomas, three neighboring regions in chromosome band 22q12 were homozygously deleted. Hemizygous deletions of these regions were found in two additional cases, one aggressive and one conventional. In total, 10 genes were recurrently and homozygously lost in osteoblastoma. Four of them are functionally involved in regulating osteogenesis and/or tumorigenesis. MN1 and NF2 have previously been implicated in the development of leukemia and solid tumors, and ZNRF3 and KREMEN1 are inhibitors of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. In line with deletions of the latter two genes, high beta-catenin protein expression has previously been reported in osteoblastoma and aberrations affecting the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway have been found in other bone lesions, including osteoma and osteosarcoma.

  5. [Effect of phosphorus supply and signal inhibitors on oxalate efflux in ectomycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongjun; Li, Yong; Huang, Jianguo

    2015-06-04

    Phosphorous (P) is one of the essential elements for tree growth in forests. It is beneficial to characterize oxalate secretion by ectomycorrhizal fungi in response to P supply for understanding the mechanism of P mobilization in soils. In the present experiment, the influence of P supplies and inhibitors of Ca2+ signal/anion channel on oxalate efflux in ectomycorrhizal fungi was studied in the pure liquid culture with various P concentrations. Ectomycorrhizal fungi released a large amount of H+ and organic acids such as oxalate, acetate, malate, citrate and succinate, which are important for mobilization of insoluble P in the soils. Oxalate accounted for 15. 14% to 36. 01% of the total organic acids released by the fungi and was accelerated in culture solution under the condition of low P supply, but inhibited under normal and high P. Ectomycorrhizal fungi released a large amount of H+ and organic acids, particularly oxalate, which might be beneficial to inorganic P mobilization in the soils and improvement of P nutrition for their host plants.

  6. Recurrent Chromosome 22 Deletions in Osteoblastoma Affect Inhibitors of the Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Karolin H.; Nilsson, Jenny; Arbajian, Elsa; Vult von Steyern, Fredrik; Brosjö, Otte; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Szuhai, Karoly; Hogendoorn, Pancras C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoblastoma is a bone forming tumor with histological features highly similar to osteoid osteoma; the discrimination between the tumor types is based on size and growth pattern. The vast majority of osteoblastomas are benign but there is a group of so-called aggressive osteoblastomas that can be diagnostically challenging at the histopathological level. The genetic aberrations required for osteoblastoma development are not known and no genetic difference between conventional and aggressive osteoblastoma has been reported. In order to identify recurrent genomic aberrations of importance for tumor development we applied cytogenetic and/or SNP array analyses on nine conventional and two aggressive osteoblastomas. The conventional osteoblastomas showed few or no acquired genetic aberrations while the aggressive tumors displayed heavily rearranged genomes. In one of the aggressive osteoblastomas, three neighboring regions in chromosome band 22q12 were homozygously deleted. Hemizygous deletions of these regions were found in two additional cases, one aggressive and one conventional. In total, 10 genes were recurrently and homozygously lost in osteoblastoma. Four of them are functionally involved in regulating osteogenesis and/or tumorigenesis. MN1 and NF2 have previously been implicated in the development of leukemia and solid tumors, and ZNRF3 and KREMEN1 are inhibitors of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. In line with deletions of the latter two genes, high beta-catenin protein expression has previously been reported in osteoblastoma and aberrations affecting the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway have been found in other bone lesions, including osteoma and osteosarcoma. PMID:24236197

  7. Targeting Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Signaling with Antibodies and Inhibitors, Is There a Rationale?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Fukumoto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 is a phosphotropic hormone mainly produced by bone. FGF23 reduces serum phosphate by suppressing intestinal phosphate absorption through reducing 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and proximal tubular phosphate reabsorption. Excessive actions of FG23 result in several kinds of hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia including X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH and tumor-induced osteomalacia. While neutral phosphate and active vitamin D are standard therapies for child patients with XLH, these medications have several limitations both in their effects and adverse events. Several approaches that inhibit FGF23 actions including anti-FGF23 antibodies and inhibitors of FGF signaling have been shown to improve phenotypes of model mice for FG23-related hypophosphatemic diseases. In addition, clinical trials indicated that a humanized anti-FGF23 antibody increased serum phosphate and improved quality of life in patients with XLH. Furthermore, circulatory FGF23 is high in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Many epidemiological studies indicated the association between high FGF23 levels and various adverse events especially in patients with CKD. However, it is not known whether the inhibition of FGF23 activities in patients with CKD is beneficial for these patients. In this review, recent findings concerning the modulation of FGF23 activities are discussed.

  8. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D.; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use. PMID:25909220

  9. Noggin and Wnt3a enable BMP4-dependent differentiation of telencephalic stem cells into GluR-agonist responsive neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Therese; Duckworth, Joshua K; Fritz, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    levels, that in turn exerted a concentration-dependent inhibition of BMP4-mediated mesenchymal differentiation of NSCs. Instead, BMP4 exposure of NSCs induced neuronal differentiation in mesenchyme-preventing conditions, whereas treatment with recombinant noggin alone did not. Wnt signaling is known...... to be essential for the development of neurons derived from the dorsal telencephalon, and co-stimulation of NSCs with BMP4+Wnt3a resulted in a synergistic effect yielding significantly increased number of mature neurons compared to stimulation with each factor alone. Thus whereas only a subset of BMP4-induced...... neurons derived from telencephalic NSCs, responded to glutamate receptor (GluR) agonists, over 80% of BMP4+Wnt3a-induced neurons responded appropriately to GluR-agonists. Our results increase the understanding of the role for BMP4 in differentiation of telencephalic multipotent progenitors, and reveal...

  10. Wnt/β-Catenin Regulates the Activity of Epiprofin/Sp6, SHH, FGF, and BMP to Coordinate the Stages of Odontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Maitane; Irastorza, Igor; García-Gallastegui, Patricia; Jiménez-Rojo, Lucia; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Ibarretxe, Gaskon; Unda, Fernando J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We used an in vitro tooth development model to investigate the effects of overactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway during odontogenesis by bromoindirubin oxime reagent (BIO), a specific inhibitor of GSK-3 activity. Results: Overactivating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway at tooth initiation upregulated and ectopically expressed the epithelial markers Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), Epiprofin (Epfn), and Fibroblast growth factor8 (Fgf8), which are involved in the delimitation of odontogenic fields in the oral ectoderm. This result indicated an ectopic extension of the odontogenic potential. During tooth morphogenesis, Fibroblast growth factor4 (Fgf4), Fibroblast growth factor10 (Fgf10), Muscle segment homeobox 1 (Msx-1), Bone Morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4), and Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1 (Dkk-1) were overexpressed in first molars cultured with BIO. Conversely, the expression levels of Wingless integration site 10b (Wnt-10b) and Shh were reduced. Additionally, the odontoblast differentiation markers Nestin and Epfn showed ectopic overexpression in the dental mesenchyme of BIO-treated molars. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase activity increased in the dental mesenchyme, again suggesting aberrant, ectopic mesenchymal cell differentiation. Finally, Bmp4 downregulated Epfn expression during dental morphogenesis. Conclusions: We suggest the presence of a positive feedback loop wherein Epfn and β-catenin activate each other. The balance of the expression of these two molecules is essential for proper tooth development. We propose a possible link between Wnt, Bmp, and Epfn that would critically determine the correct patterning of dental cusps and the differentiation of odontoblasts and ameloblasts. PMID:27066482

  11. Wnt/β-catenin regulates the activity of Epiprofin/Sp6, SHH, FGF and BMP to coordinate the stages of odontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitane eAurrekoetxea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We used an in vitro tooth development model to investigate the effects of overactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway during odontogenesis by bromoindirubin oxime reagent (BIO, a specific inhibitor of GSK-3 activity. Results: Overactivatingthe Wnt/β-catenin pathway at tooth initiation upregulated and ectopically expressed the epithelial markers Sonic Hedgehog (Shh, Epiprofin (Epfn and Fibroblast growth factor8 (Fgf8, which are involved in the delimitation of odontogenic fields in the oral ectoderm. This result indicated an ectopic extension of the odontogenic potential. During tooth morphogenesis, Fibroblast growth factor4 (Fgf4, Fibroblast growth factor10 (Fgf10, Muscle segment homeobox 1 (Msx-1, Bone Morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4 and Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1 (Dkk-1 were overexpressed in first molars cultured with BIO. Conversely, the expression levels of Wingless integration site 10b (Wnt-10b and Shh were reduced. Additionally, the odontoblast differentiation markers Nestin and Epfn showed ectopic overexpression in the dental mesenchyme of BIO-treated molars. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase activity increased in the dental mesenchyme, again suggesting aberrant, ectopic mesenchymal cell differentiation. Finally, Bmp4 downregulated Epfn expression during dental morphogenesis. Conclusions: We suggest the presence of a positive feedback loop wherein Epfn and β-catenin activate each other. The balance of the expression of these two molecules is essential for proper tooth development. We propose a possible link between Wnt, Bmp and Epfn that would critically determine the correct patterning of dental cusps and the differentiation of odontoblasts and ameloblasts.

  12. BMP Sustains Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal through Distinct Functions of Different Krüppel-like Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Morikawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling exerts paradoxical roles in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs; it sustains self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs, while it induces differentiation in other PSCs, including human ESCs. Here, we revisit the roles of BMP-4 using mouse ESCs (mESCs in naive and primed states. SMAD1 and SMAD5, which transduce BMP signals, recognize enhancer regions together with KLF4 and KLF5 in naive mESCs. KLF4 physically interacts with SMAD1 and suppresses its activity. Consistently, a subpopulation of cells with active BMP-SMAD can be ablated without disturbing the naive state of the culture. Moreover, Smad1/5 double-knockout mESCs stay in the naive state, indicating that the BMP-SMAD pathway is dispensable for it. In contrast, the MEK5-ERK5 pathway mediates BMP-4-induced self-renewal of mESCs by inducing Klf2, a critical factor for the ground state pluripotency. Our study illustrates that BMP exerts its self-renewing effect through distinct functions of different Krüppel-like factors.

  13. Persistent expression of BMP-4 in embryonic chick adrenal cortical cells and its role in chromaffin cell development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halbach Oliver

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenal chromaffin cells and sympathetic neurons both originate from the neural crest, yet signals that trigger chromaffin development remain elusive. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs emanating from the dorsal aorta are important signals for the induction of a sympathoadrenal catecholaminergic cell fate. Results We report here that BMP-4 is also expressed by adrenal cortical cells throughout chick embryonic development, suggesting a putative role in chromaffin cell development. Moreover, bone morphogenetic protein receptor IA is expressed by both cortical and chromaffin cells. Inhibiting BMP-4 with noggin prevents the increase in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells in adrenal explants without affecting cell proliferation. Hence, adrenal BMP-4 is likely to induce tyrosine hydroxylase in sympathoadrenal progenitors. To investigate whether persistent BMP-4 exposure is able to induce chromaffin traits in sympathetic ganglia, we locally grafted BMP-4 overexpressing cells next to sympathetic ganglia. Embryonic day 8 chick sympathetic ganglia, in addition to principal neurons, contain about 25% chromaffin-like cells. Ectopic BMP-4 did not increase this proportion, yet numbers and sizes of 'chromaffin' granules were significantly increased. Conclusion BMP-4 may serve to promote specific chromaffin traits, but is not sufficient to convert sympathetic neurons into a chromaffin phenotype.

  14. Combining BET and HDAC inhibitors synergistically induces apoptosis of melanoma and suppresses AKT and YAP signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Anja; Cullinane, Carleen; De Paoli-Iseppi, Ricardo; Wilmott, James S.; Gunatilake, Dilini; Madore, Jason; Strbenac, Dario; Yang, Jean Y.; Gowrishankar, Kavitha; Tiffen, Jessamy C.; Prinjha, Rab K.; Smithers, Nicholas; McArthur, Grant A.; Hersey, Peter; Gallagher, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation marks have an important role in controlling gene expression and are removed by histone deacetylases (HDACs). These marks are read by bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins and novel inhibitiors of these proteins are currently in clinical development. Inhibitors of HDAC and BET proteins have individually been shown to cause apoptosis and reduce growth of melanoma cells. Here we show that combining the HDAC inhibitor LBH589 and BET inhibitor I-BET151 synergistically i...

  15. E. coli-Produced BMP-2 as a Chemopreventive Strategy for Colon Cancer: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Yuvaraj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a serious health problem, and novel preventive and therapeutical avenues are urgently called for. Delivery of proteins with anticancer activity through genetically modified bacteria provides an interesting, potentially specific, economic and effective approach here. Interestingly, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 is an important and powerful tumour suppressor in the colon and is thus an attractive candidate protein for delivery through genetically modified bacteria. It has not been shown, however, that BMP production in the bacterial context is effective on colon cancer cells. Here we demonstrate that transforming E. coli with a cDNA encoding an ileal-derived mature human BMP-2 induces effective apoptosis in an in vitro model system for colorectal cancer, whereas the maternal organism was not effective in this respect. Furthermore, these effects were sensitive to cotreatment with the BMP inhibitor Noggin. We propose that prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer using transgenic bacteria is feasible.

  16. HyBMP5-8b, a BMP5-8 orthologue, acts during axial patterning and tentacle formation in hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Beate; Broun, Mariya; Blitz, Ira L; Bode, Hans R

    2004-03-01

    Developmental gradients play a central role in axial patterning in hydra. As part of the effort towards elucidating the molecular basis of these gradients as well as investigating the evolution of the mechanisms underlying axial patterning, genes encoding signaling molecules are under investigation. We report the isolation and characterization of HyBMP5-8b, a BMP5-8 orthologue, from hydra. Processes governing axial patterning are continuously active in adult hydra. Expression patterns of HyBMP5-8b in normal animals and during bud formation, hydra's asexual form of reproduction, were examined. These patterns, coupled with changes in patterns of expression in manipulated tissues during head regeneration, foot regeneration as well as under conditions that alter the positional value gradient indicate that the gene is active in two different processes. The gene plays a role in tentacle formation and in patterning the lower end of the body axis.

  17. A Secreted BMP Antagonist, Cer1, Fine Tunes the Spatial Organization of the Ureteric Bud Tree during Mouse Kidney Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Lijun; Saarela, Ulla; Railo, Antti; Prunskaite-Hyyryläinen, Renata; Skovorodkin, Ilya; Anthony, Shelagh; Katsu, Kenjiro; Liu, Yu; Shan, Jingdong; Salgueiro, Ana Marisa; Belo, José António; Davies, Jamie; Yokouchi, Yuji; Vainio, Seppo J.

    2011-01-01

    The epithelial ureteric bud is critical for mammalian kidney development as it generates the ureter and the collecting duct system that induces nephrogenesis in dicrete locations in the kidney mesenchyme during its emergence. We show that a secreted Bmp antagonist Cerberus homologue (Cer1) fine tunes the organization of the ureteric tree during organogenesis in the mouse embryo. Both enhanced ureteric expression of Cer1 and Cer1 knock out enlarge kidney size, and these changes are associated with an altered three-dimensional structure of the ureteric tree as revealed by optical projection tomography. Enhanced Cer1 expression changes the ureteric bud branching programme so that more trifid and lateral branches rather than bifid ones develop, as seen in time-lapse organ culture. These changes may be the reasons for the modified spatial arrangement of the ureteric tree in the kidneys of Cer1+ embryos. Cer1 gain of function is associated with moderately elevated expression of Gdnf and Wnt11, which is also induced in the case of Cer1 deficiency, where Bmp4 expression is reduced, indicating the dependence of Bmp expression on Cer1. Cer1 binds at least Bmp2/4 and antagonizes Bmp signalling in cell culture. In line with this, supplementation of Bmp4 restored the ureteric bud tip number, which was reduced by Cer1+ to bring it closer to the normal, consistent with models suggesting that Bmp signalling inhibits ureteric bud development. Genetic reduction of Wnt11 inhibited the Cer1-stimulated kidney development, but Cer1 did not influence Wnt11 signalling in cell culture, although it did inhibit the Wnt3a-induced canonical Top Flash reporter to some extent. We conclude that Cer1 fine tunes the spatial organization of the ureteric tree by coordinating the activities of the growth-promoting ureteric bud signals Gndf and Wnt11 via Bmp-mediated antagonism and to some degree via the canonical Wnt signalling involved in branching. PMID:22114682

  18. Recurrent chromosome 22 deletions in osteoblastoma affect inhibitors of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin H Nord

    Full Text Available Osteoblastoma is a bone forming tumor with histological features highly similar to osteoid osteoma; the discrimination between the tumor types is based on size and growth pattern. The vast majority of osteoblastomas are benign but there is a group of so-called aggressive osteoblastomas that can be diagnostically challenging at the histopathological level. The genetic aberrations required for osteoblastoma development are not known and no genetic difference between conventional and aggressive osteoblastoma has been reported. In order to identify recurrent genomic aberrations of importance for tumor development we applied cytogenetic and/or SNP array analyses on nine conventional and two aggressive osteoblastomas. The conventional osteoblastomas showed few or no acquired genetic aberrations while the aggressive tumors displayed heavily rearranged genomes. In one of the aggressive osteoblastomas, three neighboring regions in chromosome band 22q12 were homozygously deleted. Hemizygous deletions of these regions were found in two additional cases, one aggressive and one conventional. In total, 10 genes were recurrently and homozygously lost in osteoblastoma. Four of them are functionally involved in regulating osteogenesis and/or tumorigenesis. MN1 and NF2 have previously been implicated in the development of leukemia and solid tumors, and ZNRF3 and KREMEN1 are inhibitors of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. In line with deletions of the latter two genes, high beta-catenin protein expression has previously been reported in osteoblastoma and aberrations affecting the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway have been found in other bone lesions, including osteoma and osteosarcoma.

  19. Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors ameliorates cognitive deficits in deoxycorticosterone acetate induced hypertensive rats via cAMP/CREB signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaris, S Sugin Lal; Sumathy, Haridass; Girish, Ramesh; Narayanan, Shridhar; Sugumar, Mani; Saravana Babu, Chidambaram; Thanikachalam, Sadagopan; Thanikachalam, Mohan

    2015-10-05

    Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitors promote memory by blocking the degradation of cAMP. Existing evidence also shows that neuronal survival and plasticity are dependent on the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein. In this regard, PDE-4 inhibitors have also been shown to reverse pharmacologically and genetically induced memory impairment in animal models. In the present study, the authors examined the effect of both rolipram and roflumilast (PDE-4 inhibitors) on the impairment of learning and memory observed in hypertensive rats. Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt hypertensive model was used to induce learning and memory deficits. The mRNA expression of different PDE-4 subtypes along with the protein levels of pCREB and BDNF in the hippocampus was quantified. Systolic blood pressure was significantly increased in DOCA salt hypertensive rats when compared to sham operated rats. This effect was reversed by clonidine, an α2 receptor agonist, while PDE-4 inhibitors did not. PDE-4 inhibitors significantly improved the time-induced memory deficits in object recognition task (ORT). In DOCA salt hypertensive rats, the gene expression of PDE-4B and PDE-4D was significantly increased. Furthermore, both pCREB and BDNF showed decreased levels of expression in hypertensive rats in comparison to sham operated rats. Repeated administration of PDE-4 inhibitors significantly decreased both PDE-4B and PDE-4D with an increase in the expression of pCREB and BDNF in hypersensitive rats. Also, rolipram, roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide showed a linear increase in the plasma and brain concentrations after ORT. Our present findings suggested that PDE-4 inhibitors ameliorate hypertension-induced learning impairment via cAMP/CREB signaling that regulates BDNF expression downstream in the rat hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Defects in chicken neuroretina misexpressing the BMP antagonist Drm/Gremlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillard, Emmanuelle; Laugier, Danielle; Marx, Maria

    2005-07-15

    During eye development, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) exert multiple actions on both early and late patterning and differentiation processes. However, the roles of BMP signaling in retinal differentiation are not well understood. To gain insight into a novel role of BMPs during retinal development, we proceeded to retrovirally directed misexpression of the BMP antagonist Drm/Gremlin in the chicken optic vesicle. This resulted in severe eye defects, characterized by microphthalmia, coloboma and the presence of dark streaks. The latter phenotype corresponds to localized perturbations of the stratified structure of the neuroretina. We show that these retinal disorganizations are characterized by a destruction of neuronal layers associated with axonal pathfinding defects, increased apoptosis and lost of N-cadherin expression. Moreover, whereas neuronal differentiation seems to proceed normally, Müller glial differentiation is impaired in Drm-induced disorganizations. These data suggest a possible role of BMP signaling in the laminar organization of the developing neuroretina.

  1. Role of Smad proteins in resistance to BMP-induced growth inhibition in B-cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanutte Huse

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP expression and signaling are altered in a variety of cancers, but the functional impact of these alterations is uncertain. In this study we investigated the impact of expression of multiple BMPs and their signaling pathway components in human B-cell lymphoma. BMP messages, in particular BMP7, were detected in normal and malignant B cells. Addition of exogenous BMPs inhibited DNA synthesis in most lymphoma cell lines examined, but some cell lines were resistant. Tumor specimens from three out of five lymphoma patients were also resistant to BMPs, as determined by no activation of the BMP effectors Smad1/5/8. We have previously shown that BMP-7 potently induced apoptosis in normal B cells, which was in contrast to no or little inhibitory effect of this BMP in the lymphoma cells tested. BMP-resistance mechanisms were investigated by comparing sensitive and resistant cell lines. While BMP receptors are downregulated in many cancers, we documented similar receptor levels in resistant and sensitive lymphoma cells. We found a positive correlation between activation of Smad1/5/8 and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Gene expression analysis of two independent data sets showed that the levels of inhibitory Smads varied across different B-cell lymphoma. Furthermore, stable overexpression of Smad7 in two different BMP-sensitive cell lines with low endogenous levels of SMAD7, rendered them completely resistant to BMPs. This work highlights the role of Smads in determining the sensitivity to BMPs and shows that upregulation of Smad7 in cancer cells is sufficient to escape the negative effects of BMPs.

  2. Expression of the BMP Receptor Alk3 in the Second Heart Field is Essential for Development of the Dorsal Mesenchymal Protrusion and Atrioventricular Septation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Laura E.; Phelps, Aimee L.; Brown, Elizabeth; Kakarla, Jayant; Anderson, Robert H.; van den Hoff, Maurice J. B.; Wessels, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The Dorsal Mesenchymal Protrusion (DMP) is a prong of mesenchyme derived from the Second Heart Field (SHF) located at the venous pole of the developing heart. Recent studies have shown that perturbation of its development is associated with the pathogenesis of atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). Although the importance of the DMP to AV septation is now established, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying its development are far from fully understood. Prior studies have demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is essential for proper formation of the AV endocardial cushions and the cardiac outflow tract. A role for BMP signaling in regulation of DMP development remained to be elucidated. Objective To determine the role of BMP signaling in DMP development. Methods and Results Conditional deletion of the BMP receptor Alk3 from venous pole SHF cells leads to impaired formation of the DMP and a completely penetrant phenotype of ostium primum defect, a hallmark feature of AVSDs. Analysis of mutants revealed decreased proliferative index of SHF cells and, consequently, reduced number of SHF cells at the cardiac venous pole. In contrast, volume and expression of markers associated with proliferation and active BMP/TGFβ signaling was not significantly altered in the AV cushions of SHF-Alk3 mutants. Conclusions BMP signaling is required for expansion of the SHF-derived DMP progenitor population at the cardiac venous pole. Perturbation of Alk3-mediated BMP signaling from the SHF results in impaired development of the DMP and ostium primum defects. PMID:23584254

  3. Simultaneous gene transfer of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP -2 and BMP-7 by in vivo electroporation induces rapid bone formation and BMP-4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Jun-ichi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcutaneous in vivo electroporation is expected to be an effective gene-transfer method for promoting bone regeneration using the BMP-2 plasmid vector. To promote enhanced osteoinduction using this method, we simultaneously transferred cDNAs for BMP-2 and BMP-7, as inserts in the non-viral vector pCAGGS. Methods First, an in vitro study was carried out to confirm the expression of BMP-2 and BMP-7 following the double-gene transfer. Next, the individual BMP-2 and BMP-7 plasmids or both together were injected into rat calf muscles, and transcutaneous electroporation was applied 8 times at 100 V, 50 msec. Results In the culture system, the simultaneous transfer of the BMP-2 and BMP-7 genes led to a much higher ALP activity in C2C12 cells than did the transfer of either gene alone. In vivo, ten days after the treatment, soft X-ray analysis showed that muscles that received both pCAGGS-BMP-2 and pCAGGS-BMP-7 had better-defined opacities than those receiving a single gene. Histological examination showed advanced ossification in calf muscles that received the double-gene transfer. BMP-4 mRNA was also expressed, and RT-PCR showed that its level increased for 3 days in a time-dependent manner in the double-gene transfer group. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that BMP-4-expressing cells resided in the matrix between muscle fibers. Conclusion The simultaneous transfer of BMP-2 and BMP-7 genes using in vivo electroporation induces more rapid bone formation than the transfer of either gene alone, and the increased expression of endogenous BMP-4 suggests that the rapid ossification is related to the induction of BMP-4.

  4. Molecular characterization, expression and methylation status analysis of BMP4 gene in skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat during hair follicle cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen L; Dang, Yun L; Wang, Jiao J; Yin, Rong H; Wang, Ze Y; Zhu, Yu B; Cong, Yu Y; Xue, Hui L; Deng, Liang; Guo, Dan; Wang, Shi Q; Yang, Shu H

    2016-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family (BMPs). It is involved in the development and cycle of hair follicle, as well as, is thought to be a potential candidate gene for cashmere traits in goats. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of BMP4 cDNA from the skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat, and investigated the transcriptional pattern and methylation status of BMP4 gene in skin tissue of this breed during different stages of hair follicle cycle. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolated cDNA was 1264-bp in length containing a complete ORF of 1230-bp. It encoded a precursor peptide of 409 amino acids with a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. The structural analysis indicated that goat BMP4 contains typical TGF-β propeptide and TGF-β domains. In skin tissue, BMP4 is generally transcribed in an ascendant pattern from anagen to telogen. The methylation level of 5' flanking regulatory region of BMP4 gene might be involved in its mRNA expression in skin tissue: a higher BMP4 methylation level in skin coincides with a lower expression of BMP4 mRNA. These results from the present work provided a foundation for further insight into the functional and regulatory characteristics of BMP4 in the development and cycle of hair follicle in Liaoning Cashmere goat.

  5. PTEN and PI-3 kinase inhibitors control LPS signaling and the lymphoproliferative response in the CD19+ B cell compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Alok R.; Peirce, Susan K.; Joshi, Shweta; Durden, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), e.g. toll receptors (TLRs) that bind ligands within the microbiome have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. LPS is a ligand for two TLR family members, TLR4 and RP105 which mediate LPS signaling in B cell proliferation and migration. Although LPS/TLR/RP105 signaling is well-studied; our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling these PRR signaling pathways remains incomplete. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for PTEN/PI-3K signaling in B cell selection and survival, however a role for PTEN/PI-3K in TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the B cell compartment has not been reported. Herein, we crossed a CD19cre and PTEN fl/fl mouse to generate a conditional PTEN knockout mouse in the CD19+ B cell compartment. These mice were further crossed with an IL-14α transgenic mouse to study the combined effect of PTEN deletion, PI-3K inhibition and expression of IL-14α (a cytokine originally identified as a B cell growth factor) in CD19+ B cell lymphoproliferation and response to LPS stimulation. Targeted deletion of PTEN and directed expression of IL-14α in the CD19+ B cell compartment (IL-14+PTEN-/-) lead to marked splenomegaly and altered spleen morphology at baseline due to expansion of marginal zone B cells, a phenotype that was exaggerated by treatment with the B cell mitogen and TLR4/RP105 ligand, LPS. Moreover, LPS stimulation of CD19+ cells isolated from these mice display increased proliferation, augmented AKT and NFκB activation as well as increased expression of c-myc and cyclinD1. Interestingly, treatment of LPS treated IL-14+PTEN-/- mice with a pan PI-3K inhibitor, SF1126, reduced splenomegaly, cell proliferation, c-myc and cyclin D1 expression in the CD19+ B cell compartment and normalized the splenic histopathologic architecture. These findings provide the direct evidence that PTEN and PI-3K inhibitors control TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the CD19+ B cell compartment and that pan PI-3

  6. PTEN and PI-3 kinase inhibitors control LPS signaling and the lymphoproliferative response in the CD19+ B cell compartment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Alok R. [UCSD Department of Pediatrics, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Peirce, Susan K. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Joshi, Shweta [UCSD Department of Pediatrics, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Durden, Donald L., E-mail: ddurden@ucsd.edu [UCSD Department of Pediatrics, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, UCSD Rady Children' s Hospital, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-09-10

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), e.g. toll receptors (TLRs) that bind ligands within the microbiome have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. LPS is a ligand for two TLR family members, TLR4 and RP105 which mediate LPS signaling in B cell proliferation and migration. Although LPS/TLR/RP105 signaling is well-studied; our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling these PRR signaling pathways remains incomplete. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for PTEN/PI-3K signaling in B cell selection and survival, however a role for PTEN/PI-3K in TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the B cell compartment has not been reported. Herein, we crossed a CD19cre and PTEN{sup fl/fl} mouse to generate a conditional PTEN knockout mouse in the CD19+ B cell compartment. These mice were further crossed with an IL-14α transgenic mouse to study the combined effect of PTEN deletion, PI-3K inhibition and expression of IL-14α (a cytokine originally identified as a B cell growth factor) in CD19+ B cell lymphoproliferation and response to LPS stimulation. Targeted deletion of PTEN and directed expression of IL-14α in the CD19+ B cell compartment (IL-14+PTEN-/-) lead to marked splenomegaly and altered spleen morphology at baseline due to expansion of marginal zone B cells, a phenotype that was exaggerated by treatment with the B cell mitogen and TLR4/RP105 ligand, LPS. Moreover, LPS stimulation of CD19+ cells isolated from these mice display increased proliferation, augmented AKT and NFκB activation as well as increased expression of c-myc and cyclinD1. Interestingly, treatment of LPS treated IL-14+PTEN-/- mice with a pan PI-3K inhibitor, SF1126, reduced splenomegaly, cell proliferation, c-myc and cyclin D1 expression in the CD19+ B cell compartment and normalized the splenic histopathologic architecture. These findings provide the direct evidence that PTEN and PI-3K inhibitors control TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the CD19+ B cell compartment and that pan PI

  7. Phosphoproteomics Reveals MAPK Inhibitors Enhance MET- and EGFR-Driven AKT Signaling in KRAS-Mutant Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Young; Welsh, Eric A; Fang, Bin; Bai, Yun; Kinose, Fumi; Eschrich, Steven A; Koomen, John M; Haura, Eric B

    2016-10-01

    Pathway inhibition of the RAS-driven MAPK pathway using small-molecule kinase inhibitors has been a key focus for treating cancers driven by oncogenic RAS, yet significant clinical responses are lacking. Feedback reactivation of ERK driven by drug-induced RAF activity has been suggested as one of the major drug resistance mechanisms, especially in the context of oncogenic RAS. To determine whether additional adaptive resistance mechanisms may coexist, we characterized global phosphoproteomic changes after MEK inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244) treatment in KRAS-mutant A427 and A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines employing mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics. We identified 9,075 quantifiable unique phosphosites (corresponding to 3,346 unique phosphoproteins), of which 567 phosphosites were more abundant and 512 phosphosites were less abundant after MEK inhibition. Selumetinib increased phosphorylation of KSR-1, a scaffolding protein required for assembly of MAPK signaling complex, as well as altered phosphorylation of GEF-H1, a novel regulator of KSR-1 and implicated in RAS-driven MAPK activation. Moreover, selumetinib reduced inhibitory serine phosphorylation of MET at Ser985 and potentiated HGF- and EGF-induced AKT phosphorylation. These results were recapitulated by pan-RAF (LY3009120), MEK (GDC0623), and ERK (SCH772984) inhibitors, which are currently under early-phase clinical development against RAS-mutant cancers. Our results highlight the unique adaptive changes in MAPK scaffolding proteins (KSR-1, GEF-H1) and in RTK signaling, leading to enhanced PI3K-AKT signaling when the MAPK pathway is inhibited. This study highlights the unique adaptive changes in MAPK scaffolding proteins (KSR-1, GEF-H1) and in RTK signaling, leading to enhanced PI3K/AKT signaling when the MAPK pathway is inhibited. Mol Cancer Res; 14(10); 1019-29. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Rational Design of Inhibitors of VirA-VirG Two-Component Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresh, Justin; Zhang, Jin; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Goodman, Nora A; Lynn, David G

    2010-01-01

    VirA-VirG two-component system regulates the vir (virulence) operon in response specific host factors (xenognosins) in the plant pathogen A. tumefaciens. Using whole cell assays, stable inhibitors inspired by the labile natural benzoxazinone inhibitor HDMBOA are developed. It is found that aromatic aldehydes represent a minimal structural unit for activity. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-3H-isobenzofuran-1-one (HDI) was found to have the highest activity, making it the most potent developed inhibitor of virulence gene expression in Agrobacterium. PMID:17470391

  9. Essential roles of zebrafish bmp2a, fgf10, and fgf24 in the specification of the ventral pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naye, François; Voz, Marianne L; Detry, Nathalie; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Peers, Bernard; Manfroid, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    In vertebrates, pancreas and liver arise from bipotential progenitors located in the embryonic gut endoderm. Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways have been shown to induce hepatic specification while repressing pancreatic fate. Here we show that BMP and FGF factors also play crucial function, at slightly later stages, in the specification of the ventral pancreas. By analyzing the pancreatic markers pdx1, ptf1a, and hlxb9la in different zebrafish models of BMP loss of function, we demonstrate that the BMP pathway is required between 20 and 24 h postfertilization to specify the ventral pancreatic bud. Knockdown experiments show that bmp2a, expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm at these stages, is essential for ventral pancreas specification. Bmp2a action is not restricted to the pancreatic domain and is also required for the proper expression of hepatic markers. By contrast, through the analysis of fgf10(-/-); fgf24(-/-) embryos, we reveal the specific role of these two FGF ligands in the induction of the ventral pancreas and in the repression of the hepatic fate. These mutants display ventral pancreas agenesis and ectopic masses of hepatocytes. Overall, these data highlight the dynamic role of BMP and FGF in the patterning of the hepatopancreatic region.

