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  1. The link between BMI and waist circumference in northern Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults. Methods: In a population based cross- sectional study on 3600 adults, northern Iran, we investigated the link ...

  2. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. Bekkers (Marga); A.H. Wijga (Alet); U. Gehring (Ulrike); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); B. Brunekreef (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and

  3. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B.; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background: In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and large WC, with

  4. STUDY OF EFFECT OF BMI AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to evaluate any association between BMI, WC and Blood pressure and any tendency to develop prehypertension. The study comprises of 100 medical students of NRI medical college, Sangivalasa near Visakhapatnam. It was carried out ongirl students with age of 17 ye ars. Their BMI, WC and Blood pressure were determined. The examination included measurement of weight, height of the student to determine BMI, measurement of waist circumference, and measurement of blood pressure by sphygmomanometer. In the present study t he results are consistent with early clinical studies reporting that there is elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing BMI and waist circumference and there is tendency to develop prehypertension in students with higher BMI. Modificat ion of life style factors should be emphasized.

  5. BMI and waist circumference as indicators of health among Samoan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rachel; Nabokov, Vanessa; Derauf, Christopher; Grove, John; Vijayadeva, Vinutha

    2007-08-01

    High rates of obesity and chronic disease make establishment of effective indicators of risk for chronic disease important. The objective was to examine adequacy of anthropometric cut-off points as indicators of risk for chronic disease among Samoan women in Hawaii. A cross-sectional survey of 55 Samoan women 18 to 28 years of age that included blood lipids, cholesterol, and glucose (including after a 2-hour oral glucose test); anthropometry (weight, height, waist circumference); and DXA of body composition. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off points for BMI, 22% of women were overweight and 58% were obese. Cholesterol, lipid, and glucose values were all linearly related to DXA body fat, BMI, and waist circumference. BMI and waist circumference at WHO/NIH cut-off points predicted levels of blood lipids and glucose that indicate elevated risk for disease. WHO/NIH cut-off points for BMI and waist circumference reflect risk indicators of chronic disease among young Samoan women in Hawaii.

  6. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Natalia Cavalheri; de Oliveira, Erick Prado

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Objective To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. Methods A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87?...

  7. Waist circumference, BMI, and lung function in 8-year-old children : The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Wijga, Alet H.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Postma, Dirkje; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) may be associated with lung function in children, as observed in adults. Methods Height, weight, waist circumference, and lung function (FVC and FEV1) were measured during a medical examination in 1,058 eight-year-old children

  8. Changes in Adult BMI and Waist Circumference Are Associated with Increased Risk of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathirua-Mwangi, Wambui G; Monahan, Patrick; Song, Yiqing; Zollinger, Terrell W; Champion, Victoria L; Stump, Timothy E; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2017-11-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a stronger predictor of colon cancer (CRC) risk than body mass index (BMI). However, how well change in either WC or BMI predicts risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (AN) is unclear. To determine the relationship between change in BMI and WC from early adulthood to later age and the risk of AN and which change measure is a stronger predictor. In 4500 adults, ages 50-80, with no previous neoplasia and undergoing screening colonoscopy, BMI and WC at age 21 and at time of screening were reported. Changes in BMI and WC were defined using universal risk cutoffs. Known CRC risk factors were controlled in the logistic models. Overall, model statistics showed WC change (omnibus test χ 2  = 10.15, 2 DF, p value = 0.006) was a statistically stronger predictor of AN than BMI change (omnibus test χ 2  = 5.66, 5 DF, p value = 0.34). Independent of BMI change, participants who increased WC (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.05-1.96) or maintained a high-risk WC (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.38-4.53) at age 21 and at screening had an increased risk of AN compared to those with a low-risk WC. Study participants who were obese at age 21 and at screening had an increased risk of AN (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.08-3.23) compared to those who maintained a healthy BMI. Maintaining an overweight BMI or increasing BMI was not associated with AN. Maintaining an unhealthy BMI and WC throughout adult life may increase risk of AN. WC change may be a better predictor of AN than BMI change.

  9. Maternal prepregnancy waist circumference and BMI in relation to gestational weight gain and breastfeeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding behavior may influence long-term maternal abdominal fat mass. However, this could be confounded by abdominal fat mass before pregnancy because it is unknown whether abdominal fat mass, independently of body size......, affects GWG and breastfeeding behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how maternal prepregnancy fat distribution, described by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), is associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior. DESIGN: We analyzed 1371 live births to 1024 women after enrollment...... in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (1985-1996). For each birth, maternal prepregnancy BMI and WC were measured at year 0 (baseline), 2, 5, or 7 examinations. Recalled GWG and breastfeeding behavior were collected at years 7 and 10. GWG was analyzed by using linear regression...

  10. Carbonated beverages consumption among New Zealand youth and associations with BMI and waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundborn, G; Utter, J; Teevale, T; Metcalf, P; Jackson, R

    2014-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the carbonated beverage (soft drink) consumption patterns of New Zealand (NZ) youth and to investigate the influence that home availability of soft drinks had on their consumption. A secondary aim was to determine if there was an association between soft drink consumption and body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Data from Youth '07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of NZ youth, including 8,697 NZ students aged 13 to 17 years, were analysed. The relevant data was available for 8697 students of whom 4633 identified as NZ European. 1621 Māori, 1.098 Asian, 834 Pacific, and 504 Other. Twenty nine percent (29%) were categorised as high consumers of soft drinks (>4 times a week), 45.4% were moderate consumers (1-3 times a week), and 25.6% were low consumers (had not consumed soft drinks in the past week). Male gender, Pacific ethnicity, and high deprivation were all significantly associated with being in the high consumer group. Fifty eight percent (58%) of children who reported that soft drinks were 'usually' available at home were in the high consumption group, compared to 15.1% of children who reported that these drinks were never available at home. After adjusting for possible confounders, waist circumference was significantly associated with soft drink consumption (pdrink consumption for boys was 3.5 times per week and was 2.0 for girls. This study provides detailed information on soft drink consumption patterns of NZ youth and highlights factors associated with high consumption. Moderating the availability of soft drinks in the home is likely to significantly reduce their consumption among NZ youth.

  11. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Natalia Cavalheri; de Oliveira, Erick Prado

    2013-01-01

    Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87 years. It was registered the patients' weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m(2)), WC (cm) and SAD (cm), and these parameters were correlated with glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and blood pressure. After adjustment for gender and age, it was observed a positive correlation between SAD and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.20), glycemia (r = 0.20), triglycerides (r = 0.32), LDL (r = 0.26), total cholesterol (TC) (r = 0.33), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = -0.21) (p correlation between WC and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.14), triglycerides (r = 0.31), total cholesterol (r = 0.21), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = -0.24) (p correlation with systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.22), total cholesterol (r = 0.20), and triglycerides (r = 0.23) (p correlated with almost all the cardiovascular risk factors analyzed and it might be considered the best predictor of abdominal fat and cardiovascular risk.

  12. BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peige Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS. Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93. However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p < 0.001 and the agreement was weaker (κ = 0.76. The abdominal obesity prevalence estimates were significant different according to the two systems both in boys and girls, although the agreement reached to 0.88, which

  13. BMI-Specific Waist Circumference Thresholds to Discriminate Elevated Cardiometabolic Risk in White and African American Adults

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    Amanda E. Staiano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Waist circumference (WC is a useful anthropometric tool to estimate cardiometabolic risk. However, BMI influences the relationship between WC and health. This study determined BMI-, sex- and race-specific WC thresholds. Methods: The study sample included 6,452 whites and African Americans (AA aged 18-64 years. WC, BMI, and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in the clinic. An elevated cardiometabolic risk was defined as the presence of ≥2 cardiometabolic risk factors. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were used to determine BMI-, sex-, and race-specific WC thresholds. Results: Based on logistic regression, elevated WC within each BMI category was associated with higher cardiometabolic risk. The respective optimal BMI-specific WC thresholds for white women, AA women, white men, and AA men were as follows: 72, 76, 82, and 78 cm for normal-weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2; 87, 85, 95, and 92 cm for overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2; 97, 97, 107, and 104 cm for obese I (30-34.9 kg/m2; and 111, 110, 120, and 119 cm for obese II+ (≥35 kg/m2 participants. Sensitivities ranged from 52.7 to 73.3%, and specificities ranged from 57.1 to 73.5%. Conclusion: The proposed optimal BMI-, sex-, and race-specific WC thresholds are warranted for use in the clinical setting until representative standards become available based on results from longitudinal studies.

  14. Waist circumference is a better predictor of risk for frailty than BMI in the community-dwelling elderly in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiuju; Zheng, Zheng; Xiu, Shuangling; Chan, Piu

    2018-03-27

    Obesity is found to be associated with frailty. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are the commonly used measures for obesity, the former is more closely related to general obesity and body weight; the latter can more accurately reflect abdominal obesity and is more closely associated with metabolic disorders. In this study, we intend to study the relationship between frailty, BMI and WC among older people. Data were derived from the Beijing Longitudinal Study on Aging II Cohort, which included 6320 people 65 years or older from three urban districts in Beijing. A Frailty Index derived from 33 items was developed according to Rockwood's cumulative deficits method. A Frailty Index ≥ 0.25 was used as the cut-off criteria. BMI was classified as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese (BMI (≥ 28.0 kg/m 2 , 22.6%) or a larger WC (18.5%) were more likely to be frail. People with normal BMI and overweight people do not suffer from higher prevalence for frailty. In comparison with individuals with normal BMI (18.5-BMI and large WC (odds ratio 1.68; 95% CI 1.33-2.12), have overweight and large WC (odds ratio 1.58; 95% CI 1.23-1.96), or have obesity and large WC (odds ratio 2.28; 95% CI 1.79-2.89). In people with normal WC, only those who are underweight have a higher risk for frailty (odds ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.52). In comparison with BMI, the relation of WC with the risk for frailty was much closer. Abdominal obesity is more closely associated with incidence of frailty than general obesity in the elderly. Older adults with large waist circumference are more likely to be frail. Frailty in the elderly might be more closely related to metabolic disorders. WC might be a better measurement to detect frailty than BMI, given its relationship with metabolic disorders.

  15. The effects of socio-economic status on BMI, waist:hip ratio and waist circumference in a group of Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Mansour; Shahraki, Touran; Ansari, Hossein

    2008-07-01

    To assess the effects of socio-economic status (SES) on BMI, waist:hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC) in a group of Iranian women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 888 women in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. SES was measured using level of education. In addition, parity, marital status and physical activity were assessed. Standardized measurements were taken, BMI and WHR were calculated. Low education level was a strong determinant of overweight and obesity among Iranian women. After controlling for age, women with higher education level had significantly lower BMI, WC and parity. Multiple linear regression analysis found a significant negative association of BMI and WC with education level and a significant positive association of BMI and WC with parity. Significant factors associated with obesity by a logistic regression model were education level (OR for university graduates v. illiterate or low literacy levels: 1.00 v. 3.70; P = 0.01), living with spouse (OR for married v. single subjects: 1.00 v. 0.15; P = 0.05), parity (OR for more than five v. less than two pregnancies: 1.00 v. 0.34; P = 0.03) and WC (OR for or = 0.88 cm: 1.00 v. 11.20; P = 0.001). The present study revealed that educational level, multiple pregnancies, marital status and lack of exercise are some possible explanations for the obesity among Sistan and Baluchestan women.

  16. Food consumption, physical activity and socio-economic status related to BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Sandra; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Carla; Santos, Paula Clara; Mota, Jorge; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-08-01

    To examine the association between obesity and food group intakes, physical activity and socio-economic status in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008. Cole's cut-off points were used to categorize BMI. Abdominal obesity was defined by a waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, as well as a waist-to-height ratio at or above 0·500. Diet was evaluated using an FFQ, and the food group consumption was categorized using sex-specific tertiles of each food group amount. Physical activity was assessed via a self-report questionnaire. Socio-economic status was assessed referring to parental education and employment status. Data were analysed separately for girls and boys and the associations among food consumption, physical activity, socio-economic status and BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, adjusting the results for potential confounders. Public schools in the Azorean Archipelago, Portugal. Adolescents (n 1209) aged 15-18 years. After adjustment, in boys, higher intake of ready-to-eat cereals was a negative predictor while vegetables were a positive predictor of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. Active boys had lower odds of abdominal obesity compared with inactive boys. Boys whose mother showed a low education level had higher odds of abdominal obesity compared with boys whose mother presented a high education level. Concerning girls, higher intake of sweets and pastries was a negative predictor of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. Girls in tertile 2 of milk intake had lower odds of abdominal obesity than those in tertile 1. Girls whose father had no relationship with employment displayed higher odds of abdominal obesity compared with girls whose father had high employment status. We have found that different measures of obesity have distinct associations with food group intakes, physical activity and socio-economic status.

  17. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV1 at 12 years of age; the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H; de Jongste, Johan C; Smit, Henriette A; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and large WC, with

  18. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV1 at 12 years of age; the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B.; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background: In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and large WC, with

  19. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    of concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were...... for refined bread, but not for potatoes, after adjustment for concurrent BMI changes. Among women, but not men, high intakes of beer and spirits were associated with gain in WC in both models. A high intake of coffee for women and moderate to high intake of tea for men were associated with gain in WC...

  20. Is Waist-to-Height Ratio a Better Obesity Risk-Factor Indicator for Puerto Rican Children than is BMI or Waist Circumference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette

    2016-03-01

    Puerto Rican children could have a higher prevalence of obesity, compared to US children or even to US Hispanic children. Obese youths are more likely to have risk factors for cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension. Although BMI provides a simple, convenient measurement of obesity, it does not measure body fat distribution, associated with mortality and morbidity. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been suggested to estimate obesity health risks. This study aimed to explore the association of a single blood pressure reading with 3 different obesity indicators (WC, BMI, and WHtR). A representative sample of students (first to sixth grade) from public and private schools in Puerto Rico was selected. The sample size consisted of 249 students, representing a 63% response rate. According to the sex-specific BMIs, approximately 38.1% of the children were obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity was slightly higher when determined using WHtR but lower when using WC as the overweight indicator. The prevalence of high blood pressure among students was 12.5%; an additional 11.3% of the students were classified as possible prehypertensive. Regardless of the weight indicator used, overweight children were shown to have a higher risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension (as defined by a single BP measure) than were non-overweight children. The odds for high blood pressure were almost 3 times higher using WHtR. Logistic regression showed a stronger relationship between WHtR and the risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension than that between the former and either BMI or WC. This study suggests the possibility of higher prevalence of high blood pressure in obese Puerto Rican children. The waist-to height ratio could be the best indicator to measure obesity and potential hypertension in Puerto Rican children.

  1. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukri Mohammed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI and waist circumference (W_C, together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. Methods 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P ≤ 0.001. W_C and BMI was positively correlated with sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P Conclusions A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  2. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Kate S; Zaidi, Marya Z; Subhani, Shazia N; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Shoukri, Mohammed; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2010-05-09

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (W_C), together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P beverage (SSCB) intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P food meal intake, savory snacks, iced desserts and total sugar consumption correlated with SSCB intake in both boys (r = 0.39, 0.13, 0.10 and 0.52 respectively, P beverages were higher in older versus younger children (P < 0.001). BMI and W_C were negatively correlated with hours of night-time sleep and exercise in boys, but only with night time sleep in girls, who also showed the lowest frequency of exercise. A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  3. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    for refined bread, but not for potatoes, after adjustment for concurrent BMI changes. Among women, but not men, high intakes of beer and spirits were associated with gain in WC in both models. A high intake of coffee for women and moderate to high intake of tea for men were associated with gain in WC......, but the associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...... identified by factor analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses were done before and after adjustment for concurrent changes in BMI. A high intake of potatoes seemed to prevent gain in WC for men, while a high intake of refined bread was associated with gain in WC for women. The association persisted...

  4. Television watching from adolescence to adulthood and its association with BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and obesity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Abdullah A; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake M

    2013-01-01

    To examine the prospective association of television (TV) watching from adolescence to young adulthood with BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and obesity. A community-based longitudinal cohort study. Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) Cohort, Brisbane, Australia. A sub-sample of 2439 children was followed up at ages 14 years and 21 years as part of a population-based birth cohort. Offspring reported the number of TV viewing hours each day at 14 and 21 years. BMI, WC and WHR were measured at 21 years. In the adjusted model, offspring who watched TV for adolescence into young adulthood were at less risk of becoming obese and those who continued or increased their TV watching to ≥ 3 h/d were at greater risk of becoming obese. This association remained independent of the potential confounding factors considered. The present findings suggest that our efforts to decrease obesity by reducing TV watching hours among adults should consider interventions to reduce TV time among adolescents.

  5. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    identified by factor analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses were done before and after adjustment for concurrent changes in BMI. A high intake of potatoes seemed to prevent gain in WC for men, while a high intake of refined bread was associated with gain in WC for women. The association persisted...

  6. Waist circumference is superior to weight and BMI in predicting sexual symptoms, voiding symptoms and psychosomatic symptoms in men with hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, A A; Nettleship, J E; Salman, M; Almehmadi, Y

    2017-05-01

    Waist circumference is considered a useful predictor of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk, but its use as an indicator of sexual health status and quality of life (QoL) in hypogonadal men is unknown. We investigated whether three measurements of obesity, weight, body mass index and waist circumference, correlate with the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5), the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaires. A total of 261 patients were enrolled in a prospective study on hypogonadism treatment with intramuscular long-acting testosterone undecanoate. Patients with total testosterone ≤3.5 ng ml -1 were enrolled, and baseline demographic data were recorded. Patient's response to IIEF, IPSS and AMS standardised questionnaires was recorded to evaluate health-related QoL. The mean length of treatment and follow-up was 4.7 years (max 6 years). ANOVA regression analysis showed that waist circumference was significantly inversely proportional to IIEF-5 and directly proportional to AMS and IPSS. Weight was inversely proportional to IIEF and directly proportional to IPSS but not associated with AMS. BMI had no proportionality to measurements of sexual function and quality of life. These results suggest that among weight, BMI and waist circumference, the latter is the best predictor of health-related QoL in men with hypogonadism. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Associations between obesity (BMI and waist circumference) and socio-demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits, life events, resilience, mood, perceived stress and hopelessness in healthy older Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart-Knox, Barbara; E Duffy, Maresa; Bunting, Brendan; Parr, Heather; Vas de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Gibney, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background It is important to understand the psycho-social context of obesity to inform prevention and treatment of obesity at both the individual and public health level. Methods Representative samples of middle-aged adults aged ≥43 years were recruited in Great Britain (GB) (n = 1182) and Portugal (n = 540) and interviewed to explore associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits (FFQ), life events (LES),...

  8. Waist circumference, BMI and the prevalence of self-reported diabetes among the elderly of the United States and six cities of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, A; Gregg, E W; Pastor-Valero, M; Robles, S C

    2007-12-01

    Using data from the Salud Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE) project and the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004), we examined the prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes among older adults in the Americas; we also examined the association of age, sex, level of education, weight status, waist circumference, smoking, and race/ethnicity with diabetes among older adults. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was highest in the US Blacks and Mexican Americans, followed by Bridgetown and Mexico City (22% for each) and lowest in Santiago, Montevideo, Havana, and US Whites (13-15%). Diagnosed diabetes was significantly associated with BMI among participants from Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and the three US ethnic groups, while it was associated with waist circumference in all sites except Mexico City. Our findings suggest major geographical and ethnic variation in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among older adults. Waist circumference was more consistently associated with the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes than BMI. Higher prevalences of diabetes are found among the elderly of African or Mexican descent in the United States and in other countries of the Americas when compared to the prevalence among whites in the United States and in other Latin American countries with populations of predominant Western European descent.

  9. Standardisation of the waist circumference (WC) for each range of body mass index (BMI) in adult outpatients attended to in Endocrinology and Nutrition departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de la Torre, M; Bellido, D; Soto, A; Carreira, J; Hernández Mijares, A

    2010-01-01

    By this study we seek the expectable range of waist circumference (WC) for every degree of body mass index (BMI), which will serve to studies targeting ascertaining the health risk. We studied 2,932 patients (39.6% men and 60.4% women, between 18 and 96 years ) of the same ethnic group who consecutively attended outpatient departments of our clinics between 2000 and 2004. BMI correlated linearly with the WC (cc: 0.85; p or = 102 cm and women > or = 88 cm) in 94.3% of the obese, in 32.3% of overweight patients, in 3.8% of patients with BMI Endocrinology and Nutrition practices distributed in percentiles as a clinically usable tool to define the ranges of WC for every BMI value.

  10. Relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of obesity based on the Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, and fat mass and fat percentage and to examine the relationship between BMI, waist circumference, fat mass and fat percentage as the measurement of obesity among university students.

  11. Effect of changes in BMI and waist circumference on ambulatory blood pressure in obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Kristian Nebelin; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Ibsen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight reduction has been accompanied with a reduction in clinic blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents; however, the effect on ambulatory BP (ABP) is uncertain. The objective was to investigate the impact of weight changes on ABP in obese children and adolescents. METHODS......: Sixty-one severely obese patients aged 10-18 years underwent lifestyle intervention at the Children's Obesity Clinic. Patients were examined with ABP monitoring at baseline and after 1 year of treatment (follow-up). To account for growth, BP and BMI were standardized into z scores, whereas waist.......05). No relationship was found between changes in these anthropometric obesity measures and changes in clinic BP. CONCLUSION: Changes in obesity measures were closely related to changes in ABP, but not to changes in clinic BP, in severe obese children and adolescents after 1 year of lifestyle intervention...

  12. BMI and waist circumference as predictors of well-being in older adults: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninotto, Paola; Pierce, Mary; Breeze, Elizabeth; de Oliveira, Cesar; Kumari, Meena

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the association of BMI and waist circumference (WC), with a quality of life (QoL) indicator designed for older ages (CASP19), and with depressive symptoms (Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). We included 8,688 individuals aged ≥52 years who participants of Wave 2 (2004-2005) and Wave 3 (2006-2007) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). To explore cross-sectional relationships (2004-2005), we fitted regression models for BMI and WC (included simultaneously) as our predictors of QoL and depressive symptoms adjusted for covariates. To explore longitudinal relationships, BMI and waist at baseline (2004-2005) were related to the each outcome variable measured at follow-up (2006-2007), and adjusted for baseline characteristics (2004-2005). For a given BMI, larger WC was associated with lower QoL and higher risk of depressive symptoms for women in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. By contrast for a given WC increased BMI for women was positively associated with QoL and lower odds of depressive symptoms. In men, for a given BMI, increased WC was related to QoL only cross-sectionally; neither WC nor BMI at baseline were associated with depressive symptoms (cross-sectionally or longitudinally). In conclusion among older people, for a given BMI, increased WC was related with higher risk of poor QoL and, for women, of depressive symptoms; whereas for a given WC, increased BMI had a protective effect on QoL for women.

  13. Physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with BMI, waist circumference, and percentage body fat in 0.5 million adults: the China Kadoorie Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huaidong; Bennett, Derrick; Li, Liming; Whitlock, Gary; Guo, Yu; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; Bian, Zheng; Hong, Lai-San; Feng, Shixian; Chen, Xiaofang; Chen, Lingli; Zhou, Renxian; Mao, Enke; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhengming

    2013-03-01

    Few large studies in China have investigated total physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with adiposity. We investigated determinants of physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with adiposity in China. A total of 466,605 generally healthy participants (age: 30-79 y, 60% female) in the China Kadoorie Biobank were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Self-reported information on a range of activities was collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Physical activity was calculated as metabolic equivalent task hours per day (MET-h/d) spent on work, transportation, housework, and nonsedentary recreation. Sedentary leisure time was quantified as hours per day. Adiposity measures included BMI, waist circumference, and percentage body fat (by bioimpedance analysis). Associations were estimated by linear and logistic regression. The mean physical activity was 22 MET-h/d, and the mean sedentary leisure time was 3.0 h/d. For each sex, physical activity was about one-third lower among professionals/administrators than among factory workers, with intermediate levels for other occupational categories. A 1-SD (14 MET-h/d) greater physical activity was associated with a 0.15-unit (95% CI: 0.14, 0.16) lower BMI (in kg/m(2)), a 0.58-cm (95% CI: 0.55, 0.61) smaller waist circumference, and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.50) percentage points less body fat. In contrast, a 1-SD (1.5 h/d) greater sedentary leisure time was associated with a 0.19-unit higher BMI (95% CI: 0.18, 0.20), a 0.57-cm larger waist circumference (95% CI: 0.54, 0.59), and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.46) percentage points more body fat. For any given physical activity level, greater sedentary leisure time was associated with a greater prevalence of increased BMI, as was lower physical activity for any given sedentary leisure time. In adult Chinese, physical activity varies substantially by occupation, and lack of physical activity and excess sedentary

  14. Dietary fiber in the diets of urban Tunisian women: association of fiber intake with BMI, waist circumference and blood chemistry: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slama, Fethi; Jebali, Nabila; Chemli, Rachid; Ben Rayana, Chiheb; Achour, Ahmed; Najar, Mohamed Fadhl; Achour, Noureddine; Belhadj, Omrane

    2011-11-01

    The change of the way of life and the food practices in Tunisia due inter alia to the improvement of the socioeconomic conditions induced low fuel consumption of food with significant nutritional interest such as those rich in food fibres which have positive effects on the reduction and the prevention of some complications of the metabolic diseases such as the obesity whose prevalence among Tunisian women is increasingly high. We assessed the association between the mean daily fiber intake and anthropometric parameters, the serum lipid profile and the serum glucose concentration among urban Tunisian women. We conducted a 7-day food weighing method among 260 women of which 60 are obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)). The weighing method was done by trained and experienced workers in the National Institute of Nutrition of Tunisia. All the results were treated with the (Bilnut) software (1991 version) to which a list of 235 special Tunisian foods was added. We calculated their mean daily fiber intake and we prospectively evaluated the correlations between it and the BMI, the waist circumference, total plasma cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceridemia and glycaemia. Obese women are found to consume less fiber than non-obese women (21.73 ± 3.25 g/day vs 26.25 ± 2.7 g/day; Pdietary fiber intake and the parameters investigated: BMI (r=-0.709, Pfiber intake (r=0.309; P=0.02). This study provides additional support to the inverse association between fiber consumption and weight gain, the serum lipid profiles, the glycaemia and the waist circumference. Our findings emphasizes the relevance of increased the intakes of fiber from varied sources that may help avoid weight gain among obese adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Definition of new cut-offs of BMI and waist circumference based on body composition and insulin resistance: differences between children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Pourhassan, M; Braun, W; Geisler, C; Müller, M J

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to determine associations between anthropometric traits, regional fat depots and insulin resistance in children, adolescents and adults to define new cut-offs of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Cross-sectional data were assessed in 433 children, adolescents and adults (aged: 6-60 years, BMI: 23.6 [21.0-27.7] kg m -2 ). Total adipose tissue (TAT), regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT total , SAT trunk ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were determined by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, fat mass by air-displacement plethysmography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Bivariate as well as partial correlations and regression analyses were used. Cut-off values of BMI and WC related to regional fat depots and HOMA-IR were analysed by receiver operating characteristics curve. In adults, TAT, SAT total and SAT trunk increased linearly with increasing BMI and WC, whereas they followed a cubic function in children and adolescents with a steep increase at BMI and WC ≥1 standard deviation score and VAT at WC ≥2 standard deviation score. Sex differences were apparent in adults with women having higher masses of TAT and SAT and men having higher VAT. Using established BMI or WC cut-offs, correspondent masses of TAT, SAT total , SAT trunk and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood. In all age groups, there were positive associations between BMI, WC, SAT trunk , VAT and HOMA-IR. When compared with normative cut-offs of BMI or WC, HOMA-IR-derived cut-offs of regional fat depots were lower in all age groups. Associations between BMI, WC and regional fat depots varied between children, adolescents, young and older adults. When compared with BMI-derived and WC-derived values, an insulin resistance-derived cut-off corresponded to lower masses of regional fat depots. Thus, established BMI and WC cut-offs are not appropriate to assess metabolic disturbances associated

  16. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and disability among older adults in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sanggon; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Markides, Kyriakos S; Al Snih, Soham

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between WC and BMI on disability among older adults from LAC. Cross-sectional, multicenter city study of 5786 subjects aged 65 years and older from the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (SABE) study (1999-2000). Sociodemographic variables, smoking status, medical conditions, BMI, WC, and activities of daily living (ADL) were obtained. Prevalence of high WC (HWC) (> 88 cm) in women ranged from 48.5% (Havana) to 72.7% (Mexico City), while among men (> 102 cm) it ranged from 12.5% (Bridgetown) to 32.5% (Santiago). The associations between WC and ADL disability were "J" shaped, with higher risks of ADL disability observed above 110 cm for women in Bridgetown, Santiago, Havana, and Montevideo. The association in Sao Paulo is plateau with higher risk above 100 cm, and the association in Mexico City is closer to linear. Among men the associations were "U" (Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and Havana), "J" shaped (Montevideo), plateau (Santiago), and closer to linear in Mexico City. When WC and BMI were analyzed together, we found that participants from Sao Paulo, Santiago, Havana, and Montevideo in the overweight or obese category with HWC were significantly more likely to report ADL disability after adjusting for all covariates. The findings of this study suggest that both general and abdominal adiposity are associated with disability and support the use of WC in addition to BMI to assess risk of disability in older adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Higher prevalence of smoking and lower BMI, waist circumference, cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels in Prague's homeless compared to a majority of the Czech population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambousková Jolana

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeless people have higher morbidity and mortality rates than the general population. Research has shown that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in older homeless adults. This study was undertaken to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the homeless population in Prague. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2003. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerides (TAG and smoking habits were assessed. The homeless participants in the study were recruited from a homeless center run by a Prague charitable organization called Naděje ("Hope" and at Prague's main railway station. Most participants were assessed at the Naděje center (134 persons while the rest were assessed at Prague's Bulovka University Hospital (67 persons. Results A total of 201 homeless (174 males and 27 females aged 19 – 70 years were examined. Mean values of BMI, WC, TC and TAG in homeless men and women were within normal limits. Compared with the majority of the Czech population, the homeless had significantly lower mean levels of TC and TAG and lower BMI and WC values. When compared to the majority of the Czech population, the incidence of smoking among the homeless was significantly higher. Among smokers in both populations, no differences were found in the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Conclusion Classical cardiovascular risk factors such as TC, TAG, BMI and WC, are significantly lower in Prague's homeless minority than in the majority of the Czech population. However, the prevalence of smoking is much higher in the homeless population.

