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Sample records for bmp signaling controls

  1. Histone deacetylases control neurogenesis in embryonic brain by inhibition of BMP2/4 signaling.

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    Maya Shakèd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone-modifying enzymes are essential for a wide variety of cellular processes dependent upon changes in gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs lead to the compaction of chromatin and subsequent silencing of gene transcription, and they have recently been implicated in a diversity of functions and dysfunctions in the postnatal and adult brain including ocular dominance plasticity, memory consolidation, drug addiction, and depression. Here we investigate the role of HDACs in the generation of neurons and astrocytes in the embryonic brain. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a variety of HDACs are expressed in differentiating neural progenitor cells, we have taken a pharmacological approach to inhibit multiple family members. Inhibition of class I and II HDACs in developing mouse embryos with trichostatin A resulted in a dramatic reduction in neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and a modest increase in neurogenesis in the cortex. An identical effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of HDACs in in vitro-differentiating neural precursors derived from the same brain regions. A reduction in neurogenesis in ganglionic eminence-derived neural precursors was accompanied by an increase in the production of immature astrocytes. We show that HDACs control neurogenesis by inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/4 signaling pathway in radial glial cells. HDACs function at the transcriptional level by inhibiting and promoting, respectively, the expression of Bmp2 and Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibition of the BMP2/4 signaling pathway restored normal levels of neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis to both ganglionic eminence- and cortex-derived cultures in which HDACs were inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a transcriptionally-based regulation of BMP2/4 signaling by HDACs both in vivo and in vitro that is critical for neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and that modulates cortical

  2. crm-1 facilitates BMP signaling to control body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Fung, Wong Yan; Fat, Ko Frankie Chi; Eng, Cheah Kathryn Song; Lau, Chow King

    2007-11-01

    We have identified in Caenorhabditis elegans a homologue of the vertebrate Crim1, crm-1, which encodes a putative transmembrane protein with multiple cysteine-rich (CR) domains known to have bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) binding activity. Using the body morphology of C. elegans as an indicator, we showed that attenuation of crm-1 activity leads to a small body phenotype reminiscent of that of BMP pathway mutants. We showed that the crm-1 loss-of-function phenotype can be rescued by constitutive supply of sma-4 activity. crm-1 can enhance BMP signaling and this activity is dependent on the presence of the DBL-1 ligand and its receptors. crm-1 is expressed in neurons at the ventral nerve cord, where the DBL-1 ligand is produced. However, ectopic expression experiments reveal that crm-1 gene products act outside the DBL-1 producing cells and function non-autonomously to facilitate dbl/sma pathway signaling to control body size.

  3. Basolateral BMP signaling in polarized epithelial cells.

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    Masao Saitoh

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate various biological processes, mostly mediated by cells of mesenchymal origin. However, the roles of BMPs in epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that, in polarized epithelial cells, BMP signals are transmitted from BMP receptor complexes exclusively localized at the basolateral surface of the cell membrane. In addition, basolateral stimulation with BMP increased expression of components of tight junctions and enhanced the transepithelial resistance (TER, counteracting reduction of TER by treatment with TGF-β or an anti-tumor drug. We conclude that BMPs maintain epithelial polarity via intracellular signaling from basolaterally localized BMP receptors.

  4. Opposing nodal and BMP signals regulate left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin larva.

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    Yi-Jyun Luo

    Full Text Available Nodal and BMP signals are important for establishing left-right (LR asymmetry in vertebrates. In sea urchins, Nodal signaling prevents the formation of the rudiment on the right side. However, the opposing pathway to Nodal signaling during LR axis establishment is not clear. Here, we revealed that BMP signaling is activated in the left coelomic pouch, specifically in the veg2 lineage, but not in the small micromeres. By perturbing BMP activities, we demonstrated that BMP signaling is required for activating the expression of the left-sided genes and the formation of the left-sided structures. On the other hand, Nodal signals on the right side inhibit BMP signaling and control LR asymmetric separation and apoptosis of the small micromeres. Our findings show that BMP signaling is the positive signal for left-sided development in sea urchins, suggesting that the opposing roles of Nodal and BMP signals in establishing LR asymmetry are conserved in deuterostomes.

  5. BmpR1A is a major type 1 BMP receptor for BMP-Smad signaling during skull development.

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    Pan, Haichun; Zhang, Honghao; Abraham, Ponnu; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Lyons, Karen; Kaartinen, Vesa; Mishina, Yuji

    2017-09-01

    Craniosynostosis is caused by premature fusion of one or more sutures in an infant skull, resulting in abnormal facial features. The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which genetic mutations cause craniosynostosis are incompletely characterized, and many of the causative genes for diverse types of syndromic craniosynostosis have not yet been identified. We previously demonstrated that augmentation of BMP signaling mediated by a constitutively active BMP type IA receptor (ca-BmpR1A) in neural crest cells (ca1A hereafter) causes craniosynostosis and superimposition of heterozygous null mutation of Bmpr1a rescues premature suture fusion (ca1A;1aH hereafter). In this study, we superimposed heterozygous null mutations of the other two BMP type I receptors, Bmpr1b and Acvr1 (ca1A;1bH and ca1A;AcH respectively hereafter) to further dissect involvement of BMP-Smad signaling. Unlike caA1;1aH, ca1A;1bH and ca1A;AcH did not restore the craniosynostosis phenotypes. In our in vivo study, Smad-dependent BMP signaling was decreased to normal levels in mut;1aH mice. However, BMP receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads; pSmad1/5/9 hereafter) levels were comparable between ca1A, ca1A;1bH and ca1A;AcH mice, and elevated compared to control mice. Bmpr1a, Bmpr1b and Acvr1 null cells were used to examine potential mechanisms underlying the differences in ability of heterozygosity for Bmpr1a vs. Bmpr1b or Acvr1 to rescue the mut phenotype. pSmad1/5/9 level was undetectable in Bmpr1a homozygous null cells while pSmad1/5/9 levels did not decrease in Bmpr1b or Acvr1 homozygous null cells. Taken together, our study indicates that different levels of expression and subsequent activation of Smad signaling differentially contribute each BMP type I receptor to BMP-Smad signaling and craniofacial development. These results also suggest differential involvement of each type 1 receptor in pathogenesis of syndromic craniosynostoses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX regulates astrogenesis by modulating BMP signaling

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    Song eQin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs are self-renewing multipotent progenitors that generate both neurons and glia. The precise control of NSC behavior is fundamental to the architecture and function of the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for postnatal NSC activation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic niche. Here, we show that TLX modulates BMP-SMAD signaling to control the timing of postnatal astrogenesis. Genes involved in the BMP signaling pathway, such as Bmp4, Hes1, and Id3, are upregulated in postnatal brains lacking Tlx. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that TLX can directly bind the enhancer region of Bmp4. In accordance with elevated BMP signaling, the downstream effectors SMAD1/5/8 are activated by phosphorylation in Tlx mutant mice. Consequently, Tlx mutant brains exhibit an early appearance and increased number of astrocytes with marker expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and S100B. Taken together, these results suggest that TLX tightly controls postnatal astrogenesis through the modulation of BMP-SMAD signaling pathway activity.

  7. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX regulates astrogenesis by modulating BMP signaling.

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    Qin, Song; Niu, Wenze; Iqbal, Nida; Smith, Derek K; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing multipotent progenitors that generate both neurons and glia. The precise control of NSC behavior is fundamental to the architecture and function of the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for postnatal NSC activation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic niche. Here, we show that TLX modulates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-SMAD signaling to control the timing of postnatal astrogenesis. Genes involved in the BMP signaling pathway, such as Bmp4, Hes1, and Id3, are upregulated in postnatal brains lacking Tlx. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that TLX can directly bind the enhancer region of Bmp4. In accordance with elevated BMP signaling, the downstream effectors SMAD1/5/8 are activated by phosphorylation in Tlx mutant mice. Consequently, Tlx mutant brains exhibit an early appearance and increased number of astrocytes with marker expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B. Taken together, these results suggest that TLX tightly controls postnatal astrogenesis through the modulation of BMP-SMAD signaling pathway activity.

  8. Unique players in the BMP pathway: Small C-terminal domain phosphatases dephosphorylate Smad1 to attenuate BMP signaling

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    Knockaert, Marie; Sapkota, Gopal; Alarcón, Claudio; Massagué, Joan; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2006-01-01

    Smad transcription factors are key signal transducers for the TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of cytokines and morphogens. C-terminal serine phosphorylation by TGF-β and BMP membrane receptors drives Smads into the nucleus as transcriptional regulators. Dephosphorylation and recycling of activated Smads is an integral part of this process, which is critical for agonist sensing by the cell. However, the nuclear phosphatases involved have remained unknown. Here we provide functional, biochemical, and embryological evidence identifying the SCP (small C-terminal domain phosphatase) family of nuclear phosphatases as mediators of Smad1 dephosphorylation in the BMP signaling pathway in vertebrates. Xenopus SCP2/Os4 inhibits BMP activity in the presumptive ectoderm and leads to neuralization. In Xenopus embryos, SCP2/Os4 and human SCP1, 2, and 3 cause selective dephosphorylation of Smad1 compared with Smad2, inhibiting BMP- and Smad1-dependent transcription and leading to the induction of the secondary dorsal axis. In human cells, RNAi-mediated depletion of SCP1 and SCP2 increases the extent and duration of Smad1 phosphorylation in response to BMP, the transcriptional action of Smad1, and the strength of endogenous BMP gene responses. The present identification of the SCP family as Smad C-terminal phosphatases sheds light on the events that attenuate Smad signaling and reveals unexpected links to the essential phosphatases that control RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes. PMID:16882717

  9. BMP signaling regulates satellite cell-dependent postnatal muscle growth.

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    Stantzou, Amalia; Schirwis, Elija; Swist, Sandra; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Polydorou, Ioanna; Zarrouki, Faouzi; Mouisel, Etienne; Beley, Cyriaque; Julien, Anaïs; Le Grand, Fabien; Garcia, Luis; Colnot, Céline; Birchmeier, Carmen; Braun, Thomas; Schuelke, Markus; Relaix, Frédéric; Amthor, Helge

    2017-08-01

    Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of noggin in postnatal mice (to antagonize BMP ligands), satellite cell-specific knockout of Alk3 (the gene encoding the BMP transmembrane receptor) or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth, and ultimately retarded muscle growth. Moreover, reduced BMP signaling diminished the adult satellite cell pool. Abrogation of BMP signaling in satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts strongly diminished cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p57 In conclusion, these results show that BMP signaling defines postnatal muscle development by regulating satellite cell-dependent myofiber growth and the generation of the adult muscle stem cell pool. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Dynamics of BMP signaling in limb bud mesenchyme and polydactyly.

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    Norrie, Jacqueline L; Lewandowski, Jordan P; Bouldin, Cortney M; Amarnath, Smita; Li, Qiang; Vokes, Martha S; Ehrlich, Lauren I R; Harfe, Brian D; Vokes, Steven A

    2014-09-15

    Mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway are associated with a range of defects in skeletal formation. Genetic analysis of BMP signaling requirements is complicated by the presence of three partially redundant BMPs that are required for multiple stages of limb development. We generated an inducible allele of a BMP inhibitor, Gremlin, which reduces BMP signaling. We show that BMPs act in a dose and time dependent manner in which early reduction of BMPs result in digit loss, while inhibiting overall BMP signaling between E10.5 and E11.5 allows polydactylous digit formation. During this period, inhibiting BMPs extends the duration of FGF signaling. Sox9 is initially expressed in normal digit ray domains but at reduced levels that correlate with the reduction in BMP signaling. The persistence of elevated FGF signaling likely promotes cell proliferation and survival, inhibiting the activation of Sox9 and secondarily, inhibiting the differentiation of Sox9-expressing chondrocytes. Our results provide new insights into the timing and clarify the mechanisms underlying BMP signaling during digit morphogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BMP suppresses PTEN expression via RAS/ERK signaling.

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    Beck, Stayce E; Carethers, John M

    2007-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor beta family, classically utilizes the SMAD signaling pathway for its growth suppressive effects,and loss of this signaling cascade may accelerate cell growth. In the colon cancer predisposition syndrome Juvenile Polyposis, as well as in the late progression stages of nonsyndromic colorectal cancers, SMAD4 function is typically abrogated. Here, we utilized the SMAD4-null SW480 colon cancer cell line to examine BMPs effect on a potential target gene, PTEN, and how its expression might be regulated. Initial treatment of the SMAD4-null cells with BMP resulted in mild growth suppression, but with prolonged exposure to BMP, the cells become growth stimulatory, which coincided with observed decreases in transcription and translation of PTEN, and with corresponding increases in phospho-AKT protein levels. BMP-induced PTEN suppression was mediated via the RAS/ERK pathway, as pharmacologic inhibition of RAS/ERK, or interference with protein function in the cytosol by DN-RAS prevented BMP-induced growth promotion and changes in PTEN levels, as did treatment with noggin, a BMP ligand inhibitor. Thus, BMP downregulates PTEN via RAS/ERK in a SMAD4-null environment that contributes to cell growth, and constitutes a SMAD4-independent but BMP-responsive signaling pathway.

  12. Interaction of TGFβ and BMP signaling pathways during chondrogenesis.

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    Bettina Keller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TGFβ and BMP signaling pathways exhibit antagonistic activities during the development of many tissues. Although the crosstalk between BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways is well established in bone development, the relationship between these two pathways is less well defined during cartilage development and postnatal homeostasis. We generated hypomorphic mouse models of cartilage-specific loss of BMP and TGFβ signaling to assess the interaction of these pathways in postnatal growth plate homeostasis. We further used the chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line to test effects of BMP and TGFβ signaling on each other's downstream targets. We found that conditional deletion of Smad1 in chondrocytes resulted in a shortening of the growth plate. The addition of Smad5 haploinsufficiency led to a more severe phenotype with shorter prehypertrophic and hypertrophic zones and decreased chondrocyte proliferation. The opposite growth plate phenotype was observed in a transgenic mouse model of decreased chondrocytic TGFβ signaling that was generated by expressing a dominant negative form of the TGFβ receptor I (ΔTβRI in cartilage. Histological analysis demonstrated elongated growth plates with enhanced Ihh expression, as well as an increased proliferation rate with altered production of extracellular matrix components. In contrast, in chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, TGFβ was able to enhance BMP signaling, while BMP2 significantly reduces levels of TGF signaling. In summary, our data demonstrate that during endochondral ossification, BMP and TGFβ signaling can have antagonistic effects on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation in vivo. We also found evidence of direct interaction between the two signaling pathways in a cell model of chondrogenesis in vitro.

  13. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerates tooth movement via activation of the BMP-2 signaling pathway.

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    Hui Xue

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the underlying mechanism of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS induced alveolar bone remodeling and the role of BMP-2 expression in a rat orthodontic tooth movement model. Orthodontic appliances were placed between the homonymy upper first molars and the upper central incisors in rats under general anesthesia, followed by daily 20-min LIPUS or sham LIPUS treatment beginning at day 0. Tooth movement distances and molecular changes were evaluated at each observation point. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to detect HGF (Hepatocyte growth factor/Runx2/BMP-2 signaling pathways and receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL expression by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. At day 3, LIPUS had no effect on the rat orthodontic tooth movement distance and BMP-2-induced alveolar bone remodeling. However, beginning at day 5 and for the following time points, LIPUS significantly increased orthodontic tooth movement distance and BMP-2 signaling pathway and RANKL expression compared with the control group. The qRT-PCR and Western blot data in vitro and in vivo to study BMP-2 expression were consistent with the immunohistochemistry observations. The present study demonstrates that LIPUS promotes alveolar bone remodeling by stimulating the HGF/Runx2/BMP-2 signaling pathway and RANKL expression in a rat orthodontic tooth movement model, and LIPUS increased BMP-2 expression via Runx2 regulation.

  14. BMP signalling differentially regulates distinct haematopoietic stem cell types

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    M. Crisan (Mihaela); P. Solaimani Kartalaei (Parham); C.S. Vink (Chris); T. Yamada-Inagawa (Tomoko); K. Bollerot (Karine); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); R. Van Der Linden (Reinier); S.C. de Sousa Lopes (Susana Chuva); R. Monteiro (Rui); C.L. Mummery (Christine); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAdult haematopoiesis is the outcome of distinct haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subtypes with self-renewable repopulating ability, but with different haematopoietic cell lineage outputs. The molecular basis for this heterogeneity is largely unknown. BMP signalling regulates HSCs as they

  15. BMP Suppresses PTEN Expression via RAS/ERK Signaling

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    Beck, Stayce E.; Carethers, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor β family, classically utilizes the SMAD signaling pathway for its growth suppressive effects, and loss of this signaling cascade may accelerate cell growth. In the colon cancer predisposition syndrome Juvenile Polyposis, as well as in the late progression stages of nonsyndromic colorectal cancers, SMAD4 function is typically abrogated. Here, we utilized the SMAD4-null SW480 colon cancer cell line to examine BMPs effe...

  16. Molecular mechanisms of BMP-induced bone formation: Cross-talk between BMP and NF-κB signaling pathways in osteoblastogenesis

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    Eijiro Jimi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells that differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells. Differentiation processes are coordinately and dynamically controlled in the mesenchymal cells by specific signal transduction pathways. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, members of the TGF-β superfamily, induce not only bone formation in vivo, but also osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal cells in vitro. BMP signals are transduced from plasma membrane receptors to the nucleus through both Smad-dependent and -independent pathways, and are regulated by many extracellular and intercellular proteins that interact with BMPs or components of BMP signaling pathways. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of BMPs in osteoblast differentiation, it is important to elucidate the BMP signaling transduction pathways that are active during osteoblast differentiation. In this review, we summarize the BMP signaling pathways that are known to function in osteoblast development. We also describe our recent findings regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the cross-talk between BMP/Smad and NF-κB pathways in osteoblast differentiation.

  17. Bmp signaling mediates endoderm pouch morphogenesis by regulating Fgf signaling in zebrafish

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    Swartz, Mary E.; McCarthy, Neil; Norrie, Jacqueline L.; Eberhart, Johann K.

    2016-01-01

    The endodermal pouches are a series of reiterated structures that segment the pharyngeal arches and help pattern the vertebrate face. Multiple pathways regulate the complex process of endodermal development, including the Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) pathway. However, the role of Bmp signaling in pouch morphogenesis is poorly understood. Using genetic and chemical inhibitor approaches, we show that pouch morphogenesis requires Bmp signaling from 10-18 h post-fertilization, immediately following gastrulation. Blocking Bmp signaling during this window results in morphological defects to the pouches and craniofacial skeleton. Using genetic chimeras we show that Bmp signals directly to the endoderm for proper morphogenesis. Time-lapse imaging and analysis of reporter transgenics show that Bmp signaling is necessary for pouch outpocketing via the Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) pathway. Double loss-of-function analyses demonstrate that Bmp and Fgf signaling interact synergistically in craniofacial development. Collectively, our analyses shed light on the tissue and signaling interactions that regulate development of the vertebrate face. PMID:27122171

  18. BMP signaling inhibits intestinal stem cell self-renewal through suppression of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling.

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    He, Xi C; Zhang, Jiwang; Tong, Wei-Gang; Tawfik, Ossama; Ross, Jason; Scoville, David H; Tian, Qiang; Zeng, Xin; He, Xi; Wiedemann, Leanne M; Mishina, Yuji; Li, Linheng

    2004-10-01

    In humans, mutations in BMPR1A, SMAD4 and PTEN are responsible for juvenile polyposis syndrome, juvenile intestinal polyposis and Cowden disease, respectively. The development of polyposis is a common feature of these diseases, suggesting that there is an association between BMP and PTEN pathways. The mechanistic link between BMP and PTEN pathways and the related etiology of juvenile polyposis is unresolved. Here we show that conditional inactivation of Bmpr1a in mice disturbs homeostasis of intestinal epithelial regeneration with an expansion of the stem and progenitor cell populations, eventually leading to intestinal polyposis resembling human juvenile polyposis syndrome. We show that BMP signaling suppresses Wnt signaling to ensure a balanced control of stem cell self-renewal. Mechanistically, PTEN, through phosphatidylinosital-3 kinase-Akt, mediates the convergence of the BMP and Wnt pathways on control of beta-catenin. Thus, BMP signaling may control the duplication of intestinal stem cells, thereby preventing crypt fission and the subsequent increase in crypt number.

  19. Integrating patterning signals: Wnt/GSK3 regulates the duration of the BMP/Smad1 signal.

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    Fuentealba, Luis C; Eivers, Edward; Ikeda, Atsushi; Hurtado, Cecilia; Kuroda, Hiroki; Pera, Edgar M; De Robertis, Edward M

    2007-11-30

    BMP receptors determine the intensity of BMP signals via Smad1 C-terminal phosphorylations. Here we show that a finely controlled cell biological pathway terminates this activity. The duration of the activated pSmad1(Cter) signal was regulated by sequential Smad1 linker region phosphorylations at conserved MAPK and GSK3 sites required for its polyubiquitinylation and transport to the centrosome. Proteasomal degradation of activated Smad1 and total polyubiquitinated proteins took place in the centrosome. Inhibitors of the Erk, p38, and JNK MAPKs, as well as GSK3 inhibitors, prolonged the duration of a pulse of BMP7. Wnt signaling decreased pSmad1(GSK3) antigen levels and redistributed it from the centrosome to cytoplasmic LRP6 signalosomes. In Xenopus embryos, it was found that Wnts induce epidermis and that this required an active BMP-Smad pathway. Epistatic experiments suggested that the dorsoventral (BMP) and anteroposterior (Wnt/GSK3) patterning gradients are integrated at the level of Smad1 phosphorylations during embryonic pattern formation.

  20. SMOC can act as both an antagonist and an expander of BMP signaling.

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    Thomas, J Terrig; Eric Dollins, D; Andrykovich, Kristin R; Chu, Tehyen; Stultz, Brian G; Hursh, Deborah A; Moos, Malcolm

    2017-03-21

    The matricellular protein SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) is conserved phylogenetically from vertebrates to arthropods. We showed previously that SMOC inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling downstream of its receptor via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In contrast, the most prominent effect of the Drosophila orthologue, pentagone ( pent ), is expanding the range of BMP signaling during wing patterning. Using SMOC deletion constructs we found that SMOC-∆EC, lacking the extracellular calcium binding (EC) domain, inhibited BMP2 signaling, whereas SMOC-EC (EC domain only) enhanced BMP2 signaling. The SMOC-EC domain bound HSPGs with a similar affinity to BMP2 and could expand the range of BMP signaling in an in vitro assay by competition for HSPG-binding. Together with data from studies in vivo we propose a model to explain how these two activities contribute to the function of Pent in Drosophila wing development and SMOC in mammalian joint formation.

  1. Dragon enhances BMP signaling and increases transepithelial resistance in kidney epithelial cells.

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    Xia, Yin; Babitt, Jodie L; Bouley, Richard; Zhang, Ying; Da Silva, Nicolas; Chen, Shanzhuo; Zhuang, Zhenjie; Samad, Tarek A; Brenner, Gary J; Anderson, Jennifer L; Hong, Charles C; Schneyer, Alan L; Brown, Dennis; Lin, Herbert Y

    2010-04-01

    The neuronal adhesion protein Dragon acts as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptor that enhances BMP signaling. Given the importance of BMP signaling in nephrogenesis and its putative role in the response to injury in the adult kidney, we studied the localization and function of Dragon in the kidney. We observed that Dragon localized predominantly to the apical surfaces of tubular epithelial cells in the thick ascending limbs, distal convoluted tubules, and collecting ducts of mice. Dragon expression was weak in the proximal tubules and glomeruli. In mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD3) cells, Dragon generated BMP signals in a ligand-dependent manner, and BMP4 is the predominant endogenous ligand for the Dragon coreceptor. In mIMCD3 cells, BMP4 normally signaled through BMPRII, but Dragon enhanced its signaling through the BMP type II receptor ActRIIA. Dragon and BMP4 increased transepithelial resistance (TER) through the Smad1/5/8 pathway. In epithelial cells isolated from the proximal tubule and intercalated cells of collecting ducts, we observed coexpression of ActRIIA, Dragon, and BMP4 but not BMPRII. Taken together, these results suggest that Dragon may enhance BMP signaling in renal tubular epithelial cells and maintain normal renal physiology.

  2. Characterization of wise protein and its molecular mechanism to interact with both Wnt and BMP signals.

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    Lintern, Katherine B; Guidato, Sonia; Rowe, Alison; Saldanha, José W; Itasaki, Nobue

    2009-08-21

    Cross-talk of BMP and Wnt signaling pathways has been implicated in many aspects of biological events during embryogenesis and in adulthood. A secreted protein Wise and its orthologs (Sostdc1, USAG-1, and Ectodin) have been shown to modulate Wnt signaling and also inhibit BMP signals. Modulation of Wnt signaling activity by Wise is brought about by an interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6, whereas BMP inhibition is by binding to BMP ligands. Here we have investigated the mode of action of Wise on Wnt and BMP signals. It was found that Wise binds LRP6 through one of three loops formed by the cystine knot. The Wise deletion construct lacking the LRP6-interacting loop domain nevertheless binds BMP4 and inhibits BMP signals. Moreover, BMP4 does not interfere with Wise-LRP6 binding, suggesting separate domains for the physical interaction. Functional assays also show that the ability of Wise to block Wnt1 activity through LRP6 is not impeded by BMP4. In contrast, the ability of Wise to inhibit BMP4 is prevented by additional LRP6, implying a preference of Wise in binding LRP6 over BMP4. In addition to the interaction of Wise with BMP4 and LRP6, the molecular characteristics of Wise, such as glycosylation and association with heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface, are suggested. This study helps to understand the multiple functions of Wise at the molecular level and suggests a possible role for Wise in balancing Wnt and BMP signals.

  3. Mediator Med23 deficiency enhances neural differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells through modulating BMP signaling.

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    Zhu, Wanqu; Yao, Xiao; Liang, Yan; Liang, Dan; Song, Lu; Jing, Naihe; Li, Jinsong; Wang, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Unraveling the mechanisms underlying early neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is crucial to developing cell-based therapies of neurodegenerative diseases. Neural fate acquisition is proposed to be controlled by a 'default' mechanism, for which the molecular regulation is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the functional roles of Mediator Med23 in pluripotency and lineage commitment of murine ESCs. Unexpectedly, we found that, despite the largely unchanged pluripotency and self-renewal of ESCs, Med23 depletion rendered the cells prone to neural differentiation in different differentiation assays. Knockdown of two other Mediator subunits, Med1 and Med15, did not alter the neural differentiation of ESCs. Med15 knockdown selectively inhibited endoderm differentiation, suggesting the specificity of cell fate control by distinctive Mediator subunits. Gene profiling revealed that Med23 depletion attenuated BMP signaling in ESCs. Mechanistically, MED23 modulated Bmp4 expression by controlling the activity of ETS1, which is involved in Bmp4 promoter-enhancer communication. Interestingly, med23 knockdown in zebrafish embryos also enhanced neural development at early embryogenesis, which could be reversed by co-injection of bmp4 mRNA. Taken together, our study reveals an intrinsic, restrictive role of MED23 in early neural development, thus providing new molecular insights for neural fate determination. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Sirenomelia in Bmp7 and Tsg compound mutant mice: requirement for Bmp signaling in the development of ventral posterior mesoderm.

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    Zakin, Lise; Reversade, Bruno; Kuroda, Hiroki; Lyons, Karen M; De Robertis, Eddy M

    2005-05-01

    Sirenomelia or mermaid-like phenotype is one of the principal human congenital malformations that can be traced back to the stage of gastrulation. Sirenomelia is characterized by the fusion of the two hindlimbs into a single one. In the mouse, sirens have been observed in crosses between specific strains and as the consequence of mutations that increase retinoic acid levels. We report that the loss of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7) in combination with a half dose or complete loss of twisted gastrulation (Tsg) causes sirenomelia in the mouse. Tsg is a Bmp- and chordin-binding protein that has multiple effects on Bmp metabolism in the extracellular space; Bmp7 is one of many Bmps and is shown here to bind to Tsg. In Xenopus, co-injection of Tsg and Bmp7 morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) has a synergistic effect, greatly inhibiting formation of ventral mesoderm and ventral fin tissue. In the mouse, molecular marker studies indicate that the sirenomelia phenotype is associated with a defect in the formation of ventroposterior mesoderm. These experiments demonstrate that dorsoventral patterning of the mouse posterior mesoderm is regulated by Bmp signaling, as is the case in other vertebrates. Sirens result from a fusion of the hindlimb buds caused by a defect in the formation of ventral mesoderm.

  5. Bmp signaling is at the heart of vertebrate left-right asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling is vitally important in many aspects of cardiac development. These include cardiac induction and differentiation and establishing the L/R axis. In this thesis, we focus on the role of Bmp signaling in securing proper cardiac asymmetry, by (1) establishing

  6. BMP and Ihh/PTHrP signaling interact to coordinate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.

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    Minina, E; Wenzel, H M; Kreschel, C; Karp, S; Gaffield, W; McMahon, A P; Vortkamp, A

    2001-11-01

    During endochondral ossification, two secreted signals, Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), have been shown to form a negative feedback loop regulating the onset of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), another family of secreted factors regulating bone formation, have been implicated as potential interactors of the Ihh/PTHrP feedback loop. To analyze the relationship between the two signaling pathways, we used an organ culture system for limb explants of mouse and chick embryos. We manipulated chondrocyte differentiation by supplementing these cultures either with BMP2, PTHrP and Sonic hedgehog as activators or with Noggin and cyclopamine as inhibitors of the BMP and Ihh/PTHrP signaling systems. Overexpression of Ihh in the cartilage elements of transgenic mice results in an upregulation of PTHrP expression and a delayed onset of hypertrophic differentiation. Noggin treatment of limbs from these mice did not antagonize the effects of Ihh overexpression. Conversely, the promotion of chondrocyte maturation induced by cyclopamine, which blocks Ihh signaling, could not be rescued with BMP2. Thus BMP signaling does not act as a secondary signal of Ihh to induce PTHrP expression or to delay the onset of hypertrophic differentiation. Similar results were obtained using cultures of chick limbs. We further investigated the role of BMP signaling in regulating proliferation and hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and identified three functions of BMP signaling in this process. First we found that maintaining a normal proliferation rate requires BMP and Ihh signaling acting in parallel. We further identified a role for BMP signaling in modulating the expression of IHH: Finally, the application of Noggin to mouse limb explants resulted in advanced differentiation of terminally hypertrophic cells, implicating BMP signaling in delaying the process of hypertrophic differentiation itself. This

  7. Kaempferol induces chondrogenesis in ATDC5 cells through activation of ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway.

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    Nepal, Manoj; Li, Liang; Cho, Hyoung Kwon; Park, Jong Kun; Soh, Yunjo

    2013-12-01

    Endochondral bone formation occurs when mesenchymal cells condense to differentiate into chondrocytes, the primary cell types of cartilage. The aim of the present study was to identify novel factors regulating chondrogenesis. We investigated whether kaempferol induces chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Kaempferol treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. Kaempferol-treated ATDC5 cells stained more intensely with alcian blue staining than control cells, suggesting greater synthesis of matrix proteoglycans in the kaempferol-treated cells. Similarly, kaempferol induced greater activation of alkaline phosphatase activity than control cells, and it enhanced the expression of chondrogenic marker genes, such as collagen type I, collagen type X, OCN, Runx2, and Sox9. Kaempferol induced an acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-jun N-terminal kinase or p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK, decreased in stained cells treated with kaempferol. Furthermore, kaempferol greatly expressed the protein and mRNA levels of BMP-2, suggesting chondrogenesis was stimulated via a BMP-2 pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that kaempferol has chondromodulating effects via an ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for bone growth disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Constitutive activation of BMP signalling abrogates experimental metastasis of OVCA429 cells via reduced cell adhesion

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    Shepherd Trevor G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP4 signalling in human ovarian cancer cells induces a number of phenotypic changes in vitro, including altered cell morphology, adhesion, motility and invasion, relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. From these in vitro analyses, we had hypothesized that active BMP signalling promotes the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer. Methods To test this directly, we engineered OVCA429 human ovarian cancer cells possessing doxycycline-inducible expression of a constitutively-active mutant BMP receptor, ALK3QD, and administered these cells to immunocompromised mice. Further characterization was performed in vitro to address the role of activated BMP signalling on the EOC phenotype, with particular emphasis on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and cell adhesion. Results Unexpectedly, doxycycline-induced ALK3QD expression in OVCA429 cells reduced tumour implantation on peritoneal surfaces and ascites formation when xenografted into immunocompromised mice by intraperitoneal injection. To determine the potential mechanisms controlling this in vivo observation, we followed with several cell culture experiments. Doxycycline-induced ALK3QD expression enhanced the refractile, spindle-shaped morphology of cultured OVCA429 cells eliciting an EMT-like response. Using in vitro wound healing assays, we observed that ALK3QD-expressing cells migrated with long, cytoplasmic projections extending into the wound space. The phenotypic alterations of ALK3QD-expressing cells correlated with changes in specific gene expression patterns of EMT, including increased Snail and Slug and reduced E-cadherin mRNA expression. In addition, ALK3QD signalling reduced β1- and β3-integrin expression, critical molecules involved in ovarian cancer cell adhesion. The combination of reduced E-cadherin and β-integrin expression correlates directly with the reduced EOC cell cohesion in spheroids and

  9. BMP signaling mediates effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition in mice.

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    Kevin T Gobeske

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to exercise or to environmental enrichment increases the generation of new neurons in the adult hippocampus and promotes certain kinds of learning and memory. While the precise role of neurogenesis in cognition has been debated intensely, comparatively few studies have addressed the mechanisms linking environmental exposures to cellular and behavioral outcomes. Here we show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling mediates the effects of exercise on neurogenesis and cognition in the adult hippocampus. Elective exercise reduces levels of hippocampal BMP signaling before and during its promotion of neurogenesis and learning. Transgenic mice with decreased BMP signaling or wild type mice infused with a BMP inhibitor both exhibit remarkable gains in hippocampal cognitive performance and neurogenesis, mirroring the effects of exercise. Conversely, transgenic mice with increased BMP signaling have diminished hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired cognition. Exercise exposure does not rescue these deficits, suggesting that reduced BMP signaling is required for environmental effects on neurogenesis and learning. Together, these observations show that BMP signaling is a fundamental mechanism linking environmental exposure with changes in cognitive function and cellular properties in the hippocampus.

  10. Structural Basis of the Human Endoglin-BMP9 Interaction: Insights into BMP Signaling and HHT1

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    Takako Saito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Endoglin (ENG/CD105 is an essential endothelial cell co-receptor of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β superfamily, mutated in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1 (HHT1 and involved in tumor angiogenesis and preeclampsia. Here, we present crystal structures of the ectodomain of human ENG and its complex with the ligand bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9. BMP9 interacts with a hydrophobic surface of the N-terminal orphan domain of ENG, which adopts a new duplicated fold generated by circular permutation. The interface involves residues mutated in HHT1 and overlaps with the epitope of tumor-suppressing anti-ENG monoclonal TRC105. The structure of the C-terminal zona pellucida module suggests how two copies of ENG embrace homodimeric BMP9, whose binding is compatible with ligand recognition by type I but not type II receptors. These findings shed light on the molecular basis of the BMP signaling cascade, with implications for future therapeutic interventions in this fundamental pathway.

  11. Dual role of BMP signaling in the regulation of Drosophila intestinal stem cell self-renewal.

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    Tian, Aiguo; Jiang, Jin

    2017-10-02

    Many adult organs including Drosophila adult midguts rely on resident stem cells to replenish damaged cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Previous studies have shown that, upon injury, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the midguts can increase proliferation and lineage differentiation to meet the demand for tissue repair. Our recent study has demonstrated that, in response to certain injury, midguts can expand ISC population size as an additional regenerative mechanism. We found that injury elicited by bleomycin feeding or bacterial infection increased the production of two BMP ligands (Dpp and Gbb) in enterocytes (ECs), leading to elevated BMP signaling in progenitor cells that drove an expansion of ISCs by promoting their symmetric self-renewing division. Interestingly, we also found that BMP signaling in ECs inhibits the production of Dpp and Gbb, and that this negative feedback mechanism is required to reset ISC pool size to the homeostatic state. Our findings suggest that BMP signaling exerts two opposing influences on stem cell activity depending on where it acts: BMP signaling in progenitor cells promotes ISC self-renewal while BMP signaling in ECs restricts ISC self-renewal by preventing excessive production of BMP ligands. Our results further suggest that transient expansion of ISC population in conjunction with increasing ISC proliferation provides a more effective strategy for tissue regeneration.

  12. DRAGON, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, inhibits BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

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    Kanomata, Kazuhiro; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Nojima, Junya; Fukuda, Toru; Katagiri, Takenobu

    2009-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce osteoblastic differentiation of myoblasts via binding to cell surface receptors. Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) have been identified as BMP co-receptors. We report here that DRAGON/RGMb, a member of the RGM family, suppressed BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts via a novel mechanism. All RGMs were expressed in C2C12 cells that were differentiated into myocytes and osteoblastic cells, but RGMc was not detected in immature cells. In C2C12 cells, only DRAGON suppressed ALP and Id1 promoter activities induced by BMP-4 or by constitutively activated BMP type I receptors. This inhibition by DRAGON was dependent on the secretory form of the von Willbrand factor type D domain. DRAGON even suppressed BMP signaling induced by constitutively activated Smad1. Over-expression of neogenin did not alter the inhibitory capacity of DRAGON. Taken together, these findings indicate that DRAGON may be an inhibitor of BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts. We also suggest that a novel molecule(s) expressed on the cell membrane may mediate the signal transduction of DRAGON in order to suppress BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

  13. Timing is everything: Reiterative Wnt, BMP and RA signaling regulate developmental competence during endoderm organogenesis.

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    Rankin, Scott A; McCracken, Kyle W; Luedeke, David M; Han, Lu; Wells, James M; Shannon, John M; Zorn, Aaron M

    2018-02-01

    A small number of signaling pathways are used repeatedly during organogenesis, and they can have drastically different effects on the same population of cells depending on the embryonic stage. How cellular competence changes over developmental time is not well understood. Here we used Xenopus, mouse, and human pluripotent stem cells to investigate how the temporal sequence of Wnt, BMP, and retinoic acid (RA) signals regulates endoderm developmental competence and organ induction, focusing on respiratory fate. While Nkx2-1+ lung fate is not induced until late somitogenesis stages, here we show that lung competence is restricted by the gastrula stage as a result of Wnt and BMP-dependent anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning. These early Wnt and BMP signals make posterior endoderm refractory to subsequent RA/Wnt/BMP-dependent lung induction. We further mapped how RA modulates the response to Wnt and BMP in a temporal specific manner. In the gastrula RA promotes posterior identity, however in early somite stages of development RA regulates respiratory versus pharyngeal potential in anterior endoderm and midgut versus hindgut potential in posterior endoderm. Together our data suggest a dynamic and conserved response of vertebrate endoderm during organogenesis, wherein early Wnt/BMP/RA impacts how cells respond to later Wnt/BMP/RA signals, illustrating how reiterative combinatorial signaling can regulate both developmental competence and subsequent fate specification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. BMP4 signaling is involved in the generation of inner ear sensory epithelia

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    Wang Yucheng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robust expression of BMP4 in the incipient sensory organs of the inner ear suggests possible roles for this signaling protein during induction and development of auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia. Homozygous BMP4-/- animals die before the inner ear's sensory organs develop, which precludes determining the role of BMP4 in these organs with simple gene knockout experiments. Results Here we use a chicken otocyst culture system to perform quantitative studies on the development of inner ear cell types and show that hair cell and supporting cell generation is remarkably reduced when BMP signaling is blocked, either with its antagonist noggin or by using soluble BMP receptors. Conversely, we observed an increase in the number of hair cells when cultured otocysts were treated with exogenous BMP4. BMP4 treatment additionally prompted down-regulation of Pax-2 protein in proliferating sensory epithelial progenitors, leading to reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Conclusion Our results implicate BMP4 in two events during chicken inner ear sensory epithelium formation: first, in inducing the switch from proliferative sensory epithelium progenitors to differentiating epithelial cells and secondly, in promoting the differentiation of hair cells within the developing sensory epithelia.

  15. Activation of PKA/CREB Signaling is Involved in BMP9-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Hongyu Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: BMP9 is highly capable of promoting osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs although the molecular mechanism involved is largely unknown. Here, we explored the detail role of PKA/CREB signaling in BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. Methods: Activation status of PKA/CREB signaling is assessed by nonradioactive assay and Western blot. Using PKA inhibitors and a dominant negative protein of CREB (A-CREB, we investigated the effect of PKA/CREB signaling on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. Results: We found that BMP9 promotes PKA activity and enhances CREB phosphorylation in MSCs. BMP9 is shown to down-regulate protein kinase A inhibitor γ (PKIγ expression. We demonstrated that PKA inhibitors suppress BMP9-induced early osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in MSCs as well as late osteogenic markers osteopontin (OPN, osteocalcin (OCN and matrix mineralization. We found that PKA inhibitor reduces BMP9-induced Runx2 activation and p38 phosphorylation in MSCs. Lastly, interference of CREB function by A-CREB decreased BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation as well. Conclusion: Our results revealed that BMP9 may activate PKA/CREB signaling in MSCs through suppression of PKIγ expression. It is noteworthy that inhibition of PKA/CREB signaling may impair BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, implying that activation of PKA/CREB signaling is required for BMP9 osteoinductive activity.

  16. BMP-2 Overexpression Augments Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Motility by Upregulating Myosin Va via Erk Signaling

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    Ming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The disruption of physiologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration initiates atherosclerosis development. The biochemical mechanisms leading to dysfunctional VSMC motility remain unknown. Recently, cytokine BMP-2 has been implicated in various vascular physiologic and pathologic processes. However, whether BMP-2 has any effect upon VSMC motility, or by what manner, has never been investigated. Methods. VSMCs were adenovirally transfected to genetically overexpress BMP-2. VSMC motility was detected by modified Boyden chamber assay, confocal time-lapse video assay, and a colony wounding assay. Gene chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify genes potentially regulated by BMP-2. Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed myosin Va expression locale. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were recorded. Results. VSMC migration was augmented in VSMCs overexpressing BMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated knockdown of myosin Va inhibited VSMC motility. Both myosin Va mRNA and protein expression significantly increased after BMP-2 administration and were inhibited by Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126. BMP-2 induced Ca2+ oscillations, generated largely by a “cytosolic oscillator”. Conclusion. BMP-2 significantly increased VSMCs migration and myosin Va expression, via the Erk signaling pathway and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and inhibition of BMP-2-induced myosin Va expression may represent a potential therapeutic strategy.

  17. A targeted glycan-related gene screen reveals heparan sulfate proteoglycan sulfation regulates WNT and BMP trans-synaptic signaling.

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    Neil Dani

    Full Text Available A Drosophila transgenic RNAi screen targeting the glycan genome, including all N/O/GAG-glycan biosynthesis/modification enzymes and glycan-binding lectins, was conducted to discover novel glycan functions in synaptogenesis. As proof-of-product, we characterized functionally paired heparan sulfate (HS 6-O-sulfotransferase (hs6st and sulfatase (sulf1, which bidirectionally control HS proteoglycan (HSPG sulfation. RNAi knockdown of hs6st and sulf1 causes opposite effects on functional synapse development, with decreased (hs6st and increased (sulf1 neurotransmission strength confirmed in null mutants. HSPG co-receptors for WNT and BMP intercellular signaling, Dally-like Protein and Syndecan, are differentially misregulated in the synaptomatrix of these mutants. Consistently, hs6st and sulf1 nulls differentially elevate both WNT (Wingless; Wg and BMP (Glass Bottom Boat; Gbb ligand abundance in the synaptomatrix. Anterograde Wg signaling via Wg receptor dFrizzled2 C-terminus nuclear import and retrograde Gbb signaling via synaptic MAD phosphorylation and nuclear import are differentially activated in hs6st and sulf1 mutants. Consequently, transcriptional control of presynaptic glutamate release machinery and postsynaptic glutamate receptors is bidirectionally altered in hs6st and sulf1 mutants, explaining the bidirectional change in synaptic functional strength. Genetic correction of the altered WNT/BMP signaling restores normal synaptic development in both mutant conditions, proving that altered trans-synaptic signaling causes functional differentiation defects.

  18. GDF3 is a BMP inhibitor that can activate Nodal signaling only at very high doses

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    Levine, Ariel J.; Levine, Zachary J.; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the TGF-β superfamily, there are approximately forty ligands divided into two major branches: the TGF-β/Activin/Nodal ligands and the BMP/GDF ligands. We studied the ligand GDF3 and found that it inhibits signaling by its co-family members, the BMPs; however, GDF3 has been described by others to have Nodal-like activity. Here, we show that GDF3 can activate Nodal signaling, but only at very high doses and only upon mRNA over-expression. In contrast, GDF3 inhibits BMP signaling upon over-expression of GDF3 mRNA, as recombinant protein, and regardless of its dose. We therefore further characterized the mechanism through which GDF3 protein acts as a specific BMP inhibitor and found that the BMP inhibitory activity of GDF3 resides redundantly in the unprocessed, predominant form and in the mature form of the protein. These results confirm and extend the activity that we described for GDF3 and illuminate the experimental basis for the different observations of others. We suggest that GDF3 is either a bi-functional TGF-β ligand, or, more likely, that it is a BMP inhibitor that can artificially activate Nodal signaling under non-physiological conditions. PMID:18823971

  19. Tissue-specific regulation of BMP signaling by Drosophila N-glycanase 1.

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    Galeone, Antonio; Han, Seung Yeop; Huang, Chengcheng; Hosomi, Akira; Suzuki, Tadashi; Jafar-Nejad, Hamed

    2017-08-04

    Mutations in the human N- glycanase 1 ( NGLY1 ) cause a rare, multisystem congenital disorder with global developmental delay. However, the mechanisms by which NGLY1 and its homologs regulate embryonic development are not known. Here we show that Drosophila Pngl encodes an N -glycanase and exhibits a high degree of functional conservation with human NGLY1. Loss of Pngl results in developmental midgut defects reminiscent of midgut-specific loss of BMP signaling. Pngl mutant larvae also exhibit a severe midgut clearance defect, which cannot be fully explained by impaired BMP signaling. Genetic experiments indicate that Pngl is primarily required in the mesoderm during Drosophila development. Loss of Pngl results in a severe decrease in the level of Dpp homodimers and abolishes BMP autoregulation in the visceral mesoderm mediated by Dpp and Tkv homodimers. Thus, our studies uncover a novel mechanism for the tissue-specific regulation of an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway by an N -glycanase enzyme.

  20. Cyclic dermal BMP signalling regulates stem cell activation during hair regeneration.

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    Plikus, Maksim V; Mayer, Julie Ann; de la Cruz, Damon; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K; Maxson, Robert; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2008-01-17

    In the age of stem cell engineering it is critical to understand how stem cell activity is regulated during regeneration. Hairs are mini-organs that undergo cyclic regeneration throughout adult life, and are an important model for organ regeneration. Hair stem cells located in the follicle bulge are regulated by the surrounding microenvironment, or niche. The activation of such stem cells is cyclic, involving periodic beta-catenin activity. In the adult mouse, regeneration occurs in waves in a follicle population, implying coordination among adjacent follicles and the extrafollicular environment. Here we show that unexpected periodic expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and Bmp4 in the dermis regulates this process. This BMP cycle is out of phase with the WNT/beta-catenin cycle, thus dividing the conventional telogen into new functional phases: one refractory and the other competent for hair regeneration, characterized by high and low BMP signalling, respectively. Overexpression of noggin, a BMP antagonist, in mouse skin resulted in a markedly shortened refractory phase and faster propagation of the regenerative wave. Transplantation of skin from this mutant onto a wild-type host showed that follicles in donor and host can affect their cycling behaviours mutually, with the outcome depending on the equilibrium of BMP activity in the dermis. Administration of BMP4 protein caused the competent region to become refractory. These results show that BMPs may be the long-sought 'chalone' inhibitors of hair growth postulated by classical experiments. Taken together, results presented in this study provide an example of hierarchical regulation of local organ stem cell homeostasis by the inter-organ macroenvironment. The expression of Bmp2 in subcutaneous adipocytes indicates physiological integration between these two thermo-regulatory organs. Our findings have practical importance for studies using mouse skin as a model for carcinogenesis, intra-cutaneous drug

  1. Matrix-immobilized BMP-2 on microcontact printed fibronectin as in vitro tool to study BMP-mediated signaling and cell migration

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    Kristin eHauff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During development, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs exert important functions in several tissues by regulating signaling for cell differentiation and migration. In vivo the extracellular matrix (ECM not only provides a support for adherent cells, but also presents a reservoir of growth factors (GFs. Several constituents of the ECM provide adhesive cues, which serve as binding sites for cell transmembrane receptors, such as integrins, which convey adhesion-mediated signaling to the intracellular compartment. Integrins do not function alone but rather crosstalk and cooperate with other receptors, such as GF receptors, in regulating cell responses to extracellular signals. To this, we present here the immobilization of BMP-2 onto cellular fibronectin (cFN, a key protein of the ECM, to investigate their impact on GF-mediated signaling and migration.Following biotinylation, BMP-2 was linked to biotinylated cFN using NeutrAvidin (NA as cross-linker. Characterization with QCM-D and ELISA confirmed the efficient immobilization of BMP-2 on cFN over a period of 24 h.To validate the bioactivity of matrix-immobilized BMP-2 (iBMP-2 we investigated short- and long-term responses of C2C12 myoblasts in comparison to soluble BMP-2 (sBMP-2 or in absence of GFs. Similarly to sBMP-2, iBMP-2 triggered Smad 1/5 phosphorylation and translocation into the nucleus corresponding to the activation of BMP-mediated Smad-dependent pathway. Additionally, successful suppression of myotube formation was observed after six days.We next implemented this approach to fabricate cFN micro patterned stripes by soft lithography. These stripes only allowed cell-surface interaction on the pattern due to passivation of the surface in between, thus serving as platform for studies on directed cell migration. During a 10 h-period, cells showed an increased migratory activity upon BMP-2 exposure.Thus, this versatile tool retains the GF's bioactivity and allows the presentation of ECM

  2. BMP signaling in the human fetal ovary is developmentally regulated and promotes primordial germ cell apoptosis.

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    Childs, Andrew J; Kinnell, Hazel L; Collins, Craig S; Hogg, Kirsten; Bayne, Rosemary A L; Green, Samira J; McNeilly, Alan S; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic precursors of gametes in the adult organism, and their development, differentiation, and survival are regulated by a combination of growth factors collectively known as the germ cell niche. Although many candidate niche components have been identified through studies on mouse PGCs, the growth factor composition of the human PGC niche has not been studied extensively. Here we report a detailed analysis of the expression of components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling apparatus in the human fetal ovary, from postmigratory PGC proliferation to the onset of primordial follicle formation. We find developmentally regulated and reciprocal patterns of expression of BMP2 and BMP4 and identify germ cells to be the exclusive targets of ovarian BMP signaling. By establishing long-term cultures of human fetal ovaries in which PGCs are retained within their physiological niche, we find that BMP4 negatively regulates postmigratory PGC numbers in the human fetal ovary by promoting PGC apoptosis. Finally, we report expression of both muscle segment homeobox (MSX)1 and MSX2 in the human fetal ovary and reveal a selective upregulation of MSX2 expression in human fetal ovary in response to BMP4, suggesting this gene may act as a downstream effector of BMP-induced apoptosis in the ovary, as in other systems. These data reveal for the first time growth factor regulation of human PGC development in a physiologically relevant context and have significant implications for the development of cultures systems for the in vitro maturation of germ cells, and their derivation from pluripotent stem cells.

  3. Regulation of Gastric Lgr5+ve Cell Homeostasis by Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP Signaling and Inflammatory StimuliSummary

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    Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Gastric Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 cells exert important functions during injury and homeostasis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling regulates gastric inflammation and epithelial homeostasis. We investigated if BMP signaling controls the fate of Lgr5+ve cells during inflammation. Methods: The H+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase β-subunit promoter was used to express the BMP inhibitor noggin (Nog in the stomach (H+/K+-Nog mice. Inhibition of BMP signaling in Lgr5 cells was achieved by crossing Lgr5-EGFP-ires-CreERT2 (Lgr5-Cre mice to mice with floxed alleles of BMP receptor 1A (Lgr5-Cre;Bmpr1aflox/flox mice. Lgr5/GFP+ve cells were isolated using flow cytometry. Lineage tracing studies were conducted by crossing Lgr5-Cre mice to mice that express Nog and tdTomato (Lgr5-Cre;H+/K+-Nog;Rosa26-tdTom. Infection with Helicobacter felis was used to induce inflammation. Morphology of the mucosa was analyzed by H&E staining. Distribution of H+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase-, IF-, Ki67-, CD44-, CD44v9-, and bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells was analyzed by immunostaining. Expression of neck and pit cell mucins was determined by staining with the lectins Griffonia (Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin II and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1, respectively. Id1, Bmpr1a, Lgr5, c-Myc, and Cd44 messenger RNAs were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Lgr5-Cre;Bmpr1aflox/flox mice showed diminished expression of Bmpr1a in Lgr5/GFP+ve cells. Infection of Lgr5-Cre;Bmpr1aflox/flox mice with H felis led to enhanced inflammation, increased cell proliferation, parietal cell loss, and to the development of metaplasia and dysplasia. Infected Lgr5-Cre;H+/K+-Nog;Rosa26-tdTom mice, but not control mice, showed the presence of tomato+ve glands lining the lesser curvature that stained positively with Griffonia (Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin II and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1, and

  4. Abnormal Activation of BMP Signaling Causes Myopathy in Fbn2 Null Mice.

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    Gerhard Sengle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that

  5. Asymmetric BMP4 signalling improves the realism of kidney organoids.

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    Mills, Christopher G; Lawrence, Melanie L; Munro, David A D; Elhendawi, Mona; Mullins, John J; Davies, Jamie A

    2017-11-01

    We present a strategy for increasing the anatomical realism of organoids by applying asymmetric cues to mimic spatial information that is present in natural embryonic development, and demonstrate it using mouse kidney organoids. Existing methods for making kidney organoids in mice yield developing nephrons arranged around a symmetrical collecting duct tree that has no ureter. We use transplant experiments to demonstrate plasticity in the fate choice between collecting duct and ureter, and show that an environment rich in BMP4 promotes differentiation of early collecting ducts into uroplakin-positive, unbranched, ureter-like epithelial tubules. Further, we show that application of BMP4-releasing beads in one place in an organoid can break the symmetry of the system, causing a nearby collecting duct to develop into a uroplakin-positive, broad, unbranched, ureter-like 'trunk' from one end of which true collecting duct branches radiate and induce nephron development in an arrangement similar to natural kidneys. The idea of using local symmetry-breaking cues to improve the realism of organoids may have applications to organoid systems other than the kidney.

  6. Drosophila Nociceptive Sensitization Requires BMP Signaling via the Canonical SMAD Pathway.

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    Follansbee, Taylor L; Gjelsvik, Kayla J; Brann, Courtney L; McParland, Aidan L; Longhurst, Colin A; Galko, Michael J; Ganter, Geoffrey K

    2017-08-30

    Nociceptive sensitization is a common feature in chronic pain, but its basic cellular mechanisms are only partially understood. The present study used the Drosophila melanogaster model system and a candidate gene approach to identify novel components required for modulation of an injury-induced nociceptive sensitization pathway presumably downstream of Hedgehog. This study demonstrates that RNAi silencing of a member of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway, Decapentaplegic (Dpp), specifically in the Class IV multidendritic nociceptive neuron, significantly attenuated ultraviolet injury-induced sensitization. Furthermore, overexpression of Dpp in Class IV neurons was sufficient to induce thermal hypersensitivity in the absence of injury. The requirement of various BMP receptors and members of the SMAD signal transduction pathway in nociceptive sensitization was also demonstrated. The effects of BMP signaling were shown to be largely specific to the sensitization pathway and not associated with changes in nociception in the absence of injury or with changes in dendritic morphology. Thus, the results demonstrate that Dpp and its pathway play a crucial and novel role in nociceptive sensitization. Because the BMP family is so strongly conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, it seems likely that the components analyzed in this study represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of chronic pain in humans. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This report provides a genetic analysis of primary nociceptive neuron mechanisms that promote sensitization in response to injury. Drosophila melanogaster larvae whose primary nociceptive neurons were reduced in levels of specific components of the BMP signaling pathway, were injured and then tested for nocifensive responses to a normally subnoxious stimulus. Results suggest that nociceptive neurons use the BMP2/4 ligand, along with identified receptors and intracellular transducers to transition to a

  7. Efficient retina formation requires suppression of both Activin and BMP signaling pathways in pluripotent cells

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    Kimberly A. Wong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retina formation requires the correct spatiotemporal patterning of key regulatory factors. While it is known that repression of several signaling pathways lead to specification of retinal fates, addition of only Noggin, a known BMP antagonist, can convert pluripotent Xenopus laevis animal cap cells to functional retinal cells. The aim of this study is to determine the intracellular molecular events that occur during this conversion. Surprisingly, blocking BMP signaling alone failed to mimic Noggin treatment. Overexpressing Noggin in pluripotent cells resulted in a concentration-dependent suppression of both Smad1 and Smad2 phosphorylation, which act downstream of BMP and Activin signaling, respectively. This caused a decrease in downstream targets: endothelial marker, xk81, and mesodermal marker, xbra. We treated pluripotent cells with dominant-negative receptors or the chemical inhibitors, dorsomorphin and SB431542, which each target either the BMP or Activin signaling pathway. We determined the effect of these treatments on retina formation using the Animal Cap Transplant (ACT assay; in which treated pluripotent cells were transplanted into the eye field of host embryos. We found that inhibition of Activin signaling, in the presence of BMP signaling inhibition, promotes efficient retinal specification in Xenopus tissue, mimicking the affect of adding Noggin alone. In whole embryos, we found that the eye field marker, rax, expanded when adding both dominant-negative Smad1 and Smad2, as did treating the cells with both dorsomorphin and SB431542. Future studies could translate these findings to a mammalian culture assay, in order to more efficiently produce retinal cells in culture.

  8. BMP signaling protects telencephalic fate by repressing eye identity and its Cxcr4-dependent morphogenesis.

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    Bielen, Holger; Houart, Corinne

    2012-10-16

    Depletion of Wnt signaling is a major requirement for the induction of the anterior prosencephalon. However, the molecular events driving the differential regionalization of this area into eye-field and telencephalon fates are still unknown. Here we show that the BMP pathway is active in the anterior neural ectoderm during late blastula to early gastrula stage in zebrafish. Bmp2b mutants and mosaic loss-of-function experiments reveal that BMP acts as a repressor of eye-field fate through inhibition of its key transcription factor Rx3, thereby protecting the future telencephalon from acquiring eye identity. This BMP-driven mechanism initiates the establishment of the telencephalon prior to the involvement of Wnt antagonists from the anterior neural border. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rx3 and BMP are respectively required to maintain and restrict the chemokine receptor cxcr4a, which in turn contributes to the morphogenetic separation of eye-field and telencephalic cells during early neurulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced BMP signaling results in hindlimb fusion with lethal pelvic/urogenital organ aplasia: a new mouse model of sirenomelia.

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    Suzuki, Kentaro; Adachi, Yasuha; Numata, Tomokazu; Nakada, Shoko; Yanagita, Motoko; Nakagata, Naomi; Evans, Sylvia M; Graf, Daniel; Economides, Aris; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Moon, Anne M; Yamada, Gen

    2012-01-01

    Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox)) and the Isl1 (Islet1)-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox) conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme) and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.

  10. Reduced BMP signaling results in hindlimb fusion with lethal pelvic/urogenital organ aplasia: a new mouse model of sirenomelia.

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    Kentaro Suzuki

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox and the Isl1 (Islet1-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.

  11. Select polyphenolic fractions from dried plum enhance osteoblast activity through BMP-2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, Jennifer L; Rendina-Ruedy, Elizabeth; Crockett, Erica K; Ouyang, Ping; King, Jarrod B; Cichewicz, Robert H; Lucas, Edralin A; Smith, Brenda J

    2018-05-01

    Dried plum supplementation has been shown to enhance bone formation while suppressing bone resorption. Evidence from previous studies has demonstrated that these responses can be attributed in part to the fruit's polyphenolic compounds. The purpose of this study was to identify the most bioactive polyphenolic fractions of dried plum with a focus on their osteogenic activity and to investigate their mechanisms of action under normal and inflammatory conditions. Utilizing chromatographic techniques, six fractions of polyphenolic compounds were prepared from a crude extract of dried plum. Initial screening assays revealed that two fractions (DP-FrA and DP-FrB) had the greatest osteogenic potential. Subsequent experiments using primary bone-marrow-derived osteoblast cultures demonstrated these two fractions enhanced extracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an indicator of osteoblast activity, and mineralized nodule formation under normal conditions. Both fractions enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, as indicated by increased Bmp2 and Runx2 gene expression and protein levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5. DP-FrB was most effective at up-regulating Tak1 and Smad1, as well as protein levels of phospho-p38. Under inflammatory conditions, TNF-α suppressed ALP and tended to decrease nodule formation (P=.0674). This response coincided with suppressed gene expression of Bmp2 and the up-regulation of Smad6, an inhibitor of BMP signaling. DP-FrA and DP-FrB partially normalized these responses. Our results show that certain fractions of polyphenolic compounds in dried plum up-regulate osteoblast activity by enhancing BMP signaling, and when this pathway is inhibited by TNF-α, the osteogenic response is attenuated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction of Wnt Signaling with BMP/Smad Signaling during the Transition from Cell Proliferation to Myogenic Differentiation in Mouse Myoblast-Derived Cells

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    Kumiko Terada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wnt signaling is involved in muscle formation through β-catenin-dependent or -independent pathways, but interactions with other signaling pathways including transforming growth factor β/Smad have not been precisely elucidated. Results. As Wnt4 stimulates myogenic differentiation by antagonizing myostatin (GDF8 activity, we examined the role of Wnt4 signaling during muscle differentiation in the C2C12 myoblast cell line. Among several extrinsic signaling molecules examined in a microarray analysis of C2C12 cells during the transition from cell proliferation to differentiation after mitogen deprivation, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 expression was prominently increased. Wnt4 overexpression had similar effects on BMP4 expression. BMP4 was able to inhibit muscle differentiation when added to the culture medium. BMP4 and noggin had no effects on the cellular localization of β-catenin induced by Wnt3a; however, the BMP4-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was enhanced by Wnt4, but not by Wnt3a. The BMP antagonist noggin effectively stimulated muscle differentiation through binding to endogenous BMPs, and the effect of noggin was enhanced by the presence of Wnt3a and Wnt4. Conclusion. These results suggest that BMP/Smad pathways are modified through Wnt signaling during the transition from progenitor cell proliferation to myogenic differentiation, although Wnt/β-catenin signaling is not modified with BMP/Smad signaling.

  13. Wnt and BMP signaling crosstalk in regulating dental stem cells: Implications in dental tissue engineering

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    Fugui Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tooth is a complex hard tissue organ and consists of multiple cell types that are regulated by important signaling pathways such as Wnt and BMP signaling. Serious injuries and/or loss of tooth or periodontal tissues may significantly impact aesthetic appearance, essential oral functions and the quality of life. Regenerative dentistry holds great promise in treating oral/dental disorders. The past decade has witnessed a rapid expansion of our understanding of the biological features of dental stem cells, along with the signaling mechanisms governing stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. In this review, we first summarize the biological characteristics of seven types of dental stem cells, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, dental follicle precursor cells, periodontal ligament stem cells, alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, and MSCs from gingiva. We then focus on how these stem cells are regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP and/or Wnt signaling by examining the interplays between these pathways. Lastly, we analyze the current status of dental tissue engineering strategies that utilize oral/dental stem cells by harnessing the interplays between BMP and Wnt pathways. We also highlight the challenges that must be addressed before the dental stem cells may reach any clinical applications. Thus, we can expect to witness significant progresses to be made in regenerative dentistry in the coming decade.