  10. Inhibitors of pan PI3K signaling synergize with BRAF or MEK inhibitors to prevent BRAF-mutant melanoma cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eSweetlove

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BRAF and MEK inhibitors have improved outcomes for patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma, but their efficacy is limited by both intrinsic and acquired resistance. Activation of the PI3K pathway can mediate resistance to these agents, providing a strong rationale for combination therapy in melanoma. Here, a panel of 9 low passage human metastatic melanoma cell lines with BRAF mutations were tested in cell proliferation and protein expression assays for sensitivity to inhibitors of MEK (selumetinib and BRAF (vemurafenib as single agents and in combination with inhibitors of pan-PI3K (ZSTK474, pan-PI3K/mTOR (BEZ235, individual PI3K isoforms (p110α, A66; p110β, TGX-221; p110γ, AS-252424; p110δ, idelalisib, or mTORC1/2 (KU-0063794. Selumetinib and vemurafenib potently inhibited cell proliferation in all cell lines, especially in those that expressed low levels of pAKT. ZSTK474 and BEZ235 also inhibited cell proliferation in all cell lines and enhanced the antitumor activity of selumetinib and vemurafenib in the majority of lines by either interacting synergistically or additively to increase potency or by inducing cytotoxicity by significantly increasing the magnitude of cell growth inhibition. Furthermore, ZSTK474 or BEZ235 combined with selumetinib to produce robust inhibition of pERK, pAKT and pS6 expression and synergistic inhibition of NZM20 tumor growth. The inhibitors of individual PI3K isoforms or mTORC1/2 were less effective at inhibiting cell proliferation either as single agents or in combination with selumetinib or vemurafenib, although KU-0063794 synergistically interacted with vemurafenib and increased the magnitude of cell growth inhibition with selumetinib or vemurafenib in certain cell lines. Overall, these results suggest that the sensitivity of BRAF-mutant melanoma cells to BRAF or MEK inhibitors is at least partly mediated by activation of the PI3K pathway and can be enhanced by combined inhibition of the BRAF/MEK and PI3K

  11. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89 attenuates the bioluminescence signal produced by Renilla Luciferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie J Herbst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the regulation and functional roles of kinases such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA increasingly rely on cellular assays. Currently, there are a number of bioluminescence-based assays, for example reporter gene assays, that allow the study of the regulation, activity, and functional effects of PKA in the cellular context. Additionally there are continuing efforts to engineer improved biosensors that are capable of detecting real-time PKA signaling dynamics in cells. These cell-based assays are often utilized to test the involvement of PKA-dependent processes by using H-89, a reversible competitive inhibitor of PKA.We present here data to show that H-89, in addition to being a competitive PKA inhibitor, attenuates the bioluminescence signal produced by Renilla luciferase (RLuc variants in a population of cells and also in single cells. Using 10 microM of luciferase substrate and 10 microM H-89, we observed that the signal from RLuc and RLuc8, an eight-point mutation variant of RLuc, in cells was reduced to 50% (+/-15% and 54% (+/-14% of controls exposed to the vehicle alone, respectively. In vitro, we showed that H-89 decreased the RLuc8 bioluminescence signal but did not compete with coelenterazine-h for the RLuc8 active site, and also did not affect the activity of Firefly luciferase. By contrast, another competitive inhibitor of PKA, KT5720, did not affect the activity of RLuc8.The identification and characterization of the adverse effect of H-89 on RLuc signal will help deconvolute data previously generated from RLuc-based assays looking at the functional effects of PKA signaling. In addition, for the current application and future development of bioluminscence assays, KT5720 is identified as a more suitable PKA inhibitor to be used in conjunction with RLuc-based assays. These principal findings also provide an important lesson to fully consider all of the potential effects of experimental conditions on a cell

  12. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Is Associated With Increased BMP7 Expression in Human Endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elliott G; El-Nashar, Sherif A; Schoolmeester, John K; Keeney, Gary L; Mariani, Andrea; Hopkins, Matthew R; Dowdy, Sean C; Daftary, Gaurang S; Famuyide, Abimbola O

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), a common health concern of women, is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is traditionally categorized into organic and nonorganic causes. Despite varied pharmacologic treatments, few offer sustained efficacy, as most are empiric, unfocused, and do not directly address underlying dysregulated molecular mechanisms. Characterization of such molecular derangements affords the opportunity to develop and use novel, more successful treatments for AUB. Given its implication in other organ systems, we hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression is altered in patients with AUB and hence comprehensively investigated dysregulation of BMP signaling pathways by systematically screening 489 samples from 365 patients for differences in the expression of BMP2, 4, 6, and 7 ligands, BMPR1A and B receptors, and downstream SMAD4, 6, and 7 proteins. Expression analysis was correlated clinically with data abstracted from medical records, including bleeding history, age at procedure, ethnicity, body mass index, hormone treatment, and histological diagnosis of fibroids, polyps, adenomyosis, hyperplasia, and cancer. Expression of BMP7 ligand was significantly increased in patients with AUB (H-score: 18.0 vs 26.7; P reporting heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) as their specific AUB pattern demonstrated significantly higher BMP7 expression. Significantly, no differences in the expression of any other BMP ligands, receptors, or SMAD proteins were observed in this large patient cohort. However, expression of BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and SMAD4 was significantly decreased in cancer compared to benign samples. Our study demonstrates that BMP7 is a promising target for future investigation and pharmacologic treatment of AUB.

  13. Evaluation of the Selectivity and Cysteine Dependence of Inhibitors across the Regulator of G Protein-Signaling Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael P; Bodle, Christopher R; Roman, David L

    2018-01-01

    Since their discovery more than 20 years ago, regulators of G protein-signaling (RGS) proteins have received considerable attention as potential drug targets because of their ability to modulate G α activity. Efforts to identify small molecules capable of inhibiting the protein-protein interactions between activated G α subunits and RGS proteins have yielded a substantial number of inhibitors, especially toward the well studied RGS4. These efforts also determined that many of these small molecules inhibit the protein-protein interactions through covalent modification of cysteine residues within the RGS domain that are located distal to the G α -binding interface. As some of these cysteine residues are highly conserved within the RGS family, many of these inhibitors display activity toward multiple RGS family members. In this work, we sought to determine the selectivity of these small-molecule inhibitors against 12 RGS proteins, as well as against the cysteine-null mutants for 10 of these proteins. Using both biochemical and cell-based methods to assess G α -RGS complex formation and G α enzymatic activity, we found that several previously identified RGS4 inhibitors were active against other RGS members, such as RGS14, with comparable or greater potency. Additionally, for every compound tested, activity was dependent on the presence of cysteine residues. This work defines the selectivity of commercially available RGS inhibitors and provides insight into the RGS family members for which drug discovery efforts may be most likely to succeed. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  14. The BMP pathway is essential for re-specification and maintenance of the dorsoventral axis in regenerating and intact planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, M Dolores; Saló, Emili; Cebrià, Francesc

    2007-11-01

    The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway has been shown to play an important role in the establishment of the dorsoventral axis during development in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. In an attempt to unravel the role of BMPs in pattern formation during planarian regeneration, we studied this signaling pathway in Schmidtea mediterranea. Here, we functionally characterize planarian homologues of two key elements of the pathway: Smed-BMP and Smed-Smad1. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that Smed-BMP is expressed at the planarian dorsal midline, suggesting a role in dorsoventral patterning, while Smed-Smad1 is widely expressed throughout the mesenchyme and in the central nervous system. RNA interference (RNAi) knockdowns of Smed-BMP or Smed-Smad1 led to the disappearance of dorsal markers along with the ectopic expression of ventral markers on the dorsal side of the treated animals. In almost all cases, a duplicated central nervous system differentiated dorsally after Smed-BMP or Smed-Smad1 RNAi. These defects were observed not only during regeneration but also in intact non-regenerating animals. Our results suggest that the BMP signaling pathway is conserved in planarians and that it plays a key role in the regeneration and maintenance of the dorsoventral axis.

  15. Identification of angular naphthopyrones from the Philippine echinoderm Comanthus species as inhibitors of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovolou, Yvonni; Ebada, Sherif Saeed; Wätjen, Wim; Proksch, Peter

    2011-04-25

    The redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway is an important cellular pathway often misregulated in various cancer cells. Therefore, blockade of NF-κB signaling in cancer cells presents a promising strategy and enormous effort has been invested to identify potent and specific inhibitors. The aim of this study was the identification of new compounds derived from marine organisms that act as NF-κB inhibitors and to identify their mechanism of action. In the present work a bioassay-guided investigation of a Philippine specimen of the marine echinoderm Comanthus sp. yielded ten compounds evenly divided into anthraquinones and naphthopyrones. From these compounds only two naphthopyrones, comaparvin and 6-methoxycomaparvin exhibited noteworthy inhibitory activity against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced NF-κB activation in rat hepatoma cells and human breast cancer cells. Comaparvin at concentrations between 50μM and 100μM reduces chymotrypsin-like proteasomal activity, blocks nuclear translocation of NF-κB and effectively inhibits TNF-α induced IκB phosphorylation suggesting a role of this compound in targeting IκB kinase (IKK). Furthermore, comaparvin sensitized cancer cells to apoptotic effects mediated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. These results correlate with downregulation of TNF-α induced expression of protective NF-κB target genes like MnSOD, XIAP or A20. In conclusion we identified the naphthopyrone comaparvin isolated from the marine echinoderm Comanthus sp. as a new inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway acting by targeting both proteasome function and IκB phosphorylation likely by direct inhibitory effect on IKKβ activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional cardiomyocytes derived from Isl1 cardiac progenitors via Bmp4 stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Cagavi

    Full Text Available As heart failure due to myocardial infarction remains a leading cause of morbidity worldwide, cell-based cardiac regenerative therapy using cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs could provide a potential treatment for the repair of injured myocardium. As adult CPCs may have limitations regarding tissue accessibility and proliferative ability, CPCs derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs could serve as an unlimited source of cells with high proliferative ability. As one of the CPCs that can be derived from embryonic stem cells, Isl1 expressing cardiac progenitor cells (Isl1-CPCs may serve as a valuable source of cells for cardiac repair due to their high cardiac differentiation potential and authentic cardiac origin. In order to generate an unlimited number of Isl1-CPCs, we used a previously established an ESC line that allows for isolation of Isl1-CPCs by green fluorescent protein (GFP expression that is directed by the mef2c gene, specifically expressed in the Isl1 domain of the anterior heart field. To improve the efficiency of cardiac differentiation of Isl1-CPCs, we studied the role of Bmp4 in cardiogenesis of Isl1-CPCs. We show an inductive role of Bmp directly on cardiac progenitors and its enhancement on early cardiac differentiation of CPCs. Upon induction of Bmp4 to Isl1-CPCs during differentiation, the cTnT+ cardiomyocyte population was enhanced 2.8±0.4 fold for Bmp4 treated CPC cultures compared to that detected for vehicle treated cultures. Both Bmp4 treated and untreated cardiomyocytes exhibit proper electrophysiological and calcium signaling properties. In addition, we observed a significant increase in Tbx5 and Tbx20 expression in differentiation cultures treated with Bmp4 compared to the untreated control, suggesting a link between Bmp4 and Tbx genes which may contribute to the enhanced cardiac differentiation in Bmp4 treated cultures. Collectively these findings suggest a cardiomyogenic role for Bmp4 directly on a pure population of

  17. Macrolactin F inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis by suppressing Akt, MAPK and NFATc1 pathways and promotes osteoblastogenesis through a BMP-2/smad/Akt/Runx2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Sapkota, Mahesh; Gao, Ming; Choi, Hyukjae; Soh, Yunjo

    2017-11-15

    The balance between bone formation and bone resorption is maintained by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In the current study, macrolactin F (MF) was investigated for novel biological activity on the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). We found that RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and differentiation from BMMs was significantly inhibited by MF in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. RANKL-induced F-actin ring formation and bone resorption activity in BMMs which was attenuated by MF. In addition, MF suppressed the expression of osteoclast-related genes, including c-myc, RANK, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). Furthermore, the protein expression NFATc1, c-Fos, MMP9, cathepsin K and phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and Akt were also down-regulated by MF treatment. Interestingly, MF promoted pre-osteoblast cell differentiation on Alizarin Red-mineralization activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the expression of osteoblastogenic markers including Runx2, Osterix, Smad4, ALP, type I collagen alpha 1 (Col1α), osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN) via activation of the BMP-2/smad/Akt/Runx2 pathway on MC3T3-E1. Taken together, these results indicate that MF may be useful as a therapeutic agent to enhance bone health and treat osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin

    2007-01-01

    of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium....... Pigment production was only observed in broth under highly aerated conditions. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) are compounds that specifically block QS systems without affecting bacterial growth and 2 such compounds, sulphur-containing AHL-analogues, reduced production of protease in a typical strain......Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum...

  19. Titration of signalling output: insights into clinical combinations of MEK and AKT inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A; Thavasu, P; de Bono, J S; Banerji, U

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to understand the relative contributions of inhibiting MEK and AKT on cell growth to guide combinations of these agents. A panel of 20 cell lines was exposed to either the MEK inhibitor, PD0325901, or AKT inhibitor, AKT 1/2 inhibitor. p-ERK and p-S6 ELISAs were used to define degrees of MEK and AKT inhibition, respectively. Growth inhibition to different degrees of MEK and AKT inhibition, either singly or in combination using 96-h sulphorhodamine assays was then studied. A significantly greater growth inhibition was seen in BRAF(M) and PIK3CA(M) cells upon maximal MEK (P = 0.004) and AKT inhibition (P = 0.038), respectively. KRAS(M) and BRAF/PIK3CA/KRAS(WT) cells were not significantly more likely to be sensitive to MEK or AKT inhibition. Significant incremental growth inhibition of the combination of MEK + AKT over either MEK or AKT inhibition alone was seen when MEK + AKT was inhibited maximally and not when sub-maximal inhibition of both MEK + AKT was used (11/20 cell lines versus 1/20 cell lines; P = 0.0012). KRAS(M) cells are likely to benefit from combinations of MEK and AKT inhibitors. Sub-maximally inhibiting both MEK and AKT within a combination, in a majority of instances, does not significantly increase growth inhibition compared with maximally inhibiting MEK or AKT alone and alternative phase I trial designs are needed to clinically evaluate such combinations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

  20. Serum Proteases Potentiate BMP-Induced Cell Cycle Re-entry of Dedifferentiating Muscle Cells during Newt Limb Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ines; Wang, Heng; Weissert, Philipp M; Straube, Werner L; Shevchenko, Anna; Gentzel, Marc; Brito, Goncalo; Tazaki, Akira; Oliveira, Catarina; Sugiura, Takuji; Shevchenko, Andrej; Simon, András; Drechsel, David N; Tanaka, Elly M

    2017-03-27

    Limb amputation in the newt induces myofibers to dedifferentiate and re-enter the cell cycle to generate proliferative myogenic precursors in the regeneration blastema. Here we show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and mature BMPs that have been further cleaved by serum proteases induce cell cycle entry by dedifferentiating newt muscle cells. Protease-activated BMP4/7 heterodimers that are present in serum strongly induced myotube cell cycle re-entry with protease cleavage yielding a 30-fold potency increase of BMP4/7 compared with canonical BMP4/7. Inhibition of BMP signaling via muscle-specific dominant-negative receptor expression reduced cell cycle entry in vitro and in vivo. In vivo inhibition of serine protease activity depressed cell cycle re-entry, which in turn was rescued by cleaved-mimic BMP. This work identifies a mechanism of BMP activation that generates blastema cells from differentiated muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Distinct and overlapping gene regulatory networks in BMP- and HDAC-controlled cell fate determination in the embryonic forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholl Catharina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and histone deacetylases (HDACs have previously been established to play a role in the development of the three major cell types of the central nervous system: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We have previously established a connection between these two protein families, showing that HDACs suppress BMP-promoted astrogliogenesis in the embryonic striatum. Since HDACs act in the nucleus to effect changes in transcription, an unbiased analysis of their transcriptional targets could shed light on their downstream effects on BMP-signaling. Results Using neurospheres from the embryonic striatum as an in vitro system to analyze this phenomenon, we have performed microarray expression profiling on BMP2- and TSA-treated cultures, followed by validation of the findings with quantitative RT-PCR and protein analysis. In BMP-treated cultures we first observed an upregulation of genes involved in cell-cell communication and developmental processes such as members of BMP and canonical Wnt signaling pathways. In contrast, in TSA-treated cultures we first observed an upregulation of genes involved in chromatin modification and transcription. Interestingly, we could not record direct changes in the protein levels of canonical members of BMP2 signaling, but we did observe an upregulation of both the transcription factor STAT3 and its active isoform phospho-STAT3 at the protein level. Conclusions STAT3 and SMAD1/5/8 interact synergistically to promote astrogliogenesis, and thus we show for the first time that HDACs act to suppress BMP-promoted astrogliogenesis by suppression of the crucial partner STAT3.

  2. Immunohistological localization of BMP-2, BMP-7, and their receptors in knee joints with focal cartilage lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Pilz, Ingo H

    2012-01-01

    undergoing autologous chondrocyte implantation. Expression of BMP-2, BMP-7, and their receptors BMPR-1A, BMPR-1B and BMPR-2 were semiquantitatively evaluated by immunohistological staining. RESULTS: BMP-7 was equally highly expressed in all cartilage and synovial biopsies. Increased levels of BMPR-1A...

  3. Inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by aluminum trichloride exposure is associated with inhibition of BMP-2/Smad pathway component expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Huo, Hui; Xiu, Chunyu; Song, Miao; Han, Yanfei; Li, Yanfei; Zhu, Yanzhu

    2016-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)/Smad signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating osteoblast (OB) differentiation. OB differentiation is a key process of bone formation. Aluminum (Al) exposure inhibits bone formation and causes Al-induced bone disease. However, the mechanism is not fully understood. To investigate whether BMP-2/Smad signaling pathway is associated with OB differentiation in aluminum trichloride (AlCl 3 )-treated OBs, the primary rat OBs were cultured and exposed to 0 (control group, CG), 1/40 IC 50 (low-dose group, LG), 1/20 IC 50 (mid-dose group, MG), and 1/10 IC 50 (high-dose group, HG) of AlCl 3 for 24 h, respectively. We found that the expressions of OB differentiation markers (Runx-2, Osterix and ALP) and BMP-2/Smad signaling pathway components (BMP-2, BMPR-IA, p-BMPR-IA, BMPR-II, p-Smad1/5/8 and p-Smad1/5/8/4) were all decreased in AlCl 3 -treated OBs compared with the CG. These results indicated that inhibition of OB differentiation by AlCl 3 was associated with inhibition of BMP-2/Smad pathway component expression. Our findings provide a novel insight into the mechanism of AlCl 3 -induced bone disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Forestry BMP Implementation Costs for Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M. Shaffer; H.L. Haney; E.G. Worrell; W.M. Aust

    1998-01-01

    Forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs) are operational techniques used to protect water quality during timber harvesting operations. The implementation cost of BMPs is important to loggers, forest landowners, and the forest industry. This study provides an estimate of BMP implementation cost on a per harvested acre basis for the coastal plain, Piedmont, and...

  5. Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood ... de sangre: panel metabólico básico What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  6. Temporal quantitation of mutant Kit tyrosine kinase signaling attenuated by a novel thiophene kinase inhibitor OSI-930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Filippo; Thelemann, April; Kahler, Jen; McCormack, Siobhan; Castaldo, Linda; Hunt, Tony; Nuwaysir, Lydia; Zeiske, Lynn; Haack, Herbert; Sullivan, Laura; Garton, Andrew; Haley, John D

    2005-08-01

    OSI-930, a potent thiophene inhibitor of the Kit, KDR, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, was used to selectively inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation downstream of juxtamembrane mutant Kit in the mast cell leukemia line HMC-1. Inhibition of Kit kinase activity resulted in a rapid dephosphorylation of Kit and inhibition of the downstream signaling pathways. Attenuation of Ras-Raf-Erk (phospho-Erk, phospho-p38), phosphatidyl inositol-3' kinase (phospho-p85, phospho-Akt, phospho-S6), and signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathways (phospho-STAT3/5/6) were measured by affinity liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, by immunoblot, and by tissue microarrays of fixed cell pellets. To more globally define additional components of Kit signaling temporally altered by kinase inhibition, a novel multiplex quantitative isobaric peptide labeling approach was used. This approach allowed clustering of proteins by temporal expression patterns. Kit kinase, which dephosphorylates rapidly upon kinase inhibition, was shown to regulate both Shp-1 and BDP-1 tyrosine phosphatases and the phosphatase-interacting protein PSTPIP2. Interactions with SH2 domain adapters [growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2), Cbl, Slp-76] and SH3 domain adapters (HS1, cortactin, CD2BP3) were attenuated by inhibition of Kit kinase activity. Functional crosstalk between Kit and the non-receptor tyrosine kinases Fes/Fps, Fer, Btk, and Syk was observed. Inhibition of Kit modulated phosphorylation-dependent interactions with pathways controlling focal adhesion (paxillin, leupaxin, p130CAS, FAK1, the Src family kinase Lyn, Wasp, Fhl-3, G25K, Ack-1, Nap1, SH3P12/ponsin) and septin-actin complexes (NEDD5, cdc11, actin). The combined use of isobaric protein quantitation and expression clustering, immunoblot, and tissue microarray strategies allowed temporal measurement signaling pathways modulated by mutant Kit inhibition in a model of mast cell

  7. Noncanonical Wnt signaling promotes osteoclast differentiation and is facilitated by the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Francisco; Oguma, Junya; Brown, Anthony M.C.; Laurence, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First demonstration of direct role for noncanonical Wnt in osteoclast differentiation. ► Demonstration of Ryk as a Wnt5a/b receptor in inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling. ► Modulation of noncanonical Wnt signaling by a clinically important drug, ritonavir. ► Establishes a mechanism for an important clinical problem: HIV-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Wnt proteins that signal via the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway directly regulate osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, most studies of Wnt-related effects on osteoclasts involve indirect changes. While investigating bone mineral density loss in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment with the protease inhibitor ritonavir (RTV), we observed that RTV decreased nuclear localization of β-catenin, critical to canonical Wnt signaling, in primary human and murine osteoclast precursors. This occurred in parallel with upregulation of Wnt5a and Wnt5b transcripts. These Wnts typically stimulate noncanonical Wnt signaling, and this can antagonize the canonical Wnt pathway in many cell types, dependent upon Wnt receptor usage. We now document RTV-mediated upregulation of Wnt5a/b protein in osteoclast precursors. Recombinant Wnt5b and retrovirus-mediated expression of Wnt5a enhanced osteoclast differentiation from human and murine monocytic precursors, processes facilitated by RTV. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling mediated by Wnt3a suppressed osteoclastogenesis. Both RTV and Wnt5b inhibited canonical, β-catenin/T cell factor-based Wnt reporter activation in osteoclast precursors. RTV- and Wnt5-induced osteoclast differentiation were dependent upon the receptor-like tyrosine kinase Ryk, suggesting that Ryk may act as a Wnt5a/b receptor in this context. This is the first demonstration of a direct role for Wnt signaling pathways and Ryk in regulation of osteoclast differentiation, and its modulation by a clinically important drug, ritonavir. These studies

  8. A new inhibitor of the β-arrestin/AP2 endocytic complex reveals interplay between GPCR internalization and signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beautrait, Alexandre; Paradis, Justine S.; Zimmerman, Brandon; Giubilaro, Jenna; Nikolajev, Ljiljana; Armando, Sylvain; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamani, Lama; Namkung, Yoon; Heydenreich, Franziska M.; Khoury, Etienne; Audet, Martin; Roux, Philippe P.; Veprintsev, Dmitry B.; Laporte, Stéphane A.; Bouvier, Michel

    2017-04-01

    In addition to G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization and endocytosis, β-arrestin recruitment to ligand-stimulated GPCRs promotes non-canonical signalling cascades. Distinguishing the respective contributions of β-arrestin recruitment to the receptor and β-arrestin-promoted endocytosis in propagating receptor signalling has been limited by the lack of selective analytical tools. Here, using a combination of virtual screening and cell-based assays, we have identified a small molecule that selectively inhibits the interaction between β-arrestin and the β2-adaptin subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein AP2 without interfering with the formation of receptor/β-arrestin complexes. This selective β-arrestin/β2-adaptin inhibitor (Barbadin) blocks agonist-promoted endocytosis of the prototypical β2-adrenergic (β2AR), V2-vasopressin (V2R) and angiotensin-II type-1 (AT1R) receptors, but does not affect β-arrestin-independent (transferrin) or AP2-independent (endothelin-A) receptor internalization. Interestingly, Barbadin fully blocks V2R-stimulated ERK1/2 activation and blunts cAMP accumulation promoted by both V2R and β2AR, supporting the concept of β-arrestin/AP2-dependent signalling for both G protein-dependent and -independent pathways.

  9. Actin microfilament mediates osteoblast Cbfa1 responsiveness to BMP2 under simulated microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongquan Dai

    Full Text Available Microgravity decreases osteoblastic activity, induces actin microfilament disruption and inhibits the responsiveness of osteoblast to cytokines, but the mechanisms remains enigmatic. The F-actin cytoskeleton has previously been implicated in manifold changes of cell shape, function and signaling observed under microgravity. Here we investigate the involvement of microfilament in mediating the effects of microgravity and BMP2 induction on Cbfa1 activity. For this purpose we constructed a fluorescent reporter cell line (OSE-MG63 of Cbfa1 activity by stably transfecting MG63 cells with a reporter consisting of six tandem copies of OSE2 and a minimal mOG2 promoter upstream of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. The fluorescence intensity of OSE-MG63 showed responsiveness to bone-related cytokines (IGF-I, vitamin D3 and BMP2 and presented an accordant tendency with alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity. Using OSE-MG63 reporter fluorescence, we performed a semi-quantitative analysis of Cbfa1 activity after treatment with simulated microgravity, microfilament-disrupting agent (cytochalasin B, CB, microfilament-stabilizing agent (Jasplakinolide, JAS or any combination thereof. In parallel, ALP activity, DNA binding activity of Cbfa1 to OSE2 (ChIP, F-actin structure (immunofluorescence and EGFP mRNA expression (RT-qPCR were analyzed. Simulated microgravity inhibited Cbfa1 activity, affected the responsiveness of Cbfa1 to cytokine BMP2, and caused a thinning and dispersed distribution of microfilament. Under normal gravity, CB significantly attenuated BMP2 induction to Cbfa1 activity as well as DNA binding activity of Cbfa1 to OSE2. The addition of JAS reversed the inhibitory effects of microgravity on the responsiveness of Cbfa1 to BMP2. Our study demonstrates that disrupting the microfilament organization by CB or simulated microgravity attenuates the responsiveness of Cbfa1 to BMP2. A stabilization of the microfilament organization by JAS reverses

  10. Perlecan domain 1 recombinant proteoglycan augments BMP-2 activity and osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeCarlo Arthur A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many growth factors, such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2, have been shown to interact with polymers of sulfated disacharrides known as heparan sulfate (HS glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, which are found on matrix and cell-surface proteoglycans throughout the body. HS GAGs, and some more highly sulfated forms of chondroitin sulfate (CS, regulate cell function by serving as co-factors, or co-receptors, in GF interactions with their receptors, and HS or CS GAGs have been shown to be necessary for inducing signaling and GF activity, even in the osteogenic lineage. Unlike recombinant proteins, however, HS and CS GAGs are quite heterogenous due, in large part, to post-translational addition, then removal, of sulfate groups to various positions along the GAG polymer. We have, therefore, investigated whether it would be feasible to deliver a DNA pro-drug to generate a soluble HS/CS proteoglycan in situ that would augment the activity of growth-factors, including BMP-2, in vivo. Results Utilizing a purified recombinant human perlecan domain 1 (rhPln.D1 expressed from HEK 293 cells with HS and CS GAGs, tight binding and dose-enhancement of rhBMP-2 activity was demonstrated in vitro. In vitro, the expressed rhPln.D1 was characterized by modification with sulfated HS and CS GAGs. Dose-enhancement of rhBMP-2 by a pln.D1 expression plasmid delivered together as a lyophilized single-phase on a particulate tricalcium phosphate scaffold for 6 or more weeks generated up to 9 fold more bone volume de novo on the maxillary ridge in a rat model than in control sites without the pln.D1 plasmid. Using a significantly lower BMP-2 dose, this combination provided more than 5 times as much maxillary ridge augmentation and greater density than rhBMP-2 delivered on a collagen sponge (InFuse™. Conclusions A recombinant HS/CS PG interacted strongly and functionally with BMP-2 in binding and cell-based assays, and, in vivo, the pln.247 expression plasmid

  11. Discovery and characterization of a potent Wnt and hedgehog signaling pathways dual inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haikuo; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Fang; Zheng, Jiyue; Li, Jiajun; Zhang, Hongjian; Chen, Shuaishuai; Xing, Haimei; Luo, Lusong; Zheng, Long Tai; He, Sudan; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2018-04-10

    Embryonic stem cell pathways such as hedgehog and Wnt pathways are central to the tumorigenic properties of cancer stem cells (CSC). Since CSCs are characterized by their ability to self-renew, form differentiated progeny, and develop resistance to anticancer therapies, targeting the Wnt and hedgehog signaling pathways has been an important strategy for cancer treatment. Although molecules targeting either Wnt or hedgehog are common, to the best of our knowledge, those targeting both pathways have not been documented. Here we report a small molecule (compound 1) that inhibits both Wnt (IC 50  = 0.5 nM) and hedgehog (IC 50  = 71 nM) pathways based on reporter gene assays. We further identified that the molecular target of 1 for Wnt pathway inhibition was porcupine (a member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase family of proteins), a post-translational modification node in Wnt signaling; while the target of 1 mitigating hedgehog pathway was Smoothened, a key G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mediating hedgehog signal transduction. Preliminary analysis of structure-activity-relationship identified key functional elements for hedgehog/Wnt inhibition. In in vivo studies, compound 1 demonstrated good oral exposure and bioavailability while eliciting no overt toxicity in mice. An important consideration in cancer treatment is the potential therapeutic escape through compensatory activation of an interconnected pathway when only one signaling pathway is inhibited. Toward this end, compound 1 may not only lead to the development of new therapeutics for Wnt and hedgehog related cancers, but may also help to develop potential cancer treatment which needs to target Wnt and hedgehog signaling simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinct mesodermal signals, including BMPs from the septum transversum mesenchyme, are required in combination for hepatogenesis from the endoderm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Jennifer M.; Dunn, N. Ray; Hogan, Brigid L.M.; Zaret, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01

    Mesodermal signaling is critical for patterning the embryonic endoderm into different tissue domains. Classical tissue transplant experiments in the chick and recent studies in the mouse indicated that interactions with the cardiogenic mesoderm are necessary and sufficient to induce the liver in the ventral foregut endoderm. Using molecular markers and functional assays, we now show that septum transversum mesenchyme cells, a distinct mesoderm cell type, are closely apposed to the ventral endoderm and contribute to hepatic induction. Specifically, using a mouse Bmp4 null mutation and an inhibitor of BMPs, we find that BMP signaling from the septum transversum mesenchyme is necessary to induce liver genes in the endoderm and to exclude a pancreatic fate. BMPs apparently function, in part, by affecting the levels of the GATA4 transcription factor, and work in parallel to FGF signaling from the cardiac mesoderm. BMP signaling also appears critical for morphogenetic growth of the hepatic endoderm into a liver bud. Thus, the endodermal domain for the liver is specified by simultaneous signaling from distinct mesodermal sources. PMID:11485993

  13. VEGF targeting in mesotheliomas using an interleukin-6 signal inhibitor based on adenovirus gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yasuo; Yoshio-Hoshino, Naoko; Aoki, Chieko; Nishimoto, Norihiro

    2010-06-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas reportedly secrete interleukin-6 (IL-6) which augments production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from mesothelioma cells. We previously reported the development of a new receptor inhibitor of IL-6 (NRI) by genetically engineering tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody. Since NRI is encoded on a single gene, it is easily applicable to a gene delivery system using virus vehicles. In this study, we report VEGF targeting through NRI expression based on adenovirus-mediated gene delivery in mesothelioma cells. We constructed an NRI expression vector in the context of a tropism-modified adenovirus vector that had enhanced infectivity in mesothelioma cells. This virus effectively induced NRI secretion from mesothelioma cells. This virus infection also reduced the VEGF production in mesothelioma cells. These results indicate that NRI shows potential as an agent in the treatment of mesotheliomas.

  14. Molecular docking and 3D-QSAR studies on inhibitors of DNA damage signaling enzyme human PARP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sabiha; Bathini, Raju; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2012-08-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) operates in a DNA damage signaling network. Molecular docking and three dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were performed on human PARP-1 inhibitors. Docked conformation obtained for each molecule was used as such for 3D-QSAR analysis. Molecules were divided into a training set and a test set randomly in four different ways, partial least square analysis was performed to obtain QSAR models using the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). Derived models showed good statistical reliability that is evident from their r², q²(loo) and r²(pred) values. To obtain a consensus for predictive ability from all the models, average regression coefficient r²(avg) was calculated. CoMFA and CoMSIA models showed a value of 0.930 and 0.936, respectively. Information obtained from the best 3D-QSAR model was applied for optimization of lead molecule and design of novel potential inhibitors.

  15. Inhibitor of CDK interacting with cyclin A1 (INCA1) regulates proliferation and is repressed by oncogenic signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumer, Nicole; Tickenbrock, Lara; Tschanter, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The cell cycle is driven by the kinase activity of cyclin/CDK complexes which is negatively regulated by CDK inhibitor proteins. Recently, we identified INCA1 as interaction partner and substrate of cyclin A1 in complex with CDK2. On a functional level, we identified a novel cyclin binding site...... in the INCA1 protein. INCA1 inhibited CDK2 activity and cell proliferation. The inihibitory effects depended on the cyclin-interacting domain. Mitogenic and oncogenic signals suppressed INCA1 expression, while it was induced by cell cycle arrest. We established a deletional mouse model that showed increased...... CDK2 activity in spleen with altered spleen architecture in Inca1-/- mice. Inca1-/- embryonic fibroblasts showed an increase in the fraction of S-phase cells. Furthermore, blasts from ALL and AML patients expressed significantly reduced INCA1 levels highlighting its relevance for growth control...

  16. Activin-A and Bmp4 levels modulate cell type specification during CHIR-induced cardiomyogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Su Kim

    Full Text Available The use of human pluripotent cell progeny for cardiac disease modeling, drug testing and therapeutics requires the ability to efficiently induce pluripotent cells into the cardiomyogenic lineage. Although direct activation of the Activin-A and/or Bmp pathways with growth factors yields context-dependent success, recent studies have shown that induction of Wnt signaling using low molecular weight molecules such as CHIR, which in turn induces the Activin-A and Bmp pathways, is widely effective. To further enhance the reproducibility of CHIR-induced cardiomyogenesis, and to ultimately promote myocyte maturation, we are using exogenous growth factors to optimize cardiomyogenic signaling downstream of CHIR induction. As indicated by RNA-seq, induction with CHIR during Day 1 (Days 0-1 was followed by immediate expression of Nodal ligands and receptors, followed later by Bmp ligands and receptors. Co-induction with CHIR and high levels of the Nodal mimetic Activin-A (50-100 ng/ml during Day 0-1 efficiently induced definitive endoderm, whereas CHIR supplemented with Activin-A at low levels (10 ng/ml consistently improved cardiomyogenic efficiency, even when CHIR alone was ineffective. Moreover, co-induction using CHIR and low levels of Activin-A apparently increased the rate of cardiomyogenesis, as indicated by the initial appearance of rhythmically beating cells by Day 6 instead of Day 8. By contrast, co-induction with CHIR plus low levels (3-10 ng/ml of Bmp4 during Day 0-1 consistently and strongly inhibited cardiomyogenesis. These findings, which demonstrate that cardiomyogenic efficacy is improved by optimizing levels of CHIR-induced growth factors when applied in accord with their sequence of endogenous expression, are consistent with the idea that Nodal (Activin-A levels toggle the entry of cells into the endodermal or mesodermal lineages, while Bmp levels regulate subsequent allocation into mesodermal cell types.