  18. Associations between obesity (BMI and waist circumference and socio-demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits, life events, resilience, mood, perceived stress and hopelessness in healthy older Europeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart-Knox Barbara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to understand the psycho-social context of obesity to inform prevention and treatment of obesity at both the individual and public health level. Methods Representative samples of middle-aged adults aged ≥43 years were recruited in Great Britain (GB (n = 1182 and Portugal (n = 540 and interviewed to explore associations between body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits (FFQ, life events (LES, Resilience (RS11, Mood (MS, Hopelessness (BDI and Perceived Stress (PSS4. BMI (kg/m2 and WC (cm were dependent variables in separate multiple linear regression models for which predictors were entered in 4 blocks: 1. demographic factors; 2. stressful life events; 3. diet/activity; and, 4. psychological measures. Results In the GB sample, BMI (kg/m2 was predicted by less education, illness in a close friend or relative, frequent alcohol consumption and sedentary behaviour. Among the Portuguese, higher BMI (kg/m2 was predicted by lower resilience. Being male and less education were independent predictors of having a larger WC (cm in both countries. Within GB, not working, illness in a close friend or relative, sedentary lifestyle and lower resilience were also independent predictors of a larger WC (cm. Conclusions These data suggest that intervention to treat and/or prevent obesity should target males, particularly those who have left education early and seek to promote resilience. In GB, targeting those with high alcohol consumption and encouraging physical activity, particularly among those who have experienced illness in a close friend or relative may also be effective in reducing obesity.

  19. Dietary pattern transitions, and the associations with BMI, waist circumference, weight and hypertension in a 7-year follow-up among the older Chinese population: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin; McElduff, Patrick; Hall, John

    2016-08-08

    Few studies explored the effects of nutritional changes on body mass index (BMI), weight (Wt), waist circumference (WC) and hypertension, especially for the older Chinese population. By using China Health and Nutrition Survey 2004-2011 waves, a total of 6348 observations aged ≥ 60 were involved in the study. The number of participants dropped from 2197 in 2004, to 1763 in 2006, 1303 in 2009, and 1085 in 2011. Dietary information was obtained from participants using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Wt, WC, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also measured in each survey year. The dietary pattern was derived by exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis methods. Linear Mixed Models were used to investigate associations of dietary patterns with BMI, Wt and WC. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to assess the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension. Over time, older people's diets were shifting towards a modern dietary pattern (high intake of dairy, fruit, cakes and fast food). Traditional and modern dietary patterns had distinct associations with BMI, Wt and WC. Participants with a diet in the highest quartile for traditional composition had a β (difference in mean) of -0.23 (95 % CI: -0.44; -0.02) for BMI decrease, β of -0.90 (95 % CI: -1.42; -0.37) for Wt decrease; and β of -1.57 (95 % CI: -2.32; -0.83) for WC decrease. However, participants with a diet in the highest quartile for modern diet had a β of 0.29 (95 % CI: 0.12; 0.47) for BMI increase; β of 1.02 (95 % CI: 0.58; 1.46) for Wt increase; and β of 1.44 (95 % CI: 0.78; 2.10) for Wt increase. No significant associations were found between dietary patterns and hypertension. We elucidate the associations between dietary pattern and change in BMI, Wt, WC and hypertension in a 7-year follow-up study. The strong association between favourable body composition and traditional diet, compared with an increase in BMI, WC and Wt

  20. A Comparison between BMI, Waist Circumference, and Waist-To-Height Ratio for Identifying Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardinha, Luís B; Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M

    2016-01-01

    R) with clustered cardiometabolic risk factors and to determine whether these anthropometric variables can be used to discriminate individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk (increased clustered triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and HOMA-IR). METHODS: The study sample...... pressure (mean arterial pressure), and HOMA-IR] and children with ≥1.0 SD in this score were defined as being at risk for clustering cardiometabolic risk factors.. Exposure variables were BMI, WC, WHtR. Statistics included mixed-effect regression and ROC analysis. RESULTS: All anthropometric variables were...

  1. Association of waist and hip circumferences with the presence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including hypertension(HT) which is itself a risk factor for CVDs. Recent studies suggest that waist circumference (WC) may be more sensitive than Body Mass Index (BMI) in determining individual risk scores for CVDs.

  2. Hyperinsulinemia and waist circumference in childhood metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lone, S.W.; Ibrahim, M.N.; Leghari, T.M.; Khan, Y.N.; Raza, J.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of obese children presenting at a tertiary care hospital and the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) in them using two paediatric definitions. A total of 262 obese children aged 4-16 years, with BMI greater than 95 percentile were included. Children having obesity due to syndromes, medications causing weight gain, chronic illness and developmental disability were excluded. Blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, HDL, insulin and glucose levels were obtained. Obesity was defined as BMI > 95 percentile for age and gender according to the UK growth reference charts. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated using to the De Ferrantis and Lambert definitions. The frequency of MS varied between 16% and 52% depending on whether insulin levels were included in the definition. There was a significant positive correlation(r) when the metabolic parameters were correlated with waist circumference and insulin levels, except HDL which was negatively correlated. All the metabolic parameters like waist circumference, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure increased considerably across the insulin quartile (p < 0.05). The most noteworthy anthropometric and metabolic abnormality were the waist circumference (46.5%) and insulin levels (58%) respectively. There was a marked difference in the frequency of metabolic syndrome according to the definition used. The waist circumference and hyperinsulinemia are significant correlates of MS in obese children. There is a need for establishing normal insulin ranges according to age, gender and pubertal status. The clinical examination and investigations ought to include waist circumference and insulin levels together as a part of the definition of MS, for early detection and intervention of childhood obesity. (author)

  3. Relationship between waist circumference, visceral fat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence was higher in women for enlarged waist circumference according to the pathological IDF or NCEP / ATP III threshold (p < 0.0001) contrasting with lower rates for pathological accumulation of visceral fat in men (p = 0.0001). The highest values for sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a ...

  4. How do pregnancy-related weight changes and breastfeeding relate to maternal weight and BMI-adjusted waist circumference 7 y after delivery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Stovring, Henrik; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    of breastfeeding are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine how prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, postpartum weight changes, and breastfeeding influence maternal weight and body mass index-adjusted waist circumference (WCBMI) 7 y after delivery. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study...... that postpartum weight retention at 6 mo and weight gain from 6 to 18 mo postpartum contribute equally to adverse maternal anthropometric measures 7 y after delivery. Breastfeeding duration may have a beneficial effect.......BACKGROUND: Reproduction has been related to long-term maternal weight gain, and changes in fat mass, with gestational weight gain, have been identified as an important contributor. However, the influence of weight changes during the whole reproductive cycle and the modifying effect...

  5. The Prevalence of Obesity as Indicated by BMI and Waist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in most developed countries and in urban areas of many less developed countries has been increasing markedly over the past twenty years. This study\\'s aims were to determine the prevalence of obesity using BMI and waist circumference among Nigerian adults ...

  6. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI, Body Adiposity Index (BAI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Chih Chiang Lam

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR, Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and CVD risk factors in the local adult population.This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%, aged 21-74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012 undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ≥23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ≥0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC.BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

  7. Associations between waist circumference and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hach, Isabel; Ruhl, Uwe E; Klotsche, Jens; Klose, Michael; Jacobi, Frank

    2006-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that abdominal obesity and mental disorders are associated. This paper was initiated to investigate associations between unfavourable waist circumference (WC) and mental disorders in a representative sample of German adults. 4181 individuals (aged 18-65 years) took part in a physical examination (including measurement of body weight and WC) and a structured psychological interview (M-CIDI) to evaluate mental disorders. An unfavourable WC (males: 26.9%; females: 31.3%) was highly prevalent. However, unfavourable WC and mental disorders were not associated, neither with regard to the prevalence of any mental disorder nor regarding in particular depressive disorders. Moreover, even middle-aged depressive women that have often been assumed to be at high risk of increased visceral fat did not show more unfavourable WCs than their non-depressed, female counterparts. The main limitation is that the co-occurrence of mental disorders and obesity was recorded but not, if obesity was related to the onset of mental problems. From an epidemiologic perspective, it is not possible to prove associations between WC and mental disorders. Patients with unfavourable waist circumferences do not show a higher prevalence of depressive disorders.

  8. Physical activity, weight, and waist circumference in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, JiWon; Guiterrez, Yolanda; Gilliss, Catherine; Lee, Kathryn A

    2012-01-01

    During midlife years, women are at risk of increasing body weight and waist circumference. We evaluated changes in weight and waist circumference from enrollment to 2 years later and examined the influence of physical activity level on those changes among 232 women aged between 40 and 50. Weight increased significantly for the entire sample. Those who increased their physical activity from enrollment to 2 years later had the smallest increase in weight and had a slight decrease in waist circumference. To maintain ideal weight and waist circumference, midlife women should be encouraged to increase physical activity before and during the menopausal transition.

  9. Waist circumference as an indicator of high blood pressure in preschool obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Li, Hai-fei

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between waist circumference and blood pressure (BP) to determine if waist circumference was an indicator of BP in preschool children. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and blood pressure of 939 3-6-year-old preschool children were collected. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in obese children were significantly higher than that in normal weight children in both sexes (phigh blood pressure in children of both sexes. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis using SBP as the dependent variable showed that BMI and WC were significant independent factors that influence high blood pressure adjusted for age, WtHr and waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHr) in boys. When using DBP as the dependent variable, BMI was the only significant independent factor that influenced high blood pressure adjusted for age, WtHr and WHr, in both sex-es. Waist circumference was independently associated with high blood pressure in boys aged 3-6 years. In addition to BMI, increased waist circumference was found to be an indicator of high blood pressure in the preschool children, especially in boys.

  10. Physical Activity, Weight, and Waist Circumference in Midlife Women

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, JiWon; Guiterrez, Yolanda; Gilliss, Catherine; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    During midlife years, women are at risk of increasing body weight and waist circumference. We evaluated changes in weight and waist circumference from enrollment to 2 years later and examined the influence of physical activity level on those changes among 232 women aged between 40-50. Weight increased significantly for the entire sample. Those who increased their physical activity from enrollment to 2 years later had the smallest increase in weight and had a slight decrease in waist circumfer...

  11. Are age references for waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio in Dutch children useful in clinical practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriks, A.M.; Buuren, S. van; Fekkes, M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Wit, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present age references for waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist/hip ratio (WHR) in Dutch children. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 14,500 children of Dutch origin in the age range 0-21 years. National references were constructed with the

  12. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  13. Height-adjusted percentiles evaluated central obesity in children and adolescents more effectively than just waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Kelishadi, Roya; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Qorbani, Mostafa; Bazargani, Behnaz; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmail; Mirminachi, Babak; Ataei, Neamatollah

    2017-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of obesity based on both waist circumference for height and body mass index (BMI) in Iranian children and adolescents. Data on 13 120 children with a mean age of 12.45 ± 3.36 years (50.8% male) from the fourth Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable Disease study were included. Measured waist circumference values were modelled according to age, gender and height percentiles. The prevalence of obesity was estimated using the 90th percentiles for both unadjusted and height-adjusted waist circumferences and compared with the World Health Organization BMI cut-offs. They were analysed further for short, average and tall children. Waist circumference values increased steadily with age. For short and average height children, the prevalence of obesity was higher when height-adjusted waist circumference was used. For taller children, the prevalence of obesity using height-adjusted waist circumference and BMI was similar, but lower than the prevalence based on measurements unadjusted for height. Height-adjusted waist circumference and BMI identified different children as having obesity, with overlaps of 69.47% for boys and 68.42% for girls. Just using waist circumference underestimated obesity in some Iranian children and measurements should be adjusted for height. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Validating Neck Circumference and Waist Circumference as Anthropometric Measures of Overweight/Obesity in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Lipilekha; Pattnaik, Sumitra; Rao, E Venkata; Sahu, Trilochan

    2017-05-15

    To measure neck circumference and waist circumference, to compare it between normal and overweight/obese adolescents, and to validate these with body mass index. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1800 school-going adolescents. Body mass index, waist circumference and neck circumference were measured. Independent samples t-test and Pearson's correlation were used as tests of significance to analyze quantitative data. Positive correlation of neck circumference and waist circumference with body mass index was observed. The neck circumference and waist circumference in overweight/obese adolescents were significantly higher than adolescents with normal body mass index (Padolescent obesity in boys and girls were 30.75 cm, and 29.75 cm, respectively, and waist circumference cut-off value were 70.75 cm for boys and 69.25 cm for girls at fairly good levels of sensitivity and specificity. Neck circumference and waist circumference may be used in clinical practice and epidemiological studies as an index of overweight/ obesity among school-going adolescents.

  15. Interaction between Genetic Predisposition to Adiposity and Dietary Protein in Relation to Subsequent Change in Body Weight and Waist Circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI...

  16. Examining waist and neck circumferences as screening tools for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Waist circumference (WC) cut-off points specific to sub-Saharan Caucasians do not exist with which to identify metabolic syndrome. Neck circumference (NC), as an additional measure, was previously found to be a worthy identifier of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the aim was to determine NC and WC cut-off ...

  17. Correlation of shift work and waist circumference, body mass index, chronotype and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Luciana da Conceição; Jornada, Manoela Neves da; Ramalho, Letícia; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza

    2010-10-01

    Correlate shift work with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, chronotype and depressive symptoms. This study comprising 14 shift workers and 13 day workers. Subjects were workers from the health area aged 25 to 60 years. Minor psychiatric disorders were accessed by Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and depressive symptoms by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Chronotype was accessed using Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Anthropometric measures were taken. Shift workers presented higher BMI (P = 0.03) and waist circumference (P = 0.004) than day workers. Years on shift work were significantly correlated to waist circumference (r = 0.43; P = 0.03) and age (r = 0.47; P = 0.02). Shift work was not correlated with depressive symptoms and chronotype. These results may suggest a role played by shift work on the development and/or the early clinic manifestations of metabolic disturbances, becoming a risk factor to metabolic syndrome.

  18. Waist circumference threshold values for type 2 diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E

    2009-07-01

    Adult gains in body weight, excess adiposity, and intra-abdominal fat have each been associated with risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), forming the basis for preventive medicine guidelines and actuarial predictions using practical indices of weight (e.g., body mass index [BMI]) and waist circumference (WC). As obesity-related disease spreads beyond affluent western countries, application of WC thresholds to other populations has highlighted issues of their generalizability. For example, U.S. national health goals based on BMI technology has provided many great insights into disease, including modern imaging technologies that have differentiated fat depots that have the greatest influence on T2DM, but ultimately, an inexpensive measuring tape provides the most useful and cost-effective preventive measure for T2DM today. At some point in the future, a Star Trek-like abdominal body fat "tricorder" noninvasive assessment of tissue composition may provide an advantage over abdominal girth. Copyright 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Waist circumference is an independent risk factor for prostatic hyperplasia in Taiwanese males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Han Wang

    2011-10-01

    Conclusions: Study results showed that waist circumference ≥ 90 cm is an independent risk factor of prostatic hyperplasia in Taiwan. Men with abdominal overweight/obesity (WC ≥ 90 cm and BMI > 24 kg/m2 have a twofold risk of developing prostatic hyperplasia.

  20. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  1. A comparison of body mass index, waist-hip ratio and waist circumference as predictors of all-cause mortality among the elderly : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, T. L S; Seidell, J. C.; Molarius, A.; van der Kuip, F.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference as predictors of all-cause mortality among the elderly. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study; mean follow-up was 5.4 y. SETTING: The Rotterdam Study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6296 men and women; baseline age

  2. [Relationship between hypertension and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio in middle-aged and elderly residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y Q; Liu, Y; Zheng, S L; Yang, Y; Fan, S; Yang, C; Zhang, J H; Ye, Y L

    2016-09-10

    Objective: To assess the relationship between hypertension and BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio in middle-aged and elderly residents in Luzhou, Sichuan province. Methods: A total of 2 033 middle-aged and elderly local residents aged 35-69 years were enrolled from Luzhou through stratified cluster sampling from March 27 to April 20, 2015. A face-to-face questionnaire survey and physical examination were conducted by trained investigators. Results: The overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 43.48%. The overweight rate, obesity rate, centrality obesity (calculated according to waist circumference) and centrality obesity (calculated according to waist-hip ratio) were 42.5%, 14.6%, 48.4% and 74.0 %, respectively. The multivariate logistic analysis showed that gender and age were related to the prevalence of hypertension. Compared with age group obesity and centrality obesity (calculated according to waist circumference) were risk factors for hypertension, waist-hip ratio was not used in the regression equation. BMI and waist circumference or waist-hip ratio had combined effect on the prevalence of hypertension. Compared with the normal adults, the risk for hypertension increased as the increase of the level of overweight and obesity [ OR from 1.524 (95 %CI : 1.044-2.226) to 4.461 (95 %CI : 3.405-6.326) and OR from 1.569 (95 %CI : 1.134-2.171) to 5.468 (95 %CI : 3.797-7.876)]. Conclusions: The influences of BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio on the prevalence of hypertension were significant, but the influence of waist circumference on hypertension was greater than waist-hip ratio. Keeping normal bodyweight might be one of the effective hypertension prevention measures.

  3. Physical activity in leisure-time is not associated with 10-year changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, T.; Petersen, L.; Schnohr, P.

    2008-01-01

    To examine whether physical activity (PA) is associated with changes in waist circumference (WC), and changes in WC given changes in body mass index (BMI). Longitudinal population-based study including 2026 men and 2782 women aged 21-81 years. Subjects were examined in 1991-1993 (baseline) and 20...... or changes in WC given changes in BMI, whereas sports activity may have small preventive effects Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  4. Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR, and waist height ratio (WHtR to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.. Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.. Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5 cm in men and 91 cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.

  5. Waist circumference does not predict circulating adiponectin levels in sub-Saharan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of previously reported ethnic differences in determinants and markers of obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to investigate circulating levels of adiponectin and their correlates in a sub-Saharan African (sSA population. Subjects and Methods We studied 70 non-diabetic volunteers (33M/37F living in Yaoundé, Cameroon, aged 24–69 yr, with BMI 20–42 kg/m2. In all participants we measured waist circumference and total body fat by bioimpedance, and obtained a fasting venous blood sample for measurement of plasma glucose, serum insulin and adiponectin concentrations. We performed a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in 1/4 subjects, and HOMAIR was used as surrogate of fasting insulin sensitivity index since it best correlates to clamp measurements. Results Males had lower adiponectin levels than females (8.8 ± 4.3 vs. 11.8 ± 5.5 μg/L. There was no significant correlation between adiponectin and total body fat (rs = -0.03; NS, whereas adiponectin was inversely correlated with waist circumference (rs = -0.39; p = 0.001. Adiponectin correlated negatively with insulin resistance (rs = -0.35; p = 0.01. In a regression analysis using fasting adiponectin concentration as the dependent variable, and age, HOMAIR, waist circumference, and fat mass as predictors, waist circumference (β = -3.30; p = 0.002, fat mass (β = -2.68; p = 0.01, and insulin resistance (β = -2.38; p = 0.02 but not age (β = 1.11; p = 0.27 were independent predictors of adiponectin. When considering gender, these relations persisted with the exception of waist circumference in females. Conclusion Adiponectin correlates in this study population are comparable to those observed in Caucasians with the exception of waist circumference in women. The metabolic significance of waist circumference is therefore questioned in sSA women.

  6. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and depressive symptoms in Chinese elderly: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Roger C M; Niti, Matthew; Kua, Ee Heok; Ng, Tze-Pin

    2008-04-01

    Studies that investigated the relationship between obesity and depressive symptoms in the elderly have generated conflicting findings, partly because of the use of body mass index (BMI) alone to measure obesity in the elderly. The use of BMI fails to account for varying proportions of muscle, fat and bone, and few studies have used other measures of central obesity, such as waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC). We examined whether individually BMI, WHR and WC were consistently associated with depressive symptoms in the elderly. Analysis of cross-sectional data of 2604 community dwelling Chinese elderly aged 55 and above, including socio-emotional characteristics, self-rated health and functional status, anthropometric measurements and Geriatric Depression Scale (15 items, GDS-15). There was a negative trend in the prevalence of depressive symptoms (GDS > or =5) across increasing BMI categories: 16.9% in low BMI, 14.2% in normal weight, 12.1% in moderate to high BMI. The associations for moderate to high BMI (OR, 0.77; p = 0.04) relative to normal BMI, were statistically significant after controlling for confounding variables. However, no consistent trends in the prevalence of depressive symptoms and OR's were observed for increasing WHR and WC categories. Our results suggest that waist-hip and circumference measures of central obesity did not support an inverse relationship of obesity and depressive symptoms. An inverse relationship of BMI with depressive symptoms may indicate greater physiologic and functional reserve from greater muscle mass that protects against depressive symptoms.

  7. Examining waist and neck circumferences as screening tools for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-16

    May 16, 2014 ... metabolic syndrome is the most recent definition thereof, but nevertheless requires further refinement in terms of defining waist circumference (WC) measurement in this ... Malan L, RN, HED, PhD, Professor; Hypertension in Africa Research Team, North-West University, Potchefstroom. Correspondence to: ...

  8. Determining ethnic-, gender-, and age-specific waist circumference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... Original Research: Determining ethnic-, gender-, and age-specific waist circumference cut-off points to predict MetS. 89. 2013 Volume 18 No 2. JEMDSA. The aim of this study was firstly to develop a WC cut- off point for Africans and Caucasians in ethnic-, gender- and age-specific groups (25-45 years and ...

  9. Measurement error of waist circumference: Gaps in knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.; Mechelen, W.V. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective It is not clear whether measuring waist circumference in clinical practice is problematic because the measurement error is unclear, as well as what constitutes a clinically relevant change. The present study aimed to summarize what is known from state-of-the-art research. Design To

  10. Measurement error of waist circumference: gaps in knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective It is not clear whether measuring waist circumference in clinical practice is problematic because the measurement error is unclear, as well as what constitutes a clinically relevant change. The present study aimed to summarize what is known from state-of-the-art research. Design To

  11. Association Between Increased Waist Circumference and Depression and Anxiety Trend

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bocicor Andreea; Gabriela Buicu; Andreea Varga; Tatar R; Daniela Sabau; Tilea I; Gabos-Grecu I

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Abdominal adiposity assessed by increased waist circumference and depression have both a high incidence and prevalence and are associated with increased general mortality and cardiovascular risk. Several studies showed a significant association between abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome and depression. Early detection of these associations is important for for prevention and treatment of this disease.

  12. Association Between Increased Waist Circumference and Depression and Anxiety Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bocicor Andreea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abdominal adiposity assessed by increased waist circumference and depression have both a high incidence and prevalence and are associated with increased general mortality and cardiovascular risk. Several studies showed a significant association between abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome and depression. Early detection of these associations is important for for prevention and treatment of this disease.

  13. Determining ethnic-, gender-, and age-specific waist circumference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim was to determine receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) waist circumference (WC) cut-off points best associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a cohort of South African teachers. Design: Target population study. Setting and subjects: Four hundred and nine urban black (Africans) and white ...

  14. Waist circumference and body mass index as predictors of health care costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Olsen, Kim Rose

    2008-01-01

    and continuous analyses. The analysis confirms Hypothesis 1, reflecting that an increased level of abdominal fat for a given BMI gives higher health care costs. Hypothesis 2, that BMI had a protective effect for a given WC, was only confirmed in the continuous analysis and for a subgroup of women (BMI...BACKGROUND: In the present study we analyze the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and future health care costs. On the basis of the relation between these anthropometric measures and mortality, we hypothesized that for all levels of BMI increased WC implies...... added future health care costs (Hypothesis 1) and for given levels of WC increased BMI entails reduced future health care costs (Hypothesis 2). We furthermore assessed whether a combination of the two measures predicts health care costs better than either individual measure. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY...

  15. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Angquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and changes in measures of adiposity have shown inconsistent results, and interaction with genetic predisposition to obesity has rarely been examined. We examined whether 25(OH)D was associated with subsequent annual changes...... in body weight (ΔBW) or waist circumference (ΔWC), and whether the associations were modified by genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI). The study was based on 10,898 individuals from the Danish Inter99, the 1958 British Birth Cohort and the Northern Finland...... Birth Cohort 1966. We combined 42 adiposity-associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) into four scores indicating genetic predisposition to BMI, WC and WHRBMI, or all three traits combined. Linear regression was used to examine the association between serum 25(OH)D and ΔBW or ΔWC, SNP-score × 25...

  16. ASSOCIATION OF ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS LIKE BODY MASS INDEX, WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE, WAIST-HIP RATIO AS PREDICTORS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan H. R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions globally with the adoption of westernised lifestyle. The prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes is showing a rapid progression worldwide, a phenomenon largely contributed by increasing prevalence of obesity, body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES To study the association of anthropometric parameters like body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio as predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS This cross-sectional study included 125 cases of diabetes compared with 125 age and sex matched controls who visited the Medicine Outpatient Department of JSS Hospital, Mysore, for diabetic care, between November 2007 to June 2009 fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS 57.1% of the diabetics had BMI in the overweight category and 22.2% were obese, while 41.1% of the controls were in the normal range whereas 51.6% of the female diabetics had BMI in the overweight range and 38.7% were obese, while 44.9% in the control group were in the overweight range and 33.3% had a normal BMI. CONCLUSION The present study demonstrated consistently strong associations of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio with diabetes.

  17. Waist circumference and motor coordination in Portuguese school children

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Luís; Santos, Rute; Pereira, Beatriz; Lopes, Vítor P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Children’s motor coordination may affect their activity pattern and thereby influence their body-fatness. The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between motor coordination and waist circumference (WC) levels, in a Portuguese sample of school children aged 8–12 years old. Methods: The sample comprised 402 urban school children (girls- 46.8%), aged 8 to 12 years old (mean 9.6 = ± 0.6 years) from North of Portugal. WC was measured with standardize pr...

  18. Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamichhane Archana P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth with diabetes are at increased risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease complications. However, less is known about the influence of built food environment on health outcomes in this population. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of accessibility and availability of supermarkets and fast food outlets with Body Mass Index (BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. Methods Information on residential location and adiposity measures (BMI z-score and waist circumference for 845 youths with diabetes residing in South Carolina was obtained from the South Carolina site of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlets data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and InfoUSA were merged based on names and addresses of the outlets. The comprehensive data on franchised supermarket and fast food outlets was then used to construct three accessibility and availability measures around each youth’s residence. Results Increased number and density of chain supermarkets around residence location were associated with lower BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. For instance, for a female child of 10 years of age with height of 54.2 inches and weight of 70.4 pounds, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with about 2.8–3.2 pounds higher weight, when compared to female child of same age, height and weight with highest supermarket density around residence location. Similarly, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with a 3.5–3.7 centimeter higher waist circumference, when compared to residence location with the highest supermarket density. The associations of number and density of chain fast food outlets with adiposity measures, however, were not significant. No significant associations were observed between distance to the nearest supermarket and adiposity measures

  19. Prescreening tools for diabetes and obesity-associated dyslipidaemia: comparing BMI, waist and waist hip ratio. The D.E.S.I.R. Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkau, B; Sapinho, D; Petrella, A; Mhamdi, L; Cailleau, M; Arondel, D; Charles, M A

    2006-03-01

    To compare the sensitivities of BMI, waist circumference and waist hip ratio (WHR) in identifying subjects who should be screened for diabetes and/or for obesity-associated dyslipidaemia. Cross-sectional study. Central-western France. More than 3000 men and women, aged 40-64 years, from the French study: data from an epidemiological study on the insulin resistance syndrome (D.E.S.I.R.). Sensitivity and specificity for screened diabetes (fasting plasma glucose>or=7.0 mmol/l) and screened dyslipidaemia (triglycerides>or=2.3 mmol/l and/or HDL-cholesterol women)) according to BMI, waist circumference and WHR. Sensitivities increased as more corpulent subjects were screened, but they increased slowly after screening the top 30%: body mass index (BMI)>or=27/26 kg/m(2) (men/women) or waist >or=96/83 cm or WHR>or=0.96/0.83. These values were chosen as thresholds. In men, BMI had a nonsignificantly higher sensitivity than waist or WHR for both diabetes and dyslipidaemia (77 vs 74 and 66% Pwomen, waist had a slightly higher sensitivity than BMI or WHR (82 vs 77 and 77% PFrench population 40-64 years of age, the more obese 30% of the population, identified either by BMI, waist or WHR be screened for diabetes and obesity-associated dyslipidaemia.