  14. Apc bridges Wnt/{beta}-catenin and BMP signaling during osteoblast differentiation of KS483 cells

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    Miclea, Razvan L., E-mail: R.L.Miclea@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Horst, Geertje van der, E-mail: G.van_der_Horst@lumc.nl [Department of Urology, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Robanus-Maandag, Els C., E-mail: E.C.Robanus@lumc.nl [Department of Human Genetics, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Loewik, Clemens W.G.M., E-mail: C.W.G.M.Lowik@lumc.nl [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Oostdijk, Wilma, E-mail: W.Oostdijk@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Wit, Jan M., E-mail: J.M.Wit@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Karperien, Marcel, E-mail: H.B.J.Karperien@tnw.utwente.nl [MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Department of Tissue Regeneration, University of Twente, Zuidhorst Room ZH 144, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-06-10

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway influences the differentiation of mesenchymal cell lineages in a quantitative and qualitative fashion depending on the dose of {beta}-catenin signaling. Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) is the critical intracellular regulator of {beta}-catenin turnover. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Apc in regulating the differentiation capacity of skeletal progenitor cells, we have knocked down Apc in the murine mesenchymal stem cell-like KS483 cells by stable expression of Apc-specific small interfering RNA. In routine culture, KSFrt-Apc{sub si} cells displayed a mesenchymal-like spindle shape morphology, exhibited markedly decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Apc knockdown resulted in upregulation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin and the BMP/Smad signaling pathways, but osteogenic differentiation was completely inhibited. This effect could be rescued by adding high concentrations of BMP-7 to the differentiation medium. Furthermore, KSFrt-Apc{sub si} cells showed no potential to differentiate into chondrocytes or adipocytes. These results demonstrate that Apc is essential for the proliferation, survival and differentiation of KS483 cells. Apc knockdown blocks the osteogenic differentiation of skeletal progenitor cells, a process that can be overruled by high BMP signaling.

  15. Inhibition of BMP signaling overcomes acquired resistance to cetuximab in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jinlong; Jung, Ji-Eun; Choi, Sun Il; Kim, Sung Soo; Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Choi, Eunji; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Hana; Kim, Eun Ok; Lee, Yu Sun; Chang, Hee Jin; Park, Joo Yong; Kim, Yeejeong; Yun, Tak; Heo, Kyun; Kim, Youn-Jae; Kim, Hyunggee; Kim, Yun-Hee; Park, Jong Bae; Choi, Sung Weon

    2018-02-01

    Despite expressing high levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a majority of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients show limited response to cetuximab and ultimately develop drug resistance. However, mechanism underlying cetuximab resistance in OSCC is not clearly understood. Here, using a mouse orthotopic xenograft model of OSCC, we show that bone morphogenic protein-7-phosphorylated Smad-1, -5, -8 (BMP7-p-Smad1/5/8) signaling contributes to cetuximab resistance. Tumor cells isolated from the recurrent cetuximab-resistant xenograft models exhibited low EGFR expression but extremely high levels of p-Smad1/5/8. Treatment with the bone morphogenic protein receptor type 1 (BMPRI) inhibitor, DMH1 significantly reduced cetuximab-resistant OSCC tumor growth, and combined treatment of DMH1 and cetuximab remarkably reduced relapsed tumor growth in vivo. Importantly, p-Smad1/5/8 level was elevated in cetuximab-resistant patients and this correlated with poor prognosis. Collectively, our results indicate that the BMP7-p-Smad1/5/8 signaling is a key pathway to acquired cetuximab resistance, and demonstrate that combination therapy of cetuximab and a BMP signaling inhibitor as potentially a new therapeutic strategy for overcoming acquired resistance to cetuximab in OSCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. S113R mutation in SLC33A1 leads to neurodegeneration and augmented BMP signaling in a mouse model

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    Pingting Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The S113R mutation (c.339T>G (MIM #603690.0001 in SLC33A1 (MIM #603690, an ER membrane acetyl-CoA transporter, has been previously identified in individuals with hereditary spastic paraplegia type 42 (SPG42; MIM #612539. SLC33A1 has also been shown to inhibit the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling pathway in zebrafish. To better understand the function of SLC33A1, we generated and characterized Slc33a1S113R knock-in mice. Homozygous Slc33a1S113R mutant mice were embryonic lethal, whereas heterozygous Slc33a1 mutant mice (Slc33a1wt/mut exhibited behavioral abnormalities and central neurodegeneration, which is consistent with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP phenotypes. Importantly, we found an upregulation of BMP signaling in the nervous system and mouse embryonic fibroblasts of Slc33a1wt/mut mice. Using a sciatic nerve crush injury model in vivo and dorsal root ganglion (DRG culture in vitro we showed that injury-induced axonal regeneration in Slc33a1wt/mut mice was accelerated and mediated by upregulated BMP signaling. Exogenous addition of BMP signaling antagonist, noggin, could efficiently alleviate the accelerated injury-induced axonal regrowth. These results indicate that SLC33A1 can negatively regulate BMP signaling in mice, further supporting the notion that upregulation of BMP signaling is a common mechanism of a subset of hereditary spastic paraplegias.

  17. mTOR signaling promotes stem cell activation via counterbalancing BMP-mediated suppression during hair regeneration.

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    Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Huishan; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Qi; Hu, Huimin; Wang, Xinyue; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Tongbiao; Zhou, Jiaxi; Chen, Ting; Duan, Enkui

    2015-02-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cycles of degeneration (catagen), rest (telogen), and regeneration (anagen) phases. Anagen begins when the hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) obtain sufficient activation cues to overcome suppressive signals, mainly the BMP pathway, from their niche cells. Here, we unveil that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is activated in HFSCs, which coincides with the HFSC activation at the telogen-to-anagen transition. By using both an inducible conditional gene targeting strategy and a pharmacological inhibition method to ablate or inhibit mTOR signaling in adult skin epithelium before anagen initiation, we demonstrate that HFs that cannot respond to mTOR signaling display significantly delayed HFSC activation and extended telogen. Unexpectedly, BMP signaling activity is dramatically prolonged in mTOR signaling-deficient HFs. Through both gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro, we show that mTORC1 signaling negatively affects BMP signaling, which serves as a main mechanism whereby mTORC1 signaling facilitates HFSC activation. Indeed, in vivo suppression of BMP by its antagonist Noggin rescues the HFSC activation defect in mTORC1-null skin. Our findings reveal a critical role for mTOR signaling in regulating stem cell activation through counterbalancing BMP-mediated repression during hair regeneration. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Biphasic effects of FGF2 on odontoblast differentiation involve changes in the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways.

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    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2014-08-01

    Odontoblast differentiation during physiological and reparative dentinogenesis is dependent upon multiple signaling molecules, including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) ligands. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that continuous exposure of primary dental pulp cultures to FGF2 exerted biphasic effects on the expression of markers of dentinogenesis. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells. Our results showed that stimulatory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis during the proliferation phase of growth were associated with increased expression of the components of the BMP (Bmp2, Dlx5, Msx2, Osx) and Wnt (Wnt10a, Wisp2) pathways, and decreased expression of an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling, Nkd2. Further addition of FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of growth resulted in decreased expression of components of the BMP signaling (Bmp2, Runx2, Osx) and increased expression of inhibitors of the Wnt signaling (Nkd2, Dkk3). This suggests that both BMP and Wnt pathways may be involved in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells.

  19. Endogenous WNT Signals Mediate BMP-Induced and Spontaneous Differentiation of Epiblast Stem Cells and Human Embryonic Stem Cells

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    Dorota Kurek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic application of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs requires precise control over their differentiation. However, spontaneous differentiation is prevalent, and growth factors induce multiple cell types; e.g., the mesoderm inducer BMP4 generates both mesoderm and trophoblast. Here we identify endogenous WNT signals as BMP targets that are required and sufficient for mesoderm induction, while trophoblast induction is WNT independent, enabling the exclusive differentiation toward either lineage. Furthermore, endogenous WNT signals induce loss of pluripotency in hESCs and their murine counterparts, epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs. WNT inhibition obviates the need to manually remove differentiated cells to maintain cultures and improves the efficiency of directed differentiation. In EpiSCs, WNT inhibition stabilizes a pregastrula epiblast state with novel characteristics, including the ability to contribute to blastocyst chimeras. Our findings show that endogenous WNT signals function as hidden mediators of growth factor-induced differentiation and play critical roles in the self-renewal of hESCs and EpiSCs.

  20. A balance of FGF and BMP signals regulates cell cycle exit and Equarin expression in lens cells

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    Jarrin, Miguel; Pandit, Tanushree; Gunhaga, Lena

    2012-01-01

    In embryonic and adult lenses, a balance of cell proliferation, cell cycle exit, and differentiation is necessary to maintain physical function. The molecular mechanisms regulating the transition of proliferating lens epithelial cells to differentiated primary lens fiber cells are poorly characterized. To investigate this question, we used gain- and loss-of-function analyses to modulate fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and/or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals in chick lens/retina explants. Here we show that FGF activity plays a key role for proliferation independent of BMP signals. Moreover, a balance of FGF and BMP signals regulates cell cycle exit and the expression of Ccdc80 (also called Equarin), which is expressed at sites where differentiation of lens fiber cells occurs. BMP activity promotes cell cycle exit and induces Equarin expression in an FGF-dependent manner. In contrast, FGF activity is required but not sufficient to induce cell cycle exit or Equarin expression. Furthermore, our results show that in the absence of BMP activity, lens cells have increased cell cycle length or are arrested in the cell cycle, which leads to decreased cell cycle exit. Taken together, these findings suggest that proliferation, cell cycle exit, and early differentiation of primary lens fiber cells are regulated by counterbalancing BMP and FGF signals. PMID:22718906

  1. BMP signaling modulates hepcidin expression in zebrafish embryos independent of hemojuvelin.

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    Yann Gibert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemojuvelin (Hjv, a member of the repulsive-guidance molecule (RGM family, upregulates transcription of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin by activating the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling pathway in mammalian cells. Mammalian models have identified furin, neogenin, and matriptase-2 as modifiers of Hjv's function. Using the zebrafish model, we evaluated the effects of hjv and its interacting proteins on hepcidin expression during embryonic development. We found that hjv is strongly expressed in the notochord and somites of the zebrafish embryo and that morpholino knockdown of hjv impaired the development of these structures. Knockdown of hjv or other hjv-related genes, including zebrafish orthologs of furin or neogenin, however, failed to decrease hepcidin expression relative to liver size. In contrast, overexpression of bmp2b or knockdown of matriptase-2 enhanced the intensity and extent of hepcidin expression in zebrafish embryos, but this occurred in an hjv-independent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrated that zebrafish hjv can activate the human hepcidin promoter and enhance BMP responsive gene expression in vitro, but is expressed at low levels in the zebrafish embryonic liver. Taken together, these data support an alternative mechanism for hepcidin regulation during zebrafish embryonic development, which is independent of hjv.

  2. BMP-2 functions independently of SHH signaling and triggers cell condensation and apoptosis in regenerating axolotl limbs

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    Finnson Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axolotls have the unique ability, among vertebrates, to perfectly regenerate complex body parts, such as limbs, after amputation. In addition, axolotls pattern developing and regenerating autopods from the anterior to posterior axis instead of posterior to anterior like all tetrapods studied to date. Sonic hedgehog is important in establishing this anterior-posterior axis of limbs in all tetrapods including axolotls. Interestingly, its expression is conserved (to the posterior side of limb buds and blastemas in axolotl limbs as in other tetrapods. It has been suggested that BMP-2 may be the secondary mediator of sonic hedgehog, although there is mounting evidence to the contrary in mice. Since BMP-2 expression is on the anterior portion of developing and regenerating limbs prior to digit patterning, opposite to the expression of sonic hedgehog, we examined whether BMP-2 expression was dependent on sonic hedgehog signaling and whether it affects patterning of the autopod during regeneration. Results The expression of BMP-2 and SOX-9 in developing and regenerating axolotl limbs corresponded to the first digits forming in the anterior portion of the autopods. The inhibition of sonic hedgehog signaling with cyclopamine caused hypomorphic limbs (during development and regeneration but did not affect the expression of BMP-2 and SOX-9. Overexpression of BMP-2 in regenerating limbs caused a loss of digits. Overexpression of Noggin (BMP inhibitor in regenerating limbs also resulted in a loss of digits. Histological analysis indicated that the loss due to BMP-2 overexpression was the result of increased cell condensation and apoptosis while the loss caused by Noggin was due to a decrease in cell division. Conclusion The expression of BMP-2 and its target SOX-9 was independent of sonic hedgehog signaling in developing and regenerating limbs. Their expression correlated with chondrogenesis and the appearance of skeletal elements has

  3. Kinesin Khc-73/KIF13B modulates retrograde BMP signaling by influencing endosomal dynamics at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

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    Liao, Edward H; Gray, Lindsay; Tsurudome, Kazuya; El-Mounzer, Wassim; Elazzouzi, Fatima; Baim, Christopher; Farzin, Sarah; Calderon, Mario R; Kauwe, Grant; Haghighi, A Pejmun

    2018-01-01

    Retrograde signaling is essential for neuronal growth, function and survival; however, we know little about how signaling endosomes might be directed from synaptic terminals onto retrograde axonal pathways. We have identified Khc-73, a plus-end directed microtubule motor protein, as a regulator of sorting of endosomes in Drosophila larval motor neurons. The number of synaptic boutons and the amount of neurotransmitter release at the Khc-73 mutant larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are normal, but we find a significant decrease in the number of presynaptic release sites. This defect in Khc-73 mutant larvae can be genetically enhanced by a partial genetic loss of Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) signaling or suppressed by activation of BMP signaling in motoneurons. Consistently, activation of BMP signaling that normally enhances the accumulation of phosphorylated form of BMP transcription factor Mad in the nuclei, can be suppressed by genetic removal of Khc-73. Using a number of assays including live imaging in larval motor neurons, we show that loss of Khc-73 curbs the ability of retrograde-bound endosomes to leave the synaptic area and join the retrograde axonal pathway. Our findings identify Khc-73 as a regulator of endosomal traffic at the synapse and modulator of retrograde BMP signaling in motoneurons.

  4. Regulation of extracellular matrix organization by BMP signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Schultz, Robbie D; Bennett, Emily E; Ellis, E Ann; Gumienny, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway signaling is important for the growth and homeostasis of extracellular matrix, including basement membrane remodeling, scarring, and bone growth. A conserved BMP member in Caenorhabditis elegans, DBL-1, regulates body length in a dose-sensitive manner. Loss of DBL-1 pathway signaling also results in increased anesthetic sensitivity. However, the physiological basis of these pleiotropic phenotypes is largely unknown. We created a DBL-1 over-expressing strain and show that sensitivity to anesthetics is inversely related to the dose of DBL-1. Using pharmacological, genetic analyses, and a novel dye permeability assay for live, microwave-treated animals, we confirm that DBL-1 is required for the barrier function of the cuticle, a specialized extracellular matrix. We show that DBL-1 signaling is required to prevent animals from forming tail-entangled aggregates in liquid. Stripping lipids off the surface of wild-type animals recapitulates this phenotype. Finally, we find that DBL-1 signaling affects ultrastructure of the nematode cuticle in a dose-dependent manner, as surface lipid content and cuticular organization are disrupted in animals with genetically altered DBL-1 levels. We propose that the lipid layer coating the nematode cuticle normally prevents tail entanglement, and that reduction of this layer by loss of DBL-1 signaling promotes aggregation. This work provides a physiological mechanism that unites the DBL-1 signaling pathway roles of not only body size regulation and drug responsiveness, but also the novel Hoechst 33342 staining and aggregation phenotypes, through barrier function, content, and organization of the cuticle.

  5. Regulation of extracellular matrix organization by BMP signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Robbie D Schultz

    Full Text Available In mammals, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP pathway signaling is important for the growth and homeostasis of extracellular matrix, including basement membrane remodeling, scarring, and bone growth. A conserved BMP member in Caenorhabditis elegans, DBL-1, regulates body length in a dose-sensitive manner. Loss of DBL-1 pathway signaling also results in increased anesthetic sensitivity. However, the physiological basis of these pleiotropic phenotypes is largely unknown. We created a DBL-1 over-expressing strain and show that sensitivity to anesthetics is inversely related to the dose of DBL-1. Using pharmacological, genetic analyses, and a novel dye permeability assay for live, microwave-treated animals, we confirm that DBL-1 is required for the barrier function of the cuticle, a specialized extracellular matrix. We show that DBL-1 signaling is required to prevent animals from forming tail-entangled aggregates in liquid. Stripping lipids off the surface of wild-type animals recapitulates this phenotype. Finally, we find that DBL-1 signaling affects ultrastructure of the nematode cuticle in a dose-dependent manner, as surface lipid content and cuticular organization are disrupted in animals with genetically altered DBL-1 levels. We propose that the lipid layer coating the nematode cuticle normally prevents tail entanglement, and that reduction of this layer by loss of DBL-1 signaling promotes aggregation. This work provides a physiological mechanism that unites the DBL-1 signaling pathway roles of not only body size regulation and drug responsiveness, but also the novel Hoechst 33342 staining and aggregation phenotypes, through barrier function, content, and organization of the cuticle.

  6. Patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis in echinoderms: insights into the evolution of the BMP-chordin signaling network.

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    François Lapraz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the dorsal-ventral axis of the sea urchin embryo relies on cell interactions initiated by the TGFbeta Nodal. Intriguingly, although nodal expression is restricted to the ventral side of the embryo, Nodal function is required for specification of both the ventral and the dorsal territories and is able to restore both ventral and dorsal regions in nodal morpholino injected embryos. The molecular basis for the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is not understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is assured by a relay molecule synthesized in the ventral ectoderm, then translocated to the opposite side of the embryo. We identified this relay molecule as BMP2/4 based on the following arguments. First, blocking BMP2/4 function eliminated the long-range organizing activity of an activated Nodal receptor in an axis rescue assay. Second, we demonstrate that BMP2/4 and the corresponding type I receptor Alk3/6 functions are both essential for specification of the dorsal region of the embryo. Third, using anti-phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunostaining, we show that, despite its ventral transcription, the BMP2/4 ligand triggers receptor mediated signaling exclusively on the dorsal side of the embryo, one of the most extreme cases of BMP translocation described so far. We further report that the pattern of pSmad1/5/8 is graded along the dorsal-ventral axis and that two BMP2/4 target genes are expressed in nested patterns centered on the region with highest levels of pSmad1/5/8, strongly suggesting that BMP2/4 is acting as a morphogen. We also describe the very unusual ventral co-expression of chordin and bmp2/4 downstream of Nodal and demonstrate that Chordin is largely responsible for the spatial restriction of BMP2/4 signaling to the dorsal side. Thus, unlike in most organisms, in the sea urchin, a single ventral signaling centre is responsible for induction of ventral and dorsal cell fates. Finally

  7. Stiffness-dependent cellular internalization of matrix-bound BMP-2 and its relation to Smad and non-Smad signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilde, Flora; Fourel, Laure; Guillot, Raphael; Pignot-Paintrand, Isabelle; Okada, Takaharu; Fitzpatrick, Vincent; Boudou, Thomas; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Picart, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Surface coatings delivering BMP are a promising approach to render biomaterials osteoinductive. In contrast to soluble BMPs which can interact with their receptors at the dorsal side of the cell, BMPs presented as an insoluble cue physically bound to a biomimetic matrix, called here matrix-bound (bBMP-2), are presented to cells by their ventral side. To date, BMP-2 internalization and signaling studies in cell biology have always been performed by adding soluble (sBMP-2) to cells adhered on cell culture plates or glass slides, which will be considered here as a "reference" condition. However, whether and how matrix-bound BMP-2 can be internalized by cells and its relation to canonical (SMAD) and non-canonical signaling (ALP) remain open questions. In this study, we investigated the uptake and processing of BMP-2 by C2C12 myoblasts. This BMP-2 was presented either embedded in polyelectrolyte multilayer films (matrix-bound presentation) or as soluble form. Using fluorescently labeled BMP-2, we showed that the amount of matrix-bound BMP-2 internalized is dependent on the level of crosslinking of the polyelectrolyte films. Cav-1-mediated internalization is related to both SMAD and ALP signaling, while clathrin-mediated is only related to ALP signaling. BMP-2 internalization was independent of the presentation mode (sBMP-2 versus bBMP-2) for low crosslinked films (soft, EDC10) in striking contrast with high crosslinked (stiff, EDC70) films where internalization was much lower and slower for bBMP-2. As anticipated, internalization of sBMP-2 barely depended on the underlying matrix. Taken together, these results indicate that BMP-2 internalization can be tuned by the underlying matrix and activates downstream BMP-2 signaling, which is key for the effective formation of bone tissue. The presentation of growth factors from material surfaces currently presents significant challenges in academic research, clinics and industry. Being able to deliver efficiently these growth

  8. Zirconium ions up-regulate the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway and promote the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjuan Chen

    Full Text Available Zirconium (Zr is an element commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants either as zirconia (ZrO2 or in metal alloys. It can also be incorporated into calcium silicate-based ceramics. However, the effects of in vitro culture of human osteoblasts (HOBs with soluble ionic forms of Zr have not been determined. In this study, primary culture of human osteoblasts was conducted in the presence of medium containing either ZrCl4 or Zirconium (IV oxynitrate (ZrO(NO32 at concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 500 µM, and osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and calcium deposition were assessed. Incubation of human osteoblast cultures with Zr ions increased the proliferation of human osteoblasts and also gene expression of genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation. In 21 and 28 day cultures, Zr ions at concentrations of 50 and 500 µM increased the deposition of calcium phosphate. In addition, the gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors was increased in response to culture with Zr ions and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. Moreover, Noggin suppressed osteogenic gene expression in HOBs co-treated with Zr ions. In conclusion, Zr ions appear able to induce both the proliferation and the differentiation of primary human osteoblasts. This is associated with up-regulation of BMP2 expression and activation of BMP signaling suggesting this action is, at least in part, mediated by BMP signaling.

  9. Zirconium Ions Up-Regulate the BMP/SMAD Signaling Pathway and Promote the Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongjuan; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Lu, ZuFu; Zreiqat, Hala; Dunstan, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr) is an element commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants either as zirconia (ZrO2) or in metal alloys. It can also be incorporated into calcium silicate-based ceramics. However, the effects of in vitro culture of human osteoblasts (HOBs) with soluble ionic forms of Zr have not been determined. In this study, primary culture of human osteoblasts was conducted in the presence of medium containing either ZrCl4 or Zirconium (IV) oxynitrate (ZrO(NO3)2) at concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 500 µM, and osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and calcium deposition were assessed. Incubation of human osteoblast cultures with Zr ions increased the proliferation of human osteoblasts and also gene expression of genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation. In 21 and 28 day cultures, Zr ions at concentrations of 50 and 500 µM increased the deposition of calcium phosphate. In addition, the gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors was increased in response to culture with Zr ions and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. Moreover, Noggin suppressed osteogenic gene expression in HOBs co-treated with Zr ions. In conclusion, Zr ions appear able to induce both the proliferation and the differentiation of primary human osteoblasts. This is associated with up-regulation of BMP2 expression and activation of BMP signaling suggesting this action is, at least in part, mediated by BMP signaling. PMID:25602473

  10. Ectopic application of recombinant BMP-2 and BMP-4 can change patterning of developing chick facial primordia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A J; Francis-West, P H

    1997-01-01

    The facial primordia initially consist of buds of undifferentiated mesenchyme, which give rise to a variety of tissues including cartilage, muscle and nerve. These must be arranged in a precise spatial order for correct function. The signals that control facial outgrowth and patterning are largely unknown. The bone morphogenetic proteins Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 are expressed in discrete regions at the distal tips of the early facial primordia suggesting possible roles for BMP-2 and BMP-4 during chick facial development. We show that expression of Bmp-4 and Bmp-2 is correlated with the expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 and that ectopic application of BMP-2 and BMP-4 can activate Msx-1 and Msx-2 gene expression in the developing facial primordia. We correlate this activation of gene expression with changes in skeletal development. For example, activation of Msx-1 gene expression across the distal tip of the mandibular primordium is associated with an extension of Fgf-4 expression in the epithelium and bifurcation of Meckel's cartilage. In the maxillary primordium, extension of the normal domain of Msx-1 gene expression is correlated with extended epithelial expression of shh and bifurcation of the palatine bone. We also show that application of BMP-2 can increase cell proliferation of the mandibular primordia. Our data suggest that BMP-2 and BMP-4 are part of a signalling cascade that controls outgrowth and patterning of the facial primordia.

  11. MiRNA-20a promotes osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells by co-regulating BMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-fang; Fu, Wei-ming; He, Ming-liang; Xie, Wei-dong; Lv, Qing; Wan, Gang; Li, Guo; Wang, Hua; Lu, Gang; Hu, Xiang; Jiang, Su; Li, Jian-na; Lin, Marie C M; Zhang, Ya-ou; Kung, Hsiang-fu

    2011-01-01

    Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a complex process, which is regulated by various factors including microRNAs. Our preliminary data showed that the expression of endogenous miR-20a was increased during the course of osteogenic differentiation. Simultaneously, the expression of osteoblast markers and regulators BMP2, BMP4, Runx2, Osx, OCN and OPN was also elevated whereas adipocyte markers PPARγ and osteoblast antagonist, Bambi and Crim1, were downregulated, thereby suggesting that miR-20a plays an important role in regulating osteoblast differentiation. To validate this hypothesis, we tested its effects on osteogenic differentiation by introducing miR-20a mimics and lentiviral-miR20a-expression vectors into hMSCs. We showed that miR-20a promoted osteogenic differentiation by the upregulation of BMP/Runx2 signaling. We performed bioinformatics analysis and predicted that PPARγ, Bambi and Crim1 would be potential targets of miR-20a. PPARγ is a negative regulator of BMP/Runx2 signaling whereas Bambi or Crim1 are antagonists of the BMP pathway. Furthermore, we confirmed that all these molecules were indeed the targets of miR-20a by luciferase reporter, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot assays. Similarly to miR-20a overexpression, the osteogenesis was enhanced by the silence of PPARγ, Bambi or Crim1 by specific siRNAs. Taken together, for the first time, we demonstrated that miR-20a promoted the osteogenesis of hMSCs in a co-regulatory pattern by targeting PPARγ, Bambi and Crim1, the negative regulators of BMP signaling.

  12. Twisted gastrulation, a BMP antagonist, exacerbates podocyte injury.

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    Sachiko Yamada

    Full Text Available Podocyte injury is the first step in the progression of glomerulosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7 in podocyte injury and the existence of native Bmp signaling in podocytes. Local activity of Bmp7 is controlled by cell-type specific Bmp antagonists, which inhibit the binding of Bmp7 to its receptors. Here we show that the product of Twisted gastrulation (Twsg1, a Bmp antagonist, is the central negative regulator of Bmp function in podocytes and that Twsg1 null mice are resistant to podocyte injury. Twsg1 was the most abundant Bmp antagonist in murine cultured podocytes. The administration of Bmp induced podocyte differentiation through Smad signaling, whereas the simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. The administration of Bmp also inhibited podocyte proliferation, whereas simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. Twsg1 was expressed in the glomerular parietal cells (PECs and distal nephron of the healthy kidney, and additionally in damaged glomerular cells in a murine model of podocyte injury. Twsg1 null mice exhibited milder hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, and milder histological changes while maintaining the expression of podocyte markers during podocyte injury model. Taken together, our results show that Twsg1 plays a critical role in the modulation of protective action of Bmp7 on podocytes, and that inhibition of Twsg1 is a promising means of development of novel treatment for podocyte injury.

  13. Traf2 interacts with Smad4 and regulates BMP signaling pathway in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Koichi; Ikeda, Kyoko; Ito, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in osteoblast differentiation and maturation. In mammals, the BMP-induced receptor-regulated Smads form complexes with Smad4. These complexes translocate and accumulate in the nucleus, where they regulate the transcription of various target genes. However, the function of Smad4 remains unclear. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using Smad4 as bait and a cDNA library derived from bone marrow, to indentify the proteins interacting with Smad4. cDNA clones for Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 (Traf2) were identified, and the interaction between the endogenous proteins was confirmed in the mouse osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. To investigate the function of Traf2, we silenced it with siRNA. The level of BMP-2 protein in the medium, the expression levels of the Bmp2 gene and BMP-induced transcription factor genes, including Runx2, Dlx5, Msx2, and Sp7, and the phosphorylated-Smad1 protein level were increased in cells transfected with Traf2 siRNA. The nuclear accumulation of Smad1 increased with TNF-α stimulation for 30 min at Traf2 silencing. These results suggest that the TNF-α-stimulated nuclear accumulation of Smad1 may be dependent on Traf2. Thus, the interaction between Traf2 and Smad4 may play a role in the cross-talk between TNF-α and BMP signaling pathways.

  14. Morphogen and community effects determine cell fates in response to BMP4 signaling in human embryonic stem cells.

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    Nemashkalo, Anastasiia; Ruzo, Albert; Heemskerk, Idse; Warmflash, Aryeh

    2017-09-01

    Paracrine signals maintain developmental states and create cell fate patterns in vivo and influence differentiation outcomes in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro Systematic investigation of morphogen signaling is hampered by the difficulty of disentangling endogenous signaling from experimentally applied ligands. Here, we grow hESCs in micropatterned colonies of 1-8 cells ('µColonies') to quantitatively investigate paracrine signaling and the response to external stimuli. We examine BMP4-mediated differentiation in µColonies and standard culture conditions and find that in µColonies, above a threshold concentration, BMP4 gives rise to only a single cell fate, contrary to its role as a morphogen in other developmental systems. Under standard culture conditions BMP4 acts as a morphogen but this requires secondary signals and particular cell densities. We find that a 'community effect' enforces a common fate within µColonies, both in the state of pluripotency and when cells are differentiated, and that this effect allows a more precise response to external signals. Using live cell imaging to correlate signaling histories with cell fates, we demonstrate that interactions between neighbors result in sustained, homogenous signaling necessary for differentiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Smad, PI3K/Akt, and Wnt-dependent signaling pathways are involved in BMP-4-induced ESC self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Lim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Hun; Han, Ho Jae

    2009-08-01

    It is known that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) has a diverse effect on ESCs. However, its precise mechanism in mouse ESCs is not fully understood. We evaluated the effect of BMP-4 on ESC proliferation and its related signal cascades in this study. BMP-4 significantly increased the level of [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation in time- (> or =8 hours) and dose- (> or =10 ng/ml) dependent manners. Additionally, BMP-4 increased cyclin D1 and decreased p27(kip1) expression values in a time-dependent manner. The increases in BMP-4-induced [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and cyclin D1 expression were inhibited by the BMP-4 receptor antagonist noggin. BMP-4 increased Wnt1 expression. Wnt1 expression was attenuated by Smad4 small interfering RNA (siRNA), and BMP-4-induced cyclin D1 expression was inhibited by Smad4 and Wnt1 siRNAs. BMP-4 also activated beta-catenin, which was blocked by Smad4 and Wnt1 siRNAs. In addition, BMP-4 induced Akt phosphorylation. BMP-4-induced beta-catenin activation and cyclin D1 expression were attenuated by phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) siRNA and Akt inhibitor. Additionally, downregulation of Smad4, Wnt1, and PI3K expression by siRNA decreased the levels of pluripotency marker mRNAs of ESCs, including Oct4, Sox2, and FoxD3. Our results suggested that BMP-4-induced [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation was significantly attenuated by Smad4, Wnt1, and PI3K knockdown. In conclusion, BMP-4 contributed to the maintenance of cell proliferation and the pluripotent state by Smad, PI3K/Akt, and Wnt1/beta-catenin in mouse ESCs.

  16. rhBMP-2 for posterolateral instrumented lumbar fusion: a multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, R John; Alexander, David; Bailey, Stewart; Mahood, James; Abraham, Ed; McBroom, Robert; Jodoin, Alain; Fisher, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Multicenter randomized controlled trial. To evaluate the effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) on radiographical fusion rate and clinical outcome for surgical lumbar arthrodesis compared with iliac crest autograft. In many types of spinal surgery, radiographical fusion is a primary outcome equally important to clinical improvement, ensuring long-term stability and axial support. Biologic induction of bone growth has become a commonly used adjunct in obtaining this objective. We undertook this study to objectify the efficacy of rhBMP-2 compared with traditional iliac crest autograft in instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion. Patients undergoing 1- or 2-level instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion were randomized to receive either autograft or rhBMP-2 for their fusion construct. Clinical and radiographical outcome measures were followed for 2 to 4 years postoperatively. One hundred ninety seven patients were successfully randomized among the 8 participating institutions. Adverse events attributable to the study drug were not significantly different compared with controls. However, the control group experienced significantly more graft-site complications as might be expected. 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Oswestry Disability Index, and leg/back pain scores were comparable between the 2 groups. After 4 years of follow-up, radiographical fusion rates remained significantly higher in patients treated with rhBMP-2 (94%) than those who received autograft (69%) (P = 0.007). The use of rhBMP-2 for instrumented posterolateral lumbar surgery significantly improves the chances of radiographical fusion compared with the use of autograft. However, there is no associated improvement in clinical outcome within a 4-year follow-up period. These results suggest that use of rhBMP-2 should be considered in cases where lumbar arthrodesis is of primary concern.

  17. Essential role of Bmp signaling and its positive feedback loop in the early cell fate evolution of chordates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozmiková, Iryna; Candiani, S.; Fabian, Peter; Gurská, Daniela; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 382, č. 2 (2013), s. 538-554 ISSN 0012-1606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP305/10/J064; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0027 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Bmp signaling * axial patterning * cell fate * chordates * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2013

  18. Intracellular co-delivery of Sr ion and phenamil drug through mesoporous bioglass nanocarriers synergizes BMP signaling and tissue mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Mandakhbayar, Nandin; El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Kim, Hae-Won

    2017-09-15

    and micro-computed tomographic analyses. The bioactive nanoparticles releasing both Sr ion and Phenamil drug are considered to be a promising therapeutic nanocarrier platform for hard tissue regeneration. Furthermore, this novel ion/drug co-delivery concept through nanoparticles can be extensively used for other tissues that require different therapeutic treatment. This study reports a novel design concept in inorganic nanoparticle delivery system for hard tissues - the co-delivery of therapeutic molecules comprised of ion (Sr) and drug (Phenamil) through a unique nanoparticle of mesoporous bioactive glass (MBN). The physico-chemical and biological properties of MBN enabled an effective loading of both therapeutic molecules and a subsequently sustained/controlled release. The co-delivered Sr and Phenamil demonstrated significant stimulation of adult stem cell differentiation in vitro and osseous/dentinal regeneration in vivo, through BMP signaling pathways. We consider the current combination of Sr ion with Phenamil is suited for the osteo/odontogenesis of stem cells for hard tissue regeneration, and further, this ion/drug co-delivery concept can extend the applications to other areas that require specific cellular and tissue functions. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gallic acid inhibits vascular calcification through the blockade of BMP2-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Hae Jin; Cho, Soo-Na; Kim, Gwi Ran; Choi, Sin Young; Ryu, Yuhee; Kim, In Kyeom; Hong, Young Joon; Park, Hyung Wook; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2014-11-01

    Vascular calcification is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney diseases, and diabetes. Gallic acid, a natural compound found in gallnut and green tea, is known to be antifungal, antioxidant, and anticancer. Here we investigated the effect of gallic acid on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification and the underlying mechanism. Gallic acid inhibited inorganic phosphate-induced osteoblast differentiation markers as well as calcification phenotypes (as determined by calcium deposition, Alizarin Red, and Von Kossa staining). Knockdown of BMP2 or Noggin blocked phosphate-induced calcification. Gallic acid suppressed phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 protein induced by inorganic phosphate. Taken together, we suggest that gallic acid acts as a novel therapeutic agent of vascular calcification by mediating BMP2-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Id4 functions downstream of Bmp signaling to restrict TCF function in endocardial cells during atrioventricular valve development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Suchit; Dogra, Deepika; Stainier, Didier Y R; Reischauer, Sven

    2016-04-01

    The atrioventricular canal (AVC) connects the atrial and ventricular chambers of the heart and its formation is critical for the development of the cardiac valves, chamber septation and formation of the cardiac conduction system. Consequently, problems in AVC formation can lead to congenital defects ranging from cardiac arrhythmia to incomplete cardiac septation. While our knowledge about early heart tube formation is relatively comprehensive, much remains to be investigated about the genes that regulate AVC formation. Here we identify a new role for the basic helix-loop-helix factor Id4 in zebrafish AVC valve development and function. id4 is first expressed in the AVC endocardium and later becomes more highly expressed in the atrial chamber. TALEN induced inactivation of id4 causes retrograde blood flow at the AV canal under heat induced stress conditions, indicating defects in AV valve function. At the molecular level, we found that id4 inactivation causes misexpression of several genes important for AVC and AV valve formation including bmp4 and spp1. We further show that id4 appears to control the number of endocardial cells that contribute to the AV valves by regulating Wnt signaling in the developing AVC endocardium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Manipulation of Fgf and Bmp signaling in teleost fishes suggests potential pathways for the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, William R; Davies, Shelby H; Lyons, David B; Stauder, Caitlin K; Denton-Schneider, Benjamin R; Jowdry, Andrea; Aigler, Sharon R; Vogel, Scott A; Stock, David W

    2013-01-01

    Teeth with two or more cusps have arisen independently from an ancestral unicuspid condition in a variety of vertebrate lineages, including sharks, teleost fishes, amphibians, lizards, and mammals. One potential explanation for the repeated origins of multicuspid teeth is the existence of multiple adaptive pathways leading to them, as suggested by their different uses in these lineages. Another is that the addition of cusps required only minor changes in genetic pathways regulating tooth development. Here we provide support for the latter hypothesis by demonstrating that manipulation of the levels of Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) or Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling produces bicuspid teeth in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a species lacking multicuspid teeth in its ancestry. The generality of these results for teleosts is suggested by the conversion of unicuspid pharyngeal teeth into bicuspid teeth by similar manipulations of the Mexican Tetra (Astyanax mexicanus). That these manipulations also produced supernumerary teeth in both species supports previous suggestions of similarities in the molecular control of tooth and cusp number. We conclude that despite their apparent complexity, the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth is positively constrained, likely requiring only slight modifications of a pre-existing mechanism for patterning the number and spacing of individual teeth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Augmented BMPRIA-mediated BMP signaling in cranial neural crest lineage leads to cleft palate formation and delayed tooth differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Li

    Full Text Available The importance of BMP receptor Ia (BMPRIa mediated signaling in the development of craniofacial organs, including the tooth and palate, has been well illuminated in several mouse models of loss of function, and by its mutations associated with juvenile polyposis syndrome and facial defects in humans. In this study, we took a gain-of-function approach to further address the role of BMPR-IA-mediated signaling in the mesenchymal compartment during tooth and palate development. We generated transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of BmprIa (caBmprIa in cranial neural crest (CNC cells that contributes to the dental and palatal mesenchyme. Mice bearing enhanced BMPRIa-mediated signaling in CNC cells exhibit complete cleft palate and delayed odontogenic differentiation. We showed that the cleft palate defect in the transgenic animals is attributed to an altered cell proliferation rate in the anterior palatal mesenchyme and to the delayed palatal elevation in the posterior portion associated with ectopic cartilage formation. Despite enhanced activity of BMP signaling in the dental mesenchyme, tooth development and patterning in transgenic mice appeared normal except delayed odontogenic differentiation. These data support the hypothesis that a finely tuned level of BMPRIa-mediated signaling is essential for normal palate and tooth development.

  3. C. elegans DAF-16/FOXO interacts with TGF-ß/BMP signaling to induce germline tumor formation via mTORC1 activation.

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    Wenjing Qi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 by reduced insulin/IGF signaling (IIS is considered to be beneficial in C. elegans due to its ability to extend lifespan and to enhance stress resistance. In the germline, cell-autonomous DAF-16 activity prevents stem cell proliferation, thus acting tumor-suppressive. In contrast, hypodermal DAF-16 causes a tumorous germline phenotype characterized by hyperproliferation of the germline stem cells and rupture of the adjacent basement membrane. Here we show that cross-talk between DAF-16 and the transforming growth factor ß (TGFß/bone morphogenic protein (BMP signaling pathway causes germline hyperplasia and results in disruption of the basement membrane. In addition to activating MADM/NRBP/hpo-11 gene alone, DAF-16 also directly interacts with both R-SMAD proteins SMA-2 and SMA-3 in the nucleus to regulate the expression of mTORC1 pathway. Knocking-down of BMP genes or each of the four target genes in the hypodermis was sufficient to inhibit germline proliferation, indicating a cell-non-autonomously controlled regulation of stem cell proliferation by somatic tissues. We propose the existence of two antagonistic DAF-16/FOXO functions, a cell-proliferative somatic and an anti-proliferative germline activity. Whereas germline hyperplasia under reduced IIS is inhibited by DAF-16 cell-autonomously, activation of somatic DAF-16 in the presence of active IIS promotes germline proliferation and eventually induces tumor-like germline growth. In summary, our results suggest a novel pathway crosstalk of DAF-16 and TGF-ß/BMP that can modulate mTORC1 at the transcriptional level to cause stem-cell hyperproliferation. Such cell-type specific differences may help explaining why human FOXO activity is considered to be tumor-suppressive in most contexts, but may become oncogenic, e.g. in chronic and acute myeloid leukemia.

  4. C. elegans DAF-16/FOXO interacts with TGF-ß/BMP signaling to induce germline tumor formation via mTORC1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenjing; Yan, Yijian; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Donner V Gromoff, Erika; Wang, Yimin; Maier, Wolfgang; Baumeister, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Activation of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 by reduced insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) is considered to be beneficial in C. elegans due to its ability to extend lifespan and to enhance stress resistance. In the germline, cell-autonomous DAF-16 activity prevents stem cell proliferation, thus acting tumor-suppressive. In contrast, hypodermal DAF-16 causes a tumorous germline phenotype characterized by hyperproliferation of the germline stem cells and rupture of the adjacent basement membrane. Here we show that cross-talk between DAF-16 and the transforming growth factor ß (TGFß)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling pathway causes germline hyperplasia and results in disruption of the basement membrane. In addition to activating MADM/NRBP/hpo-11 gene alone, DAF-16 also directly interacts with both R-SMAD proteins SMA-2 and SMA-3 in the nucleus to regulate the expression of mTORC1 pathway. Knocking-down of BMP genes or each of the four target genes in the hypodermis was sufficient to inhibit germline proliferation, indicating a cell-non-autonomously controlled regulation of stem cell proliferation by somatic tissues. We propose the existence of two antagonistic DAF-16/FOXO functions, a cell-proliferative somatic and an anti-proliferative germline activity. Whereas germline hyperplasia under reduced IIS is inhibited by DAF-16 cell-autonomously, activation of somatic DAF-16 in the presence of active IIS promotes germline proliferation and eventually induces tumor-like germline growth. In summary, our results suggest a novel pathway crosstalk of DAF-16 and TGF-ß/BMP that can modulate mTORC1 at the transcriptional level to cause stem-cell hyperproliferation. Such cell-type specific differences may help explaining why human FOXO activity is considered to be tumor-suppressive in most contexts, but may become oncogenic, e.g. in chronic and acute myeloid leukemia.

  5. Distinct and overlapping gene regulatory networks in BMP- and HDAC-controlled cell fate determination in the embryonic forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholl Catharina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and histone deacetylases (HDACs have previously been established to play a role in the development of the three major cell types of the central nervous system: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We have previously established a connection between these two protein families, showing that HDACs suppress BMP-promoted astrogliogenesis in the embryonic striatum. Since HDACs act in the nucleus to effect changes in transcription, an unbiased analysis of their transcriptional targets could shed light on their downstream effects on BMP-signaling. Results Using neurospheres from the embryonic striatum as an in vitro system to analyze this phenomenon, we have performed microarray expression profiling on BMP2- and TSA-treated cultures, followed by validation of the findings with quantitative RT-PCR and protein analysis. In BMP-treated cultures we first observed an upregulation of genes involved in cell-cell communication and developmental processes such as members of BMP and canonical Wnt signaling pathways. In contrast, in TSA-treated cultures we first observed an upregulation of genes involved in chromatin modification and transcription. Interestingly, we could not record direct changes in the protein levels of canonical members of BMP2 signaling, but we did observe an upregulation of both the transcription factor STAT3 and its active isoform phospho-STAT3 at the protein level. Conclusions STAT3 and SMAD1/5/8 interact synergistically to promote astrogliogenesis, and thus we show for the first time that HDACs act to suppress BMP-promoted astrogliogenesis by suppression of the crucial partner STAT3.

  6. The response of early neural genes to FGF signaling or inhibition of BMP indicate the absence of a conserved neural induction module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Crystal D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanism that initiates the formation of the vertebrate central nervous system has long been debated. Studies in Xenopus and mouse demonstrate that inhibition of BMP signaling is sufficient to induce neural tissue in explants or ES cells respectively, whereas studies in chick argue that instructive FGF signaling is also required for the expression of neural genes. Although additional signals may be involved in neural induction and patterning, here we focus on the roles of BMP inhibition and FGF8a. Results To address the question of necessity and sufficiency of BMP inhibition and FGF signaling, we compared the temporal expression of the five earliest genes expressed in the neuroectoderm and determined their requirements for induction at the onset of neural plate formation in Xenopus. Our results demonstrate that the onset and peak of expression of the genes vary and that they have different regulatory requirements and are therefore unlikely to share a conserved neural induction regulatory module. Even though all require inhibition of BMP for expression, some also require FGF signaling; expression of the early-onset pan-neural genes sox2 and foxd5α requires FGF signaling while other early genes, sox3, geminin and zicr1 are induced by BMP inhibition alone. Conclusions We demonstrate that BMP inhibition and FGF signaling induce neural genes independently of each other. Together our data indicate that although the spatiotemporal expression patterns of early neural genes are similar, the mechanisms involved in their expression are distinct and there are different signaling requirements for the expression of each gene.

  7. Delta-like 1/fetal antigen 1(DLK1/FA1) inhibits BMP2 induced osteoblast differentiation through modulation of NFκB signaling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Weimin; Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    DLK1/FA1 (delta-like 1/fetal antigen-1) is a negative regulator of bone mass that acts to inhibit osteoblast differentiation and stimulate osteoclast differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. Thus, we studied the effect of DLK1/FA1 on different...... osteogenic factors-induced osteoblast differentiation. We identified DLK1/FA1 as an inhibitor of BMP2-induced osteogenesis in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. Stable overexpression of DLK1/FA1 in C2C12 cells or the addition of its soluble form protein FA1 significantly inhibited BMP2-induced osteogenesis...... as assessed by reduced Alp activity and osteogenic gene expression including Alp, Col1a1, Runx2 and Bglap. In addition, DLK1/FA1 inhibited BMP signaling as demonstrated by reduced gene expression of BMP-responsive genes: Junb and Id1, reduced BMP2 induced luciferase activity in C2C12 BMP luciferase reporter...

  8. BMP6 down-regulates GDNF expression through SMAD1/5 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa-lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Yue; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Taylor, Elizabeth L; Leung, Peter C K; Liu, Rui-Zhi

    2018-05-09

    Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is a critical regulator of follicular development that is expressed in mammalian oocytes and granulosa cells. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an intraovarian neurotrophic factor that plays an essential role in regulating mammalian oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMP6 on the regulation of GDNF expression and the potential underlying mechanisms. We used an established immortalized human granulosa cell line (SVOG cells) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells as in vitro cell models. Our results showed that BMP6 significantly down-regulated the expression of GDNF in both SVOG and primary human granulosa-lutein cells. Using dual inhibition approaches (kinase receptor inhibitor and small interfering RNA knockdown), our results showed that both ALK2 and ALK3 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. In addition, BMP6 induced the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 and ERK1/2 but not AKT or p38. Among three downstream mediators, both SMAD1 and SMAD5 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. Moreover, concomitant knockdown of endogenous SMAD4 and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity completely reversed BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF, indicating that both SMAD and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are required for the regulatory effect of BMP6 on GDNF expression. Our findings suggest an additional role for an intrafollicular growth factor in regulating follicular function through their paracrine interactions in human granulosa cells.

  9. BMP and TGFbeta pathways in human central chondrosarcoma: enhanced endoglin and Smad 1 signaling in high grade tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeuf, Stephane; Bovée, Judith VMG; Lehner, Burkhard; Akker, Brendy van den; Ruler, Maayke van; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Richter, Wiltrud

    2012-01-01

    As major regulators of normal chondrogenesis, the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor β (TGFB) signaling pathways may be involved in the development and progression of central chondrosarcoma. In order to uncover their possible implication, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic quantitative study of the expression of BMPs, TGFBs and their receptors and to assess activity of the corresponding pathways in central chondrosarcoma. Gene expression analysis was performed by quantitative RT-PCR in 26 central chondrosarcoma and 6 healthy articular cartilage samples. Expression of endoglin and nuclear localization of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of TGFB3 and of the activin receptor-like kinase ALK2 was found to be significantly higher in grade III compared to grade I chondrosarcoma. Nuclear phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 were found in all tumors analyzed and the activity of both signaling pathways was confirmed by functional reporter assays in 2 chondrosarcoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis furthermore revealed that phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and endoglin expression were significantly higher in high-grade compared to low-grade chondrosarcoma and correlated to each other. The BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways were found to be active in central chondrosarcoma cells. The correlation of Smad1/5/8 activity to endoglin expression suggests that, as described in other cell types, endoglin could enhance Smad1/5/8 signaling in high-grade chondrosarcoma cells. Endoglin expression coupled to Smad1/5/8 activation could thus represent a functionally important signaling axis for the progression of chondrosarcoma and a regulator of the undifferentiated phenotype of high-grade tumor cells

  10. BMP and TGFbeta pathways in human central chondrosarcoma: enhanced endoglin and Smad 1 signaling in high grade tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background As major regulators of normal chondrogenesis, the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor β (TGFB) signaling pathways may be involved in the development and progression of central chondrosarcoma. In order to uncover their possible implication, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic quantitative study of the expression of BMPs, TGFBs and their receptors and to assess activity of the corresponding pathways in central chondrosarcoma. Methods Gene expression analysis was performed by quantitative RT-PCR in 26 central chondrosarcoma and 6 healthy articular cartilage samples. Expression of endoglin and nuclear localization of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results The expression of TGFB3 and of the activin receptor-like kinase ALK2 was found to be significantly higher in grade III compared to grade I chondrosarcoma. Nuclear phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 were found in all tumors analyzed and the activity of both signaling pathways was confirmed by functional reporter assays in 2 chondrosarcoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis furthermore revealed that phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and endoglin expression were significantly higher in high-grade compared to low-grade chondrosarcoma and correlated to each other. Conclusions The BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways were found to be active in central chondrosarcoma cells. The correlation of Smad1/5/8 activity to endoglin expression suggests that, as described in other cell types, endoglin could enhance Smad1/5/8 signaling in high-grade chondrosarcoma cells. Endoglin expression coupled to Smad1/5/8 activation could thus represent a functionally important signaling axis for the progression of chondrosarcoma and a regulator of the undifferentiated phenotype of high-grade tumor cells. PMID:23088614

  11. Conserved cis-regulatory regions in a large genomic landscape control SHH and BMP-regulated Gremlin1 expression in mouse limb buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuniga Aimée

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse limb bud is a prime model to study the regulatory interactions that control vertebrate organogenesis. Major aspects of limb bud development are controlled by feedback loops that define a self-regulatory signalling system. The SHH/GREM1/AER-FGF feedback loop forms the core of this signalling system that operates between the posterior mesenchymal organiser and the ectodermal signalling centre. The BMP antagonist Gremlin1 (GREM1 is a critical node in this system, whose dynamic expression is controlled by BMP, SHH, and FGF signalling and key to normal progression of limb bud development. Previous analysis identified a distant cis-regulatory landscape within the neighbouring Formin1 (Fmn1 locus that is required for Grem1 expression, reminiscent of the genomic landscapes controlling HoxD and Shh expression in limb buds. Results Three highly conserved regions (HMCO1-3 were identified within the previously defined critical genomic region and tested for their ability to regulate Grem1 expression in mouse limb buds. Using a combination of BAC and conventional transgenic approaches, a 9 kb region located ~70 kb downstream of the Grem1 transcription unit was identified. This region, termed Grem1 Regulatory Sequence 1 (GRS1, is able to recapitulate major aspects of Grem1 expression, as it drives expression of a LacZ reporter into the posterior and, to a lesser extent, in the distal-anterior mesenchyme. Crossing the GRS1 transgene into embryos with alterations in the SHH and BMP pathways established that GRS1 depends on SHH and is modulated by BMP signalling, i.e. integrates inputs from these pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed interaction of endogenous GLI3 proteins with the core cis-regulatory elements in the GRS1 region. As GLI3 is a mediator of SHH signal transduction, these results indicated that SHH directly controls Grem1 expression through the GRS1 region. Finally, all cis-regulatory regions within the Grem1

  12. Uncovering the Role of BMP Signaling in Melanocyte Development and Melanoma Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    specifiers’, genes that are initially expressed broadly in the neural crest and help to maintain neural crest identity (Fig. 2G ) (6). As development...melanoma cells, GDF6 and the BMP pathway negatively regulated SOX9 expression (Fig. 3G ; Fig. S13A-C). Epistasis analyses showed that SOX9 knockdown rescued...criteria, if the tumor volume reached >1,000 mm3; if tumor size or location affected the mobility or general health of animal, the animal was euthanized

  13. A BMP responsive transcriptional region in the chicken type X collagen gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, S W; Luvalle, P; Leask, T; Leboy, P S

    1998-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were originally identified by their ability to induce ectopic bone formation and have been shown to promote both chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy. BMPs have recently been found to activate a membrane serine/threonine kinase signaling mechanism in a variety of cell types, but the downstream effectors of BMP signaling in chondrocyte differentiation remain unidentified. We have previously reported that BMP-2 markedly stimulates type X collagen expression in prehypertrophic chick sternal chondrocytes, and that type X collagen mRNA levels in chondrocytes cultured under serum-free (SF) conditions are elevated 3- to 5-fold within 24 h. To better define the molecular mechanisms of induction of chondrocyte hypertrophy by BMPs, we examined the effect of BMPs on type X collagen production by 15-day chick embryo sternal chondrocytes cultured under SF conditions in the presence or absence of 30 ng/ml BMP-2, BMP-4, or BMP-7. Two populations of chondrocytes were used: one representing resting cartilage isolated from the caudal third of the sterna and the second representing prehypertrophic cartilage from the cephalic third of the sterna. BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7 all effectively promoted chondrocyte maturation of cephalic sternal chondrocytes as measured by high levels of alkaline phosphatase, diminished levels of type II collagen, and induction of the hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific marker, type X collagen. To test whether BMP control of type X collagen expression occurs at the transcriptional level, we utilized plasmid constructs containing the chicken collagen X promoter and 5' flanking regions fused to a reporter gene. Constructs were transiently transfected into sternal chondrocytes cultured under SF conditions in the presence or absence of 30 ng/ml BMP-2, BMP-4, or BMP-7. A 533 bp region located 2.4-2.9 kb upstream from the type X collagen transcriptional start site was both necessary and sufficient for strong BMP responsiveness

  14. The Gyc76C Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase and the Foraging cGMP-Dependent Kinase Regulate Extracellular Matrix Organization and BMP Signaling in the Developing Wing of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Schleede

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The developing crossveins of the wing of Drosophila melanogaster are specified by long-range BMP signaling and are especially sensitive to loss of extracellular modulators of BMP signaling such as the Chordin homolog Short gastrulation (Sog. However, the role of the extracellular matrix in BMP signaling and Sog activity in the crossveins has been poorly explored. Using a genetic mosaic screen for mutations that disrupt BMP signaling and posterior crossvein development, we identify Gyc76C, a member of the receptor guanylyl cyclase family that includes mammalian natriuretic peptide receptors. We show that Gyc76C and the soluble cGMP-dependent kinase Foraging, likely linked by cGMP, are necessary for normal refinement and maintenance of long-range BMP signaling in the posterior crossvein. This does not occur through cell-autonomous crosstalk between cGMP and BMP signal transduction, but likely through altered extracellular activity of Sog. We identify a novel pathway leading from Gyc76C to the organization of the wing extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases, and show that both the extracellular matrix and BMP signaling effects are largely mediated by changes in the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. We discuss parallels and differences between this pathway and other examples of cGMP activity in both Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian cells and tissues.

  15. The Gyc76C Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase and the Foraging cGMP-Dependent Kinase Regulate Extracellular Matrix Organization and BMP Signaling in the Developing Wing of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleede, Justin; Blair, Seth S

    2015-10-01

    The developing crossveins of the wing of Drosophila melanogaster are specified by long-range BMP signaling and are especially sensitive to loss of extracellular modulators of BMP signaling such as the Chordin homolog Short gastrulation (Sog). However, the role of the extracellular matrix in BMP signaling and Sog activity in the crossveins has been poorly explored. Using a genetic mosaic screen for mutations that disrupt BMP signaling and posterior crossvein development, we identify Gyc76C, a member of the receptor guanylyl cyclase family that includes mammalian natriuretic peptide receptors. We show that Gyc76C and the soluble cGMP-dependent kinase Foraging, likely linked by cGMP, are necessary for normal refinement and maintenance of long-range BMP signaling in the posterior crossvein. This does not occur through cell-autonomous crosstalk between cGMP and BMP signal transduction, but likely through altered extracellular activity of Sog. We identify a novel pathway leading from Gyc76C to the organization of the wing extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases, and show that both the extracellular matrix and BMP signaling effects are largely mediated by changes in the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. We discuss parallels and differences between this pathway and other examples of cGMP activity in both Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian cells and tissues.

  16. AcvR1-mediated BMP signaling in second heart field is required for arterial pole development: implications for myocardial differentiation and regional identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Penny S; Rajderkar, Sudha; Lane, Jamie; Mishina, Yuji; Kaartinen, Vesa

    2014-06-15

    BMP signaling plays an essential role in second heart field-derived heart and arterial trunk development, including myocardial differentiation, right ventricular growth, and interventricular, outflow tract and aortico-pulmonary septation. It is mediated by a number of different BMP ligands, and receptors, many of which are present simultaneously. The mechanisms by which they regulate morphogenetic events and degree of redundancy amongst them have still to be elucidated. We therefore assessed the role of BMP Type I receptor AcvR1 in anterior second heart field-derived cell development, and compared it with that of BmpR1a. By removing Acvr1 using the driver Mef2c[AHF]-Cre, we show that AcvR1 plays an essential role in arterial pole morphogenesis, identifying defects in outflow tract wall and cushion morphology that preceded a spectrum of septation defects from double outlet right ventricle to common arterial trunk in mutants. Its absence caused dysregulation in gene expression important for myocardial differentiation (Isl1, Fgf8) and regional identity (Tbx2, Tbx3, Tbx20, Tgfb2). Although these defects resemble to some degree those in the equivalent Bmpr1a mutant, a novel gene knock-in model in which Bmpr1a was expressed in the Acvr1 locus only partially restored septation in Acvr1 mutants. These data show that both BmpR1a and AcvR1 are needed for normal heart development, in which they play some non-redundant roles, and refine our understanding of the genetic and morphogenetic processes underlying Bmp-mediated heart development important in human congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) Acts as a BMP and Wnt Inhibitor during Early Embryogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Elisa; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) belongs to an unusual subgroup of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of signaling ligands as it lacks a key cysteine residue in the mature region required for proper intermolecular dimerization. Naturally occurring BMP15 mutation leads to early ovarian failure in humans, and BMP15 has been shown to activate the Smad1/5/8 pathway in that context. Despite its important role in germ cell specification, the embryological function of BMP15 remains unknown. Surprisingly, we find that during early Xenopus embryogenesis BMP15 acts solely as an inhibitor of the Smad1/5/8 pathway and the Wnt pathway. BMP15 gain-of-function leads to embryos with secondary ectopic heads and to direct neural induction in intact explants. BMP15 inhibits BMP4-mediated epidermal induction in dissociated explants. BMP15 strongly inhibits BRE response induced by BMP4 and blocks phosphorylation and activation of Smad1/5/8 MH2-domain. Mechanistically, BMP15 protein specifically interacts with BMP4 protein, suggesting inhibition upstream of receptor binding. Loss-of-function experiments using morpholinos or a naturally occurring human BMP15 dominant-negative mutant (BMP15-Y235C) leads to embryos lacking head. BMP15-Y235C also eliminates the inhibitory activity of BMP15 on BRE (BMP-responsive element). Finally, we show that BMP15 inhibits the canonical branch of the Wnt pathway, upstream of β-catenin. We, thus, demonstrate that BMP15 is necessary and sufficient for the specification of dorso-anterior structures and highlight novel mechanisms of BMP15 function that strongly suggest a reinterpretation of its function in ovaries specially for ovarian failure. PMID:19553676

  18. Sonic hedgehog promotes somitic chondrogenesis by altering the cellular response to BMP signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaugh, L. Charles; Chyung, Jay H.; Lassar, Andrew B.

    1999-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that signals from the floor plate and notochord promote chondrogenesis of the somitic mesoderm. These tissues, acting through the secreted signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh), appear to be critical for the formation of the sclerotome. Later steps in the differentiation of sclerotome into cartilage may be independent of the influence of these axial tissues. Although the signals involved in these later steps have not yet been pinpointed, there is substantial evid...

  19. Expressional and functional analyses of transcription factors activated by BMP-4s signaling in early xenopus embryo; BMP-4 shigunaru dentatsu kiko to sono hyoteki kakunai tensha inshi ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeno, Mitsugu [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1998-12-16

    The expression and physiological function of two transcription factors, GATA-2 and Xmsx-1, in amphibian embryos has been analyzed. The expression of these mRNAs in embryonic cells were firmly regulated by the BMP-4 signaling, that plays a central role in the formation of ventral tissues. The microinjection studies of GATA-2 RNA into embryonic cells suggested that this factor functions in two adjacent germ layers, mesoderm and ectoderm, to participate in blood cell formation in ventral area of embryo. Embryos injected with Xmsx-1 RNA, but not with GATA-2, in dorsal blastomeres exhibited a ventralized phenotype, with microcephaly and swollen abdomen. Thus, Xmsx-1 is a ventralizing agent. However, on the basis of molecular marker analyses, Xmsx-1 did not promote erythropoietic differentiation, but promoted muscle tissue formation. It has been concluded that Xmsx-1 si a target transcription factor of the BMP-4 signaling, but possesses a distinct activity on dorso-ventral patterning of mesodermal tissues. (author)

  20. A SHH-FOXF1-BMP4 signaling axis regulating growth and differentiation of epithelial and mesenchymal tissues in ureter development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bohnenpoll

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The differentiated cell types of the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the mature ureter of the mouse arise in a precise temporal and spatial sequence from uncommitted precursor cells of the distal ureteric bud epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme. Previous genetic efforts identified a member of the Hedgehog (HH family of secreted proteins, Sonic hedgehog (SHH as a crucial epithelial signal for growth and differentiation of the ureteric mesenchyme. Here, we used conditional loss- and gain-of-function experiments of the unique HH signal transducer Smoothened (SMO to further characterize the cellular functions and unravel the effector genes of HH signaling in ureter development. We showed that HH signaling is not only required for proliferation and SMC differentiation of cells of the inner mesenchymal region but also for survival of cells of the outer mesenchymal region, and for epithelial proliferation and differentiation. We identified the Forkhead transcription factor gene Foxf1 as a target of HH signaling in the ureteric mesenchyme. Expression of a repressor version of FOXF1 in this tissue completely recapitulated the mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation and differentiation defects associated with loss of HH signaling while re-expression of a wildtype version of FOXF1 in the inner mesenchymal layer restored these cellular programs when HH signaling was inhibited. We further showed that expression of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme depends on HH signaling and Foxf1, and that exogenous BMP4 rescued cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation in ureters with abrogated HH signaling or FOXF1 function. We conclude that SHH uses a FOXF1-BMP4 module to coordinate the cellular programs for ureter elongation and differentiation, and suggest that deregulation of this signaling axis occurs in human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT.