  17. Small molecule ErbB inhibitors decrease proliferative signaling and promote apoptosis in philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Irwin

    Full Text Available The presence of the Philadelphia chromosome in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+ALL is a negative prognostic indicator. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI that target BCR/ABL, such as imatinib, have improved treatment of Ph(+ALL and are generally incorporated into induction regimens. This approach has improved clinical responses, but molecular remissions are seen in less than 50% of patients leaving few treatment options in the event of relapse. Thus, identification of additional targets for therapeutic intervention has potential to improve outcomes for Ph+ALL. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2 is expressed in ~30% of B-ALLs, and numerous small molecule inhibitors are available to prevent its activation. We analyzed a cohort of 129 ALL patient samples using reverse phase protein array (RPPA with ErbB2 and phospho-ErbB2 antibodies and found that activity of ErbB2 was elevated in 56% of Ph(+ALL as compared to just 4.8% of Ph(-ALL. In two human Ph+ALL cell lines, inhibition of ErbB kinase activity with canertinib resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the phosphorylation of an ErbB kinase signaling target p70S6-kinase T389 (by 60% in Z119 and 39% in Z181 cells at 3 µM. Downstream, phosphorylation of S6-kinase was also diminished in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner (by 91% in both cell lines at 3 µM. Canertinib treatment increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim by as much as 144% in Z119 cells and 49% in Z181 cells, and further produced caspase-3 activation and consequent apoptotic cell death. Both canertinib and the FDA-approved ErbB1/2-directed TKI lapatinib abrogated proliferation and increased sensitivity to BCR/ABL-directed TKIs at clinically relevant doses. Our results suggest that ErbB signaling is an additional molecular target in Ph(+ALL and encourage the development of clinical strategies combining ErbB and BCR/ABL kinase inhibitors for this subset of ALL patients.

  18. Temporal and contextual orchestration of cardiac fate by WNT-BMP synergy and threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahesh K; Lenka, Nibedita

    2010-08-01

    Cardiomyogenic development proceeds with a cascade of intricate signalling events that operate in a temporo-spatial fashion to specify cardiac cell fate during early embryogenesis. In fact, conflicting reports exist regarding the role of Wnt/β-catenin signalling during cardiomyogenesis. Here, we describe a dose-dependent and temporal effect of Wnt/β-catenin signalling on in vitro cardiomyogenesis using embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model system. We could demonstrate that canonical Wnt activation during early stage of differentiation either through ligand or by GSK3β inhibition helped in maintaining Oct4 and Nanog expressions, and in parallel, it promoted mesoderm and endoderm inductions. In contrast, it led to attenuation in cardiomyogenesis that was reversed by moderate concentration of DKK1, but not soluble Fz8. However, higher DKK1 could also block cardiomyogenesis, suggesting thereby governance of a particular signalling threshold underlying this developmental event. Interestingly, Wnt signalling activation at early stage modulated BMP4 expression in a stage-specific manner. Wnt activation, synchronized with BMP4 and brachyury up-regulation at early stage, correlated well with mesoderm induction. Conversely, Wnt activation led to BMP4 and Wnt5a down-regulation at late stage culminating in cardiomyogenic attenuation. Our findings suggested the existence of precise regulatory machinery with context-dependent role of Wnt for fine tuning mesoderm induction and its derivatives, through establishment of Wnt gradient during ESCs' differentiation. Moreover, contrary to mere activation/inhibition, a specific threshold of Wnt and BMP and their synergy seemed necessary for providing the guiding cues in orchestrating mesoderm induction and subsequent cardiomyogenesis. © 2009 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Equivalence of Lauric Acid and Glycerol Monolaurate as Inhibitors of Signal Transduction in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzin, Alexey; Novick, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Glycerol monolaurate (GML) inhibits the expression of virulence factors in Staphylococus aureus and the induction of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis, presumably by blocking signal transduction. Although GML is rapidly hydrolyzed by bacteria, one of the products, lauric acid, has identical inhibitory activity and is metabolized much more slowly. At least four distinct GML-hydrolyzing activities are identified in S. aureus: the secreted Geh lipase, residual supernatant activity in a geh-null mutant strain, a novel membrane-bound esterase, and a cytoplasmic activity. PMID:10762277

  20. Regulation and function of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in colonic injury and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tuo; Takabayashi, Hidehiko; Mao, Maria; Han, Xu; Xue, Xiang; Brazil, Jennifer C; Eaton, Kathryn A; Shah, Yatrik M; Todisco, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate gastrointestinal homeostasis. We investigated the expression of BMP-4 and the localization and function of BMP signaling during colonic injury and inflammation. Mice expressing the β-galactosidase (β-gal) gene under the control of a BMP-responsive element (BRE), BMP-4-β-gal/ mice, and animals generated by crossing villin-Cre mice to mice with floxed alleles of BMP receptor 1A (villin-Cre;Bmpr1a flox/flox ) were treated with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colonic injury and inflammation. Expression of BMP-4, β-gal, BMPR1A, IL-8, α-smooth muscle actin, and phosphorylated Smad1, -5, and -8 was assessed by X-Gal staining, quantitative RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Morphology of the colonic mucosa was examined by staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The effect of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 on BMP-4 mRNA expression was investigated in human intestinal fibroblasts, whereas that of BMP-4 on IL-8 was assessed in human colonic organoids. BMP-4 was localized in α-smooth muscle actin-positive mesenchymal cells while the majority of BMP-generated signals targeted the epithelium. DSS caused injury and inflammation leading to reduced expression of BMP-4 and of BMPR1A mRNAs, and to decreased BMP signaling. Deletion of BMPR1A enhanced colonic inflammation and damage. Administration of anti-TNF-α antibodies to DSS-treated mice ameliorated colonic inflammation and increased the expression of BMP-4 and BMPR1A mRNAs. TNF-α and IL-1β inhibited both basal and IFN-γ-stimulated BMP-4 expression, whereas IL-6 had no effect. BMP-4 reduced TNF-α-stimulated IL-8 mRNA expressor IL-8 mRNA expression in the organoids. Inflammation and injury inhibit BMP-4 expression and signaling, leading to enhanced colonic damage and inflammation. These observations underscore the importance of BMP signaling in the regulation of intestinal inflammation and homeostasis. In this study we report a series of novel observations that

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril prevents activation-induced apoptosis by interfering with T cell activation signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaka, C; Mizuochi, T

    2000-01-01

    Captopril is an orally active inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) which is widely used as an anti-hypertensive agent. In addition to its ability to reduce blood pressure, captopril has a number of other biological activities. Recently the drug was shown to inhibit Fas-induced apoptosis in human activated peripheral T cells and human lung epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated whether captopril blocks activation-induced apoptosis in murine T cell hybridomas, and found that captopril inhibited IL-2 synthesis and apoptotic cell death upon activation with anti-CD3 antibody. In addition, captopril inhibited an inducible caspase-3-like activity during activation-induced apoptosis. On the other hand, captopril did not interfere with Fas signalling, since anti-Fas antibody-induced apoptosis in Fas+ Jurkat cells was unaffected by the drug. Furthermore, we examined whether captopril blocks activation-induced apoptosis by interfering with expression of Fas, Fas ligand (FasL), or both on T cell hybridomas. FasL expression on activated T cells was significantly inhibited by captopril, whereas up-expression of Fas was partially inhibited, as assessed by cell surface staining. Taking all data together, we conclude that captopril prevents activation-induced apoptosis in T cell hybridomas by interfering with T cell activation signals. Captopril has been reported to induce systemic lupus erythematosus syndrome, and our findings may be useful for elucidating the mechanism of captopril-induced autoimmunity. PMID:10971519

  2. The effect of antenatal depression and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment on nerve growth factor signaling in human placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kaihola

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms during pregnancy are common and may have impact on the developing child. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the most prescribed antidepressant treatment, but unfortunately, these treatments can also negatively affect the behavioral development and health of a child during pregnancy. In addition, serotonin (5-HT exerts neurotrophic actions with thus far not fully known effects in the offspring. The neurotrophic growth factor (NGF is involved in neuronal cell survival and differentiation, and altered placenta levels have been found to increase the risk for pregnancy complications, similar to those found in women treated with SSRIs. We therefore investigated whether the NGF signaling pathway was altered in the placenta from women treated with SSRIs (n = 12 and compared them with placenta from depressed (n = 12 and healthy mothers (n = 12. Results from immunohistochemical stainings revealed that placental NGF protein levels of SSRI-treated women were increased in both trophoblasts and endothelial cells compared with depressed and control women. In addition, downstream of the NGF receptor TrkA, increased levels of the signaling proteins ROCK2 and phosphorylated Raf-1 were found in stromal cells and a tendency towards increased levels of ROCK2 in trophoblasts and endothelial cells in SSRI-treated women when compared to healthy controls. SSRI-treated women also displayed increased levels of phosphorylated ROCK2 in all placental cell types studied in comparison with depressed and control women. Interestingly, in placental endothelial cells from depressed women, NGF levels were significantly lower compared to control women, but ROCK2 levels were increased compared with control and SSRI-treated women. Taken together, these results show that the NGF signaling and downstream pathways in the placenta are affected by SSRI treatment and/or antenatal depression. This might lead to an altered placental function, although the

  3. Screening of Kit inhibitors: suppression of Kit signaling and melanogenesis by emodin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Jin; Jeong, Daeyoung; Park, Woo-Kyu; Kong, Jae Yang; Choi, Gildon; Kim, Hojeong; Kang, Sangjin; Cho, Heeyeong

    2010-02-01

    In search of novel antipigmentation agents, a set of 3,840 compounds with natural-like synthetic or natural origin were screened against Kit (stem cell factor receptor). Emodin from the seed of Cassia tora and baicalin from Scutellariae radix showed potent inhibitory effects (IC(50) = 4.9 and 9.0 microM, respectively) on the phosphorylation of Kit. Emodin also blocked other receptor tyrosine kinase activities, such as epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR-1), platelet-derived growth factor receptor b (PDGFR-b). In contrast to emodin, aloe-emodin did not inhibit Kit activity at all. Emodin also blocked the cellular kinase activities of Kit and its down-stream p44/42 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) in MO7e cells and human primary melanocytes. Emodin strongly suppressed the melanin synthesis triggered by stem cell factor (SCF) treatment. Also, emodin showed almost no toxicity up to 10 microM on cultured melanocytes as reported previously by other researchers. The results indicate that emodin is a good candidate for the development of antipigmentation agents since it can radically block the differentiation and proliferation of pigment cells by reducing Kit signaling. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Activation of the canonical bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathway during lung morphogenesis and adult lung tissue repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Sountoulidis

    Full Text Available Signaling by Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP has been implicated in early lung development, adult lung homeostasis and tissue-injury repair. However, the precise mechanism of action and the spatio-temporal pattern of BMP-signaling during these processes remains inadequately described. To address this, we have utilized a transgenic line harboring a BMP-responsive eGFP-reporter allele (BRE-eGFP to construct the first detailed spatiotemporal map of canonical BMP-pathway activation during lung development, homeostasis and adult-lung injury repair. We demonstrate that during the pseudoglandular stage, when branching morphogenesis progresses in the developing lung, canonical BMP-pathway is active mainly in the vascular network and the sub-epithelial smooth muscle layer of the proximal airways. Activation of the BMP-pathway becomes evident in epithelial compartments only after embryonic day (E 14.5 primarily in cells negative for epithelial-lineage markers, located in the proximal portion of the airway-tree, clusters adjacent to neuro-epithelial-bodies (NEBs and in a substantial portion of alveolar epithelial cells. The pathway becomes activated in isolated E12.5 mesenchyme-free distal epithelial buds cultured in Matrigel suggesting that absence of reporter activity in these regions stems from a dynamic cross-talk between endoderm and mesenchyme. Epithelial cells with activated BMP-pathway are enriched in progenitors capable of forming colonies in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures.As lung morphogenesis approaches completion, eGFP-expression declines and in adult lung its expression is barely detectable. However, upon tissue-injury, either with naphthalene or bleomycin, the canonical BMP-pathways is re-activated, in bronchial or alveolar epithelial cells respectively, in a manner reminiscent to early lung development and in tissue areas where reparatory progenitor cells reside. Our studies illustrate the dynamic activation of canonical BMP

  5. BMP/SMAD Pathway Promotes Neurogenesis of Midbrain Dopaminergic NeuronsIn Vivoand in Human Induced Pluripotent and Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Vukasin M; Salti, Ahmad; Tilleman, Hadas; Zega, Ksenija; Jukic, Marin M; Zou, Hongyan; Friedel, Roland H; Prakash, Nilima; Blaess, Sandra; Edenhofer, Frank; Brodski, Claude

    2018-02-14

    The embryonic formation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in vivo provides critical guidelines for the in vitro differentiation of mDA neurons from stem cells, which are currently being developed for Parkinson's disease cell replacement therapy. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD inhibition is routinely used during early steps of stem cell differentiation protocols, including for the generation of mDA neurons. However, the function of the BMP/SMAD pathway for in vivo specification of mammalian mDA neurons is virtually unknown. Here, we report that BMP5/7-deficient mice ( Bmp5 -/- ; Bmp7 -/- ) lack mDA neurons due to reduced neurogenesis in the mDA progenitor domain. As molecular mechanisms accounting for these alterations in Bmp5 -/- ; Bmp7 -/- mutants, we have identified expression changes of the BMP/SMAD target genes MSX1/2 (msh homeobox 1/2) and SHH (sonic hedgehog). Conditionally inactivating SMAD1 in neural stem cells of mice in vivo ( Smad1 Nes ) hampered the differentiation of progenitor cells into mDA neurons by preventing cell cycle exit, especially of TH + SOX6 + (tyrosine hydroxylase, SRY-box 6) and TH + GIRK2 + (potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily-J member-6) substantia nigra neurons. BMP5/7 robustly increased the in vitro differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells and induced neural stem cells to mDA neurons by up to threefold. In conclusion, we have identified BMP/SMAD signaling as a novel critical pathway orchestrating essential steps of mammalian mDA neurogenesis in vivo that balances progenitor proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, we demonstrate the potential of BMPs to improve the generation of stem-cell-derived mDA neurons in vitro , highlighting the importance of sequential BMP/SMAD inhibition and activation in this process. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We identify bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD signaling as a novel essential pathway regulating the development of mammalian midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons

  6. BMP4 and LGL1 are Down Regulated in an Ovine Model of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eEmmerton-Coughlin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: The molecular pathophysiology of lung hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH remains poorly understood. The Wnt signaling pathway and downstream targets, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP 4 and other factors such as late gestation lung protein 1 (LGL1, are essential to normal lung development. Nitrofen-induced hypoplastic CDH rodent lungs demonstrate down regulation of the Wnt pathway including BMP4 and reduced LGL1 expression. The aim of the current study was to examine the molecular pathophysiology associated with a surgically induced CDH in an ovine model. Methods: Left thoracotomy was performed at 80 days in 14 fetal sheep; CDH was created in 7 experimental animals. Lungs were harvested at 136 days (term=145d. Lung weight and mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD were measured to determine the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia. Quantitative real time PCR was undertaken to analyze Wnt2, Wnt7b, BMP4 and LGL1 mRNA expression. Results: Total lung weight was decreased while MTBD was increased in the CDH group (p<0.05, confirming pulmonary hypoplasia. BMP4 and LGL1 mRNA was significantly reduced in CDH lungs (p<0.05. Wnt2 mRNA was decreased, although not significantly (p<0.06. Conclusions: For the first time, down regulation of BMP4 and Lgl1 are reported in an ovine CDH model. In contrast to other animal models, these changes are persistent to near term. These findings suggest that mechanical compression from herniated viscera may play a more important role in causing pulmonary hypoplasia in CDH, rather than a primary defect in lung organogenesis.

  7. Effect of fractalkine, IP-10 and different signal pathway inhibitors on NK cells in the tumor microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-zhen WU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the inducing effects of chemokines [fractalkine (FKN, IP-10] and different signal pathway inhibitors on NK cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies for CD56 and DAP10 respectively on human breast carcinoma. Murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 and breast cancer cells (4T1 were co-cultivated at a 1:4 ratio to imitate the TME with NK cells (KY-1 set as the object. RT-PCR was used to determine the mRNA expressions of CD16, NKG2D and NK1.1, and the content of CD107a in the supernatants was determined by ELISA. 10ng/ml FKN and 10ng/ml IP-10 were added into the TME, NK1.1+CD16+KY-1 cells were counted with flow cytometry, migration and adhesion assays were used to assess the related function of KY-1 cells. 4T1 cells were incubated in 10nmol/L of rapamycin, 30μmol/L of LY294002, 500ng/μl of andrographolide and 2mmol/L of wortmannin, the 4T1 tumor supernatants (TSNs were harvested separately and used to incubate RAW 264.7 for 48h, then the expressions of Rae1α and H60a mRNA in 4T1, RAW 264.7 and their mixture were determined by RT-PCR. Results The related indicators of KY-1 cells such as NK1.1+ number, chemotaxis rate, and adhesion function decreased obviously in TME, and the above indices increased after the addition of FKN and IP-10, and some signal pathway inhibitors indirectly promoted NK cells' function in TME, and among them rapamycin was the most efficient one (P<0.05. Conclusion FKN and IP-10 may up-regulate the number and function of NK cells in TME, and rapamycin can promote NK cells' killing function by inducing high expression of NKG2DLs (Rae1, H60a on tumor cells. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.07

  8. Targeting Tuberculosis and HIV Infection-Specific Regulatory T Cells with MEK/ERK Signaling Pathway Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora V Lieske

    Full Text Available Human regulatory T cells (Tregs are essential in maintaining immunological tolerance and suppress effector T cells. Tregs are commonly up-regulated in chronic infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and thereby hamper disease-specific immune responses and eradication of pathogens. The MEK/ERK signaling pathway is involved in regulation of the FoxP3 transcription factor, which directs a lineage-specific transcriptional program to define Tregs and control their suppressive function. Here, we aimed to target activation of disease-specific Tregs by inhibition of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway based on the hypothesis that this would improve anti-HIV and anti-TB immunity. Stimulation of T cells from untreated TB (n = 12 and HIV (n = 8 patients with disease-specific antigens in vitro in the presence of the MEK inhibitor (MEKI trametinib (GSK1120212 resulted in significant down-regulation of both FoxP3 levels (MFI and fractions of resting (CD45RA+FoxP3+ and activated (CD45RA-FoxP3++ Tregs. MEKI also reduced the levels of specific T effector cells expressing the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in both HIV and TB patients. In conclusion, MEKIs modulate disease antigen-specific Treg activation and may have potential application in new treatment strategies in chronic infectious diseases where reduction of Treg activity would be favorable. Whether MEKIs can be used in current HIV or TB therapy regimens needs to be further investigated.

  9. BCR SIGNALING INHIBITORS: AN OVERVIEW OF TOXICITIES ASSOCIATED WITH IBRUTINIB AND IDELALISIB IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Falchi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The B-cell receptor signaling inhibitors ibrutinib and idelalisib are revolutionizing the treatment landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and other B-cell malignancies. These oral agents, both alone and in combination with other drugs, have shown remarkable clinical activity in relapsed or refractory CLL across all risk groups, and have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for this indication. Preliminary data suggest that an even greater benefit can be expected in treatment-naïve CLL patients. Both ibrutinib and idelalisib are well tolerated by most patients, including older, frailer individuals. Toxicities are usually mild and self-resolving. Clinicians must, however, be aware of a number of peculiar adverse events, the effects of which can be severe enough to limit the clinical use of these agents. In this review, we survey the salient aspects of the pharmacology of these agents, as well as clinical experience regarding their use for the treatment of patients with CLL. Our foci will be both the most common and the most clinically significant toxicities associated with these drugs.

  10. Oral Administration of GW788388, an Inhibitor of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling, Prevents Heart Fibrosis in Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fabiane L.; Araújo-Jorge, Tania C.; de Souza, Elen M.; de Oliveira, Gabriel M.; Degrave, Wim M.; Feige, Jean-Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease induced by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection is a major cause of mortality and morbidity affecting the cardiovascular system for which presently available therapies are largely inadequate. Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFß) has been involved in several regulatory steps of T. cruzi invasion and in host tissue fibrosis. GW788388 is a new TGFß type I and type II receptor kinase inhibitor that can be orally administered. In the present work, we studied its effects in vivo during the acute phase of experimental Chagas disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Male Swiss mice were infected intraperitoneally with 104 trypomastigotes of T. cruzi (Y strain) and evaluated clinically. We found that this compound given once 3 days post infection (dpi) significantly decreased parasitemia, increased survival, improved cardiac electrical conduction as measured by PR interval in electrocardiography, and restored connexin43 expression. We could further show that cardiac fibrosis development, evaluated by collagen type I and fibronectin expression, could be inhibited by this compound. Interestingly, we further demonstrated that administration of GW788388 at the end of the acute phase (20 dpi) still significantly increased survival and decreased cardiac fibrosis (evaluated by Masson's trichrome staining and collagen type I expression), in a stage when parasite growth is no more central to this event. Conclusion/Significance This work confirms that inhibition of TGFß signaling pathway can be considered as a potential alternative strategy for the treatment of the symptomatic cardiomyopathy found in the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. PMID:22720109

  11. Small tyrosine kinase inhibitors interrupt EGFR signaling by interacting with erbB3 and erbB4 in glioblastoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Saceda, Miguel [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Grasso, Silvina; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Conde, Mariano; Gomez-Martinez, Angeles [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Garcia-Morales, Pilar [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Ferragut, Jose A. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Martinez-Lacaci, Isabel, E-mail: imlacaci@umh.es [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad AECC de Investigacion Traslacional en Cancer, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-06-10

    Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is relevant in glioblastoma. We have determined the effects of the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 in glioblastoma cell lines and found that U87 and LN-229 cells were very sensitive to this drug, since their proliferation diminished and underwent a marked G{sub 1} arrest. T98 cells were a little more refractory to growth inhibition and A172 cells did not undergo a G{sub 1} arrest. This G{sub 1} arrest was associated with up-regulation of p27{sup kip1}, whose protein turnover was stabilized. EGFR autophosphorylation was blocked with AG1478 to the same extent in all the cell lines. Other small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors employed in the clinic, such as gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib, were able to abrogate proliferation of glioblastoma cell lines, which underwent a G{sub 1} arrest. However, the EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab had no effect on cell proliferation and consistently, had no effect on cell cycle either. Similarly, cetuximab did not inhibit proliferation of U87 {Delta}EGFR cells or primary glioblastoma cell cultures, whereas small-molecule EGFR inhibitors did. Activity of downstream signaling molecules of EGFR such as Akt and especially ERK1/2 was interrupted with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, whereas cetuximab treatment could not sustain this blockade over time. Small-molecule EGFR inhibitors were able to prevent phosphorylation of erbB3 and erbB4, whereas cetuximab only hindered EGFR phosphorylation, suggesting that EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors may mediate their anti-proliferative effects through other erbB family members. We can conclude that small-molecule EGFR inhibitors may be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of glioblastoma patients.

  12. BMP9 inhibits proliferation and metastasis of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells through ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ren

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9, a member of TGF-β superfamily, is reported to inhibit the growth and migration of prostate cancer, osteosarcoma and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. However, little is known about the effect of on the biological behaviors of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BMP9 on the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression or BMP9 down-regulated expression. Results indicated that exogenously expressed BMP9 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells while decreased endogenous BMP9 expression in SK-BR-3 cells promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression, the phosphorylation of HER2, ERK1/2 and AKT was markedly suppressed and the HER2 expression decreased at both mRNA and protein levels, while opposite results were observed in SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 knock down. When the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT was inhibited by PD98059 and LY294002, respectively, the decreased proliferation and invasion induced by BMP9 knock down were eliminated. These findings suggest that BMP9 can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells via inactivating ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Thus, BMP9 may serve as a useful agent in the treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer.

  13. NOX4 mediates BMP4-induced upregulation of TRPC1 and 6 protein expressions in distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jiang

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 mediated, elevated expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC largely accounts for the enhanced proliferation in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs. In the present study, we sought to determine the signaling pathway through which BMP4 up-regulates TRPC expression.We employed recombinant human BMP4 (rhBMP4 to determine the effects of BMP4 on NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4 and reactive oxygen species (ROS production in rat distal PASMCs. We also designed small interfering RNA targeting NOX4 (siNOX4 and detected whether NOX4 knockdown affects rhBMP4-induced ROS, TRPC1 and 6 expression, cell proliferation and intracellular Ca2+ determination in PASMCs.In rhBMP4 treated rat distal PASMCs, NOX4 expression was (226.73±11.13 %, and the mean ROS level was (123.65±1.62 % of that in untreated control cell. siNOX4 transfection significantly reduced rhBMP4-induced elevation of the mean ROS level in PASMCs. Moreover, siNOX4 transfection markedly reduced rhBMP4-induced elevation of TRPC1 and 6 proteins, basal [Ca2+]i and SOCE. Furthermore, compared with control group (0.21±0.001, the proliferation of rhBMP4 treated cells was significantly enhanced (0.41±0.001 (P<0.01. However, such increase was attenuated by knockdown of NOX4. Moreover, external ROS (H2O2 100 µM, 24 h rescued the effects of NOX4 knockdown, which included the declining of TRPC1 and 6 expression, basal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE, suggesting that NOX4 plays as an important mediator in BMP4-induced proliferation and intracellular calcium homeostasis.These results suggest that BMP4 may increase ROS level, enhance TRPC1 and 6 expression and proliferation by up-regulating NOX4 expression in PASMCs.

  14. Enhanced endogenous bone morphogenetic protein signaling protects against bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Langhe, Ellen; Cailotto, Frederic; De Vooght, Vanessa; Aznar-Lopez, Carolina; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen Alfons; Luyten, Frank Prosper; Lories, Rik Jozef Urbain

    2015-03-15

    Effective treatments for fibrotic diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are largely lacking. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) plays a central role in the pathophysiology of fibrosis. We hypothesized that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), another family within the TGFβ superfamily of growth factors, modulate fibrogenesis driven by TGFβ. We therefore studied the role of endogenous BMP signaling in bleomycin induced lung fibrosis. Lung fibrosis was induced in wild-type or noggin haploinsufficient (Nog +/LacZ ) mice by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin, or phosphate buffered saline as a control. Invasive pulmonary function tests were performed using the flexiVent® SCIREQ system. The mice were sacrificed and lung tissue was collected for analysis using histopathology, collagen quantification, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis. Nog +/LacZ mice are a known model of increased BMP signaling and were partially protected from bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis with reduced Ashcroft score, reduced collagen content and preservation of pulmonary compliance. In bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, TGFβ and BMP signaling followed an inverse course, with dynamic activation of TGFβ signaling and repression of BMP signaling activity. Upon bleomycin exposure, active BMP signaling is decreased. Derepression of BMP signaling in Nog +/LacZ mice protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Modulating the balance between BMP and TGFβ, in particular increasing endogenous BMP signals, may therefore be a therapeutic target in fibrotic lung disease.

  15. BMP7 and EREG Contribute to the Inductive Potential of Dental Mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Xuedong; Pi, Caixia; Xu, Ruoshi; Wan, Mian; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Yue; Liu, Chengcheng; Sun, Jianxun; Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Liwei

    2015-05-08

    Odontogenesis is accomplished by reciprocal signaling between the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments. It is generally accepted that the inductive mesenchyme is capable of inducing the odontogenic commitment of both dental and non-dental epithelial cells. However, the duration of this signal in the developing dental mesenchyme and whether adult dental pulp tissue maintains its inductive capability remain unclear. This study investigated the contribution of growth factors to regulating the inductive potential of the dental mesenchyme. Human oral epithelial cells (OEs) were co-cultured with either human dental mesenchymal/papilla cells (FDPCs) or human dental pulp cells (ADPCs) under 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional conditions. Odontogenic-associated genes and proteins were detected by qPCR and immunofluorescence, respectively, and significant differences were observed between the two co-culture systems. The BMP7 and EREG expression levels in FDPCs were significantly higher than in ADPCs, as indicated by human growth factor PCR arrays and immunofluorescence analyses. OEs co-cultured with ADPCs supplemented with BMP7 and EREG expressed ameloblastic differentiation genes. Our study suggests that BMP7 and EREG expression in late bell-stage human dental papilla contributes to the inductive potential of dental mesenchyme. Furthermore, adult dental pulp cells supplemented with these two growth factors re-established the inductive potential of postnatal dental pulp tissue.

  16. Dorsoventral patterning by the Chordin-BMP pathway: a unified model from a pattern-formation perspective for Drosophila, vertebrates, sea urchins and Nematostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Conserved from Cnidarians to vertebrates, the dorsoventral (DV) axis is patterned by the Chordin-BMP pathway. However, the functions of the pathway's components are very different in different phyla. By modeling it is shown that many observations can be integrated by the assumption that BMP, acting as an inhibitory component in more ancestral systems, became a necessary and activating component for the generation of a secondary and antipodal-located signaling center. The different realizations seen in vertebrates, Drosophila, sea urchins and Nematostella allow reconstruction of a chain of modifications during evolution. BMP-signaling is proposed to be based on a pattern-forming reaction of the activator-depleted substrate type in which BMP-signaling acts via pSmad as the local self-enhancing component and the depletion of the highly mobile BMP-Chordin complex as the long-ranging antagonistic component. Due to the rapid removal of the BMP/Chordin complex during BMP-signaling, an oriented transport and "shuttling" results, although only ordinary diffusion is involved. The system can be self-organizing, allowing organizer formation even from near homogeneous initial situations. Organizers may regenerate after removal. Although connected with some losses of self-regulation, for large embryos as in amphibians, the employment of maternal determinants is an efficient strategy to make sure that only a single organizer of each type is generated. The generation of dorsoventral positional information along a long-extended anteroposterior (AP) axis cannot be achieved directly by a single patch-like organizer. Nature found different solutions for this task. Corresponding models provide a rationale for the well-known reversal in the dorsoventral patterning between vertebrates and insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dual Inhibition of PI3K-AKT-mTOR- and RAF-MEK-ERK-signaling is synergistic in cholangiocarcinoma and reverses acquired resistance to MEK-inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Florian; Nörz, Dominik; Grottke, Astrid; Hofmann, Bianca T; Nashan, Björn; Jücker, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Until today, there is no systemic treatment available for advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Recent studies have shown a frequent upregulation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR and RAF-MEK-ERK pathways in this type of cancer. However, considering their high extend of redundancy and cross-talk, targeting only one pathway is likely to result in therapy failure and emergence of resistances. To provide a rationale for treatment of CCA with inhibitors of these respective pathways, we analyzed the effects of AKT inhibitor MK-2206, MEK inhibitor AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) and mTOR kinase inhibitor AZD8055 on three CCA cell lines in vitro, concerning proliferation, cell signaling and apoptosis. Furthermore, AZD6244 resistant cell lines have been generated to investigate, how their response may be affected by prolonged treatment with only a single inhibitor. Our data demonstrates that co-targeting of both, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, as well as vertical targeting of AKT and mTOR results in strong synergistic effects on proliferation and cell survival with combination indices below 0.3. Mechanistically, the combinatorial treatment with MK-2206 in addition to AZD8055 is necessary because AKT kinase activity was quickly restored after mTOR kinase inhibition. Interestingly, acquired MEK inhibitor resistance to AZD6244 was reversed by combined treatment with AZD6244 and either MK-2206 or AZD8055. Our data suggest that a combination of inhibitors targeting those respective pathways may be a viable approach for future application in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. AKT, mTOR and MEK are promising targets for a combinatorial treatment of cholangiocarcinoma cells even after acquisition of MEK inhibitor resistance.

  18. BMP-2 and titanium particles synergistically activate osteoclast formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S.X.; Guo, H.H.; Zhang, J.; Yu, B.; Sun, K.N.; Jin, Q.H.

    2014-01-01

    A previous study showed that BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2) and wear debris can separately support osteoclast formation induced by the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). However, the effect of BMP-2 on wear debris-induced osteoclast formation is unclear. In this study, we show that neither titanium particles nor BMP-2 can induce osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cells but that BMP-2 synergizes with titanium particles to enhance osteoclast formation in the presence of RANKL, and that at a low concentration, BMP-2 has an optimal effect to stimulate the size and number of multinuclear osteoclasts, expression of osteoclast genes, and resorption area. Our data also clarify that the effects caused by the increase in BMP-2 on phosphorylated SMAD levels such as c-Fos expression increased throughout the early stages of osteoclastogenesis. BMP-2 and titanium particles stimulate the expression of p-JNK, p-P38, p-IkB, and P50 compared with the titanium group. These data suggested that BMP-2 may be a crucial factor in titanium particle-mediated osteoclast formation. PMID:24820069

  19. Hmox1 promotes osteogenic differentiation at the expense of reduced adipogenic differentiation induced by BMP9 in C3H10T1/2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohua; Ji, Caixia; Xu, Li; Yu, TingTing; Dong, Chaoqun; Luo, Jinyong

    2018-01-29

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors that can differentiate into a variety of cell types under proper stimuli. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is able to simultaneously induce both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs although the regulatory molecules involved remain to be fully identified and characterized. Heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) plays an essential role not only in fat metabolism, but also in bone development. In the present study, we investigated the functional role of Hmox1 in BMP9-induced osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation in MSCs line C3H10T1/2 and probed the possible mechanism involved. We found that BMP9 promoted the endogenous expression of Hmox1 in C3H10T1/2 cells. Overexpression of Hmox1 or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an inducer of Hmox1, increased BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Subcutaneous stem cell implantation in nude mice further confirmed that Hmox1 potentiated BMP9-induced ectopic bone formation in vivo. In contrast, Hmox1 reduced BMP9-induced adipogenic differentiation in C3H10T1/2 cells. Although had no obvious effect on BMP9-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, Hmox1 enhanced phosphorylation of p38 and AKT, while decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Furthermore, Hmox1 increased total β-catenin protein level, and promoted the nuclear translocation of β-catenin in C3H10T1/2 cells. Taken together, our study strongly suggests that Hmox1 is likely to potentiate osteogenic differentiation and yet decrease adipogenic differentiation induced by BMP9 possibly through regulation of multiple signaling pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Mesenchymal Wnt/β-catenin signaling limits tooth number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Elina; Shimomura-Kuroki, Junko; Balic, Anamaria; Jussila, Maria; Thesleff, Irma

    2018-02-21

    Tooth agenesis is one of the predominant developmental anomalies in humans, usually affecting the permanent dentition generated by sequential tooth formation and, in most cases, caused by mutations perturbing epithelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In addition, loss-of-function mutations in the Wnt feedback inhibitor AXIN2 lead to human tooth agenesis. We have investigated the functions of Wnt/β-catenin signaling during sequential formation of molar teeth using mouse models. Continuous initiation of new teeth, which is observed after genetic activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the oral epithelium, was accompanied by enhanced expression of Wnt antagonists and a downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the dental mesenchyme. Genetic and pharmacological activation of mesenchymal Wnt/β-catenin signaling negatively regulated sequential tooth formation, an effect partly mediated by Bmp4. Runx2 , a gene whose loss-of-function mutations result in sequential formation of supernumerary teeth in the human cleidocranial dysplasia syndrome, suppressed the expression of Wnt inhibitors Axin2 and Drapc1 in dental mesenchyme. Our data indicate that increased mesenchymal Wnt signaling inhibits the sequential formation of teeth, and suggest that Axin2 / Runx2 antagonistic interactions modulate the level of mesenchymal Wnt/β-catenin signaling, underlying the contrasting dental phenotypes caused by human AXIN2 and RUNX2 mutations. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Humoral BMP-2 is Sufficient for Inducing Breast Cancer Microcalcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangbing; Bloch, Nathalie; Bhushan, Kumar R.; De Grand, Alec M.; Tanaka, Eiichi; Solazzo, Stephanie; Mertyna, Pawel M.; Goldberg, Nahum; Frangioni, John V.; Lenkinski, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Microcalcifications are an important diagnostic marker for breast cancer on mammograms, yet the mechanism of their formation is poorly understood. Indeed, there is presently no short-latency, high-yield, syngeneic rodent model of the process. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a key mediator of physiological bone formation and pathological vasculature calcification, but its role in breast cancer microcalcification is unknown. In this study, R3230 rat breast tumors were adapted to cell culture, transduced with adenoviral BMP-2, and inoculated into a syngeneic host. Tumor growth and calcium salt deposition were quantified in living animals over time using micro-computed tomography, and probed chemically using near-infrared fluorescence. Plasma BMP-2 levels were quantified over time by ELISA. Within three weeks, 100% of breast tumors developed microcalcifications, which were absent from all normal tissues. Importantly, when two tumors were initiated in a single host, the ipsilateral tumor expressing BMP-2 was able to induce microcalcification in the contralateral tumor that was not expressing BMP-2, suggesting that BMP-2 can act humorally. Taken together, we describe the first reproducible rodent model of breast cancer microcalcification, prove that BMP-2 expression is sufficient for initiating the process, and lay the foundation for a new generation of targeted diagnostic agents. PMID:19123988

  2. Wnt/β-catenin signaling changes C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation by inducing Id3 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long; Shi, Songting; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Fangfang; Dijke, Peter ten

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expression of Id3 but not Id1 is induced by Wnt3a stimulation in C2C12 cells. ► Wnt3a induces Id3 expression via canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. ► Wnt3a-induced Id3 expression does not depend on BMP signaling activation. ► Induction of Id3 expression is critical determinant in Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and differentiation. -- Abstract: Canonical Wnt signaling plays important roles in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we report that inhibitor of differentiation (Id)3 is a Wnt-inducible gene in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Wnt3a induced Id3 expression in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) also potently induced Id3 expression. However, Wnt-induced Id3 expression occurred independent of the BMP/Smad pathway. Functional studies showed that Id3 depletion in C2C12 cells impaired Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity, an early marker of osteoblast cells. Id3 depletion elevated myogenin induction during myogenic differentiation and partially impaired Wnt3a suppressed myogenin expression in C2C12 cells. These results suggest that Id3 is an important Wnt/β-catenin induced gene in myoblast cell fate determination.