  20. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight...... (∆BW) and waist circumference (∆WC). METHODS: A total of 7,569 participants' from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score...... to ∆WC only remained borderline significant after adjustment for ∆BW. CONCLUSION: In general, our study does not support an association between dietary ascorbic acid and ∆BW or ∆WC, but a diet with a high content of ascorbic acid may be weakly associated to higher WC gain among people who are genetically...

  1. Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index - a proxy measure of visceral adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romaguera, Dora; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Du, Huaidong

    2010-01-01

    Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype "waist circumference for a given body mass index (WC(BMI))", a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess...

  2. Time trends (1993-1997) and seasonal variation in body mass index and waist circumference in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, T L S; Seidell, J C

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the time trend and seasonal variation in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. DESIGN: Continuous monitoring health survey carried out between 1 June 1993 and 31 May 1997. SUBJECTS: A total of 8,186 men and 9,638 women aged 20-59 y from three towns in the Netherlands.

  3. Comparison of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio in predicting incident diabetes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Gabriela; Duval, Sue; Jacobs, David R; Silventoinen, Karri

    2007-01-01

    Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes. From the clinical perspective, central obesity (approximated by waist circumference or waist/hip ratio) is known to generate diabetogenic substances and should therefore be more informative than general obesity (body mass index). Because of their high correlation, from the statistical perspective, body mass index and waist circumference are unlikely to yield different answers. To compare associations of diabetes incidence with general and central obesity indicators, the authors conducted a meta-analysis based on published studies from 1966 to 2004 retrieved from a PubMed search. The analysis was performed with 32 studies out of 432 publications initially identified. Measures of association were transformed to log relative risks per standard deviation (pooled across all studies) increase in the obesity indicator and pooled using random effects models. The pooled relative risks for incident diabetes were 1.87 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.67, 2.10), 1.87 (95% CI: 1.58, 2.20), and 1.88 (95% CI: 1.61, 2.19) per standard deviation of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio, respectively, demonstrating that these three obesity indicators have similar associations with incident diabetes. Although the clinical perspective focusing on central obesity is appealing, further research is needed to determine the usefulness of waist circumference or waist/hip ratio over body mass index.

  4. The association of physical fitness with body mass index and waist circumference in Filipino preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Consuelo B; Caralipio, Nenita; Gambito, Ephraim; Reyes, Josephine Joy; Espino, Reil Vinard; Macatangay, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is are to examine the association of preadolescent obesity using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with health-related physical fitness components. Grades 4 to 6 students in 2 private schools in Manila were included in this study. Height, weight, WC, and BMI were obtained. Physical fitness field tests were sit-and-reach test, 1-minute sit-ups, standing broad jump, 40-m sprint, and 20-m shuttle run. Obese subjects had poorer scores in the field tests except in the sit-and-reach test. BMI and WC were significantly negatively associated with all the physical fitness parameters, except for the 40-m sprint where positive correlation was observed, and in the sit-and-reach test where no correlation was seen. In the management of preadolescent overweight and obesity, exercise programs should therefore be designed toward enhancing these fitness parameters, while not sacrificing enjoyment and creativity.

  5. Accuracy of self-reported height, weight and waist circumference in a Japanese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, N; Hosono, A; Shibata, K; Tsujimura, S; Oka, K; Fujita, H; Kamiya, M; Kondo, F; Wakabayashi, R; Yamada, T; Suzuki, S

    2017-12-01

    Inconsistent results have been found in prior studies investigating the accuracy of self-reported waist circumference, and no study has investigated the validity of self-reported waist circumference among Japanese individuals. This study used the diagnostic standard of metabolic syndrome to assess the accuracy of individual's self-reported height, weight and waist circumference in a Japanese sample. Study participants included 7,443 Japanese men and women aged 35-79 years. They participated in a cohort study's baseline survey between 2007 and 2011. Participants' height, weight and waist circumference were measured, and their body mass index was calculated. Self-reported values were collected through a questionnaire before the examination. Strong correlations between measured and self-reported values for height, weight and body mass index were detected. The correlation was lowest for waist circumference (men, 0.87; women, 0.73). Men significantly overestimated their waist circumference (mean difference, 0.8 cm), whereas women significantly underestimated theirs (mean difference, 5.1 cm). The sensitivity of self-reported waist circumference using the cut-off value of metabolic syndrome was 0.83 for men and 0.57 for women. Due to systematic and random errors, the accuracy of self-reported waist circumference was low. Therefore, waist circumference should be measured without relying on self-reported values, particularly in the case of women.

  6. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric mea...

  7. Interactions of dietary protein and adiposity measures in relation to subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2014-01-01

    and at follow-up about 5 years later were analyzed with multiple linear regression and dietary macronutrient substitution models. Interactions between dietary protein and baseline body mass index (BMI) and baseline WC adjusted for BMI (WCBMI ) (divided in tertiles; nine groups total), were analyzed in relation...... protein, whether replacing carbohydrate or fat, and weight change. However, individuals in the highest tertile of baseline BMI (irrespective of baseline WCBMI ) had significantly inverse change in waist circumference when protein replaced carbohydrate, but not when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION......: Replacing carbohydrate with protein in the diet may prevent a relative increase in WC in individuals with a greater BMI....

  8. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference:Influence of Genetic Predisposition to Adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max; Huikari, Ville; Sebert, Sylvain; Cavadino, Alana; Singh Ahluwalia, Tarunveer; Skaaby, Tea; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Toft, Ulla; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and changes in measures of adiposity have shown inconsistent results, and interaction with genetic predisposition to obesity has rarely been examined. We examined whether 25(OH)D was associated with subsequent annual changes in body weight (ΔBW) or waist circumference (ΔWC), and whether the associations were modified by genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI). The study was ba...

  9. Sleep duration and body mass index and waist circumference among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Li, Chaoyang; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Perry, Geraldine S; Croft, Janet B

    2014-02-01

    To examine the form of the relationship between sleep duration and anthropometric measures and possible differences in these relationships by gender and race or ethnicity. Data for 13,742 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 were used. Sleep duration was categorized as ≤6 (short sleepers), 7-9, and ≥10 hours (long sleepers). Short sleepers were as much as 1.7 kg/m² (SE 0.4) heavier and had 3.4 cm (SE 1.0) more girth than long sleepers. Among participants without depression or a diagnosed sleep disorder, sleep duration was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in an inverse linear association in the entire sample, men, women, whites, African Americans, and participants aged 20-39 years. No evidence for statistical interaction by gender and race or ethnicity was observed. Regression coefficients were notably stronger among adults aged 20-39 years. Compared to participants who reported sleeping 7-9 hours per night, short sleepers were more likely to be obese and have abdominal obesity. In this nationally representative sample of US adults, an inverse linear association most consistently characterized the association between sleep duration and BMI and waist circumference. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  10. Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio in 19 populations of the WHO MONICA Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molarius, A.; Seidell, J C; Sans, S.; Tuomilehto, J.; Kuulasmaa, K.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) measured using a standard protocol among populations with different prevalences of overweight. In addition, to quantify the associations of these anthropometric measures with age and degree of overweight.

  11. Waist Circumference as Measure of Abdominal Fat Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Grundy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines intercorrelations among waist circumference (WC, intraperitoneal fat (IPF, and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF in ethnically diverse Dallas Heart Study consisting of 1538 women and 1212 men (50% Black. Correlations between fat depots and triglyceride or HOMA2-IR, biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, are also reported. Total abdominal fat (TAF, ASF, and IPF masses were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The highest correlations with WC according to ethnicity and gender were noted for TAF (R2=0.81-0.88 with progressively lower correlations with ASF (0.65–0.82 and IPF (0.29–0.85. The percentage of IPF relative to TAF was not significantly correlated with WC. For all WC categories, higher IPF/ASF ratios were associated with higher triglyceride levels. In contrast, differences in ratios had little or no association with HOMA2-IR. However, when all data were pooled, IPF was positively correlated with both triglyceride (r=0.358 (men and 0.363 (women and HOMA2-IR (r=0.480 (men and 0.517 (women; after adjustment for ASF, IPF was still correlated with triglyceride (r=0.353 (men and 0.348 (women and HOMA2-IR (r=0.290 (men and 0.221 (women. WC measures TAF reliably, but its association with IPF depends on IPF/ASF ratios that vary by gender and ethnicity.

  12. The influences of height and age on waist circumference as an index of adiposity in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, T.S.; Seidell, J C; Currall, J E; Morrison, C E; Deurenberg, P.; Lean, M.E.J.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influences of height and age on the differences in waist circumference between individuals of different stature. SUBJECTS: 3319 males and 4358 females from four studies in the UK and the Netherlands. MEASUREMENTS: Waist circumference, body weight, height, and age. RESULTS:

  13. ASSOCIATION OF IDF CRITERIA OF WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE WITH DIABETES MELLITUS IN A RURAL DIABETIC POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuba Srinivasan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION IDF definition of metabolic syndrome uses waist circumference as the main criteria without which metabolic syndrome cannot be diagnosed. The IDF cut-offs for waist circumference is ethnicity specific, but there is a vast heterogeneity amongst South Asians and within the Indian subcontinent itself. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 consecutive cases of diabetes in a medical college catering to predominantly rural population who attended the Medicine Department OPD. Demographic data and anthropometric data with relevant biochemical values were collected with patient’s permission and the study was conducted. The IDF criterion of cut-off for waist circumference was solely used to identify the correlation between waist circumference and development of diabetes. RESULTS Study comprised of 55 males and 45 females with diabetes. 40% amongst males with diabetes had a waist circumference below the cut-off for metabolic syndrome. Amongst females, 8% did not fit into the IDF criteria of waist circumference for metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION Many countries have proposed different cut-off values for waist circumference for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. India being a heterogenous population requires region and population specific study to identify exact cut-off point. The authors believe 90 cm as waist circumference in males is too high and many metabolic syndrome cases are likely to be missed using this criteria.

  14. Evaluation of Internet-Based Interventions on Waist Circumference Reduction: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Niu, Jingjing

    2015-07-21

    Internet-based interventions are more cost-effective than conventional interventions and can provide immediate, easy-to-access, and individually tailored support for behavior change. Waist circumference is a strong predictor of an increased risk for a host of diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, independent of body mass index. To date, no study has examined the effect of Internet-based lifestyle interventions on waist circumference change. This study aimed to systematically review the effect of Internet-based interventions on waist circumference change among adults. This meta-analysis reviewed randomized controlled trials (N=31 trials and 8442 participants) that used the Internet as a main intervention approach and reported changes in waist circumference. Internet-based interventions showed a significant reduction in waist circumference (mean change -2.99 cm, 95% CI -3.68 to -2.30, I(2)=93.3%) and significantly better effects on waist circumference loss (mean loss 2.38 cm, 95% CI 1.61-3.25, I(2)=97.2%) than minimal interventions such as information-only groups. Meta-regression results showed that baseline waist circumference, gender, and the presence of social support in the intervention were significantly associated with waist circumference reduction. Internet-based interventions have a significant and promising effect on waist circumference change. Incorporating social support into an Internet-based intervention appears to be useful in reducing waist circumference. Considerable heterogeneity exists among the effects of Internet-based interventions. The design of an intervention may have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the intervention.

  15. [Effects of a lower body weight or waist circumference on cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labraña, Ana María; Durán, Eliana; Martínez, María Adela; Leiva, Ana María; Garrido-Méndez, Alex; Díaz, Ximena; Salas, Carlos; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    Overall and central obesity are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. To investigate the association of body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with cardiovascular risk factors in Chile. We included 5,157 participants from the National Health Survey 2009-2010. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia (high total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and low HDL-cholesterol) were defined using international recommendations. BMI and WC were measured using standardized protocols. A five percent lower body weight, BMI and WC were associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular risk factors. For each 5% reduction in body weight, the risk for hypertension decreased by 8 and 9% in women and men respectively. Similar risk reductions were observed for diabetes (9 and 11% respectively), metabolic syndrome (23 and 30% respectively), low HDL cholesterol (13 and 13% respectively), high triglyceride levels (16 and 18% respectively) and total cholesterol (8 and 10% respectively). Similar findings were observed for BMI and WC. Lower body weight, BMI or WC are associated with important reductions in cardiovascular risk factors. A 5% reduction in these adiposity markers could be a perfectly feasible goal for lifestyle interventions.

  16. Waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio reference percentiles for abdominal obesity among Greek adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacopoulou, Flora; Efthymiou, Vasiliki; Landis, Georgios; Rentoumis, Anastasios; Chrousos, George P

    2015-05-04

    Indices predictive of adolescent central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Such reference data are lacking for Greek adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed reference percentiles for abdominal obesity among Greek adolescents aged 12-17 years, to investigate possible obesity cut-offs of WHR and WHtR and to compare WC percentiles to other adolescent populations. A representative sample of 1610 high school adolescents (42.2% boys, 57.8% girls; mean age ± sd 14.4 ± 1.72 years) participated in this cross-sectional study in Attica, Greece, in 2013. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), WC, hip circumference (HC), WHR and WHtR were measured and percentiles were calculated using the LMS method. The relation between WHR, WHtR and general obesity, as defined by the International Obesity Task Force, was investigated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The discriminating power of WHR and WHtR was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Greek adolescents' WC measurements at the 50th and 90th percentile were compared with their counterparts' smoothed percentiles from Norway, Turkey, Poland, South India, Germany and Kuwait. Boys had significantly higher mean in all measures than girls, except for BMI where there was no statistical difference in terms of gender. BMI, WC and HC showed an increasing trend with age. WC leveled off in both genders at the age of 17 years. WHR and WHtR showed a continuous decrease with advancing age. WHtR was a better predictor for general obesity in both boys and girls (AUC 95% CI 0.945-0.992) than the WHR (AUC 95% CI 0.758-0.870); the WHtR cut-off of 0.5 had sensitivity 91% and specificity 95% for both genders and all age groups combined. International comparisons showed that Greek adolescents had relatively high levels of abdominal obesity in early-middle adolescence but this did not persist at

  17. Waist circumference and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijnissen, Radboud M; Naudé, Petrus J W; Comijs, Hannie C; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-03-01

    Both visceral obesity and depression are associated with impaired health and excess mortality, possibly through overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms like adipose tissue derived inflammatory markers. These results, however, are primarily based on population-based surveys, often restricted to a young population and depression severity scales instead of patients with established diagnosis of depressive disorder. We examined the relation between waist circumference and late-life depression using the baseline data of The Netherlands Study of Depression in Older people (NESDO). Psychopathology has been assessed with Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 2.1. Adjusted for age, sex, education, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, physical activity), drug use, cognition and chronic diseases as well as adjusted for body mass index (BMI), analysis of covariance showed that depressed older patients (n=376) had a significantly lower waist circumference (WC) compared to their non-depressed comparisons (n=130): estimated marginal mean (SE)=93.9 (0.5) versus 97.8 (0.8) cm (F=15.9; df=1467; pdepressed group showed that both, depression severity (Inventory of Depressive Symptoms) as well as duration-related depression characteristics (age of onset, duration of illness, life-time comorbid dysthymia), were associated with the WC. Only the severity of depressive symptoms remained significant after further adjusted for the BMI. Interestingly, a recently discovered adipokine, Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), was associated with late-life depression, but only in the subgroup of patients with a pathologically increased WC. Population-based findings on the positive association between obesity and depressive symptoms can thus not be generalised to a clinical sample of depressed older patients. The impact of the WC on course and treatment outcome of late-life depression should be examined in clinical samples, taken into account the relative impact of the WC in

  18. Cardiometabolic risk in young adults from northern Mexico: Revisiting body mass index and waist-circumference as predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Ramos-Jim?nez, Arnulfo; Hernandez-Torres, Rosa P.; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Tapia-Pancardo, Diana C.; Jim?nez-Flores, J. Rafael; M?ndez-Cruz, A. Ren?; Murgu?a-Romero, Miguel; Gallardo-Ort?z, Itzell A.; Urqu?dez-Romero, Ren?

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 and a waist circumference (WC) ≥80 cm in women (WCF) or ≥90 cm in men (WCM) are reference cardiometabolic risk markers (CMM) for Mexicans adults. However, their reliability to predict other CMM (index tests) in young Mexicans has not been studied in depth. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study evaluating several anthropometric, physiological and biochemical CMM from 295 young Mexicans was performed. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp)...

  19. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Halkjaer, J.; Heitmann, B.L.

    2008-01-01

    a prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined...... as waist change in the lowest or highest quintile of waist changes) by polytomous logistic regression, also taking into account amount of alcohol intake. RESULTS: Drinking frequency was inversely associated with changes in waist circumference in women and was unassociated with changes in waist...... drinking, drinking on 1, 2-4, 5-6, and 7 d/wk, respectively, compared with men who drank alcohol on alcohol intake or total energy intake did not affect results considerably. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking pattern may...

  20. Longitudinal analysis of changes in weight and waist circumference in relation to incident vasomotor symptoms: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ellen B; Crawford, Sybil L; Shelton, Janie F; Tepper, Ping G; Crandall, Carolyn J; Greendale, Gail A; Matthews, Karen A; Thurston, Rebecca C; Avis, Nancy E

    2017-01-01

    Greater body mass index (BMI) and body fat are associated with vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Thus, weight loss may prevent VMS. We analyzed whether concurrent BMI or waist circumference and/or changes in weight or waist circumference predicted incident VMS and whether these relations differed by menopause stage or race/ethnicity. Data from 10 follow-up visits for 1,546 participants in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation who reported no VMS at baseline were modeled for time to first symptomatic visit in relation to concurrent BMI and waist circumference and change in weight and waist circumference during early and late menopause using discrete survival analyses, adjusting for covariates. Greater concurrent BMI and waist circumference were significantly related to greater any and frequent (≥6 d in the last 2 wk) incident VMS in early menopause and lower VMS risk in late menopause. Percentage weight change since baseline and since the prior visit was unrelated to incident any VMS in either menopause stage. Percentage weight change since baseline had a significant shallow U-shaped association with incident frequent VMS in early menopause (P = 0.02), a shallow inverse U-shape in late menopause (P = 0.02), and a significant interaction with menopause stage (P = 0.004) but not with race/ethnicity. Recent weight change was unassociated with incident VMS in either menopause stage. Results were similar for waist change. Concurrent BMI and waist circumference were positively related to incident VMS in early menopause and negatively related in late menopause. Maintaining healthy weight in early menopause may help prevent VMS.

  1. Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference in Relation to Incident Vasomotor Symptoms: the Study of Women’ Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ellen B.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Shelton, Janie F.; Tepper, Ping G.; Crandall, Carolyn J.; Greendale, Gail A.; Matthews, Karen A.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Avis, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Greater body mass index (BMI) and body fat are associated with vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Thus, weight loss may prevent VMS. We analyzed whether concurrent BMI or waist circumference and/or changes in weight or waist circumference predicted incident VMS and whether these relations differed by menopause stage or race/ethnicity. Methods Data from 10 follow-up visits for 1546 participants in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation who reported no VMS at baseline were modeled for time to first symptomatic visit in relation to concurrent BMI and waist circumference and change in weight and waist circumference during early and late menopause using discrete survival analyses, adjusting for covariates. Results Greater concurrent BMI and waist circumference were significantly related to greater any and frequent (≥6 days in the last two weeks) incident VMS in early menopause and lower VMS risk in late menopause. Percentage weight change since baseline and since the prior visit were unrelated to incident any VMS in either menopause stage. Percentage weight change since baseline had a significant shallow U-shaped association with incident frequent VMS in early menopause (p=0.02), a shallow inverse U-shape in late menopause (p=0.02), and a significant interaction with menopause stage (p=0.004) but not with race/ethnicity. Recent weight change was unassociated with incident VMS in either menopause stage. Results were similar for waist change. Conclusions Concurrent BMI and waist circumference were positively related to incident VMS in early menopause and negatively related in late menopause. Maintaining healthy weight in early menopause may help prevent VMS. PMID:27749738

  2. LMS tables for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio among Colombian children and adolescents: The FUPRECOL study

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Jiménez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background: Indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). The aims of this study were 1) to establish a Colombian youth smoothed centile charts and LMS tables for WC and WHtR and 2) to evaluate the utility of these parameters as predictors of overweight and obesity. Method: A cross-sectional study whose sample population comprised 7954 healthy Colombian schoolchildren [boys n=3460 and girls n=4494, mean (standard deviation) a...

  3. Strength and cardiometabolic risk in young adults: The mediator role of aerobic fitness and waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Fernández, A; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V; Torres-Costoso, A; Cañete García-Prieto, J; Franquelo-Morales, P; Sánchez-López, M

    2018-02-22

    The aim of this study was to analyze the mediation role of cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference in the association between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk. A cross-sectional study involved first-year college students (n = 370) from a Spanish public university was performed. We measured weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, biochemical variables, maximum handgrip strength assessment, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We calculated handgrip dynamometry/weight and a previously validated cardiometabolic risk index. Analysis of covariance models was conducted to test differences in cardiometabolic risk values across muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and waist circumference categories, controlling for confounders. Hayes' PROCESS macro was used for the multiple mediation analysis. The relationship between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk did not remain significant (c' = 1.76 [1.4]; P > .05) in a multiple serial bootstrapped mediation model including cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference as mediators when controlling for age and sex. According to the indirect effect, the significant paths in the model mediating this relationship between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk index were as follows: muscular strength → waist circumference → cardiometabolic risk index (-4.899; 95% CI: -6.690; -3.450) and muscular strength → cardiorespiratory fitness → waist circumference → cardiometabolic risk index (-0.720; 95% CI: -1.316; -0.360). Both cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference mediate the association between muscular strength and cardiometabolic risk in young adults. Thus, our results place cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference as the main targets of physical activity programmes aimed at preventing cardiometabolic diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Should waist circumference be replaced by index of central obesity (ICO) in definition of metabolic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, R; Mohan, V; Joshi, S

    2012-01-01

    Waist circumference has been widely used as the parameter of central obesity in defining metabolic syndrome. Global consensus definition of metabolic syndrome has suggested various race- and gender-specific cutoffs of waist circumference for quantifying central obesity. We have earlier proposed that using index of central obesity (ICO), the need for race- and gender-specific cutoffs may be obviated. We propose that waist circumference be supplanted with index of central obesity in all definitions of metabolic syndrome. Using index of central obesity a common cutoff of 0.5 applicable across races and genders might be obtained. Moreover, it will enhance the sensitivity of definition by diagnosing subjects who are shorter than general population. Among 258 male and 242 female diabetic patients, subjects with metabolic syndrome (defined as per gender-specific waist circumference cutoffs), were found to have a common lower range of index of central obesity suggesting that a common cutoff of waist circumference may be obtained. In another study from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database, replacing index of central obesity with waist circumference was found to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of definition of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Romaguera

    Full Text Available Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary.To ascertain the association of food groups/items consumption on prospective annual changes in "waist circumference for a given BMI" (WC(BMI, a proxy for abdominal adiposity.We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on BMI, and annual change in WC(BMI (ΔWC(BMI, cm/y was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between food groups/items and ΔWC(BMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates.Higher fruit and dairy products consumption was associated with a lower gain in WC(BMI whereas the consumption of white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks was positively associated with ΔWC(BMI. When these six food groups/items were analyzed in combination using a summary score, those in the highest quartile of the score--indicating a more favourable dietary pattern--showed a ΔWC(BMI of -0.11 (95% CI -0.09 to -0.14 cm/y compared to those in the lowest quartile.A dietary pattern high in fruit and dairy and low in white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks may help to prevent abdominal fat accumulation.

  6. Tour de tailleaugmenté et facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire [Increased waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salima TALEB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity evaluated by body mass index (BMI is a recognized cardiovascular risk factor. Studies have shown that adipose tissue deposition in visceral level, reflected by increased waist circumference itself was a cardiometabolic risk factor. Objective. The relationship was studied between a high waist circumference and a cardiovascular risk. Material and Methods. A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 subjects in 2014 in Tebessa. The questionnaire allowed us to gather the following information: anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, physical activity, smoking, personal and family history ... Blood sample was realized to determine some biochemical parameters. Results. In this study, 60.5% of the subjects had a pathological waist, women were more affected than men (72.86% vs 31.67%, p <0.0001. This prevalence peaked between 47-66 years (p <0.0001. Pathological waist circumference was a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD, (RR = 1.71, P = 0.028. This study revealed that 16.53% of subjects with a pathologicalwaistlines had diabetes, 55.5% were hypertensive, 49% had hypertriglyceridemia, 46% low HDL, and 18 % high LDL. In normal weight subjects, 22% had pathological waistline. Conclusion. The prevalence of abdominal obesity is higher among patients consulting in private practice in Tébessa, this requires screening and awareness of people with pathological waistline.

  7. Is waist circumference a better predictor of diabetes than body mass index or waist-to-height ratio in Iranian adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several measures of adiposity have been used for predicting diabetes. The results of studies regarding superiority of waist circumference (WC to body mass index (BMI are inconsistent. This study designed to compare the ability of different anthropometric measures in predicting diabetes and to determine their optimal cut-off values. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,000 representative sample among adults aged 20-80 years in Babol, the Northern Iran. The demographic data were collected in a household survey, and the anthropometric measures of weight, height, waist, and hip circumference were measured with a standard method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS ≥126 mg/dl was considered as diabetes. receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to estimate the predictive ability of different anthropometric indexes and their optimal cut-off values for high FBS. Results: The overall prevalence rate of diabetes was 14.0% (14.4% in men vs. 13.5% in women, P = 0.65. The prevalence rate was significantly higher in older age (>60 years, low educated and obese (P = 0.001. The mean of BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR were significantly higher among diabetic in both sexes (P = 0.001. Among men, WC (area under the ROC curve [AUC] =0.64 and WHtR (AUC = 0.63 have slightly higher accuracy index compared with BMI (AUC = 0.62 or WHR (AUC = 0.60. In contrast, among women, WHtR (AUC = 0.69 and WC (AUC = 0.68 yielded slightly better predictive than BMI (AUC = 0.67. The optimal cut-off values obtained for BMI and WHtR were similar between two sexes (BMI = 24.95 kg/m 2 for men and BMI = 25.2 kg/m 2 for women, WHtR = 0.51 for both sexes whereas the optimal cut-off value for WC was higher in men than women (98.5 cm men vs. 89.5 cm women. Conclusions: Overall WC and WHtR exhibited a slightly better discriminate performance than BMI for diabetes in both sexes, particularly in women.

  8. Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease and Metabolic, Cardiovascular, and Renal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiren P; Saland, Jeffrey M; Ng, Derek K; Jiang, Shuai; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L; Flynn, Joseph T

    2017-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of obesity as estimated by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) and compare associations of WC and BMI with indicators of metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal health in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cross-sectional analysis stratified by CKD etiology (nonglomerular or glomerular) of 737 subjects. The kappa statistic was used to assess agreement between the 2 measures of obesity. Linear regression models were performed using WC and BMI as separate independent variables. Dependent variables included lipid measures, insulin resistance, blood pressure, left ventricular mass index, proteinuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Associations were scaled to SD and interpreted as the change in dependent variable associated with a 1-SD change in WC or BMI. There was good agreement (kappa statistic = 0.68) between WC and BMI in identifying obesity. Approximately 10% of subjects had obesity by 1 measure but not the other. BMI was more strongly associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate than WC. BMI was more strongly associated with left ventricular mass index in the nonglomerular CKD group compared with WC, but both had significant associations. The associations between WC and BMI with the remainder of the dependent variables were not significantly different. Measurement of WC added limited information to BMI in this cohort. Further longitudinal study is needed to determine how WC and BMI compare in predicting outcomes, particularly for children with CKD identified as having obesity by 1 measure but not the other. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Parastar, Saeed; Ebrahimpour, Karim; Shoshtari-Yeganeh, Bahareh; Hashemi, Majid; Mansourian, Marjan; Kelishadi, Roya

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the association of urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in 2016 on 242 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years living in Isfahan, Iran. Urinary concentration of mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethyl-5-exohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) metabolites were determined. For comparison of means, t test and to evaluate the association of analytes in different groups according to weight ANOVA was used. The correlation was applied to determine the association between phthalate metabolites with age, sex, WC, BMI, and BMI z-score. The univariate and multivariate regression models were used to determine the association of metabolites concentration with BMI z-score and WC. Mean (SD) BMI, BMI z-score and WC were 23.89 (4.41) kg/m 2 , 1.37 (1.3), and 82.37 (12.71) cm, respectively. There was a significant correlation between boys' age with BMI z-score (p value = 0.03) and WC (p value = 0.01), while the corresponding figures were not statistically significant in girls (p value = 0.48, and 0.4, respectively). Of the total population, 37 participants (15.3%) were obese. MMP, MBP, and MBzP metabolites were observed in all samples while MEHP, MEOHP, and MEHHP in 99.6, 95.86, and 96.28% of the studied population. Mean concentration of MMP (64.38 μg/L) and MBzP (268 μg/L) had the lowest and highest concentrations of metabolites, respectively. A significant relationship was observed among all studied metabolites and weight groups (p value ≤ 0.02). After adjustment for potential confounders, all metabolites (except MMP) showed a low-to-moderate positive and significant relationship with BMI z-score (β = 0.17-0.3). A weak to moderate positive and significant relationship was observed between all phthalate metabolites and WC (

  10. [Waist circumference as a marker for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Netto, Bárbara Dal Molin; de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; de Piano Ganen, Aline; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2016-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the degree of waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese adolescents of both genders, analyzed according to quartiles of WC. Cross-sectional study that involved 247 obese adolescents aged 12-19 years. Mean values of the nutritional parameters and serum analyses were compared with the groups using the independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship of the parameters studied. Chi-square test for trend was used to determine the relationship between the prevalence of the NAFLD and WC quartile by gender. NAFLD were presented in 60% of the study participants. Obese adolescents in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of WC presented higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared with that in the 1st quartile in both genders. The NAFLD patients had significantly higher values for body weight, BMI (body mass index), BAZ-score (BMI-for-age z-scores), total fat (% and kg), WC, visceral fat, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents. The results presented here suggest that an increase in WC can reliably predict the risk of NAFLD in obese adolescents. This is a low cost and easy-to-use tool that can help in screening in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of body mass index and waist circumference on healt related quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors : Resultes from the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, P.A.J.; Martucci, R.B.; Mols, F.; Bours, M.J.; Winkels, R.M.; Kampman, E.; Weijenberg, M.P.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Beijer, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to assess the association of waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) with health-related quality of life (HRQL) among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Methods: CRC survivors diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 completed questionnaires in August 2013 (with self-reported

  12. THE EFFECT OF WAIST CIRCUMFERENCES MORE THAN NORMAL ON THE INCIDENT OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pria Wahyu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coronary heart disease is known as the most common disease that causes mortality in the world, one of the examination to identify the risks of coronary heart disease is measuring waist circumference. The purpose of this study was to identify correlation between large waist circumferences and the incident of coroner heart disease. Method: Design used in this study was analytic observational (retrospective with cross sectional approach. There were 63 respondents which sampling by simple random sampling. The independent variable was waist circumferences and the dependent variable was coronary heart disease. Data were collected by direct observation then analyzed by spearman correlation statistic test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that waist circumferences more than normal had significant correlation with the incident of coronary heart disease (p=0.02. Analysis: It can be concluded that there was correlation between waist circumferences more than normal and the incident of coronary heart disease to the clients with coroner cardiac disease. Discussion: Earlier screening and detection is needed to prevent coronary heart disease.