  1. A SHH-FOXF1-BMP4 signaling axis regulating growth and differentiation of epithelial and mesenchymal tissues in ureter development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenpoll, Tobias; Wittern, Anna B; Mamo, Tamrat M; Weiss, Anna-Carina; Rudat, Carsten; Kleppa, Marc-Jens; Schuster-Gossler, Karin; Wojahn, Irina; Lüdtke, Timo H-W; Trowe, Mark-Oliver; Kispert, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    The differentiated cell types of the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the mature ureter of the mouse arise in a precise temporal and spatial sequence from uncommitted precursor cells of the distal ureteric bud epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme. Previous genetic efforts identified a member of the Hedgehog (HH) family of secreted proteins, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) as a crucial epithelial signal for growth and differentiation of the ureteric mesenchyme. Here, we used conditional loss- and gain-of-function experiments of the unique HH signal transducer Smoothened (SMO) to further characterize the cellular functions and unravel the effector genes of HH signaling in ureter development. We showed that HH signaling is not only required for proliferation and SMC differentiation of cells of the inner mesenchymal region but also for survival of cells of the outer mesenchymal region, and for epithelial proliferation and differentiation. We identified the Forkhead transcription factor gene Foxf1 as a target of HH signaling in the ureteric mesenchyme. Expression of a repressor version of FOXF1 in this tissue completely recapitulated the mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation and differentiation defects associated with loss of HH signaling while re-expression of a wildtype version of FOXF1 in the inner mesenchymal layer restored these cellular programs when HH signaling was inhibited. We further showed that expression of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme depends on HH signaling and Foxf1, and that exogenous BMP4 rescued cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation in ureters with abrogated HH signaling or FOXF1 function. We conclude that SHH uses a FOXF1-BMP4 module to coordinate the cellular programs for ureter elongation and differentiation, and suggest that deregulation of this signaling axis occurs in human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT).

  2. Smad4 mediated BMP2 signal is essential for the regulation of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 by affecting the histone H3 acetylation in H9c2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Lina; Shi, Jin; Gao, Wenqun; Zheng, Min; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhu, Jing; Tian, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • BMP2 can upregulated cardiac related gene GATA4, Nkx2.5, MEF2c and Tbx5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased BMP2-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. • Inhibition of Smad4 diminished BMP2-induced overexpression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased hyperacetylated H3 in the promoter of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Smad4 is essential for BMP2 induced hyperacetylated histone H3. - Abstract: BMP2 signaling pathway plays critical roles during heart development, Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a pivotal nuclear mediator. Our previous studies showed that BMP2 enhanced the expression of cardiac transcription factors in part by increasing histone H3 acetylation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Smad4 mediated BMP2 signaling pathway is essential for the expression of cardiac core transcription factors by affecting the histone H3 acetylation. We successfully constructed a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA interference vector targeting Smad4 (Lv-Smad4) in rat H9c2 embryonic cardiac myocytes (H9c2 cells) and demonstrated that it suppressed the expression of the Smad4 gene. Cultured H9c2 cells were transfected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human BMP2 (AdBMP2) with or without Lv-Smad4. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 substantially inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not MEF2c and Tbx5. Similarly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal histone H3 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not of Tbx5 and MEF2c. In addition, Lv-Smad4 selectively suppressed AdBMP2-induced expression of HAT p300, but not of HAT GCN5 in H9c2 cells. The data indicated that inhibition of Smad4 diminished both AdBMP2 induced and basal histone acetylation levels in the promoter regions of

  3. Smad4 mediated BMP2 signal is essential for the regulation of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 by affecting the histone H3 acetylation in H9c2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Lina; Shi, Jin; Gao, Wenqun [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Zheng, Min [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Liu, Lingjuan; Zhu, Jing [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Tian, Jie, E-mail: jietian@cqmu.edu.cn [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • BMP2 can upregulated cardiac related gene GATA4, Nkx2.5, MEF2c and Tbx5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased BMP2-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. • Inhibition of Smad4 diminished BMP2-induced overexpression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased hyperacetylated H3 in the promoter of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Smad4 is essential for BMP2 induced hyperacetylated histone H3. - Abstract: BMP2 signaling pathway plays critical roles during heart development, Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a pivotal nuclear mediator. Our previous studies showed that BMP2 enhanced the expression of cardiac transcription factors in part by increasing histone H3 acetylation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Smad4 mediated BMP2 signaling pathway is essential for the expression of cardiac core transcription factors by affecting the histone H3 acetylation. We successfully constructed a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA interference vector targeting Smad4 (Lv-Smad4) in rat H9c2 embryonic cardiac myocytes (H9c2 cells) and demonstrated that it suppressed the expression of the Smad4 gene. Cultured H9c2 cells were transfected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human BMP2 (AdBMP2) with or without Lv-Smad4. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 substantially inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not MEF2c and Tbx5. Similarly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal histone H3 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not of Tbx5 and MEF2c. In addition, Lv-Smad4 selectively suppressed AdBMP2-induced expression of HAT p300, but not of HAT GCN5 in H9c2 cells. The data indicated that inhibition of Smad4 diminished both AdBMP2 induced and basal histone acetylation levels in the promoter regions of

  4. Genetic variation in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and colon and rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Kadlubar, Susan; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.; Wolff, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are part of the TGF-β-signaling pathway; genetic variation in these genes may be involved in colorectal cancer. In this study we evaluated the association between genetic variation in BMP1 (11 tagSNPs), BMP2 (5 tagSNPs), BMP4 (3 tagSNPs), BMPR1A (9 tagSNPs), BMPR1B (21 tagSNPs), BMPR2 (11 tagSNPs), and GDF10 (7 tagSNPs) with risk of colon and rectal cancer and tumor molecular phenotype. We used data from population-based case-control studies (colon cancer n=1574 cases, 1970 controls; rectal cancer n=791 cases, 999 controls). We observed that genetic variation in BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, BMP2, and BMP4 was associated with risk of developing colon cancer, with 20 to 30% increased risk for most high-risk genotypes. A summary of high-risk genotypes showed over a twofold increase in colon cancer risk at the upper risk category (OR 2.49 95% CI 1.95, 3.18). BMPR2, BMPR1B, BMP2, and GDF10 were associated with rectal cancer. BMPR2 rs2228545 was associated with an almost twofold increased risk of rectal cancer. The risk associated with the highest category of the summary score for rectal cancer was 2.97 (95% CI 1.87, 4.72). Genes in the BMP-signaling pathway were consistently associated with CIMP+ status in combination with both KRAS-mutated and MSI tumors. BMP genes interacted statistically significantly with other genes in the TGF-β-signaling pathway, including TGFβ1, TGFβR1, Smad 3, Smad 4, and Smad 7. Our data support a role for genetic variation in BMP-related genes in the etiology of colon and rectal cancer. One possible mechanism is via the TGF-β-signaling pathway. PMID:21387313

  5. The zinc transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 is required for connective tissue development; its involvement in BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Fukada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element and it is abundant in connective tissues, however biological roles of Zn and its transporters in those tissues and cells remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that mice deficient in Zn transporter Slc39a13/Zip13 show changes in bone, teeth and connective tissue reminiscent of the clinical spectrum of human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS. The Slc39a13 knockout (Slc39a13-KO mice show defects in the maturation of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, and fibroblasts. In the corresponding tissues and cells, impairment in bone morphogenic protein (BMP and TGF-beta signaling were observed. Homozygosity for a SLC39A13 loss of function mutation was detected in sibs affected by a unique variant of EDS that recapitulates the phenotype observed in Slc39a13-KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hence, our results reveal a crucial role of SLC39A13/ZIP13 in connective tissue development at least in part due to its involvement in the BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways. The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-beta signaling and connective tissue dysfunction.

  6. Quinoline compound KM11073 enhances BMP-2-dependent osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells via activation of p38 signaling and exhibits in vivo bone forming activity.

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    Seung-hwa Baek

    Full Text Available Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2 has been approved by the FDA for clinical application, but its use is limited due to high cost and a supra-physiological dose for therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, recent studies have focused on the generation of new therapeutic small molecules to induce bone formation or potentiate the osteogenic activity of BMP-2. Here, we show that [4-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl piperazino][1-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]methanone (KM11073 strongly enhances the BMP-2-stimulated induction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, an early phase biomarker of osteoblast differentiation, in bi-potential mesenchymal progenitor C2C12 cells. The KM11073-mediated ALP induction was inhibited by the BMP antagonist noggin, suggesting that its osteogenic activity occurs via BMP signaling. In addition, a pharmacological inhibition study suggested the involvement of p38 activation in the osteogenic action of KM11073 accompanied by enhanced expression of BMP-2, -6, and -7 mRNA. Furthermore, the in vivo osteogenic activity of KM11073 was confirmed in zebrafish and mouse calvarial bone formation models, suggesting the possibility of its single use for bone formation. In conclusion, the combination of rhBMP-2 with osteogenic small molecules could reduce the use of expensive rhBMP-2, mitigating the undesirable side effects of its supra-physiological dose for therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, due to their inherent physical properties, small molecules could represent the next generation of regenerative medicine.

  7. CXXC5 is a novel BMP4-regulated modulator of Wnt signaling in neural stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andersson, T.; Södersten, E.; Duckworth, J.K.; Cascante, A.; Fritz, N.; Sacchetti, P.; Červenka, I.; Bryja, Vítězslav; Hermanson, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 6 (2008), s. 3672-3681 ISSN 0021-9258 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB501630801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Wnt signaling * CXXC5 * neural stem cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2008

  8. Activin A inhibits BMP-signaling by binding ACVR2A and ACVR2B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Oddrun Elise; Wader, Karin Fahl; Hella, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activins are members of the TGF-β family of ligands that have multiple biological functions in embryonic stem cells as well as in differentiated tissue. Serum levels of activin A were found to be elevated in pathological conditions such as cachexia, osteoporosis and cancer. Signaling...

  9. Interactions between BMP-7 and USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 regulate supernumerary organ formations.

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    Honoka Kiso

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are highly conserved signaling molecules that are part of the transforming growth factor (TGF-beta superfamily, and function in the patterning and morphogenesis of many organs including development of the dentition. The functions of the BMPs are controlled by certain classes of molecules that are recognized as BMP antagonists that inhibit BMP binding to their cognate receptors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 suppresses deciduous incisors by inhibition of BMP-7 function. We learned that USAG-1 and BMP-7 were expressed within odontogenic epithelium as well as mesenchyme during the late bud and early cap stages of tooth development. USAG-1 is a BMP antagonist, and also modulates Wnt signaling. USAG-1 abrogation rescued apoptotic elimination of odontogenic mesenchymal cells. BMP signaling in the rudimentary maxillary incisor, assessed by expressions of Msx1 and Dlx2 and the phosphorylation of Smad protein, was significantly enhanced. Using explant culture and subsequent subrenal capsule transplantation of E15 USAG-1 mutant maxillary incisor tooth primordia supplemented with BMP-7 demonstrated in USAG-1+/- as well as USAG-1-/- rescue and supernumerary tooth development. Based upon these results, we conclude that USAG-1 functions as an antagonist of BMP-7 in this model system. These results further suggest that the phenotypes of USAG-1 and BMP-7 mutant mice reported provide opportunities for regenerative medicine and dentistry.

  10. Gremlin-2 is a BMP antagonist that is regulated by the circadian clock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeung, Ching-Yan Chloé; Gossan, Nicole; Lu, Yinhui

    2014-01-01

    knowledge of tendon gene regulation is essential for a complete understanding of FCT biology. Here we show autonomous circadian rhythms in mouse tendon and primary human tenocytes, controlled by an intrinsic molecular circadian clock. Time-series microarrays identified the first circadian transcriptome...... of murine tendon, revealing that 4.6% of the transcripts (745 genes) are expressed in a circadian manner. One of these genes was Grem2, which oscillated in antiphase to BMP signaling. Moreover, recombinant human Gremlin-2 blocked BMP2-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5 and osteogenic differentiation...... of human tenocytes in vitro. We observed dampened Grem2 expression, deregulated BMP signaling, and spontaneously calcifying tendons in young CLOCKΔ19 arrhythmic mice and aged wild-type mice. Thus, disruption of circadian control, through mutations or aging, of Grem2/BMP signaling becomes a new focus...

  11. Spatial control of bone formation using a porous polymer scaffold co-delivering anabolic rhBMP-2 and anti-resorptive agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NYC Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current clinical delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs utilises freeze-dried collagen. Despite effective new bone generation, rhBMP via collagen can be limited by significant complications due to inflammation and uncontrolled bone formation. This study aimed to produce an alternative rhBMP local delivery system to permit more controllable and superior rhBMP-induced bone formation. Cylindrical porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA scaffolds were manufactured by thermally-induced phase separation. Scaffolds were encapsulated with anabolic rhBMP-2 (20 µg ± anti-resorptive agents: zoledronic acid (5 µg ZA, ZA pre-adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite microparticles, (5 µg ZA/2 % HA or IkappaB kinase (IKK inhibitor (10 µg PS-1145. Scaffolds were inserted in a 6-mm critical-sized femoral defect in Wistar rats, and compared against rhBMP-2 via collagen. The regenerate region was examined at 6 weeks by 3D microCT and descriptive histology. MicroCT and histology revealed rhBMP-induced bone was more restricted in the PLGA scaffolds than collagen scaffolds (-92.3 % TV, p < 0.01. The regenerate formed by PLGA + rhBMP-2/ZA/HA showed comparable bone volume to rhBMP-2 via collagen, and bone mineral density was +9.1 % higher (p < 0.01. Local adjunct ZA/HA or PS-1145 significantly enhanced PLGA + rhBMP-induced bone formation by +78.2 % and +52.0 %, respectively (p ≤ 0.01. Mechanistically, MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells showed cellular invasion and proliferation within PLGA scaffolds. In conclusion, PLGA scaffolds enabled superior spatial control of rhBMP-induced bone formation over clinically-used collagen. The PLGA scaffold has the potential to avoid uncontrollable bone formation-related safety issues and to customise bone shape by scaffold design. Moreover, local treatment with anti-resorptive agents incorporated within the scaffold further augmented rhBMP-induced bone formation.

  12. Controlled Retention of BMP-2-Derived Peptide on Nanofibers Based on Mussel-Inspired Adhesion for Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkyu; Perikamana, Sajeesh Kumar Madhurakkat; Ahmad, Taufiq; Lee, Min Suk; Yang, Hee Seok; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Kim, Kyobum; Kwon, Bosun; Shin, Heungsoo

    2017-04-01

    Although bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has been frequently used to stimulate bone formation, it has several side effects to be addressed, including the difficulty in optimization of clinically relevant doses and unwanted induction of cancerous signaling processes. In this study, an osteogenic peptide (OP) derived from BMP-2 was investigated as a substitute for BMP-2. In vitro studies showed that OP was able to enhance the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The peptides were then conjugated onto biocompatible poly-ι-lactide electrospun nanofibers through polydopamine chemistry. Surface chemical analysis proved that more than 80% of the peptides were stably retained on the nanofiber surface after 8 h of polydopamine coating during at least 28 days, and the amount of peptides that was retained increased depending on the polydopamine coating time. For instance, about 65% of the peptides were retained on nanofibers after 4 h of polydopamine coating. Also, a relatively small dose of peptides could effectively induce bone formation in in vivo critical-sized defects on the calvarial bones of mice. More than 50.4% ± 16.9% of newly formed bone was filled within the defect after treatment with only 10.5 ± 0.6 μg of peptides. Moreover, these groups had similar elastic moduli and contact hardnesses with host bone. Taken together, our results suggest that polydopamine-mediated OP immobilized on nanofibers can modulate the retention of relatively short lengths of peptides, which might make this an effective therapeutic remedy to guide bone regeneration using a relatively small amount of peptides.

  13. Bone induction through controlled release of novel BMP-2-related peptide from PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shuo; Li Jingfeng; Teng Yu; Guo Xiaodong; Zhao Jingjing; Xu Shuyun; Quan Daping

    2012-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is the most powerful osteogenic factor; its effectiveness in enhancing osteoblastic activation has been confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. We developed a novel peptide (designated P24) derived from the ‘knuckle’ epitope of BMP-2 and found it also had osteogenic bioactivity to some extent. The main objective of this study was to develop a controlled release system based on poly(trimethylene carbonate)–F127–poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC 11 -F127-PTMC 11 ) hydrogels for the P24 peptide, to promote bone formation. By varying the copolymer concentrations, we demonstrated that P24/PTMC 11 -F127-PTMC 11 hydrogels were an efficient system for the sustained release of P24 over 21–35 days. The P24-loaded hydrogels elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and promoted the expression of osteocalcin mRNA in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro. Radiographic and histological examination showed that P24-loaded hydrogels could induce more effective ectopic bone formation in vivo than P24-free hydrogels. These results indicate that the PTMC 11 -F127-PTMC 11 hydrogel is a suitable carrier for the controlled release of P24, and is a promising injectable biomaterial for the induction of bone regeneration. (paper)

  14. CEP128 Localizes to the Subdistal Appendages of the Mother Centriole and Regulates TGF-β/BMP Signaling at the Primary Cilium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mönnich, Maren; Borgeskov, Louise; Breslin, Loretta

    2018-01-01

    The centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing center in animal cells and comprises a mother and daughter centriole surrounded by pericentriolar material. During formation of primary cilia, the mother centriole transforms into a basal body that templates the ciliary axoneme. Ciliogenesis depends...... on mother centriole-specific distal appendages, whereas the role of subdistal appendages in ciliary function is unclear. Here, we identify CEP128 as a centriole subdistal appendage protein required for regulating ciliary signaling. Loss of CEP128 did not grossly affect centrosomal or ciliary structure...... but caused impaired transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenetic protein (TGF-β/BMP) signaling in zebrafish and at the primary cilium in cultured mammalian cells. This phenotype is likely the result of defective vesicle trafficking at the cilium as ciliary localization of RAB11 was impaired upon loss...

  15. Breast cancer cells obtain an osteomimetic feature via epithelial-mesenchymal transition that have undergone BMP2/RUNX2 signaling pathway induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cong-Cong; Li, Gui-Xi; Tan, Li-Duan; Du, Xin; Li, Xiao-Qing; He, Rui; Wang, Qing-Shan; Feng, Yu-Mei

    2016-11-29

    Bone is one of the most common organs of breast cancer metastasis. Cancer cells that mimic osteoblasts by expressing bone matrix proteins and factors have a higher likelihood of metastasizing to bone. However, the molecular mechanisms of osteomimicry formation of cancer cells remain undefined. Herein, we identified a set of bone-related genes (BRGs) that are ectopically co-expressed in primary breast cancer tissues and determined that osteomimetic feature is obtained due to the osteoblast-like transformation of epithelial breast cancer cells that have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) followed by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that breast cancer cells that transformed into osteoblast-like cells with high expression of BRGs showed enhanced chemotaxis, adhesion, proliferation and multidrug resistance in an osteoblast-mimic bone microenvironment in vitro. During these processes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) functioned as a master mediator by suppressing or activating the transcription of BRGs that underlie the dynamic antagonism between the TGF-β/SMAD and BMP/SMAD signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of osteomimicry formation that arises in primary breast tumors, which may explain the propensity of breast cancer to metastasize to the skeleton and contribute to potential strategies for predicting and targeting breast cancer bone metastasis and multidrug resistance.

  16. Effects of MiR-375-BMPR2 as a Key Factor Downstream of BMP15/GDF9 on the Smad1/5/8 and Smad2/3 Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, which are secreted by oocytes, are important regulators of follicular growth and development and ovarian function. These two factors can regulate the proliferation and apoptosis of cumulus cells via modulation of the Smad signaling pathway. Studies have shown that BMP15 and GDF9 can affect the level of miR-375, whereas the target gene of miR-375 is BMPR2, the type II receptor of BMP15 and GDF9. However, whether or how the BMP15/ GDF9-miR-375-BMPR2 pathway affects the proliferation and apoptosis of bovine cumulus cells through regulation of the Smad signaling pathway remains unclear. Methods: In this study, cumulus cells were first obtained from cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs. Appropriate concentrations of BMP15 and GDF9 were added during the in vitro culture process. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 analyses and flow cytometry were used to determine the effects of BMP15/GDF9 on bovine cumulus cells proliferation and apoptosis. Subsequently, miR-375 mimics, miR-375 inhibitor and BMPR2 siRNA were synthesized and used for transfection experiments. Western Blot analysis was used to detect changes before and after transfection in the expression levels of the BMP15/GDF9 type I receptors ALK4, ALK5 and ALK6; the phosphorylation levels of Smad2/3 and Smad1/5/8, which are key signaling pathway proteins downstream of BMP15/GDF9; the expression levels of PTX3, HAS2 and PTGS2, which are key genes involved in cumulus cells proliferation; and Bcl2/Bax, which are genes involved in apoptosis. Results: The addition of 100 ng/mL BMP15 or 200 ng/mL GDF9 or the combined addition of 50 ng/mL BMP15 and 100 ng/mL GDF9 effectively inhibited bovine cumulus cell apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation. BMP15/GDF9 negatively regulated miR-375 expression and positively regulated BMPR2 expression. High levels of miR-375 and inhibition of BMPR2 resulted in increased expression of ALK

  17. Enhanced osteogenesis of adipose derived stem cells with Noggin suppression and delivery of BMP-2.

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    Jiabing Fan

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are believed to be the most potent osteoinductive factors. However, BMPs are highly pleiotropic molecules and their supra-physiological high dose requirement leads to adverse side effects and inefficient bone formation. Thus, there is a need to develop alternative osteoinductive growth factor strategies that can effectively complement BMP activity. In this study, we intrinsically stimulated BMP signaling in adipose derived stem cells (ASCs by downregulating noggin, a potent BMP antagonist, using an RNAi strategy. ASCs transduced with noggin shRNA significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation of cells. The potency of endogenous BMPs was subsequently enhanced by stimulating ASCs with exogenous BMPs at a significantly reduced dose. The level of mineralization in noggin shRNA treated ASCs when treated with BMP-2 was comparable to that of control shRNA treated cell treated with 10-fold more BMP-2. The complementary strategy of noggin suppression + BMP-2 to enhance osteogenesis was further confirmed in 3D in vitro environments using scaffolds consisting of chitosan (CH, chondroitin sulfate (CS, and apatite layer on their surfaces designed to slowly release BMP-2. This finding supports the novel therapeutic potential of this complementary strategy in bone regeneration.

  18. Multiple common susceptibility variants near BMP pathway loci GREM1, BMP4, and BMP2 explain part of the missing heritability of colorectal cancer.

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    Ian P M Tomlinson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified 14 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs that are associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and several of these tagSNPs are near bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathway loci. The penalty of multiple testing implicit in GWAS increases the attraction of complementary approaches for disease gene discovery, including candidate gene- or pathway-based analyses. The strongest candidate loci for additional predisposition SNPs are arguably those already known both to have functional relevance and to be involved in disease risk. To investigate this proposition, we searched for novel CRC susceptibility variants close to the BMP pathway genes GREM1 (15q13.3, BMP4 (14q22.2, and BMP2 (20p12.3 using sample sets totalling 24,910 CRC cases and 26,275 controls. We identified new, independent CRC predisposition SNPs close to BMP4 (rs1957636, P = 3.93×10(-10 and BMP2 (rs4813802, P = 4.65×10(-11. Near GREM1, we found using fine-mapping that the previously-identified association between tagSNP rs4779584 and CRC actually resulted from two independent signals represented by rs16969681 (P = 5.33×10(-8 and rs11632715 (P = 2.30×10(-10. As low-penetrance predisposition variants become harder to identify-owing to small effect sizes and/or low risk allele frequencies-approaches based on informed candidate gene selection may become increasingly attractive. Our data emphasise that genetic fine-mapping studies can deconvolute associations that have arisen owing to independent correlation of a tagSNP with more than one functional SNP, thus explaining some of the apparently missing heritability of common diseases.

  19. A computational model for BMP movement in sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijster, Peter; Hardway, Heather; Kaper, Tasso J; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2014-12-21

    Bone morphogen proteins (BMPs) are distributed along a dorsal-ventral (DV) gradient in many developing embryos. The spatial distribution of this signaling ligand is critical for correct DV axis specification. In various species, BMP expression is spatially localized, and BMP gradient formation relies on BMP transport, which in turn requires interactions with the extracellular proteins Short gastrulation/Chordin (Chd) and Twisted gastrulation (Tsg). These binding interactions promote BMP movement and concomitantly inhibit BMP signaling. The protease Tolloid (Tld) cleaves Chd, which releases BMP from the complex and permits it to bind the BMP receptor and signal. In sea urchin embryos, BMP is produced in the ventral ectoderm, but signals in the dorsal ectoderm. The transport of BMP from the ventral ectoderm to the dorsal ectoderm in sea urchin embryos is not understood. Therefore, using information from a series of experiments, we adapt the mathematical model of Mizutani et al. (2005) and embed it as the reaction part of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. We use it to study aspects of this transport process in sea urchin embryos. We demonstrate that the receptor-bound BMP concentration exhibits dorsally centered peaks of the same type as those observed experimentally when the ternary transport complex (Chd-Tsg-BMP) forms relatively quickly and BMP receptor binding is relatively slow. Similarly, dorsally centered peaks are created when the diffusivities of BMP, Chd, and Chd-Tsg are relatively low and that of Chd-Tsg-BMP is relatively high, and the model dynamics also suggest that Tld is a principal regulator of the system. At the end of this paper, we briefly compare the observed dynamics in the sea urchin model to a version that applies to the fly embryo, and we find that the same conditions can account for BMP transport in the two types of embryos only if Tld levels are reduced in sea urchin compared to fly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. A BMP7 Variant Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo through Direct Modulation of Endothelial Cell Biology.

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    Courtney M Tate

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, members of the TGF-β superfamily, have numerous biological activities including control of growth, differentiation, and vascular development. Using an in vitro co-culture endothelial cord formation assay, we investigated the role of a BMP7 variant (BMP7v in VEGF, bFGF, and tumor-driven angiogenesis. BMP7v treatment led to disruption of neo-endothelial cord formation and regression of existing VEGF and bFGF cords in vitro. Using a series of tumor cell models capable of driving angiogenesis in vitro, BMP7v treatment completely blocked cord formation. Pre-treatment of endothelial cells with BMP7v significantly reduced their cord forming ability, indicating a direct effect on endothelial cell function. BMP7v activated the canonical SMAD signaling pathway in endothelial cells but targeted gene knockdown using shRNA directed against SMAD4 suggests this pathway is not required to mediate the anti-angiogenic effect. In contrast to SMAD activation, BMP7v selectively decreased ERK and AKT activation, significantly decreased endothelial cell migration and down-regulated expression of critical RTKs involved in VEGF and FGF angiogenic signaling, VEGFR2 and FGFR1 respectively. Importantly, in an in vivo angiogenic plug assay that serves as a measurement of angiogenesis, BMP7v significantly decreased hemoglobin content indicating inhibition of neoangiogenesis. In addition, BMP7v significantly decreased angiogenesis in glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSLC Matrigel plugs and significantly impaired in vivo growth of a GSLC xenograft with a concomitant reduction in microvessel density. These data support BMP7v as a potent anti-angiogenic molecule that is effective in the context of tumor angiogenesis.

  1. A BMP7 Variant Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo through Direct Modulation of Endothelial Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Courtney M; Mc Entire, Jacquelyn; Pallini, Roberto; Vakana, Eliza; Wyss, Lisa; Blosser, Wayne; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; D'Alessandris, Quintino Giorgio; Morgante, Liliana; Giannetti, Stefano; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Todaro, Matilde; Benfante, Antonina; Colorito, Maria Luisa; Stassi, Giorgio; De Maria, Ruggero; Rowlinson, Scott; Stancato, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the TGF-β superfamily, have numerous biological activities including control of growth, differentiation, and vascular development. Using an in vitro co-culture endothelial cord formation assay, we investigated the role of a BMP7 variant (BMP7v) in VEGF, bFGF, and tumor-driven angiogenesis. BMP7v treatment led to disruption of neo-endothelial cord formation and regression of existing VEGF and bFGF cords in vitro. Using a series of tumor cell models capable of driving angiogenesis in vitro, BMP7v treatment completely blocked cord formation. Pre-treatment of endothelial cells with BMP7v significantly reduced their cord forming ability, indicating a direct effect on endothelial cell function. BMP7v activated the canonical SMAD signaling pathway in endothelial cells but targeted gene knockdown using shRNA directed against SMAD4 suggests this pathway is not required to mediate the anti-angiogenic effect. In contrast to SMAD activation, BMP7v selectively decreased ERK and AKT activation, significantly decreased endothelial cell migration and down-regulated expression of critical RTKs involved in VEGF and FGF angiogenic signaling, VEGFR2 and FGFR1 respectively. Importantly, in an in vivo angiogenic plug assay that serves as a measurement of angiogenesis, BMP7v significantly decreased hemoglobin content indicating inhibition of neoangiogenesis. In addition, BMP7v significantly decreased angiogenesis in glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSLC) Matrigel plugs and significantly impaired in vivo growth of a GSLC xenograft with a concomitant reduction in microvessel density. These data support BMP7v as a potent anti-angiogenic molecule that is effective in the context of tumor angiogenesis.

  2. Drosophila motor neuron retraction during metamorphosis is mediated by inputs from TGF-β/BMP signaling and orphan nuclear receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Boulanger

    Full Text Available Larval motor neurons remodel during Drosophila neuro-muscular junction dismantling at metamorphosis. In this study, we describe the motor neuron retraction as opposed to degeneration based on the early disappearance of β-Spectrin and the continuing presence of Tubulin. By blocking cell dynamics with a dominant-negative form of Dynamin, we show that phagocytes have a key role in this process. Importantly, we show the presence of peripheral glial cells close to the neuro-muscular junction that retracts before the motor neuron. We show also that in muscle, expression of EcR-B1 encoding the steroid hormone receptor required for postsynaptic dismantling, is under the control of the ftz-f1/Hr39 orphan nuclear receptor pathway but not the TGF-β signaling pathway. In the motor neuron, activation of EcR-B1 expression by the two parallel pathways (TGF-β signaling and nuclear receptor triggers axon retraction. We propose that a signal from a TGF-β family ligand is produced by the dismantling muscle (postsynapse compartment and received by the motor neuron (presynaptic compartment resulting in motor neuron retraction. The requirement of the two pathways in the motor neuron provides a molecular explanation for the instructive role of the postsynapse degradation on motor neuron retraction. This mechanism insures the temporality of the two processes and prevents motor neuron pruning before postsynaptic degradation.

  3. Drosophila motor neuron retraction during metamorphosis is mediated by inputs from TGF-β/BMP signaling and orphan nuclear receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Ana; Farge, Morgane; Ramanoudjame, Christophe; Wharton, Kristi; Dura, Jean-Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Larval motor neurons remodel during Drosophila neuro-muscular junction dismantling at metamorphosis. In this study, we describe the motor neuron retraction as opposed to degeneration based on the early disappearance of β-Spectrin and the continuing presence of Tubulin. By blocking cell dynamics with a dominant-negative form of Dynamin, we show that phagocytes have a key role in this process. Importantly, we show the presence of peripheral glial cells close to the neuro-muscular junction that retracts before the motor neuron. We show also that in muscle, expression of EcR-B1 encoding the steroid hormone receptor required for postsynaptic dismantling, is under the control of the ftz-f1/Hr39 orphan nuclear receptor pathway but not the TGF-β signaling pathway. In the motor neuron, activation of EcR-B1 expression by the two parallel pathways (TGF-β signaling and nuclear receptor) triggers axon retraction. We propose that a signal from a TGF-β family ligand is produced by the dismantling muscle (postsynapse compartment) and received by the motor neuron (presynaptic compartment) resulting in motor neuron retraction. The requirement of the two pathways in the motor neuron provides a molecular explanation for the instructive role of the postsynapse degradation on motor neuron retraction. This mechanism insures the temporality of the two processes and prevents motor neuron pruning before postsynaptic degradation.

  4. Developmental roles of the BMP1/TLD metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Gaoxiang; Greenspan, Daniel S

    2006-03-01

    The astacin family (M12A) of the metzincin subclan MA(M) of metalloproteinases has been detected in developing and mature individuals of species that range from hydra to humans. Functions of this family of metalloproteinase vary from digestive degradation of polypeptides, to biosynthetic processing of extracellular proteins, to activation of growth factors. This review will focus on a small subgroup of the astacin family; the bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1)/Tolloid (TLD)-like metalloproteinases. In vertebrates, the BMP1/TLD-like metalloproteinases play key roles in regulating formation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) via biosynthetic processing of various precursor proteins into mature functional enzymes, structural proteins, and proteins involved in initiating mineralization of the ECM of hard tissues. Roles in ECM formation include: processing of the C-propeptides of procollagens types I-III, to yield the major fibrous components of vertebrate ECM; proteolytic activation of the enzyme lysyl oxidase, necessary to formation of covalent cross-links in collagen and elastic fibers; processing of NH2-terminal globular domains and C-propeptides of types V and XI procollagen chains to yield monomers that are incorporated into and control the diameters of collagen type I and II fibrils, respectively; processing of precursors for laminin 5 and collagen type VII, both of which are involved in securing epidermis to underlying dermis; and maturation of small leucine-rich proteoglycans. The BMP1/TLD-related metalloproteinases are also capable of activating the vertebrate transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-like "chalones" growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8, also known as myostatin), and GDF11 (also known as BMP11), involved in negative feedback inhibition of muscle and neural tissue growth, respectively; by freeing them from noncovalent latent complexes with their cleaved prodomains. BMP1/TLD-like proteinases also liberate the vertebrate TGF

  5. Combination of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Platelet-rich Fibrin Promotes the Odontoblastic Differentiation and Mineralization of Human Dental Pulp Cells via BMP/Smad Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Su-Mi; Kim, Won-Jae; Lim, Hae-Soon; Choi, Nam-Ki; Kim, Sun-Hun; Kim, Seon-Mi; Jung, Ji-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the combined use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), an autologous fibrin matrix, and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as root filling material is beneficial for the endodontic management of an open apex. However, the potential of the combination of MTA and PRF as an odontogenic inducer in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) in vitro has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combination of MTA and PRF on odontoblastic maturation in HDPCs. HDPCs extracted from third molars were directly cultured with MTA and PRF extract (PRFe). Odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs was evaluated by measuring the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the expression of odontogenesis-related genes was detected using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction or Western blot. Mineralization formation was assessed by alizarin red staining. HDPCs treated with MTA and PRFe significantly up-regulated the expression of dentin sialoprotein and dentin matrix protein-1 and enhanced ALP activity and mineralization compared with those with MTA or PRFe treatment alone. In addition, the combination of MTA and PRFe induced the activation of bone morphogenic proteins (BMP)/Smad, whereas LDN193189, the bone morphogenic protein inhibitor, attenuated dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin matrix protein-1 expression, ALP activity, and mineralization enhanced by MTA and PRFe treatment. This study shows that the combination of MTA and PRF has a synergistic effect on the stimulation of odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs via the modulation of the BMP/Smad signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by CO2 laser-treatment stimulating macrophages via BMP2 signalling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-01-01

    Immune reactions play an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone formation, either in new bone formation or inflammatory fibrous tissue encapsulation. Macrophage cell, the important effector cells in the immune reaction, which are indispensable for osteogenesis and their heterogeneity and plasticity, render macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. However, there are very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used CO 2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of macrophage cells on the CO 2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was also significantly up regulated by the CO 2 laser stimulation, indicating that macrophage may participate in the CO 2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when laser treatment macrophage-conditioned medium were applied to human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs), the osteogenesis differentiation of hPDLs was significantly enhanced, indicating the important role of macrophages in CO 2 laser-induced osteogenesis. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of CO 2 laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment. (paper)

  7. Emerging roles of BMP9 and BMP10 in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

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    Emmanuelle eTillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT, is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. Three genes are causally related to HHT: the ENG gene encoding endoglin, a co-receptor of the TGFß family (HHT1, the ACVRL1 gene encoding ALK1 (activin receptor-like kinase 1, a type I receptor of the TGFß family (HHT2, and the SMAD4 gene, encoding a transcription factor critical for this signaling pathway. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are growth factors of the TGFß family. Among them, BMP9 and BMP10 have been shown to bind directly with high affinity to ALK1 and endoglin, and BMP9 mutations have recently been linked to a vascular-anomaly syndrome that has phenotypic overlap with HHT. BMP9 and BMP10 are both circulating cytokines in blood, and the current working model is that BMP9 and BMP10 maintain a quiescent endothelial state that is dependent on the level of ALK1/endoglin activation on endothelial cells. In accordance with this model, to explain the etiology of HHT we hypothesize that a deficient BMP9/BMP10/ALK1/endoglin pathway may lead to re-activation of angiogenesis or a greater sensitivity to an angiogenic stimulus. Resulting endothelial hyperproliferation and hypermigration may lead to vasodilatation and formation of arteriovenous malformation (AVM. HHT would thus result from a defect in the angiogenic balance. This review will focus on the emerging role played by BMP9 and BMP10 in the development of this disease and the therapeutic approaches that this opens.

  8. A distinct regulatory region of the Bmp5 locus activates gene expression following adult bone fracture or soft tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Catherine A; Wang, Zhen; Li, Emma; Tran, Misha C; Logan, Catriona Y; Nusse, Roel; Pantalena-Filho, Luiz; Yang, George P; Kingsley, David M

    2015-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key signaling molecules required for normal development of bones and other tissues. Previous studies have shown that null mutations in the mouse Bmp5 gene alter the size, shape and number of multiple bone and cartilage structures during development. Bmp5 mutations also delay healing of rib fractures in adult mutants, suggesting that the same signals used to pattern embryonic bone and cartilage are also reused during skeletal regeneration and repair. Despite intense interest in BMPs as agents for stimulating bone formation in clinical applications, little is known about the regulatory elements that control developmental or injury-induced BMP expression. To compare the DNA sequences that activate gene expression during embryonic bone formation and following acute injuries in adult animals, we assayed regions surrounding the Bmp5 gene for their ability to stimulate lacZ reporter gene expression in transgenic mice. Multiple genomic fragments, distributed across the Bmp5 locus, collectively coordinate expression in discrete anatomic domains during normal development, including in embryonic ribs. In contrast, a distinct regulatory region activated expression following rib fracture in adult animals. The same injury control region triggered gene expression in mesenchymal cells following tibia fracture, in migrating keratinocytes following dorsal skin wounding, and in regenerating epithelial cells following lung injury. The Bmp5 gene thus contains an "injury response" control region that is distinct from embryonic enhancers, and that is activated by multiple types of injury in adult animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lactoferricin enhances BMP7-stimulated anabolic pathways in intervertebral disc cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Michael B; Kim, Jaesung; An, Howard S; Chen, Di; Kc, Ranjan; Li, Xin; Xiao, Guozhi; Yan, Dongyao; Suh, Joon; van Wjnen, Andre J; Wang, James H-C; Kim, Su-Gwan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-07-25

    Bone-morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) is a well-known anabolic and anti-catabolic growth factor on intervertebral disc (IVD) matrix and cell homeostasis. Similarly, Lactoferricin B (LfcinB) has recently been shown to have pro-anabolic, anti-catabolic, anti-oxidative and/or anti-inflammatory effects in bovine disc cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the potential benefits of using combined peptide therapy with LfcinB and BMP7 for intervertebral disc matrix repair and to understand cellular and signaling mechanisms controlled by these factors. We studied the effects of BMP7 and LfcinB as individual treatments and combined therapy on bovine nucleus pulposus (NP) cells by assessing proteoglycan (PG) accumulation and synthesis, and the gene expression of matrix protein aggrecan and transcription factor SOX-9. We also analyzed the role of Noggin, a BMP antagonist, in IVD tissue and examined its effect after stimulation with LfcinB. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which LfcinB synergizes with BMP7, we investigated the ERK-SP1 axis as a downstream intracellular signaling regulator involved in BMP7 and LfcinB-mediated activities. Treatment of bovine NP cells cultured in alginate with LfcinB plus BMP7 synergistically stimulates PG synthesis and accumulation in part by upregulation of aggrecan gene expression. The synergism results from LfcinB-mediated activation of Sp1 and SMAD signaling pathways by (i) phosphorylation of SMAD 1/5/8; (ii) downregulation of SMAD inhibitory factors [i.e., noggin and SMAD6 (inhibitory SMAD)]; and (iii) upregulation of SMAD4 (universal co-SMAD). These data indicate that LfcinB-suppression of Noggin may eliminate the negative feedback of BMP7, thereby maximizing biological activity of BMP7 and ultimately shifting homeostasis to a pro-anabolic state in disc cells. We propose that combination growth factor therapy using BMP7 and LfcinB may be beneficial for treatment of disc degeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Pedestrian Friendly Traffic Signal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This project continues research aimed at real-time detection and use of pedestrian : traffic flow information to enhance adaptive traffic signal control in urban areas : where pedestrian traffic is substantial and must be given appropriate attention ...

  11. Local rhBMP-12 on an Absorbable Collagen Sponge as an Adjuvant Therapy for Rotator Cuff Repair - A Phase 1, Randomized, Standard of Care Control, Multicenter Study: Safety and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Stefan; Ide, Junji; Van Noort, Arthur; Mochizuki, Yu; Ochi, Hiroshi; Marraffino, Shannon; Sridharan, Sudhakar; Rudicel, Sally; Itoi, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-12 (rhBMP-12) has been shown to induce tendon and ligament formation in rats and to improve tendon healing; however, the safety and feasibility of implanting rhBMP-12/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) in humans are not known. To investigate the safety and feasibility of rhBMP-12 on an ACS as an adjuvant therapy in open rotator cuff repair. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. This study consisted of 20 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Patients were randomized either to standard of care (SOC) treatment (open rotator cuff repair) or to receive 0.015 mg/mL rhBMP-12/ACS and SOC treatment during their open rotator cuff repair (rhBMP-12/ACS group) at a rate of 1/4 SOC/rhBMP-12/ACS. The feasibility of implanting the product and the safety of the product were evaluated during the 1-year follow-up period. The evaluation involved up to 10 postoperative visits, which included physical examinations, radiographs, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans with an emphasis on heterotopic ossification (HO), pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, laboratory evaluations, and local and systemic adverse events at specified time points. Small amounts of HO were seen on follow-up CT scans in 10 of 16 patients in the rhBMP-12/ACS group and in 2 of 3 patients in the SOC group. HO did not increase at 26 weeks and was not associated with any adverse events or unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. Pharmacokinetics demonstrated that circulating levels of rhBMP-12 were not detectable after administration. Five of 16 patients showed a postoperative immunogenic response but did not show any correlating adverse events. Complete healing of the rotator cuff was observed in 14 of 16 patients; 2 of 16 imaging results could not be analyzed because of artifacts in the rhBMP-12 group on MRI scans. In the SOC group, 1 of 4 patients showed a retear at 12 weeks after surgery. The use of rhBMP-12/ACS has been shown

  12. A cascade of morphogenic signaling initiated by the meninges controls corpus callosum formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Youngshik; Siegenthaler, Julie A; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2012-02-23

    The corpus callosum is the most prominent commissural connection between the cortical hemispheres, and numerous neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with callosal agenesis. By using mice either with meningeal overgrowth or selective loss of meninges, we have identified a cascade of morphogenic signals initiated by the meninges that regulates corpus callosum development. The meninges produce BMP7, an inhibitor of callosal axon outgrowth. This activity is overcome by the induction of expression of Wnt3 by the callosal pathfinding neurons, which antagonize the inhibitory effects of BMP7. Wnt3 expression in the cingulate callosal pathfinding axons is developmentally regulated by another BMP family member, GDF5, which is produced by the adjacent Cajal-Retzius neurons and turns on before outgrowth of the callosal axons. The effects of GDF5 are in turn under the control of a soluble GDF5 inhibitor, Dan, made by the meninges. Thus, the meninges and medial neocortex use a cascade of signals to regulate corpus callosum development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human trabecular meshwork cells express BMP antagonist mRNAs and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Vidales, Tara; Fitzgerald, Ashley M; Clark, Abbot F

    2016-06-01

    Glaucoma patients have elevated aqueous humor and trabecular meshwork (TM) levels of transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2). TGF-β2 has been associated with increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition (i.e. fibronectin), which is attributed to the increased resistance of aqueous humor outflow through the TM. We have previously demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 selectively counteracts the profibrotic effect of TGF-β2 with respect to ECM synthesis in the TM, and this action is reversed by the BMP antagonist gremlin. Thus, the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways antagonize each other's antifibrotic and profibrotic roles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cultured human TM cells: (a) express other BMP antagonists including noggin, chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, Smurf1 and 2, and (b) whether expression of these proteins is regulated by exogenous TGF-β2 treatment. Primary human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells were grown to confluency and treated with TGF-β2 (5 ng/ml) for 24 or 48 h in serum-free medium. Untreated cell served as controls. qPCR and Western immunoblots (WB) determined that human TM cells expressed mRNAs and proteins for the BMP antagonist proteins: noggin, chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, and Smurf1/2. Exogenous TGF-β2 decreased chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, and Smurf1 mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, TGF-β2 increased secreted noggin and Smurf2 mRNA and protein levels. BMP antagonist members are expressed in the human TM. These molecules may be involved in the normal function of the TM as well as TM pathogenesis. Altered expression of BMP antagonist members may lead to functional changes in the human TM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diabetes: Models, Signals and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobelli, C.

    2010-07-01

    Diabetes and its complications impose significant economic consequences on individuals, families, health systems, and countries. The control of diabetes is an interdisciplinary endeavor, which includes significant components of modeling, signal processing and control. Models: first, I will discuss the minimal (coarse) models which describe the key components of the system functionality and are capable of measuring crucial processes of glucose metabolism and insulin control in health and diabetes; then, the maximal (fine-grain) models which include comprehensively all available knowledge about system functionality and are capable to simulate the glucose-insulin system in diabetes, thus making it possible to create simulation scenarios whereby cost effective experiments can be conducted in silico to assess the efficacy of various treatment strategies - in particular I will focus on the first in silico simulation model accepted by FDA as a substitute to animal trials in the quest for optimal diabetes control. Signals: I will review metabolic monitoring, with a particular emphasis on the new continuous glucose sensors, on the crucial role of models to enhance the interpretation of their time-series signals, and on the opportunities that they present for automation of diabetes control. Control: I will review control strategies that have been successfully employed in vivo or in silico, presenting a promise for the development of a future artificial pancreas and, in particular, I will discuss a modular architecture for building closed-loop control systems, including insulin delivery and patient safety supervision layers.

  15. Genetic predisposition to fracture non-union: a case control study of a preliminary single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis of the BMP pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoudis Peter V

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the known multi-factorial nature of atrophic fracture non-unions, a possible genetic predisposition for the development of this complication after long bone fractures remains unknown. This pilot study aimed to address this issue by performing a preliminary SNP analysis of specific genes known to regulate fracture healing. Methods A total of fifteen SNPs within four genes of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP pathway (BMP-2, BMP-7, NOGGIN and SMAD6 were examined, in 109 randomly selected patients with long bone fractures as a result of motor vehicle accident, fall or direct blow. There were sixty-two patients with atrophic non-union and forty-seven patients (54 fractures with uneventful fracture union. Overall SNPs frequencies were computed with respect to patient's age, gender, smoking habits, fracture-associated parameters and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, and tested for their association to the impaired bone healing process, using binary logistic regression (STATA 11.1; StataCorp, Texas USA. Results Statistical analysis revealed age to be an important covariate in the development of atrophic non-union (p = 0.01, OR 1.05 [per year], and two specific genotypes (G/G genotype of the rs1372857 SNP, located on NOGGIN and T/T genotype of the rs2053423 SNP, located on SMAD6 to be associated with a greater risk of fracture non-union (p = 0.02, OR 4.56 and p = 0.04, OR 10.27, respectively, after adjustment for age. Conclusions This is the first clinical study to investigate the potential existence of genetic susceptibility to fracture non-union. Even though no concrete conclusions can be obtained from this pilot study, our results indicate the existence of a potential genetically predetermined impairment within the BMP signalling cascade, initiated after a fracture and when combined with other risk factors could synergistically increase the susceptibility of a patient to develop non-union. Further

  16. Bmp indicator mice reveal dynamic regulation of transcriptional response.

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    Anna L Javier

    Full Text Available Cellular responses to Bmp ligands are regulated at multiple levels, both extracellularly and intracellularly. Therefore, the presence of these growth factors is not an accurate indicator of Bmp signaling activity. While a common approach to detect Bmp signaling activity is to determine the presence of phosphorylated forms of Smad1, 5 and 8 by immunostaining, this approach is time consuming and not quantitative. In order to provide a simpler readout system to examine the presence of Bmp signaling in developing animals, we developed BRE-gal mouse embryonic stem cells and a transgenic mouse line that specifically respond to Bmp ligand stimulation. Our reporter identifies specific transcriptional responses that are mediated by Smad1 and Smad4 with the Schnurri transcription factor complex binding to a conserved Bmp-Responsive Element (BRE, originally identified among Drosophila, Xenopus and human Bmp targets. Our BRE-gal mES cells specifically respond to Bmp ligands at concentrations as low as 5 ng/ml; and BRE-gal reporter mice, derived from the BRE-gal mES cells, show dynamic activity in many cellular sites, including extraembryonic structures and mammary glands, thereby making this a useful scientific tool.

  17. BMP pathway regulation of and by macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Talati

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a disease of progressively increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, associated with mutations of the type 2 receptor for the BMP pathway, BMPR2. The canonical signaling pathway for BMPR2 is through the SMAD family of transcription factors. BMPR2 is expressed in every cell type, but the impact of BMPR2 mutations affecting SMAD signaling, such as Bmpr2delx4+, had only previously been investigated in smooth muscle and endothelium. In the present study, we created a mouse with universal doxycycline-inducible expression of Bmpr2delx4+ in order to determine if broader expression had an impact relevant to the development of PAH. We found that the most obvious phenotype was a dramatic, but patchy, increase in pulmonary inflammation. We crossed these double transgenic mice onto an NF-κB reporter strain, and by luciferase assays on live mice, individual organs and isolated macrophages, we narrowed down the origin of the inflammatory phenotype to constitutive activation of tissue macrophages. Study of bone marrow-derived macrophages from mutant and wild-type mice suggested a baseline difference in differentiation state in Bmpr2 mutants. When activated with LPS, both mutant and wild-type macrophages secrete BMP pathway inhibitors sufficient to suppress BMP pathway activity in smooth muscle cells (SMC treated with conditioned media. Functionally, co-culture with macrophages results in a BMP signaling-dependent increase in scratch closure in cultured SMC. We conclude that SMAD signaling through BMP is responsible, in part, for preventing macrophage activation in both live animals and in cells in culture, and that activated macrophages secrete BMP inhibitors in sufficient quantity to cause paracrine effect on vascular smooth muscle.

  18. Regulation of Msx-1, Msx-2, Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 during foetal and postnatal mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phippard, D J; Weber-Hall, S J; Sharpe, P T; Naylor, M S; Jayatalake, H; Maas, R; Woo, I; Roberts-Clark, D; Francis-West, P H; Liu, Y H; Maxson, R; Hill, R E; Dale, T C

    1996-09-01

    Expression of the Msx-1 and Msx-2 homeobox genes have been shown to be coordinately regulated with the Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 ligands in a variety of developing tissues. Here we report that transcripts from all four genes are developmentally regulated during both foetal and postnatal mammary gland development. The location and time-course of the Bmp and Msx expression point to a role for Msx and Bmp gene products in the control of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Expression of Msx-2, but not Msx-1, Bmp-2 or Bmp-4 was decreased following ovariectomy, while expression of the human Msx-2 homologue was regulated by 17beta-oestradiol in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The regulation of Msx-2 expression by oestrogen raises the possibility that hormonal regulation of mammary development is mediated through the control of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.

  19. BMP4 and BMP7 Suppress StAR and Progesterone Production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 in Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Klausen, Christian; Zhu, Hua; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-11-01

    Adequate production of progesterone by the corpus luteum is critical to the successful establishment of pregnancy. In animal models, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and BMP7 have been shown to suppress either basal or gonadotropin-induced progesterone production, depending on the species examined. However, the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on progesterone production in human granulosa cells are unknown. In the present study, we used immortalized (SVOG) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells to investigate the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production and to examine the underlying molecular mechanism. Treatment of primary and immortalized human granulosa cells with recombinant BMP4 or BMP7 decreased StAR expression and progesterone accumulation. In SVOG cells, the suppressive effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression were blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)2/3/6 (dorsomorphin) or ALK2/3 (DMH1) but not ALK4/5/7 (SB-431542). Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of ALK3, but not ALK2 or ALK6, reversed the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Likewise, BMP4- and BMP7-induced phosphorylation of SMAD 1/5/8 was reversed by treatment with DMH1 or small interfering RNA targeting ALK3. Knockdown of SMAD4, the essential common SMAD for BMP/TGF-β signaling, abolished the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Our results suggest that BMP4 and BMP7 down-regulate StAR and progesterone production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 signaling in human granulosa-lutein cells.

  20. Functional cardiomyocytes derived from Isl1 cardiac progenitors via Bmp4 stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Cagavi

    Full Text Available As heart failure due to myocardial infarction remains a leading cause of morbidity worldwide, cell-based cardiac regenerative therapy using cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs could provide a potential treatment for the repair of injured myocardium. As adult CPCs may have limitations regarding tissue accessibility and proliferative ability, CPCs derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs could serve as an unlimited source of cells with high proliferative ability. As one of the CPCs that can be derived from embryonic stem cells, Isl1 expressing cardiac progenitor cells (Isl1-CPCs may serve as a valuable source of cells for cardiac repair due to their high cardiac differentiation potential and authentic cardiac origin. In order to generate an unlimited number of Isl1-CPCs, we used a previously established an ESC line that allows for isolation of Isl1-CPCs by green fluorescent protein (GFP expression that is directed by the mef2c gene, specifically expressed in the Isl1 domain of the anterior heart field. To improve the efficiency of cardiac differentiation of Isl1-CPCs, we studied the role of Bmp4 in cardiogenesis of Isl1-CPCs. We show an inductive role of Bmp directly on cardiac progenitors and its enhancement on early cardiac differentiation of CPCs. Upon induction of Bmp4 to Isl1-CPCs during differentiation, the cTnT+ cardiomyocyte population was enhanced 2.8±0.4 fold for Bmp4 treated CPC cultures compared to that detected for vehicle treated cultures. Both Bmp4 treated and untreated cardiomyocytes exhibit proper electrophysiological and calcium signaling properties. In addition, we observed a significant increase in Tbx5 and Tbx20 expression in differentiation cultures treated with Bmp4 compared to the untreated control, suggesting a link between Bmp4 and Tbx genes which may contribute to the enhanced cardiac differentiation in Bmp4 treated cultures. Collectively these findings suggest a cardiomyogenic role for Bmp4 directly on a pure population of

  1. Deficiency of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 induces BMP2 and increases bone mass in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram Nallamshetty

    Full Text Available The effects of retinoids, the structural derivatives of vitamin A (retinol, on post-natal peak bone density acquisition and skeletal remodeling are complex and compartment specific. Emerging data indicates that retinoids, such as all trans retinoic acid (ATRA and its precursor all trans retinaldehyde (Rald, exhibit distinct and divergent transcriptional effects in metabolism. Despite these observations, the role of enzymes that control retinoid metabolism in bone remains undefined. In this study, we examined the skeletal phenotype of mice deficient in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1, the enzyme responsible for converting Rald to ATRA in adult animals. Bone densitometry and micro-computed tomography (µCT demonstrated that Aldh1a1-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/- female mice had higher trabecular and cortical bone mass compared to age and sex-matched control C57Bl/6 wild type (WT mice at multiple time points. Histomorphometry confirmed increased cortical bone thickness and demonstrated significantly higher bone marrow adiposity in Aldh1a1(-/- mice. In serum assays, Aldh1a1(-/- mice also had higher serum IGF-1 levels. In vitro, primary Aldh1a1(-/- mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 and demonstrated enhanced osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis versus WT MSCs. BMP2 was also expressed at higher levels in the femurs and tibias of Aldh1a1(-/- mice with accompanying induction of BMP2-regulated responses, including expression of Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase, and Smad phosphorylation. In vitro, Rald, which accumulates in Aldh1a1(-/- mice, potently induced BMP2 in WT MSCs in a retinoic acid receptor (RAR-dependent manner, suggesting that Rald is involved in the BMP2 increases seen in Aldh1a1 deficiency in vivo. Collectively, these data implicate Aldh1a1 as a novel determinant of cortical bone density and marrow adiposity in the skeleton in vivo through modulation of BMP signaling.

  2. Deficiency of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 induces BMP2 and increases bone mass in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallamshetty, Shriram; Wang, Hong; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kiefer, Florian W; Brown, Jonathan D; Lotinun, Sutada; Le, Phuong; Baron, Roland; Rosen, Clifford J; Plutzky, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The effects of retinoids, the structural derivatives of vitamin A (retinol), on post-natal peak bone density acquisition and skeletal remodeling are complex and compartment specific. Emerging data indicates that retinoids, such as all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its precursor all trans retinaldehyde (Rald), exhibit distinct and divergent transcriptional effects in metabolism. Despite these observations, the role of enzymes that control retinoid metabolism in bone remains undefined. In this study, we examined the skeletal phenotype of mice deficient in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1), the enzyme responsible for converting Rald to ATRA in adult animals. Bone densitometry and micro-computed tomography (µCT) demonstrated that Aldh1a1-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/-) ) female mice had higher trabecular and cortical bone mass compared to age and sex-matched control C57Bl/6 wild type (WT) mice at multiple time points. Histomorphometry confirmed increased cortical bone thickness and demonstrated significantly higher bone marrow adiposity in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice. In serum assays, Aldh1a1(-/-) mice also had higher serum IGF-1 levels. In vitro, primary Aldh1a1(-/-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressed significantly higher levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and demonstrated enhanced osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis versus WT MSCs. BMP2 was also expressed at higher levels in the femurs and tibias of Aldh1a1(-/-) mice with accompanying induction of BMP2-regulated responses, including expression of Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase, and Smad phosphorylation. In vitro, Rald, which accumulates in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice, potently induced BMP2 in WT MSCs in a retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-dependent manner, suggesting that Rald is involved in the BMP2 increases seen in Aldh1a1 deficiency in vivo. Collectively, these data implicate Aldh1a1 as a novel determinant of cortical bone density and marrow adiposity in the skeleton in vivo through modulation of BMP signaling.

  3. BMP and Hedgehog Regulate Distinct AGM Hematopoietic Stem Cells Ex Vivo

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    Mihaela Crisan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC, the self-renewing cells of the adult blood differentiation hierarchy, are generated during embryonic stages. The first HSCs are produced in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM region of the embryo through endothelial to a hematopoietic transition. BMP4 and Hedgehog affect their production and expansion, but it is unknown whether they act to affect the same HSCs. In this study using the BRE GFP reporter mouse strain that identifies BMP/Smad-activated cells, we find that the AGM harbors two types of adult-repopulating HSCs upon explant culture: One type is BMP-activated and the other is a non-BMP-activated HSC type that is indirectly controlled by Hedgehog signaling through the VEGF pathway. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that the two HSC types express distinct but overlapping genetic programs. These results revealing the bifurcation in HSC types at early embryonic stages in the AGM explant model suggest that their development is dependent upon the signaling molecules in the microenvironment.

  4. NOX4 mediates BMP4-induced upregulation of TRPC1 and 6 protein expressions in distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

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    Qian Jiang

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 mediated, elevated expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC largely accounts for the enhanced proliferation in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs. In the present study, we sought to determine the signaling pathway through which BMP4 up-regulates TRPC expression.We employed recombinant human BMP4 (rhBMP4 to determine the effects of BMP4 on NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4 and reactive oxygen species (ROS production in rat distal PASMCs. We also designed small interfering RNA targeting NOX4 (siNOX4 and detected whether NOX4 knockdown affects rhBMP4-induced ROS, TRPC1 and 6 expression, cell proliferation and intracellular Ca2+ determination in PASMCs.In rhBMP4 treated rat distal PASMCs, NOX4 expression was (226.73±11.13 %, and the mean ROS level was (123.65±1.62 % of that in untreated control cell. siNOX4 transfection significantly reduced rhBMP4-induced elevation of the mean ROS level in PASMCs. Moreover, siNOX4 transfection markedly reduced rhBMP4-induced elevation of TRPC1 and 6 proteins, basal [Ca2+]i and SOCE. Furthermore, compared with control group (0.21±0.001, the proliferation of rhBMP4 treated cells was significantly enhanced (0.41±0.001 (P<0.01. However, such increase was attenuated by knockdown of NOX4. Moreover, external ROS (H2O2 100 µM, 24 h rescued the effects of NOX4 knockdown, which included the declining of TRPC1 and 6 expression, basal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE, suggesting that NOX4 plays as an important mediator in BMP4-induced proliferation and intracellular calcium homeostasis.These results suggest that BMP4 may increase ROS level, enhance TRPC1 and 6 expression and proliferation by up-regulating NOX4 expression in PASMCs.

  5. BMP9 ameliorates amyloidosis and the cholinergic defect in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rebecca M; Norman, Timothy A; Haydar, Tarik F; Slack, Barbara E; Leeman, Susan E; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Mellott, Tiffany J

    2013-11-26

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) promotes the acquisition of the cholinergic phenotype in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) during development and protects these neurons from cholinergic dedifferentiation following axotomy when administered in vivo. A decline in BFCN function occurs in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contributes to the AD-associated memory deficits. We infused BMP9 intracerebroventricularly for 7 d in transgenic AD model mice expressing green fluorescent protein specifically in cholinergic neurons (APP.PS1/CHGFP) and in wild-type littermate controls (WT/CHGFP). We used 5-mo-old mice, an age when the AD transgenics display early amyloid deposition and few cholinergic defects, and 10-mo-old mice, by which time these mice exhibit established disease. BMP9 infusion reduced the number of Aβ42-positive amyloid plaques in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 5- and 10-mo-old APP.PS1/CHGFP mice and reversed the reductions in choline acetyltransferase protein levels in the hippocampus of 10-mo-old APP.PS1/CHGFP mice. The treatment increased cholinergic fiber density in the hippocampus of both WT/CHGFP and APP.PS1/CHGFP mice at both ages. BMP9 infusion also increased hippocampal levels of neurotrophin 3, insulin-like growth factor 1, and nerve growth factor and of the nerve growth factor receptors, tyrosine kinase receptor A and p75/NGFR, irrespective of the genotype of the mice. These data show that BMP9 administration is effective in reducing the Aβ42 amyloid plaque burden, reversing cholinergic neuron abnormalities, and generating a neurotrophic milieu for BFCN in a mouse model of AD and provide evidence that the BMP9-signaling pathway may constitute a therapeutic target for AD.