  3. Dominant negative Bmp5 mutation reveals key role of BMPs in skeletal response to mechanical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley David M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over a hundred years ago, Wolff originally observed that bone growth and remodeling are exquisitely sensitive to mechanical forces acting on the skeleton. Clinical studies have noted that the size and the strength of bone increase with weight bearing and muscular activity and decrease with bed rest and disuse. Although the processes of mechanotransduction and functional response of bone to mechanical strain have been extensively studied, the molecular signaling mechanisms that mediate the response of bone cells to mechanical stimulation remain unclear. Results Here, we identify a novel germline mutation at the mouse Bone morphogenetic protein 5 (Bmp5 locus. Genetic analysis shows that the mutation occurs at a site encoding the proteolytic processing sequence of the BMP5 protein and blocks proper processing of BMP5. Anatomic studies reveal that this mutation affects the formation of multiple skeletal features including several muscle-induced skeletal sites in vivo. Biomechanical studies of osteoblasts from these anatomic sites show that the mutation inhibits the proper response of bone cells to mechanical stimulation. Conclusion The results from these genetic, biochemical, and biomechanical studies suggest that BMPs are required not only for skeletal patterning during embryonic development, but also for bone response and remodeling to mechanical stimulation at specific anatomic sites in the skeleton.

  4. Shaping skeletal growth by modular regulatory elements in the Bmp5 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Guenther

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage and bone are formed into a remarkable range of shapes and sizes that underlie many anatomical adaptations to different lifestyles in vertebrates. Although the morphological blueprints for individual cartilage and bony structures must somehow be encoded in the genome, we currently know little about the detailed genomic mechanisms that direct precise growth patterns for particular bones. We have carried out large-scale enhancer surveys to identify the regulatory architecture controlling developmental expression of the mouse Bmp5 gene, which encodes a secreted signaling molecule required for normal morphology of specific skeletal features. Although Bmp5 is expressed in many skeletal precursors, different enhancers control expression in individual bones. Remarkably, we show here that different enhancers also exist for highly restricted spatial subdomains along the surface of individual skeletal structures, including ribs and nasal cartilages. Transgenic, null, and regulatory mutations confirm that these anatomy-specific sequences are sufficient to trigger local changes in skeletal morphology and are required for establishing normal growth rates on separate bone surfaces. Our findings suggest that individual bones are composite structures whose detailed growth patterns are built from many smaller lineage and gene expression domains. Individual enhancers in BMP genes provide a genomic mechanism for controlling precise growth domains in particular cartilages and bones, making it possible to separately regulate skeletal anatomy at highly specific locations in the body.

  5. Impairment of K-Ras signaling networks and increased efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors by a novel synthetic miR-143.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, Yukihiro; Kumazaki, Minami; Shinohara, Haruka; Sugito, Nobuhiko; Kuranaga, Yuki; Tsujino, Takuya; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Kitade, Yukio

    2018-03-02

    Despite considerable research on K-Ras inhibitors, none had been established until now. We synthesized nuclease-resistant synthetic miR-143 (miR-143#12), which strongly silenced K-Ras, its effector signal molecules AKT and ERK, and the K-Ras activator Sos1. We examined the anti-proliferative effect of miR-143#12 and the mechanism in human colon cancer DLD-1 cell (G13D) and other cell types harboring K-Ras mutations. Cell growth was markedly suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by miR-143#12 (IC 50 : 1.32 nmol L -1 ) with a decrease in the K-Ras mRNA level. Interestingly, this mRNA level was also downregulated by either a PI3K/AKT or MEK inhibitor, which indicates a positive circuit of K-Ras mRNA expression. MiR-143#12 silenced cytoplasmic K-Ras mRNA expression and impaired the positive circuit by directly targeting AKT and ERK mRNA. Combination treatment with miR-143#12 and a low-dose EGFR inhibitor induced a synergistic inhibition of growth with a marked inactivation of both PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. However, silencing K-Ras by siR-KRas instead of miR-143#12 did not induce this synergism through the combined treatment with the EGFR inhibitor. Thus, miR-143#12 perturbed the K-Ras expression system and K-Ras activation by silencing Sos1 and, resultantly, restored the efficacy of the EGFR inhibitors. The in vivo results also supported those of the in vitro experiments. The extremely potent miR-143#12 enabled us to understand K-Ras signaling networks and shut them down by combination treatment with this miRNA and EGFR inhibitor in K-Ras-driven colon cancer cell lines. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Myocardial Tbx20 regulates early atrioventricular canal formation and endocardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Bmp2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoqiang; Nomura-Kitabayashi, Aya; Cai, Weibin; Yan, Jianyun; Christoffels, Vincent M; Cai, Chen-Leng

    2011-12-15

    During early embryogenesis, the formation of the cardiac atrioventricular canal (AVC) facilitates the transition of the heart from a linear tube into a chambered organ. However, the genetic pathways underlying this developmental process are poorly understood. The T-box transcription factor Tbx20 is expressed predominantly in the AVC of early heart tube. It was shown that Tbx20 activates Nmyc1 and suppresses Tbx2 expression to promote proliferation and specification of the atrial and ventricular chambers, yet it is not known if Tbx20 is involved in early AVC development. Here, we report that mice lacking Tbx20 in the AVC myocardium fail to form the AVC constriction, and the endocardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is severely perturbed. Tbx20 maintains expression of a variety of genes, including Bmp2, Tbx3 and Hand1 in the AVC myocardium. Intriguingly, we found Bmp2 downstream genes involved in the EMT initiation are also downregulated. In addition, re-expression of Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium substantially rescues the EMT defects resulting from the lack of Tbx20, suggesting Bmp2 is one of the key downstream targets of Tbx20 in AVC development. Our data support a complex signaling network with Tbx20 suppressing Tbx2 in the AVC myocardium but also indirectly promoting Tbx2 expression through Bmp2. The spatiotemporal expression of Tbx2 in the AVC appears to be balanced between these two opposing signals. Overall, our study provides genetic evidence that Tbx20 has essential roles in regulating AVC development that coordinate early cardiac chamber formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Involvement of HDAC1 and the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways in NF-κB activation by the HDAC inhibitor apicidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kee; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Hoi Young; Han, Jeung-Whan; Kim, Su-Nam

    2006-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are appreciated as one of promising anticancer drugs, but they exert differential responses depending on the cell type. We recently reported the critical role of NF-κB as a modulator in determining cell fate for apoptosis in response to an HDAC inhibitor. In this study, we investigate a possible signaling pathway required for NF-κB activation in response to the HDAC inhibitor apicidin. Treatment of HeLa cells with apicidin leads to an increase in transcriptional activity of NF-κB and the expression of its target genes, IL-8 and TNF-α. TNF-α expression by apicidin is induced at earlier time points than NF-κB activation or IL-8 expression. In addition, our data show that the early expression of TNF-α does not lead to activation of NF-κB, because disruption of TNF-α activity by a neutralizing antibody does not affect nuclear translocation of NF-κB, IκBα degradation or reporter gene activation by apicidin. However, this activation of NF-κB requires the PI3K and PKC signaling pathways, but not ERK or JNK. Furthermore, apicidin activation of NF-κB seems to result from HDAC1 inhibition, as evidenced by the observation that overexpression of HDAC1, but not HDAC2, 3 or 4, dramatically inhibits NF-κB reporter gene activity. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of NF-κB signaling by apicidin requires both the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways and HDAC1, and functions as a critical modulator in determining the cellular effect of apicidin

  8. Chondrogenesis of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by TGFβ1 and BMP7 Through Increased TGFβ Receptor Expression and Endogenous TGFβ1 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick T; Li, Wan-Ju

    2017-01-01

    For decades stem cells have proven to be invaluable to the study of tissue development. More recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (ESC-MSCs) have emerged as a cell source with great potential for the future of biomedical research due to their enhanced proliferative capability compared to adult tissue-derived MSCs and effectiveness of musculoskeletal lineage-specific cell differentiation compared to ESCs. We have previously compared the properties and differentiation potential of ESC-MSCs to bone marrow-derived MSCs. In this study, we evaluated the potential of TGFβ1 and BMP7 to induce chondrogenic differentiation of ESC-MSCs compared to that of TGFβ1 alone and further investigated the cellular phenotype and intracellular signaling in response to these induction conditions. Our results showed that the expression of cartilage-associated markers in ESC-MSCs induced by the TGFβ1 and BMP7 combination was increased compared to induction with TGFβ1 alone. The TGFβ1 and BMP7 combination upregulated the expression of TGFβ receptor and the production of endogenous TGFβs compared to TGFβ1 induction. The growth factor combination also increasingly activated both of the TGF and BMP signaling pathways, and inhibition of the signaling pathways led to reduced chondrogenesis of ESC-MSCs. Our findings suggest that by adding BMP7 to TGFβ1-supplemented induction medium, ESC-MSC chondrogenesis is upregulated through increased production of endogenous TGFβ and activities of TGFβ and BMP signaling. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 172-181, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to the biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, the full experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experi...

  10. Reactivating TP53 signaling by the novel MDM2 inhibitor DS-3032b as a therapeutic option for high-risk neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold, Viktor; Schmelz, Karin; Proba, Jutta; Winkler, Annika; Wünschel, Jasmin; Toedling, Joern; Deubzer, Hedwig E.; Künkele, Annette; Eggert, Angelika; Schulte, Johannes H.; Hundsdoerfer, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Fewer than 50% of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma survive five years after diagnosis with current treatment protocols. Molecular targeted therapies are expected to improve survival. Although MDM2 has been validated as a promising target in preclinical models, no MDM2 inhibitors have yet entered clinical trials for neuroblastoma patients. Toxic side effects, poor bioavailability and low efficacy of the available MDM2 inhibitors that have entered phase I/II trials drive the development of novel MDM2 inhibitors with an improved risk-benefit profile. We investigated the effect of the novel MDM2 small molecular inhibitor, DS-3032b, on viability, proliferation, senescence, migration, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a panel of six neuroblastoma cell lines with different TP53 and MYCN genetic backgrounds, and assessed efficacy in a murine subcutaneous model for high-risk neuroblastoma. Re-analysis of existing expression data from 476 primary neuroblastomas showed that high-level MDM2 expression correlated with poor patient survival. DS-3032b treatment enhanced TP53 target gene expression and induced G1 cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. CRISPR-mediated MDM2 knockout in neuroblastoma cells mimicked DS-3032b treatment. TP53 signaling was selectively activated by DS-3032b in neuroblastoma cells with wildtype TP53, regardless of the presence of MYCN amplification, but was significantly reduced by TP53 mutations or expression of a dominant-negative TP53 mutant. Oral DS-3032b administration inhibited xenograft tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival. Our in vitro and in vivo data demonstrate that DS-3032b reactivates TP53 signaling even in the presence of MYCN amplification in neuroblastoma cells, to reduce proliferative capacity and cause cytotoxicity. PMID:29416773

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Mitigate Cirrhosis through BMP7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has therapeutic effects on various diseases, while its effect on developing cirrhosis as well as the underlying mechanism remained largely unknown. Methods: Twenty C57BL/6 mice were randomly separated into 2 groups of ten each. One group received transplantation of MSCs, while the other group received saline as control. The mice then received intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 twice per week for 8 weeks to develop cirrhosis. After another 4 weeks, the levels of cirrhosis in these mice were evaluated by liver fibrosis area, portal pressure, sodium balance and excretion. Transcripts of transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the mouse livers were quantified by RT-qPCR. BMP7-depleted MSCs were prepared and applied in this model, and compared to MSCs. Results: Liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and sodium retention that were developed by CCl4, were all significantly alleviated by MSCs transplantation, which decreased TGFβ1 levels and increased BMP7 levels in the injured liver. MSCs were found to express extremely high levels of BMP7. Knockdown of BMP7 in MSCs completely abolished the protective effect of MSCs against CCl4-induced cirrhosis. Conclusions: MSCs mitigate cirrhosis through their production of BMP7 against the fibrogenic effect of TGFβ1 in the injured liver.

  12. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 signaling negatively modulates lymphatic development in vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunworth, William P; Cardona-Costa, Jose; Bozkulak, Esra Cagavi

    2014-01-01

    : Our aim was to delineate the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 signaling in lymphatic development. METHODS AND RESULTS: BMP2 signaling negatively regulates the formation of LECs. Developing LECs lack any detectable BMP signaling activity in both zebrafish and mouse embryos, and excess BMP2......RATIONALE: The emergence of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) seems to be highly regulated during development. Although several factors that promote the differentiation of LECs in embryonic development have been identified, those that negatively regulate this process are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE...... signaling in zebrafish embryos and mouse embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies substantially decrease the emergence of LECs. Mechanistically, BMP2 signaling induces expression of miR-31 and miR-181a in a SMAD-dependent mechanism, which in turn results in attenuated expression of prospero homeobox...

  13. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Chaudhary, Sandeep C; Ballestas, Mary E; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Kaempferol inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration by modulating BMP-mediated miR-21 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Sunghwan; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kang, Hara

    2015-09-01

    Bioflavonoids are known to induce cardioprotective effects by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit VSMC proliferation. However, little is known about the effect of kaempferol on VSMC migration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence that kaempferol inhibits VSMC migration by modulating the BMP4 signaling pathway and microRNA expression levels. Kaempferol activates the BMP signaling pathway, induces miR-21 expression and downregulates DOCK4, 5, and 7, leading to inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, kaempferol antagonizes the PDGF-mediated pro-migratory effect. Therefore, our study uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism of VSMC migration by kaempferol and suggests that miRNA modulation by kaempferol is a potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Prevotella intermedia stimulates tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 expression via multiple signaling pathways in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su-Min; He, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Ming; Shu, Lei

    2011-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia is an important periodontal pathogen that induces various inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of P. intermedia on the plasminogen system in human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells and explored the signaling pathways involved. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-qPCR, we demonstrated that P. intermedia challenge increased tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-2 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but exerted no influence on urokinase-type plasminogen activator and PAI-1mRNA expression in hPDL cells. Prevotella intermedia stimulation also enhanced tPA protein secretion as confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot results revealed that P. intermedia treatment increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase (p38). ERK, JNK and protein kinase C inhibitors significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced tPA and PAI-2 expression. Furthermore, p38 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors markedly decreased PAI-2 expression, whereas they showed no or little inhibition on tPA expression. In contrast, inhibition of protein kinase A greatly enhanced the upregulatory effect of P. intermedia on tPA and PAI-2 expression. Our results suggest that P. intermedia may contribute to periodontal tissue destruction by upregulating tPA and PAI-2 expression in hPDL cells via multiple signaling pathways. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. AKT inhibitors promote cell death in cervical cancer through disruption of mTOR signaling and glucose uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Rashmi

    Full Text Available PI3K/AKT pathway alterations are associated with incomplete response to chemoradiation in human cervical cancer. This study was performed to test for mutations in the PI3K pathway and to evaluate the effects of AKT inhibitors on glucose uptake and cell viability.Mutational analysis of DNA from 140 pretreatment tumor biopsies and 8 human cervical cancer cell lines was performed. C33A cells (PIK3CAR88Q and PTENR233* were treated with increasing concentrations of two allosteric AKT inhibitors (SC-66 and MK-2206 with or without the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG. Cell viability and activation status of the AKT/mTOR pathway were determined in response to the treatment. Glucose uptake was evaluated by incubation with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG. Cell migration was assessed by scratch assay.Activating PIK3CA (E545K, E542K and inactivating PTEN (R233* mutations were identified in human cervical cancer. SC-66 effectively inhibited AKT, mTOR and mTOR substrates in C33A cells. SC-66 inhibited glucose uptake via reduced delivery of Glut1 and Glut4 to the cell membrane. SC-66 (1 µg/ml-56% and MK-2206 (30 µM-49% treatment decreased cell viability through a non-apoptotic mechanism. Decreases in cell viability were enhanced when AKT inhibitors were combined with 2-DG. The scratch assay showed a substantial reduction in cell migration upon SC-66 treatment.The mutational spectrum of the PI3K/AKT pathway in cervical cancer is complex. AKT inhibitors effectively block mTORC1/2, decrease glucose uptake, glycolysis, and decrease cell viability in vitro. These results suggest that AKT inhibitors may improve response to chemoradiation in cervical cancer.

  17. BMP9 a possible alternative drug for the recently withdrawn BMP7? New perspectives for (re-)implementation by personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, Vrinda; Aspera-Werz, Romina Haydeé; Tendulkar, Gauri; Reumann, Marie Karolina; Freude, Thomas; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Dooley, Steven; Pscherer, Stefan; Ochs, Björn Gunnar; Flesch, Ingo; Hofmann, Valeska; Nussler, Andreas Klaus; Ehnert, Sabrina

    2017-03-01

    Promotion of rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 for the routine use to support fracture healing has been hampered by high costs, safety concerns and reasonable failure rates, imposing restrictions in its clinical use. Since there is little debate regarding its treatment potential, there is rising need for a better understanding of the mode of action of these BMPs to overcome its drawbacks and promote more efficacious treatment strategies for bone regeneration. Recently, BMP9, owing to its improved osteogenic potential, is gaining attention as a promising therapeutic alternative. Our study aimed at identifying specific gene expression patterns which may predict and explain individual responses to rhBMP7 and rhBMP9 treatments. Therefore, we investigated the effect of rhBMP7 and rhBMP9 on primary human osteoblasts from 110 donors and corresponding THP-1-derived osteoclasts. This was further compared with each other and our reported data on rhBMP2 response. Based on the individual donor response, we found three donor groups profiting from rhBMP treatment either directly via stimulation of osteoblast function or viability and/or indirectly via inhibition of osteoclasts. The response on rhBMP7 treatment correlated with expression levels of the genes BAMBI, SOST, Noggin, Smad4 and RANKL, while the response of rhBMP9 correlated to the expression levels of Alk6, Endoglin, Smurf1, Smurf2, SOST and RANKL in these donors. Noteworthy, rhBMP9 treatment showed significantly increased osteogenic activity (AP activity and Smad nuclear translocation) when compared to the two clinically used rhBMPs. Based on patient's respective expression profiles, clinical application of rhBMP9 either solely or in combination with rhBMP2 and/or rhBMP7 can become a promising new approach to fit the patient's needs to promote fracture healing.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify Two Novel BMP15 Mutations Responsible for an Atypical Hyperprolificacy Phenotype in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demars, Julie; Fabre, Stéphane; Sarry, Julien; Rossetti, Raffaella; Gilbert, Hélène; Persani, Luca; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Mulsant, Philippe; Nowak, Zuzanna; Drobik, Wioleta; Martyniuk, Elzbieta; Bodin, Loys

    2013-01-01

    Some sheep breeds are naturally prolific, and they are very informative for the studies of reproductive genetics and physiology. Major genes increasing litter size (LS) and ovulation rate (OR) were suspected in the French Grivette and the Polish Olkuska sheep populations, respectively. To identify genetic variants responsible for the highly prolific phenotype in these two breeds, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) followed by complementary genetic and functional analyses were performed. Highly prolific ewes (cases) and normal prolific ewes (controls) from each breed were genotyped using the Illumina OvineSNP50 Genotyping Beadchip. In both populations, an X chromosome region, close to the BMP15 gene, harbored clusters of markers with suggestive evidence of association at significance levels between 1E−05 and 1E−07. The BMP15 candidate gene was then sequenced, and two novel non-conservative mutations called FecXGr and FecXO were identified in the Grivette and Olkuska breeds, respectively. The two mutations were associated with the highly prolific phenotype (pFecXGr = 5.98E−06 and pFecXO = 2.55E−08). Homozygous ewes for the mutated allele showed a significantly increased prolificacy (FecXGr/FecXGr, LS = 2.50±0.65 versus FecX+/FecXGr, LS = 1.93±0.42, p<1E−03 and FecXO/FecXO, OR = 3.28±0.85 versus FecX+/FecXO, OR = 2.02±0.47, p<1E−03). Both mutations are located in very well conserved motifs of the protein and altered the BMP15 signaling activity in vitro using a BMP-responsive luciferase test in COV434 granulosa cells. Thus, we have identified two novel mutations in the BMP15 gene associated with increased LS and OR. Notably, homozygous FecXGr/FecXGr Grivette and homozygous FecXO/FecXO Olkuska ewes are hyperprolific in striking contrast with the sterility exhibited by all other known homozygous BMP15 mutations. Our results bring new insights into the key role played by the BMP15 protein in ovarian function and could

  19. Tamoxifen-dependent, inducible Bmp2CreER drives selective recombinase activity in early interdigital mesenchyme and digit collateral ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bau-Lin; Mackem, Susan

    2015-01-01

    During limb development, the interdigital mesenchyme has been proposed to play a signaling role instructing morphogenesis of different digit types, as well as undergoing programmed cell death necessary to free digits in animals not adapted for swimming or flying. We have generated a conditional, tamoxifen-dependent Cre line, Bmp2CreER, which drives highly selective recombination restricted to the distal limb mesoderm, largely restricted to the interdigits, and selectively active in digit ligament but not tendon progenitors at later stages. The Bmp2CreER provides a valuable new tool to dissect roles of interdigital mesenchyme and potentially investigate divergence of ligament and tendon lineages.

  20. Andrographolide, a Novel NF-κB Inhibitor, Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis via a Ceramide-p47phox-ROS Signaling Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ying Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is linked with the development of many cardiovascular complications. Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs plays a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis. Accordingly, the apoptosis of VSMCs, which occurs in the progression of vascular proliferation, may provide a beneficial strategy for managing cardiovascular diseases. Andrographolide, a novel nuclear factor-κB inhibitor, is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Recent studies have indicated that andrographolide is a potential therapeutic agent for treating cancer through the induction of apoptosis. In this study, the apoptosis-inducing activity and mechanisms in andrographolide-treated rat VSMCs were characterized. Andrographolide significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, p53 activation, Bax, and active caspase-3 expression, and these phenomena were suppressed by pretreating the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS scavenger, or diphenylene iodonium, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase (Nox inhibitor. Furthermore, p47phox, a Nox subunit protein, was phosphorylated in andrographolide-treated rat VSMCs. However, pretreatment with 3-O-methyl-sphingomyelin, a neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor, significantly inhibited andrographolide-induced p47phox phosphorylation as well as Bax and active caspase-3 expression. Our results collectively demonstrate that andrographolide-reduced cell viability can be attributed to apoptosis in VSMCs, and this apoptosis-inducing activity was associated with the ceramide-p47phox-ROS signaling cascade.

  1. Andrographolide, a Novel NF- κ B Inhibitor, Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis via a Ceramide-p47phox-ROS Signaling Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lee, Lin-Wen; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is linked with the development of many cardiovascular complications. Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis. Accordingly, the apoptosis of VSMCs, which occurs in the progression of vascular proliferation, may provide a beneficial strategy for managing cardiovascular diseases. Andrographolide, a novel nuclear factor- κ B inhibitor, is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Recent studies have indicated that andrographolide is a potential therapeutic agent for treating cancer through the induction of apoptosis. In this study, the apoptosis-inducing activity and mechanisms in andrographolide-treated rat VSMCs were characterized. Andrographolide significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, p53 activation, Bax, and active caspase-3 expression, and these phenomena were suppressed by pretreating the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS scavenger, or diphenylene iodonium, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) inhibitor. Furthermore, p47phox, a Nox subunit protein, was phosphorylated in andrographolide-treated rat VSMCs. However, pretreatment with 3-O-methyl-sphingomyelin, a neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor, significantly inhibited andrographolide-induced p47phox phosphorylation as well as Bax and active caspase-3 expression. Our results collectively demonstrate that andrographolide-reduced cell viability can be attributed to apoptosis in VSMCs, and this apoptosis-inducing activity was associated with the ceramide-p47phox-ROS signaling cascade.

  2. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) regulates mesenchymal stem cells through let-7f microRNA and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Virginia; Zahler, Stefan; Rieth, Nicole; Neth, Peter; Popp, Tanja; Kehe, Kai; Jochum, Marianne; Ries, Christian

    2012-02-07

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) is a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-independent regulator of growth and apoptosis in various cell types. The receptors and signaling pathways that are involved in the growth factor activities of TIMP-1, however, remain controversial. RNA interference of TIMP-1 has revealed that endogenous TIMP-1 suppresses the proliferation, metabolic activity, and osteogenic differentiation capacity of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The knockdown of TIMP-1 in hMSCs activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway as indicated by the increased stability and nuclear localization of β-catenin in TIMP-1-deficient hMSCs. Moreover, TIMP-1 knockdown cells exhibited enhanced β-catenin transcriptional activity, determined by Wnt/β-catenin target gene expression analysis and a luciferase-based β-catenin-activated reporter assay. An analysis of a mutant form of TIMP-1 that cannot inhibit MMP indicated that the effect of TIMP-1 on β-catenin signaling is MMP independent. Furthermore, the binding of CD63 to TIMP-1 on the surface of hMSCs is essential for the TIMP-1-mediated effects on Wnt/β-catenin signaling. An array analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) and transfection studies with specific miRNA inhibitors and mimics showed that let-7f miRNA is crucial for the regulation of β-catenin activity and osteogenic differentiation by TIMP-1. Let-7f was up-regulated in TIMP-1-depleted hMSCs and demonstrably reduced axin 2, an antagonist of β-catenin stability. Our results demonstrate that TIMP-1 is a direct regulator of hMSC functions and reveal a regulatory network in which let-7f modulates Wnt/β-catenin activity.

  3. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children' s of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  4. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  5. Delphinidin, a specific inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase, suppresses inflammatory signaling via prevention of NF-κB acetylation in fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Ah-Reum; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, KyungChul; Lee, Mee-Hee; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin; Kim, Sunoh; Yoon, Ho-Geun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Delphinidin is a novel inhibitor of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase. → Delphinidin prevents the hyperacetylation of p65 by inhibiting the HAT activity of p300/CBP. → Delphinidin efficiently suppresses the expression of inflammatory cytokines in MH7A cells via hypoacetylation of NF-κB. → Delphinidin inhibits cytokine release in the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell line. -- Abstract: Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors (HATi) isolated from dietary compounds have been shown to suppress inflammatory signaling, which contributes to rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we identified a novel HATi in Punica granatum L. known as delphinidin (DP). DP did not affect the activity of other epigenetic enzymes (histone deacetylase, histone methyltransferase, or sirtuin1). DP specifically inhibited the HAT activities of p300/CBP. It also inhibited p65 acetylation in MH7A cells, a human rheumatoid arthritis synovial cell line. DP-induced hypoacetylation was accompanied by cytosolic accumulation of p65 and nuclear localization of IKBα. Accordingly, DP treatment inhibited TNFα-stimulated increases in NF-κB function and expression of NF-κB target genes in these cells. Importantly, DP suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Jurkat T lymphocytes, demonstrating that HATi efficiently suppresses cytokine-mediated immune responses. Together, these results show that the HATi activity of DP counters anti-inflammatory signaling by blocking p65 acetylation and that this compound may be useful in preventing inflammatory arthritis.

  6. Delphinidin, a specific inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase, suppresses inflammatory signaling via prevention of NF-{kappa}B acetylation in fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Ah-Reum; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, KyungChul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mee-Hee [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoo-Hyun [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, The University of Suwon, Kyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeongmin [Department of Medical Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Kyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Woojin [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunoh, E-mail: sunoh@korea.ac.kr [Jeollanamdo Institute of Natural Resources Research, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho-Geun, E-mail: yhgeun@yuhs.ac [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Delphinidin is a novel inhibitor of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase. {yields} Delphinidin prevents the hyperacetylation of p65 by inhibiting the HAT activity of p300/CBP. {yields} Delphinidin efficiently suppresses the expression of inflammatory cytokines in MH7A cells via hypoacetylation of NF-{kappa}B. {yields} Delphinidin inhibits cytokine release in the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell line. -- Abstract: Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors (HATi) isolated from dietary compounds have been shown to suppress inflammatory signaling, which contributes to rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we identified a novel HATi in Punica granatum L. known as delphinidin (DP). DP did not affect the activity of other epigenetic enzymes (histone deacetylase, histone methyltransferase, or sirtuin1). DP specifically inhibited the HAT activities of p300/CBP. It also inhibited p65 acetylation in MH7A cells, a human rheumatoid arthritis synovial cell line. DP-induced hypoacetylation was accompanied by cytosolic accumulation of p65 and nuclear localization of IKB{alpha}. Accordingly, DP treatment inhibited TNF{alpha}-stimulated increases in NF-{kappa}B function and expression of NF-{kappa}B target genes in these cells. Importantly, DP suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Jurkat T lymphocytes, demonstrating that HATi efficiently suppresses cytokine-mediated immune responses. Together, these results show that the HATi activity of DP counters anti-inflammatory signaling by blocking p65 acetylation and that this compound may be useful in preventing inflammatory arthritis.

  7. Distribution of BMP6 in the alveolar bone during mouse mandibular molar eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oralová, Veronika; Chlastáková, Ivana; Radlanski, Ralf Johannes; Matalová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Eruption requires synchrony of the tooth with the surrounding tissues, particularly the bone. One important step during eruption is remodelling of the alveolar bone at the base of the tooth and along the roots. Expression of BMP6 was reported to be increased in the basal half of the dental follicle prior to eruption and inhibition of BMP6 affected bone formation at the base of the alveolar crypt. The aim of this study was to further investigate BMP6 protein in relation to tooth eruption and the corresponding bone remodelling using temporospatial correlations of BMP6 localization with morphogenetic events (proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and bone apposition/resorption), other BMPs (BMP2 and BMP7) and three-dimensional images of tooth-bone development. BMP6 expression pattern was mapped in the mandibular molar teeth and related structures around eruption. Localization of BMP6 dominated in osteoblasts, in regions of bone formation within the alveolar crypt. These findings positively correlated with proliferation at the tooth base region, osteocalcin expression in the osteoblasts/osteocytes and BMP2 and BMP7 presence in the alveolar bone surrounding the tooth. Osteoclast activity and apoptotic elimination in the root region gradually decreased before eruption and totally ceased at eruption stages. Generally, BMP6 positively correlated with BMP2, BMP7 and osteocalcin-positive osteoblasts, and areas of bone remodelling. Moreover, BMP6 was found in the periodontium and cementoblasts. BMP6 expression in the alveolar bone accompanied tooth eruption. Notably, the expression pattern of BMP6 in the bone did not differ around individual molar teeth at the same stage of development. The expression of BMP6 in periodontal ligaments may contribute to interaction between the tooth and bone during the eruption and anchoring process.

  8. Targeting nitric oxide signaling with nNOS inhibitors as a novel strategy for the therapy and prevention of human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Misner, Bobbye; Ji, Haitao; Poulos, Thomas L; Silverman, Richard B; Meyskens, Frank L; Yang, Sun

    2013-08-10

    Our previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in increasing the invasion and proliferation of human melanoma cells, suggesting that targeting NO signaling may facilitate therapy and prevention. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is present in melanocytes, a cell type that originates from the neural crest. The aims of this study were to determine the role of nNOS in melanoma progression and the potential antitumor effects of novel synthesized nNOS inhibitors. In vitro studies demonstrated abundant expression of nNOS in melanoma compared to melanocytes, which was inducible by ultraviolet radiation and was associated with increased NO generation. nNOS was also detected in melanoma biopsies that increased with disease stage. Knockdown of nNOS in melanoma cells diminished L-arginine-induced NO production; the metastatic capacity was also reduced as well as the levels of MMP-1, Bcl-2, JunD, and APE/Ref-1. Similar inhibition of NO and invasion potential was observed utilizing novel, highly selective nNOS inhibitors. In three-dimensional human skin reconstructs, the nNOS inhibitor cpd8 effectively reversed the melanoma overgrowth stimulated by NO stress. Our work lays the foundation for development of clinical "drug-like" nNOS inhibitors as a new and promising strategy for the chemoprevention of early melanoma progression and the inhibition of secondary melanoma in high-risk individuals. Based on our observations, we propose that nNOS in melanoma results in constitutive overproduction of NO, which stimulates proliferation and increases invasion potential, leading to subsequent development of metastases.

  9. Rac1 promotes chondrogenesis by regulating STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoin; Sonn, Jong Kyung

    2016-09-01

    The small GTPase protein Rac1 is involved in a wide range of biological processes including cell differentiation. Previously, Rac1 was shown to promote chondrogenesis in micromass cultures of limb mesenchyme. However, the pathways mediating Rac1's role in chondrogenesis are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms by which Rac1 regulates chondrogenic differentiation. Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was increased as chondrogenesis proceeded in micromass cultures of chick wing bud mesenchyme. Inhibition of Rac1 with NSC23766, janus kinase 2 (JAK2) with AG490, or STAT3 with stattic inhibited chondrogenesis and reduced phosphorylation of STAT3. Conversely, overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 (Rac L61) increased phosphorylation of STAT3. Rac L61 expression resulted in increased expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), and treatment with IL-6 increased phosphorylation of STAT3. NSC23766, AG490, and stattic prohibited cell aggregation, whereas expression of Rac L61 increased cell aggregation, which was reduced by stattic treatment. Our studies indicate that Rac1 induces STAT3 activation through expression and action of IL-6. Overexpression of Rac L61 increased expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4). BMP4 promoted chondrogenesis, which was inhibited by K02288, an activin receptor-like kinase-2 inhibitor, and increased phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. Overexpression of Rac L61 also increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was reduced by K02288. These results suggest that Rac1 activates STAT3 by expression of IL-6, which in turn increases expression and activity of BMP4, leading to the promotion of chondrogenesis. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  10. Possible Involvement of Smad Signaling Pathways in Induction of Odontoblastic Properties in KN-3 Cells by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2: A Growth Factor to Induce Dentin Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Washio, Ayako; Kitamura, Chiaki; Morotomi, Takahiko; Terashita, Masamichi; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on growth, differentiation, and intracellular signaling pathways of odontoblast-like cells, KN-3 cells, to clarify molecular mechanisms of odontoblast differentiation during pulp regeneration process. After treatment with BMP-2, the cell morphology, growth, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the activation and expression of BMP-induced intracellular signaling molecules, such as Smad1/5/8 and Smad6/7, as well as activities o...