  13. Comparison of an increased waist circumference with a positive hydrogen breath test as a clinical predictor of lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Castilleja, Carlos A; Montes-Tapia, Fernando F; Treviño-Garza, Consuelo; Martínez-Cobos, María C; García-Cantú, Jesús; Arenas-Fabbri, Vincenzo; de la O-Escamilla, Norma; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Lactose intolerance is a common disease in pediatrics, and its wrong diagnosis will lead to morbidity. The primary objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of an increased waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test as a predictor of lactose intolerance. The secondary objective was to analyze the impact of body mass index, waist circumference measurement, and age on the abdominal distension of patients with lactose intolerance. A total of 138 subjects aged 3 to 15 years were included. They underwent serial measurements of the waist circumference and hydrogen levels in the breath every 30 minutes over 3 hours during the hydrogen breath test. Out of the entire sample, 35 (25.4%) patients had lactose intolerance. An increase of 0.85 cm in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference results in a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 85% to predict lactose intolerance (odds ratio: 42.14, 95% confidence interval: 13.08-135.75, p ≤ 0.001). The body mass index and waist circumference measurement did not affect abdominal distension (p= not significant); however, age modified the time of distension. A 0.85 cm increase in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test is a useful parameter for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in pediatrics. Variations in relation to body mass index and waist circumference did not affect the usefulness of an increased waist circumference, unlike age.

  14. Increased waist circumference is associated with an increased prevalence of mood disorders and depressive symptoms in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, R O; Marca, K F; Appolinario, J C; Coutinho, W F

    2007-03-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting that obese patients may be more prone to develop certain psychiatric diseases, especially mood disorders. However, no studies have already determined which indicator of fat distribution best explains these comorbidities. The aim of this study is to investigate which anthropometric indicator of overweight (i.e. body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC] or waist/hip ratio [WHR]) best correlates with the presence of current mood disorders and the severity of depressive symptoms in obese women. Two hundred seventeen (217) obese women (BMI> or =30 kg/m2) between 18 and 75 years old were selected to participate in the study. All participants had anthropometrical data registered. The diagnosis of current mood disorders was assessed according to the Portuguese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV [SCID]. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A statistically significant association was found between BDI scores and BMI (r=0.16; p=0.018) and WC (r=0.20; p=0.004), but not WHR (r=0.10; p=0.15) or any socio-demographic variable. An increased prevalence of mood disorders was observed in the fourth quartile of WC, but not BMI or WHR, in comparison with the first and the second ones (pdepressive symptoms and the prevalence of current mood disorders in obese women. Waist circumference, and not BMI or WHR, seems to be the anthropometric indicator of overweight and fat distribution that best explains these findings.

  15. Urinary triclosan concentrations are inversely associated with body mass index and waist circumference in the US general population: Experience in NHANES 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengxu; Zhao, Jinying; Wang, Guangdi; Zhu, Yun; Rabito, Felicia; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Chen, Wei; Whelton, Paul K

    2015-06-01

    Humans are extensively exposed to triclosan, an antibacterial and antifungal agent. Triclosan's effects on human health, however, have not been carefully investigated. To examine whether triclosan exposure is associated with obesity traits. This study included 2898 children (6-19 years old) and 5066 adults (20 years or older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2010 and had a detectable level of urinary triclosan. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the association between urinary triclosan and both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Each standard deviation increase in urinary triclosan was associated with a 0.34 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.05, 0.64) kg/m² lower level of BMI (P=0.02) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.09, 1.74)cm smaller waist circumference (P=0.03) in boys, and a 0.62 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.94) kg/m² lower level of BMI (P=0.0002) and 1.32 (95% CI: 0.54, 2.09) cm smaller waist circumference in girls (P=0.001); a 0.42 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.77) kg/m² lower level of BMI (P=0.02) and 1.35 (95% CI: 0.48, 2.22) cm smaller waist circumference (P=0.003) in men, and a 0.71 (95% CI: 0.34, 1.07) kg/m² lower level of BMI (P=0.0002) and 1.68 (95% CI: 0.86, 2.50) cm smaller waist circumference (P=0.0001) in women. In both children and adults, there was a consistent trend for lower levels of BMI and smaller waist circumference with increasing levels of urinary triclosan, from the lowest to the highest quartile of urinary triclosan (P ≤ 0.001 in all cases). Triclosan exposure is inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference. The biological mechanisms linking triclosan exposure to obesity await further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. WAIST-HIP RATIO AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AS SIMPLE MEASURES OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSESSMENT AND WEIGHT MANAGEMENT AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjit Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR and Waist Circumference (WC were used to identify people at health risk both from being overweight and having visceral fat distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the association of WHR and WC in measuring the abdominal obesity, cardiovascular risk and weight management. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study involved 200 medical students (102 boys and 98 girls in the age group of 18-23 years (mean age 20.43 ± 8.9 years of Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab. WHR was divided into three groups in females- ≤0.80, 0.81-0.85 and >0.86 and males- ≤0.90, 0.90-1.0 and >1.0. WC was also divided into three groups in females- 88 cm and males- 102 cm. RESULTS The results of measurement of Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR of females were ≤0.80 (2%, 0.81-85 (10% and >0.86 (88% and males ≤90 (82%, 0.90-1.0 (15% and >1.0 (3%. Waist Circumference (WC of females was 88 cm (19% and males 102 cm (4%. CONCLUSION WHR is a better predictor of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD than WC. WHR and WC are measures of abdominal obesity and should be incorporated in weight management. WHR 0.81-0.86 in girls and 0.90-1.0 in males have moderate health risk, while >0.86 in females and >1.0 in males have high health risk. Men with WC ≥94 cm and women ≥80 cm should gain no further weight while men with WC ≥102 cm and women with ≥88cm should reduce their weight to avoid cardiovascular risks. Waist circumference is another alternative.

  17. Liraglutide reduces the body weight and waist circumference in Chinese overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Yu, De-min; Chen, Li-ming; Chang, Bao-cheng; Ji, Qiu-di; Li, Shu-ying; Zhu, Mei; Ding, Sheng-hua; Zhang, Bao-zhen; Wang, Su-li; Li, Hong-tao; Lin, Jing-na; Wang, Mao-jun; Guo, Jian-chao; Liu, Jie; Liu, Zhong-dong; Wu, Shen-tao; Yang, Ju-hong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor activator, on body weight and waist circumference in Chinese overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: A total of 328 Chinese overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients were included in this multi-center, open-labeled and self-controlled clinical study. The patients were subcutaneously injected with liraglutide once daily for 24 weeks as add-on therapy to their previous hypoglycemic treatments. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software package version 11.5 for Windows. Results: Liraglutide treatment caused significant reduction of the mean body weight (from 86.61±14.09 to 79.10±13.55 kg) and waist circumference (from 101.81±13.96 to 94.29±14.17 cm), resulting in body weight lose of 5%–10% in 43.67% patients, and body weight loss above 10% in 34.06% patients, who had significant lower plasma creatinine levels. Baseline waist circumference, BMI and HOMA-IR were independently correlated with the body weight loss. Furthermore, liraglutide treatment significantly decreased HbA1c levels (from 8.66%±2.17% to 6.92%±0.95%) with HbA1cweight loss in patients with a long duration of diabetes, and better glycemic control in patients with a short duration of diabetes. Conclusion: Liraglutide significantly reduces body weight and waist circumference in Chinese overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients. Patients with apparent visceral obesity, insulin resistance and a long duration of diabetes may have greater body weight loss; whereas patients with high insulin-secreting ability, hyperglucagonemia, and short-duration diabetes may obtain better glycemic control with liraglutide. PMID:25619391

  18. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Halkjaer, J.; Heitmann, B.L.

    2008-01-01

    drinking, drinking on 1, 2-4, 5-6, and 7 d/wk, respectively, compared with men who drank alcohol on energy intake did not affect results considerably. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking pattern may......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from...... a prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined...

  19. Fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference in European women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Due, Karen Margrete; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    ·00) and - 0·01 cm/10 g higher fatty fish consumption per d (95 % CI - 0·02, - 0·01), after adjustment for potential confounders. Lean fish consumption was not associated with change in waist circumference. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption measurements did......Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. However, human studies have suggested that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain. We investigated the associations between...... fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Sex, age and waist circumference at enrolment were considered as potential effect modifiers. Women and men (n 89 432) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a median of 5...

  20. Augmenting BMI and waist-height ratio for establishing more efficient obesity percentiles among school-going children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjikkaran Seeja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Questions: 1. Are all the existing methods for estimating the obesity and overweight in school going children in India equally efficient? 2. How to derive more efficient obesity percentiles to determine obesity and overweight status in school-going children aged 7-12 years old? Objectives: 1. To investigate and analyze the prevalence rate of obesity and overweight children in India, using the established standards. 2. To compare the efficiency among the tools with the expected levels in the Indian population. 3. To establish and demonstrate the higher efficiency of the proposed percentile chart. Study Design: A cross-sectional study using a completely randomized design. Settings: Government, private-aided, unaided, and central schools in the Thrissur district of Kerala. Participants: A total of 1500 boys and 1500 girls aged 7-12 years old. Results: BMI percentiles, waist circumference percentiles, and waist to height ratio are the ruling methodologies in establishing the obese and overweight relations in school-going children. Each one suffers from the disadvantage of not considering either one or more of the obesity contributing factors in human growth dynamics, the major being waist circumference and weight. A new methodology for mitigating this defect through considering BMI and waist circumference simultaneously for establishing still efficient percentiles to arrive at obesity and overweight status is detailed here. Age-wise centiles for obesity and overweight status separately for boys and girls aged 7-12 years old were established. Comparative efficiency of this methodology over BMI had shown that this could mitigate the inability of BMI to consider waist circumference. Also, this had the advantage of considering body weight in obesity analysis, which is the major handicap in waist to height ratio. An analysis using a population of 1500 boys and 1500 girls has yielded 3.6% obese and 6.2% overweight samples, which is well within

  1. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Forouhi, Nita G; Wareham, Nicolas J; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Masala, Giovanna; Palli, Dominique; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Saris, Wim H M; Feskens, Edith J M

    2010-02-01

    Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied. Our aim was to investigate the association of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and fruit and vegetable fiber with changes in weight and waist circumference. We conducted a prospective cohort study with 89,432 European participants, aged 20-78 y, who were free of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline and who were followed for an average of 6.5 y. Dietary information was collected by using validated country-specific food-frequency questionnaires. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed in each center studied, and estimates were combined by using random-effects meta-analyses. Adjustments were made for follow-up duration, other dietary variables, and baseline anthropometric, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Total fiber was inversely associated with subsequent weight and waist circumference change. For a 10-g/d higher total fiber intake, the pooled estimate was -39 g/y (95% CI: -71, -7 g/y) for weight change and -0.08 cm/y (95% CI: -0.11, -0.05 cm/y) for waist circumference change. A 10-g/d higher fiber intake from cereals was associated with -77 g/y (95% CI: -127, -26 g/y) weight change and -0.10 cm/y (95% CI: -0.18, -0.02 cm/y) waist circumference change. Fruit and vegetable fiber was not associated with weight change but had a similar association with waist circumference change when compared with intake of total dietary fiber and cereal fiber. Our finding may support a beneficial role of higher intake of dietary fiber, especially cereal fiber, in prevention of body-weight and waist circumference gain.

  2. Study of conicity index, body mass index and waist circumference as predictors of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caitano Fontela, Paula; Winkelmann, Eliane Roseli; Nazario Viecili, Paulo Ricardo

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to assess whether the conicity index (CI), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) can be used as predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality in a middle-aged population of the north-western region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This was a retrospective, longitudinal cohort study, based on the medical records of patients seen in a cardiology institution in a rural area of Rio Grande do Sul. The sample consisted of 2396 individuals. The primary endpoint was diagnosis of CAD, with mortality as the secondary endpoint. CI, BMI and WC were assessed using logistic regression, Cox regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The study showed that none of the anthropometric measures could be considered independent factors for either a diagnosis of CAD or mortality. Female gender was associated with a significantly lower risk of CAD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.44), as was absence of diabetes (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.82), while there was a significantly higher risk of mortality associated with the presence of CAD (OR: 3.56; 95% CI: 2.00-6.32) and alcohol consumption (OR: 3.55; 95% CI: 1.60-7.90). These anthropometric measures were not independent predictive factors for CAD diagnosis or mortality in a population in southern Brazil. Our results support the conclusion that determination of CI, BMI and WC alone is insufficient to assess the risk of CAD and mortality in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS. PMID:21331161

  4. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, K M; Paiva, L L; Sanchez, S E; Revilla, L; Lopez, T; Yasuda, M B; Yanez, N D; Gelaye, B; Williams, M A

    2011-01-24

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS.

  5. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Knowles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP. Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, waist-height ratio (WHtR, and visceral adiposity index (VAI were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG. For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS.

  6. Association between occupational psychosocial factors and waist circumference is modified by diet among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, A; Kaila-Kangas, L; Leino-Arjas, P; Lindbohm, M-L; Nevanperä, N; Remes, J; Järvelin, M-R; Laitinen, J

    2015-09-01

    Occupational psychosocial stress has been identified as a risk factor for obesity, whereas dietary habits have a key role in weight control. We examined whether dietary habits modify the association between occupational psychosocial factors and waist circumference. Data comprised 31-year-old men (n=2222) and women (n=2053) in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Waist circumference was measured and data on occupational psychosocial factors (demands, control and social support) and other characteristics were obtained through questionnaires. Healthy and unhealthy diet indices were constructed according to the current dietary guidelines. Associations were examined using analysis of variance adjusted for body mass index at age 14, basic education level, leisure-time physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress-related eating behaviour and parity. Among men, high job demands and high job control were associated with greater waist circumferences, and there were interactions between unhealthy diet and job demands (P=0.043) and job control (P=0.036) in relation to waist circumference. The waist of men with high demands or high control and low consumption of unhealthy foods (red/processed meat, hamburgers and pizzas, fried potatoes, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and white bread) was smaller than that of men with high demands or high control and high consumption of such foods. No associations were found among women. A diet based on the current dietary guidelines seems to cancel out the adverse effects of occupational psychosocial factors on waist circumference among young men. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess the risks for obesity-related diseases arising from psychosocial work environments and dietary habits.

  7. The Effect of Obesity and Increased Waist Circumference on the Outcome of Laparoscopic Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Hennessey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Obesity can be determined by body mass index (BMI; however waist circumference (WC is a better measure of central obesity. This study evaluates the outcome of laparoscopic nephrectomy on patients with an abnormal WC. Methods. A WC of >88 cm for women and >102 cm for men was defined as obese. Data collected included age, gender, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA score, renal function, anaesthetic duration, surgery duration, blood loss, complications, and duration of hospital stay. Results. 144 patients were assessed; 73 (50.7% of the patients had abnormal WC for their gender. There was no difference between the groups for conversion to open surgery, number of ports used, blood loss, and complications. Abnormal WC was associated with a longer median anaesthetic duration, 233 min, IQR (215–265 versus 204 min, IQR (190–210, p=0.0022, and operative duration, 178 min, IQR (160–190 versus 137 min, IQR (128–162, p<0.0001. Patients with an abnormal WC also had a longer inpatient stay, p=0.0436. Conclusion. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is safe in obese patients. However, obese patients should be informed that their obesity prolongs the anaesthetic duration and duration of the surgery and is associated with a prolonged recovery.

  8. Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index - a proxy measure of visceral adiposity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Romaguera

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype "waist circumference for a given body mass index (WC(BMI", a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess the association between dietary factors and prospective changes in visceral adiposity as measured by changes in the phenotype WC(BMI.We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on body mass index, and annual change in WC(BMI (DeltaWC(BMI, cm/y was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between energy, energy density (ED, macronutrients, alcohol, glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, fibre and DeltaWC(BMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Men and women with higher ED and GI diets showed significant increases in their WC(BMI, compared to those with lower ED and GI [1 kcal/g greater ED predicted a DeltaWC(BMI of 0.09 cm (95% CI 0.05 to 0.13 in men and 0.15 cm (95% CI 0.09 to 0.21 in women; 10 units greater GI predicted a DeltaWC(BMI of 0.07 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.12 in men and 0.06 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.10 in women]. Among women, lower fibre intake, higher GL, and higher alcohol consumption also predicted a higher DeltaWC(BMI.Results of this study suggest that a diet with low GI and ED may prevent visceral adiposity, defined as the prospective changes in WC(BMI. Additional effects may be obtained among women of low alcohol, low GL, and high fibre intake.

  9. In women with PCOS, waist circumference is a better surrogate of glucose and lipid metabolism than disease status per se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderska, Agnieszka; Kyaw Tun, Tommy; Phelan, Niamh; McGowan, Anne; Sherlock, Mark; Behan, LucyAnn; Boran, Gerard; Gibney, James

    2017-12-29

    Cardiometabolic abnormalities are recognized in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, over-emphasis on PCOS as a risk factor potentially results in over-investigation and treatment of some women with and under-recognition of cardiometabolic risk in obese women without PCOS. Our objective was to explore the association between waist circumference (WC) and indices of glucose and lipid metabolism in women with and without PCOS. (i) An exploratory cross-sectional study investigating association of potential cardiometabolic risk markers (PCOS status, anthropometric measures, hsCRP, HOMA-IR, SHBG, testosterone) with indices of glucose (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) and lipid metabolism (postprandial studies and lipoprotein particle size) in 61 women with (n = 29) and without (n = 32) PCOS; (ii) a cross-sectional study in 103 PCOS women and 102 BMI-matched controls to explore if between-group differences in indices of lipid and glucose metabolism persist after adjusting for WC. NIH criteria were used for PCOS diagnosis. Study 1: Univariate correlations and stepwise regression modelling identified waist circumference (WC), as a better surrogate than PCOS status, independently predicting multiple variables of glucose and lipid metabolism. Study 2: Fasting insulin and triglyceride, hsCRP and insulin resistance (according to HOMA-IR and SiM [Avignon index]) were greater, while fasting HDL was lower in women with PCOS compared to BMI-matched women without PCOS. None of these differences persisted when a subset of 80 women with PCOS was compared with 80 women without PCOS, pair-matched for WC. Some cardiometabolic abnormalities in PCOS are related to central obesity, and following adjustment for WC does not differ from normal subjects. Waist circumference measurement has potential to take precedence over PCOS status as part of the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in reproductive-age women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  11. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Leonardo G O; Seabra, André; Padez, Cristina; Duarte, João P; Rebelo-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D D; Carmo, Bruno C M; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to: 1) examine the association of biological maturation effect on children's performance at a motor coordination battery and 2) to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34). Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%). We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J.; Ribeiro, Luís P.; Fernandes, Romulo; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. Methods: The sample included…

  13. The relation between drinking pattern and body mass index and waist and hip circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J S; Heitmann, B. L.; Tjønneland, A M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the association between alcohol drinking pattern and obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population study with assessment of quantity and frequency of alcohol intake, waist and hip circumference, height, weight, and lifestyle factors including diet. SUBJECTS: In all, 25 325 men ...

  14. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Halkjaer, Jytte; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from...

  15. Exploring cut-off values for large waist circumference in older adults : a new methodological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heim, N; Snijder, M B; Heymans, Martijn W; Deeg, D J H; Seidell, J C; Visser, M

    BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate about the applicability of current criteria for large waist circumference (WC) in older adults. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to explore cut-off values for large WC in adults aged 70 years and older, using previously used and new methods. DESIGN: Prospective cohort

  16. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Landsvig Berentzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Waist circumference (WC is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass index (DBMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on 15,577 men and 20,066 women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study were analyzed. Anthropometry was assessed in 1993-97 and 1999-02. Information on diabetes was obtained from The Danish National Diabetes Register. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated from Cox' proportional hazard models with individuals considered at risk from 1999-02 until December 31 2006. During 5.4 years of follow-up, 1,027 and 876 new cases of diabetes occurred among men and women, respectively. WC was positively associated with diabetes in both sexes also with adjustment for covariates and BMI. DWC was positively associated with diabetes in women, but not in men (HR per 5 cm change = 1.09 (1.04:1.15 in women, and 1.00 (0.94, 1.07 in men with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and DBMI. Associations with DWC were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to baseline WC or DBMI, or when individuals with diseases or diabetes occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While this study confirmed that WC is positively associated with the risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, it surprisingly showed that changes in WC were not associated with the subsequent risk of diabetes in men, and only weakly positively associated with the risk of diabetes in women. Accordingly, these findings suggest that a reduction in WC may be a weak or insufficient or target for prevention of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

  17. Interaction between genetic predisposition to adiposity and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Linneberg, Allan; Toft, Ulla; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Heitmann, Berit L; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry. To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI) and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (ΔBW) or change in WC (ΔWC). Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC or WHRBMI, as well as potential confounders. Mean follow-up time was ∼5 years. Four genetic predisposition-scores were based on the SNPs; a complete-score including all selected adiposity- associated SNPs, and three scores including BMI, WC or WHRBMI associated polymorphisms, respectively. The association between protein intake and ΔBW or ΔWC were examined and interactions between SNP-score and protein were investigated. Analyses were based on linear regressions using macronutrient substitution models and meta-analyses. When protein replaced carbohydrate, meta-analyses showed no associations with ΔBW (41.0 gram/y/5 energy% protein, [95% CI: -32.3; 114.3]) or ΔWC (genetic predisposition to general and abdominal adiposity, assessed by gene-scores, does not seem to modulate the influence of dietary protein on ΔBW or ΔWC.

  18. The effect of antiobesity drugs on waist circumference: a mixed treatment comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, M; Dunkley, A; Carter, P; Davies, M J; Khunti, K; Gray, L J

    2014-03-01

    To use meta-analytic techniques to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of orlistat and lorcaserin in the treatment of people who are overweight and obese. We identified publications from searches of electronic databases and extracted data from studies that compared orlistat or lorcaserin to lifestyle advice (standard care), placebo, sibutramine, rimonabant or metformin and collected information on waist circumference change or withdrawals due to adverse events (AEs). A mixed treatment comparison (MTC) meta-analysis was performed on the data extracted. Orlistat was found to be significantly better than placebo and standard care in reducing waist circumference at 6 and 12 months; orlistat reduced waist circumference by -6.96 cm [95% credible interval (CrI): -8.93, -4.96 cm] compared to standard care at 6 months. The results suggested that lorcaserin reduced waist circumference by a greater amount than all other interventions at 12 months, for example, lorcaserin lead to a greater reduction of -2.45 cm (95% CrI: -4.99, 0.08 cm) in comparison to placebo, although these differences were not statistically significant. Although data were very limited, metformin reduced waist circumference by a greater amount (-2.11 cm, 95% CI: -1.00, -3.22 cm) than orlistat at 6 months. On average, 6.5% of patients on orlistat and 5.4% of those on lorcaserin discontinued their treatment due to AEs at 12 months. Orlistat should be considered as an addition to lifestyle interventions in the treatment of obesity. Lorcaserin has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and these results suggest that it is similar in both efficacy and safety compared to orlistat. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Body mass index, waist circumference, body adiposity index, and risk for type 2 diabetes in two populations in Brazil: general and Amerindian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Alvim

    Full Text Available The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs.The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor.Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations.

  20. Dietary n-6 PUFA, carbohydrate:protein ratio and change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Madsen, Lise; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    . Dietary intake was determined at recruitment by using an FFQ that was designed for the study and validated. We applied linear regression models with 5-year change in weight or waist circumference as outcome and including a two-way interaction term between n-6 PUFA and carbohydrate intakes, lower......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the intake of n-6 PUFA and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference at different levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio. DESIGN: Follow-up study with anthropometric measurements at recruitment and on average 5·3 years later......-order terms, protein intake, long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and other potential confounders. Due to adjustment for intake of protein, levels of carbohydrate indirectly reflect levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio. SETTING: Diet, Cancer and Health follow-up study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Women and men (n 29 152...

  1. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may prov...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  2. Association of physical activity with body mass index, waist circumference and incidence of obesity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Fuentes, Gabriela; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Subirana Cachinero, Isaac; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Ros, Emilio; Lapetra Peralta, José; Fiol, Miguel; Rekondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Tur Marí, Josep Antoni; Pinto Sala, Xavier; Babio, Nancy; Ortega, Carolina; Martínez, José Alfredo; Schröder, Helmut

    2018-03-15

    There is limited, and inconsistent, data on the prospective association between physical activity and surrogate markers of adiposity in older adults. We aim to determine the prospective association of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and the incidence of obesity. This prospective analysis included 7144 individuals with a mean age of 67 ± 6.2 years, from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study. BMI and WC were measured and LTPA was recorded using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Exposure and outcome variables were calculated as cumulative average of repeated measurements. Total LTPA was inversely associated (P < 0.001) with BMI and WC. The difference in BMI and WC between extreme quintiles of LTPA (Q1-Q5) was 2.1 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68; 2.49, P < 0.001) and 4.8 cm (CI 2.28; 7.25, P < 0.001), respectively. Low-intensity LTPA was inversely associated with BMI but not with WC, while moderate/vigorous LTPA showed an inverse relationship with BMI and WC. The hazard of general and abdominal obesity incidence decreased across quintiles of total and moderate/vigorous LTPA (P < 0.001 for both), whereas low-intensity LTPA was inversely associated with the incidence of general obesity (P < 0.001). LTPA was inversely associated with BMI, WC and incidence of general and abdominal obesity. The finding that low-intensity LTPA was inversely related to BMI and the incidence of obesity is of particular importance because this level of physical activity could be a feasible option for many older adults.

  3. Cardiometabolic risk in young adults from northern Mexico: Revisiting body mass index and waist-circumference as predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernandez-Torres, Rosa P; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Tapia-Pancardo, Diana C; Jiménez-Flores, J Rafael; Méndez-Cruz, A René; Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Gallardo-Ortíz, Itzell A; Urquídez-Romero, René

    2016-03-08

    A body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and a waist circumference (WC) ≥80 cm in women (WCF) or ≥90 cm in men (WCM) are reference cardiometabolic risk markers (CMM) for Mexicans adults. However, their reliability to predict other CMM (index tests) in young Mexicans has not been studied in depth. A cross-sectional descriptive study evaluating several anthropometric, physiological and biochemical CMM from 295 young Mexicans was performed. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and Youden's index (J) of reference BMI/WC cutoffs toward other CMM (n = 14) were obtained and their most reliable cutoffs were further calculated at Jmax. Prevalence, incidence and magnitude of most CMM increased along the BMI range (p HOMA-IR, and QUICKI]. For a BMI = 30 kg/m(2), J ranged from 16 % (HDL-C/LDL-C) to 68 % (WC), being moderately reliable (Jmax = 61-67) to predict high uric acid (UA), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype (HTGW). Corrected WCM/WCF were moderate-highly reliable (Jmax = 66-90) to predict HTGW, MetS, fasting glucose and UA. Most CMM were moderate-highly predicted at 27 ± 3 kg/m(2) (CI 95 %, 25-28), 85 ± 5 cm (CI 95 %, 82-88) and 81 ± 6cm (CI 95 %, 75-87), for BMI, WCM and WCF, respectively. BMI and WC are good predictors of several CMM in the studied population, although at different cutoffs than current reference values.