  6. Enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis in critical bone defects by the controlled release of BMP-2 and VEGF: implantation of electron beam melting-fabricated porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds incorporating growth factor-doped fibrin glue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Jia; Xiu, Peng; Tan, Jie; Cai, Hong; Liu, Zhongjun; Jia, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Electron beam melting (EBM)-fabricated porous titanium implants possessing low elastic moduli and tailored structures are promising biomaterials for orthopedic applications. However, the bio-inert nature of porous titanium makes reinforcement with growth factors (GFs) a promising method to enhance implant in vivo performance. Bone-morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are key factors of angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Therefore, the present study is aimed at evaluating EBM-fabricated porous titanium implants incorporating GF-doped fibrin glue (FG) as composite scaffolds providing GFs for improvement of angiogenesis and osteogenesis in rabbit femoral condyle defects. BMP-2 and VEGF were added into the constituent compounds of FG, and then this GF-doped FG was subsequently injected into the porous scaffolds. In five groups of implants, angiogenesis and osteogenesis were evaluated at 4 weeks post-implantation using Microfil perfusion and histological analysis: eTi (empty scaffolds), cTi (containing undoped FG), BMP/cTi (containing 50 μg rhBMP-2), VEGF/cTi (containing 0.5 μg VEGF) and Dual/cTi (containing 50 μg rhBMP-2 and 0.5 μg VEGF). The results demonstrate that these composite implants are biocompatible and provide the desired gradual release of the bioactive growth factors. Incorporation of GF delivery, whether a single factor or dual factors, significantly enhanced both angiogenesis and osteogenesis inside the porous scaffolds. However, the synergistic effect of the dual factors combination was observable on angiogenesis but absent on osteogenesis. In conclusion, fibrin glue is a biocompatible material that could be employed as a delivery vehicle in EBM-fabricated porous titanium for controlled release of BMP-2 and VEGF. Application of this method for loading a porous titanium scaffold to incorporate growth factors is a convenient and promising strategy for improving osteogenesis of critical-sized bone defects

  7. A new molecular logic for BMP-mediated dorsoventral patterning in the leech Helobdella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Dian-Han; Weisblat, David A

    2011-08-09

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is broadly implicated in dorsoventral (DV) patterning of bilaterally symmetric animals [1-3], and its role in axial patterning apparently predates the birth of Bilateria [4-7]. In fly and vertebrate embryos, BMPs and their antagonists (primarily Sog/chordin) diffuse and interact to generate signaling gradients that pattern fields of cells [8-10]. Work in other species reveals diversity in essential facets of this ancient patterning process, however. Here, we report that BMP signaling patterns the DV axis of segmental ectoderm in the leech Helobdella, a clitellate annelid (superphylum Lophotrochozoa) featuring stereotyped developmental cell lineages, but the detailed mechanisms of DV patterning in Helobdella differ markedly from fly and vertebrates. In Helobdella, BMP2/4s are expressed broadly, rather than in dorsal territory, whereas a dorsally expressed BMP5-8 specifies dorsal fate by short-range signaling. A BMP antagonist, gremlin, is upregulated by BMP5-8 in dorsolateral, rather than ventral territory, and yet the BMP-antagonizing activity of gremlin is required for normal ventral cell fates. Gremlin promotes ventral fates without disrupting dorsal fates by selectively inhibiting BMP2/4s, not BMP5-8. Thus, DV patterning in the development of the leech revealed unexpected evolutionary plasticity of the conserved BMP patterning system, presumably reflecting its adaptation to different modes of embryogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. TNF-α Upregulates Expression of BMP-2 and BMP-3 Genes in the Rat Dental Follicle – Implications for Tooth Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shaomian; Prpic, Veronica; Pan, Fenghui; Wise, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    The dental follicle appears to regulate both the alveolar bone resorption and bone formation needed for tooth eruption. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-α) gene expression is maximally upregulated at postnatal day 9 in the rat dental follicle of the 1st mandibular molar, a time that correlates with rapid bone growth at the base of the tooth crypt, as well as a minor burst of osteoclastogenesis. TNF-α expression is correlated with the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a molecule expressed in the dental follicle that can promote bone formation. Because BMP-2 signaling may be augmented by bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP-3), it was the objective of this study to determine 1) if the dental follicle expresses BMP-3 and 2) if TNF-α stimulates the dental follicle cells to express BMP-2 and BMP-3. Dental follicles were collected from different postnatal ages of rat pups. Dental follicle cells were incubated with TNF-α to study its dosage and time-course effects on gene expression of BMP-2 and BMP-3, as determined by real-time RT-PCR. Next, immunostaining was conducted to confirm if the protein was synthesized and ELISA of the conditioned medium was conducted to determine if BMP-2 was secreted. We found that BMP-3 expression is correlated with the expression of TNF-α in the dental follicle and TNF-α significantly increased BMP-2 and BMP-3 expression in vitro. Immunostaining and ELISA showed that BMP-2 and BMP-3 were synthesized and secreted. This study suggests that TNF-α can upregulate the expression of bone formation genes that may be needed for tooth eruption. PMID:20067418

  9. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite surfaces-mediated adsorption alters recognition of BMP receptor IA and bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Ding, Sai; Li, Jianbo; Ren, Jie; Feng, Bo; Li, Tong; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-11-01

    Highly efficient loading of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) onto carriers with desirable performance is still a major challenge in the field of bone regeneration. Till now, the nanoscaled surface-induced changes of the structure and bioactivity of BMP-2 remains poorly understood. Here, the effect of nanoscaled surface on the adsorption and bioactivity of BMP-2 was investigated with a series of hydroxyapatite surfaces (HAPs): HAP crystal-coated surface (HAP), HAP crystal-coated polished surface (HAP-Pol), and sintered HAP crystal-coated surface (HAP-Sin). The adsorption dynamics of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) and the accessibility of the binding epitopes of adsorbed rhBMP-2 for BMP receptors (BMPRs) were examined by a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. Moreover, the bioactivity of adsorbed rhBMP-2 and the BMP-induced Smad signaling were investigated with C2C12 model cells. A noticeably high mass-uptake of rhBMP-2 and enhanced recognition of BMPR-IA to adsorbed rhBMP-2 were found on the HAP-Pol surface. For the rhBMP-2-adsorbed HAPs, both ALP activity and Smad signaling increased in the order of HAP-Sinuses of rhBMP-2 in clinical applications and arouse broad interests among researchers in the fields of nano-biotechnology, biomaterials and bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perlecan domain 1 recombinant proteoglycan augments BMP-2 activity and osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeCarlo Arthur A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many growth factors, such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2, have been shown to interact with polymers of sulfated disacharrides known as heparan sulfate (HS glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, which are found on matrix and cell-surface proteoglycans throughout the body. HS GAGs, and some more highly sulfated forms of chondroitin sulfate (CS, regulate cell function by serving as co-factors, or co-receptors, in GF interactions with their receptors, and HS or CS GAGs have been shown to be necessary for inducing signaling and GF activity, even in the osteogenic lineage. Unlike recombinant proteins, however, HS and CS GAGs are quite heterogenous due, in large part, to post-translational addition, then removal, of sulfate groups to various positions along the GAG polymer. We have, therefore, investigated whether it would be feasible to deliver a DNA pro-drug to generate a soluble HS/CS proteoglycan in situ that would augment the activity of growth-factors, including BMP-2, in vivo. Results Utilizing a purified recombinant human perlecan domain 1 (rhPln.D1 expressed from HEK 293 cells with HS and CS GAGs, tight binding and dose-enhancement of rhBMP-2 activity was demonstrated in vitro. In vitro, the expressed rhPln.D1 was characterized by modification with sulfated HS and CS GAGs. Dose-enhancement of rhBMP-2 by a pln.D1 expression plasmid delivered together as a lyophilized single-phase on a particulate tricalcium phosphate scaffold for 6 or more weeks generated up to 9 fold more bone volume de novo on the maxillary ridge in a rat model than in control sites without the pln.D1 plasmid. Using a significantly lower BMP-2 dose, this combination provided more than 5 times as much maxillary ridge augmentation and greater density than rhBMP-2 delivered on a collagen sponge (InFuse™. Conclusions A recombinant HS/CS PG interacted strongly and functionally with BMP-2 in binding and cell-based assays, and, in vivo, the pln.247 expression plasmid

  11. FGF and BMP derived from dorsal root ganglia regulate blastema induction in limb regeneration in Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Akira; Makanae, Aki; Nishimoto, Yurie; Mitogawa, Kazumasa

    2016-09-01

    Urodele amphibians have a remarkable organ regeneration ability that is regulated by neural inputs. The identification of these neural inputs has been a challenge. Recently, Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) and Bone morphogenic protein (Bmp) were shown to substitute for nerve functions in limb and tail regeneration in urodele amphibians. However, direct evidence of Fgf and Bmp being secreted from nerve endings and regulating regeneration has not yet been shown. Thus, it remained uncertain whether they were the nerve factors responsible for successful limb regeneration. To gather experimental evidence, the technical difficulties involved in the usage of axolotls had to be overcome. We achieved this by modifying the electroporation method. When Fgf8-AcGFP or Bmp7-AcGFP was electroporated into the axolotl dorsal root ganglia (DRG), GFP signals were detectable in the regenerating limb region. This suggested that Fgf8 and Bmp7 synthesized in neural cells in the DRG were delivered to the limbs through the long axons. Further knockdown experiments with double-stranded RNA interference resulted in impaired limb regeneration ability. These results strongly suggest that Fgf and Bmp are the major neural inputs that control the organ regeneration ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. DMH1, a small molecule inhibitor of BMP type i receptors, suppresses growth and invasion of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Hao

    Full Text Available The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling cascade is aberrantly activated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC but not in normal lung epithelial cells, suggesting that blocking BMP signaling may be an effective therapeutic approach for lung cancer. Previous studies demonstrated that some BMP antagonists, which bind to extracellular BMP ligands and prevent their association with BMP receptors, dramatically reduced lung tumor growth. However, clinical application of protein-based BMP antagonists is limited by short half-lives, poor intra-tumor delivery as well as resistance caused by potential gain-of-function mutations in the downstream of the BMP pathway. Small molecule BMP inhibitors which target the intracellular BMP cascades would be ideal for anticancer drug development. In a zebrafish embryo-based structure and activity study, we previously identified a group of highly selective small molecule inhibitors specifically antagonizing the intracellular kinase domain of BMP type I receptors. In the present study, we demonstrated that DMH1, one of such inhibitors, potently reduced lung cell proliferation, promoted cell death, and decreased cell migration and invasion in NSCLC cells by blocking BMP signaling, as indicated by suppression of Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation and gene expression of Id1, Id2 and Id3. Additionally, DMH1 treatment significantly reduced the tumor growth in human lung cancer xenograft model. In conclusion, our study indicates that small molecule inhibitors of BMP type I receptors may offer a promising novel strategy for lung cancer treatment.

  13. Hydroxyapatite paste Ostim, without elevation of full-thickness flaps, improves alveolar healing stimulating BMP- and VEGF-mediated signal pathways: an experimental study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, R A; Pol, R; Martinasso, G; Muzio, G; Gallesio, G; Mozzati, M

    2013-08-01

    Tooth extraction is considered as the starting point of jaw atrophy via osteoclast activity stimulation. The maintenance of dental alveolar bone depends on surgery procedure and use of materials to maintain prior space favoring bone regeneration. Among substitutes used in dentistry to fill bone defects, Ostim-Pastes (Ostim) is a nanocrystalline paste tested for treatment of severe clinical conditions. This research first investigated the effect of Ostim on alveolar healing, comparing in the same healthy subjects, an Ostim-filled socket with a not-filled one. Moreover, it also proposed a new surgical protocol for the post-extractive socket treatment using the graft materials without elevation of full-thickness flaps. Fourteen patients were enrolled to bilateral maxillary or mandibular extraction that was performed without elevation of full-thickness flaps. In each patient, one socket was filled using Ostim, and the other one was allowed to undergo natural healing. No suture was carried out. Clinical and biologic parameters were screened at 1, 7, and 14 days. Obtained results evidenced that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite supports bone regeneration, increasing the synthesis of pro-osteogenic factors as bone morphogenetics protein (BMP)-4, BMP-7, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin. Moreover, filling post-extractive socket with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste leads to a complete epithelialization already at 7 days after extraction, despite the fact that the teeth were extracted without elevation of full-thickness flaps . The improved epithelialization is mediated by increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. No significant change was observed in inflammatory parameters, with exception of an early and transient IL-1β induction, that could trigger and improve alveolar healing. Clinical and biomolecular observations of this explorative study evidenced that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite improves alveolar socket healing, increasing angiogenesis

  14. Systems biology derived source-sink mechanism of BMP gradient formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinski, Joseph; Bu, Ye; Wang, Xu; Dou, Wei; Umulis, David; Mullins, Mary C

    2017-08-09

    A morphogen gradient of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling patterns the dorsoventral embryonic axis of vertebrates and invertebrates. The prevailing view in vertebrates for BMP gradient formation is through a counter-gradient of BMP antagonists, often along with ligand shuttling to generate peak signaling levels. To delineate the mechanism in zebrafish, we precisely quantified the BMP activity gradient in wild-type and mutant embryos and combined these data with a mathematical model-based computational screen to test hypotheses for gradient formation. Our analysis ruled out a BMP shuttling mechanism and a bmp transcriptionally-informed gradient mechanism. Surprisingly, rather than supporting a counter-gradient mechanism, our analyses support a fourth model, a source-sink mechanism, which relies on a restricted BMP antagonist distribution acting as a sink that drives BMP flux dorsally and gradient formation. We measured Bmp2 diffusion and found that it supports the source-sink model, suggesting a new mechanism to shape BMP gradients during development.

  15. Dkk1 haploinsufficiency requires expression of Bmp2 for bone anabolic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, Giuseppe; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2015-01-01

    Bone fractures remain a serious health burden and prevention and enhanced healing of fractures has been obtained by augmenting either BMP or Wnt signaling. However, whether BMP and Wnt signaling are both required or are self-sufficient for anabolic and fracture healing activities has never been fully elucidated. Mice haploinsufficient for Dkk1 (Dkk1+/−) exhibit a high bone mass phenotype due to an up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling while mice lacking Bmp2 expression in the limbs (Bmp2c/c;Prx1::cre) succumb to spontaneous fracture and are unable to initiate fracture healing; combined, these mice offer an opportunity to examine the requirement for activated BMP signaling on the anabolic and fracture healing activity of Wnts. When Dkk1+/− mice were crossed with Bmp2c/c;Prx1::cre mice, the offspring bearing both genetic alterations were unable to increase bone mass and heal fractures, indicating that increased canonical Wnt signaling is unable to exploit its activity in absence of Bmp2. Thus, our data suggest that BMP signaling is required for Wnt-mediated anabolic activity and that therapies aimed at preventing fractures and fostering fracture repair may need to target both pathways for maximal efficacy. PMID:25603465

  16. Abrogation of epithelial BMP2 and BMP4 causes Amelogenesis Imperfecta by reducing MMP20 and KLK4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaohua; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Jani, Priyam H; Lu, Yongbo; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Bin; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-05-05

    Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) can be caused by the deficiencies of enamel matrix proteins, molecules responsible for the transportation and secretion of enamel matrix components, and proteases processing enamel matrix proteins. In the present study, we discovered the double deletion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in the dental epithelium by K14-cre resulted in hypoplastic enamel and reduced density in X-ray radiography as well as shortened enamel rods under scanning electron microscopy. Such enamel phenotype was consistent with the diagnosis of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta. Histological and molecular analyses revealed that the removal of matrix proteins in the mutant enamel was drastically delayed, which was coincided with the greatly reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4). Although the expression of multiple enamel matrix proteins was down-regulated in the mutant ameloblasts, the cleavage of ameloblastin was drastically impaired. Therefore, we attributed the AI primarily to the reduction of MMP20 and KLK4. Further investigation found that BMP/Smad4 signaling pathway was down-regulated in the K14-cre;Bmp2(f/f);Bmp4(f/f)ameloblasts, suggesting that the reduced MMP20 and KLK4 expression may be due to the attenuated epithelial BMP/Smad4 signaling.

  17. Cross talk between insulin and bone morphogenetic protein signaling systems in brown adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Schulz, Tim J; Espinoza, Daniel O

    2010-01-01

    Both insulin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling systems are important for adipocyte differentiation. Analysis of gene expression in BMP7-treated fibroblasts revealed a coordinated change in insulin signaling components by BMP7. To further investigate the cross talk between insulin...... BMP7's suppressive effect on pref-1 transcription. Together, these data suggest cross talk between the insulin and BMP signaling systems by which BMP7 can rescue brown adipogenesis in cells with insulin resistance....

  18. Dual Inhibition of Activin/Nodal/TGF-β and BMP Signaling Pathways by SB431542 and Dorsomorphin Induces Neuronal Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedavathi Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the nervous system can cause devastating diseases or musculoskeletal dysfunctions and transplantation of progenitor stem cells can be an excellent treatment option in this regard. Preclinical studies demonstrate that untreated stem cells, unlike stem cells activated to differentiate into neuronal lineage, do not survive in the neuronal tissues. Conventional methods of inducing neuronal differentiation of stem cells are complex and expensive. We therefore sought to determine if a simple, one-step, and cost effective method, previously reported to induce neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells, can be applied to adult stem cells. Indeed, dual inhibition of activin/nodal/TGF-β and BMP pathways using SB431542 and dorsomorphin, respectively, induced neuronal differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs as evidenced by formation of neurite extensions, protein expression of neuron-specific gamma enolase, and mRNA expression of neuron-specific transcription factors Sox1 and Pax6 and matured neuronal marker NF200. This process correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of p38, Erk1/2, PI3K, and Akt1/3. Additionally, in vitro subcutaneous implants of SB431542 and dorsomorphin treated hADSCs displayed significantly higher expression of active-axonal-growth-specific marker GAP43. Our data offers novel insights into cell-based therapies for the nervous system repair.

  19. Control of germline stem cell self-renewal and differentiation in the Drosophila ovary: concerted actions of niche signals and intrinsic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ting

    2013-01-01

    In the Drosophila ovary, germline stem cells (GSCs) physically interact with their niche composed of terminal filament cells, cap cells, and possibly GSC-contacting escort cells (ECs). A GSC divides to generate a self-renewing stem cell that remains in the niche and a differentiating daughter that moves away from the niche. The GSC niche provides a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signal that maintains GSC self-renewal by preventing stem cell differentiation via repression of the differentiation-promoting gene bag of marbles (bam). In addition, it expresses E-cadherin, which mediates cell adhesion for anchoring GSCs in the niche, enabling continuous self-renewal. GSCs themselves also express different classes of intrinsic factors, including signal transducers, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling factors, translation regulators, and miRNAs, which control self-renewal by strengthening interactions with the niche and repressing various differentiation pathways. Differentiated GSC daughters, known as cystoblasts (CBs), also express distinct classes of intrinsic factors to inhibit self-renewal and promote germ cell differentiation. Surprisingly, GSC progeny are also dependent on their surrounding ECs for proper differentiation at least partly by preventing BMP from diffusing to the differentiated germ cell zone and by repressing ectopic BMP expression. Therefore, both GSC self-renewal and CB differentiation are controlled by collaborative actions of extrinsic signals and intrinsic factors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  1. Sizzled controls dorso-ventral polarity by repressing cleavage of the Chordin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Osamu; Shimizu, Takashi; Yabe, Taijiro; Nojima, Hideaki; Bae, Young-Ki; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Hibi, Masahiko

    2006-04-01

    The Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signalling gradient has a major function in the formation of the dorso-ventral axis. The zebrafish ventralized mutant, ogon, encodes Secreted Frizzled (Sizzled). sizzled is ventrally expressed in a Bmp-dependent manner and is required for the suppression of Bmp signalling on the ventral side of zebrafish embryos. However, it remains unclear how Sizzled inhibits Bmp signalling and controls ventro-lateral cell fate. We found that Sizzled stabilizes Chordin, a Bmp antagonist, by binding and inhibiting the Tolloid-family metalloproteinase, Bmp1a, which cleaves and inactivates Chordin. The cysteine-rich domain of Sizzled is required for inhibition of Bmp1a activity. Loss of both Bmp1a and Tolloid-like1 (Tll1; another Tolloid-family metalloproteinase) function leads to a complete suppression and reversal of the ogon mutant phenotype. These results indicate that Sizzled represses the activities of Tolloid-family proteins, thereby creating the Chordin-Bmp activity gradient along the dorso-ventral axis. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized role for a secreted Frizzled-related protein.

  2. BMP-2 Induced Expression of Alx3 That Is a Positive Regulator of Osteoblast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate many aspects of skeletal development, including osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation, cartilage and bone formation, and cranial and limb development. Among them, BMP-2, one of the most potent osteogenic signaling molecules, stimulates osteoblast differentiation, while it inhibits myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells. To evaluate genes involved in BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation, we performed cDNA microarray analyses to compare BMP-2-treated and -untreated C2C12 cells. We focused on Alx3 (aristaless-like homeobox 3 which was clearly induced during osteoblast differentiation. Alx3, a homeobox gene related to the Drosophilaaristaless gene, has been linked to developmental functions in craniofacial structures and limb development. However, little is known about its direct relationship with bone formation. In the present study, we focused on the mechanisms of Alx3 gene expression and function during osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. In C2C12 cells, BMP-2 induced increase of Alx3 gene expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the BMP receptors-mediated SMAD signaling pathway. In addition, silencing of Alx3 by siRNA inhibited osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2, as showed by the expressions of alkaline phosphatase (Alp, Osteocalcin, and Osterix, while over-expression of Alx3 enhanced osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. These results indicate that Alx3 expression is enhanced by BMP-2 via the BMP receptors mediated-Smad signaling and that Alx3 is a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2.

  3. Distributed traffic signal control using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We present a distributed approach to traffic signal control, where the signal timing parameters at a given intersection are adjusted as functions of the local traffic condition and of the signal timing parameters at adjacent intersections. Thus, the signal timing parameters evolve dynamically using only local information to improve traffic flow. This distributed approach provides for a fault-tolerant, highly responsive traffic management system. The signal timing at an intersection is defined by three parameters: cycle time, phase split, and offset. We use fuzzy decision rules to adjust these three parameters based only on local information. The amount of change in the timing parameters during each cycle is limited to a small fraction of the current parameters to ensure smooth transition. We show the effectiveness of this method through simulation of the traffic flow in a network of controlled intersections.

  4. 3-OST-7 regulates BMP-dependent cardiac contraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiela C Samson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 3-O-sulfotransferase (3-OST family catalyzes rare modifications of glycosaminoglycan chains on heparan sulfate proteoglycans, yet their biological functions are largely unknown. Knockdown of 3-OST-7 in zebrafish uncouples cardiac ventricular contraction from normal calcium cycling and electrophysiology by reducing tropomyosin4 (tpm4 expression. Normal 3-OST-7 activity prevents the expansion of BMP signaling into ventricular myocytes, and ectopic activation of BMP mimics the ventricular noncontraction phenotype seen in 3-OST-7 depleted embryos. In 3-OST-7 morphants, ventricular contraction can be rescued by overexpression of tropomyosin tpm4 but not by troponin tnnt2, indicating that tpm4 serves as a lynchpin for ventricular sarcomere organization downstream of 3-OST-7. Contraction can be rescued by expression of 3-OST-7 in endocardium, or by genetic loss of bmp4. Strikingly, BMP misregulation seen in 3-OST-7 morphants also occurs in multiple cardiac noncontraction models, including potassium voltage-gated channel gene, kcnh2, affected in Romano-Ward syndrome and long-QT syndrome, and cardiac troponin T gene, tnnt2, affected in human cardiomyopathies. Together these results reveal 3-OST-7 as a key component of a novel pathway that constrains BMP signaling from ventricular myocytes, coordinates sarcomere assembly, and promotes cardiac contractile function.

  5. Bmp2 deletion causes an amelogenesis imperfecta phenotype via regulating enamel gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Feng, Junsheng; Wang, Feng; Li, Wentong; Gao, Qingping; Chen, Zhuo; Shoff, Lisa; Donly, Kevin J; Gluhak-Heinrich, Jelica; Chun, Yong Hee Patricia; Harris, Stephen E; MacDougall, Mary; Chen, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    Although Bmp2 is essential for tooth formation, the role of Bmp2 during enamel formation remains unknown in vivo. In this study, the role of Bmp2 in regulation of enamel formation was investigated by the Bmp2 conditional knock out (Bmp2 cKO) mice. Teeth of Bmp2 cKO mice displayed severe and profound phenotypes with asymmetric and misshaped incisors as well as abrasion of incisors and molars. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the enamel layer was hypoplastic and enamel lacked a typical prismatic pattern. Teeth from null mice were much more brittle as tested by shear and compressive moduli. Expression of enamel matrix protein genes, amelogenin, enamelin, and enamel-processing proteases, Mmp-20 and Klk4 was reduced in the Bmp2 cKO teeth as reflected in a reduced enamel formation. Exogenous Bmp2 up-regulated those gene expressions in mouse enamel organ epithelial cells. This result for the first time indicates Bmp2 signaling is essential for proper enamel development and mineralization in vivo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Mitigate Cirrhosis through BMP7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has therapeutic effects on various diseases, while its effect on developing cirrhosis as well as the underlying mechanism remained largely unknown. Methods: Twenty C57BL/6 mice were randomly separated into 2 groups of ten each. One group received transplantation of MSCs, while the other group received saline as control. The mice then received intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 twice per week for 8 weeks to develop cirrhosis. After another 4 weeks, the levels of cirrhosis in these mice were evaluated by liver fibrosis area, portal pressure, sodium balance and excretion. Transcripts of transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the mouse livers were quantified by RT-qPCR. BMP7-depleted MSCs were prepared and applied in this model, and compared to MSCs. Results: Liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and sodium retention that were developed by CCl4, were all significantly alleviated by MSCs transplantation, which decreased TGFβ1 levels and increased BMP7 levels in the injured liver. MSCs were found to express extremely high levels of BMP7. Knockdown of BMP7 in MSCs completely abolished the protective effect of MSCs against CCl4-induced cirrhosis. Conclusions: MSCs mitigate cirrhosis through their production of BMP7 against the fibrogenic effect of TGFβ1 in the injured liver.

  7. Expression of human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2 and BMP-4 genes in transgenic bovine fibroblasts Expressão dos genes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2 e BMP-4 em fibroblastos bovinos transgênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oleskovicz

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available cDNAs dos genes bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 e bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4 foram sintetizados a partir de RNA total extraído de tecidos ósseos de pacientes que apresentavam trauma facial (fraturas do maxilar entre o 7º e o 10º dia pós-trauma e clonados num vetor para expressão em células mamíferas, sob controle do promotor de citomegalovírus (CMV. Os vetores contendo os genes BMP-2 e o BMP-4 foram utilizados para a transfecção de fibroblastos bovinos. mRNAs foram indiretamente detectados por RT-PCR nas células transfectadas. As proteínas BMP-2 e BMP-4 foram detectadas mediante análises de Western blot. Os resultados demonstram a possibilidade de produção desses fatores de crescimento celular em fibroblastos bovinos. Essas células poderão ser utilizadas como fontes doadoras de material genético para a técnica de transferência nuclear na geração de animais transgênicos.

  8. BMP9 inhibits the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells by downregulating CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor, CTGF) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Ke; Feng, Honglei; Liu, Yuehong; Fei, Chang; Wan, Shaoheng; Wang, Wei; Luo, Jinyong; Shi, Qiong; Tang, Min; Zuo, Guowei; Weng, Yaguang; He, Tongchuan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulate a wide range of cellular responses including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and apoptosis. BMP9, the latest BMP to be discovered, is reportedly expressed in a variety of human carcinoma cell lines, but the role of BMP9 in breast cancer has not been fully clarified. In a previous study, BMP9 was found to inhibit the growth, migration, and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In the current study, the effect of BMP9 on the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells was investigated. After absent or low expression of BMP9 was detected in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and breast non-tumor adjacent tissues using Western blot and immunohistochemistry, In our previous study, BMP9 could inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo. This paper shows that BMP9 inhibit the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells by activating the BMP/Smad signaling pathway and downregulating connective tissue growth factor (CTGF); however, when CTGF expression was maintained, the inhibitory effect of BMP9 on the MDA-MB-231 cells was abolished. Together, these observations indicate that BMP9 is an important mediator of breast cancer bone metastasis and a potential therapeutic target for treating this deadly disease.

  9. A BMP-mediated transcriptional cascade involving Cash1 and Tlx-3 specifies first-order relay sensory neurons in the developing hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbruch, Amata; Ma, Grace; Ballermann, Mark A; Tumova, Katerina; Liu, Dan; Cairine Logan, C

    2005-07-01

    The divergent homeobox-containing transcription factor, Tlx-3 (also known as Hox11L2/Rnx), is required for proper formation of first-order relay sensory neurons in the developing vertebrate brainstem. To date, however, the inductive signals and transcriptional regulatory cascade underlying their development are poorly understood. We previously isolated the chick Tlx-3 homologue and showed it is expressed early (i.e. beginning at HH15) in distinct subcomponents of both the trigeminal/solitary and vestibular nuclei. Here we show via in vivo rhombomere inversions that expression of Tlx-3 is under control of local environmental signals. Our RNA in situ analysis shows expression of the BMP-specific receptor, Bmpr-1b, correlates well with Tlx-3. Furthermore, manipulation of the BMP signaling pathway in vivo via electroporation of expression vectors encoding either BMP or NOGGIN coupled with MASH1 gain-of-function experiments demonstrate that a BMP-mediated transcriptional cascade involving Cash1 and Tlx-3 specifies first-order relay sensory neurons in the developing brainstem. Notably, high-level Noggin misexpression results in an increase in newly differentiated Tlx-3+ neurons that correlates with a corresponding increase in the number of Calretinin+ neurons in vestibular nuclei at later developmental stages strongly suggesting that Tlx-3, in addition to being required for proper formation of somatic as well as visceral sensory neurons in the trigeminal and solitary nuclei, respectively, is sufficient for proper formation of special somatic sensory neurons in vestibular nuclei.

  10. The ventralizing activity of Radar, a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein, reveals complex bone morphogenetic protein interactions controlling dorso-ventral patterning in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutel, C; Kishimoto, Y; Schulte-Merker, S; Rosa, F

    2000-12-01

    In Xenopus and zebrafish, BMP2, 4 and 7 have been implicated, after the onset of zygotic expression, in inducing and maintaining ventro-lateral cell fate during early development. We provide evidence here that a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Radar, may control early ventral specification in zebrafish. We show that Radar ventralizes zebrafish embryos and induces the early expression of bmp2b and bmp4. The analysis of Radar overexpression in both swirl/bmp2b mutants and embryos expressing truncated BMP receptors shows that Radar-induced ventralization is dependent on functional BMP2/4 pathways, and may initially rely on an Alk6-related signaling pathway. Finally, we show that while radar-injected swirl embryos still exhibit a strongly dorsalized phenotype, the overexpression of Radar into swirl/bmp2b mutant embryos restores ventral marker expression, including bmp4 expression. Our results suggest that a complex regulation of different BMP pathways controls dorso-ventral (DV) patterning from early cleavage stages until somitogenesis.

  11. Endocardial to myocardial notch-wnt-bmp axis regulates early heart valve development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Wang

    Full Text Available Endocardial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT is a fundamental cellular process required for heart valve formation. Notch, Wnt and Bmp pathways are known to regulate this process. To further address how these pathways coordinate in the process, we specifically disrupted Notch1 or Jagged1 in the endocardium of mouse embryonic hearts and showed that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in the endocardium is essential for EMT and early valvular cushion formation. qPCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays reveal that endocardial Jagged1-Notch1 signaling regulates Wnt4 expression in the atrioventricular canal (AVC endocardium and Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium. Whole embryo cultures treated with Wnt4 or Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1 show that Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium is dependent on Wnt activity; Wnt4 also reinstates Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium of endocardial Notch1 null embryos. Furthermore, while both Wnt4 and Bmp2 rescue the defective EMT resulting from Notch inhibition, Wnt4 requires Bmp for its action. These results demonstrate that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in endocardial cells induces the expression of Wnt4, which subsequently acts as a paracrine factor to upregulate Bmp2 expression in the adjacent AVC myocardium to signal EMT.

  12. Factors controlling headspace pressure in a manual manometric BMP method can be used to produce a methane output comparable to AMPTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanshu, H; Voelklein, M A; Murphy, J D; Grant, J; O'Kiely, P

    2017-08-01

    The manual manometric biochemical methane potential (mBMP) test uses the increase in pressure to calculate the gas produced. This gas production may be affected by the headspace volume in the incubation bottle and by the overhead pressure measurement and release (OHPMR) frequency. The biogas and methane yields of cellulose, barley, silage and slurry were compared with three incubation bottle headspace volumes (50, 90 and 180ml; constant 70ml total medium) and four OHPMR frequencies (daily, each third day, weekly and solely at the end of experiment). The methane yields of barley, silage and slurry were compared with those from an automated volumetric method (AMPTS). Headspace volume and OHPMR frequency effects on biogas yield were mediated mainly through headspace pressure, with the latter having a negative effect on the biogas yield measured and relatively little effect on methane yield. Two mBMP treatments produced methane yields equivalent to AMPTS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of BMP4 by endothelial cells is crucial for endogenous thymic regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Tobias; Velardi, Enrico; Tsai, Jennifer; Cooper, Kirsten; Xiao, Shiyun; Kloss, Christopher C.; Ottmüller, Katja J.; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Brede, Christian; deRoos, Paul; Kinsella, Sinéad; Palikuqi, Brisa; Ginsberg, Michael; Young, Lauren F.; Kreines, Fabiana; Lieberman, Sophia R.; Lazrak, Amina; Guo, Peipei; Malard, Florent; Smith, Odette M.; Shono, Yusuke; Jenq, Robert R.; Hanash, Alan M.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Butler, Jason M.; Beilhack, Andreas; Manley, Nancy R.; Rafii, Shahin; Dudakov, Jarrod A; van den Brink, Marcel RM

    2018-01-01

    The thymus is extremely sensitive to damage but also has a remarkable ability to repair itself. However, the mechanisms underlying this endogenous regeneration remain poorly understood and this capacity diminishes considerably with age. Here we show that thymic endothelial cells (ECs) comprise a critical pathway of regeneration, via their production of BMP4. ECs increased their production of BMP4 after thymic damage, and abrogating BMP4 signalling or production by either pharmacologic or genetic inhibition impaired thymic repair. EC-derived BMP4 acted on thymic epithelial cells (TECs) to increase their expression of Foxn1, a key transcription factor involved in TEC development, maintenance and regeneration; and its downstream targets such as Dll4, itself a key mediator of thymocyte development and regeneration. These studies demonstrate the importance of the BMP4 pathway in endogenous tissue regeneration and offer a potential clinical approach to enhance T cell immunity. PMID:29330161

  14. Importance of a diffusion-dominant small volume to activate cell-secreted soluble factor signaling in embryonic stem cell culture in microbioreactors: a mathematical model based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Mahfuz; Fujii, Teruo; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2013-07-01

    In our previous studies, we observed that cell-secreted BMP4 had a prominent influence on mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) behaviors in a membrane-based two-chambered microbioreactor (MB), but not in a macro-scale culture (6-well plate/6WP). In this study, we investigated how the physical aspects of these cultures regulated BMP4 signaling by developing mathematical models of the cultures. The models estimated signaling activity in the cultures by considering size of the undifferentiated mESC colonies and their growth, diffusion of BMP4, and BMP4 trafficking process in the colonies. The models successfully depicted measured profile of BMP4 concentration in the culture medium which was two times higher in the MB than that in the 6WP during 5-day culture. The models estimated that, owing to the small volume and the membrane, cells were exposed to a higher BMP4 concentration in the top chamber of the MB than that in the 6WP culture. The higher concentration of BMP4 induced a higher concentration of BMP4-bound receptor in the colony in the MB than in the 6WP, thereby leading to the higher activation of BMP4 signaling in the MB. The models also predicted that the size of the MB, but not that of the 6WP, was suitable for maximizing BMP4 accumulation and upregulating its signaling. This study will be helpful in analyzing culture systems, designing microfluidic devices for controlling ESC or other cell behavior. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Calcium Supplement Derived from Gallus gallus domesticus Promotes BMP-2/RUNX2/SMAD5 and Suppresses TRAP/RANK Expression through MAPK Signaling Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Yoo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of a calcium (Ca supplement derived from Gallus gallus domesticus (GD on breaking force, microarchitecture, osteogenic differentiation and osteoclast differentiation factor expression in vivo in Ca-deficient ovariectomized (OVX rats. One percent of Ca supplement significantly improved Ca content and bone strength of the tibia. In micro-computed tomography analysis, 1% Ca supplement attenuated OVX- and low Ca-associated changes in bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, spacing and number. Moreover, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2, Wnt3a, small mothers against decapentaplegic 1/5/8, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteocalcin and collagenase-1, while it decreased the expression of osteoclast differentiation genes, such as thrombospondin-related anonymous protein, cathepsin K and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B. Furthermore, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The increased expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling were associated with significant increases in trabecular bone volume, which plays an important role in the overall skeletal strength. Our results demonstrated that 1% Ca supplement inhibited osteoclastogenesis, stimulated osteoblastogenesis and restored bone loss in OVX rats.

  16. Risk variants in BMP4 promoters for nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate in a Chilean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suazo José

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene (BMP4 plays a key role during maxillofacial development, since orofacial clefts are observed in animals when this gene is conditionally inactivated. We recently reported the existence of association between nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCLP and BMP4 polymorphisms by detecting transmission deviations for haplotypes that include a region containing a BMP4 promoter in case-parent trios. The aim of the present study was to search for possible causal mutations within BMP4 promoters (BMP4.1 and BMP4.2. Methods We analyzed the sequence of BMP4.1 and BMP4.2 in 167 Chilean NSCLP cases and 336 controls. Results We detected three novel variants in BMP4.1 (c.-5514G > A, c.-5365C > T and c.-5049C > T which could be considered as cleft risk factors due to their absence in controls. Additionally, rs2855530 G allele (BMP4.2 carriers showed an increased risk for NSCLP restricted to males (OR = 1.52; 95% C.I. = 1.07-2.15; p = 0.019. For this same SNP the dominant genotype model showed a higher frequency of G/G+G/C and a lower frequency of C/C in cases than controls in the total sample (p = 0.03 and in the male sample (p = 0.003. Bioinformatic prediction analysis showed that all the risk variants detected in this study could create new transcription factor binding motifs. Conclusions The sex-dependent association between rs2855530 and NSCLP could indirectly be related to the differential gene expression observed between sexes in animal models. We concluded that risk variants detected herein could potentially alter BMP4 promoter activity in NSCLP. Further functional and developmental studies are necessary to support this hypothesis.

  17. Simulation of traffic control signal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, P. J.; Concannon, P. A.; Ricci, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in the development and testing of control strategies for networks of urban traffic signal systems by simulation. Simulation is an inexpensive and timely method for evaluating the effect of these traffic control strategies since traffic phenomena are too complex to be defined by analytical models and since a controlled experiment may be hazardous, expensive, and slow in producing meaningful results. This paper describes the application of an urban traffic corridor program, to evaluate the effectiveness of different traffic control strategies for the Massachusetts Avenue TOPICS Project.

  18. Control of earphone produced binaural signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2011-01-01

    While most people keep a high attention to the significance of the binaural recording method, whether it is e.g. individual or non-individual (as e.g. artificial head recording), many pay less attention to the type of earphone used to reproduce the binaural signals, and to the accurate control...

  19. Light signals for road traffic control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Signals for road traffic control are a major constituent of the modern traffic scene, particularly in built-up areas. A vast amount of research has been executed in the last two decennia, resulting in a fairly generally accepted view on what the requirements for effective traffic lights are. For the

  20. RGM regulates BMP-mediated secondary axis formation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclère, Lucas; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2014-12-11

    Patterning of the metazoan dorsoventral axis is mediated by a complex interplay of BMP signaling regulators. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is a conserved BMP coreceptor that has not been implicated in axis specification. We show that NvRGM is a key positive regulator of BMP signaling during secondary axis establishment in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. NvRGM regulates first the generation and later the shape of a BMP-dependent Smad1/5/8 gradient with peak activity on the side opposite the NvBMP/NvRGM/NvChordin expression domain. Full knockdown of Smad1/5/8 signaling blocks the formation of endodermal structures, the mesenteries, and the establishment of bilateral symmetry, while altering the gradient through partial NvRGM or NvBMP knockdown shifts the boundaries of asymmetric gene expression and the positioning of the mesenteries along the secondary axis. These findings provide insight into the diversification of axis specification mechanisms and identify a previously unrecognized role for RGM in BMP-mediated axial patterning. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactions between Bmp-4 and Msx-1 act to restrict gene expression to odontogenic mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A S; Al Khamis, A; Sharpe, P T

    1998-08-01

    Tooth development is regulated by a reciprocal series of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Bmp4 has been identified as a candidate signalling molecule in these interactions, initially as an epithelial signal and then later at the bud stage as a mesenchymal signal (Vainio et al. [1993] Cell 75:45-58). A target gene for Bmp4 signalling is the homeobox gene Msx-1, identified by the ability of recombinant Bmp4 protein to induce expression in mesenchyme. There is, however, no evidence that Bmp4 is the endogenous inducer of Msx-1 expression. Msx-1 and Bmp-4 show dynamic, interactive patterns of expression in oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme during the early stages of tooth development. In this study, we compare the temporal and spatial expression of these two genes to determine whether the changing expression patterns of these genes are consistent with interactions between the two molecules. We show that changes in Bmp-4 expression precede changes in Msx-1 expression. At embryonic day (E)10.5-E11.0, expression patterns are consistent with BMP4 from the epithelium, inducing or maintaining Msx-1 in underlying mesenchyme. At E11.5, Bmp-4 expression shifts from epithelium to mesenchyme and is rapidly followed by localised up-regulation of Msx-1 expression at the sites of Bmp-4 expression. Using cultured explants of developing mandibles, we confirm that exogenous BMP4 is capable of replacing the endogenous source in epithelium and inducing Msx-1 gene expression in mesenchyme. By using noggin, a BMP inhibitor, we show that endogenous Msx-1 expression can be inhibited at E10.5 and E11.5, providing the first evidence that endogenous Bmp-4 from the epithelium is responsible for regulating the early spatial expression of Msx-1. We also show that the mesenchymal shift in Bmp-4 is responsible for up-regulating Msx-1 specifically at the sites of future tooth formation. Thus, we establish that a reciprocal series of interactions act to restrict expression of both genes to future

  2. Expression and functional study of extracellular BMP antagonists during the morphogenesis of the digits and their associated connective tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos I Lorda-Diez

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the role of BMP signaling in the diversification of the embryonic limb mesodermal progenitors destined to form cartilage, joints, and tendons. Given the importance of extracellular BMP modulators in in vivo systems, we performed a systematic search of those expressed in the developing autopod during the formation of the digits. Here, we monitored the expression of extracellular BMP modulators including: Noggin, Chordin, Chordin-like 1, Chordin-like 2, Twisted gastrulation, Dan, BMPER, Sost, Sostdc1, Follistatin, Follistatin-like 1, Follistatin-like 5 and Tolloid. These factors show differential expression domains in cartilage, joints and tendons. Furthermore, they are induced in specific temporal patterns during the formation of an ectopic extra digit, preceding the appearance of changes that are identifiable by conventional histology. The analysis of gene regulation, cell proliferation and cell death that are induced by these factors in high density cultures of digit progenitors provides evidence of functional specialization in the control of mesodermal differentiation but not in cell proliferation or apoptosis. We further show that the expression of these factors is differentially controlled by the distinct signaling pathways acting in the developing limb at the stages covered by this study. In addition, our results provide evidence suggesting that TWISTED GASTRULATION cooperates with CHORDINS, BMPER, and NOGGIN in the establishment of tendons or cartilage in a fashion that is dependent on the presence or absence of TOLLOID.

  3. Overexpression of BMP3 in the developing skeleton alters endochondral bone formation resulting in spontaneous rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Laura W; Cox, Karen; Carlo, Joelle M; Rosen, Vicki

    2009-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP) has been identified as a negative regulator in the skeleton as mice lacking BMP3 have increased bone mass. To further understand how BMP3 mediates bone formation, we created transgenic mice overexpressing BMP3 using the type I collagen promoter. BMP3 transgenic mice displayed spontaneous rib fractures that were first detected at E17.0. The fractures were due to defects in differentiation of the periosteum and late hypertrophic chondrocytes resulting in thinner cortical bone with decreased mineralization. As BMP3 modulates BMP and activin signaling through ActRIIB, we examined the ribs of ActRIIB receptor knockout mice and found they had defects in late chondrogenesis and mineralization similar to BMP3 transgenic mice. These data suggest that BMP3 exerts its effects in the skeleton by altering signaling through ActRIIB in chondrocytes and the periosteum, and this results in defects in bone collar formation and late hypertrophic chondrocyte maturation leading to decreased mineralization and less bone. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Preparation and physical characterization of calcium sulfate cement/silica-based mesoporous material composites for controlled release of BMP-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan H

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Honglue Tan,1 Shengbing Yang,2 Pengyi Dai,1 Wuyin Li,1 Bing Yue2 1Luoyang Orthopedics and Traumatology Institution, Luoyang Orthopedic-Traumatological Hospital, Luoyang, 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implants, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: As a commonly used implant material, calcium sulfate cement (CSC, has some shortcomings, including low compressive strength, weak osteoinduction capability, and rapid degradation. In this study, silica-based mesoporous materials such as SBA-15 were synthesized and combined with CSC to prepare CSC/SBA-15 composites. The properties of SBA-15 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. SBA-15 was blended into CSC at 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt%, referred to as CSC, CSC-5S (5% mass ratio, CSC-10S (10% mass ratio, and CSC-20S (20% mass ratio, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and compression tests were used to determine the structure and mechanical properties of the composites, respectively. The formation of hydroxyapatite on composite surfaces was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction after soaking in simulated body fluid. BMP-2 was loaded into the composites by vacuum freeze-drying, and its release characteristics were detected by Bradford protein assay. The in vitro degradation of the CSC/SBA-15 composite was investigated by measuring weight loss. The results showed that the orderly, nanostructured, mesoporous SBA-15 possessed regular pore size and structure. The compressive strength of CSC/SBA-15 increased with the increase in SBA-15 mass ratio, and CSC-20S demonstrated the maximum strength. Compared to CSC, hydroxyapatite that formed on the surfaces of CSC/SBA-15 was uniform and compact. The degradation rate of CSC/SBA-15 decreased with increasing

  5. Overload Control in a SIP Signaling Network

    OpenAIRE

    Masataka Ohta

    2007-01-01

    The Internet telephony employs a new type of Internet communication on which a mutual communication is realized by establishing sessions. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is used to establish sessions between end-users. For unreliable transmission (UDP), SIP message should be retransmitted when it is lost. The retransmissions increase a load of the SIP signaling network, and sometimes lead to performance degradation when a network is overloaded. The paper proposes an overload control for a S...

  6. MiR-22 Suppresses BMP7 in the Development of Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: New strategies for the prevention and treatment of cirrhosis are urgently needed for improving therapeutic outcome. A role of microRNAs (miRNAs in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis has been recently acknowledged, whereas the exact involved miRNAs as well as the associated molecular signaling pathways have not been determined. Specifically, the studies on the relationship between miR-22 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the development of cirrhosis are lacking. Methods: We examined the correlation of the levels of miR-22 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the liver biopsies from patients with cirrhosis. We examined overexpression or suppression of miR-22 on BMP7 in hepatocytes. We examined the binding of miR-22 to the 3'-UTR of BMP7 mRNA. Finally, in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced cirrhosis model in mice, we gave mice adeno-associated viruses carrying antisense of miR-22, and examined its effects on BMP7 levels and the hallmarks of cirrhosis. Results: The levels of miR-22 and BMP7 in the liver biopsies from patients were strongly and inversely correlated. MiR-22 inhibited BMP7 expression in hepatocytes, through directly binding the 3'-UTR of BMP7 mRNA. Expression of antisense miR-22 significantly attenuated the levels of liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and sodium retention caused by CCl4, possibly through upregulation of BMP7. Conclusions: MiR-22 promotes the development of cirrhosis through BMP7 suppression.

  7. Crimpy enables discrimination of presynaptic and postsynaptic pools of a BMP at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rebecca E; Hoover, Kendall M; Bulgari, Dinara; McLaughlin, Colleen N; Wilson, Christopher G; Wharton, Kristi A; Levitan, Edwin S; Broihier, Heather T

    2014-12-08

    Distinct pools of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) Glass bottom boat (Gbb) control structure and function of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Specifically, motoneuron-derived Gbb regulates baseline neurotransmitter release, whereas muscle-derived Gbb regulates neuromuscular junction growth. Yet how cells differentiate between these ligand pools is not known. Here we present evidence that the neuronal Gbb-binding protein Crimpy (Cmpy) permits discrimination of pre- and postsynaptic ligand by serving sequential functions in Gbb signaling. Cmpy first delivers Gbb to dense core vesicles (DCVs) for activity-dependent release from presynaptic terminals. In the absence of Cmpy, Gbb is no longer associated with DCVs and is not released by activity. Electrophysiological analyses demonstrate that Cmpy promotes Gbb's proneurotransmission function. Surprisingly, the Cmpy ectodomain is itself released upon DCV exocytosis, arguing that Cmpy serves a second function in BMP signaling. In addition to trafficking Gbb to DCVs, we propose that Gbb/Cmpy corelease from presynaptic terminals defines a neuronal protransmission signal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Crimpy enables discrimination of pre and postsynaptic pools of a BMP at the Drosophila NMJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rebecca E.; Hoover, Kendall M.; Bulgari, Dinara; McLaughlin, Colleen N.; Wilson, Christopher G.; Wharton, Kristi A.; Levitan, Edwin S.; Broihier, Heather T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Distinct pools of the BMP Glass bottom boat (Gbb) control structure and function of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Specifically, motoneuron-derived Gbb regulates baseline neurotransmitter release, while muscle-derived Gbb regulates NMJ growth. Yet how cells differentiate between these ligand pools is not known. Here we present evidence that the neuronal Gbb-binding protein Crimpy (Cmpy) permits discrimination of pre and postsynaptic ligand by serving sequential functions in Gbb signaling. Cmpy first delivers Gbb to dense core vesicles (DCVs) for activity-dependent release from presynaptic terminals. In the absence of Cmpy, Gbb is no longer associated with DCVs and is not released by activity. Electrophysiological analyses demonstrate that Cmpy promotes Gbb's pro-neurotransmission function. Surprisingly, the Cmpy ectodomain is itself released upon DCV exocytosis, arguing that Cmpy serves a second function in BMP signaling. In addition to trafficking Gbb to DCVs, we propose that Gbb/Cmpy co-release from presynaptic terminals defines a neuronal pro-transmission signal. PMID:25453556

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and BMP10 enhance tumor necrosis factor-α-induced monocyte recruitment to the vascular endothelium mainly via activin receptor-like kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, Claudia-Gabriela; Appleby, Sarah L; Nash, Gerard B; Mallat, Ziad; Chilvers, Edwin R; Upton, Paul D; Morrell, Nicholas W

    2017-08-18

    Bone morphogenetic proteins 9 and 10 (BMP9/BMP10) are circulating cytokines with important roles in endothelial homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of BMP9 and BMP10 in mediating monocyte-endothelial interactions using an in vitro flow adhesion assay. Herein, we report that whereas BMP9/BMP10 alone had no effect on monocyte recruitment, at higher concentrations both cytokines synergized with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) to increase recruitment to the vascular endothelium. The BMP9/BMP10-mediated increase in monocyte recruitment in the presence of TNFα was associated with up-regulated expression levels of E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. Using siRNAs to type I and II BMP receptors and the signaling intermediaries (Smads), we demonstrated a key role for ALK2 in the BMP9/BMP10-induced surface expression of E-selectin, and both ALK1 and ALK2 in the up-regulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. The type II receptors, BMPR-II and ACTR-IIA were both required for this response, as was Smad1/5. The up-regulation of cell surface adhesion molecules by BMP9/10 in the presence of TNFα was inhibited by LDN193189, which inhibits ALK2 but not ALK1. Furthermore, LDN193189 inhibited monocyte recruitment induced by TNFα and BMP9/10. BMP9/10 increased basal IκBα protein expression, but did not alter p65/RelA levels. Our findings suggest that higher concentrations of BMP9/BMP10 synergize with TNFα to induce the up-regulation of endothelial selectins and adhesion molecules, ultimately resulting in increased monocyte recruitment to the vascular endothelium. This process is mediated mainly via the ALK2 type I receptor, BMPR-II/ACTR-IIA type II receptors, and downstream Smad1/5 signaling. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-4 and BMP-7 regulate differentially Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β1 in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Clare M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway remodelling is thought to be under the control of a complex group of molecules belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-superfamily. The Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs belong to this family and have been shown to regulate fibrosis in kidney and liver diseases. However, the role of BMPs in lung remodelling remains unclear. BMPs may regulate tissue remodelling in asthma by controlling TGF-β-induced profibrotic functions in lung fibroblasts. Methods Cell cultures were exposed to TGF-β1 alone or in the presence of BMP-4 or BMP-7; control cultures were exposed to medium only. Cell proliferation was assessed by quantification of the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. The expression of the mRNA encoding collagen type I and IV, tenascin C and fibronectin in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the main results were confirmed by ELISA. Cell differentiation was determined by the analysis of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity was assessed by zymography. Results We have demonstrated TGF-β1 induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins, tenascin C, fibronectin and collagen type I and IV when compared to unstimulated NHLF, and confirmed these results at the protein level. BMP-4, but not BMP-7, reduced TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix protein production. TGF-β1 induced an increase in the activity of the pro-form of MMP-2 which was inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Both BMP-4 and BMP-7 downregulated TGF-β1-induced MMP-13 release compared to untreated and TGF-β1-treated cells. TGF-β1 also induced a myofibroblast-like transformation which was partially inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Conclusions Our study suggests that some regulatory properties of BMP-7 may be tissue or cell type specific and unveil a potential regulatory role for

  11. Site-Directed Immobilization of BMP-2: Two Approaches for the Production of Innovative Osteoinductive Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabisz, Barbara; Schmitz, Werner; Schmitz, Michael; Luehmann, Tessa; Heusler, Eva; Rybak, Jens-Christoph; Meinel, Lorenz; Fiebig, Juliane E; Mueller, Thomas D; Nickel, Joachim

    2017-03-13

    The regenerative potential of bone is strongly impaired in pathological conditions, such as nonunion fractures. To support bone regeneration various scaffolds have been developed in the past, which have been functionalized with osteogenic growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). However, most of them required supra-physiological levels of these proteins leading to burst releases, thereby causing severe side effects. Site-specific, covalent coupling of BMP2 to implant materials might be an optimal strategy in order to overcome these problems. Therefore, we created a BMP-2 variant (BMP2-K3Plk) containing a noncanonical amino acid (propargyl-l-lysine) substitution introduced by genetic code expansion that allows for site-specific and covalent immobilization onto polymeric scaffold materials. To directly compare different coupling strategies, we also produced a BMP2 variant containing an additional cysteine residue (BMP2-A2C) allowing covalent coupling by thioether formation. The BMP2-K3Plk mutant was coupled to functionalized beads by a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) either directly or via a short biotin-PEG linker both with high specificity. After exposing the BMP-coated beads to C2C12 cells, ALP expression appeared locally restricted in close proximity to these beads, showing that both coupled BMP2 variants trigger cell differentiation. The advantage of our approach over non-site-directed immobilization techniques is the ability to produce fully defined osteogenic surfaces, allowing for lower BMP2 loads and concomitant higher bioactivities, for example, due to controlled orientation toward BMP2 receptors. Such products might provide superior bone healing capabilities with potential safety advantages as of homogeneous product outcome.

  12. Construction of doxycycline-mediated BMP-2 transgene combining with APA microcapsules for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Dongyang; Bai, Bo; Yan, Guangbin; Zhang, Shujiang; Liu, Qi; Chen, Yi; Tan, Xiaobo; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    The repairing of large segmental bone defects is difficult for clinical orthopedists at present. Gene therapy is regarded as a promising method for bone defects repair. The present study aimed to construct an effective and controllable Tet-On expression system for transferring hBMP-2 gene into bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells (BMSCs). Meanwhile, with combination of alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microencapsulation technology, we attempted to reduce the influence of immunologic rejection and examine the effect of the Tet-On expression system on osteogenesis of BMSCs. The adenovirus encoding hBMP-2 (ADV-hBMP2) was constructed using the means of molecular cloning. The ADV-hBMP2 and Adeno-X Tet-On virus was respectively transfected to the HEK293 for amplification and afterward BMSCs were co-infected with the virus of ADV-hBMP2 and the Adeno-X Tet-On. The expression of hBMP-2 was measured with induction by doxycycline (DOX) at different concentration by means of RT-PCR and ELISA. Combining Tet-On expression system and APA microcapsules with the use of the pulsed high-voltage electrostatic microcapsule instrument, we examined the expression level of hBMP-2 in APA microcapsules by ELISA as well as the osteogenesis by alizarin red S staining. An effective Tet-On expression system for transferring hBMP-2 gene into BMSCs was constructed successfully. Also, the expression of hBMP-2 could be regulated by concentration of DOX. The data exhibited that BMSCs in APA microcapsules maintained the capability of proliferation and differentiation. The combination of Tet-On expression system and APA microcapsules could promote the osteogenesis of BMSCs. According to the results, microencapsulated Tet-On expression system showed the effective characteristics of secreting hBMP-2 and enhancing osteogenesis, which would provide a promising way for bone repair.

  13. Differential expression of a BMP4 reporter allele in anterior fungiform versus posterior circumvallate taste buds of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlow Linda A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4 is a diffusible factor which regulates embryonic taste organ development. However, the role of BMP4 in taste buds of adult mice is unknown. We utilized transgenic mice with LacZ under the control of the BMP4 promoter to reveal the expression of BMP4 in the tongues of adult mice. Further we evaluate the pattern of BMP4 expression with that of markers of specific taste bud cell types and cell proliferation to define and compare the cell populations expressing BMP4 in anterior (fungiform papillae and posterior (circumvallate papilla tongue. Results BMP4 is expressed in adult fungiform and circumvallate papillae, i.e., lingual structures composed of non-taste epithelium and taste buds. Unexpectedly, we find both differences and similarities with respect to expression of BMP4-driven ß-galactosidase. In circumvallate papillae, many fusiform cells within taste buds are BMP4-ß-gal positive. Further, a low percentage of BMP4-expressing cells within circumvallate taste buds is immunopositive for markers of each of the three differentiated taste cell types (I, II and III. BMP4-positive intragemmal cells also expressed a putative marker of immature taste cells, Sox2, and consistent with this finding, intragemmal cells expressed BMP4-ß-gal within 24 hours after their final mitosis, as determined by BrdU birthdating. By contrast, in fungiform papillae, BMP4-ß-gal positive cells are never encountered within taste buds. However, in both circumvallate and fungiform papillae, BMP4-ß-gal expressing cells are located in the perigemmal region, comprising basal and edge epithelial cells adjacent to taste buds proper. This region houses the proliferative cell population that gives rise to adult taste cells. However, perigemmal BMP4-ß-gal cells appear mitotically silent in both fungiform and circumvallate taste papillae, as we do not find evidence of their active proliferation using cell cycle immunomarkers

  14. Differential expression of a BMP4 reporter allele in anterior fungiform versus posterior circumvallate taste buds of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha M; Barlow, Linda A

    2010-10-13

    Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) is a diffusible factor which regulates embryonic taste organ development. However, the role of BMP4 in taste buds of adult mice is unknown. We utilized transgenic mice with LacZ under the control of the BMP4 promoter to reveal the expression of BMP4 in the tongues of adult mice. Further we evaluate the pattern of BMP4 expression with that of markers of specific taste bud cell types and cell proliferation to define and compare the cell populations expressing BMP4 in anterior (fungiform papillae) and posterior (circumvallate papilla) tongue. BMP4 is expressed in adult fungiform and circumvallate papillae, i.e., lingual structures composed of non-taste epithelium and taste buds. Unexpectedly, we find both differences and similarities with respect to expression of BMP4-driven ß-galactosidase. In circumvallate papillae, many fusiform cells within taste buds are BMP4-ß-gal positive. Further, a low percentage of BMP4-expressing cells within circumvallate taste buds is immunopositive for markers of each of the three differentiated taste cell types (I, II and III). BMP4-positive intragemmal cells also expressed a putative marker of immature taste cells, Sox2, and consistent with this finding, intragemmal cells expressed BMP4-ß-gal within 24 hours after their final mitosis, as determined by BrdU birthdating. By contrast, in fungiform papillae, BMP4-ß-gal positive cells are never encountered within taste buds. However, in both circumvallate and fungiform papillae, BMP4-ß-gal expressing cells are located in the perigemmal region, comprising basal and edge epithelial cells adjacent to taste buds proper. This region houses the proliferative cell population that gives rise to adult taste cells. However, perigemmal BMP4-ß-gal cells appear mitotically silent in both fungiform and circumvallate taste papillae, as we do not find evidence of their active proliferation using cell cycle immunomarkers and BrdU birthdating. Our data suggest that

  15. development of an electronic vehicular traffic signal controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION ... The SCOOT (Split Cycle Offset Optimization Technique) signal control system implements an adaptive ... An electronic traffic signal controller is basically a sequential machine whose operation can be modeled using finite ...

  16. Bmp 2 and bmp 7 induce odonto- and osteogenesis of human tooth germ stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşlı, P Neslihan; Aydın, Safa; Yalvaç, Mehmet Emir; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2014-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) initiate, promote, and maintain odontogenesis and osteogenesis. In this study, we studied the effect of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP 2) and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP 7) as differentiation inducers in tooth and bone regeneration. We compared the effect of BMP 2 and BMP 7 on odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs). Third molar-derived hTGSCs were characterized with mesenchymal stem cell surface markers by flow cytometry. BMP 2 and BMP 7 were transfected into hTGSCs and the cells were seeded onto six-well plates. One day after the transfection, hTGSCs were treated with odontogenic and osteogenic mediums for 14 days. For confirmation of odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation, mRNA levels of BMP2, BMP 7, collagen type 1 (COL1A), osteocalsin (OCN), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. In addition to this, immunocytochemistry was performed by odontogenic and osteogenic antibodies and mineralization obtained by von Kossa staining. Our results showed that the BMP 2 and BMP 7 both promoted odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hTGSCs. Data indicated that BMP 2 treatment and BMP 7 treatment induce odontogenic differentiation without affecting each other, whereas they induce osteogenic differentiation by triggering expression of each other. These findings provide a feasible tool for tooth and bone tissue engineering.

  17. Immobilization of Murine Anti-BMP-2 Monoclonal Antibody on Various Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Ansari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials are widely used as scaffolds for tissue engineering. We have developed a strategy for bone tissue engineering that entails application of immobilized anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to capture endogenous BMPs in vivo and promote antibody-mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR. The purpose of the current study was to compare the efficacy of immobilization of a specific murine anti-BMP-2 mAb on three different types of biomaterials and to evaluate their suitability as scaffolds for AMOR. Anti-BMP-2 mAb or isotype control mAb was immobilized on titanium (Ti microbeads, alginate hydrogel, and ACS. The treated biomaterials were surgically implanted in rat critical-sized calvarial defects. After 8 weeks, de novo bone formation was assessed using micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses. Results showed de novo bone regeneration with all three scaffolds with immobilized anti-BMP-2 mAb, but not isotype control mAb. Ti microbeads showed the highest volume of bone regeneration, followed by ACS. Alginate showed the lowest volume of bone. Localization of BMP-2, -4, and -7 antigens was detected on all 3 scaffolds with immobilized anti-BMP-2 mAb implanted in calvarial defects. Altogether, these data suggested a potential mechanism for bone regeneration through entrapment of endogenous BMP-2, -4, and -7 proteins leading to bone formation using different types of scaffolds via AMOR.