  11. SphK1 inhibitor SKI II inhibits the proliferation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells via the Wnt5A/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zhang, Cai-Xia; Ma, Yan; He, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jia-Ping; Shao, Rong-Guang

    2016-04-15

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) promotes cell growth, proliferation and survival. Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), which converts sphingosine to S1P, is a key promoter in cancer. We previously found that the SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI II), suppresses the cell growth and induces apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. However, the precise regulatory mechanism and signaling pathway on SKI II inhibiting tumor growth remains unknown. The expressions of β-catenin and related molecules of Wnt/β-catenin signal were detected by western blot in HepG2 cells. And the mRNA expression of β-catenin was detected by RT-PCR. The Wnt5A gene was silenced by siRNA. The colony formation was determined by staining with crystal violet. And the cell growth was examined by SRB assay and BrdU assay. We found that SKI II decreased the expression of β-catenin and the downstream molecules of β-catenin signal pathway and promotes the β-catenin degradation. In addition, SKI II induced the expression of Wnt5A, and then triggered β-catenin degradation. Furthermore, silencing Wnt5A decreased the anti-tumor effects of SKI II through recovering the expressions of β-catenin and downstream molecules of β-catenin signal pathway. SKI II-induced downregulation of HepG2 cell proliferation was associated with Wnt signaling pathway through Wnt5A-mediated β-catenin degradation. Our study revealed that a novel signal pathway was involved in SKI II-inhibited cell proliferation in human hepatoma cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression and functional study of extracellular BMP antagonists during the morphogenesis of the digits and their associated connective tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos I Lorda-Diez

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the role of BMP signaling in the diversification of the embryonic limb mesodermal progenitors destined to form cartilage, joints, and tendons. Given the importance of extracellular BMP modulators in in vivo systems, we performed a systematic search of those expressed in the developing autopod during the formation of the digits. Here, we monitored the expression of extracellular BMP modulators including: Noggin, Chordin, Chordin-like 1, Chordin-like 2, Twisted gastrulation, Dan, BMPER, Sost, Sostdc1, Follistatin, Follistatin-like 1, Follistatin-like 5 and Tolloid. These factors show differential expression domains in cartilage, joints and tendons. Furthermore, they are induced in specific temporal patterns during the formation of an ectopic extra digit, preceding the appearance of changes that are identifiable by conventional histology. The analysis of gene regulation, cell proliferation and cell death that are induced by these factors in high density cultures of digit progenitors provides evidence of functional specialization in the control of mesodermal differentiation but not in cell proliferation or apoptosis. We further show that the expression of these factors is differentially controlled by the distinct signaling pathways acting in the developing limb at the stages covered by this study. In addition, our results provide evidence suggesting that TWISTED GASTRULATION cooperates with CHORDINS, BMPER, and NOGGIN in the establishment of tendons or cartilage in a fashion that is dependent on the presence or absence of TOLLOID.

  13. Inhibitory Smads and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) modulate anterior photoreceptor cell number during planarian eye regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sastre, Alejandro; Molina, Ma Dolores; Saló, Emili

    2012-01-01

    Planarians represent an excellent model to study the processes of body axis and organ re-specification during regeneration. Previous studies have revealed a conserved role for the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway and its intracellular mediators Smad1/5/8 and Smad4 in planarian dorsoventral (DV) axis re-establishment. In an attempt to gain further insight into the role of this signalling pathway in planarians, we have isolated and functionally characte-rized the inhibitory Smads (I-Smads) in Schmidtea mediterranea. Two I-Smad homologues have been identified: Smed-smad6/7-1 and Smed-smad6/7-2. Expression of smad6/7-1 was detected in the parenchyma, while smad6/7-2 was found to be ex-pressed in the central nervous system and the eyes. Neither single smad6/7-1 and smad6/7-2 nor double smad6/7-1,-2 silencing gave rise to any apparent disruption of the DV axis. However, both regenerating and intact smad6/7-2 (RNAi) planarians showed defects in eye morphogenesis and displayed small, rounded eyes that lacked the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells. The number of pigment cells was also reduced in these animals at later stages of regeneration. In contrast, after low doses of Smed-bmp(RNAi), planarians regenerated larger eyes in which the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells was expanded. Our results suggest that Smed-smad6/7-2 and Smed-bmp control the re-specification and maintenance of anterior photoreceptor cell number in S. mediterranea.

  14. [Stimulation of primary osteoblast cultures with rh-TGF-beta, rh-bFGF, rh-BMP 2 and rx-BMP 4 in an in vitro model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, S; Kastler, S; Mayr-Wohlfart, U; Puhl, W; Günther, K P

    2000-02-01

    Bone metabolism is influenced by systemic and local acting hormons. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as representatives of the latter substances are known to have the ability for ectopic bone formation. Within this study, we investigated the influence of different growth factors on the proliferation- and differentiation rate of osteoblast-like cells. For that purpose, human osteoblast-like cells (HPOC) were incubated in the presence of either recombinant BMP-4 of the genome of xenopus laevis (rxBMP-4), recombinant human BMP 2 (rhBMP-2), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) or basic fibroblast growth factor (rh-bFGF) in two different concentrations each (10 ng/ml and 50 ng/ml). Cell proliferation was measured within a MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromid] assay, the amount of cell differentiation by the activity of alcaline phosphatase. Rx-BMP-4 induced a differentiation of HPOC to almost the same extent as rhBMP-2, whereas the addition of rh-bFGF, applied at the same concentration, failed to have any influence on cell differentiation. However, rh-bFGF provoked an increase in cell proliferation when compared with unstimulated HPOC, while rhBMP-2 and rxBMP-4 showed no effect on proliferation. TGF-beta influenced bone proliferation as well as differentiation significantly. The equipotent effect of recombinant human BMP-2 and recombinant BMP-4 obtained from Xenopus laevis with regard to differentiation and proliferation of human primary osteoblast-like cells originates either in the fact that target cells have receptors for BMP 2 as well as BMP 4, or that both BMP's link to the same receptor with almost the same affinity.

  15. Characterization of AKT independent effects of the synthetic AKT inhibitors SH-5 and SH-6 using an integrated approach combining transcriptomic profiling and signaling pathway perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer Reinhold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transduction processes mediated by phosphatidyl inositol phosphates affect a broad range of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, migration and cell survival. The protein kinase AKT is one of the major effectors in this signaling network. Chronic AKT activation contributes to oncogenic transformation and tumor development. Therefore, analogs of phosphatidyl inositol phosphates (PIAs were designed as new small drugs to block AKT activity for cancer treatment. Here we characterize the biological effects of the PIAs SH-5 and SH-6 in colorectal cancer cell lines. Methods Serum-starved or serum-supplemented human colorectal cancer cell lines SW480, HT29 and HCT116 were exposed to SH-5 and SH-6. AKT activation was determined by western blotting. Cell viability was assessed using a colorimetric XTT-based assay, apoptosis and cell cycle changes were monitored by FACS analysis. The dynamics of cell morphology alterations was evaluated by confocal and time-lapse microscopy. Transcriptional changes due to inhibitor treatment were analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarrays and RT-PCR. Results While the PIAs clearly reduce AKT phosphorylation in serum starved cells, we did not observe a significant reduction under serum supplemented conditions, giving us the opportunity to analyze AKT independent effects of these compounds. Both inhibitors induce broadly the same morphological alterations, in particular changes in cell shape and formation of intracellular vesicles. Moreover, we observed the induction of binucleated cells specifically in the SW480 cell line. Gene expression analysis revealed transcriptional alterations, which are mostly cell line specific. In accordance to the phenotype we found a gene group associated with mitosis and spindle organization down regulated in SW480 cells, but not in the other cell lines. A bioinformatics analysis using the Connectivity Map linked the gene expression pattern of the

  16. Characterization of AKT independent effects of the synthetic AKT inhibitors SH-5 and SH-6 using an integrated approach combining transcriptomic profiling and signaling pathway perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krech, Till; Thiede, Margarethe; Hilgenberg, Ellen; Schäfer, Reinhold; Jürchott, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Signal transduction processes mediated by phosphatidyl inositol phosphates affect a broad range of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, migration and cell survival. The protein kinase AKT is one of the major effectors in this signaling network. Chronic AKT activation contributes to oncogenic transformation and tumor development. Therefore, analogs of phosphatidyl inositol phosphates (PIAs) were designed as new small drugs to block AKT activity for cancer treatment. Here we characterize the biological effects of the PIAs SH-5 and SH-6 in colorectal cancer cell lines. Serum-starved or serum-supplemented human colorectal cancer cell lines SW480, HT29 and HCT116 were exposed to SH-5 and SH-6. AKT activation was determined by western blotting. Cell viability was assessed using a colorimetric XTT-based assay, apoptosis and cell cycle changes were monitored by FACS analysis. The dynamics of cell morphology alterations was evaluated by confocal and time-lapse microscopy. Transcriptional changes due to inhibitor treatment were analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarrays and RT-PCR. While the PIAs clearly reduce AKT phosphorylation in serum starved cells, we did not observe a significant reduction under serum supplemented conditions, giving us the opportunity to analyze AKT independent effects of these compounds. Both inhibitors induce broadly the same morphological alterations, in particular changes in cell shape and formation of intracellular vesicles. Moreover, we observed the induction of binucleated cells specifically in the SW480 cell line. Gene expression analysis revealed transcriptional alterations, which are mostly cell line specific. In accordance to the phenotype we found a gene group associated with mitosis and spindle organization down regulated in SW480 cells, but not in the other cell lines. A bioinformatics analysis using the Connectivity Map linked the gene expression pattern of the inhibitor treated SW480 cells to PKC signaling. Using

  17. Best Management Practices (BMP) Monitoring Manual Field Guide: Implementation and Effectiveness for Protection of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Welsch; Roger Ryder; Tim Post

    2006-01-01

    The specific purpose of the BMP protocol is to create an economical, standardized, and repeatable BMP monitoring process that is completely automated, from data gathering through report generation, in order to provide measured data, ease of use, and compatibility with State BMP programs.The protocol was developed to meet the following needs:? Document the use and...

  18. A Survey of Strategies to Modulate the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Pathway: Current and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs constitute the largest subdivision of the TGF-β family of ligands and are unequivocally involved in regulating stem cell behavior. Appropriate regulation of canonical BMP signaling is critical for the development and homeostasis of numerous human organ systems, as aberrations in the BMP pathway or its regulation are increasingly associated with diverse human pathologies. In this review, we provide a wide-perspective on strategies that increase or decrease BMP signaling. We briefly outline the current FDA-approved approaches, highlight emerging next-generation technologies, and postulate prospective avenues for future investigation. We also detail how activating other pathways may indirectly modulate BMP signaling, with a particular emphasis on the relationship between the BMP and Activin/TGF-β pathways.

  19. Growth hormone preferentially induces the rapid, transient expression of SOCS-3, a novel inhibitor of cytokine receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, T E; Hansen, J A; Starr, R

    1998-01-01

    Four members (SOCS-1, SOCS-2, SOCS-3, and CIS) of a family of cytokine-inducible, negative regulators of cytokine receptor signaling have recently been identified. To address whether any of these genes are induced in response to growth hormone (GH), serum-starved 3T3-F442A fibroblasts were incuba...

  20. Mathematical model of dopamine autoreceptors and uptake inhibitors and their influence on tonic and phasic dopamine signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Jakob Kristoffer Kisbye; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) D2-like autoreceptors are an important component of the DA system, but their influence on postsynaptic DA signaling is not well understood. They are, directly or indirectly, involved in drug abuse and in treatment of schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactive disorder: DA...

  1. Activation of Transcription Factor Nrf2 Signalling by the Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor SKI-II Is Mediated by the Formation of Keap1 Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Nicolas; Kizawa, Yasuo; Ueda, Keitaro; Xiong, Yeping; Kimura, Genki; Moses, Audric; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anti-oxidant capacity is crucial defence against environmental or endogenous oxidative stress. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that plays a key defensive role against oxidative and cytotoxic stress and cellular senescence. However, Nrf2 signalling is impaired in several aging-related diseases, such as chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD), cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, novel therapeutics that enhance Nrf2 signalling are an attractive approach to treat these diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Nrf2 was stabilized by SKI-II (2-(p-hydroxyanilino)-4-(p-chlorophenyl) thiazole), which is a known sphingosine kinase inhibitor, in human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS2B, and in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, leading to enhancement of anti-oxidant proteins, such as HO-1, NQO1 and GCLM. The activation of Nrf2 was achieved by the generation of inactive dimerized form of Keap1, a negative regulator of Nrf2 expression, which was independent of sphingosine kinase inhibition. Using mice that were exposed to cigarette smoke, SKI-II induced Nrf2 expression together with HO-1 in their lungs. In addition, SKI-II reduced cigarette smoke mediated oxidative stress, macrophages and neutrophil infiltration and markers of inflammation in mice. Conclusions/Significance SKI-II appears to be a novel activator of Nrf2 signalling via the inactivation of Keap1. PMID:24505412

  2. Bax Inhibitor-1, a conserved cell death suppressor, is a key molecular switch downstream from a variety of biotic and abiotic stress signals in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naohide; Lam, Eric

    2009-07-10

    In Nature plants are constantly challenged by a variety of environmental stresses that could lead to disruptions in cellular homeostasis. Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental cellular process that is often associated with defense responses to pathogens, during development and in response to abiotic stresses in fungi, animals and plants. Although there are many characteristics shared between different types of PCD events, it remains unknown whether a common mechanism drives various types of PCD in eukaryotes. One candidate regulator for such a mechanism is Bax Inhibitor-1 (BI-1), an evolutionary conserved, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein that represents an ancient cell death regulator that potentially regulates PCD in all eukaryotes. Recent findings strongly suggested that BI-1 plays an important role in the conserved ER stress response pathway to modulate cell death induction in response to multiple types of cell death signals. As ER stress signaling pathways has been suggested to play important roles not only in the control of ER homeostasis but also in other biological processes such as the response to pathogens and abiotic stress in plants, BI-1 might function to control the convergence point that modulates the level of the "pro-survival and pro-death" signals under multiple stress conditions.

  3. Inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 signaling pathway clear prion-infected cells from PrPSc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Elin K; Luhr, Katarina M; Ibáñez, Carlos; Kristensson, Krister

    2005-09-14

    Prions represent a unique class of infectious agents in which the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) is converted to an abnormal isoform (PrPSc), which accumulates in the brain and constitutes the major, if not the only, component of the infectious particle. Factors that still remain to be identified may facilitate the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc. In the present study, we first demonstrated that a growth factor of the neurotrophin family, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), stimulates the formation of PrPSc in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-secreting neuronal cell line (GT1-1 cells) infected with the Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) strain of scrapie as determined by Western blot analysis. We then observed that the prion-infected cells can be cleared from PrPSc by treatment with three inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) [1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(o-aminophenylmercapto)butadiene and 2-(2-amino-3-methyoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, as well as alpha-[amino[(4-aminophenyl)thio]methylene]-2-(trifluoromethyl) benzeneacetonitrile, which passes the blood-brain barrier], a component of one of the intracellular signaling pathways activated by BDNF. The MEK1/2 inhibitors were also efficient in clearing PrPSc from prion-infected GT1-1 cells stimulated to accumulate high levels of PrPSc by enhanced serum concentrations in the medium or by the use of a serum-free neuron-specific neurobasal medium. PrPSc did not reappear in the cultures within 5 weeks after completion of treatment. We conclude that inhibitors of the MEK1/2 pathway can efficiently and probably irreversibly clear PrP(Sc) from prion-infected cells. The MEK pathway may therefore be a suitable target for therapeutic intervention in prion diseases.

  4. Human babesiosis: Indication of a molecular mimicry between thrombospondin domains from a novel Babesia microti BmP53 protein and host platelets molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelmoniem Mousa

    Full Text Available Human babesiosis is caused by the apicomplexan parasite Babesia microti, which is of major public health concern in the United States and elsewhere, resulting in malaise and fatigue, followed by a fever and hemolytic anemia. In this paper we focus on the characterization of a novel B. microti thrombospondin domain (TSP1-containing protein (BmP53 from the new annotation of the B. microti genome (locus 'BmR1_04g09041'. This novel protein (BmP53 had a single TSP1 and a transmembrane domain, with a short cytoplasmic tail containing a sub-terminal glutamine residue, but no signal peptide and Von Willebrand factor type A domains (VWA, which are found in classical thrombospondin-related adhesive proteins (TRAP. Co-localization assays of BmP53 and Babesia microti secreted antigen 1 (BmSA1 suggested that BmP53 might be a non-secretory membranous protein. Molecular mimicry between the TSP1 domain from BmP53 and host platelets molecules was indicated through different measures of sequence homology, phylogenetic analysis, 3D structure and shared epitopes. Indeed, hamster isolated platelets cross-reacted with mouse anti-BmP53-TSP1. Molecular mimicry are used to help parasites to escape immune defenses, resulting in immune evasion or autoimmunity. Furthermore, specific host reactivity was also detected against the TSP1-free part of BmP53 in infected hamster sera. In conclusion, the TSP1 domain mimicry might help in studying the mechanisms of parasite-induced thrombocytopenia, with the TSP1-free truncate of the protein representing a potential safe candidate for future vaccine studies.

  5. Measles Virus Nucleocapsid (MJVNP) Gene Expression and RANK Receptor Signaling in Osteoclast Precursors. Osteoclast Inhibitors Peptide Therapy for Pagets Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-31

    appeared in the IFN-γ receptor (-/-) mice than in wild type mice. IFN-γ failed to suppress osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow cell cultures derived...bone disease after osteoporosis and affects approximately 2-3 million people in the United States. We shown that bone marrow cells from patients...development in Paget’s disease. OIP-1 blocks these signaling events and inhibits MVNP induced osteoclastogenesis and elevated bone resorption activity in

  6. Activation of HER family signaling as a mechanism of acquired resistance to ALK inhibitors in EML4-ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Junko; Okamoto, Isamu; Okabe, Takafumi; Sakai, Kazuko; Tanaka, Kaoru; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Kaneda, Hiroyasu; Takezawa, Ken; Kuwata, Kiyoko; Yamaguchi, Haruka; Hatashita, Erina; Nishio, Kazuto; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-11-15

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as crizotinib show marked efficacy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer positive for the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK fusion protein. However, acquired resistance to these agents has already been described in treated patients, and the mechanisms of such resistance remain largely unknown. We established lines of EML4-ALK-positive H3122 lung cancer cells that are resistant to the ALK inhibitor TAE684 (H3122/TR cells) and investigated their resistance mechanism with the use of immunoblot analysis, ELISA, reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis, and an annexin V binding assay. We isolated EML4-ALK-positive lung cancer cells (K-3) from a patient who developed resistance to crizotinib and investigated their characteristics. The expression of EML4-ALK was reduced at the transcriptional level, whereas phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2, and HER3 was upregulated, in H3122/TR cells compared with those in H3122 cells. This activation of HER family proteins was accompanied by increased secretion of EGF. Treatment with an EGFR-TKI induced apoptosis in H3122/TR cells, but not in H3122 cells. The TAE684-induced inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and STAT3 phosphorylation observed in parental cells was prevented by exposure of these cells to exogenous EGF, resulting in a reduced sensitivity of cell growth to TAE684. K-3 cells also manifested HER family activation accompanied by increased EGF secretion. EGF-mediated activation of HER family signaling is associated with ALK-TKI resistance in lung cancer positive for EML4-ALK. ©2012 AACR.

  7. 4-(1-Ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide – A new pleiotropic HDAC inhibitor targeting cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal organisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahal, Katharina, E-mail: katharina.mahal@uni-bayreuth.de [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Kahlen, Philip, E-mail: philip.kahlen@uni-bayreuth.de [Department of Genetics, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Biersack, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.biersack@yahoo.com [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Schobert, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.schobert@uni-bayreuth.de [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) which play a crucial role in cancer cell proliferation are promising drug targets. However, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) modelled on natural hydroxamic acids such as trichostatin A frequently lead to resistance or even an increased agressiveness of tumours. As a workaround we developed 4-(1-ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide (etacrox), a hydroxamic acid that combines HDAC inhibition with synergistic effects of the 4,5-diarylimidazole residue. Etacrox proved highly cytotoxic against a panel of metastatic and resistant cancer cell lines while showing greater specificity for cancer over non-malignant cells when compared to the approved HDACi vorinostat. Like the latter, etacrox and the closely related imidazoles bimacroxam and animacroxam acted as pan-HDACi yet showed some specificity for HDAC6. Akt signalling and interference with nuclear beta-catenin localisation were elicited by etacrox at lower concentrations when compared to vorinostat. Moreover, etacrox disrupted the microtubule and focal adhesion dynamics of cancer cells and inhibited the proteolytic activity of prometastatic and proangiogenic matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, etacrox acted strongly antimigratory and antiinvasive against various cancer cell lines in three-dimensional transwell invasion assays and also antiangiogenic in vivo with respect to blood vessel formation in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. These pleiotropic effects and its water-solubility and tolerance by mice render etacrox a promising new HDACi candidate. - Graphical abstract: A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with pleiotropic anticancer effects. - Highlights: • Etacrox is a new HDACi with cytotoxic, antiangiogenic and antiinvasive activity. • Etacrox causes aberrant cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal reorganisation. • Pro-metastatic and angiogenic matrix metalloproteinases are inhibited by etacrox. • Etacrox impairs blood vessel maturation in vivo and cancer cell

  8. 4-(1-Ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide – A new pleiotropic HDAC inhibitor targeting cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahal, Katharina; Kahlen, Philip; Biersack, Bernhard; Schobert, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) which play a crucial role in cancer cell proliferation are promising drug targets. However, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) modelled on natural hydroxamic acids such as trichostatin A frequently lead to resistance or even an increased agressiveness of tumours. As a workaround we developed 4-(1-ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide (etacrox), a hydroxamic acid that combines HDAC inhibition with synergistic effects of the 4,5-diarylimidazole residue. Etacrox proved highly cytotoxic against a panel of metastatic and resistant cancer cell lines while showing greater specificity for cancer over non-malignant cells when compared to the approved HDACi vorinostat. Like the latter, etacrox and the closely related imidazoles bimacroxam and animacroxam acted as pan-HDACi yet showed some specificity for HDAC6. Akt signalling and interference with nuclear beta-catenin localisation were elicited by etacrox at lower concentrations when compared to vorinostat. Moreover, etacrox disrupted the microtubule and focal adhesion dynamics of cancer cells and inhibited the proteolytic activity of prometastatic and proangiogenic matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, etacrox acted strongly antimigratory and antiinvasive against various cancer cell lines in three-dimensional transwell invasion assays and also antiangiogenic in vivo with respect to blood vessel formation in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. These pleiotropic effects and its water-solubility and tolerance by mice render etacrox a promising new HDACi candidate. - Graphical abstract: A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with pleiotropic anticancer effects. - Highlights: • Etacrox is a new HDACi with cytotoxic, antiangiogenic and antiinvasive activity. • Etacrox causes aberrant cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal reorganisation. • Pro-metastatic and angiogenic matrix metalloproteinases are inhibited by etacrox. • Etacrox impairs blood vessel maturation in vivo and cancer cell

  9. Inhibition of canonical WNT signaling pathway by β-catenin/CBP inhibitor ICG-001 ameliorates liver fibrosis in vivo through suppression of stromal CXCL12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcora, Büsra Öztürk; Storm, Gert; Bansal, Ruchi

    2018-03-01

    Quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), in response to liver injury, undergo characteristic morphological transformation into proliferative, contractile and ECM-producing myofibroblasts. In this study, we investigated the implication of canonical Wnt signaling pathway in HSCs and liver fibrogenesis. Canonical Wnt signaling pathway activation and inhibition using β-catenin/CBP inhibitor ICG001 was examined in-vitro in TGFβ-activated 3T3, LX2, primary human HSCs, and in-vivo in CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury mouse model. Fibroblasts-conditioned medium studies were performed to assess the Wnt-regulated paracrine factors involved in crosstalk between HSCs-macrophages and HSCs-endothelial cells. Canonical Wnt signaling pathway components were significantly up-regulated in-vitro and in-vivo. In-vitro, ICG-001 significantly inhibited fibrotic parameters, 3D-collagen contractility and wound healing. Conditioned medium induced fibroblasts-mediated macrophage and endothelial cells activation was significantly inhibited by ICG-001. In-vivo, ICG-001 significantly attenuated collagen accumulation and HSC activation. Interestingly, ICG-001 drastically inhibited macrophage infiltration, intrahepatic inflammation and angiogenesis. We further analyzed the paracrine factors involved in Wnt-mediated effects and found CXCL12 was significantly suppressed both in-vitro and in-vivo following Wnt inhibition. Wnt-regulated CXCL12 secretion from activated HSCs potentiated macrophage infiltration and activation, and angiogenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling pathway via suppression of stromal CXCL12 suggests a potential therapeutic approach targeting activated HSCs in liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium phosphate implants coatings as carriers for BMP-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; He, J.F.; Hunziker, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    The osteoconductivity of dental implants can be improved by coating them with a layer of calcium phosphate (CaP), which can be rendered osteoinductive by functionalizing it with an osteogenic agent, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). In the present study, we wished to compare the

  11. Study of BMP-15 gene polymorphism in Iranian goats | Deldar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15) and the Growth Differentiation Factor-9 (GDF-9) genes have increased ovulation rate and infertility in a dosage-sensitive manner in sheep. To test the polymorphisms of genes in goat, which have been demonstrated as major genes of fecundity in sheep, ...

  12. 40 CFR 440.148 - Best Management Practices (BMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the greatest extent applicable in each such mining operation. (a) Surface water diversion: The flow of... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Best Management Practices (BMP). 440... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.148...

  13. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (BMP3) Gene Variation in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (BMP3) genes in some selected livestock animals was assessed using sequences downloaded from the GenBank (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/). The analysis was carried out in 36 pair-wise comparisons where averages of 1277.780 sites were analyzed. Analysis at ...

  14. Osseointegration: the slow delivery of BMP-2 enhances osteoinductivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunziker, E.B.; Enggist, L.; Küffer, A.; Buser, D.; Liu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Although the placement of dental and orthopedic implants is now generally a safe, reliable and successful undertaking, the functional outcome is less assured in patients whose bone-healing capacity is compromised. To enhance peri-implant osteogenesis in these individuals, BMP-2 could be locally

  15. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (BMP3) Gene Variation in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR BRILLIANT

    Abstract. Variation in Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (BMP3) genes in some selected livestock animals was assessed using sequences downloaded from the GenBank. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/). The analysis was carried out in 36 pair-wise comparisons where averages of 1277.780 sites were analyzed.

  16. Targeting the transforming growth factor-β signaling during pre-implantation development in embryos of cattle, sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, Mehdi; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Ostadhosseini, Somayyeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Recently, application of chemical inhibitors against differentiation signaling pathways has improved establishment of mESCs. In this study, we applied inhibitors of TGF-β (SB431542) and BMP4 (Noggin) from cleavage to blastocyst stage in cattle, goat and sheep embryos. SB significantly decreases blastocyst rate and total cell number (TCN) in sheep blastocysts, whereas only TCN was significantly decreased in cattle blastocysts. In contrast to SB, Noggin significantly improved cattle blastocyst development but decreased TCN. However, Noggin treatment led to a significant increase in TCN in sheep blastocysts. Regarding pluripotency triad (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2) and cell lineage commitment (REX1, CDX2, GATA4), SB led to a significant reduction in SOX2 expression in goat and cattle, while Noggin increased at least one or two of pluripotent markers in these species. Taken together, this data suggests that inhibition of TGF-β by Noggin may be more favorable for derivation of stem cells in farm animals.

  17. Is transforming growth factor-β signaling activated in human hypertrophied prostate treated by 5-alpha reductase inhibitor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Zhao, Chen; Choi, Bo Ram; Chae, Han Jung; Kim, Do Sung; Park, Jong Kwan

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that androgen deprivation relates to penile fibrosis, so we hypothesize that long-term treatment with 5-alphareductase inhibitors (5ARIs) may increase the risk of fibrosis of prostate. Thirty-two BPH patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups: group one, 16 patients underwent TURP who had been treated with tamsulosin for 2 years; group two, 16 patients underwent TURP who had been treated with combination of tamsulosin and dutasteride for at least 1 year. We evaluated the expressions of nNOS, iNOS, eNOS, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, phosphorylated-Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3), E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin in the resected prostate tissues by western blotting, and the TGF-β concentration was determined by ELISA kit. The expressions of 3 isoforms of NOS were significantly increased in group 2 except of eNOS in lateral prostate, and the expressions of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and p-Smad2/3 increased about 2-fold compared with group 1. In group 2, the E-cadherin expression decreased while N-cadherin expression increased significantly. The overexpression of nNOS may contribute to prostate smooth muscle relaxation; however, long-time treatment with 5 ARI increases the risk of fibrosis of prostate.

  18. The effector AWR5 from the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of the TOR signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Crina; Li, Liang; Gil, Sergio; Tatjer, Laura; Hashii, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Coll, Núria S; Ariño, Joaquín; Valls, Marc

    2016-06-03

    Bacterial pathogens possess complex type III effector (T3E) repertoires that are translocated inside the host cells to cause disease. However, only a minor proportion of these effectors have been assigned a function. Here, we show that the T3E AWR5 from the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of TOR, a central regulator in eukaryotes that controls the switch between cell growth and stress responses in response to nutrient availability. Heterologous expression of AWR5 in yeast caused growth inhibition and autophagy induction coupled to massive transcriptomic changes, unmistakably reminiscent of TOR inhibition by rapamycin or nitrogen starvation. Detailed genetic analysis of these phenotypes in yeast, including suppression of AWR5-induced toxicity by mutation of CDC55 and TPD3, encoding regulatory subunits of the PP2A phosphatase, indicated that AWR5 might exert its function by directly or indirectly inhibiting the TOR pathway upstream PP2A. We present evidence in planta that this T3E caused a decrease in TOR-regulated plant nitrate reductase activity and also that normal levels of TOR and the Cdc55 homologues in plants are required for R. solanacearum virulence. Our results suggest that the TOR pathway is a bona fide T3E target and further prove that yeast is a useful platform for T3E function characterisation.

  19. Development of a high-content high-throughput screening assay for the discovery of ATM signaling inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelle, Catherine; Boros, Joanna

    2012-08-01

    The genome is constantly exposed to DNA damage agents, leading up to as many as 1 million individual lesions per cell per day. Cells have developed a variety of DNA damage repair (DDR) mechanisms to respond to harmful effects of DNA damage. Failure to repair the damaged DNA causes genomic instability and, as a result, leads to cellular transformation. Indeed, deficiencies of DDR frequently occur in human cancers, thus providing a great opportunity for cancer therapy by developing anticancer agents that work by synthetic lethality-based mechanisms or enhancing the clinical efficacy of radiotherapy and existing chemotherapies. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a key role in regulating the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. Ionizing radiation causes double-strand breaks and induces rapid ATM autophosphorylation on serine 1981 that initiates ATM kinase activity. Activation of ATM results in phosphorylation of many downstream targets that modulate numerous damage-response pathways, most notably cell-cycle checkpoints. We describe here the development and validation of a high-throughput imaging assay measuring levels of phospho-ATM Ser1981 in HT29 cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. We also examined activation of downstream ATM effectors and checked specificity of the endpoint using known inhibitors of DNA repair pathways.

  20. BMP analysis system for watershed-based stormwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Jenny; Shoemaker, Leslie; Riverson, John; Alvi, Khalid; Cheng, Mow-Soung

    2006-01-01

    Best Management Practices (BMPs) are measures for mitigating nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused mainly by stormwater runoff. Established urban and newly developing areas must develop cost effective means for restoring or minimizing impacts, and planning future growth. Prince George's County in Maryland, USA, a fast-growing region in the Washington, DC metropolitan area, has developed a number of tools to support analysis and decision making for stormwater management planning and design at the watershed level. These tools support watershed analysis, innovative BMPs, and optimization. Application of these tools can help achieve environmental goals and lead to significant cost savings. This project includes software development that utilizes GIS information and technology, integrates BMP processes simulation models, and applies system optimization techniques for BMP planning and selection. The system employs the ESRI ArcGIS as the platform, and provides GIS-based visualization and support for developing networks including sequences of land uses, BMPs, and stream reaches. The system also provides interfaces for BMP placement, BMP attribute data input, and decision optimization management. The system includes a stand-alone BMP simulation and evaluation module, which complements both research and regulatory nonpoint source control assessment efforts, and allows flexibility in the examining various BMP design alternatives. Process based simulation of BMPs provides a technique that is sensitive to local climate and rainfall patterns. The system incorporates a meta-heuristic optimization technique to find the most cost-effective BMP placement and implementation plan given a control target, or a fixed cost. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the Prince George's County system. The case study involves a highly urbanized area in the Anacostia River (a tributary to Potomac River) watershed southeast of Washington, DC. An innovative system of

  1. Biological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübler Alexander C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of the binding epitopes of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 lead to a modified interaction with the ectodomains of BMP receptors. In the present study the biological effect of a BMP-2 double mutant with antagonistic activity was evaluated in vivo. Methods Equine-derived collagenous carriers were loaded with recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2 in a well-known dose to provide an osteoinductive stimulus. The study was performed in a split animal design: carriers only coupled with rhBMP-2 (control were implanted into prepared cavities of lower limb muscle of rats, specimens coupled with rhBMP-2 as well as BMP-2 double mutant were placed into the opposite limb in the same way. After 28 days the carriers were explanted, measured radiographically and characterized histologically. Results As expected, the BMP-2 loaded implants showed a typical heterotopic bone formation. The specimens coupled with both proteins showed a significant decreased bone formation in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The antagonistic effect of a specific BMP-2 double mutant could be demonstrated in vivo. The dose dependent influence on heterotopic bone formation by preventing rhBMP-2 induced osteoinduction suggests a competitive receptor antagonism.