  4. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-08-01

    The affordability of food is considered as an important factor influencing people's diet and hence health status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood food store availability is associated with some aspects of dietary intake and thus possibly with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. Subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 years of age. Neighborhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (meat stores, fish stores, fruit and vegetable stores, confectionery stores/bakeries, rice stores, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores). Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire. No association was seen between any measure of neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, except for a positive association between confectionery and bread availability (based on confectionery stores/bakeries, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores) and intake of these items (P for trend = .02). Further, no association was seen for BMI or waist circumference, except for an inverse relationship between availability of convenience stores and BMI and a positive relationship between store availability for meat (meat stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and fish (fish stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and waist circumference. In conclusion, this study of young Japanese women found no meaningful association between neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, BMI, or waist circumference, with the exception of a positive relationship between availability and intake for confectionery and bread. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard W; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjørngaard, Johan H; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Elvestad Gabrielsen, Maiken; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Korhonen, Tellervo; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Treur, Jorien L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dale, Caroline; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Paternoster, Lavinia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tyrrell, Jessica; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Nohr, Ellen A; Christiansen, Lene; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kuh, Diana; Watt, Graham; Eriksson, Johan G; Whincup, Peter H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie; Linneberg, Allan; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Preisig, Martin; Borodulin, Katja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Munafò, Marcus R; Sattar, Naveed

    2015-08-11

    To investigate, using a Mendelian randomisation approach, whether heavier smoking is associated with a range of regional adiposity phenotypes, in particular those related to abdominal adiposity. Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730 in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes. 148,731 current, former and never-smokers of European ancestry aged ≥ 16 years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. The data included up to 66,809 never-smokers, 43,009 former smokers and 38,913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by -0.40% (95% CI -0.57% to -0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being -0.31% (95% CI -0.42% to -0.19), -0.08% (-0.19% to 0.03%) and -0.74% (-0.96% to -0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (-0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (-0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele. For a given BMI, a gene variant associated with increased cigarette consumption was associated with increased waist circumference. Smoking in an effort to control weight may lead to accumulation of central adiposity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Impulsivity is associated with blood pressure and waist circumference among adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiberg, Melanie R; Newton, Dwight F; Collins, Jordan E; Bowie, Christopher R; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and impulsivity are common in bipolar disorder (BD), and CVRFs are also linked with impulsivity through a number of mechanisms, both behavioral and biological. This study examines the association between CVRFs and impulsivity in adolescents with BD. Subjects were 34 adolescents with BD and 35 healthy control (HC) adolescents. CVRFs were based on International Diabetes Federation metabolic syndrome criteria (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) and glucose). Impulsivity was measured using the computerized Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). Analyses controlled for age, IQ, lifetime attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and current antipsychotic use. Adolescents with BD had higher diastolic BP (73.36 ± 9.57 mmHg vs. 67.91 ± 8.74 mmHg, U = 401.0, p = 0.03), higher triglycerides (1.13 ± 0.60 mmol/L vs. 0.78 ± 0.38 mmol/L, U = 373.5, p = 0.008), and were more likely to meet high-risk criteria for waist circumference (17.6% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.04) vs. HC. Within the BD group, CGT sub-scores were correlated with CVRFs. For example, overall proportion bet was positively correlated with systolic (r = 0.387, p = 0.026) and diastolic (ρ = 0.404, p = 0.020) BP. Quality of decision-making was negatively correlated with systolic BP (ρ = -0.401, p = 0.021) and waist circumference (ρ = -0.534, p = 0.003). Significant interactions were observed, such that BD diagnosis moderates the relationship between both waist circumference and BP with CGT sub-scores. BP and waist circumference are associated with impulsivity in BD adolescents, but not in HC adolescents. Future studies are warranted to determine temporality and to evaluate whether optimizing CVRFs improves impulsivity among BD adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is waist circumference per body mass index rising differentially across the United States, England, China and Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S S; Gordon-Larsen, P; Stern, D; Popkin, B M

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about whether waist circumference (WC) has increased disproportionately relative to body mass index (BMI) around the world. Data came from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994 and 2007-2010), Health Survey for England (1992-1993 and 2008-2009); the Mexican Nutrition Survey (1999) and the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS 2012); and the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1993 and 2011). Country- and sex-stratified (for the United States, also race-/ethnicity-stratified) multivariable linear regressions were used to estimate mean difference in WC over time relative to BMI at specified overweight and obesity cutoff points, adjusting for age and survey year. Although mean WC and BMI shifted upward over time in all age-sex subpopulations in all four countries, trends in overweight prevalence were less consistent. However, WC relative to BMI increased at varying magnitudes across all countries and subpopulations, except US Black men. The magnitude of increase was largest for women in the youngest age group (20-29 years), particularly for women in Mexico (+6.6 cm, PMexico and China, particularly among young women, with the largest increases occurring in the middle-income countries of Mexico and China. These patterns are potentially a cause for concern especially for countries undergoing rapid economic and nutritional transitions.

  8. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.

    Background and aims Metabolic syndrome (MetS)-features are increasingly seen in childhood. Healthy school meals may help prevent lifestyle diseases from childhood, but well-designed trials are lacking. Aims We investigated the effect of providing school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre...... not affect a composite MetS-score but reduced diastolic blood pressure -0.5 mmHg (95% CI -1.0;-0.0), total cholesterol -0.05 mmol/L (-0.08;-0.02) (P=0.001), HDL cholesterol -0.02 mmol/L (-0.03;-0.00), triglyceride -0.02 mmol/L (-0.04;-0.00) (both P... and physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...

  9. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  10. Interactions between genetic variants associated with adiposity traits and soft drinks in relation to longitudinal changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Ängquist, Lars; Larsen, Sofus C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with obesity, and this association may be modified by a genetic predisposition to obesity. Objective: We examined the interactions between a molecular genetic predisposition to various aspects of obesity and the consumption of soft...... drinks, which are a major part of sugar-sweetened beverages, in relation to changes in adiposity measures. Design: A total of 4765 individuals were included in the study. On the basis of 50 obesity- Associated single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with body mass index (BMI), waist...... circumference (WC), or the waist- To-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI), the following 4 genetic predisposition scores (GRSs) were constructed: A complete genetic predisposition score including all 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSComplete), a genetic predisposition score including BMI- Associated single...

  11. Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Patients with HIV in South Africa and Associated Socio-demographic, Health Related and Psychosocial Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huis In 't Veld, Diana; Pengpid, Supa; Colebunders, Robert; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-02-27

    A high body mass index (BMI) and high waist circumference are important health risk factors predisposing for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and certain cancers. Historically, underweight was a diagnostic criterion of HIV-infection. In a cross-sectional study the prevalence of BMI-categories and high waist circumference and its associated factors in patients visiting three outpatient HIV clinics in South Africa were measured with anthropometric measurements and structured questionnaires regarding socio-demographic information, quality of life (QoL), AIDS-related stigma, symptoms of depression, alcohol use, HIV related information and level of adherence to ART. The median age of the 2230 included patients was 37 years, 66.5% were women and 88.6% received antiretroviral therapy. The prevalences of overweight, obesity and high waist circumference were 29.2, 21.9 and 44.6% respectively in women and 12.4, 4.0 and 3.9% respectively in men. Underweight was found in 18.2% of men and 6.3% of women. In multinomial regression analysis compared to a normal BMI, both overweight and obesity were associated with female gender, with being married or cohabiting and with a higher QoL score. Underweight was associated with male gender and tobacco use and negatively associated with being married or cohabiting and the physical domain of the QoL measure. A high waist circumference in men was associated with higher age and negatively associated with tobacco use and stigma score. In women it was negatively associated with never being married. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed in HIV-clinics in South Africa, mainly in women. Since overweight and obesity are important health risk factors, effective weight reduction interventions are desirable.

  12. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Spanish children and adolescents. Do we need waist circumference measurements in pediatric practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Helmut; Ribas, Lourdes; Koebnick, Corinna; Funtikova, Anna; Gomez, Santiago F; Fíto, Montserat; Perez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female) in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex and age specific WC≥90(th) percentile (WC-AO1), and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO) was defined as WHtR≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex- and age-specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls), 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls), and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls) in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls), 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls), and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls) in adolescents. The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice.

  13. [Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X Y; Zhang, M; Luo, X P; Wang, J J; Yin, L; Pang, C; Wang, G A; Shen, Y X; Wu, D T; Zhang, L; Ren, Y C; Wang, B Y; Zhang, H Y; Zhou, J M; Han, C Y; Zhao, Y; Feng, T P; Hu, D S; Zhao, J Z

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the association between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and the incidence risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In total, 20 194 participants ≥18 years old were selected randomly by cluster sampling from two township (town) of the county in Henan province from July to August of 2007 and July to August of 2008 and the investigation included questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile examination were performed at baseline; 17 236 participants were enrolled in this cohort study. 14 720 (85.4%) were followed up from July to August 2013 and July to October 2014. Finally, 11 643 participants (4 301 males and 7 342 females) were included in this study. Incidence density and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the risk of T2DM associated with baseline BMI, WC, WHtR, and their dynamic changes. After average of 6.01 years following up for 11 643 participants, 613 developed T2DM and the incidence density was 0.89 per 100 person-years. After adjusted for baseline sex, age, smoking, drinking, family history of diabetes, as well as the difference of fasting plasma-glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between baseline and follow-up, Cox Proportional-Hazards regression analysis indicated that T2DM risk of baseline BMI overweight group, BMI obesity group, abnormal WC group and abnormal WHtR group were significantly higher than that of the corresponding baseline normal groups , and the incidence risk of T2DM reached the highest for those whose baseline BMI, WC and WHtR were all abnormal, the corresponding HR (95%CI) were 2.05 (1.62-2.59), 3.01 (2.33-3.90), 2.34 (1.89-2.90), 2.88 (2.21-3.74), 3.32 (2.50-4.40), respectively. Whether baseline BMI/WC was normal or not, T2DM risk increased if baseline WHtR was abnormal, and

  14. Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

  15. Body mass index, waist circumference, type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of liver cancer for U.S. adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter T.; Newton, Christina C.; Freedman, Neal D.; Koshiol, Jill; Alavanja, Michael C.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Buring, Julie E.; Chan, Andrew T.; Chong, Dawn Q.; Datta, Mridul; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Graubard, Barry; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; King, Lindsey; Lee, I-Min; Linet, Martha; Palmer, Julie; Petrick, Jessica L.; Poynter, Jenny N.; Purdue, Mark; Robien, Kim; Rosenberg, Lynn; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D.; Sigurdson, Alice; Stevens, Victoria L.; Wactowski-Wende, Jean; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Renehan, Andrew G.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Incidence rates for liver cancer have increased threefold since the mid-1970s in the United States in parallel with increasing trends for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted an analysis of baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and T2DM with risk of liver cancer. The Liver Cancer Pooling Project maintains harmonized data from 1.57 million adults enrolled in 14 U.S.-based prospective studies. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex, study center, alcohol, smoking, race, and BMI (for WC and T2DM). Stratified analyses assessed whether the BMI-liver cancer associations differed by hepatitis sera-positivity in nested analyses for a subset of cases (n=220) and controls (n=547). After enrollment, 2,162 incident liver cancer diagnoses were identified. BMI, per 5 kg/m2, was associated with higher risks of liver cancer, more so for men (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.30 to 1.46) than women (HR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.35; p-interaction: 0.02). WC, per 5 cm, was associated with higher risks of liver cancer, approximately equally by sex (overall, HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13). T2DM was associated with higher risk of liver cancer (HR: 2.61; 95% CI: 2.34 to 2.91). In stratified analyses, there was a null association between BMI and liver cancer risk for participants who were sera-positive for hepatitis. This study suggests that high BMI, high WC, and T2DM are associated with higher risks of liver cancer and that the association may differ by status of viral hepatitis infection. PMID:27742674

  16. Bioelectrical impedance outperforms waist circumference for predicting cardiometabolic risk in Congolese hypertensive subjects: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Katchunga, Philippe Bianga; Bapolisi, Achile Mwira; M?Buyamba-Kabangu, Jean-Ren?; Hermans, Michel P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Waist circumference threshold values used in sub-Saharan Africa correspond to those of European populations and are therefore inappropriate. Thus, they may over predict insulin resistance, especially in hypertensive Africans, in whom there is often no association between blood pressure and insulin resistance. Using bioelectrical impedance measurement in sub-Saharan Africa could possibly be advantageous to overcome the shortcomings of waist circumference measurement. The aim of thi...

  17. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity.......Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity....

  18. [Waist circumference below metabolic syndrome harmonizing criteria is associated with increased cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, M V; Dobordzhinidze, L M; Deev, A D; Gratsianskiĭ, N A

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that waist circumference (WC) just below Joint Interim Statement ([JIS], 2009) abdominal obesity thresholds can be associated with worse risk factors profile than smaller WC. In a study of risk factors in families of patients with "premature" coronary heart disease (CHD) we examined 229 persons without CHD with body mass index (BMI) 18.5 kg/m and WC metabolic syndrome (MS JIS criteria, 2009). High BP was defined as prehypertension (PreHT) or hypertension (HT) and named PreHT/HT. In persons aged 16-17 years we used criteria 4 th report of National High BP Education Program Working Group on High BP in Children and Adolescents, in persons 18 years - 7 th Joint National Committee Report (USA). TG 1.7 mmol/l, serum basal glucose 5.6 mmol/l were defined high, HDL C <1.0 mmol/l (men), <1.3 mmol/l (women) - low. Framingham risk score of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was calculated for persons aged 30 years. Factors associated with various ranges of WC were selected by logistical regression univariate analysis. Odds ratios were compared in 2 groups of WC distribution: top ( 83 cm men, 73 cm women - intermediate [I] WC) vs 2 lower (<83 cm men; <73 cm women) tertiles. Analysis was carried out in 2 age groups according to median age: 16-26 years (n=115, 23.5% with IWC) and 27-62 years (n=114, 50.0 % with IWC). Persons aged 16-26 years with IWC had significantly higher risk to have high TG, low HDL C and PreHT/HT than those with smaller WC: odds ratios 7.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69-33.6; p=0.008), 3.56 (95% CI 1.35-9.36; p=0.010) and 2.22 (95% CI 1.13-4.36; p=0.020), respectively. No significant relationship was found between IWC and registered risk factors in age group 27-62 years. In persons aged 30-62 years (n=90, 51.1% with IWC) IWC was related to presence of 5% Framingham risk score: OR vs smaller WC 2.59 (95% CI 1.01-6.67; p=0.048). Among younger consorts and adult children of patients with "premature" CHD persons with WC 83 - <94 cm (men

  19. Waist circumference to assess reversal of insulin resistance following weight reduction after bariatric surgery: cohort and cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, D P; Wahrenberg, H; Toft, E; Qvisth, V; Löfgren, P; Hertel, K; Leijonhufvud, B-M; Thorell, A; Näslund, E; Arner, P

    2014-03-01

    To validate the use of waist circumference to assess reversal of insulin resistance after weight loss induced by bariatric surgery. In cross-sectional studies, threshold values for insulin resistance were determined with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (algorithm based on fasting plasma glucose and insulin) in 1018 lean subjects and by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (clamp) in 26 lean women. In a cohort study on 211 patients scheduled for bariatric surgery, HOMA-IR and waist circumference were measured before and 1.5-3 years after weight reduction. In a subgroup of 53 women, insulin sensitivity was also measured using clamp. The threshold for insulin resistance (90th percentile) was 2.21 (mg dl(-1) fasting glucose × mU l(-1) fasting insulin divided by 405) for HOMA-IR and 6.118 (mg glucose per kg body weight per minute) for clamp. Two methods to assess reversal of insulin resistance by measuring waist circumference were used. A single cutoff value to HOMA-IR analyses. Reversal of insulin resistance could either be assessed by a diagram based on initial waist circumference and reduction of waist circumference, or by using 100 cm as a single cutoff for waist circumference after weight reduction induced by bariatric surgery.

  20. Waist Circumference was Positively Correlated with Chemerin, Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and hsCRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Herminawati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central obesity is associated with various chronic metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal cytokine production, increased acute phase reactants, and activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. This study was aimed to investigate the association of waist circumference, chemerin, and retinol binding protein (RBP-4 with inflammation in men with central obesity. METHODS: The research was conducted with a crosssectional design involving 68 centrally obese male subjects aged 30 to 60 years old, with waist circumference (WC >90 cm. All subjects fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Anthropometric parameters, fasting glucose, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, and hsCRP were measured. Serum concentrations of chemerin and RBP4 were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The trend lines showed that chemerin, RBP4 and hsCRP increased with WC. Pearson correlation test showed a positively significant correlation between WC and hsCRP (r=0.242, p<0.05; and also between chemerin and hsCRP (r=0.244, p<0.05 and RBP4 (r=0.321, p<0.01. Subjects were stratified into four groups based on their chemerin and RBP4 levels (high chemerin/high RBP4, high chemerin/low RBP4, low chemerin/high RBP4, or low chemerin/low RBP4. Subjects who were in the high chemerin/low RBP4 group were more likely to have high level of inflammation (47.6%, but subjects with high chemerin/high RBP4 showed low level of inflammation (42.9% as compared with the other three groups. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that increased WC was correlated with elevated levels of chemerin, RBP4 and hsCRP. High chemerin was correlated with increased level of RBP4 as well as with high level of inflammation. KEYWORDS: waist circumference, chemerin, RBP4, hsCRP, inflammation.

  1. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective was to inv...... was to investigate the association between intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products and subsequent changes in weight and WC. Furthermore, potential effect modification by sex, age, body mass index and WC at baseline was investigated....

  2. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekary, Rania A; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body...... weight (BW). METHODS: Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations were used. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential...

  3. Time spent in sedentary posture is associated with waist circumference and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigbe, W W; Granat, M H; Sattar, N; Lean, M E J

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between metabolic risk and time spent sitting, standing and stepping has not been well established. The present study aimed to determine associations of objectively measured time spent siting, standing and stepping, with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. A cross-sectional study of healthy non-smoking Glasgow postal workers, n=111 (55 office workers, 5 women, and 56 walking/delivery workers, 10 women), who wore activPAL physical activity monitors for 7 days. Cardiovascular risks were assessed by metabolic syndrome categorisation and 10-year PROCAM (prospective cardiovascular Munster) risk. Mean (s.d.) age was 40 (8) years, body mass index 26.9 (3.9) kg m -2 and waist circumference 95.4 (11.9) cm. Mean (s.d.) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) 1.33 (0.31), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 3.11 (0.87), triglycerides 1.23 (0.64) mmol l -1 and 10-year PROCAM risk 1.8 (1.7)%. The participants spent mean (s.d.) 9.1 (1.8) h per day sedentary, 7.6 (1.2) h per day sleeping, 3.9 (1.1) h per day standing and 3.3 (0.9) h per day stepping, accumulating 14 708 (4984) steps per day in 61 (25) sit-to-stand transitions per day. In univariate regressions-adjusting for age, sex, family history of CHD, shift worked, job type and socioeconomic status-waist circumference (P=0.005), fasting triglycerides (P=0.002), HDL cholesterol (P=0.001) and PROCAM risk (P=0.047) were detrimentally associated with sedentary time. These associations remained significant after further adjustment for sleep, standing and stepping in stepwise regression models. However, after further adjustment for waist circumference, the associations were not significant. Compared with those without the metabolic syndrome, participants with the metabolic syndrome were significantly less active-fewer steps, shorter stepping duration and longer time sitting. Those with no metabolic syndrome features walked >15 000 steps per day or spent >7 h per day upright

  4. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Influence of Genetic Predisposition to Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max; Huikari, Ville; Sebert, Sylvain; Cavadino, Alana; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Skaaby, Tea; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Toft, Ulla; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and changes in measures of adiposity have shown inconsistent results, and interaction with genetic predisposition to obesity has rarely been examined. We examined whether 25(OH)D was associated with subsequent annual changes in body weight (ΔBW) or waist circumference (ΔWC), and whether the associations were modified by genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI). The study was based on 10,898 individuals from the Danish Inter99, the 1958 British Birth Cohort and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. We combined 42 adiposity-associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) into four scores indicating genetic predisposition to BMI, WC and WHRBMI, or all three traits combined. Linear regression was used to examine the association between serum 25(OH)D and ΔBW or ΔWC, SNP-score × 25(OH)D interactions were examined, and results from the individual cohorts were meta-analyzed. In the meta-analyses, we found no evidence of an association between 25(OH)D and ΔBW (-9.4 gram/y per 10 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D [95% CI: -23.0, +4.3; P = 0.18]) or ΔWC (-0.06 mm/y per 10 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D [95% CI: -0.17, +0.06; P = 0.33]). Furthermore, we found no statistically significant interactions between the four SNP-scores and 25(OH)D in relation to ΔBW or ΔWC. Thus, in view of the narrow CIs, our results suggest that an association between 25(OH)D and changes in measures of adiposity is absent or marginal. Similarly, the study provided evidence that there is either no or very limited dependence on genetic predisposition to adiposity.

  5. Association of waist circumference, body mass index and conicity index with cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Alborzi, Fatemeh; Salehi, Maryam; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2012-09-01

    In menopause, changes in body fat distribution lead to increasing risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the association of adiposity using the conicity index (CI), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia). The sample of this cross-sectional study was collected from June to October 2010 and 165 consecutive menopausal women who had attended the Health and Treatment Centre and Endocrine Research Centre of Firoozgar Hospital in Tehran, Iran were assessed. Age, weight, height, WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR), CI and fat mass were measured. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), fasting blood glucose, insulin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were also determined. All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Results showed that BMI was positively and significantly associated with SBP (r = 0.21; p = 0.009). WC was positively and significantly correlated with SBP (r = 0.26; p = 0.02) and DBP (r = 0.16; p = 0.05). WHR was also significantly and positively associated with SBP (r = 0.29; p = 0.001). Age and WC were associated with CI quartiles at the 0.05 significance level. The correlation of CI quartiles with SBP and weight were at the 0.01 significance level. We showed a significant association of WC with SBP and DBP, and that BMI could be an important determining factor of SBP. For assessing the association between CI and cardiovascular risk factors, future studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.

  6. Interactions between genetic variants associated with adiposity traits and soft drinks in relation to longitudinal changes in body weight and waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Ängquist, Lars; Larsen, Sofus C; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Toft, Ulla; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Overvad, Kim; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Heitmann, Berit L

    2016-09-01

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with obesity, and this association may be modified by a genetic predisposition to obesity. We examined the interactions between a molecular genetic predisposition to various aspects of obesity and the consumption of soft drinks, which are a major part of sugar-sweetened beverages, in relation to changes in adiposity measures. A total of 4765 individuals were included in the study. On the basis of 50 obesity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or the waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI), the following 4 genetic predisposition scores (GRSs) were constructed: a complete genetic predisposition score including all 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSComplete), a genetic predisposition score including BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSBMI), a genetic predisposition score including waist circumference-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSWC), and a genetic predisposition score including the waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSWHR). Associations between soft drink intake and the annual change (Δ) in body weight (BW), WC, or waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCBMI) and possible interactions with the GRSs were examined with the use of linear regression analyses and meta-analyses. For each soft drink serving per day, soft drink consumption was significantly associated with a higher ΔBW of 0.07 kg/y (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13 kg/y; P = 0.020) but not with the ΔWC or ΔWCBMI In analyses of the ΔBW, we showed an interaction only with the GRSWC (per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: -0.06 kg/y; 95% CI: -0.10, -0.02 kg/y; P = 0.006). In analyses of the ΔWC, we showed interactions only with the GRSBMI and GRSComplete [per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.09 cm/y; P = 0.001) and 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.07 cm

  7. Non-fatal disease burden associated with excess body mass index and waist circumference in New Zealand adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Maria; Tobias, Martin; Paul, Sue

    2006-06-01

    To describe the relationship between two measures of body fat and selected non-fatal health conditions in the New Zealand adult population in 2003. Data were obtained from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey. A total of 10,026 adults aged 25 years and over were classified according to measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). BMI classes were 18.5-24.9, 25.0-29.9, 30.0-34.9, > or = 35.0 kg/m2. WC classes were 102 centimetres (cm) for males and 88 cm for females. Prevalence rate ratio estimates for selected self-reported health conditions were calculated for males and females separately, adjusting for age, ethnicity, deprivation and smoking using logistic regression. Increasing BMI or WC class was associated with increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, osteoarthritis, asthma and sleep disorders in both males and females. The association with depression was not statistically significant in either gender. Associations were strongest for diabetes and blood pressure, with adults in the highest BMI or WC class at least 3.5 times more likely to have diabetes and 2-3 times more likely to have high blood pressure compared with those in the lowest classes. Increasing body fatness, defined by either BMI or WC, was associated with increased prevalence of many important health conditions. If the obesity epidemic is not halted or reversed, the impact on both the New Zealand population and health system will be considerable.

  8. [Association between waist circumference and the prevalence/control of hypertension by gender and different body mass index classification in an urban elderly population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Miao; Yang, Shanshan; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Yiyan; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Di

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between waist circumference and the prevalence/control of hypertension in an urban elderly population. From September 2009 to June 2010, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Wanshoulu area of Beijing, China. A total of 2 035 elderly (828 male, 1 207 females) participants aged ≥60 years from a community were included in this study for data analysis. We found that the increased waist circumference could significantly increase the risk of prevalence and poor control of hypertension, with the adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) as 1.04 (1.01-1.08) and 0.96 (0.92-1.00) , respectively. Among those identified pure central obesity females (64.7%) , the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher than those females with normal body mass index (BMI) or with normal waist circumference (52.2%). The adjusted odds ratio (95%CI) between the above said groups appeared as 1.58 (1.07-2.32). The control rate of hypertension among females (32.9%) with pure central obesity, was lower than that of the females with normal BMI and waist circumference (43.5%) , with an adjusted odds ratio (95%CI) as 0.62 (0.37-1.04, P=0.071). There appeared significant association between people with pure central obesity and the increased risk of prevalence or with poor control of hypertension. More attention should be paid to both the prevalence and control of hypertension programs among females with pure central obesity.

  9. Cardiometabolic risk in young adults from northern Mexico: Revisiting body mass index and waist-circumference as predictors

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    Abraham Wall-Medrano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and a waist circumference (WC ≥80 cm in women (WCF or ≥90 cm in men (WCM are reference cardiometabolic risk markers (CMM for Mexicans adults. However, their reliability to predict other CMM (index tests in young Mexicans has not been studied in depth. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study evaluating several anthropometric, physiological and biochemical CMM from 295 young Mexicans was performed. Sensitivity (Se, specificity (Sp and Youden’s index (J of reference BMI/WC cutoffs toward other CMM (n = 14 were obtained and their most reliable cutoffs were further calculated at Jmax. Results Prevalence, incidence and magnitude of most CMM increased along the BMI range (p < 0.01. BMI explained 81 % of WC’s variance [Se (97 %, Sp (71 %, J (68 %, Jmax (86 %, BMI = 30 kg/m2] and 4–50 % of other CMM. The five most prevalent (≥71 % CMM in obese subjects were high WC, low HDL-C, and three insulin-related CMM [Fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI]. For a BMI = 30 kg/m2, J ranged from 16 % (HDL-C/LDL-C to 68 % (WC, being moderately reliable (Jmax = 61–67 to predict high uric acid (UA, metabolic syndrome (MetS and the hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype (HTGW. Corrected WCM/WCF were moderate-highly reliable (Jmax = 66–90 to predict HTGW, MetS, fasting glucose and UA. Most CMM were moderate-highly predicted at 27 ± 3 kg/m2 (CI 95 %, 25–28, 85 ± 5 cm (CI 95 %, 82–88 and 81 ± 6cm (CI 95 %, 75–87, for BMI, WCM and WCF, respectively. Conclusion BMI and WC are good predictors of several CMM in the studied population, although at different cutoffs than current reference values.

  10. The Impact of a 24 Month Housing First Intervention on Participants' Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: Results from the At Home / Chez Soi Toronto Site Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Misir, Vachan; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; O'Campo, Patricia; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Hwang, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for mental health support services. The ANCOVA results indicate that the intervention resulted in no significant change in BMI or waist circumference from baseline to 24 months. The findings suggest a need for a better understanding of factors contributing to overweight, obesity, and high waist circumference in populations who have histories of housing precarity and experience low-income in tandem with other concerns such as mental illness and addictions. International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register ISRCTN42520374.

  11. The Impact of a 24 Month Housing First Intervention on Participants' Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: Results from the At Home / Chez Soi Toronto Site Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Julia Woodhall-Melnik

    Full Text Available Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for mental health support services. The ANCOVA results indicate that the intervention resulted in no significant change in BMI or waist circumference from baseline to 24 months. The findings suggest a need for a better understanding of factors contributing to overweight, obesity, and high waist circumference in populations who have histories of housing precarity and experience low-income in tandem with other concerns such as mental illness and addictions.International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register ISRCTN42520374.