  18. Bmp2 in osteoblasts of periosteum and trabecular bone links bone formation to vascularization and mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuchen; Guo, Dayong; Harris, Marie A.; Cui, Yong; Gluhak-Heinrich, Jelica; Wu, Junjie; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Skinner, Charles; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Edwards, James R.; Mundy, Gregory R.; Lichtler, Alex; Kream, Barbara E.; Rowe, David W.; Kalajzic, Ivo; David, Val; Quarles, Darryl L.; Villareal, Demetri; Scott, Greg; Ray, Manas; Liu, S.; Martin, James F.; Mishina, Yuji; Harris, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We generated a new Bmp2 conditional-knockout allele without a neo cassette that removes the Bmp2 gene from osteoblasts (Bmp2-cKOob) using the 3.6Col1a1-Cre transgenic model. Bones of Bmp2-cKOob mice are thinner, with increased brittleness. Osteoblast activity is reduced as reflected in a reduced bone formation rate and failure to differentiate to a mature mineralizing stage. Bmp2 in osteoblasts also indirectly controls angiogenesis in the periosteum and bone marrow. VegfA production is reduced in Bmp2-cKOob osteoblasts. Deletion of Bmp2 in osteoblasts also leads to defective mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which correlates with the reduced microvascular bed in the periosteum and trabecular bones. Expression of several MSC marker genes (α-SMA, CD146 and Angiopoietin-1) in vivo, in vitro CFU assays and deletion of Bmp2 in vitro in α-SMA+ MSCs support our conclusions. Critical roles of Bmp2 in osteoblasts and MSCs are a vital link between bone formation, vascularization and mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:23843612

  19. Bone morphogenetic protein-9 suppresses growth of myeloma cells by signaling through ALK2 but is inhibited by endoglin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, O E; Wader, K F; Misund, K; Våtsveen, T K; Rø, T B; Mylin, A K; Turesson, I; Størdal, B F; Moen, S H; Standal, T; Waage, A; Sundan, A; Holien, T

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of plasma cells predominantly located in the bone marrow. A number of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce apoptosis in myeloma cells in vitro, and with this study we add BMP-9 to the list. BMP-9 has been found in human serum at concentrations that inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro. We here show that the level of BMP-9 in serum was elevated in myeloma patients (median 176 pg/ml, range 8–809) compared with healthy controls (median 110 pg/ml, range 8–359). BMP-9 was also present in the bone marrow and was able to induce apoptosis in 4 out of 11 primary myeloma cell samples by signaling through ALK2. BMP-9-induced apoptosis in myeloma cells was associated with c-MYC downregulation. The effects of BMP-9 were counteracted by membrane-bound (CD105) or soluble endoglin present in the bone marrow microenvironment, suggesting a mechanism for how myeloma cells can evade the tumor suppressing activity of BMP-9 in multiple myeloma

  20. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for skeletal patterning and for left-right but not dorsal-ventral specification in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Michael L; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Zuch, Daniel T; Yu, Jia; Conaway, Evan A; Reyna, Arlene E; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires coordinated signaling between the pattern-dictating ectoderm and the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs); recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for this process. Using an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen, we have previously identified the TGF-ß superfamily ligand, LvBMP5-8, as a skeletal patterning gene in Lytechinus variegatus embryos. This result is surprising, since both BMP5-8 and BMP2/4 ligands have been implicated in sea urchin dorsal-ventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axis specification. Here, we demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for normal skeletal patterning on the left side, as well as for normal PMC positioning during gastrulation. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for expression of the left-side marker soxE, suggesting that LvBMP5-8 is required for left-side specification. Interestingly, we also find that LvBMP5-8 knockdown suppresses serotonergic neurogenesis on the left side. While LvBMP5-8 overexpression is sufficient to dorsalize embryos, we find that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is not required for normal DV specification or development. In addition, ectopic LvBMP5-8 does not dorsalize LvBMP2/4 morphant embryos, indicating that, in the absence of BMP2/4, BMP5-8 is insufficient to specify dorsal. Taken together, our data demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 signaling is essential for left-side specification, and for normal left-side skeletal and neural patterning, but not for DV specification. Thus, while both BMP2/4 and BMP5-8 regulate LR axis specification, BMP2/4 but not zygotic BMP5-8 regulates DV axis specification in sea urchin embryos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 μm) with a core (60±18 μm) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m(2)/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 μg/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration.

  2. Strontium doping promotes bioactivity of rhBMP-2 upon calcium phosphate cement via elevated recognition and expression of BMPR-IA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baolin; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Wenjing; Ma, Yifan; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2017-11-01

    Preserving and improving osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) upon implants remains one of the key limitations in bone regeneration. With calcium phosphate cement (CPC) as model, we have developed a series of strontium (Sr)-doped CPC (SCPC) to address this issue. The effects of fixed Sr on the bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) as well as the underlying mechanism were investigated. The results suggested that the rhBMP-2-induced osteogenic activity was significantly promoted upon SCPCs, especially with a low amount of fixed Sr (SrCO 3 content IA (BMPR-IA) to rhBMP-2 and an increased expression of BMPR-IA in C2C12 model cells. As a result, the activations of BMP-induced signaling pathways were different in C2C12 cells incubated upon CPC/rhBMP-2 and SCPCs/rhBMP-2. These findings explicitly decipher the mechanism of SCPCs promoting osteogenic bioactivity of rhBMP-2 and signify the promising application of the SCPCs/rhBMP-2 matrix in bone regeneration implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Signalling and obfuscation for congestion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareček, Jakub; Shorten, Robert; Yu, Jia Yuan

    2015-10-01

    We aim to reduce the social cost of congestion in many smart city applications. In our model of congestion, agents interact over limited resources after receiving signals from a central agent that observes the state of congestion in real time. Under natural models of agent populations, we develop new signalling schemes and show that by introducing a non-trivial amount of uncertainty in the signals, we reduce the social cost of congestion, i.e., improve social welfare. The signalling schemes are efficient in terms of both communication and computation, and are consistent with past observations of the congestion. Moreover, the resulting population dynamics converge under reasonable assumptions.

  4. Noggin and Wnt3a enable BMP4-dependent differentiation of telencephalic stem cells into GluR-agonist responsive neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Therese; Duckworth, Joshua K; Fritz, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    levels, that in turn exerted a concentration-dependent inhibition of BMP4-mediated mesenchymal differentiation of NSCs. Instead, BMP4 exposure of NSCs induced neuronal differentiation in mesenchyme-preventing conditions, whereas treatment with recombinant noggin alone did not. Wnt signaling is known...... to be essential for the development of neurons derived from the dorsal telencephalon, and co-stimulation of NSCs with BMP4+Wnt3a resulted in a synergistic effect yielding significantly increased number of mature neurons compared to stimulation with each factor alone. Thus whereas only a subset of BMP4-induced...... neurons derived from telencephalic NSCs, responded to glutamate receptor (GluR) agonists, over 80% of BMP4+Wnt3a-induced neurons responded appropriately to GluR-agonists. Our results increase the understanding of the role for BMP4 in differentiation of telencephalic multipotent progenitors, and reveal...

  5. Functionalization of PCL-3D Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Improved BMP2-Induced Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszuk, Jacob M; Xu, Tao; Yao, Qingqing; Fang, Fang; Childs, Josh D; Hong, Zhongkui; Tao, Jianning; Fong, Hao; Sun, Hongli

    2018-03-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) is a key growth factor for bone regeneration, possessing FDA approval for orthopedic applications. BMP2 is often required in supratherapeutic doses clinically, yielding adverse side effects and substantial treatment costs. Considering the crucial role of materials for BMPs delivery and cell osteogenic differentiation, we devote to engineering an innovative bone-matrix mimicking niche to improve low dose of BMP2-induced bone formation. Our previous work describes a novel technique, named thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA), for generating 3D electrospun nanofibrous (NF) polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. TISA process could readily blend PCL with PLA, leading to increased osteogenic capabilities in vitro , however, these bio-inert synthetic polymers produced limited BMP2-induced bone formation in vivo. We therefore hypothesize that functionalization of NF 3D PCL scaffolds with bone-like hydroxyapatite (HA) and BMP2 signaling activator phenamil will provide a favorable osteogenic niche for bone formation at low doses of BMP2. Compared to PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/HA-3D scaffolds demonstrated synergistically enhanced osteogenic differentiation capabilities of C2C12 cells with phenamil. Importantly, in vivo studies showed this synergism was able to generate significantly increased new bone in an ectopic mouse model, suggesting PCL/HA-3D scaffolds act as a favorable synthetic extracellular matrix for bone regeneration.

  6. Promotion of bone morphogenetic protein signaling by tetraspanins and glycosphingolipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs belong to the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily of secreted molecules. BMPs play essential roles in multiple developmental and homeostatic processes in metazoans. Malfunction of the BMP pathway can cause a variety of diseases in humans, including cancer, skeletal disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Identification of factors that ensure proper spatiotemporal control of BMP signaling is critical for understanding how this pathway is regulated. We have used a unique and sensitive genetic screen to identify the plasma membrane-localized tetraspanin TSP-21 as a key new factor in the C. elegans BMP-like "Sma/Mab" signaling pathway that controls body size and postembryonic M lineage development. We showed that TSP-21 acts in the signal-receiving cells and genetically functions at the ligand-receptor level. We further showed that TSP-21 can associate with itself and with two additional tetraspanins, TSP-12 and TSP-14, which also promote Sma/Mab signaling. TSP-12 and TSP-14 can also associate with SMA-6, the type I receptor of the Sma/Mab pathway. Finally, we found that glycosphingolipids, major components of the tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, are required for Sma/Mab signaling. Our findings suggest that the tetraspanin-enriched membrane microdomains are important for proper BMP signaling. As tetraspanins have emerged as diagnostic and prognostic markers for tumor progression, and TSP-21, TSP-12 and TSP-14 are all conserved in humans, we speculate that abnormal BMP signaling due to altered expression or function of certain tetraspanins may be a contributing factor to cancer development.

  7. BMP Sustains Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal through Distinct Functions of Different Krüppel-like Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Masato; Koinuma, Daizo; Mizutani, Anna; Kawasaki, Natsumi; Holmborn, Katarina; Sundqvist, Anders; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Watabe, Tetsuro; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Miyazono, Kohei

    2016-01-12

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling exerts paradoxical roles in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs); it sustains self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), while it induces differentiation in other PSCs, including human ESCs. Here, we revisit the roles of BMP-4 using mouse ESCs (mESCs) in naive and primed states. SMAD1 and SMAD5, which transduce BMP signals, recognize enhancer regions together with KLF4 and KLF5 in naive mESCs. KLF4 physically interacts with SMAD1 and suppresses its activity. Consistently, a subpopulation of cells with active BMP-SMAD can be ablated without disturbing the naive state of the culture. Moreover, Smad1/5 double-knockout mESCs stay in the naive state, indicating that the BMP-SMAD pathway is dispensable for it. In contrast, the MEK5-ERK5 pathway mediates BMP-4-induced self-renewal of mESCs by inducing Klf2, a critical factor for the ground state pluripotency. Our study illustrates that BMP exerts its self-renewing effect through distinct functions of different Krüppel-like factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Persistent expression of BMP-4 in embryonic chick adrenal cortical cells and its role in chromaffin cell development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halbach Oliver

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenal chromaffin cells and sympathetic neurons both originate from the neural crest, yet signals that trigger chromaffin development remain elusive. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs emanating from the dorsal aorta are important signals for the induction of a sympathoadrenal catecholaminergic cell fate. Results We report here that BMP-4 is also expressed by adrenal cortical cells throughout chick embryonic development, suggesting a putative role in chromaffin cell development. Moreover, bone morphogenetic protein receptor IA is expressed by both cortical and chromaffin cells. Inhibiting BMP-4 with noggin prevents the increase in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells in adrenal explants without affecting cell proliferation. Hence, adrenal BMP-4 is likely to induce tyrosine hydroxylase in sympathoadrenal progenitors. To investigate whether persistent BMP-4 exposure is able to induce chromaffin traits in sympathetic ganglia, we locally grafted BMP-4 overexpressing cells next to sympathetic ganglia. Embryonic day 8 chick sympathetic ganglia, in addition to principal neurons, contain about 25% chromaffin-like cells. Ectopic BMP-4 did not increase this proportion, yet numbers and sizes of 'chromaffin' granules were significantly increased. Conclusion BMP-4 may serve to promote specific chromaffin traits, but is not sufficient to convert sympathetic neurons into a chromaffin phenotype.

  9. Increased Retinal Expression of the Pro-Angiogenic Receptor GPR91 via BMP6 in a Mouse Model of Juvenile Hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Pachiappan; Gnanaprakasam, Jaya P; Ananth, Sudha; Romej, Michelle A; Rajalakshmi, Veeranan-Karmegam; Prasad, Puttur D; Martin, Pamela M; Gurusamy, Mariappan; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Bhutia, Yangzom D; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2016-04-01

    Hemochromatosis, an iron-overload disease, occurs as adult and juvenile types. Mutations in hemojuvelin (HJV), an iron-regulatory protein and a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptor, underlie most of the juvenile type. Hjv(-/-) mice accumulate excess iron in retina and exhibit aberrant vascularization and angiomas. A succinate receptor, GPR91, is pro-angiogenic in retina. We hypothesized that Hjv(-/-) retinas have increased BMP signaling and increased GPR91 expression as the basis of angiomas. Expression of GPR91 was examined by qPCR, immunofluorescence, and Western blot in wild-type and Hjv(-/-) mouse retinas and pRPE cells. Influence of excess iron and BMP6 on GPR91 expression was investigated in ARPE-19 cells, and wild-type and Hjv(-/-) pRPE cells. Succinate was used to activate GPR91 and determine the effects of GPR91 signaling on VEGF expression. Signaling of BMP6 was studied by the expression of Smad1/5/8 and pSmad4, and the BMP-target gene Id1. The interaction of pSmad4 with GPR91 promoter was studied by ChIP. Expression of GPR91 was higher in Hjv(-/-) retinas and RPE than in wild-type counterparts. Unexpectedly, BMP signaling was increased, not decreased, in Hjv(-/-) retinas and RPE. Bone morphogenetic protein 6 induced GPR91 in RPE, suggesting that increased BMP signaling in Hjv(-/-) retinas was likely responsible for GPR91 upregulation. Exposure of RPE to excess iron and succinate as well as BMP6 and succinate increased VEGF expression. Bone morphogenetic protein 6 promoted the interaction of pSmad4 with GPR91 promoter in RPE. G-protein-coupled receptor 91 is a BMP6 target and Hjv deletion enhances BMP signaling in retina, thus underscoring a role for excess iron and hemochromatosis in abnormal retinal vascularization.

  10. Rapamycin inhibits BMP-7-induced osteogenic and lipogenic marker expressions in fetal rat calvarial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C; Ma, Xiuye; Ford, Jeffery J; Adamo, Martin L; Lee, John C

    2013-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) promote osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo. BMPs canonically signal through Smad transcription factors, but BMPs may activate signaling pathways traditionally stimulated by growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors. Of these, the mTOR pathway has received considerable attention because BMPs activate P70S6K, a downstream effector of mTOR, suggesting that BMP-induced osteogenesis is mediated by mTOR activation. However, contradictory effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (RAPA) on bone formation have been reported. Since bone formation is thought to be inversely related to lipid accumulation and mTOR is also important for lipid synthesis, we postulated that BMP-7 may stimulate lipogenic enzyme expression in a RAPA-sensitive mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effects of RAPA on BMP-7-stimulated expression of osteogenic and lipogenic markers in cultured fetal rat calvarial cells. Our study showed that BMP-7 promoted the expression of osteogenic and lipogenic markers. The effect of BMP-7 on osteogenic markers was greater in magnitude than on lipogenic markers and was temporally more sustained. RAPA inhibited basal and BMP-7-stimulated osteogenic and lipogenic marker expression and bone nodule mineralization. The acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA stimulated the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, whereas palmitate suppressed their expression. We speculate that the BMP-7-stimulated adipogenesis is part of the normal anabolic response to BMPs, but that inappropriate activation of the lipid biosynthetic pathway by mTOR could have deleterious effects on bone formation and could explain paradoxical effects of RAPA to promote bone formation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sustained release of BMP-2 in bioprinted alginate for osteogenicity in mice and rats.

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    Michelle T Poldervaart

    Full Text Available The design of bioactive three-dimensional (3D scaffolds is a major focus in bone tissue engineering. Incorporation of growth factors into bioprinted scaffolds offers many new possibilities regarding both biological and architectural properties of the scaffolds. This study investigates whether the sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 influences osteogenicity of tissue engineered bioprinted constructs. BMP-2 loaded on gelatin microparticles (GMPs was used as a sustained release system, which was dispersed in hydrogel-based constructs and compared to direct inclusion of BMP-2 in alginate or control GMPs. The constructs were supplemented with goat multipotent stromal cells (gMSCs and biphasic calcium phosphate to study osteogenic differentiation and bone formation respectively. BMP-2 release kinetics and bioactivity showed continuous release for three weeks coinciding with osteogenicity. Osteogenic differentiation and bone formation of bioprinted GMP containing constructs were investigated after subcutaneous implantation in mice or rats. BMP-2 significantly increased bone formation, which was not influenced by the release timing. We showed that 3D printing of controlled release particles is feasible and that the released BMP-2 directs osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Effect of a Novel Nonviral Gene Delivery of BMP-2 on Bone Healing

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    P. Schwabe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gene therapeutic drug delivery approaches have been introduced to improve the efficiency of growth factors at the site of interest. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of a new nonviral copolymer-protected gene vector (COPROG for the stimulation of bone healing. Methods. In vitro, rat osteoblasts were transfected with COPROG + luciferase plasmid or COPROG + hBMP-2 plasmid. In vivo, rat tibial fractures were intramedullary stabilized with uncoated versus COPROG+hBMP-2-plasmid-coated titanium K-wires. The tibiae were prepared for biomechanical and histological analyses at days 28 and 42 and for transfection/safety study at days 2, 4, 7, 28, and 42. Results. In vitro results showed luciferase expression until day 21, and hBMP-2-protein was measured from day 2 – day 10. In vivo, the local application of hBMP-2-plasmid showed a significantly higher maximum load after 42 days compared to that in the control. The histomorphometric analysis revealed a significantly less mineralized periosteal callus area in the BMP-2 group compared to the control at day 28. The rt-PCR showed no systemic biodistribution of luciferase RNA. Conclusion. A positive effect on fracture healing by nonviral BMP-2 plasmid application from COPROG-coated implants could be shown in this study; however, the effect of the vector may be improved with higher plasmid concentrations. Transfection showed no biodistribution to distant organs and was considered to be safe.

  13. Cyst-Like Osteolytic Formations in Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) Augmented Sheep Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hsin Chuan; Lee, Soonchul; Ting, Kang; Shen, Jia; Wang, Chenchao; Nguyen, Alan; Berthiaume, Emily A; Zara, Janette N; Turner, A Simon; Seim, Howard B; Kwak, Jin Hee; Zhang, Xinli; Soo, Chia

    2017-07-01

    Multiple case reports using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) have reported complications. However, the local adverse effects of rhBMP-2 application are not well documented. In this report we show that, in addition to promoting lumbar spinal fusion through potent osteogenic effects, rhBMP-2 augmentation promotes local cyst-like osteolytic formations in sheep trabecular bones that have undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Three months after operation, conventional computed tomography showed that the trabecular bones of the rhBMP-2 application groups could fuse, whereas no fusion was observed in the control group. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that the core implant area's bone volume fraction and bone mineral density increased proportionately with rhBMP-2 dose. Multiple cyst-like bone voids were observed in peri-implant areas when using rhBMP-2 applications, and these sites showed significant bone mineral density decreases in relation to the unaffected regions. Biomechanically, these areas decreased in strength by 32% in comparison with noncystic areas. Histologically, rhBMP-2-affected void sites had an increased amount of fatty marrow, thinner trabecular bones, and significantly more adiponectin- and cathepsin K-positive cells. Despite promoting successful fusion, rhBMP-2 use in clinical applications may result in local adverse structural alterations and compromised biomechanical changes to the bone. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanisms of Wnt signaling and control.

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    Grainger, Stephanie; Willert, Karl

    2018-03-30

    The Wnt signaling pathway is a highly conserved system that regulates complex biological processes across all metazoan species. At the cellular level, secreted Wnt proteins serve to break symmetry and provide cells with positional information that is critical to the patterning of the entire body plan. At the organismal level, Wnt signals are employed to orchestrate fundamental developmental processes, including the specification of the anterior-posterior body axis, induction of the primitive streak and ensuing gastrulation movements, and the generation of cell and tissue diversity. Wnt functions extend into adulthood where they regulate stem cell behavior, tissue homeostasis, and damage repair. Disruption of Wnt signaling activity during embryonic development or in adults results in a spectrum of abnormalities and diseases, including cancer. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the myriad of Wnt-regulated biological effects have been the subject of intense research for over three decades. This review is intended to summarize our current understanding of how Wnt signals are generated and interpreted. This article is categorized under: Biological Mechanisms > Cell Signaling Developmental Biology > Stem Cell Biology and Regeneration. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Dividing traffic cluster into parts by signal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    When a cluster of vehicles with various speeds moves through the series of signals, the cluster breaks down by stopping at signals and results in smaller groups of vehicles. We present the nonlinear-map model of the motion of vehicles controlled by the signals. We study the breakup of a cluster of vehicles through the series of signals. The cluster of vehicles is divided into various groups by controlling the cycle time of signals. The vehicles within each group move with the same mean velocity. The breakup of the traffic cluster depends highly on the signal control. The dependence of dividing on both cycle time and vehicular speed is clarified. Also, we investigate the effect of the irregular interval between signals on dividing.

  16. Maternal xNorrin, a canonical Wnt signaling agonist and TGF-β antagonist, controls early neuroectoderm specification in Xenopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhong Xu

    Full Text Available Dorsal-ventral specification in the amphibian embryo is controlled by β-catenin, whose activation in all dorsal cells is dependent on maternal Wnt11. However, it remains unknown whether other maternally secreted factors contribute to β-catenin activation in the dorsal ectoderm. Here, we show that maternal Xenopus Norrin (xNorrin promotes anterior neural tissue formation in ventralized embryos. Conversely, when xNorrin function is inhibited, early canonical Wnt signaling in the dorsal ectoderm and the early expression of the zygotic neural inducers Chordin, Noggin, and Xnr3 are severely suppressed, causing the loss of anterior structures. In addition, xNorrin potently inhibits BMP- and Nodal/Activin-related functions through direct binding to the ligands. Moreover, a subset of Norrin mutants identified in humans with Norrie disease retain Wnt activation but show defective inhibition of Nodal/Activin-related signaling in mesoderm induction, suggesting that this disinhibition causes Norrie disease. Thus, xNorrin is an unusual molecule that acts on two major signaling pathways, Wnt and TGF-β, in opposite ways and is essential for early neuroectoderm specification.

  17. S100A4 and BMP-2 Co-Dependently Induce Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration via pERK and Chloride Intracellular Channel 4 (CLIC4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiekerkoetter, Edda; Guignabert, Christophe; de Jesus Perez, Vinicio; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Powers, Janine M; Wang, Lingli; Lawrie, Allan; Ambartsumian, Noona; Schmidt, Ann-Marie; Berryman, Mark; Ashley, Richard H; Rabinovitch, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    Rationale S100A4/Mts1 is implicated in motility of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (hPASMC), through an interaction with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Objective We hypothesized that S100A4/Mts1-mediated hPASMC motility might be enhanced by loss of function of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor (R) II, observed in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods and Results Both S100A4/Mts1 (500ng/ml) and BMP-2 (10ng/ml) induce migration of hPASMCS in a novel co-dependent manner, in that the response to either ligand is lost with anti-RAGE or BMPRII siRNA. Phosphorylation of ERK is induced by both ligands and is required for motility by inducing MMP2 activity, but phosphoERK1/2 is blocked by anti-RAGE and not by BMPRII siRNA. In contrast, BMPRII siRNA, but not anti-RAGE, reduces expression of intracellular chloride channel 4 (CLIC4), a scaffolding molecule necessary for motility in response to S100A4/Mts1 or BMP-2. Reduced CLIC4 expression does not interfere with S100A4/Mts1 internalization or its interaction with myosin heavy chain IIA (MHCIIA), but does alter alignment of MHCIIA and actin filaments creating the appearance of vacuoles. This abnormality is associated with reduced peripheral distribution and/or delayed activation of RhoA and Rac1, small GTPases required for retraction and extension of lamellipodiae in motile cells. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate how a single ligand (BMP-2 or S100A4/Mts1) can recruit multiple cell surface receptors to relay signals that coordinate events culminating in a functional response, i.e., cell motility. We speculate that this carefully controlled process limits signals from multiple ligands, but could be subverted in disease. PMID:19713532

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 signaling negatively modulates lymphatic development in vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunworth, William P; Cardona-Costa, Jose; Bozkulak, Esra Cagavi

    2014-01-01

    : Our aim was to delineate the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 signaling in lymphatic development. METHODS AND RESULTS: BMP2 signaling negatively regulates the formation of LECs. Developing LECs lack any detectable BMP signaling activity in both zebrafish and mouse embryos, and excess BMP2...... signaling in zebrafish embryos and mouse embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies substantially decrease the emergence of LECs. Mechanistically, BMP2 signaling induces expression of miR-31 and miR-181a in a SMAD-dependent mechanism, which in turn results in attenuated expression of prospero homeobox...

  19. Continuous residual reinforcement learning for traffic signal control optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslani, Mohammad; Seipel, Stefan; Wiering, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Traffic signal control can be naturally regarded as a reinforcement learning problem. Unfortunately, it is one of the most difficult classes of reinforcement learning problems owing to its large state space. A straightforward approach to address this challenge is to control traffic signals based on

  20. BMP9 and BMP10 are necessary for proper closure of the ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levet, Sandrine; Ouarné, Marie; Ciais, Delphine; Coutton, Charles; Subileau, Mariela; Mallet, Christine; Ricard, Nicolas; Bidart, Marie; Debillon, Thierry; Faravelli, Francesca; Rooryck, Caroline; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Tillet, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The transition to pulmonary respiration after birth requires rapid alterations in the structure of the mammalian cardiovascular system. One dramatic change that occurs is the closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA), an arterial connection in the fetus that directs blood flow away from the pulmonary circulation. Two members of the TGFβ family, bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and BMP10, have been recently involved in postnatal angiogenesis, both being necessary for remodeling of newly formed microvascular beds. The aim of the present work was to study whether BMP9 and BMP10 could be involved in closure of the DA. We found that Bmp9 knockout in mice led to an imperfect closure of the DA. Further, addition of a neutralizing anti-BMP10 antibody at postnatal day 1 (P1) and P3 in these pups exacerbated the remodeling defect and led to a reopening of the DA at P4. Transmission electron microscopy images and immunofluorescence stainings suggested that this effect could be due to a defect in intimal cell differentiation from endothelial to mesenchymal cells, associated with a lack of extracellular matrix deposition within the center of the DA. This result was supported by the identification of the regulation by BMP9 and BMP10 of several genes known to be involved in this process. The involvement of these BMPs was further supported by human genomic data because we could define a critical region in chromosome 2 encoding eight genes including BMP10 that correlated with the presence of a patent DA. Together, these data establish roles for BMP9 and BMP10 in DA closure. PMID:26056270

  1. Safety Impacts of the Actuated Signal Control at Urban Intersections

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    Sang Hyuk Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To reduce travel time, the actuated signal controls have been implemented at urban intersections. However, the safety impacts of actuated signal controls thus far have rarely been examined. In this assessment of the safety impact of urban intersections with semi-actuated signal controls, the safety performance functions and EB approaches were applied. The semi-actuated signal controls have increased injuries and total crashes in all crash types by around 5.9% and 3.8%, respectively. Regarding the most common crash types, such as angle, sideswipe & rear-end, and head-on crashes, semi-actuated signal controls have been seen to decrease injuries by 7.7%. Total crashes have been reduced by over 9.2% through the use of semi-actuated signal controls. This may be result of optimal signal timings considering traffic conditions during peak time periods. In conclusion, safety impact factors which have been established in this study can be used to improve safety and minimize travel times using semi-actuated signal controls.

  2. Signalling, wage controls and monetary disinflation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Persson, T.

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on wage control and monetary disinflation policy. How the crucial variable to control is the money supply and wage and price controls should be avoided because of their macroeconomic costs; The two types of government as being low-inflation governments and high-inflation governments; How

  3. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Is Associated With Increased BMP7 Expression in Human Endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elliott G; El-Nashar, Sherif A; Schoolmeester, John K; Keeney, Gary L; Mariani, Andrea; Hopkins, Matthew R; Dowdy, Sean C; Daftary, Gaurang S; Famuyide, Abimbola O

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), a common health concern of women, is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is traditionally categorized into organic and nonorganic causes. Despite varied pharmacologic treatments, few offer sustained efficacy, as most are empiric, unfocused, and do not directly address underlying dysregulated molecular mechanisms. Characterization of such molecular derangements affords the opportunity to develop and use novel, more successful treatments for AUB. Given its implication in other organ systems, we hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression is altered in patients with AUB and hence comprehensively investigated dysregulation of BMP signaling pathways by systematically screening 489 samples from 365 patients for differences in the expression of BMP2, 4, 6, and 7 ligands, BMPR1A and B receptors, and downstream SMAD4, 6, and 7 proteins. Expression analysis was correlated clinically with data abstracted from medical records, including bleeding history, age at procedure, ethnicity, body mass index, hormone treatment, and histological diagnosis of fibroids, polyps, adenomyosis, hyperplasia, and cancer. Expression of BMP7 ligand was significantly increased in patients with AUB (H-score: 18.0 vs 26.7; P bleeding (menorrhagia) as their specific AUB pattern demonstrated significantly higher BMP7 expression. Significantly, no differences in the expression of any other BMP ligands, receptors, or SMAD proteins were observed in this large patient cohort. However, expression of BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and SMAD4 was significantly decreased in cancer compared to benign samples. Our study demonstrates that BMP7 is a promising target for future investigation and pharmacologic treatment of AUB.

  4. BMP2 and BMP7 play antagonistic roles in feather induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michon, Frédéric; Forest, Loïc; Collomb, Elodie; Demongeot, Jacques; Dhouailly, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Summary During embryonic development, feathers first appear as primordia consisting of an epidermal placode associated with a dermal condensation. In most previous studies, the BMPs have been proposed to function as inhibitors of the formation of cutaneous appendages. We showed that the function of BMPs is quite nuanced: BMP-2 and BMP-7, which are expressed in both skin components, act antagonistically and yet are both involved in the dermal condensations formation. BMP-7, the first to be expressed, is implicated in chemotaxis which leads to cell recruitment to the condensation, whereas BMP-2, which is expressed later, leads to an arrest of cell migration, likely via its modulation of EIIIA Fibronectin domain and α4-Integrin expression. We also propose a mathematical model, a reaction-diffusion system, based on cell proliferation, chemotaxis and the timing of BMP-2 and BMP-7 expression, which simulates the endogenous situation and reproduces the negative effects of excess BMP-2 or BMP-7 on feather patterning. PMID:18635609

  5. Comparison of the osteogenesis and fusion rates between activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) and rhBMP-2 in a beagle's posterolateral lumbar spine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guang Bin; Yoon, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae Hyup

    2017-10-01

    Activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) could promote bone healing more effectively than recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) with much lower dose in a rodent model, but there is no report about the effectiveness of AB204 in a large animal model. The purpose of this study was to compare the osteogenesis and fusion rate between AB204 and rhBMP-2 using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) as a carrier in a beagle's posterolateral lumbar fusion model. This is a randomized control animal study. Seventeen male beagle dogs were included. Bilateral posterolateral fusion was performed at the L1-L2 and L4-L5 levels. Biphasic calcium phosphate (2 cc), rhBMP-2 (50 µg)+BCP (2 cc), or AB204 (50 µg)+BCP (2 cc) were implanted into the intertransverse space randomly. X-ray was performed at 4 and 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and new bone formation and fusion rate were evaluated by manual palpation, computed tomography (CT), and undecalcified histology. The AB204 group showed significantly higher fusion rate (90%) than the rhBMP-2 group (15%) or the Osteon group (6.3%) by manual palpation. On x-ray and CT assessment, fusion rate and the volume of newly formed bone were also significantly higher in AB204 group than other groups. In contrast, more osteolysis was found in rhBMP-2 group (40%) than in AB204 group (10%) on CT study. In histologic results, new bone formation was sufficient between transverse processes in AB204 group, and obvious trabeculation and bone remodeling were observed. But in rhBMP-2 group, new bone formation was less than AB204 group and osteolysis was observed between the intertransverse spaces. A low dose of AB204 with BCP as a carrier significantly promotes the fusion rate in a large animal model when compared with the rhBMP-2. These findings demonstrate that AB204 could be an alternative to rhBMP-2 to improve fusion rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. BMP7 and SHH regulate Pax2 in mouse retinal astrocytes by relieving TLX repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Rachna; Sheibani, Nader; Rhodes, Simon J; Belecky Adams, Teri L

    2009-08-15

    Pax2 is essential for development of the neural tube, urogenital system, optic vesicle, optic cup and optic tract. In the eye, Pax2 deficiency is associated with coloboma, a loss of astrocytes in the optic nerve and retina, and abnormal axonal pathfinding of the ganglion cell axons at the optic chiasm. Thus, appropriate expression of Pax2 is essential for astrocyte determination and differentiation. Although BMP7 and SHH have been shown to regulate Pax2 expression, the molecular mechanism by which this regulation occurs is not well understood. In this study, we determined that BMP7 and SHH activate Pax2 expression in mouse retinal astrocyte precursors in vitro. SHH appeared to play a dual role in Pax2 regulation; 1) SHH may regulate BMP7 expression, and 2) the SHH pathway cooperates with the BMP pathway to regulate Pax2 expression. BMP and SHH pathway members can interact separately or together with TLX, a repressor protein in the tailless transcription factor family. Here we show that the interaction of both pathways with TLX relieves the repression of Pax2 expression in mouse retinal astrocytes. Together these data reveal a new mechanism for the cooperative actions of signaling pathways in astrocyte determination and differentiation and suggest interactions of regulatory pathways that are applicable to other developmental programs.

  7. Bmp suppression in mangrove killifish embryos causes a split in the body axis.

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    Sulayman Mourabit

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp are major players in the formation of the vertebrate body plan due to their crucial role in patterning of the dorsal-ventral (DV axis. Despite the highly conserved nature of Bmp signalling in vertebrates, the consequences of changing this pathway can be species-specific. Here, we report that Bmp plays an important role in epiboly, yolk syncytial layer (YSL movements, and anterior-posterior (AP axis formation in embryos of the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus. Stage and dose specific exposures of embryos to the Bmp inhibitor dorsomorphin (DM produced three distinctive morphologies, with the most extreme condition creating the splitbody phenotype, characterised by an extremely short AP axis where the neural tube, somites, and notochord were bilaterally split. In addition, parts of caudal neural tissues were separated from the main body and formed cell islands in the posterior region of the embryo. This splitbody phenotype, which has not been reported in other animals, shows that modification of Bmp may lead to significantly different consequences during development in other vertebrate species.

  8. Digital signal processing in power system protection and control

    CERN Document Server

    Rebizant, Waldemar; Wiszniewski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control bridges the gap between the theory of protection and control and the practical applications of protection equipment. Understanding how protection functions is crucial not only for equipment developers and manufacturers, but also for their users who need to install, set and operate the protection devices in an appropriate manner. After introductory chapters related to protection technology and functions, Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control presents the digital algorithms for signal filtering, followed

  9. Regulatory role of melatonin and BMP-4 in prolactin production by rat pituitary lactotrope GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Ochi, Kanako; Fujisawa, Satoshi; Iwata, Nahoko; Komatsubara, Motoshi; Nishiyama, Yuki; Tsukamoto-Yamauchi, Naoko; Inagaki, Kenichi; Wada, Jun; Otsuka, Fumio

    2017-08-01

    The effects of melatonin on prolactin production and its regulatory mechanism remain uncertain. We investigated the regulatory role of melatonin in prolactin production using rat pituitary lactotrope GH3 cells by focusing on the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system. Melatonin receptor activation, induced by melatonin and its receptor agonist ramelteon, significantly suppressed basal and forskolin-induced prolactin secretion and prolactin mRNA expression in GH3 cells. The melatonin MT2 receptor was predominantly expressed in GH3 cells, and the inhibitory effects of melatonin on prolactin production were reversed by treatment with the receptor antagonist luzindole, suggesting functional involvement of MT2 action in the suppression of prolactin release. Melatonin receptor activation also suppressed BMP-4-induced prolactin expression by inhibiting phosphorylation of Smad and transcription of the BMP-target gene Id-1, while BMP-4 treatment upregulated MT2 expression. Melatonin receptor activation suppressed basal, BMP-4-induced and forskolin-induced cAMP synthesis; however, BtcAMP-induced prolactin mRNA expression was not affected by melatonin or ramelteon, suggesting that MT2 activation leads to inhibition of prolactin production through the suppression of Smad signaling and cAMP synthesis. Experiments using intracellular signal inhibitors revealed that the ERK pathway is, at least in part, involved in prolactin induction by GH3 cells. Thus, a new regulatory role of melatonin involving BMP-4 in prolactin secretion was uncovered in lactotrope GH3 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. NF-kappaB specifically activates BMP-2 gene expression in growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in a chondrocyte cell line in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian Q; Xing, Lianping; Zhang, Jiang-Hong; Zhao, Ming; Horn, Diane; Chan, Jeannie; Boyce, Brendan F; Harris, Stephen E; Mundy, Gregory R; Chen, Di

    2003-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) regulates growth plate chondrogenesis during development and postnatal bone growth, but the control mechanisms of BMP-2 expression in growth plate chondrocytes are unknown. Here we have used both in vitro and in vivo approaches to demonstrate that transcription factor, NF-kappaB, regulates BMP-2 gene expression in chondrocytes. Two putative NF-kappaB response elements were found in the -2712/+165 region of the BMP-2 gene. Cotransfection of mutant I-kappaBalpha expression plasmids with BMP-2 promoter-luciferase reporters into TMC-23 chondrocyte cell line suppressed BMP-2 transcription. Mutations in NF-kappaB response elements in the BMP-2 gene lead to decreases in BMP-2 promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay using nuclear extracts from TMC-23 chondrocytic cells revealed that the NF-kappaB subunits p50 and p65 bound to the NF-kappaB response elements of the BMP-2 gene. Thus, NF-kappaB may positively regulate BMP-2 gene transcription. Consistent with these findings, expression of BMP-2 mRNA was significantly reduced in growth plate chondrocytes in NF-kappaB p50/p52 dKO mice, which associated with decreased numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd)-positive cells in the proliferating zone of growth plate in these mice. Therefore, in postnatal growth plate chondrocytes, expression of BMP-2 is regulated by NF-kappaB, which may play an important role in chondrogenesis.

  11. Cognitive Control Signals in Posterior Cingulate Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiently shifting between tasks is a central function of cognitive control. The role of the default network—a constellation of areas with high baseline activity that declines during task performance—in cognitive control remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that task switching demands cognitive control to shift the balance of processing towards the external world, and therefore predicted that switching between the two tasks would require suppression of activity of neurons within the CGp. To test this idea, we recorded the activity of single neurons in posterior cingulate cortex (CGp, a central node in the default network, in monkeys performing two interleaved tasks. As predicted, we found that basal levels of neuronal activity were reduced following a switch from one task to another and gradually returned to pre-switch baseline on subsequent trials. We failed to observe these effects in lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP, part of the dorsal fronto-parietal cortical attention network directly connected to CGp. These findings indicate that suppression of neuronal activity in CGp facilitates cognitive control, and suggest that activity in the default network reflects processes that directly compete with control processes elsewhere in the brain..

  12. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation enhances BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Chieri [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsuyo-i@huhs.ac.jp [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P

  13. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation enhances BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Chieri; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. ► Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. ► S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. ► MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P receptor-mediated signaling plays a crucial role for osteoblast differentiation.

  14. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  15. Synthetic scaffold coating with adeno-associated virus encoding BMP2 to promote endogenous bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Kenneth M; Boerckel, Joel D; Stevens, Hazel Y; Diab, Tamim; Kolambkar, Yash M; Takahata, Masahiko; Schwarz, Edward M; Guldberg, Robert E

    2012-03-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds functionalized to stimulate endogenous repair mechanisms via the incorporation of osteogenic cues offer a potential alternative to bone grafting for the treatment of large bone defects. We first quantified the ability of a self-complementary adeno-associated viral vector encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (scAAV2.5-BMP2) to enhance human stem cell osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In two-dimensional culture, scAAV2.5-BMP2-transduced human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) displayed significant increases in BMP2 production and alkaline phosphatase activity compared with controls. hMSCs and human amniotic-fluid-derived stem cells (hAFS cells) seeded on scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated three-dimensional porous polymer Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds also displayed significant increases in BMP2 production compared with controls during 12 weeks of culture, although only hMSC-seeded scaffolds displayed significantly increased mineral formation. PCL scaffolds coated with scAAV2.5-BMP2 were implanted into critically sized immunocompromised rat femoral defects, both with or without pre-seeding of hMSCs, representing ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy treatments, respectively. After 12 weeks, defects treated with acellular scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated scaffolds displayed increased bony bridging and had significantly higher bone ingrowth and mechanical properties compared with controls, whereas defects treated with scAAV2.5-BMP2 scaffolds pre-seeded with hMSCs failed to display significant differences relative to controls. When pooled, defect treatment with scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated scaffolds, both with or without inclusion of pre-seeded hMSCs, led to significant increases in defect mineral formation at all time points and increased mechanical properties compared with controls. This study thus presents a novel acellular bone-graft-free endogenous repair therapy for orthotopic tissue-engineered bone regeneration.

  16. Endothelial ERK signaling controls lymphatic fate specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Atri, Deepak; Eichmann, Anne; Simons, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are thought to arise from PROX1-positive endothelial cells (ECs) in the cardinal vein in response to induction of SOX18 expression; however, the molecular event responsible for increased SOX18 expression has not been established. We generated mice with endothelial-specific, inducible expression of an RAF1 gene with a gain-of-function mutation (RAF1S259A) that is associated with Noonan syndrome. Expression of mutant RAF1S259A in ECs activated ERK and induced SOX18 and PROX1 expression, leading to increased commitment of venous ECs to the lymphatic fate. Excessive production of lymphatic ECs resulted in lymphangiectasia that was highly reminiscent of abnormal lymphatics seen in Noonan syndrome and similar “RASopathies.” Inhibition of ERK signaling during development abrogated the lymphatic differentiation program and rescued the lymphatic phenotypes induced by expression of RAF1S259A. These data suggest that ERK activation plays a key role in lymphatic EC fate specification and that excessive ERK activation is the basis of lymphatic abnormalities seen in Noonan syndrome and related diseases. PMID:23391722

  17. Improving Walkability Through Control Strategies at Signalized Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    As cities and communities nationwide seek to develop Complete Streets that foster livability and accommodate all modes, signal timing control strategies that include pedestrians in the operational decision process are gaining importance. This researc...

  18. Canonical Wnt signaling in differentiated osteoblasts controls osteoclast differentiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glass, D.A.; Bialek, P.; Ahn, J.D.; Starbuck, M.; Patel, M.S.; Clevers, J.C.; Taketo, M.M.; Long, F.; McMahon, A.P.; Lang, R.A.; Karsenty, G.

    2005-01-01

    Inactivation of beta-catenin in mesenchymal progenitors prevents osteoblast differentiation; inactivation of Lrp5, a gene encoding a likely Wnt coreceptor, results in low bone mass (osteopenia) by decreasing bone formation. These observations indicate that Wnt signaling controls osteoblast

  19. small signal analysis of load angle governing and excitation control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    system stabilizers (PSS) or using terminal voltage for control of exciter and speed signal for governor. ... Vfd= generator field voltage. Xd, Xq ... each other in the frequency domain, and therefore ..... angle sensing equipment, relays and.

  20. 49 CFR 236.205 - Signal control circuits; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic... car, (b) When points of a switch are not closed in proper position, (c) When an independently operated...

  1. Using Automated Planning for Traffic Signals Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Gulić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solving traffic congestions represents a high priority issue in many big cities. Traditional traffic control systems are mainly based on pre-programmed, reactive and local techniques. This paper presents an autonomic system that uses automated planning techniques instead. These techniques are easily configurable and modified, and can reason about the future implications of actions that change the default traffic lights behaviour. The proposed implemented system includes some autonomic properties, since it monitors the current traffic state, detects if the system is degrading its performance, sets up new sets of goals to be achieved by the planner, triggers the planner that generates plans with control actions, and executes the selected courses of actions. The obtained results in several artificial and real world data-based simulation scenarios show that the proposed system can efficiently solve traffic congestion.

  2. rhBMP-2 (ACS and CRM formulations) overcomes pseudarthrosis in a New Zealand white rabbit posterolateral fusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, James P; Waked, Walid; Gillon, Thomas J; White, Andrew P; Spock, Christopher R; Biswas, Debdut; Rosenberger, Patricia; Troiano, Nancy; Albert, Todd J; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2007-05-15

    The study design consisted of a New Zealand white rabbit model of pseudarthrosis repair. Study groups consisting of no graft, autograft, or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) or compression resistant matrix (CRM) were evaluated. To evaluate the relative efficacy of bone graft materials (autograft, ACS, and CRM). rhBMP-2 has been shown to have a 100% fusion rate in a primary rabbit fusion model, even in the presence of nicotine, which is known to inhibit fusion. Seventy-two New Zealand white rabbits underwent posterolateral lumbar fusion with iliac crest autograft. To establish pseudarthroses, nicotine was administered to all animals. At 5 weeks, the spines were explored and all pseudarthroses were redecorticated and implanted with no graft, autograft, rhBMP-2/ACS, or rhBMP-2/CRM. At 10 weeks, fusions were assessed by manual palpation and histology. Eight rabbits (11%) were lost to complications. At 5 weeks, 66 (97%) had pseudarthroses. At 10 weeks, attempted pseudarthrosis repairs were fused in 1 of 16 of no graft rabbits (6%), 5 of 17 autograft rabbits (29%), and 31 of 31 rhBMP-2 rabbits (with ACS or CRM) (100%). Histologic analysis demonstrated more mature bone formation in the rhBMP-2 groups. The 2 rhBMP-2 formulations led to significantly higher fusion rates and histologic bone formation than no graft and autograft controls in this pseudarthrosis repair model.

  3. Macrolactin F inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis by suppressing Akt, MAPK and NFATc1 pathways and promotes osteoblastogenesis through a BMP-2/smad/Akt/Runx2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Sapkota, Mahesh; Gao, Ming; Choi, Hyukjae; Soh, Yunjo

    2017-11-15

    The balance between bone formation and bone resorption is maintained by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In the current study, macrolactin F (MF) was investigated for novel biological activity on the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). We found that RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and differentiation from BMMs was significantly inhibited by MF in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. RANKL-induced F-actin ring formation and bone resorption activity in BMMs which was attenuated by MF. In addition, MF suppressed the expression of osteoclast-related genes, including c-myc, RANK, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). Furthermore, the protein expression NFATc1, c-Fos, MMP9, cathepsin K and phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and Akt were also down-regulated by MF treatment. Interestingly, MF promoted pre-osteoblast cell differentiation on Alizarin Red-mineralization activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the expression of osteoblastogenic markers including Runx2, Osterix, Smad4, ALP, type I collagen alpha 1 (Col1α), osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN) via activation of the BMP-2/smad/Akt/Runx2 pathway on MC3T3-E1. Taken together, these results indicate that MF may be useful as a therapeutic agent to enhance bone health and treat osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The design of traffic signal coordinated control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueting; Sun, Hongsheng; Wang, Xifu

    2017-05-01

    Traffic as the tertiary industry is an important pillar industry to support the normal development of the economy. But now China's road traffic development and economic development has shown a great imbalance and fault phenomenon, which greatly inhibited the normal development of China's economy. Now in many large and medium-sized cities in China are implementing green belt construction. The so-called green band is when the road conditions to meet the conditions for the establishment of the green band, the sections of the intersection of several planning to a traffic coordination control system, so that when the driver at a specific speed can be achieved without stopping the continuous Through the intersection. Green belt can effectively reduce the delay and queuing length of vehicle driving, the normal function of urban roads and reduce the economic losses caused by traffic congestion is a great help. In this paper, the theoretical basis of the design of the coordinated control system is described. Secondly, the green time offset is calculated by the analytic method and the green band is established. And then the VISSIM software is used to simulate the traffic system before and after the improvement. Finally, the results of the two simulations are compared.

  5. A multi-scale model of hepcidin promoter regulation reveals factors controlling systemic iron homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem Casanovas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic iron homeostasis involves a negative feedback circuit in which the expression level of the peptide hormone hepcidin depends on and controls the iron blood levels. Hepcidin expression is regulated by the BMP6/SMAD and IL6/STAT signaling cascades. Deregulation of either pathway causes iron-related diseases such as hemochromatosis or anemia of inflammation. We quantitatively analyzed how BMP6 and IL6 control hepcidin expression. Transcription factor (TF phosphorylation and reporter gene expression were measured under co-stimulation conditions, and the promoter was perturbed by mutagenesis. Using mathematical modeling, we systematically analyzed potential mechanisms of cooperative and competitive promoter regulation by the transcription factors, and experimentally validated the model predictions. Our results reveal that hepcidin cross-regulation primarily occurs by combinatorial transcription factor binding to the promoter, whereas signaling crosstalk is insignificant. We find that the presence of two BMP-responsive elements enhances the steepness of the promoter response towards the iron-sensing BMP signaling axis, which promotes iron homeostasis in vivo. IL6 co-stimulation reduces the promoter sensitivity towards the BMP signal, because the SMAD and STAT transcription factors compete for recruiting RNA polymerase to the transcription start site. This may explain why inflammatory signals disturb iron homeostasis in anemia of inflammation. Taken together, our results reveal why the iron homeostasis circuit is sensitive to perturbations implicated in disease.

  6. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Douglas T. (Inventor); Schmitt, Donald E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The rotor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor may be regulated by applying a separate control signal to each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  7. Signal differentiation in position tracking control of dc motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran-Carbajal, F; Valderrabano-Gonzalez, A; Rosas-Caro, J C

    2015-01-01

    An asymptotic differentiation approach with respect to time is used for on-line estimation of velocity and acceleration signals in controlled dc motors. The attractive feature of this differentiator of signals is that it does not require any system mathematical model, which allows its use in engineering systems that require the signal differentiation for its control, identification, fault detection, among other applications. Moreover, it is shown that the differentiation approach can be applied for output signals showing a chaotic behavior. In addition a differential flatness control scheme with additional integral compensation of the output error is proposed for tracking tasks of position reference trajectories for direct current electric motors using angular position measurements only

  8. Chaos control applied to cardiac rhythms represented by ECG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borem Ferreira, Bianca; Amorim Savi, Marcelo; Souza de Paula, Aline

    2014-01-01

    The control of irregular or chaotic heartbeats is a key issue in cardiology. In this regard, chaos control techniques represent a good alternative since they suggest treatments different from those traditionally used. This paper deals with the application of the extended time-delayed feedback control method to stabilize pathological chaotic heart rhythms. Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are employed to represent the cardiovascular behavior. A mathematical model is employed to generate ECG signals using three modified Van der Pol oscillators connected with time delay couplings. This model provides results that qualitatively capture the general behavior of the heart. Controlled ECG signals show the ability of the strategy either to control or to suppress the chaotic heart dynamics generating less-critical behaviors. (paper)

  9. Myoelectric signal processing for control of powered limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, P; Englehart, K; Hudgins, B

    2006-12-01

    Progress in myoelectric control technology has over the years been incremental, due in part to the alternating focus of the R&D between control methodology and device hardware. The technology has over the past 50 years or so moved from single muscle control of a single prosthesis function to muscle group activity control of multifunction prostheses. Central to these changes have been developments in the means of extracting information from the myoelectric signal. This paper gives an overview of the myoelectric signal processing challenge, a brief look at the challenge from an historical perspective, the state-of-the-art in myoelectric signal processing for prosthesis control, and an indication of where this field is heading. The paper demonstrates that considerable progress has been made in providing clients with useful and reliable myoelectric communication channels, and that exciting work and developments are on the horizon.

  10. [Preparation of vanilline cross-linked rhBMP-2/chitosan microspheres and its effect on mesenchymal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gui; Wang, Hai; Qiu, Guixing; Yu, Xin; Su, Xinlin; Ma, Pei; Yin, Bo; Wu, Zhihong

    2015-06-02

    To prepare rhBMP-2/chitosan microspheres (rhBMP-2 CMs) with vanilline as a cross-linking reagent and study the biocompatibility and drug release characteristic of microspheres in vitro. Emulsion cross-linking method was utilized to prepare rhBMP-2 CMs, Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the microstructure of microspheres.Leaching solution of microspheres and blank culture medium were designated as experimental and control groups respectively. Both groups were cultured with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to determine its cytotoxicity and its effect on the proliferation of hMSCs. Dynamic immersion method was used to examine the in vitro release characteristic of rhBMP-2. And the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of hMSCs was determined to reveal the bioactivity of released rhBMP-2. The rhBMP-2 CMs were spherical under SEM.After treating with leaching solution for 24 and 48 h, there was no inter-group statistical difference in optical density (OD) values at both timepoints (24 h:0.72 ± 0.07 vs 0.73 ± 0.05, P > 0.05; 48 h:1.19 ± 0.11 vs 1.27 ± 0.06, P > 0.05). After culturing with leaching solution for 1, 3 and 7 days, the number of cells increased with time for both groups. And the OD values were not statistically different at each timepoint. Five milligram rhBMP-2 CMs soaked for 19 days with a gradual release of rhBMP-2. The concentration of rhBMP-2 was 216.1 ± 20.0 ng/ml at Day 19. At Days 3 and 7, the ALP activities of hMSCs were (0.50 ± 0.07) and (0.68 ± 0.06) µmol pNPP·min⁻¹·mg⁻¹ protein respectively and both were higher than that of blank culture medium group (0.14 ± 0.01) (P < 0.05). With an excellent biocompatibility, rhBMP-2 CMs may be an ideal carrier for control-released rhBMP-2 and encapsulated rhBMP-2 remains bioactive.

  11. Programs for control of an analog-signal switching network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ottavio, T.; Enriquez, R.; Katz, R.; Skelly, J.

    1989-01-01

    A suite of programs has been developed to control the network of analog-signal switching multiplexers in the AGS complex. The software is driven by a relational database which describes the architecture of the multiplexer tree and the set of available analog signals. Signals are routed through a three-layer multiplexer tree, to be made available at four consoles each with three 4-trace oscilloscopes. A menu-structured operator interface program is available at each console, to accept requests to route any available analog signal to any of that console's 12 oscilloscope traces. A common routing-server program provides automatic routing-server program provides automatic routing of requested signals through the layers of multiplexers, maintaining a reservation database to denote free and in-use trunks. Expansion of the analog signal system is easily accommodated in software by adding new signals, trunks, multiplexers, or consoles to the database. Programmatic control of the triggering signals for each of the oscilloscopes is also provided. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Control of striatal signaling by G protein regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqiang eXie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Signaling via heterotrimeric G proteins plays a crucial role in modulating the responses of striatal neurons that ultimately shape core behaviors mediated by the basal ganglia circuitry, such as reward valuation, habit formation and movement coordination. Activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs by extracellular signals activates heterotrimeric G proteins by promoting the binding of GTP to their α subunits. G proteins exert their effects by influencing the activity of key effector proteins in this region, including ion channels, second messenger enzymes and protein kinases. Striatal neurons express a staggering number of GPCRs whose activation results in the engagement of downstream signaling pathways and cellular responses with unique profiles but common molecular mechanisms. Studies over the last decade have revealed that the extent and duration of GPCR signaling are controlled by a conserved protein family named Regulator of G protein Signaling (RGS. RGS proteins accelerate GTP hydrolysis by the α subunits of G proteins, thus promoting deactivation of GPCR signaling. In this review, we discuss the progress made in understanding the roles of RGS proteins in controlling striatal G protein signaling and providing integration and selectivity of signal transmission. We review evidence on the formation of a macromolecular complex between RGS proteins and other components of striatal signaling pathways, their molecular regulatory mechanisms and impacts on GPCR signaling in the striatum obtained from biochemical studies and experiments involving genetic mouse models. Special emphasis is placed on RGS9-2, a member of the RGS family that is highly enriched in the striatum and plays critical roles in drug addiction and motor control.

  13. Serum Proteases Potentiate BMP-Induced Cell Cycle Re-entry of Dedifferentiating Muscle Cells during Newt Limb Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ines; Wang, Heng; Weissert, Philipp M; Straube, Werner L; Shevchenko, Anna; Gentzel, Marc; Brito, Goncalo; Tazaki, Akira; Oliveira, Catarina; Sugiura, Takuji; Shevchenko, Andrej; Simon, András; Drechsel, David N; Tanaka, Elly M

    2017-03-27

    Limb amputation in the newt induces myofibers to dedifferentiate and re-enter the cell cycle to generate proliferative myogenic precursors in the regeneration blastema. Here we show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and mature BMPs that have been further cleaved by serum proteases induce cell cycle entry by dedifferentiating newt muscle cells. Protease-activated BMP4/7 heterodimers that are present in serum strongly induced myotube cell cycle re-entry with protease cleavage yielding a 30-fold potency increase of BMP4/7 compared with canonical BMP4/7. Inhibition of BMP signaling via muscle-specific dominant-negative receptor expression reduced cell cycle entry in vitro and in vivo. In vivo inhibition of serine protease activity depressed cell cycle re-entry, which in turn was rescued by cleaved-mimic BMP. This work identifies a mechanism of BMP activation that generates blastema cells from differentiated muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Power system small signal stability analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Debasish; Sengupta, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control presents a detailed analysis of the problem of severe outages due to the sustained growth of small signal oscillations in modern interconnected power systems. The ever-expanding nature of power systems and the rapid upgrade to smart grid technologies call for the implementation of robust and optimal controls. Power systems that are forced to operate close to their stability limit have resulted in the use of control devices by utility companies to improve the performance of the transmission system against commonly occurring power system

  15. BMP15 suppresses progesterone production by down-regulating StAR via ALK3 in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K

    2013-12-01

    In addition to somatic cell-derived growth factors, oocyte-derived growth differentiation factor (GDF)9 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)15 play essential roles in female fertility. However, few studies have investigated their effects on human ovarian steroidogenesis, and fewer still have examined their differential effects or underlying molecular determinants. In the present study, we used immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) and human granulosa cell tumor cells (KGN) to compare the effects of GDF9 and BMP15 on steroidogenic enzyme expression and investigate potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, neither GDF9 nor BMP15 affects the mRNA levels of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme or 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. However, treatment with BMP15, but not GDF9, significantly decreases steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA and protein levels as well as progesterone production. These suppressive effects, along with the induction of Sma and Mad-related protein (SMAD)1/5/8 phosphorylation, are attenuated by cotreatment with 2 different BMP type I receptor inhibitors (dorsomorphin and DMH-1). Furthermore, depletion of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)3 using small interfering RNA reverses the effects of BMP15 on SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation and StAR expression. Similarly, knockdown of ALK3 abolishes BMP15-induced SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation in KGN cells. These results provide evidence that oocyte-derived BMP15 down-regulates StAR expression and decreases progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via ALK3-mediated SMAD1/5/8 signaling. Our findings suggest that oocyte may play a critical role in the regulation of progesterone to prevent premature luteinization during the late stage of follicle development.

  16. Ancestral regulatory circuits governing ectoderm patterning downstream of Nodal and BMP2/4 revealed by gene regulatory network analysis in an echinoderm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Saudemont

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderms, which are phylogenetically related to vertebrates and produce large numbers of transparent embryos that can be experimentally manipulated, offer many advantages for the analysis of the gene regulatory networks (GRN regulating germ layer formation. During development of the sea urchin embryo, the ectoderm is the source of signals that pattern all three germ layers along the dorsal-ventral axis. How this signaling center controls patterning and morphogenesis of the embryo is not understood. Here, we report a large-scale analysis of the GRN deployed in response to the activity of this signaling center in the embryos of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, in which studies with high spatial resolution are possible. By using a combination of in situ hybridization screening, overexpression of mRNA, recombinant ligand treatments, and morpholino-based loss-of-function studies, we identified a cohort of transcription factors and signaling molecules expressed in the ventral ectoderm, dorsal ectoderm, and interposed neurogenic ("ciliary band" region in response to the known key signaling molecules Nodal and BMP2/4 and defined the epistatic relationships between the most important genes. The resultant GRN showed a number of striking features. First, Nodal was found to be essential for the expression of all ventral and dorsal marker genes, and BMP2/4 for all dorsal genes. Second, goosecoid was identified as a central player in a regulatory sub-circuit controlling mouth formation, while tbx2/3 emerged as a critical factor for differentiation of the dorsal ectoderm. Finally, and unexpectedly, a neurogenic ectoderm regulatory circuit characterized by expression of "ciliary band" genes was triggered in the absence of TGF beta signaling. We propose a novel model for ectoderm regionalization, in which neural ectoderm is the default fate in the absence of TGF beta signaling, and suggest that the stomodeal and neural subcircuits that we

  17. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Eiji; Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. ► Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. ► Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. ► Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent pathway.

  18. Forestry BMP Implementation Costs for Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M. Shaffer; H.L. Haney; E.G. Worrell; W.M. Aust

    1998-01-01

    Forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs) are operational techniques used to protect water quality during timber harvesting operations. The implementation cost of BMPs is important to loggers, forest landowners, and the forest industry. This study provides an estimate of BMP implementation cost on a per harvested acre basis for the coastal plain, Piedmont, and...

  19. Biochemicalmethane potential (BMP) of solid organic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, F.; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; de la Rubia, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper describes results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, all experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experim...... significantly according to the experimental approaches....

  20. BMP7 transfection induces in-vitro osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Po John Yau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether in-vitro osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells can be induced by transient transfection with the gene encoding human bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7. Materials and Methods: A mesenchymal stem cell population was isolated from the dental pulp of two extracted permanent premolars, expanded and characterized. The human BMP7 gene, as a recombinant pcDNA3.1/V5-His-TOPO-BMP7 plasmid, was transfected into the cells. Three negative controls were used: No plasmid, empty vector, and an unrelated vector encoding green fluorescent protein. After the interval of 24 and 48 h, mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin as markers of in-vitro osteogenic differentiation were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and standardized against β-actin mRNA levels. Results: The level of alkaline phosphatase mRNA was significantly higher for the BMP7 group than for all three negative controls 48 h after transfection (706.9 vs. 11.24 for untransfected cells, 78.05 for empty vector, and 73.10 for green fluorescent protein vector. The level of osteocalcin mRNA was significantly higher for the BMP7 group than for all three negative controls 24 h after transfection (1.0, however, decreased after another 24 h. Conclusions: In-vitro osteoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells, as indicated by expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, can be induced by transient transfection with the BMP7 gene.

  1. Coordinated signal control for arterial intersections using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanian, Davood; Zare, Assef; Balochian, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    Every day growth of the vehicles has become one of the biggest problems of urbanism especially in major cities. This can waste people's time, increase the fuel consumption, air pollution, and increase the density of cars and vehicles. Fuzzy controllers have been widely used in many consumer products and industrial applications with success over the past two decades. This article proposes a comprehensive model of urban traffic network using state space equations and then using Fuzzy Logic Tool Box and SIMULINK Program MATLAB a fuzzy controller in order to optimize and coordinate signal control at two intersections at an arterial road. The fuzzy controller decides to extend, early cut or terminate a signal phase and phase sequence to ensure smooth flow of traffic with minimal waiting time and length of queue. Results show that the performance of the proposed traffic controller at novel fuzzy model is better that of conventional controllers under normal and abnormal traffic conditions.

  2. Microscopic Control Delay Modeling at Signalized Arterials Using Bluetooth Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekhar, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Real-time control delay estimation is an important performance measure for any intersection to improve the signal timing plans dynamically in real-time and hence improve the overall system performance. Control delay estimates helps to determine the level-of-service (LOS) characteristics of various approaches at an intersection and takes into account deceleration delay, stopped delay and acceleration delay. All kinds of traffic delay calculation especially control delay calculation has always ...