  2. Regulators and effectors of bone morphogenetic protein signalling in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiang-Yun; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Huang, Yu

    2015-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play key roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in various tissues and organs, including the cardiovascular system. BMPs signal through both Smad-dependent and -independent cascades to exert a wide spectrum of biological activities. Cardiovascular disorders such as abnormal angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy have been linked to aberrant BMP signalling. To correct the dysregulated BMP signalling in cardiovascular pathogenesis, it is essential to get a better understanding of how the regulators and effectors of BMP signalling control cardiovascular function and how the dysregulated BMP signalling contributes to cardiovascular dysfunction. We hence highlight several key regulators of BMP signalling such as extracellular regulators of ligands, mechanical forces, microRNAs and small molecule drugs as well as typical BMP effectors like direct downstream target genes, mitogen-activated protein kinases, reactive oxygen species and microRNAs. The insights into these molecular processes will help target both the regulators and important effectors to reverse BMP-associated cardiovascular pathogenesis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  3. TGFβ/BMP inhibits the bone marrow transformation capability of Hoxa9 by repressing its DNA-binding ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Kim, Hyung-Gyoong; Cotta, Claudiu V; Wan, Mei; Tang, Yi; Klug, Christopher A; Cao, Xu

    2006-01-01

    Homeobox (Hox) gene mutations and their altered expressions are frequently linked to human leukemia. Here, we report that transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibits the bone marrow transformation capability of Hoxa9 and Nup98-Hoxa9, the chimeric fusion form of Hoxa9 identified in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), through Smad4, the common Smad (Co-Smad) in the TGFβ/BMP signaling pathway. Smad4 interacts directly with the homeodomain of Hoxa9 and blocks the ability of Nup98-Hoxa9 to bind DNA, thereby suppressing its ability to regulate downstream gene transcription. Mapping data revealed that the amino-terminus of Smad4 mediates this interaction and overexpression of the Hoxa9 interaction domain of Smad4 was sufficient to inhibit the enhanced serial replating ability of primary bone marrow cells induced by Nup98-Hoxa9. These studies establish a novel mechanism by which TGFβ/BMP regulates hematopoiesis and suggest that modification of Hox DNA-binding activity may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for those leukemias that involve deregulation of Hox. PMID:16525506

  4. Is Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Activated in Human Hypertrophied Prostate Treated by 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Kyung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. It is well known that androgen deprivation relates to penile fibrosis, so we hypothesize that long-term treatment with 5-alphareductase inhibitors (5ARIs may increase the risk of fibrosis of prostate. Patients and Methods. Thirty-two BPH patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups: group one, 16 patients underwent TURP who had been treated with tamsulosin for 2 years; group two, 16 patients underwent TURP who had been treated with combination of tamsulosin and dutasteride for at least 1 year. We evaluated the expressions of nNOS, iNOS, eNOS, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, phosphorylated-Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin in the resected prostate tissues by western blotting, and the TGF-β concentration was determined by ELISA kit. Results. The expressions of 3 isoforms of NOS were significantly increased in group 2 except of eNOS in lateral prostate, and the expressions of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and p-Smad2/3 increased about 2-fold compared with group 1. In group 2, the E-cadherin expression decreased while N-cadherin expression increased significantly. Conclusions. The overexpression of nNOS may contribute to prostate smooth muscle relaxation; however, long-time treatment with 5 ARI increases the risk of fibrosis of prostate.

  5. Screening of FGF target genes in Xenopus by microarray: temporal dissection of the signalling pathway using a chemical inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyeyoung A; Hyodo-Miura, Junko; Kitayama, Atsushi; Terasaka, Chie; Nagamune, Teruyuki; Ueno, Naoto

    2004-08-01

    Microarray is a powerful tool for analysing gene expression patterns in genome-wide view and has greatly contributed to our understanding of spatiotemporal embryonic development at the molecular level. Members of FGF (fibroblast growth factor) family play important roles in embryogenesis, e.g. in organogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, cell migration, angiogenesis, and wound healing. To dissect spatiotemporally the versatile roles of FGF during embryogenesis, we profiled gene expression in Xenopus embryo explants treated with SU5402, a chemical inhibitor specific to FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1), by microarray. We identified 38 genes that were down-regulated and 5 that were up-regulated in response to SU5402 treatment from stage 10.5-11.5 and confirmed their FGF-dependent transcription with RT-PCR analysis and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). Among the 43 genes, we identified 26 as encoding novel proteins and investigated their spatial expression pattern by WISH. Genes whose expression patterns were similar to FGFR1 were further analysed to test whether any of them represented functional FGF target molecules. Here, we report two interesting genes: one is a component of the canonical Ras-MAPK pathway, similar to mammalian mig6 (mitogen-inducible gene 6) acting in muscle differentiation; the other, similar to GPCR4 (G-protein coupled receptor 4), is a promising candidate for a gastrulation movement regulator. These results demonstrate that our approach is a promising strategy for scanning the genes that are essential for the regulation of a diverse array of developmental processes.

  6. A furin inhibitor downregulates osteosarcoma cell migration by downregulating the expression levels of MT1-MMP via the Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingshan; Li, Guojun; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Yang

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the exact mechanism of the effect of a furin inhibitor on the migration and invasion of MG-63 and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells. MG-63 and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells were treated with regular culture medium in the presence or absence of 480 nM α1-antitrypsin Portland (α1-PDX). Wound-healing and Transwell assays were used for the detection of the effects of α1-PDX on MG-63 and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect the expression levels of membrane type I matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), Wnt and β-catenin. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used for detection of the levels of MT1-MMP gene transcription activity. The results showed that α1-PDX treatment significantly reduced the migration and invasion ability of the cells. Notably, the expression levels of MT1-MMP decreased evidently upon α1-PDX treatment, paralleled with reductions in the expression levels of Wnt and β-catenin. Further analysis of the transcriptional activity of MT1-MMP revealed that the α1-PDX-induced downregulation of the levels of MT1-MMP was mediated by the Wnt signaling pathway. These data suggest that α1-PDX plays a vital role in inhibiting MG-63 and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion by downregulating the expression levels of MT1-MMP via the Wnt signaling pathway.

  7. [HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG plays an important role in JAK3/STAT5 signaling pathways in HTLV-1 infection cell line HUT-102].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q Q; Tan, H; Fu, Z P; Ma, Q; Song, J L

    2017-08-14

    Objective: To analyze whether heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) be involved in a permanently abnormal activated JAK/STAT signaling in ATL cells in vitro. Methods: The effect of 17-AAG on proliferation of ATL cell lines HUT-102 was assessed using CCK8 at different time points. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. The specific proteins HSP90, STAT5, p-STAT5 and JAK3 were detected by Western blotting. Results: Overexpression of HSP90 in HUT-102 cell lines was disclosed ( P AAG led to reduced cell proliferation, but there was no significant change in terms of cell proliferation when the concentration of 17-AAG between 2 000-8 000 nmol/L ( P >0.05) . 17-AAG induced cell apoptosis in different time-points and concentrations. 17-AAG don't affect the expression of JAK3 gene. Conclusion: This study indicated that JAK3 as HSP90 client protein was aberrantly activated in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, leading to constitutive activation of p-STAT5 in JAK/STAT signal pathway, which demonstrated that HSP90-inhibitors 17-AAG inhibited the growth of HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines by reducing cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis.

  8. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398 attenuates myocardial fibrosis in mice after myocardial infarction via Snail signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Y-C; Shi, C-L; Zhou, M; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hou, S-A

    2017-12-01

    The role of NS-398 in Snail pathway of myocardial cells in mice after myocardial infarction and its effect on myocardial fibrosis were investigated in this study. C57BL/6 mice were selected to establish mouse models of myocardial infarction with permanent ligation of anterior descending branch and sham-operation models without ligation. After successful establishment of models, 30 mice were randomly divided into sham-operation group, myocardial infarction group and drug intervention group. The drug intervention group was treated with intraperitoneal injection of NS-398 (5 mg/kg) at 1 week after modeling for 3 weeks. The survival status of mice after operation was monitored, the cardiac function was detected via echocardiography, the collagen levels in heart tissue pathological sections were detected via Masson staining and Sirius red staining. Moreover, the expressions of Snail and type I collagen levels were detected via immunohistochemistry, and the Snail protein expression level and the activity and expression level of E-cadherin protein were detected via Western blotting. At 4 weeks after establishment of myocardial infarction model, the fibrosis reaction was obvious, and the cardiac function was decreased, accompanied with Snail activation. The administration of NS-398 for 3 weeks inhibited the Snail activity expression and significantly improved the fibrosis degree after infarction. However, it did not improve the cardiac function. Inhibiting Snail improved the fibrosis reaction after infarction, in which Snail/E-cadherin signaling pathway was involved. NS-398 improves the myocardial fibrosis in mice after myocardial infarction through inhibiting the Snail signaling pathway.

  9. Pepper pathogenesis-related protein 4c is a plasma membrane-localized cysteine protease inhibitor that is required for plant cell death and defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector AvrBsT triggers programmed cell death (PCD) and activates the hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Here, we isolated and identified the plasma membrane localized pathogenesis-related (PR) protein 4c gene (CaPR4c) from pepper (Capsicum annuum) leaves undergoing AvrBsT-triggered HR cell death. CaPR4c encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a Barwin domain. Recombinant CaPR4c protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited cysteine protease-inhibitor activity and ribonuclease (RNase) activity. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that CaPR4c localized to the plasma membrane in plant cells. CaPR4c expression was rapidly and specifically induced by avirulent Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient expression of CaPR4c caused HR cell death in pepper leaves, which was accompanied by enhanced accumulation of H2 O2 and significant induction of some defense-response genes. Deletion of the signal peptide from CaPR4c abolished the induction of HR cell death, indicating a requirement for plasma membrane localization of CaPR4c for HR cell death. CaPR4c silencing in pepper disrupted both basal and AvrBsT-triggered resistance responses, and enabled Xcv proliferation in infected leaves. H2 O2 accumulation, cell-death induction, and defense-response gene expression were distinctly reduced in CaPR4c-silenced pepper. CaPR4c overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred greater resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. These results collectively suggest that CaPR4c plays an important role in plant cell death and defense signaling. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor reciprocally regulates the secretion of BMP-2 and the BMP antagonist Noggin in colonic myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, Dinithi; Pacheco, Ivan; Spencer, Craig; MacLeod, R John

    2007-03-01

    To understand whether postprandial extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(o)(2+)) changes were related to intestinal epithelial homeostasis, we performed array analysis on extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR)-expressing colonic myofibroblasts (18Co cells) and observed increases in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 transcripts. The present experiments demonstrated that regulated secretion of BMP-2 occurs in response to CaSR activation of these cells and revealed a new property of BMP-2 on the intestinal barrier. Activation by Ca(o)(2+), spermine, GdCl(3), or neomycin sulfate of 18Co cells or primary isolates of myofibroblasts from the normal human colon stimulated both the synthesis (RT-PCR) and secretion (ELISA) of BMP-2. Transient transfection with short interfering RNA against CaSR completely inhibited BMP-2 secretion. Transient transfection with dominant negative CaSR (R185Q) increased the EC(50) of Ca(o)(2+) (5.7 vs. 2.3 mM). Upregulation of BMP-2 transcript and secretion occurring within 3 h of CaSR activation was prevented by actinomycin D. CaSR-mediated BMP-2 synthesis and secretion required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation (as assessed by phospho-Akt generation). Exogenous BMP-2 and conditioned medium from CaSR-stimulated 18Co cells accelerated restitution in wounded postconfluent Caco-2 cells. Exogenous BMP-2 and conditioned medium from CaSR-stimulated 18Co cells increased the transepithelial resistance of low- and high-resistance T-84 epithelial monolayers. CaSR stimulation of T-84 epithelia and colonic myofibroblasts downregulated the BMP family antagonist Noggin, as assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Together, our data suggest that the CaSR mediates the effective concentration of BMP-2 in the intestine, which leads to enhanced repair and barrier development.

  11. Dual sphingosine kinase inhibitor SKI-II enhances sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in hepatocellular carcinoma cells via suppression of osteopontin and FAK/IGF-1R signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbčić, Petra; Tomljanović, Ivana; Klobučar, Marko; Kraljević Pavelić, Sandra; Lučin, Ksenija; Sedić, Mirela

    2017-06-10

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally. Although 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used as the first choice treatment for advanced HCC, it exerts poor efficacy and is associated with acquired and intrinsic resistance. Sphingosine kinases (Sphk) 1 and 2 play tumour-promoting roles in different cancer types including HCC and thus represent promising pharmacological targets. In the present study, we have investigated for the first time the anticancer efficacy and underlying molecular mechanisms of combined administration of 5-FU and dual Sphk1/Sphk2 inhibitor SKI-II (4-[[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]amino]phenol) in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Here, we report that co-administration of 5-FU and SKI-II at low sub-toxic concentrations of 20 μM and 5 μM, respectively, synergistically inhibit cell proliferation, markedly reduce cell migration and the clonogenic survival, and increase apoptosis induction in HepG2 cells. Additional Western blot analyses have shown that possible mechanisms underlying enhanced sensitivity to 5-FU induced by dual Sphk 1/2 inhibition could include abrogation of FAK-regulated IGF-1R activity and down-regulation of osteopontin expression culminating in the inhibition of NF-κB activity and its downstream signalling mediated by sirtuin 1 and p38 MAPK. Our results clearly show that pharmacological blockade of both Sphk isoforms represents a promising strategy to boost the anti-tumour efficacy of 5-FU and provide a rationale for further in vivo studies into the possible use of SKI-II inhibitor as an adjunct to 5-FU treatment in HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Moraxella catarrhalis Two-Component Signal Transduction System Necessary for Growth in Liquid Media Affects Production of Two Lysozyme Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Stephanie N.; Pybus, Christine; Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Evans, Amanda S.; Attia, Ahmed S.; Brautigam, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    There are a paucity of data concerning gene products that could contribute to the ability of Moraxella catarrhalis to colonize the human nasopharynx. Inactivation of a gene (mesR) encoding a predicted response regulator of a two-component signal transduction system in M. catarrhalis yielded a mutant unable to grow in liquid media. This mesR mutant also exhibited increased sensitivity to certain stressors, including polymyxin B, SDS, and hydrogen peroxide. Inactivation of the gene (mesS) encoding the predicted cognate sensor (histidine) kinase yielded a mutant with the same inability to grow in liquid media as the mesR mutant. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analyses indicated that several genes previously shown to be involved in the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in the chinchilla nasopharynx were upregulated in the mesR mutant. Two other open reading frames upregulated in the mesR mutant were shown to encode small proteins (LipA and LipB) that had amino acid sequence homology to bacterial adhesins and structural homology to bacterial lysozyme inhibitors. Inactivation of both lipA and lipB did not affect the ability of M. catarrhalis O35E to attach to a human bronchial epithelial cell line in vitro. Purified recombinant LipA and LipB fusion proteins were each shown to inhibit human lysozyme activity in vitro and in saliva. A lipA lipB deletion mutant was more sensitive than the wild-type parent strain to killing by human lysozyme in the presence of human apolactoferrin. This is the first report of the production of lysozyme inhibitors by M. catarrhalis. PMID:25312959

  13. [HSP90 Inhibitor 17-AAG Inhibits Multiple Myeloma Cell Proliferation by Down-regulating Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan-Kan; He, Zheng-Mei; Ding, Bang-He; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Li-Juan; Yu, Liang; Gao, Jian

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of HSP90 inhibitory 17-AAG on proliferation of multiple myeloma cells and its main mechanism. The multiple myeloma cells U266 were treated with 17-AAG of different concentrations (200, 400, 600 and 800 nmol/L) for 24, 48, and 72 hours respectively, then the proliferation rate, expression levels of β-catenin and C-MYC protein, as well as cell cycle of U266 cells were treated with 17-AAG and were detected by MTT method, Western blot and flow cytometry, respectively. The 17-AAG showed inhibitory effect on the proliferation of U266 cells in dose- and time-depetent manners (r = -0.518, P AAG displayed no inhibitory effect on proliferation of U266 cells (P > 0.05). The result of culturing U266 cells for 72 hours by 17-AAG of different concentrations showed that the more high of 17-AAG concentration, the more low level of β-catenin and C-MYC proteins (P AAG concentration, the more high of cell ratio in G1 phase (P AAG, the more long time of culture, the more high of cell ratio in G1 phase (P AAG can inhibit the proliferation of multiple myeloma cells, the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inhibition of HSP90 expression may be the main mechnisms of 17-AAG effect.

  14. Bone morphogenetic protein-9 suppresses growth of myeloma cells by signaling through ALK2 but is inhibited by endoglin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O E; Wader, K F; Misund, K

    2014-01-01

    myeloma cell samples by signaling through ALK2. BMP-9-induced apoptosis in myeloma cells was associated with c-MYC downregulation. The effects of BMP-9 were counteracted by membrane-bound (CD105) or soluble endoglin present in the bone marrow microenvironment, suggesting a mechanism for how myeloma cells...

  15. Vitamin C-linker-conjugated tripeptide AHK stimulates BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of mouse myoblast C2C12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jung-Il; Park, Kyeong-Yong; Lee, Yura; Park, Mira; Kim, Jiyeon

    2018-03-15

    Vitamin C-linker-conjugated Ala-His-Lys tripeptide (Vit C-AHK) is a derivative of Vitamin C-conjugated tripeptides, which were originally developed as a component of a product for collagen synthesis enhancement or human dermal fibroblast growth. Here, we investigated the effect of Vit C-AHK on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2-induced osteoblast differentiation in a cell culture model. Vit C-AHK enhanced proliferation of C2C12 cells and induction of BMP-2-induced alkaline phosphatase, a typical marker of osteoblast differentiation. Vit C-AHK also stimulated the phosphorylation and translocation of Smad1/5/8 to the nucleus and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including ERK1/2 and p38. In addition, Vit C-AHK enhanced the BMP-2-induced mRNA expression of osteoblast differentiation-related genes such as ALP, BMP-2, Osteocalcin, and Runx2. Our results suggest that Vit C-AHK exerts an enhancing effect on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through activation of Smad1/5/8 and MAPK ERK1/2 and p38 signaling and without significant cytotoxicity. These results provide important data for the development of peptide-based bone-regenerative agents and treatment of bone-related disorders. Copyright © 2018 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. BMP-2 induces versican and hyaluronan that contribute to post-EMT AV cushion cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inai, Kei; Burnside, Jessica L; Hoffman, Stanley; Toole, Bryan P; Sugi, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    Distal outgrowth and maturation of mesenchymalized endocardial cushions are critical morphogenetic events during post-EMT atrioventricular (AV) valvuloseptal morphogenesis. We explored the role of BMP-2 in the regulation of valvulogenic extracellular matrix (ECM) components, versican and hyaluronan (HA), and cell migration during post-EMT AV cushion distal outgrowth/expansion. We observed intense staining of versican and HA in AV cushion mesenchyme from the early cushion expansion stage, Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage-17 to the cushion maturation stage, HH stage-29 in the chick. Based on this expression pattern we examined the role of BMP-2 in regulating versican and HA using 3D AV cushion mesenchymal cell (CMC) aggregate cultures on hydrated collagen gels. BMP-2 induced versican expression and HA deposition as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2 by CMCs in a dose dependent manner. Noggin, an antagonist of BMP, abolished BMP-2-induced versican and HA as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2. We further examined whether BMP-2-promoted cell migration was associated with expression of versican and HA. BMP-2- promoted cell migration was significantly impaired by treatments with versican siRNA and HA oligomer. In conclusion, we provide evidence that BMP-2 induces expression of versican and HA by AV CMCs and that these ECM components contribute to BMP-2-induced CMC migration, indicating critical roles for BMP-2 in distal outgrowth/expansion of mesenchymalized AV cushions.

  17. BMP-2 induces versican and hyaluronan that contribute to post-EMT AV cushion cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Inai

    Full Text Available Distal outgrowth and maturation of mesenchymalized endocardial cushions are critical morphogenetic events during post-EMT atrioventricular (AV valvuloseptal morphogenesis. We explored the role of BMP-2 in the regulation of valvulogenic extracellular matrix (ECM components, versican and hyaluronan (HA, and cell migration during post-EMT AV cushion distal outgrowth/expansion. We observed intense staining of versican and HA in AV cushion mesenchyme from the early cushion expansion stage, Hamburger and Hamilton (HH stage-17 to the cushion maturation stage, HH stage-29 in the chick. Based on this expression pattern we examined the role of BMP-2 in regulating versican and HA using 3D AV cushion mesenchymal cell (CMC aggregate cultures on hydrated collagen gels. BMP-2 induced versican expression and HA deposition as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2 by CMCs in a dose dependent manner. Noggin, an antagonist of BMP, abolished BMP-2-induced versican and HA as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2. We further examined whether BMP-2-promoted cell migration was associated with expression of versican and HA. BMP-2- promoted cell migration was significantly impaired by treatments with versican siRNA and HA oligomer. In conclusion, we provide evidence that BMP-2 induces expression of versican and HA by AV CMCs and that these ECM components contribute to BMP-2-induced CMC migration, indicating critical roles for BMP-2 in distal outgrowth/expansion of mesenchymalized AV cushions.

  18. BMP-2 promotes oral squamous carcinoma cell invasion by inducing CCL5 release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-joo Kim

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2-containing bone grafts are useful regenerative materials for oral and maxillofacial surgery; however, several in vitro and in vivo studies previously reported cancer progression-related adverse effects caused by BMP-2. In this study, by quantifying the rhBMP-2 content released from bone grafts, the rhBMP-2 concentration that did not show cytotoxicity in each cell line was determined and applied to the in vitro monoculture or coculture model in the invasion assay. Our results showed that 1 ng/ml rhBMP-2, while not affecting cancer cell viability, significantly increased the invasion ability of the cancer cells cocultured with fibroblasts. Cocultured medium with rhBMP-2 also contained increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases. rhBMP-2-treated cocultured fibroblasts did not show a prominent difference in mRNA expression profile. Some cytokines, however, were detected in the conditioned medium by a human cytokine antibody array. Among them, the cancer invasion-related factor CCL5 was quantified by ELISA. Interestingly, CCL5 neutralizing antibodies significantly reduced the invasion of oral cancer cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that 1 ng/ml rhBMP-2 may induce invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC cells by CCL5 release in coculture models. Therefore, we propose that a careful clinical examination before the use of rhBMP-2-containing biomaterials is indispensable for using rhBMP-2 treatment to prevent cancer progression.

  19. AC-93253 iodide, a novel Src inhibitor, suppresses NSCLC progression by modulating multiple Src-related signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Hua; Lin, Sih-Yin; Wu, Yu-Shan; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Jeremy J W

    2017-11-13

    The tyrosine kinase Src is involved in the progression of many cancers. Moreover, inhibiting Src activity has been shown to obstruct several signaling pathways regulated by the EGFR. Thus, Src is a valuable target molecule in drug development. The purpose of this study was to identify compounds that directly or indirectly modulate Src to suppress lung cancer cell growth and motility and to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of these compounds. Human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (PC9, PC9/gef, A549, and H1975) with different EGFR statuses were tested by cytotoxicity and proliferation assays after AC-93253 iodide treatment. Src and Src-related protein expression in AC-93253 iodide-treated PC9, PC9/gef, and A549 cells were assessed by western blotting. The effects of AC-93253 iodide on cancer cell colony formation, invasion, and migration were assessed in PC9 and PC9/gef cells. The synergistic effects of gefitinib and AC-93253 iodide were evaluated by combination index (CI)-isobologram analysis in gefitinib-resistant cell lines. The efficacy of AC-93253 iodide in vivo was determined using nude mice treated with either the compound or the vehicle. Among the compounds, AC-93253 iodide exhibited the most potent dose-independent inhibitory effects on the activity of Src as well as on that of the Src-related proteins EGFR, STAT3, and FAK. Furthermore, AC-93253 iodide significantly suppressed cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion, and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. AC-93253 iodide sensitized tumor cells to gefitinib treatment regardless of whether the cells were gefitinib-sensitive (PC9) or resistant (H1975 and PC9/gef), indicating that it may exert synergistic effects when used in combination with established therapeutic agents. Our findings also suggested that the inhibitory effects of AC-93253 iodide on lung cancer progression may be attributable to its ability to modulate multiple proteins

  20. Targeting the MAPK Signaling Pathway in Cancer: Promising Preclinical Activity with the Novel Selective ERK1/2 Inhibitor BVD-523 (Ulixertinib).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Ursula A; Furey, Brinley F; Markland, William; Hoover, Russell R; Aronov, Alex M; Roix, Jeffrey J; Hale, Michael; Boucher, Diane M; Sorrell, David A; Martinez-Botella, Gabriel; Fitzgibbon, Matthew; Shapiro, Paul; Wick, Michael J; Samadani, Ramin; Meshaw, Kathryn; Groover, Anna; DeCrescenzo, Gary; Namchuk, Mark; Emery, Caroline M; Saha, Saurabh; Welsch, Dean J

    2017-11-01

    Aberrant activation of signaling through the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK (MAPK) pathway is implicated in numerous cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target. Although BRAF and MEK-targeted combination therapy has demonstrated significant benefit beyond single-agent options, the majority of patients develop resistance and disease progression after approximately 12 months. Reactivation of ERK signaling is a common driver of resistance in this setting. Here we report the discovery of BVD-523 (ulixertinib), a novel, reversible, ATP-competitive ERK1/2 inhibitor with high potency and ERK1/2 selectivity. In vitro BVD-523 treatment resulted in reduced proliferation and enhanced caspase activity in sensitive cells. Interestingly, BVD-523 inhibited phosphorylation of target substrates despite increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2. In in vivo xenograft studies, BVD-523 showed dose-dependent growth inhibition and tumor regression. BVD-523 yielded synergistic antiproliferative effects in a BRAF V600E -mutant melanoma cell line xenograft model when used in combination with BRAF inhibition. Antitumor activity was also demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo models of acquired resistance to single-agent and combination BRAF/MEK-targeted therapy. On the basis of these promising results, these studies demonstrate BVD-523 holds promise as a treatment for ERK-dependent cancers, including those whose tumors have acquired resistance to other treatments targeting upstream nodes of the MAPK pathway. Assessment of BVD-523 in clinical trials is underway (NCT01781429, NCT02296242, and NCT02608229). Mol Cancer Ther; 16(11); 2351-63. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. GSK-3β inhibitor TWS119 attenuates rtPA-induced hemorrhagic transformation and activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway after acute ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Yuefei; Li, Qian; Deng, Gang; Wan, Jieru; Yang, Qingwu; Chen, Qianxue; Wang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a devastating complication for patients with acute ischemic stroke who are treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). It is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but no effective treatments are currently available to reduce HT risk. Therefore, methods to prevent HT are urgently needed. In this study, we used TWS119, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), to evaluate the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in recombinant tPA (rtPA)-induced HT. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke and then were administered rtPA, rtPA combined with TWS119, or vehicle at 4 h. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after infarct induction. Rats treated with rtPA showed evident HT, had more severe neurologic deficit, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier breakdown, and had larger infarction volume than did the vehicle group. Rats treated with TWS119 had significantly improved outcomes compared with those of rats treated with rtPA alone. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that TWS119 increased the protein expression of β-catenin, claudin-3, and ZO-1 while suppressing the expression of GSK-3β. These results suggest that TWS119 reduces rtPA-induced HT and attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption, possibly through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This study provides a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent tPA-induced HT after acute ischemic stroke.

  2. BMP2 induced osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord stem cells in a peptide-based hydrogel scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmana, Shruthi M.

    Craniofacial tissue loss due to traumatic injuries and congenital defects is a major clinical problem around the world. Cleft palate is the second most common congenital malformation in the United States occurring with an incidence of 1 in 700. Some of the problems associated with this defect are feeding difficulties, speech abnormalities and dentofacial anomalies. Current treatment protocol offers repeated surgeries with extended healing time. Our long-term goal is to regenerate bone in the palatal region using tissue-engineering approaches. Bone tissue engineering utilizes osteogenic cells, osteoconductive scaffolds and osteoinductive signals. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord (HUMSCs) are highly proliferative with the ability to differentiate into osteogenic precursor cells. The primary objective of the study was to characterize HUMSCs and culture them in a 3D hydrogel scaffold and investigate their osteogenic potential. PuraMatrix(TM) is an injectable 3D nanofiber scaffold capable of self-assembly when exposed to physiologic conditions. Our second objective was to investigate the effect of Bone Morphogenic Protein 2 (BMP2) in enhancing the osteogenic differentiation of HUMSCs encapsulated in PuraMatrix(TM). We isolated cells isolated from Wharton's Jelly region of the umbilical cord obtained from NDRI (New York, NY). Isolated cells satisfied the minimal criteria for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as defined by International Society of Cell Therapy in terms of plastic adherence, fibroblastic phenotype, surface marker expression and osteogenic differentiation. Flow Cytometry analysis showed that cells were positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105 while negative for hematopoietic marker CD34. Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) of HUMSCs showed peak activity at 2 weeks (p<0.05). Cells were encapsulated in 0.2% PuraMatrix(TM) at cell densities of 10x104, 20x104, 40x10 4 and 80x104. Cell viability with WST and proliferation with Live-Dead cell assays

  3. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor, S3I-201, acts as a potent and non-selective alkylating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Daniel P; Lewis, Andrew M; Williams, Declan; Resetca, Diana; Wilson, Derek J; Gunning, Patrick T

    2016-04-12

    The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) oncogene is a master regulator of many human cancers, and a well-recognized target for therapeutic intervention. A well known STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201 (NSC 74859), is hypothesized to block STAT3 function in cancer cells by binding the STAT3 SH2 domain and disrupt STAT3 protein complexation events. In this study, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that STAT3, in the presence of S3I-201, showed a minimum of five specific sites of modification, cysteine's 108, 259, 367, 542, and 687. Moreover, a prepared fluorescently labeled chemical probe of S3I-201 (DB-6-055) revealed that S3I-201 non-specifically and globally alkylated intracellular proteins at concentrations consistent with S3I-201's reported IC50. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that S3I-201 is a sub-optimal probe for interrogating STAT3-related cell biology.

  4. Immortalization and characterization of mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Li-An [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi-an (China); Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China); Ortiz-Gonzalez, Iris [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Yang, Wuchen; Cui, Yong [Department of Periodontics, Dental School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); MacDougall, Mary [Department of Oral/Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States); Donly, Kevin J. [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Harris, Stephen [Department of Periodontics, Dental School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Chen, Shuo, E-mail: chens0@uthscsa.edu [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-08-14

    Generation of a floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line is a valuable tool for studying the modulatory effects of Bmp2 and Bmp4 on osteoblast differentiation as well as relevant molecular events. In this study, primary floxed Bmp2/4 mouse osteoblasts were cultured and transfected with simian virus 40 large T-antigen. Transfection was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To examine the characteristics of the transfected cells, morphology, proliferation and mineralization were analyzed, expression of cell-specific genes including Runx2, ATF4, Dlx3, Osx, dentin matrix protein 1, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and collagen type I was detected. These results show that transfected floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts bypassed senescence with a higher proliferation rate, but retain the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we for the first time demonstrate the establishment of an immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line.

  5. Bone regeneration by implantation of adipose-derived stromal cells expressing BMP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiwu; Dai Kerong; Tang Tingting; Zhang Xiaoling; Yan Mengning; Lou Jueren

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we reported that the adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) genetically modified by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) healed critical-sized canine ulnar bone defects. First, the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of the ADSCs derived from canine adipose tissue were demonstrated. And then the cells were modified by the BMP-2 gene and the expression and bone-induction ability of BMP-2 were identified. Finally, the cells modified by BMP-2 gene were applied to a β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) carrier and implanted into ulnar bone defects in the canine model. After 16 weeks, radiographic, histological, and histomorphometry analysis showed that ADSCs modified by BMP-2 gene produced a significant increase of newly formed bone area and healed or partly healed all of the bone defects. We conclude that ADSCs modified by the BMP-2 gene can enhance the repair of critical-sized bone defects in large animals

  6. Immortalization and characterization of mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Li-An; Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin; Ortiz-Gonzalez, Iris; Yang, Wuchen; Cui, Yong; MacDougall, Mary; Donly, Kevin J.; Harris, Stephen; Chen, Shuo

    2009-01-01

    Generation of a floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line is a valuable tool for studying the modulatory effects of Bmp2 and Bmp4 on osteoblast differentiation as well as relevant molecular events. In this study, primary floxed Bmp2/4 mouse osteoblasts were cultured and transfected with simian virus 40 large T-antigen. Transfection was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To examine the characteristics of the transfected cells, morphology, proliferation and mineralization were analyzed, expression of cell-specific genes including Runx2, ATF4, Dlx3, Osx, dentin matrix protein 1, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and collagen type I was detected. These results show that transfected floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts bypassed senescence with a higher proliferation rate, but retain the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we for the first time demonstrate the establishment of an immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line.

  7. Blocking p38 signalling inhibits chondrogenesis in vitro but not ankylosis in a model of ankylosing spondylitis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, Kirsten; Luyten, Frank P; Lories, Rik J U

    2012-05-01

    To investigate p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling in an in vitro model of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-induced chondrogenesis and in vivo, with specific attention to its potential role in ankylosing enthesitis. Human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs) were cultured in pellets and stimulated with BMP2 or TGFβ1 in the presence or absence of a p38 inhibitor SB203580 or proinflammatory cytokines. Chondrogenic differentiation was evaluated using quantitative PCR. Male DBA/1 mice from different litters were caged together at the age of 8 weeks and treated with SB203580 in both a preventive and therapeutic strategy. The mice were evaluated for prospective signs of arthritis and the toe joints were analysed histologically to assess disease severity. p38 inhibition by SB203580 and proinflammatory cytokines downregulated chondrogenic markers in pellet cultures stimulated by BMP2 or TGFβ1. In contrast, the in vivo experiments resulted in an increased clinical incidence of arthritis and pathology severity score, reflecting progression towards ankylosis in mice given SB203580. Inhibition of p38 inhibited chondrogenic differentiation of progenitor cells, showing that not only the SMAD signalling pathways and also alternative activation of MAPKs including p38 contribute to chondrogenesis. Such an inhibitory effect is not found in an in vivo model of joint ankylosis and spondyloarthritis. Increased incidence and severity of disease in preventive experiments and shifts in disease stages in a therapeutic experimental set-up suggest that specific inhibition of p38 may have deleterious rather than beneficial effects.