  12. Low-Level Laser Therapy for Reducing the Hip, Waist, and Upper Abdomen Circumference of Individuals with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Gregory C; Shanks, Steven; Jackson, Robert F; Holsey, Laura Jane

    2017-03-01

    To assess the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for reducing hip, thigh, and abdomen circumference of individuals with body-mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m 2 . Previous studies demonstrated the effectiveness of LLLT for reducing body circumference in the hips, thighs, and abdomen of nonobese individuals with a BMI upper abdomen when applied to individuals with a BMI between 30 and 40 kg/m 2 .

  13. Associations of Neighborhood Crime and Safety and With Changes in Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Moore, Kari; Allen, Norrina; Block, Richard; Evenson, Kelly R; Mujahid, Mahasin; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2017-08-01

    Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we evaluated associations of neighborhood crime and safety with changes in adiposity (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference). MESA is a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease among adults aged 45-84 years at baseline in 2000-2002, from 6 US sites, with follow-up for MESA participants until 2012. Data for this study were limited to Chicago, Illinois, participants in the MESA Neighborhood Ancillary Study, for whom police-recorded crime data were available, and who had complete baseline data (n = 673). We estimated associations of individual-level safety, aggregated neighborhood-level safety, and police-recorded crime with baseline levels and trajectories of BMI and waist circumference over time using linear mixed modeling with random effects. We also estimated how changes in these factors related to changes in BMI and waist circumference using econometric fixed-effects models. At baseline, greater individual-level safety was associated with more adiposity. Increasing individual- and neighborhood-level safety over time were associated with decreasing BMI over the 10-year period, with a more pronounced effect observed in women for individual-level safety and men for neighborhood-level safety. Police-recorded crime was not associated with adiposity. Neighborhood-level safety likely influences adiposity change and subsequent cardiovascular risk in multiethnic populations. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Body mass index and waist circumference of Latin American adult athletes with intellectual disability

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    John T Foley

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine both body mass index (BMI status and waist circunference (WC in a large international sample of adult Special Olympics participants from Latin America. It also explored the association of age and sex with obesity in this population. Materials and methods. BMI and WC records from a total of 4 174 (2 683 male and 1 491 female participant records from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database were examined. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was quite high (i.e. >40%, but generally lower than studies involving adults with intellectual disabilities from Europe and the USA. Chi-square analyses revealed that both increasing age and being female significantly predicted levels of overweight, obesity, and WC. Conclusions. These results suggest that efforts need to be made to prevent and reduce rates of overweight and obesity among Latin American Special Olympics participants,particularly women.

  15. Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoff for overweight and central obesity among adults in Cambodia.

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    Yom An

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786 were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229 were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001 when BMI of 23.0 kg/m(2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2 for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001 when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥ 94.0 cm in men. CONCLUSION: Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years.

  16. Gender-assortative waist circumference in mother-daughter and father-son pairs, and its implications. An 11-year longitudinal study in children (EarlyBird 59).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostazir, M; Jeffery, A; Voss, L; Wilkin, T

    2014-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is reportedly gender assortative (mother-daughter, father-son) in contemporary children. We investigated the corresponding transmission of waist circumference (WC) and its implications. We measured parental WC at baseline and WC, height, weight and para-umbilical skin-fold (USF) annually in their offspring from 5 to 15 years (n = 223 trios). Parents were deemed normal metabolic risk (NR) or high risk (HR) according to World Health Organization (WHO) cut-points for WC (mothers 80 cm, fathers 94 cm). The residual from WC adjusted for BMI (WC|BMI ) was used as a surrogate for excess intra-abdominal fat, and its association with insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) was sought. WC and USF were both gender assortative, while WC|BMI was not. WC was greater by 1.62 cm (P sons) of HR compared with those of NR mothers, and by 1.32 cm (P son (but not father-daughter) pairings. No such differences could be demonstrated for WC|BMI . A standard deviation score 1(SDS) change in WC|BMI , independent of BMI, was associated with a 7.14% change in IR in girls (P < 0.01, CI: 1.76-12.80) and 8.02% in boys (P < 0.001, CI: 2.93-13.36), but there was no relationship between IR and USF. The relationship of offspring WC to metabolic health and to parental size is complex. Subcutaneous abdominal fat is gender assortative but harmless, while intra-abdominal fat (its surrogate in this analysis) is unrelated to parental waist circumference, but metabolically harmful. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. Interaction between genetic predisposition to adiposity and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference.

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    Mikkel Z Ankarfeldt

    Full Text Available Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry.To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (ΔBW or change in WC (ΔWC.Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with BMI, WC or WHRBMI, as well as potential confounders. Mean follow-up time was ∼5 years. Four genetic predisposition-scores were based on the SNPs; a complete-score including all selected adiposity- associated SNPs, and three scores including BMI, WC or WHRBMI associated polymorphisms, respectively. The association between protein intake and ΔBW or ΔWC were examined and interactions between SNP-score and protein were investigated. Analyses were based on linear regressions using macronutrient substitution models and meta-analyses.When protein replaced carbohydrate, meta-analyses showed no associations with ΔBW (41.0 gram/y/5 energy% protein, [95% CI: -32.3; 114.3] or ΔWC (<-0.1 mm/y/5 energy % protein, [-1.1; 1.1]. Similarly, there were no interactions for any SNP-scores and protein for either ΔBW (complete SNP-score: 1.8 gram/y/5 energy% protein/risk allele, [-7.0; 10.6] or ΔWC (complete SNP-score: <0.1 mm/y/5 energy% protein/risk allele, [-0.1; 0.1]. Similar results were seen when protein replaced fat.This study indicates that the genetic predisposition to general and abdominal adiposity, assessed by gene-scores, does not seem to modulate the influence of dietary protein on ΔBW or ΔWC.

  18. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Skaaby, Tea; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Toft, Ulla; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia

    2014-04-01

    Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. The objective was to examine whether genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), WC, or waist-hip ratio (WHR) interacts with dietary calcium in relation to subsequent annual change in BW (ΔBW) and WC (ΔWC). The study was based on 7569 individuals from the MONItoring trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease Study, a sample from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study and the INTER99 study, with information on diet; 54 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC, or WHR adjusted for BMI; and potential confounders. The SNPs were combined in 4 scores as indicators of genetic predisposition; all SNPs in a general score and a score for each of 3 phenotypes: BMI, WC, and WHR. Linear regression was used to examine the association between calcium intake and ΔBW or ΔWC adjusted for concurrent ΔBW. SNP score × calcium interactions were examined by adding product terms to the models. We found a significant ΔBW of -0.076 kg (P = 0.021; 95% CI: -0.140, -0.012) per 1000 mg Ca. No significant association was observed between dietary calcium and ΔWC. In the analyses with ΔBW as outcome, we found no significant interactions between the developed predisposition scores and calcium. However, we found a significant interaction between a score of 6 WC-associated SNPs and calcium in relation to ΔWC. Each risk allele was associated with a ΔWC of -0.043 cm (P = 0.038; 95% CI: -0.083, -0.002) per 1000 mg Ca. Our study suggests that dietary calcium relates weakly to BW loss. We found no evidence of a general association between calcium and ΔWC, but calcium may reduce WC among people genetically predisposed to a high WC. However, further replication of this finding is needed.

  19. Biobehavioral and psychological differences between overweight adults with and without waist circumference risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A; Gary, Rebecca A; Higgins, Melinda K; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2010-12-01

    Waist circumference (WC) has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiometabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between overweight adults with and without WC risk in four domains: demographic, clinical and biological, psychological, and behavioral. The sample (N = 87) was primarily sedentary, middle-aged, women, and African-Americans. The majority of participants had WC risk, those with WC risk were older, were women, and had higher body mass index, higher morning salivary cortisol levels, and more depressive symptoms than those without WC risk. Caloric and macronutrient intake did not differ between those with and without WC risk. Our findings could lead to the development of targeted interventions to prevent and/or reduce abdominal obesity, thereby reducing cardiometabolic risk. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Santos, Carla Danusa da Luz; Martins, Vinicius J B; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Fachim, Mariana B; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Augmented waist circumference (WC) is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether biochemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) into stunted (-1 > HAZ ≥ -2) and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ -1) groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile) insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. WC cut-off points of 58.25cm and 67.2cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively), the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively). The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

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    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ into stunted (−1 > HAZ ≥ −2 and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ −1 groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. Results: WC cut-off points of 58.25 cm and 67.2 cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively, the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts.

  2. Waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and depression among overweight and obese U.S. adults: national health and nutrition examination survey 2005-2006

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    Balluz Lina S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with an increased risk of mental illness; however, evidence linking body mass index (BMI-a measure of overall obesity, to mental illness is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with waist circumference or abdominal obesity among overweight and obese U.S. adults. Methods A cross-sectional, nationally representative sample from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used. We analyzed the data from 2,439 U.S. adults (1,325 men and 1,114 nonpregnant women aged ≥ 20 years who were either overweight or obese with BMI of ≥ 25.0 kg/m2. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference of > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women. Depressive symptoms (defined as having major depressive symptoms or moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 diagnostic algorithm. The prevalence and the odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for having major depressive symptoms and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results After multivariate adjustment for demographics and lifestyle factors, waist circumference was significantly associated with both major depressive symptoms (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05 and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04, and adults with abdominal obesity were significantly more likely to have major depressive symptoms (OR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.35-3.59 or have moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.34-4.90 than those without. These relationships persisted after further adjusting for coexistence of multiple chronic conditions and persisted in participants who were overweight (BMI: 25.0-2 when stratified analyses were conducted by BMI status. Conclusion Among overweight and obese U.S. adults, waist circumference or abdominal obesity was significantly associated

  3. Waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and depression among overweight and obese U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guixiang; Ford, Earl S; Li, Chaoyang; Tsai, James; Dhingra, Satvinder; Balluz, Lina S

    2011-08-11

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of mental illness; however, evidence linking body mass index (BMI)-a measure of overall obesity, to mental illness is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with waist circumference or abdominal obesity among overweight and obese U.S. adults. A cross-sectional, nationally representative sample from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used. We analyzed the data from 2,439 U.S. adults (1,325 men and 1,114 nonpregnant women) aged ≥ 20 years who were either overweight or obese with BMI of ≥ 25.0 kg/m2. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference of > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women. Depressive symptoms (defined as having major depressive symptoms or moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms) were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 diagnostic algorithm. The prevalence and the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for having major depressive symptoms and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. After multivariate adjustment for demographics and lifestyle factors, waist circumference was significantly associated with both major depressive symptoms (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), and adults with abdominal obesity were significantly more likely to have major depressive symptoms (OR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.35-3.59) or have moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.34-4.90) than those without. These relationships persisted after further adjusting for coexistence of multiple chronic conditions and persisted in participants who were overweight (BMI: 25.0-waist circumference or abdominal obesity was significantly associated with increased likelihoods of having major depressive symptoms or moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Thus, mental health status should be monitored

  4. Prognostic value of body mass index and waist circumference in patients with chronic heart failure (Spanish REDINSCOR Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Teresa; Ferrero-Gregori, Andreu; Roig, Eulalia; Vazquez, Rafael; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Delgado, Juan; Alonso-Pulpon, Luis; Borras, Xavier; Mendez, Ana; Cinca, Juan

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the association between higher body mass index and waist circumference, and the prognostic values of both indicators in total and cardiac mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. The study included 2254 patients who were followed up for 4 years. Obesity was classified as a body mass index ≥30 and overweight as a body mass index of 25.0-29.9. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥88 cm for women and ≥102cm for men. Independent predictors of total and cardiac mortality were assessed in a multivariate Cox model adjusted for confounding variables. Obesity was present in 35% of patients, overweight in 43%, and central obesity in 60%. Body mass index and waist circumference were independent predictors of lower total mortality: hazard ratio=0.84 (P120cm. Mortality was significantly lower in patients with a high body mass index and waist circumference. The results also showed that this protection was lost when these indicators over a certain limit. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Waist circumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascular risk factors : Prevalence study in a random sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, T.S.; van Leer, E M; Seidell, J. C.; Lean, M.E.J.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors in people categorised by previously defined “action g126 levels” of waist circumference. Design: Prevalence study in a random population sample. Setting: Netherlands. Subjects: 2183 men and 2698 women aged 20-59 years selected at

  6. Dietary energy density in relation to subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Ginder, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    adjusting for baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors, follow-up duration and energy from beverages, ED was not associated with weight change, but significantly associated with waist circumference change overall. For 1 kcal/g ED, the annual weight change was -42 g/year [95% confidence...

  7. Waist circumference as a measurement of obesity in the Netherlands Antilles; associations with hypertension and diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L.; Alberts, J.F.; O'Neil, J.; Gerstenbluth, I.

    Objectives: To evaluate waist circumference ( WC) as a screening tool for obesity in a Caribbean population. To identify risk groups with a high prevalence of ( central) obesity in a Caribbean population, and to evaluate associations between ( central) obesity and self-reported hypertension and

  8. The effects of abdominal interferential current therapy on waist circumference and visceral fat distance in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Han; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interferential current therapy on the waist circumference and visceral fat length in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, we selected 30 patients whose body mass index was over 25 kg/m2. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive interferential current therapy three times a week for four weeks (n=15) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation three times a week for four weeks (n=15). Waist circumference was measured in cm using a tape measure with the participant in an upright posture, and the length of visceral fat was measured using a high-resolution, B-mode ultrasound machine. [Results] There was a statistically significant difference between the group of waist circumference and visceral fat length. The change of waist circumference and visceral fat length was larger the experimental group than the control group. [Conclusion] These results can be used as a basis for reducing the risk factors that increase mortality due to diseases and can prevent cardiovascular and other adult diseases caused by obesity. PMID:28932012

  9. Optimal cutoff values for high-risk waist circumference in older adults based on related health outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heim, N.; Snijder, M.B.; Heijmans, M.W.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Seidell, J.C.; Visser, M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors aimed to explore optimal cutoffs for high-risk waist circumference (WC) in older adults to assess the health risks of obesity. Prospective data from 4,996 measurements in 2,232 participants aged ≥70 years were collected during 5 triennial measurement cycles (1992/1993-2005/2006) of a

  10. Direct comparisons of commercial weight-loss programs on weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure: a systematic review

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    Rachit M. Vakil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is common in the U.S. and many individuals turn to commercial programs to lose weight. Our objective was to directly compare weight loss, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP outcomes between commercially available weight-loss programs. Methods We conducted a systematic review by searching MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to November 2014 and by using references identified by commercial programs. We included randomized, controlled trials (RCTs of at least 12 weeks duration that reported comparisons with other commercial weight-loss programs. Two reviewers extracted information on mean change in weight, waist circumference, SBP and DBP and assessed risk of bias. Results We included seven articles representing three RCTs. Curves participants lost 1.8 kg (95%CI: 0.1, 3.5 kg more than Weight Watchers in one comparison. There was no statistically significant difference in waist circumference change among the included programs. The mean reduction in SBP for SlimFast participants was 4.5 mmHg (95%CI: 0.4, 8.6 mmHg more than that of Atkins participants in one comparison. There was no significant difference in mean DBP changes among programs. Conclusions There is limited evidence that any one of the commercial weight-loss programs has superior results for mean weight change, mean waist circumference change, or mean blood pressure change.

  11. The effects of abdominal interferential current therapy on waist circumference and visceral fat distance in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Han; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interferential current therapy on the waist circumference and visceral fat length in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, we selected 30 patients whose body mass index was over 25 kg/m 2 . The subjects were randomly assigned to receive interferential current therapy three times a week for four weeks (n=15) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation three times a week for four weeks (n=15). Waist circumference was measured in cm using a tape measure with the participant in an upright posture, and the length of visceral fat was measured using a high-resolution, B-mode ultrasound machine. [Results] There was a statistically significant difference between the group of waist circumference and visceral fat length. The change of waist circumference and visceral fat length was larger the experimental group than the control group. [Conclusion] These results can be used as a basis for reducing the risk factors that increase mortality due to diseases and can prevent cardiovascular and other adult diseases caused by obesity.

  12. Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio percentiles and central obesity among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years

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    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ≥90th and WHtR ≥0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P Results First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ≥0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded

  13. Waist Circumference, Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Renal Function Decline in Korean Population: Hallym Aging Study

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    Oh, Hyunju; Quan, Shan Ai; Jeong, Jin-Young; Jang, Soong-Nang; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective investigation of obesity and renal function decline in Asia is sparse. We examined the associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with renal function decline in a prospective study of Korean population. Methods A total of 454 participants who had baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels of more than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in Hallym Aging Study (HAS) were included and followed for 6 years. Renal function decline was defined as follows: (1) an eGFR decline ≥3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year (n = 82 cases); (2) an eGFR decrease of 20% or greater (n = 87 cases) at follow-up; (3) an eGFR decrease of 20% greater at follow-up or eGFR decline ≥3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year (n = 91 cases); and (4) an eGFR 95 cm in men or >90 cm in women with ≤90 cm in men or ≤85 cm in women, ORs (95% CIs) ranged from 2.31 (1.14–4.69) to 2.78 (1.19–6.50) for the 4 definitions of renal function decline (all p-values for trend Korean population. Our results provide important evidence that simple measurement of central fat deposition rather than BMI could predict decline in renal function in Korean population. PMID:23536858

  14. Nutritional status, physical activity level, waist circumference, and flexibility in brazilian boys

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    Ismael Forte Freitas Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationships between nutritional status, physical activity, waist circumference, and fl exibility in boys. The sample comprised 74 boys (11,8 years old, SD= 1,6. The following were measured: body weight, height, waist circumference, physical activity, body fat (bioelectrical impedance and fl exibility. Body fat percentage was calculated, and the children were classifi ed as well nourished (G1, overweight (G2, or obese (G3 according to the age and sex adjusted cutoffs described by Taylor et al.18. The statistical procedures adopted were: mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance, chi-square test, linear correlation and binary logistic regression. The level of significance was set at p RESUMO Este estudo examinou o relacionamento entre estado nutricional atividade física, circunferência de cintura e flexibilidade em meninos. A amostra compreendeu 74 meninos (11,8±1,6 anos. Foram medidos o peso corporal, a estatura, a circunferência de cintura, atividade física, gordura corporal (impedância bioelétrica e flexibilidade. O percentual de gordura corporal foi calculado e os sujeitos foram classifi cados como eutróficos (G1, com sobrepeso (G2 ou obesos (G3 de acordo com a tabela específi ca para sexo e idade proposta por Taylor et al.18. Os procedimentos estatísticos adotados foram: média, desvio-padrão, análise de variância, teste qui-quadrado, correlação linear e regressão logística binária. O nível de signifi cância foi estabelecido em p < 0.05. Houve diferenças entre G3 e G1 nos escores de fl exibilidade (p = 0,048. Garotos inativos e ou obesos, quando comparados a garotos ativos e ou eutrófi cos, possuíam mais do que duas vezes mais chances de apresentar um escore baixo de fl exibilidade (razão de chance= 2,9; p = 0,046, e 5,1; p = 0,047, respectivamente. Este estudo identificou a existência de relação e associação entre obesidade, inatividade física e fraca performance no teste de fl

  15. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men.

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    Mekary, Rania A; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B

    2015-02-01

    Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations were used. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend weight training (-0.67 cm, 95% CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33 cm, 95% CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16 cm, 95% CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08 cm, 95% CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23 kg, 95% CI -0.29, -0.17). Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency/volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  16. Changes in pediatric waist circumference percentiles despite reported pediatric weight stabilization in the United States.

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    Fernández, J R; Bohan Brown, M; López-Alarcón, M; Dawson, J A; Guo, F; Redden, D T; Allison, D B

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is a global health concern but the United States has reported a leveling in obesity rates in the pediatric population. To provide updated waist circumference (WC) percentile values, identify differences across time and discuss differences within the context of reported weight stabilization in a nationally representative sample of American children. Percentiles for WC in self-identified African Americans (AA), European Americans (EA) and Mexican Americans (MA) were obtained from 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (NHANES2014). Descriptive trends across time in 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile WC distributions were identified by comparing NHANES2012 with previously reported NHANESIII (1988-1994). WC increased in a monotonic fashion in AA, EA and MA boys and girls. When compared with NHANESIII data, a clear left shift of percentile categories was observed such that values that used to be in the 90th percentile are now in the 85th percentile. Differences in WC were observed in EA and MA boys during a reported period of weight stabilization. WC has changed in the US pediatric population across time, even during times of reported weight stabilization, particularly among children of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Independent effects of waist circumference and physical activity on all-cause mortality in Canadian women.

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    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Craig, Cora L

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent effects of waist circumference (WC) and physical inactivity on the risk of mortality in women. This prospective cohort study included 5421 female participants 20-69 years of age in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey. WC was measured with an anthropometric tape and leisure-time physical activity levels over the previous 12 months were assessed with a questionnaire. Mortality surveillance was conducted by data linkage with the Canadian Mortality Database through 31 December, 1993. The hazard ratios (HR) of mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression with age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption included as covariates in all models. A total of 225 deaths occurred over an average of 12.4 years of follow up (67 500 person-years of follow up). Physical activity (HR = 0.78; 95% C.I.: 0.64-0.95) and WC (HR = 1.17; 95% C.I.: 1.05-1.31) were associated with mortality when included in separate regression models. When included in the same model, both physical activity (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65-0.96) and WC (HR = 1.16; 95% C.I.: 1.04-1.30) remained independent significant predictors of mortality. In conclusion, physical inactivity and high WC have significant independent risks of premature mortality among women.

  18. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for the Diagnosis of Abdominal Obesity in Korean Adults

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    Yeong Sook Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females. We analyzed the data from two large cohorts using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the incidences of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarct, angina, coronary artery disease, and multiple metabolic risk factors as outcome variables. Optimal WC cutoff points for Koreans were 85 cm in males and 80 cm in females. However, considering the prevalence of abdominal obesity and the health costs for its prevention and management, 90 cm in males and 85 cm in females are probably more appropriate thresholds for abdominal obesity. These values may be modified once better research is performed through prospective studies using representative populations, common health outcomes, and proper analytical approaches.

  19. Relations of Visceral and Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference to Serum Concentrations of Parameters of Chronic Inflammation

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    Inga Schlecht

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different measures of body fat composition may vary in their relations to parameters of chronic inflammation. Methods: We assessed the relations of visceral (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, BMI, and waist circumference (WC to serum concentrations of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin, and adiponectin in 97 healthy adults using multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, menopausal status, and use of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Parameters of chronic inflammation were mutually adjusted. Results: VAT (β = 0.34, SAT (β = 0.43, BMI (β = 0.40, and WC (β = 0.47 were all significantly associated with hs-CRP. BMI was additionally inversely related to adiponectin (β = -0.29. In exploratory subgroup analyses defined by gender, BMI, smoking, and use of aspirin or NSAIDs, VAT was the strongest indicator for increased levels of IL-6, SAT was the most consistent indicator for increased levels of hs-CRP, and BMI was the most consistent indicator for decreased levels of adiponectin. WC showed to be a weak indicator for increased levels of hs-CRP and decreased levels of adiponectin. Conclusion: VAT, SAT, BMI, and WC show distinct associations with parameters of chronic inflammation. Whether these differences reflect differential metabolic risks requires clarification by longitudinal studies.

  20. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio are associated with depressive symptoms in older Chinese women: results from the Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study (RuLAS).

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    Zhi, Tingfan; Wang, Qunshan; Liu, Zuyun; Zhu, Yinsheng; Wang, Yong; Shi, Rui; Wang, Zhengdong; Chu, Xuefeng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xiaoyan

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to determine whether obesity is associated with depressive symptoms among older Chinese. Data from the cross-sectional Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study were used including anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)), socio-demographic characteristics, living habits, physical health and cognitive impairment. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between obesity and depressive symptoms. Among 1732 elderly Chinese aged 70-84 years, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 6.7% (5.0%-8.5%) in men and 12.5% (10.4%-14.6%) in women. A negative linear trend was found between depressive symptoms and BMI in women (P for trend symptoms compared with their normal weight counterparts. Furthermore, consistent trends were observed with lower depression prevalence rates in higher WC and WHR categories in women. However, no such associations were apparent in men. Higher BMI, WC and WHR categories were all associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms in older women.

  1. 24h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in weight, waist circumference and body composition.

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    Sofus C Larsen

    Full Text Available In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity.To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW, waist circumference (WC, body fat (BF and fat free mass (FFM among adults.A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987-1988 and 1993-1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates.Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P = 0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43 per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt, during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of -0.21 kg (P = 0.041, CI: -0.40 to -0.01.These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM.

  2. Intensified association between waist circumference and hypertension in abdominally overweight children.

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    Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yide; Wang, Hai-Jun; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal adiposity is an important risk factor for childhood hypertension. The present study aimed to compare the strength of the association between waist circumference (WC) and hypertension in children with different WC levels. A total of 82,413 Chinese children aged 9-17 years were selected. An abdominally overweight child was defined as a child with WC ≥75th sex- and age-specific percentile. Hypertension was categorised as ≥95th sex-, age- and height-specific percentile. Logistic regression model was applied to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of WC for hypertension after WC was transformed into sex- and age-specific z-score. Abdominally overweight children presented a higher risk of hypertension (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 2.26, 2.54) than children with normal WC. In children with normal WC, one sex- and age-specific standard deviation increase in WC was associated with a 42% increase in odds of hypertension (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.55). That increase was elevated to 74% in abdominally overweight children (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.66, 1.82). A similar pattern was also observed in different sex and area groups, and in children 9-14 years old. An intensified association between WC and hypertension was observed in abdominally overweight Chinese children. The gain in WC was associated with greater increase in hypertensive risk in abdominally overweight children than that of children with normal WC. These findings could improve intervention strategies for hypertension risk reduction in children. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Waist circumference and pulmonary function: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Wehrmeister Fernando César

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have reported an impact of central obesity on people’s health. The literature is scarce on the effects of waist circumference (WC on pulmonary function. Our objective was to review the literature on the association between WC and pulmonary function. Methods A systematic review was carried out in the PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and Scopus databases. The search included published, in press and online documents up to December 2011. A meta-analysis was carried out to obtain the pooled effect, and a meta-regression was performed to evaluate sources of heterogeneity. Results From the 547 studies identified, 10 were included. The meta-analysis revealed an inverse relationship between WC and pulmonary function parameters, indicating that the effect was greater among men (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 β = −15.9 (95% confidence interval = −23.2, −8.5; forced vital capacity (FVC β = −16.6 (95% confidence interval = −21.0, −12.2 compared with women (FEV1 β = −5.6 (95% confidence interval = −9.1, −2.1; FVC β = −7.0 (95% confidence interval = −9.1, −4.8. The meta-regression identified sex as the characteristic that most contributed to the heterogeneity (R2 = 54.8% for FEV1 and R2 = 85.7% for FVC. Conclusions There seems to be an inverse relationship between WC and pulmonary function, mainly in men. More population-based studies should be performed, especially among children and adolescents, to confirm these findings.

  4. Hypertriglyceridemia and Waist Circumference Predict Cardiovascular Risk among HIV Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Janiszewski, Peter M.; Ross, Robert; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Bagni, Pietro; Menozzi, Marianna; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Background Although half of HIV-infected patients develop lipodystrophy and metabolic complications, there exists no simple clinical screening tool to discern the high from the low-risk HIV-infected patient. Thus, we evaluated the associations between waist circumference (WC) combined with triglyceride (TG) levels and the severity of lipodystrophy and cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected men and women. Methods 1481 HIV-infected men and 841 HIV-infected women were recruited between 2005 and 2009 at the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia in Italy. Within each gender, patients were categorized into 4 groups according to WC and TG levels. Total and regional fat and fat-free mass were assessed by duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT) were quantified by computed tomography. Various cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in clinic after an overnight fast. Results The high TG/high WC men had the most VAT (208.0±94.4 cm2), as well as the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (42.2%) and type-2 diabetes (16.2%), and the highest Framingham risk score (10.3±6.5) in comparison to other groups (p<0.05 for all). High TG/high WC women also had elevated VAT (150.0±97.9 cm2) and a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (53.3%), hypertension (30.5%) and type-2 diabetes (12.0%), and Framingham risk score(2.9±2.8) by comparison to low TG/low WC women (p<0.05 for all). Conclusions A simple tool combining WC and TG levels can discriminate high- from low-risk HIV-infected patients. PMID:21966404

  5. WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AS INDICATOR COMPONENTS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN THE SIBERIAN POPULATION

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    G. I. Simonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Object of research: to determine the cut-off point of waist circumference (WC identify the components of metabolic syndrome (MS in a large industrial center of Western Siberia.In the period from 2003 to 2005 in the screening population surveyed 9362 people, including 4268 men (45.6% and 5094 women (54.4%.The response rate was 61%. The study protocol included a sociodemographic data, measurement of blood pressure (BP, anthropometry (height, weight, WC, the definition of biochemical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using the package SPSS. To determine the cut-off points of the used ROC model.In the group with ≥2 components of MS cut-off point WC from the men was 93.3 cm (sensitivity 72%, specificity 83%, women – 90.2 cm (sensitivity 72%, specificity 62%.The lowest cut-off point WC marked BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg for men – 90 cm (sensitivity 66.8%, specificity 58.1%, for women – 86.5 cm (sensitivity 71.0%, specificity 55.7%. The highest cut-off point from the defined patients with diabetes for men was 99.0 cm (sensitivity 61%, specificity 70.2%, for women – cm (sensitivity 64.1%, specificity 65.9%.Conclusions: Cut-off point from the persons with the presence of ≥2 MS components in Siberian population 45–69 years, in accordance with the ROC analysis are 93.3 cm for men and 90.2 cm for women. The lowest cut-off point WC marked BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg for men – 90 cm, for women – 86.5 cm. The highest cut-off point from the defined patients with diabetes for men was 99.0 cm, for women – 95 cm.