  3. Intelligent Agent Based Traffic Signal Control on Isolated Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Koltovska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop an adaptive signal control strategy on isolated urban intersections. An innovative approach to defining the set of states dependent on the actual and primarily observed parameters has been introduced. ?he Q–learning algorithm has been applied. The developed self-learning adaptive signal strategy has been tested on a re?l intersection. The intelligent agent results have been compared to those in cases of fixed-time and actuated control. Regarding the average total delay, the total number of stops and the total throughput, the best results have been obtained for unknown traffic demand and over-capacity.

  4. MRI of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: imaging appearance with and without the use of human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Michael G.; Goldberg, Judd M.; Gaskin, Cree M.; Barr, Michelle S.; Alford, Bennett [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Patrie, James T. [University of Virginia, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Shen, Francis H. [University of Virginia, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    To describe the vertebral endplate and intervertebral disc space MRI appearance following TLIF, with and without the use of rhBMP-2, and to determine if the appearance is concerning for discitis/osteomyelitis. After institutional review board approval, 116 TLIF assessments performed on 75 patients with rhBMP-2 were retrospectively and independently reviewed by five radiologists and compared to 73 TLIF assessments performed on 45 patients without rhBMP-2. MRIs were evaluated for endplate signal, disc space enhancement, disc space fluid, and abnormal paraspinal soft tissue. Endplate edema-like signal was reported when T1-weighted hypointensity, T2-weighted hyperintensity, and endplate enhancement were present. Subjective concern for discitis/osteomyelitis on MRI was graded on a five-point scale. Generalized estimating equation binomial regression model analysis was performed with findings correlated with rhBMP-2 use, TLIF level, graft type, and days between TLIF and MRI. The rhBMP-2 group demonstrated endplate edema-like signal (OR 5.66; 95 % CI [1.58, 20.24], p = 0.008) and disc space enhancement (OR 2.40; 95 % CI [1.20, 4.80], p = 0.013) more often after adjusting for the TLIF level, graft type, and the number of days following TLIF. Both groups had a similar temporal distribution for endplate edema-like signal but disc space enhancement peaked earlier in the rhBMP-2 group. Disc space fluid was only present in the rhBMP-2 group. Neither group demonstrated abnormal paraspinal soft tissue and discitis/osteomyelitis was not considered likely in any patient. Endplate edema-like signal and disc space enhancement were significantly more frequent and disc space enhancement developed more rapidly following TLIF when rhBMP-2 was utilized. The concern for discitis/osteomyelitis was similar and minimal in both groups. (orig.)

  5. Online Traffic Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi

    In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.

  6. BMP4 Expression Following Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous and Carbonate Apatite Transplantation on Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Saskianti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone defects in children still have a high incidence. Conventional bone graft technique that has been used as a defect therapy is still not effective, so new techniques with tissue engineering approach are needed. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4 as one of the indicators of osteogenic differentiation has not been widely studied, especially in the transplantation with combination of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous (SHED and carbonate apatite. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the expression of BMP4 after SHED and carbonate apatite transplantation on Rattus norvegicus. Material and Methods: The combinations of SHED and carbonate apatite were transplanted on alveolar bone defects of 4 rats (Rattus norvegicus as the treatment groups and another 4 rats were transplanted with carbonate apatite as the control groups. After 21 days, staining with Hematoxylin Eosin (HE and Immunohistochemistry (IHC BMP4 was performed. Results: BMP4 expression in the treatment groups was significantly higher when compared to the control groups. Discussion: Carbonate apatite has low crystallization rate and high osteoconductivity that produce more osteoblasts and increased BMP4 expression. Conclusion: The transplantation of SHED and carbonate apatite increased BMP4 expression as an indicator of osteogenic differentiation in rats.

  7. Low-dose rhBMP2/7 heterodimer to reconstruct peri-implant bone defects: a micro-CT evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxiao; Zheng, Yuanna; Zhao, Juan; Liu, Tie; Gao, Lixia; Gu, Zhiyuan; Wu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    To delineate the dynamic micro-architectures of bone induced by low-dose bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/7 heterodimer in peri-implant bone defects compared to BMP2 and BMP7 homodimer. Peri-implant bone defects (8 mm in diameter, 4 mm in depth) were created surrounding SLA-treated titanium implants (3.1 mm in diameter, 10 mm in length) in minipig's calvaria. We administrated collagen sponges with adsorbed low-dose (30 ng/mm(3) ) BMP2/7 to treat the defects using BMP2, BMP7 or no BMP as controls.2, 3 and 6 weeks after implantation, we adopted micro-computer tomography to evaluate the micro-architectures of new bone using the following parameters: relative bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), connectivity density, and structure mode index (SMI). Bone implant contact (BIC) was also revealed histologically. Consistent with 2 and 3 weeks, after 6 weeks post-operation, BMP2/7 resulted in significantly higher BV/TV (63.033 ± 2.055%) and significantly lower SMI (-4.405 ± 0.500) than BMP2 (BV/TV: 43.133 ± 2.001%; SMI: -0.086 ± 0.041) and BMP7 (BV/TV: 41.467 ± 1.850%; SMI: -0.044 ± 0.016) respectively. Significant differences were also found in Tb.N, Tb.Th and Tb.Sp at all time points. At 2 weeks, BMP2/7 resulted in significantly higher BIC than the controls. Low-dose BMP2/7 heterodimer facilitated more rapid bone regeneration in better quality in peri-implant bone defects than BMP2 and BMP7 homodimers. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Robust Bio-Signal Based Control of an Intelligent Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyi Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive human-machine interaction (HMI method that is based on surface electromyography (sEMG signals is proposed for the hands-free control of an intelligent wheelchair. sEMG signals generated by the facial movements are obtained by a convenient dry electrodes sensing device. After the signals features are extracted from the autoregressive model, control data samples are updated and trained by an incremental online learning algorithm in real-time. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the classification accuracy and training speed. Moreover, this method can effectively reduce the influence of muscle fatigue during a long time operation of sEMG-based HMI.

  9. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozanski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Many digital control circuits in current literature are described using analog transmittance. This may not always be acceptable, especially if the sampling frequency and power transistor switching frequencies are close to the band of interest. Therefore, a digital circuit is considered as a digital controller rather than an analog circuit. This helps to avoid errors and instability in high frequency components. Digital Signal Processing in Power Electronics Control Circuits covers problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using

  10. Delays at signalized intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  11. Evaluating the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    stored combustible waste were sampled from four Danish landfills. The waste was characterized in terms of physical characteristics (TS, VS, TC and TOC) and the BMP was analyzed in batch tests. The experiment was set up in triplicate, including blank and control tests. Waste samples were incubated at 55 C...

  12. Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7 in the Modulation of Corneal Stromal and Epithelial Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani S. Kowtharapu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the cornea, healing of the wounded avascular surface is an intricate process comprising the involvement of epithelial, stromal and neuronal cell interactions. These interactions result to the release of various growth factors that play prominent roles during corneal wound healing response. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are unique multi-functional potent growth factors of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily. Treatment of corneal epithelial cells with substance P and nerve growth factor resulted to an increase in the expression of BMP7 mRNA. Since BMP7 is known to modulate the process of corneal wound healing, in this present study, we investigated the influence of exogenous rhBMP7 on human corneal epithelial cell and stromal cell (SFs function. To obtain a high-fidelity expression profiling of activated biomarkers and pathways, transcriptome-wide gene-level expression profiling of epithelial cells in the presence of BMP7 was performed. Gene ontology analysis shows BMP7 stimulation activated TGF-β signaling and cell cycle pathways, whereas biological processes related to cell cycle, microtubule and intermediate filament cytoskeleton organization were significantly impacted in corneal epithelial cells. Scratch wound healing assay showed increased motility and migration of BMP7 treated epithelial cells. BMP7 stimulation studies show activation of MAPK cascade proteins in epithelial cells and SFs. Similarly, a difference in the expression of claudin, Zink finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 was observed along with phosphorylation levels of cofilin in epithelial cells. Stimulation of SFs with BMP7 activated them with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, an elevated phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor following BMP7 stimulation was also observed both in corneal epithelial cells and SFs. Based on our transcriptome analysis data on epithelial cells and the results obtained in SFs, we

  13. Separate development of the maxilla and mandible is controlled by regional signaling of the maxillomandibular junction during avian development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Hye-Jin; Park, Tae-Jin; Piao, Zhenngu; Lee, Sang-Hwy

    2017-01-01

    Syngnathia is a congenital craniofacial disorder characterized by bony or soft tissue fusion of upper and lower jaws. Previous studies suggested some causative signals, such as Foxc1 or Bmp4, cause the disruption of maxillomandibular identity, but their location and the interactive signals involved remain unexplored. We wanted to examine the embryonic origin of syngnathia based on the assumption that it may be located at the separation between the maxillary and mandibular processes. This region, known as the maxillomandibular junction (MMJ), is involved in segregation of cranial neural crest-derived mesenchyme into the presumptive upper and lower jaws. Here we investigated the role of Fgf, Bmp, and retinoid signaling during development of MMJ in chicken embryos. By changing the levels of these signals with bead implants, we induced syngnathia with microstomia on the treated side, which showed increased Barx1 and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression. Redistribution of proliferating cells was also observed at the proximal region to maxillary and mandibular arch around MMJ. We propose that interactive molecular signaling by Fgfs, Bmps, and retinoids around MMJ is required for normal separation of the maxilla and mandible, as well as the proper positioning of beak commissure during early facial morphogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 246:28-40, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Inter-vehicle gap statistics on signal-controlled crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krbalek, Milan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a microscopical structure in a chain of cars waiting at a red signal on signal-controlled crossroads. A one-dimensional space-continuous thermodynamical model leading to an excellent agreement with the data measured is presented. Moreover, we demonstrate that an inter-vehicle spacing distribution disclosed in relevant traffic data agrees with the thermal-balance distribution of particles in the thermodynamical traffic gas (discussed in [1]) with a high inverse temperature (corresponding to a strong traffic congestion). Therefore, as we affirm, such a system of stationary cars can be understood as a specific state of the traffic sample operating inside a congested traffic stream

  15. Route-Based Signal Preemption Control of Emergency Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Mu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the signal preemption control of emergency vehicles (EV. A signal preemption control method based on route is proposed to reduce time delay of EV at intersections. According to the time at which EV is detected and the current phase of each intersection on the travelling route of EV, the calculation methods of the earliest start time and the latest start time of green light at each intersection are given. Consequently, the effective time range of green light at each intersection is determined in theory. A multiobjective programming model, whose objectives are the minimal residence time of EV at all intersections and the maximal passing numbers of general society vehicles, is presented. Finally, a simulation calculation is carried out. Calculation results indicate that, by adopting the signal preemption method based on route, the delay of EV is reduced and the number of society vehicles passing through the whole system is increased. The signal preemption control method of EV based on route can reduce the time delay of EV and improve the evacuation efficiency of the system.

  16. BMP-7 enhances cell migration and αvβ3 integrin expression via a c-Src-dependent pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Chieh Chen

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenic protein (BMP-7 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF-beta superfamily, which is originally identified based on its ability to induce cartilage and bone formation. In recent years, BMP-7 is also defined as a potent promoter of cell motility, invasion, and metastasis. However, there is little knowledge of the role of BMP-7 and its cellular function in chondrosarcoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the biological impact of BMP-7 on cell motility using transwell assay. In addition, the intracellular signaling pathways were also investigated by pharmacological and genetic approaches. Our results demonstrated that treatment with exogenous BMP-7 markedly increased cell migration by activating c-Src/PI3K/Akt/IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in the transactivation of αvβ3 integrin expression. Indeed, abrogation of signaling activation, by chemical inhibition or expression of a kinase dead form of the protein attenuated BMP-7-induced expression of integrin αvβ3 and cell migration. These findings may provide a useful tool for diagnostic/prognostic purposes and even therapeutically in late-stage chondrosarcoma as an anti-metastatic agent.

  17. Development of remote control software for multiformat test signal generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The multi format test signal generator mentioned in this paper is the video signal generator named TG8000 produced by Tektronix Company. I will introduce the function about remote control for signal generator, how to connect the computer to the instrument, and how to remote control. My topic uses my computer to connect the instrument through the 10/100/1000 BASE-T port on the rear panel of TG8000. Then I write program to transmit SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments to control TG8000. The application is running on the Windows operating system, the programming language is C#, development environment is Microsoft Visual Studio 2010, using the TCP/IP protocol based on Socket. And the method of remote control refers to the application called TGSetup which is developed by Tektronix Company. This paper includes a brief summary of the basic principle, and introduce for details about the process of remote control software development, and how to use my software. In the end, I will talk about the advantages of my software compared with another one.

  18. Repair of Cranial Bone Defects Using rhBMP2 and Submicron Particle of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Ceramics with Through-Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Chul Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently a submicron particle of biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (BCP with through-hole (donut-shaped BCP (d-BCP was developed for improving the osteoconductivity. This study was performed to examine the usefulness of d-BCP for the delivery of osteoinductive rhBMP2 and the effectiveness on cranial bone regeneration. The d-BCP was soaked in rhBMP2 solution and then freeze-dried. Scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and Raman spectroscopy analyses confirmed that rhBMP2 was well delivered onto the d-BCP surface and the through-hole. The bioactivity of the rhBMP2/d-BCP composite was validated in MC3T3-E1 cells as an in vitro model and in critical-sized cranial defects in C57BL/6 mice. When freeze-dried d-BCPs with rhBMP2 were placed in transwell inserts and suspended above MC3T3-E1, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast-specific gene expression were increased compared to non-rhBMP2-containing d-BCPs. For evaluating in vivo effectiveness, freeze-dried d-BCPs with or without rhBMP2 were implanted into critical-sized cranial defects. Microcomputed tomography and histologic analysis showed that rhBMP2-containing d-BCPs significantly enhanced cranial bone regeneration compared to non-rhBMP2-containing control. These results suggest that a combination of d-BCP and rhBMP2 can accelerate bone regeneration, and this could be used to develop therapeutic strategies in hard tissue healing.

  19. Repair of Cranial Bone Defects Using rhBMP2 and Submicron Particle of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Ceramics with Through-Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Byung-Chul; Choi, Hyuck; Hur, Sung-Woong; Kim, Jung-Woo; Oh, Sin-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Seung; Song, Soo-Chang; Lee, Keun-Bae; Park, Kwang-Bum; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Recently a submicron particle of biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (BCP) with through-hole (donut-shaped BCP (d-BCP)) was developed for improving the osteoconductivity. This study was performed to examine the usefulness of d-BCP for the delivery of osteoinductive rhBMP2 and the effectiveness on cranial bone regeneration. The d-BCP was soaked in rhBMP2 solution and then freeze-dried. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy analyses confirmed that rhBMP2 was well delivered onto the d-BCP surface and the through-hole. The bioactivity of the rhBMP2/d-BCP composite was validated in MC3T3-E1 cells as an in vitro model and in critical-sized cranial defects in C57BL/6 mice. When freeze-dried d-BCPs with rhBMP2 were placed in transwell inserts and suspended above MC3T3-E1, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast-specific gene expression were increased compared to non-rhBMP2-containing d-BCPs. For evaluating in vivo effectiveness, freeze-dried d-BCPs with or without rhBMP2 were implanted into critical-sized cranial defects. Microcomputed tomography and histologic analysis showed that rhBMP2-containing d-BCPs significantly enhanced cranial bone regeneration compared to non-rhBMP2-containing control. These results suggest that a combination of d-BCP and rhBMP2 can accelerate bone regeneration, and this could be used to develop therapeutic strategies in hard tissue healing.

  20. Digital control card based on digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Shigang; Yin Zhiguo; Xia Le

    2008-01-01

    A digital control card based on digital signal processor was developed. Two Freescale DSP-56303 processors were utilized to achieve 3 channels proportional- integral-differential regulations. The card offers high flexibility for 100 MeV cyclotron RF system development. It was used as feedback controller in low level radio frequency control prototype, with the feedback gain parameters continuously adjustable. By using high precision analog to digital converter with 500 kHz sampling rate, a regulation bandwidth of 20 kHz was achieved. (authors)

  1. MSX2 stimulates chondrocyte maturation by controlling Ihh expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Katsuhiko; Ichida, Fumitaka; Sugita, Atsushi; Hata, Kenji; Wada, Masahiro; Takigawa, Yoko; Nakanishi, Masako; Kogo, Mikihiko; Nishimura, Riko; Yoneda, Toshiyuki

    2008-10-24

    Several studies indicated that a homeobox gene, Msx2, is implicated in regulation of skeletal development by controlling enchondral ossification as well as membranous ossification. However, the molecular basis by which Msx2 conducts chondrogenesis is currently unclear. In this study, we examined the role of Msx2 in chondrocyte differentiation using mouse primary chondrocytes and embryonic metatarsal explants. Treatment with BMP2 up-regulated the expression of Msx2 mRNA along with chondrocyte differentiation in murine primary chondrocytes. Overexpression of wild-type Msx2 stimulated calcification of primary chondrocytes in the presence of BMP2. We also found that constitutively active Msx2 (caMsx2) enhanced BMP2-dependent calcification more efficiently than wild-type Msx2. Consistently, caMsx2 overexpression up-regulated the expression of alkaline phosphatase and collagen type X induced by BMP2. Furthermore, organ culture experiments using mouse embryonic metatarsals indicated that caMsx2 clearly stimulated the maturation of chondrocytes into the prehypertrophic and hypertrophic stages in the presence of BMP2. In contrast, knockdown of Msx2 inhibited maturation of primary chondrocytes. The stimulatory effect of Msx2 on chondrocyte maturation was enhanced by overexpression of Smad1 and Smad4 but inhibited by Smad6, an inhibitory Smad for BMP2 signaling. These data suggest that Msx2 requires BMP2/Smad signaling for its chondrogenic action. In addition, caMsx2 overexpression induced Ihh (Indian hedgehog) expression in mouse primary chondrocytes. Importantly, treatment with cyclopamine, a specific inhibitor for hedgehogs, blocked Msx2-induced chondrogenesis. Collectively, our results indicated that Msx2 promotes the maturation of chondrocytes, at least in part, through up-regulating Ihh expression.

  2. Injectable perlecan domain 1-hyaluronan microgels potentiate the cartilage repair effect of BMP2 in a murine model of early osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Padma P; McCoy, Sarah Y; Yang Weidong; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B; Jha, Amit K; Jia Xinqiao

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to use bioengineered injectable microgels to enhance the action of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and stimulate cartilage matrix repair in a reversible animal model of osteoarthritis (OA). A module of perlecan (PlnD1) bearing heparan sulfate (HS) chains was covalently immobilized to hyaluronic acid (HA) microgels for the controlled release of BMP2 in vivo. Articular cartilage damage was induced in mice using a reversible model of experimental OA and was treated by intra-articular injection of PlnD1-HA particles with BMP2 bound to HS. Control injections consisted of BMP2-free PlnD1-HA particles, HA particles, free BMP2 or saline. Knees dissected following these injections were analyzed using histological, immunostaining and gene expression approaches. Our results show that knees treated with PlnD1-HA/BMP2 had lesser OA-like damage compared to control knees. In addition, the PlnD1-HA/BMP2-treated knees had higher mRNA levels encoding for type II collagen, proteoglycans and xylosyltransferase 1, a rate-limiting anabolic enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan chains, relative to control knees (PlnD1-HA). This finding was paralleled by enhanced levels of aggrecan in the articular cartilage of PlnD1-HA/BMP2-treated knees. Additionally, decreases in the mRNA levels encoding for cartilage-degrading enzymes and type X collagen were seen relative to controls. In conclusion, PlnD1-HA microgels constitute a formulation improvement compared to HA for efficient in vivo delivery and stimulation of proteoglycan and cartilage matrix synthesis in mouse articular cartilage. Ultimately, PlnD1-HA/BMP2 may serve as an injectable therapeutic agent for slowing or inhibiting the onset of OA after knee injury.

  3. Attitude Control of a Satellite by using Digital Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adirelle C. Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article has discussed the development of a three-axis attitude digital controller for an artificial satellite using a digital signal processor. The main motivation of this study is the attitude control system of the satellite Multi-Mission Platform, developed by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research for application in different sort of missions. The controller design was based on the theory of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator, synthesized from the linearized model of the motion of the satellite, i.e., the kinematics and dynamics of attitude. The attitude actuators considered in this study are pairs of cold gas jets powered by a pulse width/pulse frequency modulator. In the first stage of the project development, a system controller for continuous time was studied with the aim of testing the adequacy of the adopted control. The next steps had included an analysis of discretization techniques, the setting time of sampling rate, and the testing of the digital version of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator controller in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. To fulfill the study, the controller was implemented in a digital signal processor, specifically the Blackfin BF537 from Analog Devices, along with the pulse width/pulse frequency modulator. The validation tests used a scheme of co-simulation, where the model of the satellite was simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK, while the controller and modulator were processed in the digital signal processor with a tool called Processor-In-the-Loop, which acted as a data communication link between both environments.function and required time to achieve a given mission accuracy are determined, and results are provided as illustration.

  4. Metastatic function of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells: The role of PI3K/AKT, MAPK, the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and MMP-9 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myoung Hee [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Cheul [Division of Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Joo [Department of Pathology, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Han Na; Kim, Jung Lim [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Suk [Division of Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young A., E-mail: ydanbi@korea.ac.kr [Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedical Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastatic progression in various types of cancer cells, but the role and cellular mechanism in the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells is not known. Herein, we determined the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in BMP-2-mediated metastatic function in gastric cancer. We found that stimulation of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. Accompanying activation of AKT and ERK kinase, BMP-2 also enhanced phosphorylation/degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and the nuclear translocation/activation of NF-{kappa}B. Interestingly, blockade of PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling using LY294002 and PD98059, respectively, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced motility and invasiveness in association with the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Furthermore, BMP-2-induced MMP-9 expression and enzymatic activity was also significantly blocked by treatment with PI3K/AKT, ERK, or NF-{kappa}B inhibitors. Immunohistochemistry staining of 178 gastric tumor biopsies indicated that expression of BMP-2 and MMP-9 had a significant positive correlation with lymph node metastasis and a poor prognosis. These results indicate that the BMP-2 signaling pathway enhances tumor metastasis in gastric cancer by sequential activation of the PI3K/AKT or MAPK pathway followed by the induction of NF-{kappa}B and MMP-9 activity, indicating that BMP-2 has the potential to be a therapeutic molecular target to decrease metastasis.

  5. BMP4 and LGL1 are Down Regulated in an Ovine Model of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eEmmerton-Coughlin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: The molecular pathophysiology of lung hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH remains poorly understood. The Wnt signaling pathway and downstream targets, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP 4 and other factors such as late gestation lung protein 1 (LGL1, are essential to normal lung development. Nitrofen-induced hypoplastic CDH rodent lungs demonstrate down regulation of the Wnt pathway including BMP4 and reduced LGL1 expression. The aim of the current study was to examine the molecular pathophysiology associated with a surgically induced CDH in an ovine model. Methods: Left thoracotomy was performed at 80 days in 14 fetal sheep; CDH was created in 7 experimental animals. Lungs were harvested at 136 days (term=145d. Lung weight and mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD were measured to determine the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia. Quantitative real time PCR was undertaken to analyze Wnt2, Wnt7b, BMP4 and LGL1 mRNA expression. Results: Total lung weight was decreased while MTBD was increased in the CDH group (p<0.05, confirming pulmonary hypoplasia. BMP4 and LGL1 mRNA was significantly reduced in CDH lungs (p<0.05. Wnt2 mRNA was decreased, although not significantly (p<0.06. Conclusions: For the first time, down regulation of BMP4 and Lgl1 are reported in an ovine CDH model. In contrast to other animal models, these changes are persistent to near term. These findings suggest that mechanical compression from herniated viscera may play a more important role in causing pulmonary hypoplasia in CDH, rather than a primary defect in lung organogenesis.

  6. FireSignal application Node for subsystem control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, A.S.; Santos, B.; Pereira, T.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Neto, A.; Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Pisacka, J.; Hron, M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern fusion experiments require the presence of several subsystems, responsible for the different parameters involved in the operation of the machine. With the migration from the pre-programmed to the real-time control paradigm, their integration in Control, Data Acquisition, and Communication (CODAC) systems became an important issue, as this implies not only the connection to a main central coordination system, but also communications with related diagnostics and actuators. A subsystem for the control and operation of the vacuum, gas injection and baking was developed and installed in the COMPASS tokamak. These tasks are performed by dsPIC microcontrollers that receive commands from a hub computer and send information regarding the status of the operation. Communications are done in the serial protocol RS-232 through fibre optics. Java software, with an intuitive graphical user interface, for controlling and monitoring of the subsystem was developed and installed in a hub computer. In order to allow operators to perform these tasks remotely besides locally, this was integrated in the FireSignal system. Taking advantage of FireSignal features, it was possible to provide the users with, not only the same functionalities of the local application but also a similar user interface. An independent FireSignal Java Node bridges the central server and the control application. This design makes possible to easily reuse the Node for other subsystems or integrate the vacuum slow control in the other CODAC systems. The complete system, with local and remote control, has been installed successfully on COMPASS and has been in operation since April this year.

  7. FireSignal Application Node for Subsystem Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, A.; Santos, B.; Pereira, T.; Carvalho, B.; Fernandes, H. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Cahyna, P.; Pisacka, J.; Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-01

    Modern fusion experiments require the presence of several sub-systems, responsible for the different parameters involved in the operation of the machine. With the migration from the pre-programmed to the real-time control paradigm, their integration in Control, Data Acquisition, and Communication (CODAC) systems became an important issue, as this implies not only the connection to a main central coordination system, but also communications with related diagnostics and actuators. A sub-system for the control and operation of the vacuum, gas injection and baking was developed and installed in the COMPASS tokamak. These tasks are performed by 'dsPIC' micro-controllers that receive commands from a computer and send information regarding the status of the operation. Communications are done in the serial protocol RS-232 through fibre optics at speeds up to 1 Mbaud. A Java software, with an intuitive graphical user interface, for controlling and monitoring the sub-system was developed and installed in a hub computer. In order to allow operators to perform these tasks remotely besides locally, this was integrated in the FireSignal system. Taking advantage of FireSignal features, it was possible to provide the users with, not only the same functionalities of the local application but also a similar user interface. An independent FireSignal Java node bridges the central server and the control application. This design makes possible to easily reuse the node for other subsystems or integrate the vacuum slow control in the other CODAC systems. This document is composed of an abstract and a poster. (authors)

  8. DFB laser array driver circuit controlled by adjustable signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weikang; Du, Yinchao; Guo, Yu; Li, Wei; Wang, Hao

    2018-01-01

    In order to achieve the intelligent controlling of DFB laser array, this paper presents the design of an intelligence and high precision numerical controlling electric circuit. The system takes MCU and FPGA as the main control chip, with compact, high-efficiency, no impact, switching protection characteristics. The output of the DFB laser array can be determined by an external adjustable signal. The system transforms the analog control model into a digital control model, which improves the performance of the driver. The system can monitor the temperature and current of DFB laser array in real time. The output precision of the current can reach ± 0.1mA, which ensures the stable and reliable operation of the DFB laser array. Such a driver can benefit the flexible usage of the DFB laser array.

  9. Hedonic and incentive signals for body weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egecioglu, Emil; Skibicka, Karolina P; Hansson, Caroline; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Friberg, P Anders; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Engel, Jörgen A; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2011-09-01

    Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain's reward system in the regulation of body weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable/rewarding foods, reflecting an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular 'incentive salience theory' of food reward recognises not only a hedonic/pleasure component ('liking') but also an incentive motivation component ('wanting' or 'reward-seeking'). Central to the neurobiology of the reward mechanism is the mesoaccumbal dopamine system that confers incentive motivation not only for natural rewards such as food but also by artificial rewards (eg. addictive drugs). Indeed, this mesoaccumbal dopamine system receives and integrates information about the incentive (rewarding) value of foods with information about metabolic status. Problematic over-eating likely reflects a changing balance in the control exerted by hypothalamic versus reward circuits and/or it could reflect an allostatic shift in the hedonic set point for food reward. Certainly, for obesity to prevail, metabolic satiety signals such as leptin and insulin fail to regain control of appetitive brain networks, including those involved in food reward. On the other hand, metabolic control could reflect increased signalling by the stomach-derived orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We have shown that ghrelin activates the mesoaccumbal dopamine system and that central ghrelin signalling is required for reward from both chemical drugs (eg alcohol) and also from palatable food. Future therapies for problematic over-eating and obesity may include drugs that interfere with incentive motivation, such as ghrelin antagonists.

  10. DFIG turbine representation for small signal voltage control studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Jorge Martinez; Kjær, Philip Carne; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the representation of a wind power plant, based on wound rotor asynchronous generators, with a centralized voltage controller, by an equivalent transfer function, valid for small signal voltage control studies. This representation allows to investigate the influence...... introduced recently by several grid codes from around the world, making important to analyze this control when applied to wind power plants. The performance of the equivalent transfer function has been evaluated and compared using an equivalent grid with different short circuit ratios and active power...... of the centralized plant control gain and short circuit ratio on the system stability, for instance, by analyzing the zero-pole placement. Larger percentages of wind power penetration translate to more demanding requirements coming from the grid codes, for example voltage support at the point of connection has been...

  11. Positive and negative peptide signals control stomatal density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomoo; Sugano, Shigeo S; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2011-06-01

    The stoma is a micro valve found on aerial plant organs that promotes gas exchange between the atmosphere and the plant body. Each stoma is formed by a strict cell lineage during the early stages of leaf development. Molecular genetics research using the model plant Arabidopsis has revealed the genes involved in stomatal differentiation. Cysteine-rich secretory peptides of the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) family play crucial roles as extracellular signaling factors. Stomatal development is orchestrated by the positive factor STOMAGEN/EPFL9 and the negative factors EPF1, EPF2, and CHALLAH/EPFL6 in combination with multiple receptors. EPF1 and EPF2 are produced in the stomatal lineage cells of the epidermis, whereas STOMAGEN and CHALLAH are derived from the inner tissues. These findings highlight the complex cell-to-cell and intertissue communications that regulate stomatal development. To optimize gas exchange, particularly the balance between the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and loss of water, plants control stomatal activity in response to environmental conditions. The CO(2) level and light intensity influence stomatal density. Plants sense environmental cues in mature leaves and adjust the stomatal density of newly forming leaves, indicating the involvement of long-distance systemic signaling. This review summarizes recent research progress in the peptide signaling of stomatal development and discusses the evolutionary model of the signaling machinery.

  12. BMP9 inhibits proliferation and metastasis of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells through ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Liu, Yuehong; Wan, Shaoheng; Fei, Chang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yingying; Zhang, Zhihui; Wang, Ting; Wang, Jinshu; Zhou, Lan; Weng, Yaguang; He, Tongchuan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), a member of TGF-β superfamily, is reported to inhibit the growth and migration of prostate cancer, osteosarcoma and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. However, little is known about the effect of on the biological behaviors of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BMP9 on the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression or BMP9 down-regulated expression. Results indicated that exogenously expressed BMP9 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells while decreased endogenous BMP9 expression in SK-BR-3 cells promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression, the phosphorylation of HER2, ERK1/2 and AKT was markedly suppressed and the HER2 expression decreased at both mRNA and protein levels, while opposite results were observed in SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 knock down. When the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT was inhibited by PD98059 and LY294002, respectively, the decreased proliferation and invasion induced by BMP9 knock down were eliminated. These findings suggest that BMP9 can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells via inactivating ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Thus, BMP9 may serve as a useful agent in the treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer.

  13. sEMG Signal Acquisition Strategy towards Hand FES Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Lourdes Toledo-Peral

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to damage of the nervous system, patients experience impediments in their daily life: severe fatigue, tremor or impaired hand dexterity, hemiparesis, or hemiplegia. Surface electromyography (sEMG signal analysis is used to identify motion; however, standardization of electrode placement and classification of sEMG patterns are major challenges. This paper describes a technique used to acquire sEMG signals for five hand motion patterns from six able-bodied subjects using an array of recording and stimulation electrodes placed on the forearm and its effects over functional electrical stimulation (FES and volitional sEMG combinations, in order to eventually control a sEMG-driven FES neuroprosthesis for upper limb rehabilitation. A two-part protocol was performed. First, personalized templates to place eight sEMG bipolar channels were designed; with these data, a universal template, called forearm electrode set (FELT, was built. Second, volitional and evoked movements were recorded during FES application. 95% classification accuracy was achieved using two sessions per movement. With the FELT, it was possible to perform FES and sEMG recordings simultaneously. Also, it was possible to extract the volitional and evoked sEMG from the raw signal, which is highly important for closed-loop FES control.

  14. Differentiation of Odontoblast-Like Cells From Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Pax9 and Bmp4 Transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Daisuke; Takeshita, Nobuo; Oyanagi, Toshihito; Sasaki, Shutaro; Takano, Ikuko; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2015-09-01

    The field of tooth regeneration has progressed in recent years, and human tooth regeneration could become viable in the future. Because induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into odontogenic cells given appropriate conditions, iPS cells are a potential cell source for tooth regeneration. However, a definitive method to induce iPS cell-derived odontogenic cells has not been established. We describe a novel method of odontoblast differentiation from iPS cells using gene transfection. We generated mouse iPS cell-derived neural crest-like cells (iNCLCs), which exhibited neural crest markers. Next, we differentiated iNCLCs into odontoblast-like cells by transfection of Pax9 and Bmp4 expression plasmids. Exogenous Pax9 upregulated expression of Msx1 and dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1) in iNCLCs but not bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) or dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp). Exogenous Bmp4 upregulated expression of Msx1, Dmp1, and Dspp in iNCLCs, but not Pax9. Moreover, cotransfection of Pax9 and Bmp4 plasmids in iNCLCs revealed a higher expression of Pax9 than when Pax9 plasmid was used alone. In contrast, exogenous Pax9 downregulated Bmp4 overexpression. Cotransfection of Pax9 and Bmp4 synergistically upregulated Dmp1 expression; however, Pax9 overexpression downregulated exogenous Bmp4-induced Dspp expression. Together, these findings suggest that an interaction between exogenous Pax9- and Bmp4-induced signaling modulated Dmp1 and Dspp expression. In conclusion, transfection of Pax9 and Bmp4 expression plasmids in iNCLCs induced gene expression associated with odontoblast differentiation, suggesting that iNCLCs differentiated into odontoblast-like cells. The iPS cell-derived odontoblast-like cells could be a useful cell source for tooth regeneration. It has been reported that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells differentiate into odontogenic cells by administration of recombinant growth factors and coculture with odontogenic cells. Therefore, they can

  15. Differential gene expression profiling of human adipose stem cells differentiating into smooth muscle-like cells by TGFβ1/BMP4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elçin, Ayşe Eser; Parmaksiz, Mahmut; Dogan, Arin; Seker, Sukran; Durkut, Serap; Dalva, Klara; Elçin, Yaşar Murat, E-mail: elcinmurat@gmail.com

    2017-03-15

    Regenerative repair of the vascular system is challenging from the perspectives of translational medicine and tissue engineering. There are fundamental hurdles in front of creating bioartificial arteries, which involve recaputilation of the three-layered structure under laboratory settings. Obtaining and maintaining smooth muscle characteristics is an important limitation, as the transdifferentiated cells fail to display mature phenotype. This study aims to shed light on the smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). To this end, we first acquired hASCs from lipoaspirate samples. Upon characterization, the cells were induced to differentiate into smooth muscle (SM)-like cells using a variety of inducer combinations. Among all, TGFβ1/BMP4 combination had the highest differentiation efficiency, based on immunohistochemical analyses. hSM-like cell samples were compared to hASCs and to the positive control, human coronary artery-smooth muscle cells (hCA-SMCs) through gene transcription profiling. Microarray findings revealed the activation of gene groups that function in smooth muscle differentiation, signaling pathways, extracellular modeling and cell proliferation. Our results underline the effectiveness of the growth factors and suggest some potential variables for detecting the SM-like cell characteristics. Evidence in transcriptome level was used to evaluate the TGFβ1/BMP4 combination as a previously unexplored effector for the smooth muscle differentiation of adipose stem cells. - Highlights: • Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) were isolated, characterized and cultured. • Growth factor combinations were evaluated for their effectiveness in differentiation using IHC. • hASCs were differentiated into smooth muscle (SM)-like cells using TGF-β1 and BMP4 combination. • Microarray analysis was performed for hASCs, SM-like cells and coronary artery-SMCs. • Microarray data was used to perform hierarchical clustering and interpretation

  16. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte eCaarls

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between the hormone signaling pathways allows for fine tuning of transcriptional programs, determining resistance to invaders and trade-offs with plant development. Here, we give an overview of how SA can control transcriptional reprogramming of JA-induced genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. SA can influence activity and/or localization of transcriptional regulators by post-translational modifications of transcription factors and co-regulators. SA-induced redox changes, mediated by thioredoxins and glutaredoxins, modify transcriptional regulators that are involved in suppression of JA-dependent genes, such as NPR1 and TGA transcription factors, which affects their localization or DNA binding activity. Furthermore, SA can mediate sequestering of JA-responsive transcription factors away from their target genes by stalling them in the cytosol or in complexes with repressor proteins in the nucleus. SA also affects JA-induced transcription by inducing degradation of transcription factors with an activating role in JA signaling, as was shown for the ERF transcription factor ORA59. Additionally, SA can induce negative regulators, among which WRKY transcription factors, that can directly or indirectly inhibit JA-responsive gene expression. Finally, at the DNA level, modification of histones by SA-dependent factors can result in repression of JA-responsive genes. These diverse and complex regulatory mechanisms affect important signaling hubs in the integration of hormone signaling networks. Some pathogens have evolved effectors that highjack hormone crosstalk mechanisms for their own good, which are described in this review as well.

  17. Motor Preparation Disrupts Proactive Control in the Stop Signal Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the stop signal task (SST we employed Bayesian modeling to compute the estimated likelihood of stop signal or P(Stop trial by trial and identified regional processes of conflict anticipation and response slowing. A higher P(Stop is associated with prolonged go trial reaction time (goRT—a form of sequential effect—and reflects proactive control of motor response. However, some individuals do not demonstrate a sequential effect despite similar go and stop success (SS rates. We posited that motor preparation may disrupt proactive control more in certain individuals than others. Specifically, the time interval between trial and go signal onset—the fore-period (FP—varies across trials and a longer FP is associated with a higher level of motor preparation and shorter goRT. Greater motor preparatory activities may disrupt proactive control. To test this hypothesis, we compared brain activations and Granger causal connectivities of 81 adults who demonstrated a sequential effect (SEQ and 35 who did not (nSEQ. SEQ and nSEQ did not differ in regional activations to conflict anticipation, motor preparation, goRT slowing or goRT speeding. In contrast, SEQ and nSEQ demonstrated different patterns of Granger causal connectivities. P(Stop and FP activations shared reciprocal influence in SEQ but FP activities Granger caused P(Stop activities unidirectionally in nSEQ, and FP activities Granger caused goRT speeding activities in nSEQ but not SEQ. These findings support the hypothesis that motor preparation disrupts proactive control in nSEQ and provide direct neural evidence for interactive go and stop processes.

  18. Dorsoventral patterning by the Chordin-BMP pathway: a unified model from a pattern-formation perspective for Drosophila, vertebrates, sea urchins and Nematostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Conserved from Cnidarians to vertebrates, the dorsoventral (DV) axis is patterned by the Chordin-BMP pathway. However, the functions of the pathway's components are very different in different phyla. By modeling it is shown that many observations can be integrated by the assumption that BMP, acting as an inhibitory component in more ancestral systems, became a necessary and activating component for the generation of a secondary and antipodal-located signaling center. The different realizations seen in vertebrates, Drosophila, sea urchins and Nematostella allow reconstruction of a chain of modifications during evolution. BMP-signaling is proposed to be based on a pattern-forming reaction of the activator-depleted substrate type in which BMP-signaling acts via pSmad as the local self-enhancing component and the depletion of the highly mobile BMP-Chordin complex as the long-ranging antagonistic component. Due to the rapid removal of the BMP/Chordin complex during BMP-signaling, an oriented transport and "shuttling" results, although only ordinary diffusion is involved. The system can be self-organizing, allowing organizer formation even from near homogeneous initial situations. Organizers may regenerate after removal. Although connected with some losses of self-regulation, for large embryos as in amphibians, the employment of maternal determinants is an efficient strategy to make sure that only a single organizer of each type is generated. The generation of dorsoventral positional information along a long-extended anteroposterior (AP) axis cannot be achieved directly by a single patch-like organizer. Nature found different solutions for this task. Corresponding models provide a rationale for the well-known reversal in the dorsoventral patterning between vertebrates and insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bone marrow concentrate promotes bone regeneration with a suboptimal-dose of rhBMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Kazuhiro; Sumita, Yoshinori; Zhong, Weijian; I, Takashi; Ohba, Seigo; Nagai, Kazuhiro; Asahina, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow concentrate (BMC), which is enriched in mononuclear cells (MNCs) and platelets, has recently attracted the attention of clinicians as a new optional means for bone engineering. We previously reported that the osteoinductive effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) could be enhanced synergistically by co-transplantation of peripheral blood (PB)-derived platelet-rich plasma (PRP). This study aims to investigate whether BMC can effectively promote bone formation induced by low-dose BMP-2, thereby reducing the undesirable side-effects of BMP-2, compared to PRP. Human BMC was obtained from bone marrow aspirates using an automated blood separator. The BMC was then seeded onto β-TCP granules pre-adsorbed with a suboptimal-dose (minimum concentration to induce bone formation at 2 weeks in mice) of recombinant human (rh) BMP-2. These specimens were transplanted subcutaneously to the dorsal skin of immunodeficient-mice and the induction of ectopic bone formation was assessed 2 and 4 weeks post-transplantation. Transplantations of five other groups [PB, PRP, platelet-poor plasma (PPP), bone marrow aspirate (BM), and BM-PPP] were employed as experimental controls. Then, to clarify the effects on vertical bone augmentation, specimens from the six groups were transplanted for on-lay placement on the craniums of mice. The results indicated that BMC, which contained an approximately 2.5-fold increase in the number of MNCs compared to PRP, could accelerate ectopic bone formation until 2 weeks post-transplantation. On the cranium, the BMC group promoted bone augmentation with a suboptimal-dose of rhBMP-2 compared to other groups. Particularly in the BMC specimens harvested at 4 weeks, we observed newly formed bone surrounding the TCP granules at sites far from the calvarial bone. In conclusion, the addition of BMC could reduce the amount of rhBMP-2 by one-half via its synergistic effect on early-phase osteoinduction. We propose here that BMC transplantation

  20. Viability of Controlling Prosthetic Hand Utilizing Electroencephalograph (EEG) Dataset Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskon, Azizi; A/L Thanakodi, Suresh; Raihan Mazlan, Mohd; Mohd Haziq Azhar, Satria; Nooraya Mohd Tawil, Siti

    2016-11-01

    This project presents the development of an artificial hand controlled by Electroencephalograph (EEG) signal datasets for the prosthetic application. The EEG signal datasets were used as to improvise the way to control the prosthetic hand compared to the Electromyograph (EMG). The EMG has disadvantages to a person, who has not used the muscle for a long time and also to person with degenerative issues due to age factor. Thus, the EEG datasets found to be an alternative for EMG. The datasets used in this work were taken from Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Project. The datasets were already classified for open, close and combined movement operations. It served the purpose as an input to control the prosthetic hand by using an Interface system between Microsoft Visual Studio and Arduino. The obtained results reveal the prosthetic hand to be more efficient and faster in response to the EEG datasets with an additional LiPo (Lithium Polymer) battery attached to the prosthetic. Some limitations were also identified in terms of the hand movements, weight of the prosthetic, and the suggestions to improve were concluded in this paper. Overall, the objective of this paper were achieved when the prosthetic hand found to be feasible in operation utilizing the EEG datasets.

  1. FireSignal - Data Acquisition and Control System Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Duarte, A.; Carvalho, B.; Sousa, J.; Valcarcel, D.; Varandas, C.; Hron, M.

    2006-01-01

    Control of fusion devices requires good, non-ambiguous, easy to use user-interfaces to configure hardware devices. To solve this problem a highly generic system for data control and acquisition has been developed. Among the main features it allows remote hardware configuration, shot launching, data sharing between connected users and experiment monitoring. The system is fully distributed: the hardware driver nodes, clients and server are completely independent from each other and might be running in different operating systems and programmed in different languages. All the communication is provided through the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) protocol. FireSignal was designed from the beginning to be as independent as possible from any kind of constraints as it's a plugin based system. Database, data viewers and the security system are some examples of what can easily be changed and adapted to the target machine's needs. All hardware is described in eXtendend Markup Language (XML) and from this information the FireSignal client application can build automatically Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) and validate the user's parameter configuration. Any type of hardware can be integrated in the system as long as it is described in XML and the respective driver is developed. Any modern programming language can be used to develop these drivers, and currently we use Python and Java generic drivers. All data storage and indexing is time stamped event-based s. Nodes are responsible for tagging the acquired samples with the absolute time stamps and to react to machine events. FireSignal is currently being used to control the ISTTOK/PT and CASTOR/CZ tokamaks. (author)

  2. Effect of Emdogain enamel matrix derivative and BMP-2 on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim M; Dörfer, Christof; Ungefroren, Hendrick; Kassem, Neemat; Wiltfang, Jörg; Paris, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain (Enamel Matrix Derivative, EMD) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2), either solely or in combination, on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells. Stem/progenitor cells were isolated from human alveolar bone proper, magnetically sorted using STRO-1 antibodies, characterized flowcytometrically for their surface markers' expression, and examined for colony formation and multilineage differentiation potential. Subsequently, cells were treated over three weeks with 100 μg/ml Emdogain (EMD-Group), or 100 ng/ml BMP-2 (BMP-Group), or a combination of 100 ng/ml BMP-2 and 100 μg/ml Emdogain (BMP/EMD-Group). Unstimulated stem/progenitor cells (MACS(+)-Group) and osteoblasts (OB-Group) served as controls. Osteogenic gene expression was analyzed using RTq-PCR after 1, 2 and 3 weeks (N = 3/group). Mineralized nodule formation was evaluated by Alizarin-Red staining. BMP and EMD up-regulated the osteogenic gene expression. The BMP Group showed significantly higher expression of Collagen-I, III, and V, Alkaline phosphatase and Osteonectin compared to MACS(+)- and OB-Group (p < 0.05; Two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni) with no mineralized nodule formation. Under in-vitro conditions, Emdogain and BMP-2 up-regulate the osteogenic gene expression of stem/progenitor cells. The combination of BMP-2 and Emdogain showed no additive effect and would not be recommended for a combined clinical stimulation. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The other side of cardiac Ca2+ signaling: transcriptional control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eDomínguez-Rodríquez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+ is probably the most versatile signal transduction element used by all cell types. In the heart, it is essential to activate cellular contraction in each heartbeat. Nevertheless Ca2+ is not only a key element in excitation-contraction coupling (EC coupling, but it is also a pivotal second messenger in cardiac signal transduction, being able to control processes such as excitability, metabolism, and transcriptional regulation. Regarding the latter, Ca2+ activates Ca2+-dependent transcription factors by a process called excitation-transcription coupling (ET coupling. ET coupling is an integrated process by which the common signaling pathways that regulate EC coupling activate transcription factors. Although ET coupling has been extensively studied in neurons and other cell types, less is known in cardiac muscle. Some hints have been found in studies on the development of cardiac hypertrophy, where two Ca2+-dependent enzymes are key actors: Ca2+/Calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII and phosphatase calcineurin, both of which are activated by the complex Ca2+/ /Calmodulin. The question now is how ET coupling occurs in cardiomyocytes, where intracellular Ca2+ is continuously oscillating. In this focused review, we will draw attention to location of Ca2+ signaling: intranuclear ([Ca2+]n or cytoplasmic ([Ca2+]c, and the specific ionic channels involved in the activation of cardiac ET coupling. Specifically, we will highlight the role of the 1,4,5 inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs in the elevation of [Ca2+]n levels, which are important to locally activate CaMKII, and the role of transient receptor potential channels canonical (TRPCs in [Ca2+]c, needed to activate calcineurin.

  4. Microparticle-Mediated Delivery of BMP4 for Generation of Meiosis-Competent Germ Cells from Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Fereshteh; Ashtiani, Mohammad Kazemi; Sharifi-Tabar, Mehdi; Saber, Maryam; Daemi, Hamed; Ghanian, Mohammad Hossein; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Baharvand, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Producing meiosis-competent germ cells (GCs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is essential for developing advanced therapies for infertility. Here, a novel approach is presented for generation of GCs from ESCs. In this regard, microparticles (MPs) have been developed from alginate sulfate loaded with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). The results here show that BMP4 release from alginate sulfate MPs is significantly retarded by the sulfated groups compared to neat alginate. Then, BMP4-laden MPs are incorporated within the aggregates during differentiation of GCs from ESCs. It is observed that BMP4-laden MPs increase GC differentiation from ESCs at least twofold compared to the conventional soluble delivery method. Interestingly, following meiosis induction, Dazl, an intrinsic factor that enables GCs to enter meiosis, and two essential meiosis genes (Stra8 and Smc1b) are upregulated significantly in MP-induced aggregates compared to aggregates, which are formed by the conventional method. Together, these data show that controlled delivery of BMP4 during ESC differentiation into GC establish meiosis-competent GCs which can serve as an attractive GC source for reproductive medicine. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [miRNA profile of the human dental pulp cells during odontoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Li-Rong; Zhao, Wen-Qing; Lin, Tian; Lu, Yan-Ling; Wu, Yu

    2017-10-01

    To screen and verify the differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) during the differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) to odontoblasts induced by BMP-2. The isolated hDPCs were cultured in vitro and induced by BMP-2. The levels of ALP, DMP-1 and DSPP were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The potential characteristics of hDPCs were investigated by miRNA microarray and highly expressed miRNAs were selected with bio-information software for predicting target genes and their biological functions. Then the results were validated using qRT-PCR analysis for the selected miRNAs. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0 software package. The expression of ALP, DSPP, and DMP-1 showed significantly higher levels in BMP-2 induced groups compared to the control group(Pfunction(33%), while the function of other 0.2% genes remained unknown. This study identified differential expression of miRNAs in BMP-2-induced odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs, thus contributing to further investigations of regulatory mechanisms and biological effect of target genes in BMP-2-induced odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs.

  6. Differential phosphorylation of Smad1 integrates BMP and neurotrophin pathways through Erk/Dusp in axon development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Mattéa J; Murphy, Kevin J; Chen, Lei; Zou, Hongyan

    2013-05-30

    Sensory axon development requires concerted actions of growth factors for the precise control of axonal outgrowth and target innervation. How developing sensory neurons integrate different cues is poorly understood. We demonstrate here that Smad1 activation is required for neurotrophin-mediated sensory axon growth in vitro and in vivo. Through differential phosphorylation, Smad1 exerts transcriptional selectivity to regulate the expression and activity of Erk1 and Erk2-two key neurotrophin effectors. Specifically, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signal through carboxy-terminal phosphorylation of Smad1 (pSmad1C) to induce Erk1/2 transcription for enhanced neurotrophin responsiveness. Meanwhile, neurotrophin signaling results in linker phosphorylation of Smad1 (pSmad1L), which in turn upregulates an Erk-specific dual-specificity phosphatase, Dusp6, leading to reduced pErk1/2 and constituting a negative-feedback loop for the prevention of axon overgrowth. Together, the BMP and neurotrophin pathways form a tightly regulated signaling network with a balanced ratio of Erk1/2 and pErk1/2 to direct the precise connections between sensory neurons and peripheral targets. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. FireSignal-Data acquisition and control system software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: andre.neto@cfn.ist.utl.pt; Fernandes, H.; Duarte, A.; Carvalho, B.B.; Sousa, J.; Valcarcel, D.F. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hron, M. [Asociace EURATOM IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Varandas, C.A.F. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2007-10-15

    Control of fusion experiments requires non-ambiguous, easy to use, user-interfaces to configure hardware devices. With that aim, a highly generic system for data control and acquisition has been developed. Among the main features it allows remote hardware configuration, shot launching, data sharing between connected users and experiment monitoring. The system is fully distributed: the hardware driver nodes, clients and servers are completely independent from each other and might run in different operating systems and programmed in different languages. All the communication is provided through the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) protocol. FireSignal is designed to be as independent as possible from any kind of constraints as it is a plugin based system. Database, data viewers and the security system are some examples of what can easily be changed and adapted to the target machine's needs. In this system, every hardware is described in eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and with this information Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) are automatically built and user's parameter configuration validated. Any type of hardware device can be integrated in the system as long as it is described in XML and the respective driver developed. Any modern programming language can be used to develop these drivers. Currently Python and Java generic drivers are used. Data storage and indexing is time stamp event-based. Nodes are responsible for tagging the acquired samples with the absolute time stamps and to react to machine events. FireSignal is currently being used to control the ISTTOK/PT and CASTOR/CZ tokamaks.

  8. FireSignal-Data acquisition and control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Duarte, A.; Carvalho, B.B.; Sousa, J.; Valcarcel, D.F.; Hron, M.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2007-01-01

    Control of fusion experiments requires non-ambiguous, easy to use, user-interfaces to configure hardware devices. With that aim, a highly generic system for data control and acquisition has been developed. Among the main features it allows remote hardware configuration, shot launching, data sharing between connected users and experiment monitoring. The system is fully distributed: the hardware driver nodes, clients and servers are completely independent from each other and might run in different operating systems and programmed in different languages. All the communication is provided through the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) protocol. FireSignal is designed to be as independent as possible from any kind of constraints as it is a plugin based system. Database, data viewers and the security system are some examples of what can easily be changed and adapted to the target machine's needs. In this system, every hardware is described in eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and with this information Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) are automatically built and user's parameter configuration validated. Any type of hardware device can be integrated in the system as long as it is described in XML and the respective driver developed. Any modern programming language can be used to develop these drivers. Currently Python and Java generic drivers are used. Data storage and indexing is time stamp event-based. Nodes are responsible for tagging the acquired samples with the absolute time stamps and to react to machine events. FireSignal is currently being used to control the ISTTOK/PT and CASTOR/CZ tokamaks

  9. Exogenous BMP7 in aortae of rats with chronic uremia ameliorates expression of profibrotic genes, but does not reverse established vascular calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eva; Lerche Mace, Maria; Nordholm, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification are frequent complications of chronic renal failure and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) has been shown to protect against development of vascular calcification in uremia. The present investigation examined the potential reversibility of established...... uremic vascular calcification by treatment of uremic rats with BMP7. A control model of isogenic transplantation of a calcified aorta from uremic rats into healthy littermates examined whether normalization of the uremic environment reversed vascular calcification. Uremia and vascular calcification were...... induced in rats by 5/6 nephrectomy, high phosphate diet and alfacalcidol treatment. After 14 weeks severe vascular calcification was present and rats were allocated to BMP7, vehicle or aorta transplantation. BMP7 treatment caused a significant decrease of plasma phosphate to 1.56 ± 0.17 mmol/L vs 2.06 ± 0...

  10. BMP antagonism by Noggin is required in presumptive notochord cells for mammalian foregut morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausett, Sarah R; Brunet, Lisa J; Klingensmith, John

    2014-07-01

    Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is a serious human birth defect, in which the esophagus ends before reaching the stomach, and is aberrantly connected with the trachea. Several mouse models of EA/TEF have recently demonstrated that proper dorsal/ventral (D/V) patterning of the primitive anterior foregut endoderm is essential for correct compartmentalization of the trachea and esophagus. Here we elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the EA/TEF that occurs in mice lacking the BMP antagonist Noggin, which display correct dorsal/ventral patterning. To clarify the mechanism of this malformation, we use spatiotemporal manipulation of Noggin and BMP receptor 1A conditional alleles during foregut development. Surprisingly, we find that the expression of Noggin in the compartmentalizing endoderm is not required to generate distinct tracheal and esophageal tubes. Instead, we show that Noggin and BMP signaling attenuation are required in the early notochord to correctly resolve notochord cells from the dorsal foregut endoderm, which in turn, appears to be a prerequisite for foregut compartmentalization. Collectively, our findings support an emerging model for a mechanism underlying EA/TEF in which impaired notochord resolution from the early endoderm causes the foregut to be hypo-cellular just prior to the critical period of compartmentalization. Our further characterizations suggest that Noggin may regulate a cell rearrangement process that involves reciprocal E-cadherin and Zeb1 expression in the resolving notochord cells. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Signalling and the control of skeletal muscle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Anthony; Patel, Ketan

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is highly adaptive to environmental stimuli and can alter its mass accordingly. This tissue is almost unique in that it can increase its size through two distinct mechanisms. It can grow through a cellular process mediated by cell fusion, or it can increase its size simply by increasing its protein content. Understanding how these processes are regulated is crucial for the development of potential therapies against debilitating skeletal muscle wasting diseases. Two key signalling molecules, Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF) and GDF-8/myostatin, have emerged in recent years to be potent regulators of skeletal muscle size. In this review we bring together recent data highlighting the important and novel aspects of both molecules and their signalling pathways, culminating in a discussion of the cellular and tissue phenotypic outcomes of their stimulation or antagonism. We emphasise the complex regulatory mechanisms and discuss the temporal and spatial differences that control their action, understanding of which is crucial to further their use as potential therapeutic targets.

  12. Signalling and the control of skeletal muscle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Anthony [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom); Patel, Ketan, E-mail: ketan.patel@reading.ac.uk [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is highly adaptive to environmental stimuli and can alter its mass accordingly. This tissue is almost unique in that it can increase its size through two distinct mechanisms. It can grow through a cellular process mediated by cell fusion, or it can increase its size simply by increasing its protein content. Understanding how these processes are regulated is crucial for the development of potential therapies against debilitating skeletal muscle wasting diseases. Two key signalling molecules, Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF) and GDF-8/myostatin, have emerged in recent years to be potent regulators of skeletal muscle size. In this review we bring together recent data highlighting the important and novel aspects of both molecules and their signalling pathways, culminating in a discussion of the cellular and tissue phenotypic outcomes of their stimulation or antagonism. We emphasise the complex regulatory mechanisms and discuss the temporal and spatial differences that control their action, understanding of which is crucial to further their use as potential therapeutic targets.

  13. Enhanced Bone Formation in Segmental Defects with BMP2 in a Biologically Relevant Molecular Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-16

    interfere with the biological activity of the BMP2, and because radioisotope detection methods are highly sensitive and remain quantitative across a large...PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dominik R. Haudenschild CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California, Davis Davis, CA 95618 REPORT DATE : October 2016...control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015

  14. FireSignal application Node for subsystem control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duarte, A.S.; Santos, B.; Pereira, T.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Neto, A.; Janky, Filip; Cahyna, Pavel; Písačka, Jan; Hron, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 85, 3-4 (2010), s. 496-499 ISSN 0920-3796. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Control , Data Acquisition and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/7th./. Aix – en – Provence, 15.06.2009-19.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Subsystems * CODAC * FireSignal * Java * Remote operation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V3C-4YYGPR8-4&_user=6542793&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000070123&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6542793&md5=899631b6e2f4d05b21b04bde3cfb8e65&searchtype=a

  15. Signal processing and control challenges for smart vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Braun, Simon G.

    2017-03-01

    Smart phones have changed not only the mobile phone market but also our society during the past few years. Could the next potential intelligent device may be the vehicle? Judging by the visibility, in all media, of the numerous attempts to develop autonomous vehicles, this is certainly one of the logical outcomes. Smart vehicles would be equipped with an advanced operating system such that the vehicles could communicate with others, optimize the operation to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, enhance safety, or even become self-driving. These combined new features of vehicles require instrumentation and hardware developments, fast signal processing/fusion, decision making and online optimization. Meanwhile, the inevitable increasing system complexity would certainly challenges the control unit design.

  16. Enhancing Raman signals with an interferometrically controlled AFM tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oron-Carl, Matti; Krupke, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the upgrade of a commercial confocal Raman microscope into a tip-enhanced Raman microscope/spectroscopy system (TERS) by integrating an interferometrically controlled atomic force microscope into the base of an existing upright microscope to provide near-field detection and thus signal enhancement. The feasibility of the system is demonstrated by measuring the Raman near-field enhancement on thin PEDOT:PSS films and on carbon nanotubes within a device geometry. An enhancement factor of 2–3 and of 5–6 is observed, respectively. Moreover, on a nanotube device we show local conductivity measurement and its correlation to Raman and topography recordings. Upgrading an existing upright confocal Raman microscope in the demonstrated way is significantly cheaper than purchasing a complete commercial TERS system. (paper)

  17. Functional expression of BMP7 receptors in oral epithelial cells. Interleukin-17F production in response to BMP7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kensuke; Ozawa, Yasumasa; Ito, Hisanori; Kifune, Takashi; Narita, Tatsuya; Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Gionhaku, Nobuhito; Asano, Masatake

    2017-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Recently, BMP7 has been demonstrated to be produced by salivary glands and contribute to embryonic branching in mice. The BMP7 in saliva is thought to be delivered to the oral cavity and is expected to contact with stratified squamous epithelial cells which line the surface of oral mucosa. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of BMP7 on oral epithelial cells. The expression of BMP receptors was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). OSCCs were stimulated with human recombinant BMP7 (hrBMP7) and the phosphorylation status of Smad1/5/8 was examined by western blotting. For microarray analysis, Ca9-22 cells were stimulated with 100 ng/mL of hrBMP7 and total RNA was extracted and subjected to real-time PCR. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of IL-17 F gene was cloned to pGL4-basic vector and used for luciferase assay. Ca9-22 cells were pre-incubated with DM3189, a specific inhibitor of Smad1/5/8, for inhibition assay. All isoforms of type I and type II BMP receptors were expressed in both Ca9-22 and HSC3 cells and BMP7 stimulation resulted in the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in both cell lines. The microarray analysis revealed the induction of interleukin-17 F (IL-17 F), netrin G2 (NTNG2) and hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1). Luciferase assay using the 5'-UTR of the IL-17 F gene revealed transcriptional regulation. Induced IL-17 F production was further confirmed at the protein level by ELISA. Smad1/5/8 inhibitor pretreatment decreased IL-17 F expression levels in the cells.

  18. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling interacts differentially with Ihh signaling in controlling endochondral bone and synovial joint formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kingston Kinglun; Chen, Miao-Hsueh; Day, Timothy F; Chuang, Pao-Tien; Yang, Yingzi

    2006-09-01

    Both the Wnt/beta-catenin and Ihh signaling pathways play essential roles in crucial aspects of endochondral ossification: osteoblast differentiation, chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. To understand the genetic interaction between these two signaling pathways, we have inactivated the beta-catenin gene and upregulated Ihh signaling simultaneously in the same cells during endochondral skeletal development using beta-catenin and patched 1 floxed alleles. We uncovered previously unexpected roles of Ihh signaling in synovial joint formation and the essential function of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in regulating chondrocyte survival. More importantly, we found that Wnt and Ihh signaling interact with each other in distinct ways to control osteoblast differentiation, chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, survival and synovial joint formation in the developing endochondral bone. Beta-catenin is required downstream of Ihh signaling and osterix expression for osteoblast differentiation. But in chondrocyte survival, beta-catenin is required upstream of Ihh signaling to inhibit chondrocyte apoptosis. In addition, Ihh signaling can inhibit chondrocyte hypertrophy and synovial joint formation independently of beta-catenin. However, there is a strong synergistic interaction between Wnt/beta-catenin and Ihh signaling in regulating synovial joint formation.