  8. Multifunctional Thin Film Biomatrice Biosensor in a Degradable Scaffold Containing Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) for Controlled Release in Skeletal Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Harvey; Lomax, Linda

    2001-03-01

    Bone morphonogenetic proteins (BMP-2) have been under investigation for three decades. Deminerialized bone and extracts of deminerialized bone are o steoinductive with a temporal sequence of bone induction. Native and recombi nant BMP's have shown the ability, thru growth and differentiative factors t o induce de novo bone formation both invitro and invivo. Their principle fun ction is to induce transformation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. Native and recombinant BMP's, when purified and used without carrier disp erse after implantation and exert no effect on bone induction. The delivery system provides the missing component to successsfully applying osteogenic p roteins for clinical need. Biological and physio-chemical properties are str ictly adhered tofor a successful delivery system. The BMP delivery system ca rrier for osteo inductive payload provided; 1)non tumorgenic genecity, 2) no n immunogenecity, 3) water insoluble, 4) biosorbability with predictable enz ymatic degradation, and 5) an optimized surface for compatibility, cell migr ation and attachment with a negative surface change that encouraged target c ell attachment. Being a controlled Release System, it binded the proteins wi th predictible BMP released kinetics. Porosity with interconnecting voids pr otected the BMP from noon specific proteolysis and promoted rapid vascular a nd mesenchymal invasion. Far wide ranging clinical applications of mechanica l and biofunctional requirements were met with the BMP delivery system. Cohe sion and malleability were reqiured forcontour augmentation, and reconstruct ion of the discontinuity defects, prevented dislocation and retained the sha pe and bone replaced the system. Biological systems have elastic activity associated with them. The activi ty was current associated with a time dependant biological/biochemical react ion (enzymic activity). Bioelectric phoenomena associated with charged molec ules in a biologic structure caused

  9. TGF-β prevents phosphate-induced osteogenesis through inhibition of BMP and Wnt/β-catenin pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Guerrero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β is a key cytokine during differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC. High phosphate induces a phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC into osteogenic-like cells. This study was aimed to evaluate signaling pathways involved during VSMC differentiation of MSC in presence or not of high phosphate. RESULTS: Our results showed that TGF-β induced nuclear translocation of Smad3 as well as the expression of vascular smooth muscle markers, such as smooth muscle alpha actin, SM22α, myocardin, and smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain. The addition of high phosphate to MSC promoted nuclear translocation of Smad1/5/8 and the activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin in addition to an increase in BMP-2 expression, calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. The administration of TGF-β to MSC treated with high phosphate abolished all these effects by inhibiting canonical Wnt, BMP and TGF-β pathways. A similar outcome was observed in high phosphate-treated cells after the inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with Dkk-1. Conversely, addition of both Wnt/β-catenin activators CHIR98014 and lithium chloride enhanced the effect of high phosphate on BMP-2, calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. CONCLUSIONS: Full VSMC differentiation induced by TGF-β may not be achieved when extracellular phosphate levels are high. Moreover, TGF-β prevents high phosphate-induced osteogenesis by decreasing the nuclear translocation of Smad 1/5/8 and avoiding the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  10. BMP7 retards peripheral myelination by activating p38 MAPK in Schwann cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yahong; Peng, Su; Zhang, Shuqiang; Wang, Meihong; Chen, Yeyue; Zhang, Shan; Yang, Yumin; Sun, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cell (SC) myelination is pivotal for the proper physiological functioning of the nervous system, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains less well understood. Here, we showed that the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) inversely correlates with myelin gene expression during peripheral myelination, which suggests that BMP7 is likely a negative regulator for myelin gene expression. Our experiments further showed that the application of BMP7 attenuates the cAMP induced myelin gene expression in SCs. Downstream pathway analysis suggested that both p38 MAPK and SMAD are activated by exogenous BMP7 in SCs. The pharmacological intervention and gene silence studies revealed that p38 MAPK, not SMAD, is responsible for BMP7-mediated suppression of myelin gene expression. In addition, c-Jun, a potential negative regulator for peripheral myelination, was up-regulated by BMP7. In vivo experiments showed that BMP7 treatment greatly impaired peripheral myelination in newborn rats. Together, our results established that BMP7 is a negative regulator for peripheral myelin gene expression and that p38 MAPK/c-Jun axis might be the main downstream target of BMP7 in this process. PMID:27491681

  11. Osteoinduction by combining bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 with a bioactive novel nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Meyer, F; Hyvonen, M; Best, S M; Cameron, R E; Rushton, N

    2012-07-01

    There is increasing application of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) owing to their role in promoting fracture healing and bone fusion. However, an optimal delivery system has yet to be identified. The aims of this study were to synthesise bioactive BMP-2, combine it with a novel α-tricalcium phosphate/poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (α-TCP/PLGA) nanocomposite and study its release from the composite. BMP-2 was synthesised using an Escherichia coli expression system and purified. In vitro bioactivity was confirmed using C2C12 cells and an alkaline phosphatase assay. The modified solution-evaporation method was used to fabricate α-TCP/PLGA nanocomposite and this was characterised using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Functionalisation of α-TCP/PLGA nanocomposite by adsorption of BMP-2 was performed and release of BMP-2 was characterised using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Alkaline phosphatase activity of C2C12 cells was increased by the presence of all BMP-2/nanocomposite discs compared with the presence of a blank disc (p = 0.0022), and increased with increasing incubation concentrations of BMP-2, showing successful adsorption and bioactivity of BMP-2. A burst release profile was observed for BMP-2 from the nanocomposite. Functionalisation of α-TCP/PLGA with BMP-2 produced osteoinduction and was dose-dependent. This material therefore has potential application as an osteoinductive agent in regenerative medicine.

  12. Laminin associated with BMP7 as potential secondary astrocytic glioma fiber differentiation targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, G-S; Yan, M; Ma, Z-Z; Sun, L-Z; Liu, Y

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the activation of the BMP7 and laminin pathway is associated with glioma cell proliferation and differentiation. We enrolled 65 patients with primary operable glioma. Laminin and BMP7 protein expression and its subcellular localization were studied by immunofluorescence. We detected a higher level of BMP7 expression in glioma tissue in patients with a lower grade of glioma who had a lower eosinophil count. Compared to patients with a higher grade of glioma, we observed a lower level of laminin expression in patients with a lower grade of glioma. Our data indicated a potential link between eosinophil counts and the expression levels of laminin and BMP7 in glioma differentiation.

  13. Cell saver filtering of extravasated rhBMP-2 after degenerative scoliosis reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Liu, MBBCh, MSc, FRCS, FAMS (Orth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RhBMP-2 is a bone fusion enhancer commonly used in scoliosis reconstruction surgery. It is delivered via an absorbable collagen sponge but has been known to migrate away from its delivery site. RhBMP-2 extravasation in surgical drainage has been noted during first two days post-surgery. Cell savers are widely used in scoliosis reconstruction to limit transfusion requirements and are commonly deployed in cases where rhBMP-2 is used for fusion augmentation. It is not known whether rhBMP-2 is present in salvaged blood or filtered away during cell saver recycling. Through this case series of four patients who underwent scoliosis reconstruction, we assess cell saver efficacy in filtering rhBMP-2 molecules by quantifying the amount of rhBMP-2 present in salvaged blood obtained after postoperative drainage recycling by OrthoPAT® cell saver and comparing it to rhBMP-2 leakage in postoperative drainage without cell saver recycling. We report an almost 10-fold reduction of rhBMP-2 concentration in salvaged blood obtained after cell saver recycling of postoperative drainage, suggesting cell saver effectiveness in filtering rhBMP-2 molecules.

  14. Distinct steps of neural induction revealed by Asterix, Obelix and TrkC, genes induced by different signals from the organizer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pinho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The amniote organizer (Hensen's node can induce a complete nervous system when grafted into a peripheral region of a host embryo. Although BMP inhibition has been implicated in neural induction, non-neural cells cannot respond to BMP antagonists unless previously exposed to a node graft for at least 5 hours before BMP inhibitors. To define signals and responses during the first 5 hours of node signals, a differential screen was conducted. Here we describe three early response genes: two of them, Asterix and Obelix, encode previously undescribed proteins of unknown function but Obelix appears to be a nuclear RNA-binding protein. The third is TrkC, a neurotrophin receptor. All three genes are induced by a node graft within 4-5 hours but they differ in the extent to which they are inducible by FGF: FGF is both necessary and sufficient to induce Asterix, sufficient but not necessary to induce Obelix and neither sufficient nor necessary for induction of TrkC. These genes are also not induced by retinoic acid, Noggin, Chordin, Dkk1, Cerberus, HGF/SF, Somatostatin or ionomycin-mediated Calcium entry. Comparison of the expression and regulation of these genes with other early neural markers reveals three distinct "epochs", or temporal waves, of gene expression accompanying neural induction by a grafted organizer, which are mirrored by specific stages of normal neural plate development. The results are consistent with neural induction being a cascade of responses elicited by different signals, culminating in the formation of a patterned nervous system.

  15. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-4 and BMP-7 regulate differentially Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β1 in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Clare M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway remodelling is thought to be under the control of a complex group of molecules belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-superfamily. The Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs belong to this family and have been shown to regulate fibrosis in kidney and liver diseases. However, the role of BMPs in lung remodelling remains unclear. BMPs may regulate tissue remodelling in asthma by controlling TGF-β-induced profibrotic functions in lung fibroblasts. Methods Cell cultures were exposed to TGF-β1 alone or in the presence of BMP-4 or BMP-7; control cultures were exposed to medium only. Cell proliferation was assessed by quantification of the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. The expression of the mRNA encoding collagen type I and IV, tenascin C and fibronectin in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the main results were confirmed by ELISA. Cell differentiation was determined by the analysis of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity was assessed by zymography. Results We have demonstrated TGF-β1 induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins, tenascin C, fibronectin and collagen type I and IV when compared to unstimulated NHLF, and confirmed these results at the protein level. BMP-4, but not BMP-7, reduced TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix protein production. TGF-β1 induced an increase in the activity of the pro-form of MMP-2 which was inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Both BMP-4 and BMP-7 downregulated TGF-β1-induced MMP-13 release compared to untreated and TGF-β1-treated cells. TGF-β1 also induced a myofibroblast-like transformation which was partially inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Conclusions Our study suggests that some regulatory properties of BMP-7 may be tissue or cell type specific and unveil a potential regulatory role for

  16. NSC23766, a Known Inhibitor of Tiam1-Rac1 Signaling Module, Prevents the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes in the NOD Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajakrishnan Veluthakal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Type 1 diabetes (T1D is characterized by absolute insulin deficiency due to destruction of pancreatic β-cells by cytokines (e.g., interleukin-1β; IL-1β released by invading immune cells. The mechanisms by which these cytokines induce β-cell dysfunction remain poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS by the phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase2 (Nox2, along with significantly low levels of antioxidants in β-cells, drive them toward oxidative damage. Rac1, a small G-protein, is one of the members of Nox2 holoenzyme. We recently reported that NSC23766, a known inhibitor of Rac1, significantly attenuated cytokine-induced Nox2 activation and ROS generation in pancreatic islet β-cells in vitro. Herein, we determined the effects of NSC23766 (2.5 mg/kg/day, i.p/daily on the development of diabetes in the NOD mouse, a model for T1D. Methods: Two groups of experimental animals (Balb/c and NOD mice received NSC23766, while the two control groups received equal volume of saline. Body weights and blood glucose were measured every week for 34 weeks. Rac1 activation in pancreatic islets was measured by GLISA activation assay. Rac1 and CHOP expression was determined by Western Blotting. Results: Our findings indicate that administration of NSC23766 significantly prevented the development of spontaneous diabetes in the NOD mice. Furthermore, NSC23766 markedly suppressed Rac1 expression and activity and the endoplasmic reticulum stress (CHOP expression in NOD islets. Conclusions: Our findings provide the first evidence implicating the role of Tiam1-Rac1-Nox2 signaling pathway in the onset of spontaneous diabetes in the NOD mouse model.

  17. Calcineurin inhibitors recruit protein kinases JAK2 and JNK, TLR signaling and the UPR to activate NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses in kidney tubular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Guerrero, Cristian; Ocaña-Salceda, Carlos; Berzal, Sergio; Carrasco, Susana; Fernández-Fernández, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus are key drugs in current immunosuppressive regimes for solid organ transplantation. However, they are nephrotoxic and promote death and profibrotic responses in tubular cells. Moreover, renal inflammation is observed in CNI nephrotoxicity but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have now studied molecular pathways leading to inflammation elicited by the CNIs in cultured and kidney tubular cells. Both CsA and tacrolimus elicited a proinflammatory response in tubular cells as evidenced by a transcriptomics approach. Transcriptomics also suggested several potential pathways leading to expression of proinflammatory genes. Validation and functional studies disclosed that in tubular cells, CNIs activated protein kinases such as the JAK2/STAT3 and TAK1/JNK/AP-1 pathways, TLR4/Myd88/IRAK signaling and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) to promote NF-κB activation and proinflammatory gene expression. CNIs also activated an Nrf2/HO-1-dependent compensatory response and the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane inhibited JAK2 and JNK activation and inflammation. A murine model of CsA nephrotoxicity corroborated activation of the proinflammatory pathways identified in cell cultures. Human CNIs nephrotoxicity was also associated with NF-κB, STAT3 and IRE1α activation. In conclusion, CNIs recruit several intracellular pathways leading to previously non-described proinflammatory actions in renal tubular cells. Identification of these pathways provides novel clues for therapeutic intervention to limit CNIs nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: • Molecular mechanisms modulating CNI renal inflammation were investigated. • Kinases, immune receptors and ER stress mediate the inflammatory response to CNIs. • Several intracellular pathways activate NF-κB in CNIs-treated tubular cells. • A NF-κB-dependent cytokine profile characterizes CNIs-induced inflammation. • CNI nephrotoxicity was associated to inflammatory

  18. Inhibitor of PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway Small Molecule Promotes Motor Neuron Differentiation of Human Endometrial Stem Cells Cultured on Electrospun Biocomposite Polycaprolactone/Collagen Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Hoveizi, Elham; Yazdankhah, Meysam; Ai, Jafar; Khakbiz, Mehrdad; Faghihi, Faezeh; Tajerian, Roksana; Bayat, Neda

    2017-05-01

    Small molecules as useful chemical tools can affect cell differentiation and even change cell fate. It is demonstrated that LY294002, a small molecule inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal pathway, can inhibit proliferation and promote neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the differentiation effect of Ly294002 small molecule on the human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) into motor neuron-like cells on polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen scaffolds. hEnSCs were cultured in a neurogenic inductive medium containing 1 μM LY294002 on the surface of PCL/collagen electrospun fibrous scaffolds. Cell attachment and viability of cells on scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazoyl-2-yl)2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expression of neuron-specific markers was assayed by real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry analysis after 15 days post induction. Results showed that attachment and differentiation of hEnSCs into motor neuron-like cells on the scaffolds with Ly294002 small molecule were higher than that of the cells on tissue culture plates as control group. In conclusion, PCL/collagen electrospun scaffolds with Ly294002 have potential for being used in neural tissue engineering because of its bioactive and three-dimensional structure which enhances viability and differentiation of hEnSCs into neurons through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, manipulation of this pathway by small molecules can enhance neural differentiation.

  19. Calcineurin inhibitors recruit protein kinases JAK2 and JNK, TLR signaling and the UPR to activate NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses in kidney tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Guerrero, Cristian, E-mail: cristian.gonzalez@fjd.es [Renal and Vascular Pathology Laboratory, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria-Fundación Jiménez Díaz (IIS-FJD), Av. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ocaña-Salceda, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.ocana@fjd.es [Renal and Vascular Pathology Laboratory, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria-Fundación Jiménez Díaz (IIS-FJD), Av. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Berzal, Sergio, E-mail: sberzal@fjd.es [Renal and Vascular Pathology Laboratory, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria-Fundación Jiménez Díaz (IIS-FJD), Av. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carrasco, Susana, E-mail: scarrasco@fjd.es [Renal and Vascular Pathology Laboratory, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria-Fundación Jiménez Díaz (IIS-FJD), Av. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Fernández, Beatriz, E-mail: bfernandez@fjd.es [Nephrology, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria-Fundación Jiménez Díaz (IIS-FJD), Av. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2013-11-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus are key drugs in current immunosuppressive regimes for solid organ transplantation. However, they are nephrotoxic and promote death and profibrotic responses in tubular cells. Moreover, renal inflammation is observed in CNI nephrotoxicity but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have now studied molecular pathways leading to inflammation elicited by the CNIs in cultured and kidney tubular cells. Both CsA and tacrolimus elicited a proinflammatory response in tubular cells as evidenced by a transcriptomics approach. Transcriptomics also suggested several potential pathways leading to expression of proinflammatory genes. Validation and functional studies disclosed that in tubular cells, CNIs activated protein kinases such as the JAK2/STAT3 and TAK1/JNK/AP-1 pathways, TLR4/Myd88/IRAK signaling and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) to promote NF-κB activation and proinflammatory gene expression. CNIs also activated an Nrf2/HO-1-dependent compensatory response and the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane inhibited JAK2 and JNK activation and inflammation. A murine model of CsA nephrotoxicity corroborated activation of the proinflammatory pathways identified in cell cultures. Human CNIs nephrotoxicity was also associated with NF-κB, STAT3 and IRE1α activation. In conclusion, CNIs recruit several intracellular pathways leading to previously non-described proinflammatory actions in renal tubular cells. Identification of these pathways provides novel clues for therapeutic intervention to limit CNIs nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: • Molecular mechanisms modulating CNI renal inflammation were investigated. • Kinases, immune receptors and ER stress mediate the inflammatory response to CNIs. • Several intracellular pathways activate NF-κB in CNIs-treated tubular cells. • A NF-κB-dependent cytokine profile characterizes CNIs-induced inflammation. • CNI nephrotoxicity was associated to inflammatory

  20. The Mechanism of Action of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Vorinostat Involves Interaction with the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfstein, Rive; Bruchim, Ilan; Fishman, Ami; Werner, Haim

    2011-01-01

    A correlation between components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and endometrial cancer risk has been shown in recent studies. The antitumor action of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, involves changes in the expression of specific genes via acetylation of histones and transcription factors. The aim of this study was to establish whether vorinostat can modify the expression of specific genes related to the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling pathway and revert the transformed phenotype. Human endometrioid (Type I, Ishikawa) and uterine serous papillary (Type II, USPC-2) endometrial cancer cell lines were treated with vorinostat in the presence or absence of IGF-I. Vorinostat increased IGF-IR phosphorylation, produced acetylation of histone H3, up-regulated pTEN and p21 expression, and reduced p53 and cyclin D1 levels in Ishikawa cells. Vorinostat up-regulated IGF-IR and p21 expression, produced acetylation of histone H3, and down-regulated the expression of total AKT, pTEN and cyclin D1 in USPC-2 cells. Of interest, IGF-IR activation was associated with a major elevation in IGF-IR promoter activity. In addition, vorinostat treatment induced apoptosis in both cell lines and abolished the anti-apoptotic activity of IGF-I both in the absence or presence of a humanized monoclonal IGF-IR antibody, MK-0646. Finally, vorinostat treatment led to a significant decrease in proliferation and colony forming capability in both cell lines. In summary, our studies demonstrate that vorinostat exhibits a potent apoptotic and anti-proliferative effect in both Type I and II endometrial cancer cells, thus suggesting that endometrial cancer may be therapeutically targeted by vorinostat. PMID:21931726

  1. The mechanism of action of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat involves interaction with the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rive Sarfstein

    Full Text Available A correlation between components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF system and endometrial cancer risk has been shown in recent studies. The antitumor action of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, involves changes in the expression of specific genes via acetylation of histones and transcription factors. The aim of this study was to establish whether vorinostat can modify the expression of specific genes related to the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR signaling pathway and revert the transformed phenotype. Human endometrioid (Type I, Ishikawa and uterine serous papillary (Type II, USPC-2 endometrial cancer cell lines were treated with vorinostat in the presence or absence of IGF-I. Vorinostat increased IGF-IR phosphorylation, produced acetylation of histone H3, up-regulated pTEN and p21 expression, and reduced p53 and cyclin D1 levels in Ishikawa cells. Vorinostat up-regulated IGF-IR and p21 expression, produced acetylation of histone H3, and down-regulated the expression of total AKT, pTEN and cyclin D1 in USPC-2 cells. Of interest, IGF-IR activation was associated with a major elevation in IGF-IR promoter activity. In addition, vorinostat treatment induced apoptosis in both cell lines and abolished the anti-apoptotic activity of IGF-I both in the absence or presence of a humanized monoclonal IGF-IR antibody, MK-0646. Finally, vorinostat treatment led to a significant decrease in proliferation and colony forming capability in both cell lines. In summary, our studies demonstrate that vorinostat exhibits a potent apoptotic and anti-proliferative effect in both Type I and II endometrial cancer cells, thus suggesting that endometrial cancer may be therapeutically targeted by vorinostat.

  2. Risk variants in BMP4 promoters for nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate in a Chilean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suazo José

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene (BMP4 plays a key role during maxillofacial development, since orofacial clefts are observed in animals when this gene is conditionally inactivated. We recently reported the existence of association between nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCLP and BMP4 polymorphisms by detecting transmission deviations for haplotypes that include a region containing a BMP4 promoter in case-parent trios. The aim of the present study was to search for possible causal mutations within BMP4 promoters (BMP4.1 and BMP4.2. Methods We analyzed the sequence of BMP4.1 and BMP4.2 in 167 Chilean NSCLP cases and 336 controls. Results We detected three novel variants in BMP4.1 (c.-5514G > A, c.-5365C > T and c.-5049C > T which could be considered as cleft risk factors due to their absence in controls. Additionally, rs2855530 G allele (BMP4.2 carriers showed an increased risk for NSCLP restricted to males (OR = 1.52; 95% C.I. = 1.07-2.15; p = 0.019. For this same SNP the dominant genotype model showed a higher frequency of G/G+G/C and a lower frequency of C/C in cases than controls in the total sample (p = 0.03 and in the male sample (p = 0.003. Bioinformatic prediction analysis showed that all the risk variants detected in this study could create new transcription factor binding motifs. Conclusions The sex-dependent association between rs2855530 and NSCLP could indirectly be related to the differential gene expression observed between sexes in animal models. We concluded that risk variants detected herein could potentially alter BMP4 promoter activity in NSCLP. Further functional and developmental studies are necessary to support this hypothesis.

  3. Cardiogenic induction of pluripotent stem cells streamlined through a conserved SDF-1/VEGF/BMP2 integrated network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pluripotent stem cells produce tissue-specific lineages through programmed acquisition of sequential gene expression patterns that function as a blueprint for organ formation. As embryonic stem cells respond concomitantly to diverse signaling pathways during differentiation, extraction of a pro-cardiogenic network would offer a roadmap to streamline cardiac progenitor output. METHODS AND RESULTS: To resolve gene ontology priorities within precursor transcriptomes, cardiogenic subpopulations were here generated according to either growth factor guidance or stage-specific biomarker sorting. Innate expression profiles were independently delineated through unbiased systems biology mapping, and cross-referenced to filter transcriptional noise unmasking a conserved progenitor motif (55 up- and 233 down-regulated genes. The streamlined pool of 288 genes organized into a core biological network that prioritized the "Cardiovascular Development" function. Recursive in silico deconvolution of the cardiogenic neighborhood and associated canonical signaling pathways identified a combination of integrated axes, CXCR4/SDF-1, Flk-1/VEGF and BMP2r/BMP2, predicted to synchronize cardiac specification. In vitro targeting of the resolved triad in embryoid bodies accelerated expression of Nkx2.5, Mef2C and cardiac-MHC, enhanced beating activity, and augmented cardiogenic yield. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptome-wide dissection of a conserved progenitor profile thus revealed functional highways that coordinate cardiogenic maturation from a pluripotent ground state. Validating the bioinformatics algorithm established a strategy to rationally modulate cell fate, and optimize stem cell-derived cardiogenesis.

  4. An OxiTop (R) protocol for screening plant material for its biochemical methane potential (BMP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.; Castanares, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2012-01-01

    A protocol was developed for determining the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of plant material using the OxiTop (R) system. NaOH pellets for CO2 absorption and different pretreatment methods were tested for their influence in the BMP test. The use of NaOH pellets in the headspace of the bottle

  5. An evolutionarily conserved enhancer regulates Bmp4 expression in developing incisor and limb bud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolrudee Jumlongras

    Full Text Available To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of Bmp4 expression during organogenesis, we used phylogenetic footprinting and transgenic reporter analyses to identify Bmp4 cis-regulatory modules (CRMs. These analyses identified a regulatory region located ∼46 kb upstream of the mouse Bmp4 transcription start site that had previously been shown to direct expression in lateral plate mesoderm. We refined this regulatory region to a 396-bp minimal enhancer, and show that it recapitulates features of endogenous Bmp4 expression in developing mandibular arch ectoderm and incisor epithelium during the initiation-stage of tooth development. In addition, this enhancer directs expression in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER of the developing limb and in anterior and posterior limb mesenchyme. Transcript profiling of E11.5 mouse incisor dental lamina, together with protein binding microarray (PBM analyses, allowed identification of a conserved DNA binding motif in the Bmp4 enhancer for Pitx homeoproteins, which are also expressed in the developing mandibular and incisor epithelium. In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA and in vivo transgenic reporter mutational analyses revealed that this site supports Pitx binding and that the site is necessary to recapitulate aspects of endogenous Bmp4 expression in developing craniofacial and limb tissues. Finally, Pitx2 chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP demonstrated direct binding of Pitx2 to this Bmp4 enhancer site in a dental epithelial cell line. These results establish a direct molecular regulatory link between Pitx family members and Bmp4 gene expression in developing incisor epithelium.

  6. BMP-2 induces EMT and breast cancer stemness through Rb and CD44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Peide; Chen, Anan; He, Weiyi

    2017-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) has been reported to facilitate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and bone metastasis in breast cancer xenograft models. To investigate the role of BMP-2 in the development of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), and to further elucidate the mechanisms u...

  7. BMP2 Regulation of CXCL12 Cellular, Temporal, and Spatial Expression is Essential During Fracture Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Timothy J; Longobardi, Lara; Willcockson, Helen; Temple, Joseph D; Tagliafierro, Lidia; Ye, Ping; Li, Tieshi; Esposito, Alessandra; Moats-Staats, Billie M; Spagnoli, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The cellular and humoral responses that orchestrate fracture healing are still elusive. Here we report that bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2)-dependent fracture healing occurs through a tight control of chemokine C-X-C motif-ligand-12 (CXCL12) cellular, spatial, and temporal expression. We found that the fracture repair process elicited an early site-specific response of CXCL12(+)-BMP2(+) endosteal cells and osteocytes that was not present in unfractured bones and gradually decreased as healing progressed. Absence of a full complement of BMP2 in mesenchyme osteoprogenitors (BMP2(cKO/+)) prevented healing and led to a dysregulated temporal and cellular upregulation of CXCL12 expression associated with a deranged angiogenic response. Healing was rescued when BMP2(cKO/+) mice were systemically treated with AMD3100, an antagonist of CXCR4 and agonist for CXCR7 both receptors for CXCL12. We further found that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), capable of delivering BMP2 at the endosteal site, restored fracture healing when transplanted into BMP2(cKO/+) mice by rectifying the CXCL12 expression pattern. Our in vitro studies showed that in isolated endosteal cells, BMP2, while inducing osteoblastic differentiation, stimulated expression of pericyte markers that was coupled with a decrease in CXCL12. Furthermore, in isolated BMP2(cKO/cKO) endosteal cells, high expression levels of CXCL12 inhibited osteoblastic differentiation that was restored by AMD3100 treatment or coculture with BMP2-expressing MSCs that led to an upregulation of pericyte markers while decreasing platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM). Taken together, our studies show that following fracture, a CXCL12(+)-BMP2(+) perivascular cell population is recruited along the endosteum, then a timely increase of BMP2 leads to downregulation of CXCL12 that is essential to determine the fate of the CXCL12(+)-BMP2(+) to osteogenesis while departing their supportive role to angiogenesis. Our findings have far

  8. Canine investigation of rhBMP-2, autogenous bone graft, and rhBMP-2 with autogenous bone graft for the healing of a large segmental tibial defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Andrew S; Reveal, Greg; Scheid, D Kevin; Kaehr, David M; Maar, Dean; Watts, Melanie; Stone, Marcus B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of bone morphogenetic protein, bone morphogenetic protein with autogenous bone graft (ABG), and ABG alone on the healing of a large bone defect in the canine tibia. Fifteen 45- to 55-lb canines were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups, 3 per group. The groups included (1) recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2, 0.43 mg/mL)/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) + collagen/ceramic matrix (CCM), (2) rhBMP-2 (0.22 mg/mL) ACS + CCM, (3) rhBMP-2 (0.43 mg/mL) ACS + ABG, (4) rhBMP-2 (0.22 mg/mL) ACS + ABG, and (5) ABG alone. A 5-mL defect was created in the right tibia and fixed with a 4.5 mm locking plate and 1 of the grafts described above implanted. X-rays were taken biweekly for 12 weeks and evaluated for radiographic union. Representative histology was also examined. All defects treated with rhBMP-2 (any combination) healed at 6.0 +/- 0.9 weeks. None of the ABG alone-treated defects were healed at 12 weeks. Dogs receiving rhBMP-2/ACS + CCM healed at 5.7 +/- 0.8 weeks, whereas rhBMP-2/ACS + ABG defects healed at 6.3 +/- 0.8 weeks. Histology showed healing consistent with 12-week radiologic results. Large segmental defects in canine tibiae can be effectively healed with stable fixation and rhBMP-2/ACS + ABG or CCM. These conclusions may offer insight into the clinical treatment of segmental defect nonunions in the human.

  9. S100A4 and BMP-2 Co-Dependently Induce Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration via pERK and Chloride Intracellular Channel 4 (CLIC4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiekerkoetter, Edda; Guignabert, Christophe; de Jesus Perez, Vinicio; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Powers, Janine M; Wang, Lingli; Lawrie, Allan; Ambartsumian, Noona; Schmidt, Ann-Marie; Berryman, Mark; Ashley, Richard H; Rabinovitch, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    Rationale S100A4/Mts1 is implicated in motility of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (hPASMC), through an interaction with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Objective We hypothesized that S100A4/Mts1-mediated hPASMC motility might be enhanced by loss of function of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor (R) II, observed in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods and Results Both S100A4/Mts1 (500ng/ml) and BMP-2 (10ng/ml) induce migration of hPASMCS in a novel co-dependent manner, in that the response to either ligand is lost with anti-RAGE or BMPRII siRNA. Phosphorylation of ERK is induced by both ligands and is required for motility by inducing MMP2 activity, but phosphoERK1/2 is blocked by anti-RAGE and not by BMPRII siRNA. In contrast, BMPRII siRNA, but not anti-RAGE, reduces expression of intracellular chloride channel 4 (CLIC4), a scaffolding molecule necessary for motility in response to S100A4/Mts1 or BMP-2. Reduced CLIC4 expression does not interfere with S100A4/Mts1 internalization or its interaction with myosin heavy chain IIA (MHCIIA), but does alter alignment of MHCIIA and actin filaments creating the appearance of vacuoles. This abnormality is associated with reduced peripheral distribution and/or delayed activation of RhoA and Rac1, small GTPases required for retraction and extension of lamellipodiae in motile cells. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate how a single ligand (BMP-2 or S100A4/Mts1) can recruit multiple cell surface receptors to relay signals that coordinate events culminating in a functional response, i.e., cell motility. We speculate that this carefully controlled process limits signals from multiple ligands, but could be subverted in disease. PMID:19713532

  10. Deubiquitinase inhibitor b-AP15 activates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits Wnt/Notch1 signaling pathway leading to the reduction of cell survival in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Youming; Chen, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bin; Yu, Bin; Ge, Jianhui

    2018-04-15

    b-AP15, a potent and selective inhibitor of the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 14 (USP14), displays in vitro and in vivo antitumor abilities on some types of cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its action is not well elucidated. The purposes of the present study are to observe the potential impacts of b-AP15 on cell survival of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and to investigate whether and how this compound inhibits some survival-promoting signaling pathways. We found that b-AP15 significantly decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, along with the perturbation of cell cycle and the decreased expressions of cell cycle-related proteins. We also demonstrated that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) were enhanced by b-AP15 supplementation. The inhibition of ER stress/UPR only partly attenuated the cytotoxicity of b-AP15 on hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In addition, b-AP15 treatment inhibited Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 signaling pathways, and suppressed phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and Erk1/2, which were not restored by the inhibition of ER stress/UPR. Furthermore, the expression levels of signaling molecules in Notch1 were reduced by specific inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Notably, either Wnt or Notch1 signaling inhibitor mitigated phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and Erk1/2, and mimicked the cytotoxicity of b-AP15 on hepatocellular carcinoma cells. These results clearly indicate that b-AP15 induced cytotoxic response to hepatocellular carcinoma cells by augmenting ER stress/UPR and inhibiting Wnt/Notch1 signaling pathways. This new finding provides a novel mechanism by which b-AP15 produces its antitumor therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein-7: Review of signalling and efficacy in fracture healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Cecchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are a group of signalling molecules that belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily of proteins. Initially identified for their ability to induce bone formation, recent advances in the understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms regarding BMPs have led to the use of the growth factor to accelerate bone healing. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that BMPs, BMP-7 in particular, may present an alternative line of treatment other than the gold standard, autogenous bone grafting, in the treatment of fracture nonunion. We performed a literature search in September 2014 of PubMed and Embase using search terms, including “bone morphogenetic proteins”, “BMP-7”, “non-union”, “fracture healing” and “cost-effectiveness”, reviewing the efficacy, safety, and cost of treatment of nonunions with BMP-7. The authors further canvassed the reference lists of selected articles and used online search tools, such as Google Scholar. BMP-7 uses both the canonical and noncanonical signalling pathways. The treatment of fracture nonunion with recombinant human BMP-7 (rhBMP-7 has a comparable efficacy with that of autogenous bone grafting with an average union rate of 87% compared with 93% for bone grafting. Furthermore, fewer complications have been described with the use of rhBMP-7 compared with traditional bone grafting. We describe the signalling pathways that BMP-7 uses to exert its effect on bone. In nonunions, rhBMP-7 has been shown to have a similar efficacy to bone grafting with fewer complications.

  12. Mapping the Interaction Anatomy of BmP02 on Kv1.3 Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B.; Wu, B. F.; Feng, Y. J.; Tao, J.; Ji, Y. H.

    2016-07-01

    The potassium channel Kv 1.3 plays a vital part in the activation of T lymphocytes and is an attractive pharmacological target for autoimmune diseases. BmP02, a 28-residue peptide isolated from Chinese scorpion (Buthus martensi Karsch) venom, is a potent and selective Kv1.3 channel blocker. However, the mechanism through which BmP02 recognizes and inhibits the Kv1.3 channel is still unclear. In the present study, a complex molecular model of Kv1.3-BmP02 was developed by docking analysis and molecular dynamics simulations. From these simulations, it appears the large β-turn (residues 10-16) of BmP02 might be the binding interface with Kv 1.3. These results were confirmed by scanning alanine mutagenesis of BmP02, which identified His9, Lys11 and Lys13, which lie within BmP02’s β-turn, as key residues for interacting with Kv1.3. Based on these results and molecular modeling, two negatively charged residues of Kv1.3, D421 and D422, located in turret region, were predicted to act as the binding site for BmP02. Mutation of these residues reduced sensitivity of Kv 1.3 to BmP02 inhibition, suggesting that electrostatic interactions play a crucial role in Kv1.3-BmP02 interaction. This study revealed the molecular basis of Kv 1.3 recognition by BmP02 venom, and provides a novel interaction model for Kv channel-specific blocker complex, which may help guide future drug-design for Kv1.3-related channelopathies.

  13. Construction of doxycycline-mediated BMP-2 transgene combining with APA microcapsules for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Dongyang; Bai, Bo; Yan, Guangbin; Zhang, Shujiang; Liu, Qi; Chen, Yi; Tan, Xiaobo; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    The repairing of large segmental bone defects is difficult for clinical orthopedists at present. Gene therapy is regarded as a promising method for bone defects repair. The present study aimed to construct an effective and controllable Tet-On expression system for transferring hBMP-2 gene into bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells (BMSCs). Meanwhile, with combination of alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microencapsulation technology, we attempted to reduce the influence of immunologic rejection and examine the effect of the Tet-On expression system on osteogenesis of BMSCs. The adenovirus encoding hBMP-2 (ADV-hBMP2) was constructed using the means of molecular cloning. The ADV-hBMP2 and Adeno-X Tet-On virus was respectively transfected to the HEK293 for amplification and afterward BMSCs were co-infected with the virus of ADV-hBMP2 and the Adeno-X Tet-On. The expression of hBMP-2 was measured with induction by doxycycline (DOX) at different concentration by means of RT-PCR and ELISA. Combining Tet-On expression system and APA microcapsules with the use of the pulsed high-voltage electrostatic microcapsule instrument, we examined the expression level of hBMP-2 in APA microcapsules by ELISA as well as the osteogenesis by alizarin red S staining. An effective Tet-On expression system for transferring hBMP-2 gene into BMSCs was constructed successfully. Also, the expression of hBMP-2 could be regulated by concentration of DOX. The data exhibited that BMSCs in APA microcapsules maintained the capability of proliferation and differentiation. The combination of Tet-On expression system and APA microcapsules could promote the osteogenesis of BMSCs. According to the results, microencapsulated Tet-On expression system showed the effective characteristics of secreting hBMP-2 and enhancing osteogenesis, which would provide a promising way for bone repair.