  6. Bioelectrical impedance outperforms waist circumference for predicting cardiometabolic risk in Congolese hypertensive subjects: a cross-sectional study.

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    Katchunga, Philippe Bianga; Bapolisi, Achile Mwira; M'Buyamba-Kabangu, Jean-René; Hermans, Michel P

    2015-03-10

    Waist circumference threshold values used in sub-Saharan Africa correspond to those of European populations and are therefore inappropriate. Thus, they may over predict insulin resistance, especially in hypertensive Africans, in whom there is often no association between blood pressure and insulin resistance. Using bioelectrical impedance measurement in sub-Saharan Africa could possibly be advantageous to overcome the shortcomings of waist circumference measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of body composition estimation by bioelectrical impedance to predict cardiometabolic risk in Congolese hypertensive subjects. Cardiovascular profiling and body composition analysis by bioelectrical impedance was measured in 400 patients (men = 40%; age = 51.1 ± 12.6 years). Patients were diagnosed with a metabolic syndrome (MS) according to the IDF Criteria with and without the "blood pressure" criterion to remove any confounding autocorrelation bias, a visceral fat-MS (with and without the "blood pressure" criterion) being defined by the presence of ≥ 2 criteria with the precondition of excess visceral fat defined by a bio impedance measurement score >10/30. Total cardiovascular risk was assessed using the criteria of Framingham-2008. The frequencies of enlarged waist circumference (71.9% vs 68.9%, p = 0.52) and IDF-MS without blood pressure criterion (24.9% vs 21.9%, p = 0.48) were similar among hypertensive vs. non hypertensive however excess visceral fat (57.6% vs 33.8%, p 0.05). Pending the determination of thresholds values for pathological waist circumference adapted to sub-Saharan populations, using bioelectrical impedance measurement may contribute to better characterize the cardiometabolic risk and the insulin resistant phenotype of hypertensive sub-Saharan Africans.

  7. Does one size fit all? The role of body mass index and waist circumference in systemic inflammation in midlife by race and gender.

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    Stepanikova, Irena; Oates, Gabriela R; Bateman, Lori Brand

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with markers of systemic inflammation in midlife by race and gender. Data were obtained from the Survey of Midlife in the United States, a cross-sectional, observational study of Americans 35 years old or older (White men: N = 410; White women: N = 490; Black men: N = 58; Black women: N = 117). Inflammation was measured by concentrations of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) in fasting plasma and concentrations of E-selectin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in fasting serum. Anthropometric data were used to obtain BMI and WC. Socio-demographic and health-related factors were assessed with a survey. Multivariate models by race and gender were estimated to test the roles of BMI and WC for each inflammation marker. Compared to White men, Black women have higher BMI and higher levels of all four inflammation markers; White women have lower BMI, lower WC, and lower E-selectin and fibrinogen but higher CRP; and Black men have higher fibrinogen. After adjusting for socio-demographic and health-related covariates as well as perceived discrimination, WC is associated with all four markers of inflammation among White men and women; with three markers (fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-6) of inflammation among Black women; and with CRP (and marginally with fibrinogen and E-selectin) among Black men. BMI is associated with higher CRP and fibrinogen among Black men (marginally so for White men) but not for women of either race. WC shows more consistent associations with inflammation markers than BMI, although the relationships vary by inflammation marker and population group. Our findings suggest that WC is a risk factor for systemic inflammation among White and Black men and women, and BMI is an additional risk factor for Black men.

  8. Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

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    Park, Jongsin; Lee, Eun Seo; Lee, Da Young; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Won Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: 25 kg/m² (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0. When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]). Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI.

  9. The relationship between the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms and waist circumference

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    Oliveira MC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Maria Clara Eugênia de Oliveira, Larissa Ramalho Dantas Varella, Priscylla Helouyse melo Angelo, Maria Thereza Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral Micussi Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the pressure of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM according to waist circumference (WC and correlate the presence of urinary tract symptoms (UTS with WC. Patients and methods: The study was observational and cross-sectional. One-hundred and sixty-four females between 45 and 65 years of age were evaluated. The sample was divided into two groups, according to WC: Group ≤80 (G≤80 was composed of females in whom WC was up to 80 cm; and Group >80 (G>80 was composed of females with WC above 80 cm. The subjects were assessed in terms of sociodemographic data, pre-existing conditions, urogynecological and obstetric history, and the presence of lower UTS (LUTS, as well as physical examination, measurement of WC, height, and weight. The PFM assessment was made by perineometry. To compare the mean between groups, the independent samples t-test was applied, and to correlate the WC with perineometry and LUTS, the Pearson’s correlation test was used. Results: The final sample was composed of 156 patients. The average age of participants was 55.21 (±24.5 years in G≤80 and 57.23 (±6.12 years in G>80. There were significant differences regarding the presence of LUTS between the groups (P<0.05; as to the perineometry, there was a significant difference (P=0.03 between the groups: 38.68±13.63 cmH2O for G≤80 and 30.11±11.20 cmH2O for G>80. There was a correlation between the presence of urinary urgency (r=0.7; P=0.00, nocturia (r=0.7; P=0.00, and urinary incontinence (r=0.9; P=0.00 with WC. Conclusion: Females with larger abdominal diameter have a higher prevalence of LUTS such as urinary incontinence, nocturia, and urinary urgency, as well as a lower PFM

  10. Fatty liver index vs waist circumference for predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    Motamed, Nima; Sohrabi, Masoudreza; Ajdarkosh, Hossein; Hemmasi, Gholamreza; Maadi, Mansooreh; Sayeedian, Fatemeh Sima; Pirzad, Reza; Abedi, Khadijeh; Aghapour, Sivil; Fallahnezhad, Mojtaba; Zamani, Farhad

    2016-03-14

    To determine the discriminatory performance of fatty liver index (FLI) for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The data of 5052 subjects aged over 18 years were analyzed. FLI was calculated from body mass index, waist circumference (WC), triglyceride, and gamma glutamyl transferase data. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between FLI and NAFLD. The discriminatory performance of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Area under the curves (AUCs) and related confidence intervals were estimated. Optimal cutoff points of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD were determined based on the maximum values of Youden's index. The mean age of men and women in the study population were 44.8 ± 16.8 and 43.78 ± 15.43, respectively (P = 0.0216). The prevalence of NAFLD was 40.1% in men and 44.2% in women (P < 0.0017). FLI was strongly associated with NAFLD, so that even a one unit increase in FLI increased the chance of developing NAFLD by 5.8% (OR = 1.058, 95%CI: 1.054-1.063, P < 0.0001). Although FLI showed good performance in the diagnosis of NAFLD (AUC = 0.8656 (95%CI: 0.8548-0.8764), there was no significant difference with regards to WC (AUC = 0.8533, 95%CI: 0.8419-0.8646). The performance of FLI was not significantly different between men (AUC = 0.8648, 95%CI: 0.8505-0.8791) and women (AUC = 0.8682, 95%CI: 0.8513-0.8851). The highest performance with regards to age was related to the 18-39 age group (AUC = 0.8930, 95%CI: 0.8766-0.9093). The optimal cutoff points of FLI were 46.9 in men (sensitivity = 0.8242, specificity = 0.7687, Youden's index = 0.5929) and 53.8 in women (sensitivity = 0.8233, specificity = 0.7655, Youden's index = 0.5888). Although FLI had acceptable discriminatory power in the diagnosis of NAFLD, WC was a simpler and more accessible index with a similar performance.

  11. Association of waist circumference with outcomes in an acute general surgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas; Gosal, Preet; Seal, Alexa; McGirr, Joe; Williams, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing in Australia, particularly in non-metropolitan areas. The effect of obesity on acute surgical outcomes is not known. We aimed to record waist circumference (WC) (surrogate for obesity) amongst acute surgical unit (ASU) patients in a New South Wales regional hospital, and compare outcome measures (length of stay (LOS), unplanned return to theatre, readmission rates, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality). Retrospective cohort study of 4 months of consecutive ASU admissions, excluding age World Health Organization WC definitions as high-risk or non-high-risk (increased-risk and no-risk). Of 695 admissions, 512 met the inclusion criteria (47.1% female, average age 52.8 years (SD 22.3)), with 85.1% (P < 0.001) of females and 69.4% (P = 0.166) of males having an increased- or high-risk WC. This compares to rates amongst inner regional populations of 71.0% (female) and 66.4% (male). LOS was longer for high-risk patients (5.0 days versus 3.7 days, P = 0.002). However, the mean age of high-risk patients was greater (56.6 years versus 46.9 years, P = 0.001) and LOS was longer for those aged ≥60 (P < 0.001). After controlling for age, high-risk WC was not associated with any outcome measure, except amongst ICU admissions, where high-risk patients stayed longer (15.5 days versus 6.8 days, P < 0.001). Increased- and high-risk WC was overrepresented amongst female ASU patients. High-risk WC was associated with a significantly greater LOS in patients admitted to ICU. High-risk WC was not associated with other outcomes independent of age. WC is useful for quantifying obesity in the inpatient setting. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. The metabolic syndrome in black hypertensive women waist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were more strongly associated with insulin, uric acid, glucose and triglycerides than was BMI. Statistically significant associations were found between waist circumference and low high-density lipoprotein HOL cholesterol (standardised regression coefficient --0.006, standard error of ...

  13. Measurement of Nutritional Status Using Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Hip Ratio, and Waist Circumference to Predict Treatment Outcome in Females and Males with Acute First-Ever Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembenek, Jan Paweł; Karlinski, Michał; Niewada, Maciej; Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Iwona; Członkowska, Anna

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether increased waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), or improper body mass index (BMI) may differently predict short-term outcomes in females and males with first-ever acute ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients (1109 females and 939 males) admitted for first-ever ischemic stroke between 2003 and 2015. Data were collected in a detailed hospital stroke registry. BMI of 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 and gender-specific normal values of WHC and WC were used as references for comparisons. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of in-hospital death or being dead or dependent at discharge, adjusted for patients' age and prestroke disability. In both sexes a high WHR increased the odds of death or dependency at discharge (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-3.08 for females and 1.43; 95% CI, 1.00-2.04 for males), but not in-hospital death alone. Increased WC was significantly associated with lower odds of either death or death and dependency at discharge in females only (OR, .36; 95% CI, .22-.58 and .69; 95% CI, .48-.97, respectively). BMI did not show any clear predictive value in either sex. Our findings suggest that being overweight measured with WC is a strong predictor of good outcome in women but not in men. The WHR less consistently predicts stroke outcome, as it is not associated with death at discharge alone; however, the WHR seems to be of similar clinical relevance in both genders. BMI seems to have the least clinical value in predicting stroke outcome in both genders. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference: associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity - a prospective study of three independent cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight (∆BW) and waist circumference (∆WC). Methods A total of 7,569 participants’ from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score for each of the traits (BMI, WC and WHR) with which the SNPs associate. Linear regression was used to examine the association between ascorbic acid intake and ΔBW or ΔWC. SNP-score × ascorbic acid interactions were examined by adding product terms to the models. Results We found no significant associations between dietary ascorbic acid and ∆BW or ∆WC. Regarding SNP-score × ascorbic acid interactions, each additional risk allele of the 14 WHR associated SNPs associated with a ∆WC of 0.039 cm/year (P = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.073) per 100 mg/day higher ascorbic acid intake. However, the association to ∆WC only remained borderline significant after adjustment for ∆BW. Conclusion In general, our study does not support an association between dietary ascorbic acid and ∆BW or ∆WC, but a diet with a high content of ascorbic acid may be weakly associated to higher WC gain among people who are genetically predisposed to a high WHR. However, given the quite limited association any public health relevance is questionable. PMID:24886192

  15. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference: associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity--a prospective study of three independent cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Skaaby, Tea; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Toft, Ulla; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-05-03

    Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight (∆BW) and waist circumference (∆WC). A total of 7,569 participants' from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score for each of the traits (BMI, WC and WHR) with which the SNPs associate. Linear regression was used to examine the association between ascorbic acid intake and ΔBW or ΔWC. SNP-score × ascorbic acid interactions were examined by adding product terms to the models. We found no significant associations between dietary ascorbic acid and ∆BW or ∆WC. Regarding SNP-score × ascorbic acid interactions, each additional risk allele of the 14 WHR associated SNPs associated with a ∆WC of 0.039 cm/year (P = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.073) per 100 mg/day higher ascorbic acid intake. However, the association to ∆WC only remained borderline significant after adjustment for ∆BW. In general, our study does not support an association between dietary ascorbic acid and ∆BW or ∆WC, but a diet with a high content of ascorbic acid may be weakly associated to higher WC gain among people who are genetically predisposed to a high WHR. However, given the quite limited association any public health relevance is questionable.

  16. The Age-Specific Association of Waist Circumference and Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Shandong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association of three most common obesity measures including body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR with chronic kidney disease (CKD risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. Design. Cross-sectional evaluation of the effect of anthropometric measures on CKD risk. Setting. Outpatient Department. Subjects. T2D patients who were treated between October 2012 and May 2013. Intervention. None. Main Outcome Measure. CKD risk. Results. On average, the patients had a mean age of 60.2 years, and 40% were males. CKD was present in 46% of all the patients. In multivariate logistic regression using the imputed data, higher WC was associated with greater odds of CKD (OR = 1.019, 95% CI = 1.002–1.006, P=0.030, but not BMI and WHR. Interestingly, we found that patients with very small WC seemed to have greater odds of CKD. We observed age-specific effect of WC such that the effect of WC on CKD risk is significant only in middle-aged T2D patients. Conclusion. Our study provides evidence for the association of WC with CKD in Chinese patients with T2D. T2D patients, especially middle-aged T2D patients, should reduce their WC to decrease CKD risk.

  17. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Body Fat, Fasting Blood Glucose in a Sample of Moroccan Adolescents Aged 11–17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdad, Slimane; Hamrani, Abdeslam; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Barakat, Amina; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Mokhtar, Najat; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The study aimed to assess the relationship between body fat and each of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and to test the effectiveness of fat mass (FM), percent of body fat (PBF), BMI, and WC in predicting high levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG). Methods. A total of 167 adolescents aged 11–17 years were recruited from Rabat region. BMI and WC were determined using standard equipments. FM and PBF were derived from isotope dilution technique. FBG was determined by the hexokinase method. Results. Regardless of the weight status, BMI showed a strong positive correlation with FM and PBF in both genders. WC was significantly correlated with FM in boys and girls, and with PBF in different groups of girls and boys of the study sample. However, there was no significant relationship between WC and PBF in normal weight and overweight-obese groups of boys. FBG was highly correlated with FM and PBF in girls of the study sample and in overweight-obese girls. Similar significant relationship between FBG and both BMI and WC was observed in overweight-obese girls, while there was no significant association between FBG and other variables in boys and normal-weight girls. Conclusion. BMI and WC were closely associated with FM and PBF, respectively. However, the degree of these associations depends on gender and weight status. BMI may provide a better proxy estimate of overall adiposity than WC; nevertheless, both of them would appear to be a reasonable surrogate for FM and PBF as screening tools to identify adolescents at risk of developing excess body fat and high level of FBG. PMID:22175010

  18. A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diuli A; Moreira, Annie S B; de Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    saturated fat restriction has been recommended for coronary arterial disease, but the role of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) extra virgin, lauric acid source in the management of lipid profile remains unclear. to evaluate the effect of nutritional treatment associated with the consumption of extra virgin coconut oil in anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. we conducted a longitudinal study of 116 adults of both sexes presenting CAD. Patients were followed in two stages: the first stage (basal-3 months), intensive nutritional treatment. In the second stage (3-6 months), the subjects were divided into two groups: diet group associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption (GDOC) and diet group (DG). Held monthly anthropometric measurements: body mass, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (PP), body mass index (BMI). Gauged to collected blood pressure and blood samples were fasted for 12 hours, for total cholesterol analysis and fractions apoproteins (Apo A-1 and B), glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin (I). Comparing the averages at the beginning and end of the study employing the paired Student t-independent. And set the diastolic blood pressure by BMI using ANOVA. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package, being significant p coconut oil consumption reduced the CC and increased HDL-C levels in patients with CAD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol consumption and its interaction with adiposity-associated genetic variants in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett F.; Ängquist, Lars; Larsen, Sofus C.

    2017-01-01

    the association between alcohol intake recorded at baseline and subsequent annual changes in body weight (∆BW), waist circumference (ΔWC) and WC adjusted for BMI (ΔWCBMI), and to test for interaction with genetic predisposition scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with various forms...... interaction was observed among the men. CONCLUSION: Alcohol intake was associated with a decrease in BW and WC among men and women, and an increase in WCBMI among women only. We found no strong indication that these associations depend on a genetic predisposition to adiposity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry......BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested a link between alcohol intake and adiposity. However, results from longitudinal studies have been inconsistent, and a possible interaction with genetic predisposition to adiposity measures has often not been taken into account. OBJECTIVE: To examine...

  20. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yanbin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA and African-American (AA youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (P = 0.01, weight (P = 0.03 and waist circumference (P = 0.04, with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05, or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05. No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05. Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity.

  1. Dietary patterns and physical activity in people with schizophrenia and increased waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ane Storch; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix; Karlsen, Mette; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Krogh, Jesper; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete; Toft, Ulla

    2018-03-16

    People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population. We interviewed a sample of 428 people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and increased waist circumference enrolled in the CHANGE trial using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a 24h recall interview, a Physical Activity Scale (PAS), scale for assessment of positive and negative symptoms (SAPS and SANS, respectively), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). We compared with information on dietary intake and physical activity in the general Danish population from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity in 2011-2013 (DANSDA). The CHANGE participants reported a very low energy intake and their distribution of nutrients (i.e. fat, protein and carbohydrates) harmonized with the recommendations from the Danish Health Authorities, and were similar to the latest report on the dietary habits in the Danish general population. However, the intake of saturated fat, sugar and alcohol exceed the recommended amounts and the corresponding intake in the general population. The intake of fiber, vegetables and fruit and fish were insufficient and also less than in the general population. The overall estimated quality of the dietary habits was poor, only 10.7% of the participants had healthy dietary patterns, and the quality was

  2. Association of lipid profile and waist circumference as cardiovascular risk factors for overweight and obesity among school children in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizk NM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasser M Rizk, Mervat YousefHealth Sciences Department, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, QatarBackground: Childhood obesity is a national as well as worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of overweight and obesity among Qatari children with lipid profile and waist circumference as adverse cardiovascular risk factors in children aged 6–11 years. International Obesity Task Force reference values were used to screen for overweight and obesity.Methods: A cross-sectional study in a randomly selected sample was conducted in 315 Qatari primary school students aged 6–11 years. Anthropometric measurements, including body weight, height, waist circumference, and body mass index were calculated for 151 girls and 164 boys. Weight categories were based on International Obesity Task Force reference values. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides were measured, and atherogenic index was calculated.Results: In total, 31.71% of boys and 32.78% of girls were overweight or obese. Overweight and obese children screened against International Obesity Task Force reference values had a significantly increased risk of high waist circumference (P < 0.0001, hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.002, low HDL-C (P = 0.017, and atherogenic index (P = 0.021 compared with children who were not overweight or obese. The partial correlation coefficient for the cardiovascular risk marker of waist circumference indicated a positive significant association with total cholesterol (r = 0.465, P = 0.003, triglycerides (r = 0.563, P < 0.001, and LDL-C (r = 0.267, P = 0.003, and a significant negative association with HDL-C (r = −0.361, P = 0.004. Overweight and obesity significantly increase the odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CIs of cardiovascular risk factors as follows: hypertriglyceridemia (OR 6.34, CI 2.49–13

  3. Impact of waist circumference and body mass index on risk of cardiometabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults: a national diabetes and metabolic disorders survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhong Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC or body mass index (BMI category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in Chinese adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 46,024 participants aged ≥20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007-2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96-2.44 vs 1.88 (1.67-2.12 and 1.12 (0.99-1.26; 5.70 (5.24-6.19 vs 1.51 (1.39-1.65 and 1.69 (1.57-1.82; and 3.73 (3.42-4.07 vs 2.16 (1.98-2.35 and 1.33 (1.25-1.40, respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk.

  4. Waist circumference is related to low-grade inflammation in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kolle, Elin; Resaland, GK

    2010-01-01

    .51) compared with controls. All CVD risk factors differed between the HW group and controls. The CVD risk factors were not associated with TNFalpha or IL-6, but CRP, HGF and PAI-1 were related to the metabolic risk score. Conclusions. Low grade systemic inflammation is already present in youth with high waist...

  5. Use of waist circumference and its optimal value to identify obesity in relation to hypertension: a cross-sectional study among adult male slum dwellers of Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raya Chakraborty

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Background: Waist circumference (WC is a useful surrogate marker of abdominal adiposity and a risk factor of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Asians have higher abdominal fat at a lower level of body mass index (BMI. Previous studies showed that WC was the best measure and correlate of abdominal fat and general adiposity, respectively, among the Bengalee people of Eastern India including the present sample.
    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of waist circumference and its appropriate cut-off in identifying obesity and hypertension.
    Methods: Adult male slum dwellers aged between 18 and 60 years were included in the study. Height, weight, skinfolds, waist circumference, systolic- (SBP and diastolic blood pressures (DBP were measured.
    Body mass index (BMI and percent body fat (PBF were also calculated. Obesity was defined as >25% of body fat. Mean (+ SD and range statistics were used to describe the variables. WC values were divided into four categories, viz. <72cm, 72-79.9cm, 80-84.9cm and ≥ 85.0cm. ANCOVA was performed to observe the differences in mean SBP and, DBP between the WC categories, with age, smoking and alcohol consumption status as covariates. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regressions were employed to examine the relationship of WC with SBP and DBP. Adjusted odds ratios for hypertension by WC categories were obtained through logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis revealed the optimal value of WC to identify obesity. Results and conclusions: PBF increased significantly (F = 208.74, p<0.001 from the lowest WC category (10.6% to the highest one (26.9%. Mean SBP and DBP also increased significantly from the lowest to the highest WC categories. Waist circumference had significant positive effect on both SBP (T=2.559, p<0.01 and DBP (T=3.256, p<0.05 irrespective of age and PBF. WC

  6. Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Martha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. Methods We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999–2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP, mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP, mono-n-butyl (MBP, and mono-benzyl (MBzP phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP phthalate (2001–2002. Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. Results The most consistent associations were in males aged 20–59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002, and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In females, BMI and WC increased with MEP quartile in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 22.9, 23.8, 24.1, 24.7, p-trend = 0.03, and a similar but less strong pattern was seen in 20–59 year olds. In contrast, MEHP was inversely related to BMI in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 25.4, 23.8, 23.4, 22.9, p-trend = 0.02 and females aged 20–59 (adjusted mean BMI = 29.9, 29.9, 27.9, 27.6, p-trend = 0.02. There were no important associations among children, but several inverse associations among 60–80 year olds. Conclusion This exploratory, cross-sectional analysis revealed a number of interesting associations with different phthalate metabolites and obesity outcomes, including notable differences by gender and age subgroups. Effects of endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may depend upon endogenous hormone levels, which vary dramatically by age and gender. Individual phthalates also have different

  7. Physical Fitness Is Longitudinally Associated With Academic Performance During Childhood and Adolescence, and Waist Circumference Mediated the Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Bugge, Anna; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2018-03-10

    The current investigation aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between physical fitness and academic performance over 3 years in adolescents. A secondary aim was to determine to what extent waist circumference mediated the association between physical fitness and academic performance. For the current study, 1020 students from first grade [mean age: 7.87 (0.34) y] to fifth grade [mean age: 11.87 (0.37) y] were monitored annually for 3 years (2010-2013). Physical fitness was assessed using the Andersen test, 5 × 5-m shuttle run, jump height, and grip strength tests and by constructing a composite score combining all 4 fitness tests. Academic performance was assessed by national standardized tests in Danish language and math. Generalized structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the relationships between these variables. The Andersen test (standardized β = 0.15 SD), shuttle run (β = -0.18 SD), jump height (β = 0.10 SD), and the fitness composite score (β = 0.23 SD) were positively associated with academic performance over 3 years. In addition, waist circumference partially mediated the association between physical fitness and academic performance. Thus, physical fitness abilities should be stimulated during childhood and early adolescence because of their positive association with academic performance.

  8. Associations Among Sleep, Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among US Childbearing-Age Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vézina-Im, Lydi-Anne; Nicklas, Theresa A; Baranowski, Tom

    2018-03-27

    Women of childbearing age (18-44 years) present an important group for understanding sleep, but few studies have focused on this population. No study has investigated the associations among sleep, overweight/obesity, and risk of type 2 diabetes among childbearing-age women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Data were from NHANES, 2005-2008. The study population consisted of 18-44 year old women. Pregnant women and those diagnosed with sleep disorders were excluded. Sleep duration and quality were self-reported. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) measurements, and a 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed by trained NHANES staff. An unadjusted linear regression analysis; a second adjusted for demographics only (partially adjusted model); and a third adjusted for demographics and variables associated with overweight/obesity and diabetes (fully adjusted model) were computed to assess associations among sleep duration/quality and BMI, WC, and 2-hour OGTT. Total sample consisted of 2388 childbearing-age women. Only sleep duration was significantly associated with BMI and WC in the unadjusted and partially adjusted models, but was no longer significant in the fully adjusted model. Neither sleep duration nor quality was significantly associated with 2-hour OGTT in any of the models. Targeting sleep duration and sleep quality alone would not likely contribute to significantly lower BMI, WC, or risk of type 2 diabetes in US childbearing-age women. Additional studies, especially longitudinal ones using objective measures of sleep, are needed to confirm these findings.

  9. Long-term exposure to residential traffic noise and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traffic noise can act as a stressor and disturb sleep, and has been associated with cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest a possible association to metabolic outcomes and adiposity through biological mechanisms related to physiological stress and sleep disturbance. OBJECTIVES...... an 10% increased risk for gaining more than 5kg body weight during follow-up (95% CI: 1.04; 1.15) per 10dB higher 5 years exposure preceding follow-up. Exposure to railway noise above 55dB was associated with weight gain (39.9g/year (95% CI: 10.2; 69.6)), but not with a significant change in waist...

  10. Lupus Damage and Waist Circumference as the Independent Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in SLE Patients from Phramongkutklao Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siricheepchaiyan, Wittaya; Narongroeknawin, Pongthorn; Pakchotanon, Rattapon; Asavatanabodee, Paijit; Chaiamnuay, Sumapa

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been reported to be a major cause of both morbidity and premature mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors in Thai SLE patients from Phramongkutklao Hospital, Thailand. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the frequency of CVD in SLE patients in Phramongkutklao Hospital on the basis of medical record documentation. CVD was defined as coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease (stroke), transient ischemic attack, and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The associated risk factors of CVD were examined by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. One hundred fifty nine SLE patients were enrolled in the present study. Nine female and one male SLE patients had CVD (prevalence 6.3%). SLE patients with CVD had higher Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index (SDI) score (p-value = 0.025) and received higher average dose of corticosteroid (p-value = 0.034) than SLE patients without CVD. Patients with CVD were more likely to present with malar rash (p-value = 0.054), discoid rash (p-value = 0.047), and more likely to used cyclophosphamide (p-value = 0.045) than patients without CVD. SLE patients with CVD were more likely to have diabetes mellitus (p-value = 0.037), antiphospholipid syndrome (p-value = 0.055), and had higher proportion of patients whose waist circumference more than 90 centimeters in male or more than 80 centimeters in female (p-value = 0.06) than SLE patients without CVD. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies was higher in SLE patients with CVD than SLE patients without CVD (p-value = 0.076). The multivariate regression analysis identified that SDI score (odds ratio (OR) = 1.74 with 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.69, p-value = 0.013), and waist circumference more than 90 centimeters in male or more than 80 centimeters in

  11. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI...

  12. Association Between the Visceral Adiposity Index and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in Participants With Normal Waist Circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Baolan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Deng, Huacong

    2017-09-01

    We assessed the correlation between the visceral adiposity index (VAI; a useful indicator of adipose distribution and function) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in participants with normal waist circumference. A cross-sectional study was conducted, which included 1834 Chinese adults. The blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting and postprandial blood glucose, fasting insulin, and lipid profiles were measured. The VAI and HOMA-IR were calculated. Participants were divided into 4 groups according to the HOMA-IR level, and the correlation between the VAI and HOMA-IR was analyzed. The VAI gradually increased across the HOMA-IR quartiles ( P HOMA-IR ( P HOMA-IR. A logistic regression analysis indicated that VAI elevation was the main risk factor for the increased HOMA-IR in both genders. Overall, the VAI was closely correlated with the HOMA-IR in a population without central obesity.

  13. Physical activity in leisure-time is not associated with 10-year changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, T.; Petersen, L.; Schnohr, P.