  19. Myocardial Tbx20 regulates early atrioventricular canal formation and endocardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Bmp2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoqiang; Nomura-Kitabayashi, Aya; Cai, Weibin; Yan, Jianyun; Christoffels, Vincent M; Cai, Chen-Leng

    2011-12-15

    During early embryogenesis, the formation of the cardiac atrioventricular canal (AVC) facilitates the transition of the heart from a linear tube into a chambered organ. However, the genetic pathways underlying this developmental process are poorly understood. The T-box transcription factor Tbx20 is expressed predominantly in the AVC of early heart tube. It was shown that Tbx20 activates Nmyc1 and suppresses Tbx2 expression to promote proliferation and specification of the atrial and ventricular chambers, yet it is not known if Tbx20 is involved in early AVC development. Here, we report that mice lacking Tbx20 in the AVC myocardium fail to form the AVC constriction, and the endocardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is severely perturbed. Tbx20 maintains expression of a variety of genes, including Bmp2, Tbx3 and Hand1 in the AVC myocardium. Intriguingly, we found Bmp2 downstream genes involved in the EMT initiation are also downregulated. In addition, re-expression of Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium substantially rescues the EMT defects resulting from the lack of Tbx20, suggesting Bmp2 is one of the key downstream targets of Tbx20 in AVC development. Our data support a complex signaling network with Tbx20 suppressing Tbx2 in the AVC myocardium but also indirectly promoting Tbx2 expression through Bmp2. The spatiotemporal expression of Tbx2 in the AVC appears to be balanced between these two opposing signals. Overall, our study provides genetic evidence that Tbx20 has essential roles in regulating AVC development that coordinate early cardiac chamber formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptive Traffic Signal Control: Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithm with Experience Replay and Target Network

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Juntao; Shen, Yulong; Liu, Jia; Ito, Minoru; Shiratori, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive traffic signal control, which adjusts traffic signal timing according to real-time traffic, has been shown to be an effective method to reduce traffic congestion. Available works on adaptive traffic signal control make responsive traffic signal control decisions based on human-crafted features (e.g. vehicle queue length). However, human-crafted features are abstractions of raw traffic data (e.g., position and speed of vehicles), which ignore some useful traffic information and lead t...

  1. Antisense targeting of TGF-β1 augments BMP-induced upregulation of osteopontin, type I collagen and Cbfa1 in human Saos-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhong-Jian; Kook Kim, Sang; Youn Jun, Do; Park, Wan; Ho Kim, Young; Malter, James S.; Jo Moon, Byung

    2007-01-01

    Despite commonalities in signal transduction in osteoblasts from different species, the role of TGF-β1 on bone formation remains elusive. In particular, the role of autocrine TGF-β1 on human osteoblasts is largely unknown. Here we show the effect of TGF-β1 knock-down on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts induced by BMP2. Treatment with antisense TGF-β1 moderately increased the rate of cell proliferation, which was completely reversed by the exogenous addition of TGF-β1. Notably, TGF-β1 blockade significantly enhanced BMP2-induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding osteopontin, type I collagen and Cbfa1, which was suppressed by exogenous TGF-β1. Moreover, TGF-β1 knock-down increased BMP2-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5 as well as their nuclear import, which paralleled a reduction of inhibitory Smad6. These data suggest autocrine TGF-β1 antagonizes BMP signaling through modulation of inducible Smad6 and the activity of BMP specific Smad1/5

  2. Time kinetics of bone defect healing in response to BMP-2 and GDF-5 characterised by in vivo biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Wulsten

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports that treatment of osseous defects with different growth factors initiates distinct rates of repair. We developed a new method for monitoring the progression of repair, based upon measuring the in vivo mechanical properties of healing bone. Two different members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP family were chosen to initiate defect healing: BMP-2 to induce osteogenesis, and growth-and-differentiation factor (GDF-5 to induce chondrogenesis. To evaluate bone healing, BMPs were implanted into stabilised 5 mm bone defects in rat femurs and compared to controls. During the first two weeks, in vivo biomechanical measurements showed similar values regardless of the treatment used. However, 2 weeks after surgery, the rhBMP-2 group had a substantial increase in stiffness, which was supported by the imaging modalities. Although the rhGDF-5 group showed comparable mechanical properties at 6 weeks as the rhBMP-2 group, the temporal development of regenerating tissues appeared different with rhGDF-5, resulting in a smaller callus and delayed tissue mineralisation. Moreover, histology showed the presence of cartilage in the rhGDF-5 group whereas the rhBMP-2 group had no cartilaginous tissue.Therefore, this study shows that rhBMP-2 and rhGDF-5 treated defects, under the same conditions, use distinct rates of bone healing as shown by the tissue mechanical properties. Furthermore, results showed that in vivo biomechanical method is capable of detecting differences in healing rate by means of change in callus stiffness due to tissue mineralisation.

  3. Adenoviral Mediated Expression of BMP2 by Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Cultured in 3D Copolymer Scaffolds Enhances Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Sapkota, Dipak; Xue, Ying; Sun, Yang; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Bruland, Ove; Mustafa, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Selection of appropriate osteoinductive growth factors, suitable delivery method and proper supportive scaffold are critical for a successful outcome in bone tissue engineering using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). This study examined the molecular and functional effect of a combination of adenoviral mediated expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in BMSC and recently developed and characterized, biodegradable Poly(L-lactide-co-є-caprolactone){poly(LLA-co-CL)}scaffolds in osteogenic molecular changes and ectopic bone formation by using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Pathway-focused custom PCR array, validation using TaqMan based quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and ALP staining showed significant up-regulation of several osteogenic and angiogenic molecules, including ALPL and RUNX2 in ad-BMP2 BMSC group grown in poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds both at 3 and 14 days. Micro CT and histological analyses of the subcutaneously implanted scaffolds in NOD/SCID mice revealed significantly increased radiopaque areas, percentage bone volume and formation of vital bone in ad-BMP2 scaffolds as compared to the control groups both at 2 and 8 weeks. The increased bone formation in the ad-BMP2 group in vivo was paralleled at the molecular level with concomitant over-expression of a number of osteogenic and angiogenic genes including ALPL, RUNX2, SPP1, ANGPT1. The increased bone formation in ad-BMP2 explants was not found to be associated with enhanced endochondral activity as evidenced by qRT-PCR (SOX9 and FGF2) and Safranin O staining. Taken together, combination of adenoviral mediated BMP-2 expression in BMSC grown in the newly developed poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds induced expression of osteogenic markers and enhanced bone formation in vivo.

  4. 3D bioprinting of BMSC-laden methacrylamide gelatin scaffolds with CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingchun; Chen, Bing; Meng, Qingyuan; Liu, Sumei; Zheng, Xiongfei; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Heran; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Nuo; Dai, Jianwu

    2015-12-18

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting combines biomaterials, cells and functional components into complex living tissues. Herein, we assembled function-control modules into cell-laden scaffolds using 3D bioprinting. A customized 3D printer was able to tune the microstructure of printed bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-laden methacrylamide gelatin scaffolds at the micrometer scale. For example, the pore size was adjusted to 282 ± 32 μm and 363 ± 60 μm. To match the requirements of the printing nozzle, collagen microfibers with a length of 22 ± 13 μm were prepared with a high-speed crusher. Collagen microfibers bound bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) with a collagen binding domain (CBD) as differentiation-control module, from which BMP2 was able to be controllably released. The differentiation behaviors of BMSCs in the printed scaffolds were compared in three microenvironments: samples without CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers in the growth medium, samples without microfibers in the osteogenic medium and samples with microfibers in the growth medium. The results indicated that BMSCs showed high cell viability (>90%) during printing; CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers induced BMSC differentiation into osteocytes within 14 days more efficiently than the osteogenic medium. Our studies suggest that these function-control modules are attractive biomaterials and have potential applications in 3D bioprinting.

  5. Chondrogenesis of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by TGFβ1 and BMP7 Through Increased TGFβ Receptor Expression and Endogenous TGFβ1 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick T; Li, Wan-Ju

    2017-01-01

    For decades stem cells have proven to be invaluable to the study of tissue development. More recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (ESC-MSCs) have emerged as a cell source with great potential for the future of biomedical research due to their enhanced proliferative capability compared to adult tissue-derived MSCs and effectiveness of musculoskeletal lineage-specific cell differentiation compared to ESCs. We have previously compared the properties and differentiation potential of ESC-MSCs to bone marrow-derived MSCs. In this study, we evaluated the potential of TGFβ1 and BMP7 to induce chondrogenic differentiation of ESC-MSCs compared to that of TGFβ1 alone and further investigated the cellular phenotype and intracellular signaling in response to these induction conditions. Our results showed that the expression of cartilage-associated markers in ESC-MSCs induced by the TGFβ1 and BMP7 combination was increased compared to induction with TGFβ1 alone. The TGFβ1 and BMP7 combination upregulated the expression of TGFβ receptor and the production of endogenous TGFβs compared to TGFβ1 induction. The growth factor combination also increasingly activated both of the TGF and BMP signaling pathways, and inhibition of the signaling pathways led to reduced chondrogenesis of ESC-MSCs. Our findings suggest that by adding BMP7 to TGFβ1-supplemented induction medium, ESC-MSC chondrogenesis is upregulated through increased production of endogenous TGFβ and activities of TGFβ and BMP signaling. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 172-181, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to the biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, the full experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experi...

  7. Functionalization of deproteinized bovine bone with a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2 renders the material efficiently osteoinductive and suppresses foreign-body reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Hunziker, Ernst B; Zheng, Yuanna; Wismeijer, Daniel; Liu, Yuelian

    2011-12-01

    The repair of critical-sized bony defects remains a challenge in the fields of implantology, maxillofacial surgery and orthopaedics. As an alternative bone-defect filler to autologous bone grafts, deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) is highly osteoconductive and clinically now widely used. However, this product suffers from the disadvantage of not being intrinsically osteoinductive. In the present study, this property was conferred by coating DBB with a layer of calcium phosphate into which bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was incorporated. Granules of DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2--together with the appropriate controls (DBB bearing a coating but no BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing adsorbed BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing no BMP-2)--were implanted subcutaneously in rats. Five weeks later, the implants were withdrawn for a histomorphometric analysis of the volume densities of (i) bone, (ii) bone marrow, (iii) foreign-body giant cells and (iv) fibrous capsular tissue. Parameters (i) and (ii) were highest, whilst parameters (iii) and (iv) were lowest in association with DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2. Hence, this mode of functionalization not only confers DBB with the property of osteoinductivity but also improves its biocompatibility--thus dually enhancing its clinical potential in the repair of bony defects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. BMP4 density gradient in disk-shaped confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgui, Behnaz; Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    We present a quantitative model that explains the scaling of BMP4 gradients during gastrulation and the recent experimental observation that geometric confinement of human embryonic stem cells is sufficient to recapitulate much of germ layer patterning. Based on a assumption that BMP4 diffusion rate is much smaller than the diffusion rate of it's inhibitor molecules, our results confirm that the length-scale which defines germ layer territories does not depend on system size.

  9. Comparative expression analyses of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) expressions in muscles of tilapia and common carp indicate that BMP4 plays a role in the intermuscular bone distribution in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengyan; Dong, Zaijie

    2018-01-01

    Intermuscular bones in fish negatively influence both meet processing and attractiveness to consumers. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are both major farmed fish species globally, but whereas the former does not possess intermuscular bones, the latter does. Therefore, these two species might present a good model to study the genetic control of distribution of intermuscular bones in fish. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) gene is associated with tissue ossification and bone regeneration in mammals, but in fish its role in ossification remains understudied. To study the relationship between BMP4 and bone distribution in fish, we determined the expression of BMP4 in muscle tissues of common carp and tilapia on transcriptional and translational levels. As the gene has been merely predicted in silico from the genome of common carp, we have cloned and characterized it. The gene (GenBank: HQ446455) contains one intron and two exons, which encode a 400-amino acid protein with high homology to other known BMP4 protein sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that common carp clustered within the Cypriniformes clade (zebrafish was the closest ortholog) and tilapia within the Percomorpha clade. Using microCT scanning, we confirmed that intermuscular bones could be observed only in common carp (none in tilapia), but only in dorsal and caudal muscles (none in the ventral muscle). Expression levels of BMP4 in the muscles of common carp were in agreement with this observation both on transcriptional (qPCR) and translational (immunohistochemistry) level: higher in dorsal and caudal muscles, and lower in the ventral muscle. In tilapia, expression of BMP4 gene was also detectable in all three muscles, but expression levels in all three muscles were comparable to the one observed in the ventral muscle of carp, i.e., very low. Therefore, among the six studied muscles, the expression of BMP4 was high only in the two that possess intermuscular bones

  10. Release and Cytokine Production of BmpB from BmpB-Loaded pH-Sensitive and Mucoadhesive Thiolated Eudragit Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijay; Jiang, Tao; Kim, You-Kyoung; Kang, Sang-Kee; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2015-01-01

    Swine dysentery is a contagious mucohaemorrhagic colitis of pigs that is caused by anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Recently, an outer membrane lipoprotein of B. hyodysenteriae (BmpB) has been identified, and the mice or pigs immunized with a recombinant BmpB generated antibodies recognizing the native BmpB of B. hyodysenteriae. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified BmpB protein from E. coli and used it as a vaccine candidate for oral delivery. The BmpB was encapsulated into the pH-sensitive and thiolated Eudragit microspheres (TEMS). The sizes of the microspheres ranged from 5-20 μ. About 22-34% of BmpB were released from the BmpB-loaded TEMS within 24 h at stomach pH 2.0 whereas the release of BmpB from the BmpB-loaded TEMS was 35% in the first one hour and reached 81% within 24 h at intestinal pH 7.2. These data revealed that the BmpB could be protected in the harsh gastric condition. Mucoadhesive experiment in vitro showed that TEMS have high binding affinity with the mucin glycoproteins of porcine intestine. Finally, in vitro production of cytokines from immune cells treated with the BmpB-loaded TEMS suggested that the TEMS would be a promising approach for oral delivery of BmpB as vaccine candidate.

  11. Diverse FGF receptor signaling controls astrocyte specification and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyungjun [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi-Ryoung, E-mail: msong@gist.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Bioimaging Research Center and Cell Dynamics Research Center, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-07

    During CNS development, pluripotency neuronal progenitor cells give rise in succession to neurons and glia. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a major signal that maintains neural progenitors in the undifferentiated state, is also thought to influence the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we present evidence that FGF receptors and underlying signaling pathways transmit the FGF-2 signals that regulate astrocyte specification aside from its mitogenic activity. Application of FGF-2 to cortical progenitors suppressed neurogenesis whereas treatment with an FGFR antagonist in vitro promoted neurogenesis. Introduction of chimeric FGFRs with mutated tyrosine residues into cortical progenitors and drug treatments to specifically block individual downstream signaling pathways revealed that the overall activity of FGFR rather than individual autophosphorylation sites is important for delivering signals for glial specification. In contrast, a signal for cell proliferation by FGFR was mainly delivered by MAPK pathway. Together our findings indicate that FGFR activity promotes astrocyte specification in the developing CNS.

  12. Diverse FGF receptor signaling controls astrocyte specification and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyungjun; Song, Mi-Ryoung

    2010-01-01

    During CNS development, pluripotency neuronal progenitor cells give rise in succession to neurons and glia. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a major signal that maintains neural progenitors in the undifferentiated state, is also thought to influence the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we present evidence that FGF receptors and underlying signaling pathways transmit the FGF-2 signals that regulate astrocyte specification aside from its mitogenic activity. Application of FGF-2 to cortical progenitors suppressed neurogenesis whereas treatment with an FGFR antagonist in vitro promoted neurogenesis. Introduction of chimeric FGFRs with mutated tyrosine residues into cortical progenitors and drug treatments to specifically block individual downstream signaling pathways revealed that the overall activity of FGFR rather than individual autophosphorylation sites is important for delivering signals for glial specification. In contrast, a signal for cell proliferation by FGFR was mainly delivered by MAPK pathway. Together our findings indicate that FGFR activity promotes astrocyte specification in the developing CNS.

  13. Kaempferol inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration by modulating BMP-mediated miR-21 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Sunghwan; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kang, Hara

    2015-09-01

    Bioflavonoids are known to induce cardioprotective effects by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit VSMC proliferation. However, little is known about the effect of kaempferol on VSMC migration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence that kaempferol inhibits VSMC migration by modulating the BMP4 signaling pathway and microRNA expression levels. Kaempferol activates the BMP signaling pathway, induces miR-21 expression and downregulates DOCK4, 5, and 7, leading to inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, kaempferol antagonizes the PDGF-mediated pro-migratory effect. Therefore, our study uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism of VSMC migration by kaempferol and suggests that miRNA modulation by kaempferol is a potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Twisted Gastrulation as a BMP Modulator during Mammary Gland Development and Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    tissues ( Bonilla -Claudio et al., 2012). In WT TEBs (Fig. 8A–D) and mature ducts (Fig. 8I–L) almost all luminal cells expressed GATA-3. In contrast, Twsg1...PubMed: 12952901] Bonilla -Claudio M, Wang J, Bai Y, Klysik E, Selever J, Martin JF. Bmp signaling regulates a dosedependent transcriptional...deficient mice. Arch Oral Biol. 2006; 51:433–8. [PubMed: 16289463] Metallo CM, Ji L, de Pablo JJ, Palecek SP. Retinoic Acid and Bone Morphogenetic

  15. Linear signal noise summer accurately determines and controls S/N ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundry, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    Linear signal noise summer precisely controls the relative power levels of signal and noise, and mixes them linearly in accurately known ratios. The S/N ratio accuracy and stability are greatly improved by this technique and are attained simultaneously.

  16. Signal validation with control-room information-processing computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belblidia, L.A.; Carlson, R.W.; Russell, J.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    One of the 'lessons learned' from the Three Mile Island accident focuses upon the need for a validated source of plant-status information in the control room. The utilization of computer-generated graphics to display the readings of the major plant instrumentation has introduced the capability of validating signals prior to their presentation to the reactor operations staff. The current operations philosophies allow the operator a quick look at the gauges to form an impression of the fraction of full scale as the basis for knowledge of the current plant conditions. After the introduction of a computer-based information-display system such as the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS), operational decisions can be based upon precise knowledge of the parameters that define the operation of the reactor and auxiliary systems. The principal impact of this system on the operator will be to remove the continuing concern for the validity of the instruments which provide the information that governs the operator's decisions. (author)

  17. Enhancement of Tendon–Bone Healing for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL Reconstruction Using Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Infected with BMP-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyi Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, due to the growing attention focused on the issue of tendon–bone healing, we carried out an animal study of the use of genetic intervention combined with cell transplantation for the promotion of this process. Here, the efficacy of bone marrow stromal cells infected with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 on tendon–bone healing was determined. A eukaryotic expression vector containing the BMP-2 gene was constructed and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs were infected with a lentivirus. Next, we examined the viability of the infected cells and the mRNA and protein levels of BMP-2-infected bMSCs. Gastrocnemius tendons, gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the control virus (bMSCs+Lv-Control, and gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the recombinant BMP-2 virus (bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 were used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL in New Zealand white rabbits. Specimens from each group were harvested four and eight weeks postoperatively and evaluated using biomechanical and histological methods. The bMSCs were infected with the lentivirus at an efficiency close to 100%. The BMP-2 mRNA and protein levels in bMSCs were significantly increased after lentiviral infection. The bMSCs and BMP-2-infected bMSCs on the gastrocnemius tendon improved the biomechanical properties of the graft in the bone tunnel; specifically, bMSCs infected with BMP-2 had a positive effect on tendon–bone healing. In the four-week and eight-week groups, bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group exhibited significantly higher maximum loads of 29.3 ± 7.4 N and 45.5 ± 11.9 N, respectively, compared with the control group (19.9 ± 6.4 N and 21.9 ± 4.9 N (P = 0.041 and P = 0.001, respectively. In the eight-week groups, the stiffness of the bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group (32.5 ± 7.3 was significantly higher than that of the bMSCs+Lv-Control group (22.8 ± 7.4 or control groups (12.4 ± 6.0 (p = 0.036 and 0.001, respectively. Based on the

  18. BMP4 and FGF3 haplotypes increase the risk of tendinopathy in volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, José Inácio; Amaral, Marcus Vinícius; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Lira, Daisy Anne; Quinelato, Valquiria; Bonato, Letícia Ladeira; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Vieira, Alexandre Rezende; Casado, Priscila Ladeira

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether genetic variants can be correlated with tendinopathy in elite male volleyball athletes. Case-control study. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms within BMP4, FGF3, FGF10, FGFR1 genes were investigated in 138 elite volleyball athletes, aged between 18 and 35 years, who undergo 4-5h of training per day: 52 with tendinopathy and 86 with no history of pain suggestive of tendinopathy in patellar, Achilles, shoulder, and hip abductors tendons. The clinical diagnostic criterion was progressive pain during training, confirmed by magnetic resonance image. Genomic DNA was obtained from saliva samples. Genetic markers were genotyped using TaqMan real-time PCR. Chi-square test compared genotypes and haplotype differences between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyzed the significance of covariates and incidence of tendinopathy. Statistical analysis revealed participant age (p=0.005) and years of practice (p=0.004) were risk factors for tendinopathy. A significant association between BMP4 rs2761884 (p=0.03) and tendinopathy was observed. Athletes with a polymorphic genotype have 2.4 times more susceptibility to tendinopathy (OR=2.39; 95%CI=1.10-5.19). Also, association between disease and haplotype TTGGA in BMP4 (p=0.01) was observed. The FGF3 TGGTA haplotype showed a tendency of association with tendinopathy (p=0.05), and so did FGF10 rs900379. FGFR1 showed no association with disease. These findings indicate that haplotypes in BMP4 and FGF3 genes may contribute to the tendon disease process in elite volleyball athletes. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Randomness control of vehicular motion through a sequence of traffic signals at irregular intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We study the regularization of irregular motion of a vehicle moving through the sequence of traffic signals with a disordered configuration. Each traffic signal is controlled by both cycle time and phase shift. The cycle time is the same for all signals, while the phase shift varies from signal to signal by synchronizing with intervals between a signal and the next signal. The nonlinear dynamic model of the vehicular motion is presented by the stochastic nonlinear map. The vehicle exhibits the very complex behavior with varying both cycle time and strength of irregular intervals. The irregular motion induced by the disordered configuration is regularized by adjusting the phase shift within the regularization regions.

  20. Interleukin 4: signalling mechanisms and control of T cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, W E

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic type I cytokine that controls both growth and differentiation among haemopoietic and non-haemopoietic cells. Its receptor is a heterodimer. One chain, the IL-4R alpha chain, binds IL-4 with high affinity and determines the nature of the biochemical signals that are induced. The second chain, gamma c, is required for the induction of such signals. IL-4-mediated growth depends upon activation events that involve phosphorylation of Y497 of IL-4R alpha, leading to the binding and phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 in haemopoietic cells and of IRS-1 in non-haemopoietic cells. By contrast, IL-4-mediated differentiation events depend upon more distal regions of the IL-4R alpha chain that include a series of STAT-6 binding sites. The distinctive roles of these receptor domains was verified by receptor-reconstruction experiments. The 'growth' and 'differentiation' domains of the IL-4R alpha chain, independently expressed as chimeric structures with a truncated version of the IL-2R beta chain, were shown to convey their functions to the hybrid receptor. The critical role of STAT-6 in IL-4-mediated gene activation and differentiation was made clear by the finding that lymphocytes from STAT-6 knockout mice are strikingly deficient in these functions but have retained the capacity to grow, at least partially, in response to IL-4. IL-4 plays a central role in determining the phenotype of naive CD4+ T cells. In the presence of IL-4, newly primed naive T cells develop into IL-4 producers while in its absence they preferentially become gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) producers. Recently, a specialized subpopulation of T cells, CD4+/NK1.1+ cells, has been shown to produce large amounts of IL-4 upon stimulation. Two examples of mice with deficiencies in these cells are described--beta 2-microglobulin knockout mice and SJL mice. Both show defects in the development of IL-4-producing cells and in the increase in serum IgE in response to stimulation with the

  1. Effect of early addition of bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) to embryo culture medium on in vitro development and expression of developmentally important genes in bovine preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Elina V; Miceli, Dora C; Rizo, Gabriela; Valdecantos, Pablo A; Barrera, Antonio D

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have reported that bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) is differentially expressed in the isthmus of bovine oviducts and it is present in the oviductal fluid. However, the specific action of this factor is unknown. To evaluate whether BMP5 exerts some effect during early bovine embryo development, gene expression of BMP5, BMP receptors, and the effect of exogenous BMP5 on in vitro development and expression of developmentally important genes were assessed. In experiment 1, pools of embryos at two-cell, four-cell, eight-cell, and blastocyst stages, derived from in vitro fertilization, were collected for analysis of BMP5 and BMP receptors (BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and BMPR2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. On the basis of previous results, in experiment 2, presumptive zygotes were cultured for the first 48 hours after insemination in CR1aa medium assaying three different treatments: (1) control (CR1aa); (2) vehicle control (CR1aa + 0.04 mM HCl), and (3) BMP5 treatment (CR1aa + 100 ng/mL of BMP5). The cleavage rate was evaluated 48 hours after insemination (Day 2), and then, embryos were transferred to CR1aa + 10% fetal bovine serum. The blastocyst rate was determined on Day 7. In experiment 3, pools of embryos at two-cell, four-cell, eight-cell, and blastocyst stages, derived from control and BMP5-treated groups, were collected for analysis of ID2 (BMP target gene), OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 (pluripotency genes) mRNA expression. BMP5 transcripts were not detectable in any of the embryonic stages examined, whereas the relative mRNA abundance of the three BMP receptors analyzed was greater in early embryo development stages before maternal-embryonic transition, raising the possibility of a direct effect of exogenous BMPs on the embryo during the first developmental period. Although early addition of 100 ng/mL of BMP5 to the embryo culture medium had no effect on the cleavage rate, a significantly higher proportion of cleaved embryos developed to the

  2. Utilization of excitation signal harmonics for control of nonlinear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Rasmussen, Henrik; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2012-01-01

    signal together with Fourier analysis to generate a feedback signal and simulations have shown that different system gains and time constants does not change the global equilibrium/operating point. An evaporator in a refrigeration system was used as example in the simulations, however, it is anticipated...... that the method is applicable in a wide variety of systems satisfying the sigmoid function properties....

  3. Automatic analysis of signals during Eddy currents controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiron, D.

    1983-06-01

    A method and the corresponding instrument have been developed for automatic analysis of Eddy currents testing signals. This apparatus enables at the same time the analysis, every 2 milliseconds, of two signals at two different frequencies. It can be used either on line with an Eddy Current testing instrument or with a magnetic tape recorder [fr

  4. Protein kinase C alpha controls erythropoietin receptor signaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. von Lindern (Marieke); M. Parren-Van Amelsvoort (Martine); T.B. van Dijk (Thamar); E. Deiner; B. Löwenberg (Bob); E. van den Akker (Emile); S. van Emst-de Vries (Sjenet); P.J. Willems (Patrick); H. Beug (Hartmut)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProtein kinase C (PKC) is implied in the activation of multiple targets of erythropoietin (Epo) signaling, but its exact role in Epo receptor (EpoR) signal transduction and in the regulation of erythroid proliferation and differentiation remained elusive. We

  5. Protein kinase C alpha controls erythropoietin receptor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Lindern, M.; Parren-van Amelsvoort, M.; van Dijk, T.; Deiner, E.; van den Akker, E.; van Emst-de Vries, S.; Willems, P.; Beug, H.; Löwenberg, B.

    2000-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is implied in the activation of multiple targets of erythropoietin (Epo) signaling, but its exact role in Epo receptor (EpoR) signal transduction and in the regulation of erythroid proliferation and differentiation remained elusive. We analyzed the effect of PKC inhibitors

  6. Transcription regulation of the vegf gene by the BMP/Smad pathway in the angioblast of zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chen; Chen Xiaozhuo

    2005-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a mitogen that is critically involved in vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis. However, what and how transcription factors participate in the regulation of vegf gene expression are not fully understood. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of the zebrafish vegf promoter which revealed that the promoter contains a number of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-activated Smad binding elements (SBE), implicating Smad1 and Smad5 in the regulation of BMP-induced expression of vegf. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of adding recombinant Smad proteins to the SBE-containing DNA oligonucleotides that represent portions of zebrafish vegf promoter resulted in mobility shift of the oligonucleotides. These changes demonstrate potential interactions between Smad1/5 and the vegf promoter. Reporter activity assays using the wild-type or SBE-deleted vegf promoters to drive the luciferase reporter gene expression revealed that Smad1 stimulated while Smad5 repressed the vegf promoter activity in zebrafish embryos. These data indicate that the BMP/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of zebrafish vegf transcription. In addition, we demonstrate that transgenic expression of human BMP4 in zebrafish embryos induced an expansion of the posterior intermediate cell mass (ICM, also commonly called blood island), a population of cells containing endothelial and hematopoietic precursors. In the expanded ICM, vegf and VEGF receptor 2 (flk-1) were ectopically co-expressed, suggesting that an autocrine/paracrine regulation of vegf expression may exist and contribute to the BMP-induced hemangiogenic cell proliferation

  7. Molecular characterization and expression profiling of BMP 3 gene in broiler and layer chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, Devara; Bhattacharya, Tarun Kumar; Gnana Prakash, Manthani; Chatterjee, R N; Shukla, Renu; Guru Vishnu, Pothana Boyina; Vinoth, Amirthalingam; Dushyanth, Kotha

    2018-04-10

    A study was carried out to characterize and explore the expression profile of BMP 3 gene in control broiler and control layer chicken. The total open reading frame of BMP 3 (1389 bp) was cloned and sequenced. The control broiler and control layer chicken showed variation at nucleotide and amino acid level with reference gene (Gallus gallus, NCBI Acc. No. NM_001034819). When compared to reference gene, the control broiler showed four nucleotide differences (c.192A>G, c.519C>T, 903G>A and 960C>G), while, control layer showed variation at c.33G>C, 192A>G, 858G>A, 904G>A, 960C>G and 1257C>T making six differences in total. However, between control broiler and control layer lines, nucleotide differences was observed at c.33G>C, 519T>C, 858G>A, 903A>G, 904G>A and 1257C>T. The change at amino acid level between reference and control broiler was p.D320N and with control layer chicken, it was p.D302N and p.D320N. On the other hand, a single amino acid difference (p.D302N) was observed between the control broiler and control layer chicken lines. The phylogenetic study displayed a close relationship between broiler and layer lines and reference gene and also with other avian species resulting in a cluster formation. These cluster in turn displayed a distant link with the mammalian species. The expression profile of BMP 3 gene exhibited a variation at different stages of embryonic development and also at post embryonic period among the lines with control layer showing higher expression than that of broiler chicken. The protein was also detected in bone marrow tissue of broiler and layer lines by western blotting. It is concluded that the BMP 3 gene sequence differed at nucleotide and amino acid level among the lines and the gene expressed differentially at different periods of embryonic development and also at post hatch period.

  8. Diffusible signal factor-dependent quorum sensing in pathogenic bacteria and its exploitation for disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, J M

    2017-01-01

    Cell-to-cell signals of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family are cis-2-unsaturated fatty acids of differing chain length and branching pattern. DSF signalling has been described in diverse bacteria to include plant and human pathogens where it acts to regulate functions such as biofilm formation, antibiotic tolerance and the production of virulence factors. DSF family signals can also participate in interspecies signalling with other bacteria and interkingdom signalling such as with the yeast Candida albicans. Interference with DSF signalling may afford new opportunities for the control of bacterial disease. Such strategies will depend in part on detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the processes of signal synthesis, perception and turnover. Here, I review both recent progress in understanding DSF signalling at the molecular level and prospects for translating this knowledge into approaches for disease control. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Intersection signal control multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanhong Zhou; Ming Cai

    2014-01-01

    A signal control intersection increases not only vehicle delay, but also vehicle emissions and fuel consumption in that area. Because more and more fuel and air pollution problems arise recently, an intersection signal control optimization method which aims at reducing vehicle emissions, fuel consumption and vehicle delay is required heavily. This paper proposed a signal control multi-object optimization method to reduce vehicle emissions, fuel consumption and vehicle delay simultaneously at ...

  10. A Two-Stage Fuzzy Logic Control Method of Traffic Signal Based on Traffic Urgency Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Ge

    2014-01-01

    City intersection traffic signal control is an important method to improve the efficiency of road network and alleviate traffic congestion. This paper researches traffic signal fuzzy control method on a single intersection. A two-stage traffic signal control method based on traffic urgency degree is proposed according to two-stage fuzzy inference on single intersection. At the first stage, calculate traffic urgency degree for all red phases using traffic urgency evaluation module and select t...

  11. Calculation of vehicle delay at signal-controlled intersections with adaptive traffic control algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronov Roman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By widely introducing information technology tools in the field of traffic control, it is possible to increase the capacity of hubs and reduce vehicle delays. Adaptive traffic light control is one of such tools. Its effectiveness can be assessed through traffic flow simulation. The aim of this study is to create a simulation model of a signal-controlled intersection that can be used to assess the effectiveness of adaptive control in various traffic situations, including the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic through an intersection. The model is based on a numerical experiment conducted using the Monte Carlo method. As a result of the study, vehicle delays, queue length and duration of traffic light cycles are calculated subject to different intensities of incoming traffic flows, and the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic.

  12. Generation of animal form by the Chordin/Tolloid/BMP gradient: 100 years after D'Arcy Thompson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Robertis, Edward M; Moriyama, Yuki; Colozza, Gabriele

    2017-09-01

    The classic book "On Growth and Form" by naturalist D'Arcy Thompson was published 100 years ago. To celebrate this landmark, we present experiments in the Xenopus embryo that provide a framework for understanding how simple, quantitative transformations of a morphogen gradient might have affected evolution and morphological diversity of organisms. D'Arcy Thompson proposed that different morphologies might be generated by modifying physical parameters in an underlying system of Cartesian coordinates that pre-existed in Nature and arose during evolutionary history. Chordin is a BMP antagonist secreted by the Spemann organizer located on the dorsal side of the gastrula. Chordin generates a morphogen gradient as first proposed by mathematician Alan Turing. The rate-limiting step of this dorsal-ventral (D-V) morphogen is the degradation of Chordin by the Tolloid metalloproteinase in the ventral side. Chordin is expressed at gastrula on the dorsal side where BMP signaling is low, while at the opposite side peak levels of BMP signaling are reached. In fishes, amphibians, reptiles and birds, high BMP signaling in the ventral region induces transcription of a secreted inhibitor of Tolloid called Sizzled. By depleting Sizzled exclusively in the ventral half of the embryo we were able to expand the ventro-posterior region in an otherwise normal embryo. Conversely, ventral depletion of Tolloid, which stabilizes Chordin, decreased ventral and tail structures, phenocopying the tolloid zebrafish mutation. We explain how historical constraints recorded in the language of DNA become subject to the universal laws of physics when an ancestral reaction-diffusion morphogen gradient dictates form. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  13. Stem cell signaling. An integral program for tissue renewal and regeneration : Wnt signaling and stem cell control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, Hans; Loh, Kyle M; Nusse, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells fuel tissue development, renewal, and regeneration, and these activities are controlled by the local stem cell microenvironment, the "niche." Wnt signals emanating from the niche can act as self-renewal factors for stem cells in multiple mammalian tissues. Wnt proteins are lipid-modified,

  14. Intrarenal purinergic signaling in the control of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Helle; Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2010-01-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells receive hormonal input that regulates volume and electrolyte homeostasis. In addition, numerous intrarenal, local signaling agonists have appeared on the stage of renal physiology. One such system is that of intrarenal purinergic signaling. This system involves all......-reaching advances indicate that ATP is often used as a local transmitter for classical sensory transduction. This transmission apparently also applies to sensory functions in the kidney. Locally released ATP is involved in sensing of renal tubular flow or in detecting the distal tubular load of NaCl at the macula...

  15. Decentralized Hierarchical Controller Design for Selective Damping of Inter Area Oscillations Using PMU Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaque Ahmed Hashmani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the decentralized hierarchical PSS (Power System Stabilizer controller design to achieve a better damping of specific inter-area oscillations. The two-level decentralized hierarchical structure consists of two PSS controllers. The first level controller is a local PSS controller for each generator to damp local mode in the area where controller is located. This controller uses only local signals as input signals. The local signal comes from the generator at which the controller is located. The secondary level controller is a multivariable decentralized global PSS controller to damp inter-area modes. This controller uses selected suitable wide area PMU (Phasor Measurement Units signals as inputs. The PMU or global signals are taken from network locations where the oscillations are well observable. The global controller uses only those global input signals in which the assigned single inter-area mode is most observable and is located at a generator that is most effective in controlling the assigned mode. The global controller works mainly in a frequency band given by the natural frequency of the assigned mode. The effectiveness of the resulting hierarchical controller is demonstrated through simulation studies conducted on a test power system.

  16. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, Lotte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371746213; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between

  17. Control of word processing environment using myoelectric signals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pošusta, Antonín; Sporka, A. J.; Poláček, O.; Rudolf, Š.; Otáhal, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2015), s. 299-311 ISSN 1783-7677 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : assistive technology * text input * myoelectric signals * user study Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2015

  18. Digital Signal Processing and Control for the Study of Gene Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to the digital revolution, digital signal processing and control has been widely used in many areas of science and engineering today. It provides practical and powerful tools to model, simulate, analyze, design, measure, and control complex and dynamic systems such as robots and aircrafts. Gene networks are also complex dynamic systems which can be studied via digital signal processing and control. Unlike conventional computational methods, this approach is capable of not only modeling but also controlling gene networks since the experimental environment is mostly digital today. The overall aim of this article is to introduce digital signal processing and control as a useful tool for the study of gene networks.

  19. Comparison of two different high performance mixed signal controllers for DC/DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how mixed signal controllers combining a cheap microcontroller with a simple analogue circuit can offer high performance digital control for DC/DC converters. Mixed signal controllers have the same versatility and performance as DSP based controllers. It is important to have...... an engineer experienced in microcontroller programming write the software algorithms to achieve optimal performance. Two mixed signal controller designs based on the same 8-bit microcontroller are compared both theoretically and experimentally. A 16-bit PID compensator with a sampling frequency of 200 k......Hz implemented in the 16 MIPS, 8-bit ATTiny26 microcontroller is demonstrated....

  20. Early changes in retinal structure and BMP2 expression in the retina and crystalline lens of streptozotocin-induced diabetic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Seung; Lee, Woon-Kyu; Moon, Yeon Sung; Kim, Na Rae

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate early changes in retinal structure and BMP2 expression in the retina and crystalline lens by comparing streptozotocin-induced diabetic pigs and normal control group pigs. Five eye samples from five diabetic Micro-pigs (Medikinetics, Pyeongtaek, Korea) and five eye samples from five control pigs bred in a specific pathogen-free area were used. Diabetes was developed through intravenous injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin, and the average fasting glucose level was maintained at 250 mg/dL or higher for 16 weeks. To evaluate BMP2 expression in the retina and crystalline lens, Western blotting was performed. In Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, most diabetic pigs showed structural abnormalities in the inner plexiform layer. The number of nuclei in the ganglion cell layer within the range of 10 4 µm 2 was 3.78±0.60 for diabetic pigs and 5.57±1.07 for control group pigs, showing a statistically significant difference. In immunohistochemical staining, diabetic retinas showed an overall increase in BMP2 expression. In Western blotting, the average BMP2/actin level of diabetic retinas was 1.19±0.05, showing a significant increase compared to the 1.06±0.03 of the control group retinas ( P =0.016). The BMP2/actin level of diabetic crystalline lenses was similar to the control group crystalline lenses ( P =0.730). Compared to control group pigs, the number of nuclei in the inner nuclear layer of retinas from streptozotocin-induced diabetic pigs decreased, while an increase in BMP2 expression was observed in the retina of diabetic pigs.

  1. Signal shape registration in the JINR synchrophasotron slowly extracted beam parameter control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.I.; Kulikov, I.I.; Romanov, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    Signal shape registration in the JINR synchrophasotron slowly estracted beam parameter control system on-line with the ES-1010 computer is described. 32 input signals can be connected to the registrator. The maximum measurement rate of signal shape registration is about 38 kHz. The registrator consists of 32-channel analog multiplexer, 10-bit analog-to-digital converter, 1024-word buffer memory and control circuits. For information representation the colour TV monitor is used

  2. 30 CFR 77.515 - Bare signal or control wires; voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bare signal or control wires; voltage. 77.515 Section 77.515 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.515 Bare signal or control wires; voltage. The voltage on...

  3. Best Management Practices (BMP) Monitoring Manual Field Guide: Implementation and Effectiveness for Protection of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Welsch; Roger Ryder; Tim Post

    2006-01-01

    The specific purpose of the BMP protocol is to create an economical, standardized, and repeatable BMP monitoring process that is completely automated, from data gathering through report generation, in order to provide measured data, ease of use, and compatibility with State BMP programs.The protocol was developed to meet the following needs:? Document the use and...

  4. Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 7 Regulates Reward Behavior by Controlling Opioid Signaling in the Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Laurie P; Ostrovskaya, Olga; Dao, Maria; Xie, Keqiang; Orlandi, Cesare; Smith, Roy; Wee, Sunmee; Martemyanov, Kirill A

    2016-08-01

    Morphine mediates its euphoric and analgesic effects by acting on the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). MOR belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors whose signaling efficiency is controlled by the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins. Our understanding of the molecular diversity of RGS proteins that control MOR signaling, their circuit specific actions, and underlying cellular mechanisms is very limited. We used genetic approaches to ablate regulator of G-protein signaling 7 (RGS7) both globally and in specific neuronal populations. We used conditioned place preference and self-administration paradigms to examine reward-related behavior and a battery of tests to assess analgesia, tolerance, and physical dependence to morphine. Electrophysiology approaches were applied to investigate the impact of RGS7 on morphine-induced alterations in neuronal excitability and plasticity of glutamatergic synapses. At least three animals were used for each assessment. Elimination of RGS7 enhanced reward, increased analgesia, delayed tolerance, and heightened withdrawal in response to morphine administration. RGS7 in striatal neurons was selectively responsible for determining the sensitivity of rewarding and reinforcing behaviors to morphine without affecting analgesia, tolerance, and withdrawal. In contrast, deletion of RGS7 in dopaminergic neurons did not influence morphine reward. RGS7 exerted its effects by controlling morphine-induced changes in excitability of medium spiny neurons in nucleus accumbens and gating the compositional plasticity of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. This study identifies RGS7 as a novel regulator of MOR signaling by dissecting its circuit specific actions and pinpointing its role in regulating morphine reward by controlling the activity of nucleus accumbens neurons. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Road Impedance Model Study under the Control of Intersection Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlin Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic impedance model is a difficult and critical point in urban traffic assignment and route guidance. The paper takes a signalized intersection as the research object. On the basis of traditional traffic wave theory including the implementation of traffic wave model and the analysis of vehicles’ gathering and dissipating, the road traffic impedance model is researched by determining the basic travel time and waiting delay time. Numerical example results have proved that the proposed model in this paper has received better calculation performance compared to existing model, especially in flat hours. The values of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE and mean absolute deviation (MAD are separately reduced by 3.78% and 2.62 s. It shows that the proposed model has feasibility and availability in road traffic impedance under intersection signal.

  6. Optimal OFDMA Downlink Scheduling Under a Control Signaling Cost Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Erik G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for downlink scheduling in OFDMA systems. The method maximizes the throughput, taking into account the amount of signaling needed to transmit scheduling maps to the users. A combinatorial problem is formulated and solved via a dynamic programming approach reminiscent of the Viterbi algorithm. The total computational complexity of the algorithm is upper boundedby O(K^4N) where K is the number of users that are being considered for scheduling in a frame and N...

  7. Congestion and flow control in signaling system no. 7: Impacts of intelligent networks and new services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Joachim; Rufa, Gerhard

    1994-04-01

    This paper focuses on the transient performance analysis of the congestion and flow control mechanisms in CCITT Signaling System No. 7 (SS7). Special attention is directed to the impacts of the introduction of intelligent services and new applications, e.g., Freephone, credit card services, user-to-user signaling, etc. In particular, we show that signaling traffic characteristics like signaling scenarios or signaling message length as well as end-to-end signaling capabilities have a significant influence on the congestion and flow control and, therefore, on the real-time signaling performance. One important result of our performance studies is that if, e.g., intelligent services are introduced, the SS7 congestion and flow control does not work correctly. To solve this problem, some reinvestigations into these mechanisms would be necessary. Therefore, some approaches, e.g., modification of the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) congestion control, usage of the SCCP relay function, or a redesign of the MTP flow control procedures are discussed in order to guarantee the efficacy of the congestion and flow control mechanisms also in the future.

  8. Combination of BMP-2-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponges with autologous bone marrow for bone regeneration of X-ray-irradiated rabbit ulnar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Hokugo, Akishige; Takahashi, Yoshitake; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of gelatin sponges incorporating β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules (gelatin/β-TCP sponges) to enhance bone regeneration at a segmental ulnar defect of rabbits with X-ray irradiation. After X-ray irradiation of the ulnar bone, segmental critical-sized defects of 20-mm length were created, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponges with or without autologous bone marrow were applied to the defects to evaluate bone regeneration. Both gelatin/β-TCP sponges containing autologous bone marrow and BMP-2-releasing sponges enhanced bone regeneration at the ulna defect to a significantly greater extent than the empty sponges (control). However, in the X-ray-irradiated bone, the bone regeneration either by autologous bone marrow or BMP-2 was inhibited. When combined with autologous bone marrow, the BMP-2 exhibited significantly high osteoinductivity, irrespective of the X-ray irradiation. The bone mineral content at the ulna defect was similar to that of the intact bone. It is concluded that the combination of bone marrow with the BMP-2-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponge is a promising technique to induce bone regeneration at segmental bone defects after X-ray irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Signal Detection and Control Circuit Design for Confocal Auto-Focus System

    OpenAIRE

    Yin Liu; Jin Yu; Zeqiang Mo

    2016-01-01

    Based on the demands of Confocal Auto-Focus system, the implementation method of signal measurement circuit and control circuit is given. Using the high performance instrumental amplifier AD620BN, low noise precision FET Op amplifier AD795JRZ and ultralow offset voltage Op amplifier OP07EP, a signal measurement circuit used to converse the two differential light intensity signal to electric signal is designed. And a control circuit which takes MCU MSP430F149 as core processes the former signa...

  10. Overlapping and differential localization of Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Msx-2 and apoptosis in the endocardial cushion and adjacent tissues of the developing mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahid, E; Rice, D; Pelliniemi, L J; Jokinen, E

    2001-07-01

    The bone morphogenetic proteins BMP-2 and BMP-4 and the homeobox gene MSX-2 are required for normal development of many embryonic tissues. To elucidate their possible roles during the remodeling of the tubular heart into a fully septated four-chambered heart, we have localized the mRNA of Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Msx-2 and apoptotic cells in the developing mouse heart from embryonic day (E)11 to E17. mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization, and apoptotic cells by TUNEL (TDT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling) as well as by transmission electron microscopy. By analyzing adjacent serial sections, we demonstrated that the expression of Msx-2 and Bmp-2 strikingly overlapped in the atrioventricular canal myocardium, in the atrioventricular junctional myocardium, and in the maturing myocardium of the atrioventricular valves. Bmp-4 was expressed in the outflow tract myocardium and in the endocardial cushion of the outflow tract ridges from E12 to E14. Msx-2 appeared in the mesenchyme of the atrioventricular endocardial cushion from E11 to E14, while Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 were detected between E11 and E14. Apoptotic cells were also detected in the mesenchyme of the endocardial cushion between E12 and E14. Our results suggest that BMP-2 and MSX-2 are tightly linked to the formation of the atrioventricular junction and valves and that BMP-4 is involved in the development of the outflow tract myocardium and of the endocardial cushion. In addition, BMP-2, BMP-4 and MSX-2 and apoptosis seem to be associated with differentiation of the endocardial cushion.

  11. Multilayer control for inverters in parallel operation without signal interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Ming; Hu, Haibing; Xing, Yan

    2011-01-01

    A multilayer control is proposed for inverters with wireless parallel operation in this paper. The control is embedded in every inverter respectively and consists of three layers. The first layer is based on an improved droop method, which shares the active and reactive power in each module...

  12. Bacterial Biofilm Control by Perturbation of Bacterial Signaling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Holm Jakobsen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective strategies to combat biofilm infections by means of either mechanical or chemical approaches could dramatically change today’s treatment procedures for the benefit of thousands of patients. Remarkably, considering the increased focus on biofilms in general, there has still not been invented and/or developed any simple, efficient and reliable methods with which to “chemically” eradicate biofilm infections. This underlines the resilience of infective agents present as biofilms and it further emphasizes the insufficiency of today’s approaches used to combat chronic infections. A potential method for biofilm dismantling is chemical interception of regulatory processes that are specifically involved in the biofilm mode of life. In particular, bacterial cell to cell signaling called “Quorum Sensing” together with intracellular signaling by bis-(3′-5′-cyclic-dimeric guanosine monophosphate (cyclic-di-GMP have gained a lot of attention over the last two decades. More recently, regulatory processes governed by two component regulatory systems and small non-coding RNAs have been increasingly investigated. Here, we review novel findings and potentials of using small molecules to target and modulate these regulatory processes in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa to decrease its pathogenic potential.

  13. Glycosynapses: microdomains controlling carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion and signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senitiroh Hakomori

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of microdomains in plasma membranes was developed over two decades, following observation of polarity of membrane based on clustering of specific membrane components. Microdomains involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion with concurrent signal transduction that affect cellular phenotype are termed "glycosynapse". Three types of glycosynapse have been distinguished: "type 1" having glycosphingolipid associated with signal transducers (small G-proteins, cSrc, Src family kinases and proteolipids; "type 2" having O-linked mucin-type glycoprotein associated with Src family kinases; and "type 3" having N-linked integrin receptor complexed with tetraspanin and ganglioside. Different cell types are characterized by presence of specific types of glycosynapse or their combinations, whose adhesion induces signal transduction to either facilitate or inhibit signaling. E.g., signaling through type 3 glycosynapse inhibits cell motility and differentiation. Glycosynapses are distinct from classically-known microdomains termed "caveolae", "caveolar membrane", or more recently "lipid raft", which are not involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion. Type 1 and type 3 glycosynapses are resistant to cholesterol-binding reagents, whereas structure and function of "caveolar membrane" or "lipid raft" are disrupted by these reagents. Various data indicate a functional role of glycosynapses during differentiation, development, and oncogenic transformation.O conceito de microdomínios em membrana plasmática foi desenvolvido há mais de duas décadas, após a observação da polaridade da membrana baseada no agrupamento de componentes específicos da membrana. Microdomínios envolvidos na adesão celular dependente de carboidrato, com transdução de sinal que afeta o fenótipo celular são denominados ''glicosinapses''. Três tipos de glicosinapse foram observados: ''tipo 1'' que possue glicoesfingolipídio associado com transdutores de sinal

  14. An Adaptive Traffic Signal Control in a Connected Vehicle Environment: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, traffic congestion has become a growing concern due to increasing vehicle ownerships in urban areas. Intersections are one of the major bottlenecks that contribute to urban traffic congestion. Traditional traffic signal control systems cannot adjust the timing pattern depending on road traffic demand. This results in excessive delays for road users. Adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment has shown a powerful ability to effectively alleviate urban traffic congestions to achieve desirable objectives (e.g., delay minimization. Connected vehicle technology, as an emerging technology, is a mobile data platform that enables the real-time data exchange among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure. Although several reviews about traffic signal control or connected vehicles have been written, a systemic review of adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment has not been made. Twenty-six eligible studies searched from six databases constitute the review. A quality evaluation was established based on previous research instruments and applied to the current review. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the existing methods of adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment and to compare the advantages or disadvantages of those methods. Further, a systematic framework on connected vehicle based adaptive traffic signal control is summarized to support the future research. Future research is needed to develop more efficient and generic adaptive traffic signal control methods in a connected vehicle environment.

  15. Calcium phosphate implants coatings as carriers for BMP-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; He, J.F.; Hunziker, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    The osteoconductivity of dental implants can be improved by coating them with a layer of calcium phosphate (CaP), which can be rendered osteoinductive by functionalizing it with an osteogenic agent, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). In the present study, we wished to compare the

  16. Requirement of Xmsx-1 in the BMP-triggered ventralization of Xenopus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T S; Takagi, C; Ueno, N

    2000-03-01

    Signaling triggered by polypeptide growth factors leads to the activation of their target genes. Several homeobox genes are known to be induced in response to polypeptide growth factors in early Xenopus development. In particular, Xmsx-1, an amphibian homologue of vertebrate Msx-1, is well characterized as a target gene of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Here, using a dominant-negative form of Xmsx-1 (VP-Xmsx-1), which is a fusion protein made with the virus-derived VP16 activation domain, we have examined whether Xmsx-1 activity is required in the endogenous ventralizing pathway. VP-Xmsx-1 induced a secondary body axis, complete with muscle and neural tissues, when overexpressed in ventral blastomeres, suggesting that Xmsx-1 activity is necessary for both mesoderm and ectoderm to be ventralized. We have also examined the epistatic relationship between Xmsx-1 and another ventralizing homeobox protein, Xvent-1, and show that Xmsx-1 is likely to be acting upstream of Xvent-1. We propose that Xmsx-1 is required in the BMP-stimulated ventralization pathway that involves the downstream activation of Xvent-1.

  17. Robust control of dielectric elastomer diaphragm actuator for human pulse signal tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhihang; Chen, Zheng; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Chan, Hoyin

    2017-08-01

    Human pulse signal tracking is an emerging technology that is needed in traditional Chinese medicine. However, soft actuation with multi-frequency tracking capability is needed for tracking human pulse signal. Dielectric elastomer (DE) is one type of soft actuating that has great potential in human pulse signal tracking. In this paper, a DE diaphragm actuator was designed and fabricated to track human pulse pressure signal. A physics-based and control-oriented model has been developed to capture the dynamic behavior of DE diaphragm actuator. Using the physical model, an H-infinity robust control was designed for the actuator to reject high-frequency sensing noises and disturbances. The robust control was then implemented in real-time to track a multi-frequency signal, which verified the tracking capability and robustness of the control system. In the human pulse signal tracking test, a human pulse signal was measured at the City University of Hong Kong and then was tracked using DE actuator at Wichita State University in the US. Experimental results have verified that the DE actuator with its robust control is capable of tracking human pulse signal.

  18. An approach of traffic signal control based on NLRSQP algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Yang; Hu, Yu

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a linear program model with linear complementarity constraints (LPLCC) to solve traffic signal optimization problem. The objective function of the model is to obtain the minimization of total queue length with weight factors at the end of each cycle. Then, a combination algorithm based on the nonlinear least regression and sequence quadratic program (NLRSQP) is proposed, by which the local optimal solution can be obtained. Furthermore, four numerical experiments are proposed to study how to set the initial solution of the algorithm that can get a better local optimal solution more quickly. In particular, the results of numerical experiments show that: The model is effective for different arrival rates and weight factors; and the lower bound of the initial solution is, the better optimal solution can be obtained.

  19. Adaptive control of human action: The role of outcome representations and reward signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eMarien

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to advance the understanding of the control of human behavior by integrating two lines of literature that so far have led separate lives. First, one line of literature is concerned with the ideomotor principle of human behavior, according to which actions are represented in terms of their outcomes. The second line of literature mainly considers the role of reward signals in adaptive control. Here, we offer a combined perspective on how outcome representations and reward signals work together to modulate adaptive control processes. We propose that reward signals signify the value of outcome representations and facilitate the recruitment of control resources in situations where behavior needs to be maintained or adapted to attain the represented outcome. We discuss recent research demonstrating how adaptive control of goal-directed behavior may emerge when outcome representations are co-activated with positive reward signals.

  20. Uncertainty in BMP evaluation and optimization for watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, I.; Cibin, R.; Sudheer, K.; Her, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Use of computer simulation models have increased substantially to make watershed management decisions and to develop strategies for water quality improvements. These models are often used to evaluate potential benefits of various best management practices (BMPs) for reducing losses of pollutants from sources areas into receiving waterbodies. Similarly, use of simulation models in optimizing selection and placement of best management practices under single (maximization of crop production or minimization of pollutant transport) and multiple objective functions has increased recently. One of the limitations of the currently available assessment and optimization approaches is that the BMP strategies are considered deterministic. Uncertainties in input data (e.g. precipitation, streamflow, sediment, nutrient and pesticide losses measured, land use) and model parameters may result in considerable uncertainty in watershed response under various BMP options. We have developed and evaluated options to include uncertainty in BMP evaluation and optimization for watershed management. We have also applied these methods to evaluate uncertainty in ecosystem services from mixed land use watersheds. In this presentation, we will discuss methods to to quantify uncertainties in BMP assessment and optimization solutions due to uncertainties in model inputs and parameters. We have used a watershed model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT) to simulate the hydrology and water quality in mixed land use watershed located in Midwest USA. The SWAT model was also used to represent various BMPs in the watershed needed to improve water quality. SWAT model parameters, land use change parameters, and climate change parameters were considered uncertain. It was observed that model parameters, land use and climate changes resulted in considerable uncertainties in BMP performance in reducing P, N, and sediment loads. In addition, climate change scenarios also affected uncertainties in SWAT

  1. Effects of BMP-2 and dexamethasone on osteogenic differentiation of rat dental follicle progenitor cells seeded on three-dimensional beta-TCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Lulu; Jin Zuolin; Duan Yinzhong [Department of Orthodontics, Stomatological College, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liu Hongchen; Wang Dongsheng; E Lingling [Department of Stomatology, China PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Xu Lin, E-mail: jinzuolin88@yahoo.com.c, E-mail: duanyinzhong@yahoo.com.c [Department of Stomatology, the First Hospital of PLA, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BMP-2 and dexamethasone (Dex) on osteogenic differentiation of rat dental follicle progenitor cells (RDFCs) seeded on three-dimensional beta-TCP. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the calcium and phosphonium, the osteocalcin in media of the third passage RDFCs on biomaterial beta-TCP after 1-3, 3-7, 7-14 days of culture were examined respectively. The growth of cells on the scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 3, 7 days of culture and by implanting in the backs of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for bone regeneration. The third passage RDFCs could be seen adhered, extended and proliferated on the beta-TCP by scanning electron microscopy. The ALP activity, the calcium and phosphoniums and the osteocalcin content of dexamethasone (10{sup -8} M) or/and BMP-2 (100 ng ml{sup -1}) were significantly higher than their existence in the control group. They were the significantly highest among four groups after joint application of BMP-2 and dexamethasone. After 8 weeks of implantation, the percentage of the new bones formed area in the RDFCs+beta-TCP+BMP-2+Dex group was significantly higher than that in the RDFCs+beta-TCP+BMP-2 group. In contrast, beta-TCP, RDFCs+beta-TCP+Dex and control constructs lacked new bone formation by histological staining and histomorphometric analysis. The BMP-2+Dex could significantly promote osteogenic differentiation of RDFCs on beta-TCP. beta-TCP supported fast cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of RDFCs. The feasibility of its application in periodontal tissue engineering was also proved.

  2. Effects of BMP-2 and dexamethasone on osteogenic differentiation of rat dental follicle progenitor cells seeded on three-dimensional β-TCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lulu; Jin Zuolin; Duan Yinzhong; Liu Hongchen; Wang Dongsheng; E Lingling; Xu Lin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BMP-2 and dexamethasone (Dex) on osteogenic differentiation of rat dental follicle progenitor cells (RDFCs) seeded on three-dimensional β-TCP. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the calcium and phosphonium, the osteocalcin in media of the third passage RDFCs on biomaterial β-TCP after 1-3, 3-7, 7-14 days of culture were examined respectively. The growth of cells on the scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 3, 7 days of culture and by implanting in the backs of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for bone regeneration. The third passage RDFCs could be seen adhered, extended and proliferated on the β-TCP by scanning electron microscopy. The ALP activity, the calcium and phosphoniums and the osteocalcin content of dexamethasone (10 -8 M) or/and BMP-2 (100 ng ml -1 ) were significantly higher than their existence in the control group. They were the significantly highest among four groups after joint application of BMP-2 and dexamethasone. After 8 weeks of implantation, the percentage of the new bones formed area in the RDFCs+β-TCP+BMP-2+Dex group was significantly higher than that in the RDFCs+β-TCP+BMP-2 group. In contrast, β-TCP, RDFCs+β-TCP+Dex and control constructs lacked new bone formation by histological staining and histomorphometric analysis. The BMP-2+Dex could significantly promote osteogenic differentiation of RDFCs on β-TCP. β-TCP supported fast cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of RDFCs. The feasibility of its application in periodontal tissue engineering was also proved.

  3. Synthesis study of Texas signal control systems : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, several versions of traffic control systems have been established across the United States and within the state of Texas. There is a growing need to identify the various versions of these systems that exist, including the system hard...

  4. Electromagnetic Signal Feedback Control for Proximity Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam K.

    Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in the United States and remains an essential source of energy. While more than half of coal production comes from surface mining, nearly twice as many workers are employed by underground operations. One of the key pieces of equipment used in underground coal mining is the continuous mining machine. These large and powerful machines are operated in confined spaces by remote control. Since 1984, 40 mine workers in the U. S. have been killed when struck or pinned by a continuous mining machine. It is estimated that a majority of these accidents could have been prevented with the application of proximity detection systems. While proximity detection systems can significantly increase safety around a continuous mining machine, there are some system limitations. Commercially available proximity warning systems for continuous mining machines use magnetic field generators to detect workers and establish safe work areas around the machines. Several environmental factors, however, can influence and distort the magnetic fields. To minimize these effects, a control system has been developed using electromagnetic field strength and generator current to stabilize and control field drift induced by internal and external environmental factors. A laboratory test set-up was built using a ferrite-core magnetic field generator to produce a stable magnetic field. Previous work based on a field-invariant magnetic flux density model, which generically describes the electromagnetic field, is expanded upon. The analytically established transferable shell-based flux density distribution model is used to experimentally validate the control system. By controlling the current input to the ferrite-core generator, a more reliable and consistent magnetic field is produced. Implementation of this technology will improve accuracy and performance of existing commercial proximity detection systems. These research results will help reduce the risk of traumatic

  5. Signal validation and failure correction algorithms for PWR steam generator feedwater control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrallah, C.N.; Graham, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    A critical contributor to the reliability of a nuclear power plant is the reliability of the control systems which maintain plant operating parameters within desired limits. The most difficult system to control in a PWR nuclear power plant and the one which causes the most reactor trips is the control of the feedwater flow to the steam generators. The level in the steam generator must be held within relatively narrow limits, with reactor trips set for both too high and too low a level. The steam generator level is inherently unstable in that it is an open integrator of feedwater flow steam flow mismatch. The steam generator feedwater control system relies on sensed variables in order to generate the appropriate feedwater valve control signal. In current systems, each of these sensed variables comes from a single sensor which may be a separate control sensor or one of the redundant protection sensors that is manually selected by the operator. In case this single signal is false, either due to sensor malfunction or due to a test signal being substituted during periodic test and maintenance, the control system will generate a wrong control signal to the feedwater control valve. This will initiate a steam generator level upset. The solution to this problem is for the control system to sense a given variable with more than one redundant sensor. Normally there are three or four sensors for each variable monitored by the reactor protection system. The techniques discussed allow the control system to compare these redundant sensor signals and generate a validated signal for each measured variable that is insensitive to false signals

  6. A Signal Coordination Control Based on Traversing Empty between Mid-Block Street Crossing and Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem in pedestrian Mid-Block street crossing, the method of signal coordination control between mid-block street crossing and intersection is researched in this paper. The paper proposes to use “distance-flow rate-time” graph as the tool for building coordination control system model which is for different situations of traffic control. Through alternating the linear optimization model, the system outputs the distribution of signal timing and system operational factors (delays in vehicles and mid-block street crossing. Finally, taking one section on the Taiping North Road in Nanjing as an example, the signal coordination control is carried out. And the results which are delays in the vehicles and mid-block street crossing are compared to those in the current distribution of signal timing.