  14. Heterotopic ossification related to the use of recombinant human BMP-2 in osteonecrosis of femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lijun; Sun, Wei; Gao, Fuqiang; Cheng, Liming; Li, Zirong

    2017-07-01

    Despite the wide use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in bone defect, its application in treating osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) is yet to be elucidated. The heterotopic ossification (HO) after rhBMP-2 usage in some orthopedic surgeries has been reported previously; however, only a few studies describe this complication in the treatment of ONFH.The present study investigated whether the rhBMP-2 application would increase the risk of HO formation in selected ONFH patients with nonvascularized bone grafting surgery and enhance the surgical results of nonvascularized bone grafting as compared to patients who did not receive intraoperative rhBMP-2.A retrospective analysis was performed on 94 patients (141 hips) who, with Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) stages IIb, IIc, and IIIa ONFH, underwent nonvascularized bone grafting surgery. The first 46 patients (66 hips) received intraoperative rhBMP-2. The postoperative radiographic results (X-ray and CT scan) and Harris hip score (HHS) were reviewed in each patient to record the incidence of HO formation and evaluate the clinical efficacy of rhBMP-2, respectively.HO formation frequently occurred in patients receiving intraoperative rhBMP-2 (8/66 hips) than those not receiving the protein (1/75 hips) (P = .02). HHS improved from preoperatively at the final follow-up (P < .01) in the BMP-positive group, with a survival rate of 83.3%. In the BMP-negative group, the HHS improved from preoperatively at the end of the follow-up (P < .01), and the survival rate was 72.0%.rhBMP-2 has osteoinductive property and might serve as an adjuvant therapy in the surgical treatment of ONFH. However, the incidence of HO formation might increase when used in high doses.

  15. Ion Mobility and Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Phosphatidylglycerol and Bis(monoacylglycerol)phosphate (BMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Joseph A.; Murphy, Robert C.; Barkley, Robert M.; Gijón, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The tandem mass spectrometry, ion mobility, and normal phase HPLC of isomeric phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and bis(monoacylglycerol)phosphate (BMP) have been investigated in this study with the objective of differentiating these unique classes of lipids. Measurement of ion mobility using the traveling wave method for negative molecular and product ions from isomeric PG and BMP yielded identical results, but different ion mobilities were observed for positive product ions arising from collision-induced dissociation (CID). The fastest moving positive product ions from the ion mobility analysis of BMP(18:1/18:1) were monoglyceride-like, and the slowest moving product ions from this BMP corresponded to [M+H-2H2O]+, which were readily observed for BMP but were only at very low abundance in the CID spectra of PG. The major product ions observed from the sodium adduct of PG(18:1/18:1) were consistent with diglyceride-like ion formation, but for BMP(18:1/18:1) only monoglyceride-like product ions were formed. The usefulness of ion mobility separation was tested with the selection of positive product ions derived from the isomeric PG and BMP molecular species in the lipid extract of RAW 264.7 cells. The ion mobility spectra of monoglyceride-like ions derived from BMP species with various esterified fatty acyl groups displayed some separation in ion mobility based on fatty acyl chain length and presence of a double bond in the acyl chain. The mechanism of ion formation of the diglyceride- and monoglyceride-like ions from PG and BMP respectively was examined using deuterium-labeled species including PG(D3116:0/18:1) and PG and BMP labeled by deuterium exchange. PMID:25883529

  16. BMP-2 immobilized PLGA/hydroxyapatite fibrous scaffold via polydopamine stimulates osteoblast growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingyu; Han, Yu; Li, Jiawei; Cai, Bo; Gao, Hang; Feng, Wei; Li, Shuqiang; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Dongsong

    2017-09-01

    Combining biomaterials scaffolds with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is currently used to promote the regeneration of bone tissue. However, the traditional strategies used to add BMP-2 into the polymer scaffolds directly suffer from limitations that can result in lower growth factor loading and damage the bioactivity of growth factors. In this study, we report the fabrication of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA) composite fibrous scaffolds via melt-spinning method to mimic native extracellular matrix (ECM). In order to effectively immobilize BMP-2 on PLGA/HA composite fibrous scaffolds, the surface of the scaffold was modified with polydopamine (PDA) (PDA-PLGA/HA). PDA was chosen as an adhesive polymeric bridge-layer between PLGA/HA fibrous scaffolds and BMP-2. Analysis of the scaffold using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope revealed that the PDA coating was attached to the scaffold surface. Moreover, analysis of the scaffold using water contact angle demonstrated an increased hydrophilicity via PDA modification. Furthermore, the PDA coating effectively immobilized BMP-2 on the PDA-PLGA/HA fibrous scaffold and a sustained release profile of BMP-2 was achieved in the BMP-2-immobilized PLGA/HA fibrous scaffold. In vitro experiments showed that BMP-2-immobilized PLGA/HA fibrous scaffold significantly promoted the attachment and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells. More importantly, the ALP activity, mRNA expression of osteosis-related genes and calcium deposition in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on BMP-2-immobilized PLGA/HA fibrous scaffold were significantly increased. These results collectively demonstrate that the BMP-2-immobilized PLGA/HA fibrous scaffold is a promising candidate for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. FSHR and LHR Expression and Signaling as Well as Maturation and Apoptosis of Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes Following Treatment with FSH Receptor Binding Inhibitor in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suocheng Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Currently, it remains unknown whether FSH receptor binding inhibitor (FRBI influences follicular development and reproduction functions in humans and animals. The present study aimed to investigate FRBI effects on in vitro maturation (IVM and apoptosis of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs of sheep, to determine the effect of FRBI on mRNA and protein levels of FSHR and LHR in COCs, and to elucidate the signal pathway of FRBI effects. Methods: COCs were in vitro cultured for 24h in the IVM media supplemented with varying concentrations of FRBI (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40µg/mL and FSH (10IU/mL. The harvested COCs were observed under an inverted microscope and maturation rates of COCs were determined. Real time RT-PCR and Western blotting were utilized to detect mRNA and protein levels of FSHR and LHR. The concentrations of FSH, LH and caspase-3 were determined using especial ELISA kits for sheep, respectively. Results: Maturation rates of COCs decreased gradually as FRBI concentrations increased from 0 to 40µg/mL, reaching a bottom value of 23.76% of the FRBI-4 group. The maximal apoptosis rate was detected in the FRBI-4 group. IP3 contents of FRBI-3 and FRBI-4 groups were reduced as compared to control group (CG and FSH groups (P<0.05. Levels of FSHR protein of FRBI-3 and FRBI-4 groups as well as LHR protein of FRBI-4 group were significantly less than that of CG and FSH group. FSH contents of four FRBI treatment groups were gradually decreased along with the supplementation doses of FRBI. Caspase-3 contents of FRBI groups were reduced with a maximum reduction of the FRBI-2 group. Conclusion: Our results revealed supplement of FRBI into IVM media could dose-dependently decrease the maturation rate and increase apoptosis rate of sheep COCs. A lower dose of FRBI treatment slightly promoted IP3 production, but a higher dose of FRBI reduced IP3 production. FRBI suppressed the mRNA and protein expression levels of FSHR and LHR in sheep COCs

  18. Off-label use of rhBMP-2 as bone regeneration strategies in mandibular ameloblastoma unicystic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Henrique Celestino Lima E; Cheim, Adonai Peixoto; Moreno, Roberto; Miranda, Sérgio Luis de

    2017-01-01

    Jawbone reconstruction after tumor resection is one of the most challenging clinical tasks for maxillofacial surgeons. Osteogenic, osteoinductive, osteoconductive and non-antigenic properties of autogenous bone place this bone as the gold standard for solving problems of bone availability. However, the need for a second surgical site to harvest the bone graft increases significantly both the cost and the morbidity associated with the reconstructive procedures. Bone grafting gained an important tool with the discovery of bone morphogenetic proteins in 1960. Benefit of obtaining functional and real bone matrix without need of second surgical site seems to be the great advantage of use bone morphogenetic proteins. This study analyzed the use of rhBMP-2 in unicystic ameloblastoma of the mandible, detailing its structure, mechanisms of cell signaling and biological efficacy, in addition to present possible advantages and disadvantages of clinical use of rhBMP-2 as bone regeneration strategy. RESUMO A reconstrução óssea dos maxilares após ressecções tumorais é uma das tarefas mais difíceis para o cirurgião maxilofacial. As propriedades osteogênicas, osteoindutoras, osteocondutoras e não antigênicas do osso autógeno o colocam como o padrão-ouro para a solução de problemas de disponibilidade óssea. Entretanto a coleta do enxerto ósseo necessita de um segundo sítio cirúrgico, aumentando significativamente o custo e a morbidade associados ao procedimento reconstrutivo. A enxertia óssea ganhou uma excelente ferramenta com a descoberta das proteínas ósseas morfogenéticas na década de 1960. O benefício da obtenção de matriz óssea verdadeira e funcional, sem a necessidade de um segundo sítio cirúrgico, parece ser a grande vantagem do uso das proteínas ósseas morfogenéticas. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a utilização da rhBMP-2 na regeneração óssea de ameloblastoma mandibular unicístico, detalhando sua estrutura, seus

  19. Transforming growth factor beta 1 increases collagen content, and stimulates procollagen I and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 production of dental pulp cells: Role of MEK/ERK and activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Shuen; Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Yeh, Chien-Yang; Chang, Mei-Chi; Chan, Chiu-Po; Kuo, Han-Yueh; Liu, Hsin-Cheng; Liao, Wan-Chuen; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2017-05-01

    In order to clarify the role of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in pulp repair/regeneration responses, we investigated the differential signaling pathways responsible for the effects of TGF-β1 on collagen turnover, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) production in human dental pulp cells. Pulp cells were exposed to TGF-β1 with/without pretreatment and coincubation by 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(o-aminophenyl mercapto)butadiene (U0126; a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase [MEK]/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] inhibitor) and 4-(5-benzol[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-4-pyrldin-2-yl-1H- imidazol-2-yl)-benzamide hydrate (SB431542; an activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad signaling inhibitor). Sircol collagen assay was used to measure cellular collagen content. Culture medium procollagen I, TIMP-1, and MMP-3 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TGF-β1 increased the collagen content, procollagen I, and TIMP-1 production, but slightly decreased MMP-3 production of pulp cells. SB431542 and U0126 prevented the TGF-β1-induced increase of collagen content and TIMP-1 production of dental pulp cells. These results indicate that TGF-β1 may be involved in the healing/regeneration processes of dental pulp in response to injury by stimulation of collagen and TIMP-1 production. These events are associated with activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad2/3 and MEK/ERK signaling. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. MORN5 expression during craniofacial development and its interaction with the BMP and TGFB pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Cela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available MORN5 (MORN repeat containing 5 is encoded by a locus positioned on chromosome 17 in the chicken genome. The MORN motif is found in multiple copies in several proteins including junctophilins or phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase family and the MORN proteins themselves are found across the animal and plant kingdoms. MORN5 protein has a characteristic punctate pattern in the cytoplasm in immunofluorescence imaging. Previously, MORN5 was found among differentially expressed genes in a microarray profiling experiment of the chicken embryo head. Here, we provided in situ hybridization to analyse, in detail, the MORN5 expression in chick craniofacial structures. The expression of MORN5 was first observed at stage HH17-18 (E2.5. MORN5 expression gradually appeared on either side of the primitive oral cavity, within the maxillary region. At stage HH20 (E3, prominent expression was localised in the mandibular prominences lateral to the midline. From stage HH20 up to HH29 (E6, there was strong expression in restricted regions of the maxillary and mandibular prominences. The frontonasal mass (in the midline of the face expresses MORN5, starting at HH27 (E5. The expression was concentrated in the corners or globular processes, which will ultimately fuse with the cranial edges of the maxillary prominences. MORN5 expression was maintained in the fusion zone up to stage HH29. In sections in situs, MORN5 expression was localised preferentially in the mesenchyme. We examined signals that regulate MORN5 expression in the face based on a previous microarray study. Here we validated the array results with in situ hybridization and QPCR. MORN5 was downregulated 24h after Noggin and/or RA treatment. We also determined that BMP pathway genes are downstream of MORN5 following siRNA knockdown. Based on these results, we conclude that MORN5 is both regulated by and required for BMP signalling. The restricted expression of MORN5 in the lip fusion zone shown here

  1. Lrp4 modulates extracellular integration of cell signaling pathways in development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Ohazama

    Full Text Available The extent to which cell signaling is integrated outside the cell is not currently appreciated. We show that a member of the low-density receptor-related protein family, Lrp4 modulates and integrates Bmp and canonical Wnt signalling during tooth morphogenesis by binding the secreted Bmp antagonist protein Wise. Mouse mutants of Lrp4 and Wise exhibit identical tooth phenotypes that include supernumerary incisors and molars, and fused molars. We propose that the Lrp4/Wise interaction acts as an extracellular integrator of epithelial-mesenchymal cell signaling. Wise, secreted from mesenchyme cells binds to BMP's and also to Lrp4 that is expressed on epithelial cells. This binding then results in the modulation of Wnt activity in the epithelial cells. Thus in this context Wise acts as an extracellular signaling molecule linking two signaling pathways. We further show that a downstream mediator of this integration is the Shh signaling pathway.

  2. Intrinsic bevacizumab resistance is associated with prolonged activation of autocrine VEGF signaling and hypoxia tolerance in colorectal cancer cells and can be overcome by nintedanib, a small molecule angiokinase inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mésange, Paul; Poindessous, Virginie; Sabbah, Michèle; Escargueil, Alexandre E.; de Gramont, Aimery; Larsen, Annette K.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common tumor type with a high mortality rate, in part due to intrinsic drug resistance. Although bevacizumab, a VEGF-directed neutralizing antibody, is particularly active in this pathology, some patients never respond for reasons not well understood. We here wish to clarify the role of autocrine VEGF signaling in the response of CRC cells to angiogenesis inhibition. Our results show that CRC cells with intrinsic bevacizumab-resistance displayed pronounced upregulation of autocrine HIF-VEGF-VEGFR signaling in response to prolonged bevacizumab exposure whereas the same signaling pathway was downregulated in bevacizumab-sensitive xenografts. Importantly, both bevacizumab-sensitive and -resistant CRC xenografts were sensitive to nintedanib, a small molecule angiokinase inhibitor, which was associated with inhibition of mTORC1. In vitro studies revealed that bevacizumab-resistant cells displayed intrinsically higher HIF-VEGF signaling intensity and hypoxia tolerance compared to their bevacizumab-sensitive counterparts. Interestingly, although nintedanib showed comparable activity toward bevacizumab-sensitive cells under normoxia and hypoxia, the drug was three-fold more toxic to the resistant cells under hypoxia, suggesting that nintedanib attenuated the survival signaling that usually protects these cells from hypoxia-mediated cell death. In conclusion, our findings support a role for autocrine VEGF signaling in the survival of CRC cells to hypoxia and thus to angiogenesis inhibition. We further show that nintedanib, a small molecule angiokinase inhibitor, is active toward CRC models with intrinsic bevacizumab resistance supporting clinical trials of nintedanib in patients that do not respond to bevacizumab, alone or in combination with bevacizumab to increase angiogenesis inhibition. PMID:25015210

  3. BMP-7 ameliorates cobalt alloy particle-induced inflammation by suppressing Th17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengrong; Chen, Ruisong; Liu, Haoyuan; Sun, Rupeng; Huang, Jianming; Huang, Zheyuan; Jian, Guojian

    2017-10-01

    Metal wear debris has been shown to activate an aseptic osteolytic process that causes failure in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This osteolysis is characterized by a proinflammatory, self-propagating immune response involving primarily macrophages, dendritic cells, and activated osteoclasts, as well as T cells and B cells. The human bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-7, on the other hand, was shown to promote osteoblast survival, and reversed the downregulation of anabolic Smad proteins and Runx2 following cobalt injury. Therefore, we investigated the effect and mechanism of BMP-7 on the proinflammatory immune responses in osteoarthritis patients with previous TJA. Cobalt-treated monocytes/macrophages presented significantly elevated levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), both of which were suppressed by the addition of exogenous BMP-7. In patients with TJA, the serum BMP-7 level was inversely associated with the level of IL-6 and TNF secreted by monocytes/macrophages. Cobalt-treated monocytes/macrophages effectively supported Th17 inflammation, by an IL-6-dependent but not TNF-dependent mechanism. BMP-7, however, significantly suppressed cobalt-induced Th17 inflammation. In patients with TJA, the risk of osteolysis development was positively associated with the frequency of Th17 cells and negatively associated with the level of BMP-7. Together, these results demonstrated that BMP-7 could serve as a therapeutic agent in treating patients with metal wear debris-induced inflammation. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Immobilization of Murine Anti-BMP-2 Monoclonal Antibody on Various Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Ansari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials are widely used as scaffolds for tissue engineering. We have developed a strategy for bone tissue engineering that entails application of immobilized anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to capture endogenous BMPs in vivo and promote antibody-mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR. The purpose of the current study was to compare the efficacy of immobilization of a specific murine anti-BMP-2 mAb on three different types of biomaterials and to evaluate their suitability as scaffolds for AMOR. Anti-BMP-2 mAb or isotype control mAb was immobilized on titanium (Ti microbeads, alginate hydrogel, and ACS. The treated biomaterials were surgically implanted in rat critical-sized calvarial defects. After 8 weeks, de novo bone formation was assessed using micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses. Results showed de novo bone regeneration with all three scaffolds with immobilized anti-BMP-2 mAb, but not isotype control mAb. Ti microbeads showed the highest volume of bone regeneration, followed by ACS. Alginate showed the lowest volume of bone. Localization of BMP-2, -4, and -7 antigens was detected on all 3 scaffolds with immobilized anti-BMP-2 mAb implanted in calvarial defects. Altogether, these data suggested a potential mechanism for bone regeneration through entrapment of endogenous BMP-2, -4, and -7 proteins leading to bone formation using different types of scaffolds via AMOR.

  5. Hyaluronic Acid Promotes the Osteogenesis of BMP-2 in an Absorbable Collagen Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: We tested the hypothesis that hyaluronic acid (HA can significantly promote the osteogenic potential of BMP-2/ACS (absorbable collagen sponge, an efficacious product to heal large oral bone defects, thereby allowing its use at lower dosages and, thus, reducing its side-effects due to the unphysiologically-high doses of BMP-2; (2 Methods: In a subcutaneous bone induction model in rats, we first sorted out the optimal HA-polymer size and concentration with micro CT. Thereafter, we histomorphometrically quantified the effect of HA on new bone formation, total construct volume, and densities of blood vessels and macrophages in ACS with 5, 10, and 20 μg of BMP-2; (3 Results: The screening experiments revealed that the 100 µg/mL HA polymer of 48 kDa molecular weight could yield the highest new bone formation. Eighteen days post-surgery, HA could significantly enhance the total volume of newly-formed bone by approximately 100%, and also the total construct volume in the 10 μg BMP-2 group. HA could also significantly enhance the numerical area density of blood vessels in 5 μg BMP-2 and 10 μg BMP-2 groups. HA did not influence the numerical density of macrophages; and (4 Conclusions: An optimal combined administration of HA could significantly promote osteogenic and angiogenic activity of BMP-2/ACS, thus potentially minimizing its potential side-effects.

  6. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 μm) with a core (60±18 μm) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m(2)/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 μg/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration.

  7. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 μm) with a core (60±18 μm) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m2/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 μg/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration. PMID:25609957

  8. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 is induced by bone morphogenetic proteins and regulates proliferation and cell fate of neural progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raili Koivuniemi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural progenitor cells (NPCs in the developing neuroepithelium are regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. There is evidence that NPCs form a self-supporting niche for cell maintenance and proliferation. However, molecular interactions and cell-cell contacts and the microenvironment within the neuroepithelium are largely unknown. We hypothesized that cellular proteases especially those associated with the cell surface of NPCs play a role in regulation of progenitor cells in the brain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we show that NPCs, isolated from striatal anlage of developing rat brain, express hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 and -2 (HAI-1 and HAI-2 that are cell surface-linked serine protease inhibitors. In addition, radial glia cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells also express HAI-1 and HAI-2. To study the functional significance of HAI-1 and HAI-2 in progenitor cells, we modulated their levels using expression plasmids or silencing RNA (siRNA transfected into the NPCs. Data showed that overexpression of HAI-1 or HAI-2 decreased cell proliferation of cultured NPCs, whilst their siRNAs had opposite effects. HAI-1 also influenced NPC differentiation by increasing the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expressing cells in the culture. Expression of HAI-1 in vivo decreased cell proliferation in developing neuroepithelium in E15 old animals and promoted astrocyte cell differentiation in neonatal animals. Studying the regulation of HAI-1, we observed that Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and BMP-4 increased HAI-1 levels in the NPCs. Experiments using HAI-1-siRNA showed that these BMPs act on the NPCs partly in a HAI-1-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the cell-surface serine protease inhibitors, HAI-1 and HAI-2 influence proliferation and cell fate of NPCs and their expression levels are linked to BMP signaling. Modulation of the levels and actions of HAI-1

  9. Effect of Dual Treatment with SDF-1 and BMP-2 on Ectopic and Orthotopic Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hong-Moon; Lee, Jung-Tae; Kwon, Tae-Geon

    2015-01-01

    Purposes The potent stem cell homing factor stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) actively recruits mesenchymal stem cells from circulation and from local bone marrow. It is well established that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) induces ectopic and orthotopic bone formation. However, the exact synergistic effects of BMP-2 and SDF-1 in ectopic and orthotopic bone regeneration models have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of simultaneous SDF-1 and BMP-2 treatment on bone formation. Materials and Methods Various doses of SDF-1 were loaded onto collagen sponges with or without BMP-2.These sponges were implanted into subcutaneous pockets and critical-size calvarial defects in C57BL/6 mice. The specimens were harvested 4 weeks post-surgery and the degree of bone formation in specimens was evaluated by histomorphometric and radiographic density analyses. Osteogenic potential and migration capacity of mesenchymal cells and capillary tube formation of endothelial cells following dual treatment with SDF-1 and BMP-2 were evaluated with in vitro assays. Results SDF-1-only-treated implants did not yield significant in vivo bone formation and SDF-1 treatment did not enhance BMP-2-induced ectopic and orthotopic bone regeneration. In vitro experiments showed that concomitant use of BMP-2 and SDF-1 had no additive effect on osteoblastic differentiation, cell migration or angiogenesis compared to BMP-2 or SDF-1 treatment alone. Conclusions These findings imply that sequence-controlled application of SDF-1 and BMP-2 must be further investigated for the enhancement of robust osteogenesis in bone defects. PMID:25781922

  10. Gata4 expression in lateral mesoderm is downstream of BMP4 and isactivated directly by Forkhead and GATA transcription factors through adistal enhancer element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Anabel; De Val, Sarah; Heidt, Analeah B.; Xu, Shan-Mei; Bristow, James; Black, Brian L.

    2005-05-20

    The GATA family of zinc-finger transcription factors plays key roles in the specification and differentiation of multiple cell types during development. GATA4 is an early regulator of gene expression during the development of endoderm and mesoderm, and genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that GATA4 is required for embryonic development.Despite the importance of GATA4 in tissue specification and differentiation, the mechanisms by which Gata4 expression is activated and the transcription factor pathways upstream of GATA4 remain largely undefined. To identify transcriptional regulators of Gata4 in the mouse,we screened conserved noncoding sequences from the mouse Gata4 gene for enhancer activity in transgenic embryos. Here, we define the regulation of a distal enhancer element from Gata4 that is sufficient to direct expression throughout the lateral mesoderm, beginning at 7.5 days of mouse embryonic development. The activity of this enhancer is initially broad but eventually becomes restricted to the mesenchyme surrounding the liver. We demonstrate that the function of this enhancer in transgenic embryos is dependent upon highly conserved Forkhead and GATA transcription factor binding sites, which are bound by FOXF1 and GATA4,respectively. Furthermore, the activity of the Gata4 lateral mesoderm enhancer is attenuated by the BMP antagonist Noggin, and the enhancer is not activated in Bmp4-null embryos. Thus, these studies establish that Gata4 is a direct transcriptional target of Forkhead and GATA transcription factors in the lateral mesoderm, and demonstrate that Gata4lateral mesoderm enhancer activation requires BMP4, supporting a model in which GATA4 serves as a downstream effector of BMP signaling in the lateral mesoderm.

  11. Conserved cis-regulatory regions in a large genomic landscape control SHH and BMP-regulated Gremlin1 expression in mouse limb buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuniga Aimée

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse limb bud is a prime model to study the regulatory interactions that control vertebrate organogenesis. Major aspects of limb bud development are controlled by feedback loops that define a self-regulatory signalling system. The SHH/GREM1/AER-FGF feedback loop forms the core of this signalling system that operates between the posterior mesenchymal organiser and the ectodermal signalling centre. The BMP antagonist Gremlin1 (GREM1 is a critical node in this system, whose dynamic expression is controlled by BMP, SHH, and FGF signalling and key to normal progression of limb bud development. Previous analysis identified a distant cis-regulatory landscape within the neighbouring Formin1 (Fmn1 locus that is required for Grem1 expression, reminiscent of the genomic landscapes controlling HoxD and Shh expression in limb buds. Results Three highly conserved regions (HMCO1-3 were identified within the previously defined critical genomic region and tested for their ability to regulate Grem1 expression in mouse limb buds. Using a combination of BAC and conventional transgenic approaches, a 9 kb region located ~70 kb downstream of the Grem1 transcription unit was identified. This region, termed Grem1 Regulatory Sequence 1 (GRS1, is able to recapitulate major aspects of Grem1 expression, as it drives expression of a LacZ reporter into the posterior and, to a lesser extent, in the distal-anterior mesenchyme. Crossing the GRS1 transgene into embryos with alterations in the SHH and BMP pathways established that GRS1 depends on SHH and is modulated by BMP signalling, i.e. integrates inputs from these pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed interaction of endogenous GLI3 proteins with the core cis-regulatory elements in the GRS1 region. As GLI3 is a mediator of SHH signal transduction, these results indicated that SHH directly controls Grem1 expression through the GRS1 region. Finally, all cis-regulatory regions within the Grem1

  12. Comparison of the osteogenesis and fusion rates between activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) and rhBMP-2 in a beagle's posterolateral lumbar spine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guang Bin; Yoon, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae Hyup

    2017-10-01

    Activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) could promote bone healing more effectively than recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) with much lower dose in a rodent model, but there is no report about the effectiveness of AB204 in a large animal model. The purpose of this study was to compare the osteogenesis and fusion rate between AB204 and rhBMP-2 using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) as a carrier in a beagle's posterolateral lumbar fusion model. This is a randomized control animal study. Seventeen male beagle dogs were included. Bilateral posterolateral fusion was performed at the L1-L2 and L4-L5 levels. Biphasic calcium phosphate (2 cc), rhBMP-2 (50 µg)+BCP (2 cc), or AB204 (50 µg)+BCP (2 cc) were implanted into the intertransverse space randomly. X-ray was performed at 4 and 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and new bone formation and fusion rate were evaluated by manual palpation, computed tomography (CT), and undecalcified histology. The AB204 group showed significantly higher fusion rate (90%) than the rhBMP-2 group (15%) or the Osteon group (6.3%) by manual palpation. On x-ray and CT assessment, fusion rate and the volume of newly formed bone were also significantly higher in AB204 group than other groups. In contrast, more osteolysis was found in rhBMP-2 group (40%) than in AB204 group (10%) on CT study. In histologic results, new bone formation was sufficient between transverse processes in AB204 group, and obvious trabeculation and bone remodeling were observed. But in rhBMP-2 group, new bone formation was less than AB204 group and osteolysis was observed between the intertransverse spaces. A low dose of AB204 with BCP as a carrier significantly promotes the fusion rate in a large animal model when compared with the rhBMP-2. These findings demonstrate that AB204 could be an alternative to rhBMP-2 to improve fusion rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pentagone internalises glypicans to fine-tune multiple signalling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Mark; Vuilleumier, Robin; Springhorn, Alexander; Gawlik, Jennifer; Pyrowolakis, George

    2016-01-01

    Tight regulation of signalling activity is crucial for proper tissue patterning and growth. Here we investigate the function of Pentagone (Pent), a secreted protein that acts in a regulatory feedback during establishment and maintenance of BMP/Dpp morphogen signalling during Drosophila wing development. We show that Pent internalises the Dpp co-receptors, the glypicans Dally and Dally-like protein (Dlp), and propose that this internalisation is important in the establishment of a long range Dpp gradient. Pent-induced endocytosis and degradation of glypicans requires dynamin- and Rab5, but not clathrin or active BMP signalling. Thus, Pent modifies the ability of cells to trap and transduce BMP by fine-tuning the levels of the BMP reception system at the plasma membrane. In addition, and in accordance with the role of glypicans in multiple signalling pathways, we establish a requirement of Pent for Wg signalling. Our data propose a novel mechanism by which morphogen signalling is regulated. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13301.001 PMID:27269283

  14. A senescence rescue screen identifies BCL6 as an inhibitor of anti-proliferative p19ARF-p53 signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shvarts, A.; Brummelkamp, T.; Koh, E.; Daley, G.Q.; Bernards, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Senescence limits the proliferative capacity of primary cells in culture. We describe here a genetic screen to identify genes that allow bypass of this checkpoint. Using retroviral cDNA expression libraries, we identify BCL6 as a potent inhibitor of senescence. BCL6 is frequently activated in

  15. Loss of the BMP antagonist, SMOC-1, causes Ophthalmo-acromelic (Waardenburg Anophthalmia syndrome in humans and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Rainger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome (OAS, also known as Waardenburg Anophthalmia syndrome, is defined by the combination of eye malformations, most commonly bilateral anophthalmia, with post-axial oligosyndactyly. Homozygosity mapping and subsequent targeted mutation analysis of a locus on 14q24.2 identified homozygous mutations in SMOC1 (SPARC-related modular calcium binding 1 in eight unrelated families. Four of these mutations are nonsense, two frame-shift, and two missense. The missense mutations are both in the second Thyroglobulin Type-1 (Tg1 domain of the protein. The orthologous gene in the mouse, Smoc1, shows site- and stage-specific expression during eye, limb, craniofacial, and somite development. We also report a targeted pre-conditional gene-trap mutation of Smoc1 (Smoc1(tm1a that reduces mRNA to ∼10% of wild-type levels. This gene-trap results in highly penetrant hindlimb post-axial oligosyndactyly in homozygous mutant animals (Smoc1(tm1a/tm1a. Eye malformations, most commonly coloboma, and cleft palate occur in a significant proportion of Smoc1(tm1a/tm1a embryos and pups. Thus partial loss of Smoc-1 results in a convincing phenocopy of the human disease. SMOC-1 is one of the two mammalian paralogs of Drosophila Pentagone, an inhibitor of decapentaplegic. The orthologous gene in Xenopus laevis, Smoc-1, also functions as a Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP antagonist in early embryogenesis. Loss of BMP antagonism during mammalian development provides a plausible explanation for both the limb and eye phenotype in humans and mice.

  16. Towards developing a representative biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay for landfilled municipal solid waste - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Lauretta Feyisetan; Hettiaratchi, Joseph Patrick; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-04-01

    The applicability of slurry-based (semi-liquids) BMP assay in determining biodegradation kinetic parameters of landfilled waste is critically reviewed. Factors affecting the amount and rate of methane (CH 4 ) production during anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) and optimal values of these factors specific to landfill conditions are presented. The history of conventional BMP, and some existing procedures are reviewed. A landfill BMP (LBMP) assay is proposed that manipulates some of the key factors, such as moisture content, particle and sample size, that affects the rate of CH 4 production and the CH 4 generation potential of landfilled MSW (LMSW). By selecting proper conditions for these factors, a representative BMP assay could be conducted to ensure accurate determinations of CH 4 potential and the kinetic parameters k; first order rate coefficient and L o ; methane generation potential. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-7 expression is decreased in human hypertensive nephrosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Clemens D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-7 is protective in different animal models of acute and chronic kidney disease. Its role in human kidneys, and in particular hypertensive nephrosclerosis, has thus far not been described. Methods BMP-7 mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR and localised by immunostaining in tissue samples from normal and nephrosclerotic human kidneys. The impact of angiotensin (AT-II and the AT-II receptor antagonist telmisartan on BMP-7 mRNA levels and phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8 (pSmad 1/5/8 expression was quantified in proximal tubular cells (HK-2. Functional characteristics of BMP-7 were evaluated by testing its influence on TGF-β induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, expression of TGF-β receptor type I (TGF-βRI and phosphorylated Smad 2 (pSmad 2 as well as on TNF-α induced apoptosis of proximal tubular cells. Results BMP-7 was predominantly found in the epithelia of the distal tubule and the collecting duct and was less abundant in proximal tubular cells. In sclerotic kidneys, BMP-7 was significantly decreased as demonstrated by real-time PCR and immunostaining. AT-II stimulation in HK-2 cells led to a significant decrease of BMP-7 and pSmad 1/5/8, which was partially ameliorated upon co-incubation with telmisartan. Only high concentrations of BMP-7 (100 ng/ml were able to reverse TNF-α-induced apoptosis and TGF-β-induced EMT in human proximal tubule cells possibly due to a decreased expression of TGF-βRI. In addition, BMP-7 was able to reverse TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Smad 2. Conclusions The findings suggest a protective role for BMP-7 by counteracting the TGF-β and TNF-α-induced negative effects. The reduced expression of BMP-7 in patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis may imply loss of protection and regenerative potential necessary to counter the disease.

  18. Evaluating BMP effectiveness in improving freshwater provisioning under changing climate in the upper Mississippi river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Logsdon Muenich, Rebecca; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Wei, Xiaomei

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater provisioning (FWP) is one of the critical ecosystem services that is sensitive to climate change and variability and agricultural management strategies. Best management practices (BMPs) are widely used to relieve the adverse impacts of agricultural production on hydrology and water quality. However, climate change may alter the BMP effectiveness in protecting hydrology and water quality. A relatively large number of studies have evaluated BMP effectiveness in improving water quality and attenuating peak flow, however the impact of climate change on BMPs effectiveness in improving FWP service is poorly understood. In this study, five BMP scenarios (no tillage, filter strips, cover crops, grassed waterways and combination of all BMPs) were simulated using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Then an index-based ecosystem service approach was adopted to quantify annual FWP services by using model outputs for each BMP scenario, in order to evaluate the BMP effectiveness in improving FWP service for 13 studied watersheds in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) in the US. The effectiveness of each BMP was evaluated both for baseline climate (1975-2004) and projected near future climate (2021-2050) from three regional climate models (CCCma-CanESM2 RCA4, ICHEC-EC-EARTH RCA4 and ICHEC-EC-EARTH HIRHAM5) under two Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), with an objective to assess the impacts of future climate changes on BMP effectiveness. Results suggest that the annual FWP could be improved by implementing BMPs. The future climate change may reduce the BMP effectiveness due to altered runoff conditions under projected increased precipitation and temperature resulting in increased losses of pollutants from crop fields to streams and reduced freshwater availability. Results from this study may provide an insight for water resource managers to implement effective BMPs in responding to future climate change, in order to protect and

  19. Characterization of Inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins in human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Rajiv R; Morgan, Brandie R; Anumanthan, Govindaraj; Sharma, Ajay; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Rieger, Frank G

    2016-05-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins are DNA-binding transcription factors involved in cellular proliferation, migration, inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis. However, their express