  7. Growth differentiation factor 3 is induced by bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) and BMP-7 and increases luteinizing hormone receptor messenger RNA expression in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia; Yoshino, Osamu; Osuga, Yutaka; Akiyama, Ikumi; Harada, Miyuki; Koga, Kaori; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    To examine the relevance of growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cytokines in human ovary. Molecular studies. Research laboratory. Eight women undergoing salpingo-oophorectomy and 30 women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Localizing GDF-3 protein in human ovaries; granulosa cells (GC) cultured with GDF-3, BMP-6, or BMP-7 followed by RNA extraction. The localization of GDF-3 protein in normal human ovaries via immunohistochemical analysis, GDF-3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression evaluation via quantitative real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and evaluation of the effect of GDF-3 on leuteinizing hormone (LH) receptor mRNA expression via quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In the ovary, BMP cytokines, of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, are known as a luteinization inhibitor by suppressing LH receptor expression in GC. Growth differentiation factor 3, a TGF-β superfamily cytokine, is recognized as an inhibitor of BMP cytokines in other cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that GDF-3 was strongly detected in the GC of antral follicles. An in vitro assay revealed that BMP-6 or BMP-7 induced GDF-3 mRNA in GC. Also, GDF-3 increased LH receptor mRNA expression and inhibited the effect of BMP-7, which suppressed the LH receptor mRNA expression in GC. GDF-3, induced with BMP-6 and BMP-7, might play a role in folliculogenesis by inhibiting the effect of BMP cytokines. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alcohol control: Mobile sensor system and numerical signal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, Rolf; Keller, Hubert B.; Conrad, Thorsten; Peter, Jens

    2016-01-01

    An innovative mobile sensor system for alcohol control in the respiratory air is introduced. The gas sensor included in the sensor system is thermo-cyclically operated. Ethanol is the leading component in this context. However, other components occur in the breathing air which can influence the concentration determination of ethanol. Therefore, mono- ethanol samples and binary gas mixtures are measured by the sensor system and analyzed with a new calibration and evaluation procedure which is ...

  9. An Adaptive Traffic Signal Control in a Connected Vehicle Environment: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Jing; Hao Huang; Long Chen

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years, traffic congestion has become a growing concern due to increasing vehicle ownerships in urban areas. Intersections are one of the major bottlenecks that contribute to urban traffic congestion. Traditional traffic signal control systems cannot adjust the timing pattern depending on road traffic demand. This results in excessive delays for road users. Adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment has shown a powerful ability to effectively alleviate u...

  10. Performance Analysis of Control Signal Transmission Technique for Cognitive Radios in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Ren; Tomioka, Tazuko; Kobayashi, Takahiro

    When cognitive radio (CR) systems dynamically use the frequency band, a control signal is necessary to indicate which carrier frequencies are currently available in the network. In order to keep efficient spectrum utilization, this control signal also should be transmitted based on the channel conditions. If transmitters dynamically select carrier frequencies, receivers have to receive control signals without knowledge of their carrier frequencies. To enable such transmission and reception, this paper proposes a novel scheme called DCPT (Differential Code Parallel Transmission). With DCPT, receivers can receive low-rate information with no knowledge of the carrier frequencies. The transmitter transmits two signals whose carrier frequencies are spaced by a predefined value. The absolute values of the carrier frequencies can be varied. When the receiver acquires the DCPT signal, it multiplies the signal by a frequency-shifted version of the signal; this yields a DC component that represents the data signal which is then demodulated. The performance was evaluated by means of numerical analysis and computer simulation. We confirmed that DCPT operates successfully even under severe interference if its parameters are appropriately configured.

  11. Warts signaling controls organ and body growth through regulation of ecdysone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten Erik; Nagy, Stanislav; Gerlach, Stephan Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Coordination of growth between individual organs and the whole body is essential during development to produce adults with appropriate size and proportions [1, 2]. How local organ-intrinsic signals and nutrient-dependent systemic factors are integrated to generate correctly proportioned organisms...... under different environmental conditions is poorly understood. In Drosophila, Hippo/Warts signaling functions intrinsically to regulate tissue growth and organ size [3, 4], whereas systemic growth is controlled via antagonistic interactions of the steroid hormone ecdysone and nutrient-dependent insulin....../insulin-like growth factor (IGF) (insulin) signaling [2, 5]. The interplay between insulin and ecdysone signaling regulates systemic growth and controls organismal size. Here, we show that Warts (Wts; LATS1/2) signaling regulates systemic growth in Drosophila by activating basal ecdysone production, which negatively...

  12. Synthesis Study on Transitions in Signal Infrastructure and Control Algorithms for Connected and Automated Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, H. M. Abdul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Young, Stan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sperling, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beck, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Documenting existing state of practice is an initial step in developing future control infrastructure to be co-deployed for heterogeneous mix of connected and automated vehicles with human drivers while leveraging benefits to safety, congestion, and energy. With advances in information technology and extensive deployment of connected and automated vehicle technology anticipated over the coming decades, cities globally are making efforts to plan and prepare for these transitions. CAVs not only offer opportunities to improve transportation systems through enhanced safety and efficient operations of vehicles. There are also significant needs in terms of exploring how best to leverage vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) technology, vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) technology and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) technology. Both Connected Vehicle (CV) and Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) paradigms feature bi-directional connectivity and share similar applications in terms of signal control algorithm and infrastructure implementation. The discussion in our synthesis study assumes the CAV/CV context where connectivity exists with or without automated vehicles. Our synthesis study explores the current state of signal control algorithms and infrastructure, reports the completed and newly proposed CV/CAV deployment studies regarding signal control schemes, reviews the deployment costs for CAV/AV signal infrastructure, and concludes with a discussion on the opportunities such as detector free signal control schemes and dynamic performance management for intersections, and challenges such as dependency on market adaptation and the need to build a fault-tolerant signal system deployment in a CAV/CV environment. The study will serve as an initial critical assessment of existing signal control infrastructure (devices, control instruments, and firmware) and control schemes (actuated, adaptive, and coordinated-green wave). Also, the report will help to identify the future needs for the signal

  13. Effect of implantation of biodegradable magnesium alloy on BMP-2 expression in bone of ovariectomized osteoporosis rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yue; Ren, Ling; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yajiang; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Lili; Chen, Shurui; Yang, Ke; Mei, Xifan

    2013-01-01

    The study was focused on the implantation of a biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy into the femoral periosteal of the osteoporosis modeled rats. The experimental results showed that after 4 weeks implantation of AZ31 alloy in the osteoporosis modeled rats, the expression of BMP-2 in bone tissues of the rats was much enhanced, even higher than the control group, which should promote the bone formation and be beneficial for reducing the harmful effect of osteoporosis. Results of HE stains showed that the implantation of AZ31 alloy did not have obvious pathological changes on both the liver and kidney of the animal. - Highlights: • Mg alloy greatly increased expression of BMP-2 in osteoporosis modeled rat bone. • Mg alloy showed good biological safety. • Mg alloy is beneficial for reducing the symptom of osteoporosis

  14. Alcohol Control: Mobile Sensor System and Numerical Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf SEIFERT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An innovative mobile sensor system for alcohol control in the respiratory air is introduced. The gas sensor included in the sensor system is thermo-cyclically operated. Ethanol is the leading component in this context. However, other components occur in the breathing air which can influence the concentration determination of ethanol. Therefore, mono- ethanol samples and binary gas mixtures are measured by the sensor system and analyzed with a new calibration and evaluation procedure which is also incorporated in the system. The applications demonstrate a good substance identification capability of the sensor system and a very good concentration determination of the components.

  15. Ginger Stimulates Hematopoiesis via Bmp Pathway in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri-Lagneau, Karine F.; Moshal, Karni S.; Grimes, Matthew; Zahora, Braden; Lv, Lishuang; Sang, Shengmin; Leung, TinChung

    2012-01-01

    Background Anemia is a hematologic disorder with decreased number of erythrocytes. Erythropoiesis, the process by which red blood cells differentiate, are conserved in humans, mice and zebrafish. The only known agents available to treat pathological anemia are erythropoietin and its biologic derivatives. However, erythropoietin therapy elicits unwanted side-effects, high cost and intravenous or subcutaneous injection, warranting the development of a more cost effective and non-peptide alternative. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been widely used in traditional medicine; however, to date there is no scientific research documenting the potential of ginger to stimulate hematopoiesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we utilized gata1:dsRed transgenic zebrafish embryos to investigate the effect of ginger extract on hematopoiesis in vivo and we identified its bioactive component, 10-gingerol. We confirmed that ginger and 10-gingerol promote the expression of gata1 in erythroid cells and increase the expression of hematopoietic progenitor markers cmyb and scl. We also demonstrated that ginger and 10-gingerol can promote the hematopoietic recovery from acute hemolytic anemia in zebrafish, by quantifying the number of circulating erythroid cells in the dorsal aorta using video microscopy. We found that ginger and 10-gingerol treatment during gastrulation results in an increase of bmp2b and bmp7a expression, and their downstream effectors, gata2 and eve1. At later stages ginger and 10-gingerol can induce bmp2b/7a, cmyb, scl and lmo2 expression in the caudal hematopoietic tissue area. We further confirmed that Bmp/Smad pathway mediates this hematopoiesis promoting effect of ginger by using the Bmp-activated Bmp type I receptor kinase inhibitors dorsomorphin, LND193189 and DMH1. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides a strong foundation to further evaluate the molecular mechanism of ginger and its bioactive components during hematopoiesis and to investigate their

  16. The translational regulator Cup controls NMJ presynaptic terminal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kaushiki P; Carrillo, Robert A; Zinn, Kai

    2015-07-01

    During oogenesis and early embryonic development in Drosophila, translation of proteins from maternally deposited mRNAs is tightly controlled. We and others have previously shown that translational regulatory proteins that function during oogenesis also have essential roles in the nervous system. Here we examine the role of Cup in neuromuscular system development. Maternal Cup controls translation of localized mRNAs encoding the Oskar and Nanos proteins and binds to the general translation initiation factor eIF4E. In this paper, we show that zygotic Cup protein is localized to presynaptic terminals at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). cup mutant NMJs have strong phenotypes characterized by the presence of small clustered boutons called satellite boutons. They also exhibit an increase in the frequency of spontaneous glutamate release events (mEPSPs). Reduction of eIF4E expression synergizes with partial loss of Cup expression to produce satellite bouton phenotypes. The presence of satellite boutons is often associated with increases in retrograde bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, and we show that synaptic BMP signaling is elevated in cup mutants. cup genetically interacts with two genes, EndoA and Dap160, that encode proteins involved in endocytosis that are also neuronal modulators of the BMP pathway. Endophilin protein, encoded by the EndoA gene, is downregulated in a cup mutant. Our results are consistent with a model in which Cup and eIF4E work together to ensure efficient localization and translation of endocytosis proteins in motor neurons and control the strength of the retrograde BMP signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin C-linker-conjugated tripeptide AHK stimulates BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of mouse myoblast C2C12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jung-Il; Park, Kyeong-Yong; Lee, Yura; Park, Mira; Kim, Jiyeon

    2018-03-15

    Vitamin C-linker-conjugated Ala-His-Lys tripeptide (Vit C-AHK) is a derivative of Vitamin C-conjugated tripeptides, which were originally developed as a component of a product for collagen synthesis enhancement or human dermal fibroblast growth. Here, we investigated the effect of Vit C-AHK on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2-induced osteoblast differentiation in a cell culture model. Vit C-AHK enhanced proliferation of C2C12 cells and induction of BMP-2-induced alkaline phosphatase, a typical marker of osteoblast differentiation. Vit C-AHK also stimulated the phosphorylation and translocation of Smad1/5/8 to the nucleus and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including ERK1/2 and p38. In addition, Vit C-AHK enhanced the BMP-2-induced mRNA expression of osteoblast differentiation-related genes such as ALP, BMP-2, Osteocalcin, and Runx2. Our results suggest that Vit C-AHK exerts an enhancing effect on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through activation of Smad1/5/8 and MAPK ERK1/2 and p38 signaling and without significant cytotoxicity. These results provide important data for the development of peptide-based bone-regenerative agents and treatment of bone-related disorders. Copyright © 2018 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Task control signals in pediatric Tourette syndrome show evidence of immature and anomalous functional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Church

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008. A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e. correlations outside the typical developmental range limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009. The present study used functional MRI (fMRI to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals, and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set. Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”. Second, group differences found in task maintenance (i.e., sustained activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents

  19. Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7 on in vitro survival of caprine preantral follicles Efeito da proteína morfogenética óssea 7 (BMP-7 para a sobrevivência in vitro de folículos pré-antrais caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdevane R. Araújo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to verify the effect of different concentrations of BMP-7 in the in vitro survival and development of caprine preantral follicles. Fragments of caprine ovarian cortical tissue were cultured for 1 or 7 days in Minimum Essential Medium (MEM+ supplemented with different concentrations of BMP-7 (1, 10, 50 or 100ng/ml. Non-cultured fragments or those cultured for 1 or 7 days were processed for classical histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Parameters such as follicular survival, activation and growth were evaluated. The results showed that, after 1 or 7 days of culture, the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was significantly reduced in all treatments when compared with fresh control, except at 1ng/ml of BMP-7 for 1 day. In addition, the concentration of 10ng/ml of BMP-7 significantly increases follicular diameter from day 1 to 7 of culture. There was no influence of the other concentrations of BMP-7 regarding to the follicular and oocyte diameter. Ultrastructure studies confirmed follicular integrity after 7 days of culture in 1ng/ml BMP-7. In conclusion, small concentrations of BMP-7 can improve the survival and growth of caprine preantral follicles during in vitro culture.O presente trabalho foi conduzido de modo a se verificar o efeito de diferentes concentrações da BMP-7 no desenvolvimento in vitro de folículos pré-antrais caprinos. Fragmentos de tecido cortical ovariano caprino foram cultivados por 1 ou 7 dias em Minimum Essential Medium (MEM+ suplementado com diferentes concentrações de BMP-7 (1, 10, 50 ou 100ng/ml. Os fragmentos não cultivados ou aqueles cultivados por 1 ou 7 dias foram processados para histologia clássica e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM, sendo avaliados parâmetros morfológicos indicativos de viabilidade, ativação e crescimento. Os resultados mostraram que o percentual de folículos morfologicamente normais diminuiu significativamente em

  20. State-Space Equations and the First-Phase Algorithm for Signal Control of Single Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinyuan; PAN Xin; WANG Xiqin

    2007-01-01

    State-space equations were applied to formulate the queuing and delay of traffic at a single intersection in this paper. The signal control of a single intersection was then modeled as a discrete-time optimal control problem, with consideration of the constraints of stream conflicts, saturation flow rate, minimum green time, and maximum green time. The problem cannot be solved directly due to the nonlinear constraints.However, the results of qualitative analysis were used to develop a first-phase signal control algorithm. Simulation results show that the algorithm substantially reduces the total delay compared to fixed-time control.

  1. Reward acts as a signal to control delay-period activity in delayed-response tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara-Takeda, Satoe; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2010-03-31

    Prefrontal delay-period activity represents a neural mechanism for the active maintenance of information and needs to be controlled by some signal to appropriately operate working memory. To examine whether reward-delivery acts as this signal, the effects of delay-period activity in response to unexpected reward-delivery were examined by analyzing single-neuron activity recorded in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Among neurons that showed delay-period activity, 34% showed inhibition of this activity in response to unexpected reward-delivery. The delay-period activity of these neurons was affected by the expectation of reward-delivery. The strength of the reward signal in controlling the delay-period activity is related to the strength of the effect of reward information on the delay-period activity. These results indicate that reward-delivery acts as a signal to control delay-period activity.

  2. Exercise and Glycemic Control: Focus on Redox Homeostasis and Redox-Sensitive Protein Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S.; Stepto, Nigel K.; Levinger, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity, excess energy consumption, and obesity are associated with elevated systemic oxidative stress and the sustained activation of redox-sensitive stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Sustained SAPK activation leads to aberrant insulin signaling, impaired glycemic control, and the development and progression of cardiometabolic disease. Paradoxically, acute exercise transiently increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet postexercise glycemic control and skeletal muscle function are enhanced. Furthermore, regular exercise leads to the upregulation of antioxidant defense, which likely assists in the mitigation of chronic oxidative stress-associated disease. In this review, we explore the complex spatiotemporal interplay between exercise, oxidative stress, and glycemic control, and highlight exercise-induced reactive oxygen species and redox-sensitive protein signaling as important regulators of glucose homeostasis. PMID:28529499

  3. EMG Versus Torque Control of Human-Machine Systems: Equalizing Control Signal Variability Does not Equalize Error or Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reva E; Kording, Konrad P; Hargrove, Levi J; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we asked the question: if we artificially raise the variability of torque control signals to match that of EMG, do subjects make similar errors and have similar uncertainty about their movements? We answered this question using two experiments in which subjects used three different control signals: torque, torque+noise, and EMG. First, we measured error on a simple target-hitting task in which subjects received visual feedback only at the end of their movements. We found that even when the signal-to-noise ratio was equal across EMG and torque+noise control signals, EMG resulted in larger errors. Second, we quantified uncertainty by measuring the just-noticeable difference of a visual perturbation. We found that for equal errors, EMG resulted in higher movement uncertainty than both torque and torque+noise. The differences suggest that performance and confidence are influenced by more than just the noisiness of the control signal, and suggest that other factors, such as the user's ability to incorporate feedback and develop accurate internal models, also have significant impacts on the performance and confidence of a person's actions. We theorize that users have difficulty distinguishing between random and systematic errors for EMG control, and future work should examine in more detail the types of errors made with EMG control.

  4. Autonomous aerial vehicles : guidance, control, signal and image processing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarrah, M.; Adiansyah, S.; Marji, Z. M.; Chowdhury, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of unmanned systems is gaining momentum in civil applications after successful use by the armed forces around the globe. Autonomous aerial vehicles are important for providing assistance in monitoring highways, power grid lines, borders, and surveillance of critical infrastructures. It is envisioned that cargo shipping will be completely handled by UAVs by the 2025. Civil use of unmanned autonomous systems brings serious challenges. The need for cost effectiveness, reliability, operation simplicity, safety, and cooperation with human and with other agents are among these challenges. Aerial vehicles operating in the civilian aerospace is the ultimate goal which requires these systems to achieve the reliability of manned aircraft while maintaining their cost effectiveness. In this presentation the development of an autonomous fixed and rotary wing aerial vehicle will be discussed. The architecture of the system from the mission requirements to low level auto pilot control laws will be discussed. Trajectory tracking and path following guidance and control algorithms commonly used and their implementation using of the shelf low cost components will be presented. Autonomous takeo? landing is a key feature that was implemented onboard the vehicle to complete its degree of autonomy. This is implemented based on accurate air-data system designed and fused with sonar measurements, INS/GPS measurements, and vector field method guidance laws. The outcomes of the proposed research is that the AUS-UAV platform named MAZARI is capable of autonomous takeoff and landing based on a pre scheduled flight path using way point navigation and sensor fusion of the inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS). Several technologies need to be mastered when developing a UAV. The navigation task and the need to fuse sensory information to estimate the location of the vehicle is critical to successful autonomous vehicle. Currently extended Kalman filtering is

  5. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-03-11

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

  6. BMP2 induced osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord stem cells in a peptide-based hydrogel scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmana, Shruthi M.

    Craniofacial tissue loss due to traumatic injuries and congenital defects is a major clinical problem around the world. Cleft palate is the second most common congenital malformation in the United States occurring with an incidence of 1 in 700. Some of the problems associated with this defect are feeding difficulties, speech abnormalities and dentofacial anomalies. Current treatment protocol offers repeated surgeries with extended healing time. Our long-term goal is to regenerate bone in the palatal region using tissue-engineering approaches. Bone tissue engineering utilizes osteogenic cells, osteoconductive scaffolds and osteoinductive signals. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord (HUMSCs) are highly proliferative with the ability to differentiate into osteogenic precursor cells. The primary objective of the study was to characterize HUMSCs and culture them in a 3D hydrogel scaffold and investigate their osteogenic potential. PuraMatrix(TM) is an injectable 3D nanofiber scaffold capable of self-assembly when exposed to physiologic conditions. Our second objective was to investigate the effect of Bone Morphogenic Protein 2 (BMP2) in enhancing the osteogenic differentiation of HUMSCs encapsulated in PuraMatrix(TM). We isolated cells isolated from Wharton's Jelly region of the umbilical cord obtained from NDRI (New York, NY). Isolated cells satisfied the minimal criteria for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as defined by International Society of Cell Therapy in terms of plastic adherence, fibroblastic phenotype, surface marker expression and osteogenic differentiation. Flow Cytometry analysis showed that cells were positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105 while negative for hematopoietic marker CD34. Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) of HUMSCs showed peak activity at 2 weeks (p<0.05). Cells were encapsulated in 0.2% PuraMatrix(TM) at cell densities of 10x104, 20x104, 40x10 4 and 80x104. Cell viability with WST and proliferation with Live-Dead cell assays

  7. Small-Signal Modeling and Analysis of Grid-Connected Inverter with Power Differential Droop Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional voltage and frequency droop control strategy in grid-connected inverter suffers a major setback in the presence of disturbance by producing oscillations. Adding a power differential term in droop controller is an effective way to address such drawback. In this paper, grid-connected inverter’s small-signal models of the conventional droop control and the power differential droop control are established. The eigenvalues of the models are then determined by system matrix. The eigenvalues analysis is presented which helps in identifying the relationship between the system stability and controller parameters. It is concluded that the damping ratio of dominant low-frequency eigenvalues increased and the oscillation caused by the disturbance is suppressed when a power differential term is added to the droop control method. The MATLAB/Simulink models of grid-connected inverter with both control strategies are also established to validate the results of small-signal analysis.

  8. Immortalization and characterization of mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Li-An; Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin; Ortiz-Gonzalez, Iris; Yang, Wuchen; Cui, Yong; MacDougall, Mary; Donly, Kevin J.; Harris, Stephen; Chen, Shuo

    2009-01-01

    Generation of a floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line is a valuable tool for studying the modulatory effects of Bmp2 and Bmp4 on osteoblast differentiation as well as relevant molecular events. In this study, primary floxed Bmp2/4 mouse osteoblasts were cultured and transfected with simian virus 40 large T-antigen. Transfection was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To examine the characteristics of the transfected cells, morphology, proliferation and mineralization were analyzed, expression of cell-specific genes including Runx2, ATF4, Dlx3, Osx, dentin matrix protein 1, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and collagen type I was detected. These results show that transfected floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts bypassed senescence with a higher proliferation rate, but retain the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we for the first time demonstrate the establishment of an immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line.

  9. Bone regeneration by implantation of adipose-derived stromal cells expressing BMP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiwu; Dai Kerong; Tang Tingting; Zhang Xiaoling; Yan Mengning; Lou Jueren

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we reported that the adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) genetically modified by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) healed critical-sized canine ulnar bone defects. First, the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of the ADSCs derived from canine adipose tissue were demonstrated. And then the cells were modified by the BMP-2 gene and the expression and bone-induction ability of BMP-2 were identified. Finally, the cells modified by BMP-2 gene were applied to a β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) carrier and implanted into ulnar bone defects in the canine model. After 16 weeks, radiographic, histological, and histomorphometry analysis showed that ADSCs modified by BMP-2 gene produced a significant increase of newly formed bone area and healed or partly healed all of the bone defects. We conclude that ADSCs modified by the BMP-2 gene can enhance the repair of critical-sized bone defects in large animals

  10. Dexamethasone, BMP-2, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D enhance a more differentiated osteoblast phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Henriksen, Z; Sørensen, O H

    2004-01-01

    . Osteoblast phenotypes were induced by either dexamethasone (Dex) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Bone marrow was obtained from biopsies at the posterior iliac spine. Cells were isolated by gradient centrifugation and grown to confluence. Cells were treated with 1 nM 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (vitamin...... activity was increased by Dex, but not by BMP-2 treatment. P1NP production was decreased after Dex treatment, while BMP-2 had no effect on P1NP levels. Osteocalcin production was low in cultures not stimulated with vitamin D. Dex or BMP-2 treatment alone did not affect the basic osteocalcin levels......, but in combination with vitamin D, BMP-2 increased the osteocalcin production, while Dex treatment completely suppressed osteocalcin production. Further, PTH-induced cAMP production was greatly enhanced by Dex treatment, whereas BMP-2 did not affect cAMP production. Finally, in vitro mineralization was greatly...

  11. Immortalization and characterization of mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Li-An [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi-an (China); Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China); Ortiz-Gonzalez, Iris [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Yang, Wuchen; Cui, Yong [Department of Periodontics, Dental School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); MacDougall, Mary [Department of Oral/Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States); Donly, Kevin J. [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Harris, Stephen [Department of Periodontics, Dental School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Chen, Shuo, E-mail: chens0@uthscsa.edu [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-08-14

    Generation of a floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line is a valuable tool for studying the modulatory effects of Bmp2 and Bmp4 on osteoblast differentiation as well as relevant molecular events. In this study, primary floxed Bmp2/4 mouse osteoblasts were cultured and transfected with simian virus 40 large T-antigen. Transfection was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To examine the characteristics of the transfected cells, morphology, proliferation and mineralization were analyzed, expression of cell-specific genes including Runx2, ATF4, Dlx3, Osx, dentin matrix protein 1, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and collagen type I was detected. These results show that transfected floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts bypassed senescence with a higher proliferation rate, but retain the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we for the first time demonstrate the establishment of an immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line.

  12. Increased bone morphogenetic protein signaling contributes to age-related declines in neurogenesis and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Emily A; Gobeske, Kevin T; Bond, Allison M; Jarrett, Jennifer C; Peng, Chian-Yu; Kessler, John A

    2016-02-01

    Aging is associated with decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and diminished hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) increases with age by more than 10-fold in the mouse dentate gyrus while levels of the BMP inhibitor, noggin, decrease. This results in a profound 30-fold increase in phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8, the effector of canonical BMP signaling. Just as observed in mice, a profound increase in expression of BMP4 is observed in the dentate gyrus of humans with no known cognitive abnormalities. Inhibition of BMP signaling either by overexpression of noggin or transgenic manipulation not only increases neurogenesis in aging mice, but remarkably, is associated with a rescue of cognitive deficits to levels comparable to young mice. Additive benefits are observed when combining inhibition of BMP signaling and environmental enrichment. These findings indicate that increased BMP signaling contributes significantly to impairments in neurogenesis and to cognitive decline associated with aging, and identify this pathway as a potential druggable target for reversing age-related changes in cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Control of stochastic resonance in bistable systems by using periodic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Lin; Li-Min, Fang; Yong-Jun, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    According to the characteristic structure of double wells in bistable systems, this paper analyses stochastic fluctuations in the single potential well and probability transitions between the two potential wells and proposes a method of controlling stochastic resonance by using a periodic signal. Results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the phenomenon of stochastic resonance happens when the time scales of the periodic signal and the noise-induced probability transitions between the two potential wells achieve stochastic synchronization. By adding a bistable system with a controllable periodic signal, fluctuations in the single potential well can be effectively controlled, thus affecting the probability transitions between the two potential wells. In this way, an effective control can be achieved which allows one to either enhance or realize stochastic resonance

  14. Identification of the feedforward component in manual control with predictable target signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drop, Frank M; Pool, Daan M; Damveld, Herman J; van Paassen, Marinus M; Mulder, Max

    2013-12-01

    In the manual control of a dynamic system, the human controller (HC) often follows a visible and predictable reference path. Compared with a purely feedback control strategy, performance can be improved by making use of this knowledge of the reference. The operator could effectively introduce feedforward control in conjunction with a feedback path to compensate for errors, as hypothesized in literature. However, feedforward behavior has never been identified from experimental data, nor have the hypothesized models been validated. This paper investigates human control behavior in pursuit tracking of a predictable reference signal while being perturbed by a quasi-random multisine disturbance signal. An experiment was done in which the relative strength of the target and disturbance signals were systematically varied. The anticipated changes in control behavior were studied by means of an ARX model analysis and by fitting three parametric HC models: two different feedback models and a combined feedforward and feedback model. The ARX analysis shows that the experiment participants employed control action on both the error and the target signal. The control action on the target was similar to the inverse of the system dynamics. Model fits show that this behavior can be modeled best by the combined feedforward and feedback model.

  15. Controlling microwave signals by means of slow and fast light effects in SOA-EA structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, Salvador; Öhman, Filip; Capmany, José

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel scheme for the control of microwave signals in the optical domain. We propose the use of alternating amplifying and absorbing sections to implement phase control by using fast and slow light effects in semiconductors. The potential benefits from the proposed semiconductor optic...

  16. PULSE REFERENCED CONTROL METHOD FOR ENHANCED POWER AMPLIFICATION OF A PULSE MODULATED SIGNAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    , by introducing continuous delays on the individual pulse edges on the basis of error information provided by an error processing block. One preferred embodiment of the invention comprises: a Correction Unit with means to control the delays of the individual pulse edges as a function of a control input signal $i...

  17. Role of ID Proteins in BMP4 Inhibition of Profibrotic Effects of TGF-β2 in Human TM Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Avani A; Wordinger, Robert J; Clark, Abbot F

    2017-02-01

    Increased expression of TGF-β2 in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) aqueous humor (AH) and trabecular meshwork (TM) causes deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the TM and elevated IOP. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate TGF-β2-induced ECM production. The underlying mechanism for BMP4 inhibition of TGF-β2-induced fibrosis remains undetermined. Bone morphogenic protein 4 induces inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (ID1, ID3), which suppress transcription factor activities to regulate gene expression. Our study will determine whether ID1and ID3 proteins are downstream targets of BMP4, which attenuates TGF-β2 induction of ECM proteins in TM cells. Primary human TM cells were treated with BMP4, and ID1 and ID3 mRNA, and protein expression was determined by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and Western immunoblotting. Intracellular ID1 and ID3 protein localization was studied by immunocytochemistry. Transformed human TM cells (GTM3 cells) were transfected with ID1 or ID3 expression vectors to determine their potential inhibitory effects on TGF-β2-induced fibronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-I (PAI-1) protein expression. Basal expression of ID1-3 was detected in primary human TM cells. Bone morphogenic protein 4 significantly induced early expression of ID1 and ID3 mRNA (P protein in primary TM cells, and a BMP receptor inhibitor blocked this induction. Overexpression of ID1 and ID3 significantly inhibited TGF-β2-induced expression of fibronectin and PAI-1 in TM cells (P protein 4 induced ID1 and ID3 expression suppresses TGF-β2 profibrotic activity in human TM cells. In the future, targeting specific regulators may control the TGF-β2 profibrotic effects on the TM, leading to disease modifying IOP lowering therapies.

  18. 2,2'-Bis(monoacylglycero) PO4 (BMP), but Not 3,1'-BMP, increases membrane curvature stress to enhance α-tocopherol transfer protein binding to membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptist, Matilda; Panagabko, Candace; Nickels, Jonathan D; Katsaras, John; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Previous work revealed that α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) co-localizes with bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) in late endosomes. BMP is a lipid unique to late endosomes and is believed to induce membrane curvature and support the multivesicular nature of this organelle. We examined the effect of BMP on α-TTP binding to membranes using dual polarization interferometry and vesicle-binding assay. α-TTP binding to membranes is increased by the curvature-inducing lipid BMP. α-TTP binds to membranes with greater affinity when they contain the 2,2'-BMP versus 3,1'-BMP isomers.

  19. Cathepsin H indirectly regulates morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) in various human cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojnik, Matija; Jevnikar, Zala; Mirkovic, Bojana; Janes, Damjan; Zidar, Nace; Kikelj, Danijel; Kos, Janko

    2011-01-01

    Background Cathepsin H is a cysteine protease considered to play a major role in tumor progression, however, its precise function in tumorigenesis is unclear. Cathepsin H was recently proposed to be involved in processing of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) in mice. In order to clarify whether cathepsin H also regulates BMP-4 in humans, its impact on BMP-4 expression, processing and degradation was investigated in prostate cancer (PC-3), osteosarcoma (HOS) and pro-monocytic (U937) human cell lines. Materials and methods BMP-4 expression was founded to be regulated by cathepsin H using PCR array technology and confirmed by real time PCR. Immunoassays including Western blot and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the influence of cathepsin H on BMP-4 processing. Results In contrast to HOS, the expression of BMP-4 mRNA in U937 and PC3 cells was significantly decreased by cathepsin H. The different regulation of BMP-4 synthesis could be associated with the absence of the mature 28 kDa cathepsin H form in HOS cells, where only the intermediate 30 kDa form was observed. No co-localization of BMP-4 and cathepsin H was observed in human cell lines and the multistep processing of BMP-4 was not altered in the presence of specific cathepsin H inhibitor. Isolated cathepsin H does not cleave mature recombinant BMP-4, neither with its amino- nor its endopeptidase activity. Conclusions Our results exclude direct proteolytic processing of BMP-4 by cathepsin H, however, they provide support for its involvement in the regulation of BMP-4 expression. PMID:22933963

  20. Design of human controlled 1 DOF right hand exoskeleton using electromyography signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, M.; Wijaya, S. K.; Prawito

    2017-07-01

    Exoskeleton in general is a structure that is anatomically designed to be able to accommodate the physical movement of its user and provide additional strength. The use of EMG signal to control a 1 DOF right arm exoskeleton is evaluated in this research. This research aims to achieve optimum control using EMG signal. EMG signal is a variation of voltage that occurs when muscle contracts hence its strong correlation with the user's intention of movement. The RMS values of each EMG signal that originates from bicep and tricep muscle are calculated and processed to determine the direction and speed of rotation of a DC motor that actuates the exoskeleton. The RMS calculation is conducted at various array length that will theoretically affect its accuracy. The difference between those two RMS values is then calculated and interpreted as the intention of flexion or extension movement that will control the DC motor rotational direction. The absolute value of the RMS difference multiplied with a gain factor is used to regulate the duty cycle of a PWM signal that is used to control the rotational speed of the DC motor. To achieve the smallest settling time, array length and gain factor were varied. The test was conducted in two stages, static and dynamic tests. The test result shows a trend where the settling time decreases when array length is shortened and gain is increased. It shows that optimum control can be achieved by selecting the right array length and gain.

  1. Multiobjective Traffic Signal Control Model for Intersection Based on Dynamic Turning Movements Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time traffic signal control for intersection requires dynamic turning movements as the basic input data. It is impossible to detect dynamic turning movements directly through current traffic surveillance systems, but dynamic origin-destination (O-D estimation can obtain it. However, the combined models of dynamic O-D estimation and real-time traffic signal control are rare in the literature. A framework for the multiobjective traffic signal control model for intersection based on dynamic O-D estimation (MSC-DODE is presented. A state-space model using Kalman filtering is first formulated to estimate the dynamic turning movements; then a revised sequential Kalman filtering algorithm is designed to solve the model, and the root mean square error and mean percentage error are used to evaluate the accuracy of estimated dynamic turning proportions. Furthermore, a multiobjective traffic signal control model is put forward to achieve real-time signal control parameters and evaluation indices. Finally, based on practical survey data, the evaluation indices from MSC-DODE are compared with those from Webster method. The actual and estimated turning movements are further input into MSC-DODE, respectively, and results are also compared. Case studies show that results of MSC-DODE are better than those of Webster method and are very close to unavailable actual values.

  2. Chemical signal activation of an organocatalyst enables control over soft material formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trausel, Fanny; Maity, Chandan; Poolman, Jos M; Kouwenberg, D S J; Versluis, Frank; van Esch, Jan H; Eelkema, Rienk

    2017-10-12

    Cells can react to their environment by changing the activity of enzymes in response to specific chemical signals. Artificial catalysts capable of being activated by chemical signals are rare, but of interest for creating autonomously responsive materials. We present an organocatalyst that is activated by a chemical signal, enabling temporal control over reaction rates and the formation of materials. Using self-immolative chemistry, we design a deactivated aniline organocatalyst that is activated by the chemical signal hydrogen peroxide and catalyses hydrazone formation. Upon activation of the catalyst, the rate of hydrazone formation increases 10-fold almost instantly. The responsive organocatalyst enables temporal control over the formation of gels featuring hydrazone bonds. The generic design should enable the use of a large range of triggers and organocatalysts, and appears a promising method for the introduction of signal response in materials, constituting a first step towards achieving communication between artificial chemical systems.Enzymes regulated by chemical signals are common in biology, but few such artificial catalysts exist. Here, the authors design an aniline catalyst that, when activated by a chemical trigger, catalyses formation of hydrazone-based gels, demonstrating signal response in a soft material.

  3. Signal-Noise Ratio Control Subsystem of Digital Equipment for Transmission of "Strela" Relay Protection Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zabenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurement function of relative noise and interference level in the information transmission channel is considered as an important one for controlling parameters of high-frequency signal. The present paper simulates an algorithm for measuring signal-noise ratio in the transmission channel of high-voltage lines which is used in the digital equipment for transmission of relay protection and emergency automation commands of "Strela" complex.

  4. A new traffic control design method for large networks with signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G. G.; Colony, D. C.; Seldner, K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a traffic control design technique for application to large traffic networks with signalized intersections. It is shown that the design method adopts a macroscopic viewpoint to establish a new traffic modelling procedure in which vehicle platoons are subdivided into main stream queues and turning queues. Optimization of the signal splits minimizes queue lengths in the steady state condition and improves traffic flow conditions, from the viewpoint of the traveling public. Finally, an application of the design method to a traffic network with thirty-three signalized intersections is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  5. Regulation of α5 and αV Integrin Expression by GDF-5 and BMP-7 in Chondrocyte Differentiation and Osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garciadiego-Cázares

    Full Text Available The Integrin β1 family is the major receptors of the Extracellular matrix (ECM, and the synthesis and degradation balance of ECM is seriously disrupted during Osteoarthritis (OA. In this scenario, integrins modify their pattern expression and regulate chondrocyte differentiation in the articular cartilage. Members of the Transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-β Superfamily, such as Growth differentiation factor 5 (Gdf-5 and Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp-7, play a key role in joint formation and could regulate the integrin expression during chondrocyte differentiation and osteoarthritis progression in an experimental OA rat model. Decrease of α5 integrin expression in articular cartilage was related with chondrocyte dedifferentiation during OA progression, while increase of α1, α2, and α3 integrin expression was related with fibrous areas in articular cartilage during OA. Hypertrophic chondrocytes expressed αV integrin and was increased in the articular cartilage of rats with OA. Integrin expression during chondrocyte differentiation was also analyzed in a micromass culture system of mouse embryo mesenchymal cells, micromass cultures was treated with Gdf-5 or Bmp-7 for 4 and 6 days, respectively. Gdf-5 induced the expression of the α5 sub-unit, while Bmp-7 induced the expression of the αV sub-unit. This suggests a switch in signaling for prehypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation towards hypertrophy, where Gdf-5 could maintain the articular chondrocyte phenotype and Bmp-7 would induce hypertrophy. Decrease of Ihh expression during late stages of OA in rat model suggest that the ossification in OA rat knees and endochondral ossification could be activated by Bmp-7 and αV integrin in absence of Ihh. Thus, chondrocyte phenotype in articular cartilage is similar to prehypetrophic chondrocyte in growth plate, and is preserved due to the presence of Indian hedgehog (Ihh, Gdf-5 and α5 integrin to maintain articular cartilage and prevent

  6. Progesterone receptor activates Msx2 expression by downregulating TNAP/Akp2 and activating the Bmp pathway in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Fleming

    Full Text Available Previously we demonstrated that EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells induced the homeobox transcription factor Msx2 either when transfected with the progesterone receptor (PR or when treated with Bmp2/4. Msx2 upregulation was unaffected by Wnt inhibitors s-FRP or Dkk1, but was inhibited by the Bmp antagonist Noggin. We therefore hypothesized that PR signaling to Msx2 acts through the Bmp receptor pathway. Herein, we confirm that transcripts for Alk2/ActR1A, a non-canonical BmpR Type I, are upregulated in mammary epithelial cells overexpressing PR (EpH4-PR. Increased phosphorylation of Smads 1,5, 8, known substrates for Alk2 and other BmpR Type I proteins, was observed as was their translocation to the nucleus in EpH4-PR cells. Analysis also showed that Tissue Non-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP/Akp2 was also found to be downregulated in EpH4-PR cells. When an Akp2 promoter-reporter construct containing a ½PRE site was transfected into EpH4-PR cells, its expression was downregulated. Moreover, siRNA mediated knockdown of Akp2 increased both Alk2 and Msx2 expression. Collectively these data suggest that PR inhibition of Akp2 results in increased Alk2 activity, increased phosphorylation of Smads 1,5,8, and ultimately upregulation of Msx2. These studies imply that re-activation of the Akp2 gene could be helpful in downregulating aberrant Msx2 expression in PR+ breast cancers.

  7. POSITION CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR BASED ON DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin GENÇER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brushless DC Motors (BLDC have been used widely high performance control systems which are depended on to development of power electronic and control technology. In these motors to fed commutated supply, the control of position without oscilation has been required. In this study, position control of BLDC with digital signal processing has been implemented by a proportional-derivative (PD controller because of its simple structure. It has been seen that the controller which is proposed from simulation and experimental studies, has a quick dynamic responce with nonoscillation.

  8. Cell proliferation control by Notch signalling during imaginal discs development in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Notch signalling pathway is evolutionary conserved and participates in numerous developmental processes, including the control of cell proliferation. However, Notch signalling can promote or restrain cell division depending on the developmental context, as has been observed in human cancer where Notch can function as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene. Thus, the outcome of Notch signalling can be influenced by the cross-talk between Notch and other signalling pathways. The use of model organisms such as Drosophila has been proven to be very valuable to understand the developmental role of the Notch pathway in different tissues and its relationship with other signalling pathways during cell proliferation control. Here we review recent studies in Drosophila that shed light in the developmental control of cell proliferation by the Notch pathway in different contexts such as the eye, wing and leg imaginal discs. We also discuss the autonomous and non-autonomous effects of the Notch pathway on cell proliferation and its interactions with different signalling pathways.

  9. Cell saver filtering of extravasated rhBMP-2 after degenerative scoliosis reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Liu, MBBCh, MSc, FRCS, FAMS (Orth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RhBMP-2 is a bone fusion enhancer commonly used in scoliosis reconstruction surgery. It is delivered via an absorbable collagen sponge but has been known to migrate away from its delivery site. RhBMP-2 extravasation in surgical drainage has been noted during first two days post-surgery. Cell savers are widely used in scoliosis reconstruction to limit transfusion requirements and are commonly deployed in cases where rhBMP-2 is used for fusion augmentation. It is not known whether rhBMP-2 is present in salvaged blood or filtered away during cell saver recycling. Through this case series of four patients who underwent scoliosis reconstruction, we assess cell saver efficacy in filtering rhBMP-2 molecules by quantifying the amount of rhBMP-2 present in salvaged blood obtained after postoperative drainage recycling by OrthoPAT® cell saver and comparing it to rhBMP-2 leakage in postoperative drainage without cell saver recycling. We report an almost 10-fold reduction of rhBMP-2 concentration in salvaged blood obtained after cell saver recycling of postoperative drainage, suggesting cell saver effectiveness in filtering rhBMP-2 molecules.

  10. Agmatine modulates melanogenesis via MITF signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Moon-Moo

    2017-01-01

    Agmatine contained in soybean is also found in Manaca, an anti-aging plant, inhabited in Amazon and induces vasodilation by the promotion of NO synthesis in blood vessel. However, the research of agmatine on melanin synthesis related to hair greying is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the melanogenic effect of agmatine via regulation of MITF signaling pathway in B16F1 cells. It was determined whether agmatine regulates melanin synthesis at cellular level in addition to the effect of agmatine on mushroom tyrosinase in vitro in the presence of different concentrations of agmatine. Furthermore, the effect of agmatine on the protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, C-KIT, p-p38, MITF and C-FOS were examined by western blot analysis. In addition, immunofluorescence staining was carried out to visualize the location of MITF expression in cell. Agmatine at 256μM or more increased melanin synthesis as well as tyrosinase activity. Moreover, whereas agmatine increased the expression levels of TRP-1, BMP-6, p-p38 and MITF, it reduced the expression level of BMP-4. It was also found that agmatine enhanced the expression level of MITF in nucleus. These results suggest that agmatine could induce melanin synthesis though the regulation of MITF transcription factor via BMP-6/p38 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. TGF-β prevents phosphate-induced osteogenesis through inhibition of BMP and Wnt/β-catenin pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Guerrero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β is a key cytokine during differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC. High phosphate induces a phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC into osteogenic-like cells. This study was aimed to evaluate signaling pathways involved during VSMC differentiation of MSC in presence or not of high phosphate. RESULTS: Our results showed that TGF-β induced nuclear translocation of Smad3 as well as the expression of vascular smooth muscle markers, such as smooth muscle alpha actin, SM22α, myocardin, and smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain. The addition of high phosphate to MSC promoted nuclear translocation of Smad1/5/8 and the activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin in addition to an increase in BMP-2 expression, calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. The administration of TGF-β to MSC treated with high phosphate abolished all these effects by inhibiting canonical Wnt, BMP and TGF-β pathways. A similar outcome was observed in high phosphate-treated cells after the inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with Dkk-1. Conversely, addition of both Wnt/β-catenin activators CHIR98014 and lithium chloride enhanced the effect of high phosphate on BMP-2, calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. CONCLUSIONS: Full VSMC differentiation induced by TGF-β may not be achieved when extracellular phosphate levels are high. Moreover, TGF-β prevents high phosphate-induced osteogenesis by decreasing the nuclear translocation of Smad 1/5/8 and avoiding the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  12. Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP) - Predoctoral Traineeship - Elucidating the Role of the Type III Transforming Growth Factor-beta Receptor in Bone Morphogenetic Signaling in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    phosphorylation in the pancreatic cancer cell model, Panc -1 (data not shown). This data emphasize that TβRIII’s role in BMP signaling is likely to be cell... Panc -1 cells were adenovirally infected with TβRIII, followed by BMP-4-induced EMT. The cells were then plated in Matrigel invasion chambers. A...BMP-2, while loss of TβRIII in Panc -1 (pancreatic cancer cells) increased cell sensitivity to BMP-2 and had no effect on MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer

  13. Intersection signal control multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanhong Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signal control intersection increases not only vehicle delay, but also vehicle emissions and fuel consumption in that area. Because more and more fuel and air pollution problems arise recently, an intersection signal control optimization method which aims at reducing vehicle emissions, fuel consumption and vehicle delay is required heavily. This paper proposed a signal control multi-object optimization method to reduce vehicle emissions, fuel consumption and vehicle delay simultaneously at an intersection. The optimization method combined the Paramics microscopic traffic simulation software, Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model (CMEM, and genetic algorithm. An intersection in Haizhu District, Guangzhou, was taken for a case study. The result of the case study shows the optimal timing scheme obtained from this method is better than the Webster timing scheme.

  14. Signal Propagation Delay as a Barrier to Control Applications in WAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Patel, A.; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    With the advent in WAN of delay sensitive technical applications, such as remote control, signal propagation delay becomes a major problem. The extent of the problem is analysed by lower bounding the delay in relation to different transmission media. Requirements for reliability and bandwidth are...... are considered. The consequences of this bounding for communication network planning and provisioning are discussed in relation to mitigating the effects of signal propagation delay as a barrier to the penetration of control applications into WAN......With the advent in WAN of delay sensitive technical applications, such as remote control, signal propagation delay becomes a major problem. The extent of the problem is analysed by lower bounding the delay in relation to different transmission media. Requirements for reliability and bandwidth...

  15. Superoxide dismutases: Dual roles in controlling ROS damage and regulating ROS signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Branicky, Robyn; Noë, Alycia; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2018-04-18

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are universal enzymes of organisms that live in the presence of oxygen. They catalyze the conversion of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Superoxide anions are the intended product of dedicated signaling enzymes as well as the byproduct of several metabolic processes including mitochondrial respiration. Through their activity, SOD enzymes control the levels of a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species, thus both limiting the potential toxicity of these molecules and controlling broad aspects of cellular life that are regulated by their signaling functions. All aerobic organisms have multiple SOD proteins targeted to different cellular and subcellular locations, reflecting the slow diffusion and multiple sources of their substrate superoxide. This compartmentalization also points to the need for fine local control of ROS signaling and to the possibility for ROS to signal between compartments. In this review, we discuss studies in model organisms and humans, which reveal the dual roles of SOD enzymes in controlling damage and regulating signaling. © 2018 Wang et al.

  16. Urban Traffic Signal System Control Structural Optimization Based on Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced urban traffic signal control systems such as SCOOT and SCATS normally coordinate traffic network using multilevel hierarchical control mechanism. In this mechanism, several key intersections will be selected from traffic signal network and the network will be divided into different control subareas. Traditionally, key intersection selection and control subareas division are executed according to dynamic traffic counts and link length between intersections, which largely rely on traffic engineers’ experience. However, it omits important inherent characteristics of traffic network topology. In this paper, we will apply network analysis approach into these two aspects for traffic system control structure optimization. Firstly, the modified C-means clustering algorithm will be proposed to assess the importance of intersections in traffic network and furthermore determine the key intersections based on three indexes instead of merely on traffic counts in traditional methods. Secondly, the improved network community discovery method will be used to give more reasonable evidence in traffic control subarea division. Finally, to test the effectiveness of network analysis approach, a hardware-in-loop simulation environment composed of regional traffic control system, microsimulation software and signal controller hardware, will be built. Both traditional method and proposed approach will be implemented on simulation test bed to evaluate traffic operation performance indexes, for example, travel time, stop times, delay and average vehicle speed. Simulation results show that the proposed network analysis approach can improve the traffic control system operation performance effectively.

  17. Chromatic signals control proboscis movements during hovering flight in the hummingbird hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyret, Joaquín; Kelber, Almut

    2012-01-01

    Most visual systems are more sensitive to luminance than to colour signals. Animals resolve finer spatial detail and temporal changes through achromatic signals than through chromatic ones. Probably, this explains that detection of small, distant, or moving objects is typically mediated through achromatic signals. Macroglossum stellatarum are fast flying nectarivorous hawkmoths that inspect flowers with their long proboscis while hovering. They can visually control this behaviour using floral markings known as nectar guides. Here, we investigate whether this is mediated by chromatic or achromatic cues. We evaluated proboscis placement, foraging efficiency, and inspection learning of naïve moths foraging on flower models with coloured markings that offered either chromatic, achromatic or both contrasts. Hummingbird hawkmoths could use either achromatic or chromatic signals to inspect models while hovering. We identified three, apparently independent, components controlling proboscis placement: After initial contact, 1) moths directed their probing towards the yellow colour irrespectively of luminance signals, suggesting a dominant role of chromatic signals; and 2) moths tended to probe mainly on the brighter areas of models that offered only achromatic signals. 3) During the establishment of the first contact, naïve moths showed a tendency to direct their proboscis towards the small floral marks independent of their colour or luminance. Moths learned to find nectar faster, but their foraging efficiency depended on the flower model they foraged on. Our results imply that M. stellatarum can perceive small patterns through colour vision. We discuss how the different informational contents of chromatic and luminance signals can be significant for the control of flower inspection, and visually guided behaviours in general.

  18. Hierarchical Colored Petri Nets for Modeling and Analysis of Transit Signal Priority Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisheng An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of developing a model for traffic signal control with transit priority using Hierarchical Colored Petri nets (HCPN. Petri nets (PN are useful for state analysis of discrete event systems due to their powerful modeling capability and mathematical formalism. This paper focuses on their use to formalize the transit signal priority (TSP control model. In a four-phase traffic signal control model, the transit detection and two kinds of transit priority strategies are integrated to obtain the HCPN-based TSP control models. One of the advantages to use these models is the clear presentation of traffic light behaviors in terms of conditions and events that cause the detection of a priority request by a transit vehicle. Another advantage of the resulting models is that the correctness and reliability of the proposed strategies are easily analyzed. After their full reachable states are generated, the boundness, liveness, and fairness of the proposed models are verified. Experimental results show that the proposed control model provides transit vehicles with better effectiveness at intersections. This work helps advance the state of the art in the design of signal control models related to the intersection of roadways.

  19. Dual Delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF from a New Nano-Composite Scaffold, Loaded with Vascular Stents for Large-Size Mandibular Defect Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and advantages of the dual delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF from nano-composite scaffolds (PLGA/PCL/nHA loaded with vascular stents (PLCL/Col/nHA for large bone defect regeneration in rabbit mandibles. Thirty-six large bone defects were repaired in rabbits using engineering bone composed of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs, bFGF, BMP-2 and scaffolds composed of PLGA/PCL/nHA loaded with PLCL/Col/nHA. The experiments were divided into six groups: BMSCs/bFGF/BMP-2/scaffold, BMSCs/BMP-2/scaffold, BMSCs/bFGF/scaffold, BMSCs/scaffold, scaffold alone and no treatment. Sodium alginate hydrogel was used as the carrier for BMP-2 and bFGF and its features, including gelling, degradation and controlled release properties, was detected by the determination of gelation and degradation time coupled with a controlled release study of bovine serum albumin (BSA. AlamarBlue assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity were used to evaluate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in different groups. X-ray and histological examinations of the samples were performed after 4 and 12 weeks post-implantation to clarify new bone formation in the mandible defects. The results verified that the use of sodium alginate hydrogel as a controlled release carrier has good sustained release ability, and the combined application of bFGF and BMP-2 could significantly promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01. In addition, X-ray and histological examinations of the samples exhibited that the dual release group had significantly higher bone formation than the other groups. The above results indicate that the delivery of both growth factors could enhance new bone formation and vascularization compared with delivery of BMP-2 or bFGF alone, and may supply a promising way of repairing large

  20. An experimental setup to evaluate innovative therapy options for the enhancement of bone healing using BMP as a benchmark – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Preininger

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical or delayed bone healing in rat osteotomy (OT models is mostly achieved through large defects or instability. We aimed to design a rat OT model for impaired bone healing based on age, gender and parity. The outcome should be controllable through variations of the haematoma in the OT including a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 2 guided positive control.Using external fixation to stabilise femoral a 2 mm double OT in 12 month old, female Sprague Dawley rats after a minimum of 3 litters healing was characterised following in situ haematoma formation (ISH-group, transplantation of a BMP charged autologous blood clot (BMP-group and the artificial blood clot only (ABC-group into the OT-gap. In vivo micro-computer tomography (µCT scans were performed after 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After 6 weeks specimens underwent histological analyses.In µCT examinations and histological analyses no bony bridging was observed in all but one animal in the ISH-group. In the BMP group complete bridging was achieved in all animals. The ABC-group showed less mineralised tissue formation and smaller bridging scores during the course of healing than the ISH-group.In this pilot study we introduce a model for impaired bone healing taking the major biological risk factors into account. We could show that the in situ fracture haematoma is essential for bone regeneration. Using BMP as a positive control the presented experimental setup can serve to evaluate innovative therapeutical concepts in long bone application.

  1. Complex motion of a vehicle through a series of signals controlled by power-law phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a vehicle moving through the series of traffic signals controlled by the position-dependent phase of power law. All signals are controlled by both cycle time and position-dependent phase. The dynamic model of the vehicular motion is described in terms of the nonlinear map. The vehicular motion varies in a complex manner by varying cycle time for various values of the power of the position-dependent phase. The vehicle displays the periodic motion with a long cycle for the integer power of the phase, while the vehicular motion exhibits the very complex behavior for the non-integer power of the phase.

  2. Small-Signal Analysis of the Microgrid Secondary Control Considering a Communication Time Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coelho, Ernane Antônio Alves; Wu, Dan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a small-signal analysis of an islanded microgrid composed of two or more voltage-source inverters connected in parallel. The primary control of each inverter is integrated through an internal current and voltage loops using proportional resonant compensators, a virtual impedance......, and an external power controller based on frequency and voltage droops. The frequency restoration function is implemented at the secondary control level, which executes a consensus algorithm that consists of a load-frequency control and a single time delay communication network. The consensus network consists...... the behavior of the system considering control parameters and time delay variation....

  3. Foraging Value, Risk Avoidance, and Multiple Control Signals: How the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Controls Value-based Decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua W; Alexander, William H

    2017-10-01

    Recent work on the role of the ACC in cognition has focused on choice difficulty, action value, risk avoidance, conflict resolution, and the value of exerting control among other factors. A main underlying question is what are the output signals of ACC, and relatedly, what is their effect on downstream cognitive processes? Here we propose a model of how ACC influences cognitive processing in other brain regions that choose actions. The model builds on the earlier Predicted Response Outcome model and suggests that ACC learns to represent specifically the states in which the potential costs or risks of an action are high, on both short and long timescales. It then uses those cost signals as a basis to bias decisions to minimize losses while maximizing gains. The model simulates both proactive and reactive control signals and accounts for a variety of empirical findings regarding value-based decision-making.

  4. Acellular dermal matrix loading with bFGF achieves similar acceleration of bone regeneration to BMP-2 via differential effects on recruitment, proliferation and sustained osteodifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Mi; Zhu, Ting; Duan, Xiaoqi; Ge, Shaohua; Li, Ning; Sun, Qinfeng; Yang, Pishan

    2017-01-01

    New generation of barrier membranes has been developed, which not only act as barriers but also as delivery devices to release specific growth factors. This study observed biological behaviors of bone morrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) pretreated by bFGF or BMP-2 in vitro and evaluated differential bone regeneration process induced by bFGF and BMP-2 loaded acellular dermal matrix (ADM) membrane using critical-size rat calvarial defect model in vivo. The results showed that the proliferation capability of BMMSCs pretreated by bFGF was stronger than that by BMP-2, while there was temporally differential effect of bFGF and BMP-2 pretreatment on MSC osteogenic differentiation potentials. During healing process of rat calvarial defects, 2-fold more CD34 −/CD90 + MSCs in group of bFGF-ADM was observed than in any other treatment group at 2 weeks. However, there were similar amount of new bone formation and expression of osteopotin in newly-formed bone tissue in groups of bFGF- and BMP-2-ADM at 8 weeks, which were more than those in ADM alone and blank control. Taken together, bFGF-ADM guided similar bone regeneration to BMP-2 through more efficient recruitment of MSCs, and moreover, BMMSCs pretreated by bFGF showed stronger proliferation at 1–5 days and osteogenic differentiation potentials at 14 days compared with BMP-2 pretreatment. - Highlights: • An improved barrier membrane used in the field of bone tissue engineering was proposed, which is acellular dermal matrix (ADM) loaded with growth factors. • It is generally agreed that BMP-2 and -7 provide the greatest bone regeneration potentials, however, we found that ADM loading with bFGF could guide similar bone regeneration to BMP-2. • Compared with BMP-2, bFGF could more effectively recruit MSCs and moreover, BMMSCs pretreated by bFGF showed out stronger proliferation at 1-5 days and osteogenic differentiation potentials at 14 days.

  5. Luminance and chromatic signals interact differently with melanopsin activation to control the pupil light response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, Pablo A; Cao, Dingcai

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin. These cells receive afferent inputs from rods and cones, which provide inputs to the postreceptoral visual pathways. It is unknown, however, how melanopsin activation is integrated with postreceptoral signals to control the pupillary light reflex. This study reports human flicker pupillary responses measured using stimuli generated with a five-primary photostimulator that selectively modulated melanopsin, rod, S-, M-, and L-cone excitations in isolation, or in combination to produce postreceptoral signals. We first analyzed the light adaptation behavior of melanopsin activation and rod and cones signals. Second, we determined how melanopsin is integrated with postreceptoral signals by testing with cone luminance, chromatic blue-yellow, and chromatic red-green stimuli that were processed by magnocellular (MC), koniocellular (KC), and parvocellular (PC) pathways, respectively. A combined rod and melanopsin response was also measured. The relative phase of the postreceptoral signals was varied with respect to the melanopsin phase. The results showed that light adaptation behavior for all conditions was weaker than typical Weber adaptation. Melanopsin activation combined linearly with luminance, S-cone, and rod inputs, suggesting the locus of integration with MC and KC signals was retinal. The melanopsin contribution to phasic pupil responses was lower than luminance contributions, but much higher than S-cone contributions. Chromatic red-green modulation interacted with melanopsin activation nonlinearly as described by a "winner-takes-all" process, suggesting the integration with PC signals might be mediated by a postretinal site.

  6. Bone regeneration of critical calvarial defect in goat model by PLGA/TCP/rhBMP-2 scaffolds prepared by low-temperature rapid-prototyping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D; Li, Q; Mu, X; Chang, T; Xiong, Z

    2008-10-01

    Active artificial bone composed of poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA)/ tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was prefabricated using low-temperature rapid-prototyping technology so that the process of osteogenesis could be observed in it. PLGA and TCP were the primary materials, they were molded at low temperature, then recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) was added to form an active artificial bone. Goats with standard cranial defects were randomly divided into experimental (implants with rhBMP-2 added) and control (implants without rhBMP-2) groups, and osteogenesis was observed and evaluated by imaging and biomechanical and histological examinations. The PLGA-TCP artificial bone scaffold (90% porosity) had large and small pores of approximately 360microm and 3-5microm diameter. Preliminary and complete repair of the cranial defect in the goats occurred 12 and 24 weeks after surgery, respectively. The three-point bending strength of the repaired defects attained that of the normal cranium. In conclusion, low-temperature rapid-prototyping technology can preserve the biological activity of this scaffold material. The scaffold has a good three-dimensional structure and it becomes an active artificial bone after loading with rhBMP-2 with a modest degradation rate and excellent osteogenesis in the goat.

  7. Cell intrinsic modulation of Wnt signaling controls neuroblast migration in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentink, Remco A; Middelkoop, Teije C; Rella, Lorenzo; Ji, Ni; Tang, Chung Yin; Betist, Marco C; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Korswagen, Hendrik C

    2014-10-27

    Members of the Wnt family of secreted signaling proteins are key regulators of cell migration and axon guidance. In the nematode C. elegans, the migration of the QR neuroblast descendants requires multiple Wnt ligands and receptors. We found that the migration of the QR descendants is divided into three sequential phases that are each mediated by a distinct Wnt signaling mechanism. Importantly, the transition from the first to the second phase, which is the main determinant of the final position of the QR descendants along the anteroposterior body axis, is mediated through a cell-autonomous process in which the time-dependent expression of a Wnt receptor turns on the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling response that is required to terminate long-range anterior migration. Our results show that, in addition to direct guidance of cell migration by Wnt morphogenic gradients, cell migration can also be controlled indirectly through cell-intrinsic modulation of Wnt signaling responses.

  8. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 1-D Wavelet Signal Analysis of the Actuators Nonlinearities Impact on the Healthy Control Systems Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Tudoroiu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the use of the 1-D wavelet analysis to extract several patterns from signals data sets collected from healthy and faulty input-output signals of control systems as a preliminary step in real-time implementation of fault detection diagnosis and isolation strategies. The 1-D wavelet analysis proved that is an useful tool for signals processing, design and analysis based on wavelet transforms found in a wide range of control systems industrial applications. Based on the fact that in the real life there is a great similitude between the phenomena, we are motivated to extend the applicability of these techniques to solve similar applications from control systems field, such is done in our research work. Their efficiency will be demonstrated on a case study mainly chosen to evaluate the impact of the uncertainties and the nonlinearities of the sensors and actuators on the overall performance of the control systems. The proposed techniques are able to extract in frequency domain some pattern features (signatures of interest directly from the signals data set collected by data acquisition equipment from the control system.

  10. Rab11-FIP3 Regulation of Lck Endosomal Traffic Controls TCR Signal Transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Jérôme; Del Río-Iñiguez, Iratxe; Vázquez-Chávez, Elena; Lasserre, Rémi; Agüera-González, Sonia; Cuche, Céline; McCaffrey, Mary W; Di Bartolo, Vincenzo; Alcover, Andrés

    2017-04-01

    The role of endosomes in receptor signal transduction is a long-standing question, whic