    2008-01-01

    -2003 (follow up), where height, weight and WC were measured. Information about overall PA in leisure-time (LTPA), walking, biking and sports activity was collected with self-administrated questionnaires at baseline. Outcomes were changes in WC and changes in WC given changes in BMI between baseline and follow...... up. The median increase in WC was 3.0 cm in men and 3.5 cm in women during follow-up, and with a considerable inter-individual variation. LTPA, walking and biking were not significantly associated with the outcomes. Inverse associations between sports activity and the outcomes were observed in both...... sexes, and these were significant in some analyses. Associations were not altered by adjustment for confounders or by exclusions of subjects with diseases and/or treatment by obesity-inducing medication. This study suggests that LTPA, walking and biking have no appreciable effects on changes in WC...

  14. Less Waste on Waist Measurements: Determination of Optimal Waist Circumference Measurement Site to Predict Visceral Adipose Tissue in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V. Seimon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With obesity being a leading cause of preventable death, it is vital to understand how best to identify individuals with greater risk of metabolic disease, especially those with high visceral adipose tissue (VAT. This study aimed to determine whether three commonly used waist circumference (WC measurement sites could provide accurate estimations of VAT, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which is a gold standard for measuring VAT, in postmenopausal women with obesity. VAT volume was measured by MRI of the total abdomen in 97 women aged 57.7 ± 0.4 years (mean ± SEM, mean body mass index 34.5 ± 0.2 kg/m2. WC was measured at the midpoint between the lowest rib and the iliac crest (WCmid, the narrowest point of the torso (WCnarrow, and at the level of the umbilicus (WCumbilicus. WC differed significantly according to measurement site, with WCnarrow (102.1 ± 0.7 cm < WCmid (108.3 ± 0.7 cm < WCumbilicus (115.7 ± 0.8 cm (p < 0.001. WCmid, WCnarrow and WCumbilicus were all significantly correlated with VAT, as measured by MRI (r = 0.581, 0.563 and 0.390, respectively; p < 0.001 for all, but the relationships between WCmid or WCnarrow and VAT determined by MRI were stronger than for WCumbilicus. Measurement of either WCmid or WCnarrow provides valid estimates of VAT in postmenopausal women with obesity, with WCnarrow being favoured in light of its greater ease and speed of measurement in this population.

  15. The Effect of Protein-Enriched Meal Replacement on Waist Circumference Reduction among Overweight and Obese Chinese with Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Yanjun; Yang, Qinbing; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Jiongxian; Wang, Jing; Shi, Lintao; Chen, Yu; Zhu, Sainan

    2016-01-01

    In China, high-fat diets and excessive energy intake have led to an increasing prevalence of obesity which was previously uncommon. The current study examined the effects of meal replacement (MR) on weight control in overweight or obese Chinese individuals with hyperlipidemia. Patients, 18-65 years, with body mass index 25-35 kg/m(2) and triglycerides >1.7 and 2%; use of cholesterol-lowering drugs. Eligible patients were randomized 1:1 to a high-protein (HP) diet (2.2 g protein/kg/day) or a standard-protein (SP) diet (1.1 g protein/kg/ day) provided twice daily for 3 months. Assessments included body weight, waist-hip ratio, body fat percentage, blood lipids, blood glucose, insulin, liver and kidney function. Although mean weight loss and percent BMI reduction were greater with HP than SP at 12 weeks, the differences were not significant. There was, however, a significantly greater decrease in waist-hip ratio with HP versus SP (-0.03 ± 0.03 vs. -0.01 ± 0.04; p meal replacement in a free-living Chinese population suggests a new and promising strategy for reducing abdominal obesity in China.

  16. Association between Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and changes in weight and waist circumference: influence of FTO and TCF7L2 loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Romaguera, Dora; Larsen, Sofus C; Østergaard, Jane N; Halkjaer, Jytte; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Wareham, Nicolas J; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Palli, Domenico; Boer, Jolanda M A; van der A, Daphne L; Boeing, Heiner; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Several studies have shown that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet measured by using the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) is associated with lower obesity risk. The newly proposed Nordic Diet could hold similar beneficial effects. Because of the increasing focus on the interaction between diet and genetic predisposition to adiposity, studies should consider both diet and genetics. We investigated whether FTO rs9939609 and TCF7L2 rs7903146 modified the association between the MDS and Nordic diet score (NDS) and changes in weight (Δweight), waist circumference (ΔWC), and waist circumference adjusted for body mass index (BMI) (ΔWCBMI). We conducted a case-cohort study with a median follow-up of 6.8 y that included 11,048 participants from 5 European countries; 5552 of these subjects were cases defined as individuals with the greatest degree of unexplained weight gain during follow-up. A randomly selected subcohort included 6548 participants, including 5496 noncases. Cases and noncases were compared in analyses by using logistic regression. Continuous traits (ie, Δweight, ΔWC, and ΔWCBMI) were analyzed by using linear regression models in the random subcohort. Interactions were tested by including interaction terms in models. A higher MDS was significantly inversely associated with case status (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00), ΔWC (β = -0.010 cm/y; 95% CI: -0.020, -0.001 cm/y), and ΔWCBMI (β = -0.008; 95% CI:-0.015, -0.001) per 1-point increment but not Δweight (P = 0.53). The NDS was not significantly associated with any outcome. There was a borderline significant interaction between the MDS and TCF7L2 rs7903146 on weight gain (P = 0.05), which suggested a beneficial effect of the MDS only in subjects who carried 1 or 2 risk alleles. FTO did not modify observed associations. A high MDS is associated with a lower ΔWC and ΔWCBMI, regardless of FTO and TCF7L2 risk alleles. For Δweight, findings were less clear, but the effect may depend on the TCF7L2 rs7903146

  17. Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Madsen, Lise; Skjøth, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P...

  18. Higher household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home are associated with higher waist circumference in Colombian children: the ACFIES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Camacho, Paul A; Cohen, Daniel D; Rincón-Romero, Katherine; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Pinzón, Sandra; Duperly, John; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2014-02-07

    The current "epidemic" of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011), and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026) were found. In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family's ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  19. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC, as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011, and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026 were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  20. Combined use of waist and hip circumference to identify abdominally obese HIV-infected patients at increased health risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor O'Neill

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine whether for a given waist circumference (WC, a larger hip circumference (HC was associated with a reduced risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD in HIV-infected patients. A second objective was to determine whether, for a given WC, the addition of HC improved upon estimates of abdominal adiposity, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT, compared to those obtained by WC alone. METHODS: HIV-infected men (N = 1481 and women (N = 841 were recruited between 2005 and 2009. WC and HC were obtained using standard techniques and abdominal adiposity was measured using computed tomography. RESULTS: After control for WC and covariates, HC was negatively associated with risk of insulin resistance (p<0.05 and T2D [Men: OR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.96; Women: OR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.98]. For a given WC, HC was also negatively associated with a lower risk of hypertension (p<0.05 and CVD [OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99] in men, but not women. Although HC was negatively associated with VAT in men and women after control for WC (p<0.05, the addition of HC did not substantially improve upon the prediction of VAT compared to WC alone. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of HIV-infected individuals at increased health risk by WC alone is substantially improved by the addition of HC. Estimates of visceral adipose tissue by WC are not substantially improved by the addition of HC and thus variation in visceral adiposity may not be the conduit by which HC identifies increased health risk.

  1. Ala54Thr fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2 polymorphism in recurrent depression: associations with fatty acid concentrations and waist circumference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel J T Mocking

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA-alterations may mediate the mutual association between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, etiology of observed FA-alterations in MDD and CVD remains largely unclear. An interesting candidate may be a mutation in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2-gene, because it regulates dietary FA-uptake. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypotheses that in MDD-patients the FABP2 Ala54Thr-polymorphism would be (I more prevalent than in sex- and age-matched controls, (II associated with observed alterations in FA-metabolism, and (III associated with CVD-risk factor waist circumference. METHODS: We measured concentrations of 29 different erythrocyte FAs, FABP2-genotype, and waist circumference in recurrent MDD-patients and matched never-depressed controls. RESULTS: FABP2-genotype distribution did not significantly differ between the 137 MDD-patients and 73 matched controls. However, patients with the Ala54Thr-polymorphism had (I higher concentrations of especially eicosadienoic acid (C20:2ω6; P=.009 and other 20-carbon FAs, and associated (II lower waist circumference (P=.019. In addition, FABP2-genotype effects on waist circumference in patients seemed (I mediated by its effect on C20:2ω6, and (II different from controls. CONCLUSIONS: Although Ala54Thr-polymorphism distribution was not associated with recurrent MDD, our results indicate that FABP2 may play a role in the explanation of observed FA-alterations in MDD. For Ala54Thr-polymorphism patients, potentially adaptive conversion of increased bioavailable dietary precursors into eicosadienoic acid instead of arachidonic acid might be related to a low waist circumference. Because this is the first investigation of these associations, replication is warranted, preferably by nutrigenetic studies applying lipidomics and detailed dietary assessment.

  2. Index of central obesity as a parameter to replace waist circumference for the definition of metabolic syndrome in predicting cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenshu; Guo, Zhirong; Wu, Ming; Hao, Chao; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yao, Xingjuan

    2014-10-01

    To compare the suitability of metabolic syndrome definitions in predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We analyzed data from a population-based prospective cohort of 3598 participants from Jiangsu, China. Waist circumference was replaced with central obesity [index of central obesity (ICO), a ratio of waist circumference and height] in Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ICO-replaced ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (ICO-replaced IDF), respectively. Cox proportional-hazards regression model and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to evaluate the suitability of ATPIII, IDF, ICO-replaced IDF and ICO-replaced ATPIII in predicting CVD risk. ICO was a better parameter in predicting CVD risk by ROC curve analysis. The ROC curve analysis also showed that although ICO-replaced IDF and IDF had the higher degree of specificity, lower sensitivity, longer ROC curve distance, less area under the curve to identify CVD than ATPIII and ICO-replaced ATPIII, therefore ICO-replaced IDF and IDF seemed to be undesirable. However, there was no significant difference in area under the curve between ATPIII and ICO-replaced ATPIII in predicting CVD risk. But it seems that odds ratios for abnormal triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels increase slightly when using ICO, but decrease for hyperglycemia and hypertension when using ICO. ICO was a better predictor of abnormal triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels than waist circumference, but waist circumference was a better predictor of hyperglycemia and hypertension than ICO. However, we failed to support ICO as a better parameter for metabolic syndrome definition in predicting CVD risk compared with waist circumference.

  3. Physical environment may modify the association between depressive symptoms and change in waist circumference: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Diez Roux, Ana V; Szklo, Moyses; Crum, Rosa M; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Franco, Manuel; Schreiner, Pamela J; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Michos, Erin D; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Golden, Sherita H

    2014-01-01

    Although the bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and adiposity has been recognized, the contribution of neighborhood factors to this relationship has not been assessed. This study evaluates whether physical and social neighborhood environments modify the bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and adiposity (measured by waist circumference and body mass index). Using data on 5,122 men and women (ages 45 to 84 years) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) we investigated whether neighborhood physical (i.e., walking environment and availability of healthy food) and social (i.e., safety, aesthetics, and social coherence) environments modified the association between the following: (1) baseline elevated depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Scale score ≥ 16) and change in adiposity (as measured by waist circumference and body mass index) and (2) baseline overweight/obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and >88 cm for women, or body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) and change in depressive symptoms using multilevel models. Neighborhood-level factors were obtained from the MESA Neighborhood Study. A greater increase in waist circumference in participants with vs without elevated depressive symptoms was observed in those living in poorly-rated physical environments but not in those living in better-rated environments (interaction p = 0.045). No associations were observed with body mass index. Baseline overweight/obesity was not associated with change in depressive symptoms and there was no modification by neighborhood-level factors. Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with greater increase in waist circumference among individuals living in poorly-rated physical environments than in those in better-rated physical environments. No association was found between overweight/obesity and change in depressive symptoms. © 2014 Published by Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine on behalf of Academy

  4. Ala54Thr fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) polymorphism in recurrent depression: associations with fatty acid concentrations and waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocking, Roel J T; Lok, Anja; Assies, Johanna; Koeter, Maarten W J; Visser, Ieke; Ruhé, Henricus G; Bockting, Claudi L H; Schene, Aart H

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA)-alterations may mediate the mutual association between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, etiology of observed FA-alterations in MDD and CVD remains largely unclear. An interesting candidate may be a mutation in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2)-gene, because it regulates dietary FA-uptake. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypotheses that in MDD-patients the FABP2 Ala54Thr-polymorphism would be (I) more prevalent than in sex- and age-matched controls, (II) associated with observed alterations in FA-metabolism, and (III) associated with CVD-risk factor waist circumference. We measured concentrations of 29 different erythrocyte FAs, FABP2-genotype, and waist circumference in recurrent MDD-patients and matched never-depressed controls. FABP2-genotype distribution did not significantly differ between the 137 MDD-patients and 73 matched controls. However, patients with the Ala54Thr-polymorphism had (I) higher concentrations of especially eicosadienoic acid (C20:2ω6; P=.009) and other 20-carbon FAs, and associated (II) lower waist circumference (P=.019). In addition, FABP2-genotype effects on waist circumference in patients seemed (I) mediated by its effect on C20:2ω6, and (II) different from controls. Although Ala54Thr-polymorphism distribution was not associated with recurrent MDD, our results indicate that FABP2 may play a role in the explanation of observed FA-alterations in MDD. For Ala54Thr-polymorphism patients, potentially adaptive conversion of increased bioavailable dietary precursors into eicosadienoic acid instead of arachidonic acid might be related to a low waist circumference. Because this is the first investigation of these associations, replication is warranted, preferably by nutrigenetic studies applying lipidomics and detailed dietary assessment.

  5. Population distribution of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD from a representative sample of US adults: comparison of SAD, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying dysglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S Kahn

    Full Text Available The sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD measured in supine position is an alternative adiposity indicator that estimates the quantity of dysfunctional adipose tissue in the visceral depot. However, supine SAD's distribution and its association with health risk at the population level are unknown. Here we describe standardized measurements of SAD, provide the first, national estimates of the SAD distribution among US adults, and test associations of SAD and other adiposity indicators with prevalent dysglycemia.In the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, supine SAD was measured ("abdominal height" between arms of a sliding-beam caliper at the level of the iliac crests. From 4817 non-pregnant adults (age ≥ 20; response rate 88% we used sample weights to estimate SAD's population distribution by sex and age groups. SAD's population mean was 22.5 cm [95% confidence interval 22.2-22.8]; median was 21.9 cm [21.6-22.4]. The mean and median values of SAD were greater for men than women. For the subpopulation without diagnosed diabetes, we compared the abilities of SAD, waist circumference (WC, and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2 to identify prevalent dysglycemia (HbA1c ≥ 5.7%. For age-adjusted, logistic-regression models in which sex-specific quartiles of SAD were considered simultaneously with quartiles of either WC or BMI, only SAD quartiles 3 (p<0.05 vs quartile 1 and 4 (p<0.001 vs quartile 1 remained associated with increased dysglycemia. Based on continuous adiposity indicators, analyses of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC indicated that the dysglycemia model fit for SAD (age-adjusted was 0.734 for men (greater than the AUC for WC, p<0.001 and 0.764 for women (greater than the AUC for WC or BMI, p<0.001.Measured inexpensively by bedside caliper, SAD was associated with dysglycemia independently of WC or BMI. Standardized SAD measurements may enhance assessment of dysfunctional adiposity.

  6. Criteria of waist circumference according to computed tomography-measured visceral fat area and the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashihara, Hidetoshi; Tamura, Masaki; Lee, J.S.; Akabayashi, Akira; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the discriminate gender-specific cutoff values of waist circumference (WC) for detecting the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (CCRF), which reflects the intra-abdominal visceral fat area (VFA) using a large Japanese population. The study population consisted of 6,736 men and women who underwent a periodic health check-up and had a computed tomography scan for VFA measurement at the PL Tokyo Health Care Center in Tokyo, Japan. The CCRF was defined according to the Japanese Committee of the Criteria for Metabolic Syndrome. The discriminate values for detecting the CCRF were tested using receiver operating characteristics analysis. The discriminate values of VFA were 103.0 cm 2 with 68.7% sensitivity and 61.8% specificity for men and 69.0 cm 2 with 80.8% sensitivity and 70.0% specificity for women. The WC values corresponding to the VFA were 89.1 cm for men and 86.3 cm for women. The discriminate values of VFA and WC were not substantially different between people with or without raised blood pressure. For the early detection and management of the CCRF and VFA in the primary screening setting, the discriminate and convenient gender-specific WC criteria would be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women. (author)

  7. Employment status, depressive symptoms, and waist circumference change in midlife women: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Segawa, Eisuke; Janssen, Imke; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Thurston, Rebecca C; Lewis, Tené T; Kravitz, Howard M

    2014-03-01

    Changes in employment status have shown inconsistent associations with adiposity. This study tested whether the presence of elevated depressive symptoms explains variability in the time-varying association between employment status and central adiposity. Employment status, depressive symptoms, and waist circumference (WC) were assessed annually over 10 years in a multiethnic sample of 3220 midlife women enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Linear mixed-effects models tested time-varying associations of employment status, depressive symptoms, and their interaction with WC. WC increases were greatest during the years of combined nonemployment and elevated depressive symptoms (1.00 cm/y) and lowest in the years of full-time employment and elevated depressive symptoms (0.25 cm/y), compared with the years of full-time employment and nonelevated depressive symptoms (0.51 cm/y). Employment status was unrelated to WC in years without elevated depressive symptoms. The pattern of results was unchanged when analyses were restricted to preretirement observations and did not vary according to WC at baseline or ethnicity/race. Identifying and managing depressive symptoms in midlife women who are not working may help prevent increases in central adiposity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity and Specificity Improvement in Abdominal Obesity Diagnosis Using Cluster Analysis during Waist Circumference Cut-Off Point Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermúdez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of metabolic phenotypes during the construction of ROC curves for waist circumference (WC cutpoint selection. Materials and Methods. A total of 1,902 subjects of both genders were selected from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study database. Two-Step Cluster Analysis (TSCA was applied to select metabolically healthy and sick men and women. ROC curves were constructed to determine WC cutoff points by gender. Results. Through TSCA, metabolic phenotype predictive variables were selected: HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-βcell for women and HOMA2-IR, HOMA2-βcell, and TAG for men. Subjects were classified as healthy normal weight, metabolically obese normal weight, healthy and metabolically disturbed overweight, and healthy and metabolically disturbed obese. Final WC cutpoints were 91.50 cm for women (93.4% sensitivity, 93.7% specificity and 98.15 cm for men (96% sensitivity, 99.5% specificity. Conclusions. TSCA in the selection of the groups used in ROC curves construction proved to be an important tool, aiding in the detection of MOWN and MHO which cannot be identified with WC alone. The resulting WC cutpoints were <91.00 cm for women and <98.00 cm for men. Furthermore, anthropometry is insufficient to determine healthiness, and, biochemical analysis is needed to properly filter subjects during classification.

  9. The association of dementia with upper arm and waist circumference in seven low- and middle-income countries: the 10/66 cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Clare L; Albanese, Emiliano; Stewart, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Weight loss in dementia contributes to morbidity and mortality but the distribution of anthropometric change and its consistency between populations are less clear. Our aim was to investigate and compare the associations of dementia with waist and upper arm circumference in elders from seven low- and middle-income nations. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted of 15,022 residents aged 65 years and older in Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, Dominican Republic, China, and India. Dementia was assessed using a cross-culturally validated algorithm, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Associations with dementia and dementia severity (clinical dementia rating scale) were investigated in linear regression models, with fixed-effects meta-analyses used to investigate between-country heterogeneity. Dementia and increased dementia severity were both associated with smaller arm and waist circumferences with little evidence of confounding by sociodemographic and health status. Associations between dementia/clinical dementia rating and arm circumference were homogeneous between countries (Higgins I(2) 0% and 7%, respectively), whereas those with waist circumference were more heterogeneous (Higgins I(2) 67% and 62%, respectively). Although cross-sectional, our findings are consistent with prospective observations of weight loss in dementia and suggest loss of both muscle and fat-the former being consistent across different settings and the latter being more context dependent.

  10. Waist circumference in the prediction of obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes Circunferência da cintura na predição de desfechos adversos da gestação relacionados à obesidade

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    Eliana M. D. R. Wendland

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic properties of waist circumference in the prediction of obesity-related gestational outcomes. Pregnant women 20 years or older were consecutively enrolled in six Brazilian State capitals from 1991 to 1995. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Patients were followed through childbirth by chart review. Diagnostic performance for the different outcomes, as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, was estimated through logistic regression. Areas under the ROC curve (95%CI for waist circumference were 0.621(0.589-0.652 for gestational diabetes, 0.640 (0.588-0.692 for preeclampsia, and 0.645(0.617-0.673 for macrosomia. These areas were similar to those for BMI (p > 0.05. A waist circumference of 82cm jointly maximized sensitivity (63% and specificity (57%. Cutoff points of 23kg/m² for pre-pregnancy BMI and 26kg/m² for BMI at enrollment produced similar diagnostic properties. In conclusion, waist circumference predicts obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes at least as well as BMI.O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar as propriedades diagnósticas da circunferência da cintura na predição de desfechos adversos da gestação relacionados à obesidade. Gestantes com 20 ou mais anos de idade, foram arroladas consecutivamente, entre 20 e 28 semanas de gestação, em seis capitais do Brasil, entre 1991 e 1995. Peso, altura e circunferência da cintura foram aferidos e um teste de tolerância à glicose foi realizado. As pacientes foram acompanhadas até o parto através de revisão de prontuários. Propriedades diagnósticas para os diferentes desfechos, mensurados através da área sob a curva Receiver Operator Charactheristic (ROC, foram estimadas por regressão logística. Áreas (IC95% sob as curvas ROC para a cintura foram 0,621 (0,589-0,652 para diabetes gestacional, 0,640 (0,588-0,692 para pr

  11. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Based on Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Jung Soo Lim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff value for WC that signals insulin resistance (IR and visceral obesity in Koreans with type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe evaluated 4,252 patients with type 2 diabetes (male 2,220, female 2,032, mean age 57.24 years who visited our clinic between January 2003 and June 2009. WC was measured at the midpoint between the lower rib and the iliac crest, and insulin sensitivity was assessed by the rate constant of plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt %/min using an insulin tolerance test. Visceral fat thickness was measured using ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve.ResultsThe optimal cutoff points for WC for identifying the presence of IR and visceral obesity, as well as two or more metabolic components, were 87 cm for men and 81 cm for women. Moreover, these cutoff points had the highest predictive powers for the presence of visceral obesity. The MetS defined by new criteria correlated with the increased carotid intima-media thickness in female subjects.ConclusionOur results suggest that the optimal cutoff values for WC in Koreans with type 2 diabetes should be reestablished based on IR and visceral obesity.

  12. Sport disciplines, types of sports, and waist circumference in young adulthood - a population-based twin study.

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    Rottensteiner, Mirva; Mäkelä, Sara; Bogl, Leonie H; Törmäkangas, Timo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2017-10-01

    The benefits of physical activity (PA) in preventing abdominal obesity are well recognized, but the role of different sport disciplines remains open. We aimed, therefore, to investigate how participation in different sport disciplines, and the number and types of sports engaged in are associated with waist circumference (WC) in young adulthood. This population-based cohort study comprised 4027 Finnish twin individuals (1874 men), with a mean age of 34 y (32-37), who answered a survey, including self-measured WC. We extracted the number and identified the types (aerobic, power, and mixed) of the different sport disciplines respondents reported participating in. The number of sport disciplines participated in was inversely associated with WC, the linear decrease averaging 1.38 cm (95% CI 1.10-1.65) per each additional sport discipline. The result persisted after adjustment for the main covariates, such as volume of PA and diet quality. Among dizygotic twin pairs discordant for sports participation (0-2 vs. 5 or more disciplines), the mean within-pair difference in WC was 4.8 cm (95% CI 0.4-9.1) for men and 11.2 cm (95% CI 4.4-18.0) for women; among discordant monozygotic pairs, no differences were observed. In men, all three types of sports were individually associated with smaller WC, while in women, only mixed and power sports showed this association. Participation in several sport disciplines and sport types was associated with smaller WC among young adults in their mid-30s. Shared genetic background may explain some of the associations.

  13. Waist circumference based abdominal obesity may be helpful as a marker for unmet needs in patients with RA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uutela, T; Kautiainen, H; Järvenpää, S; Salomaa, S; Hakala, M; Häkkinen, A

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of abdominal obesity (AO) on disease severity, cardiovascular risk factors, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two hundred and thirty consecutive outpatients were cross-sectionally assessed. Waist circumference (WC) with a cut-off point of ≥ 102 cm in men and ≥ 88 cm in women indicated AO. Clinical assessment included joint counts, radiographs of small joints, and laboratory tests. Comorbidities and medication were verified from the patients' database. Patient questionnaires included sociodemographics, pain intensity, global disease activity, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), physical activity level, and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined according to the criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). The association of AO with the 28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and mental (MCS) and physical component scores (PCS) of the SF-36 and the HAQ was assessed by using regression models with the propensity score as a covariate. The AO prevalence was 52% in the 200 eligible patients. In a univariate analysis, AO was associated with cardiovascular risk factors, low HAQ score, physical inactivity, disease activity parameters, impaired MCS, higher pain, and increased use of biological drugs and antidepressants. In a multivariable model, only poorer DAS28 (p = 0.018) and poorer HAQ score (p = 0.004) remained significantly associated with AO. AO is highly prevalent in patients with RA. In addition to cardiovascular risk factors, AO is associated with higher disease activity, higher disability, physical inactivity, more patients' perception of pain, and poorer mental health. Multifaceted promotion of lifestyle habits would be beneficial for improving AO-related health outcomes in patients with RA.

  14. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, skinfold thickness and waist circumference for assessing body composition in ambulant and non-ambulant wheelchair games players

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    Annika eWillems

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Field-based assessments provide a cost–effective and accessible alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA for practitioners determining body composition in athletic populations. It remains unclear how the range of physical impairments classifiable in wheelchair sports may affect the utility of field-based body composition techniques. The present study assessed body composition using DXA in 14 wheelchair games players who were either wheelchair dependent (non-walkers; n =7 or relied on a wheelchair for sports participation only (walkers; n =7. Anthropometric measurements were used to predict body fat percentage with existing regression equations established for able-bodied persons by Sloan & Weir, Durnin & Womersley, Lean et al, Gallagher et al and Pongchaiyakul et al. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the association between body fat percentage and BMI, waist circumference, sum of 6 skinfold thicknesses and sum of 8 skinfold thicknesses. Results showed that non-walkers had significantly lower total lean tissue mass (46.2±=6.6 kg vs. 59.4±8.2 kg, P =.006 and total body mass (65.8 ±4.2 kg vs. 79.4 ±14.9 kg; P =0.05 than walkers. Body fat percentage calculated from most existing regression equations was significantly lower than that from DXA, by 2 to 9% in walkers and 8 to14% in non-walkers. Of the anthropometric measurements, the sum of 8 skinfold thicknesses had the lowest standard error of estimation in predicting body fat content. In conclusion, existing anthropometric equations developed in able-bodied populations substantially underestimated body fat content in wheelchair athletes, particularly non-walkers. Impairment specific equations may be needed in wheelchair athletes.

  15. A descriptive study of facial acanthosis nigricans and its association with body mass index, waist circumference and insulin resistance using HOMA2 IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shyam; Vasani, Resham; Joshi, Rajiv; Phiske, Meghana; Punjabi, Pritesh; Toprani, Tushar

    2016-01-01

    The term facial acanthosis nigricans (FAN) lacks definition of precise clinical and histopathological features. We present a descriptive study of patients with FAN to define pigmentary patterns and estimate the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in these cases. It is a prospective study that included all patients with classical AN of the neck and/or other areas with facial acanthosis nigricans described as brown-to-black macular pigmentation with blurred ill-defined margins, found on the zygomatic and malar areas. The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) of the included patients were used as parameters of obesity. Homeostatic Model of Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA2 IR) was used as a parameter to evaluate insulin resistance. Histopathological features of the 6 skin biopsies that were possible were reviewed. Among the 102 included individuals, the patterns of facial pigmentation seen in addition to the classic pattern involving zygomatic and malar areas were a hyperpigmented band on the forehead in 59.80%, periorbital darkening in 17.64%, perioral darkening in 12.74%, and generalized darkening in 9.8% of cases. 85.29% of the males and 100% of the females were found to be obese. Varying degrees of insulin resistance was noted in 82.34% of the individuals. Six biopsies available for evaluation showed changes such as mild epidermal hyperplasia with prominent basal melanin, however, without the typical papillomatosis seen in AN of the flexures. We document an increased prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in patients presenting with FAN and its presentations in addition to the classical description. We propose that FAN can be considered a cutaneous marker of insulin resistance and that HOMA2 IR can serve as a parameter of insulin resistance in such cases.

  16. A descriptive study of facial acanthosis nigricans and its association with body mass index, waist circumference and insulin resistance using HOMA2 IR

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    Shyam Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The term facial acanthosis nigricans (FAN lacks definition of precise clinical and histopathological features. We present a descriptive study of patients with FAN to define pigmentary patterns and estimate the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in these cases. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective study that included all patients with classical AN of the neck and/or other areas with facial acanthosis nigricans described as brown-to-black macular pigmentation with blurred ill-defined margins, found on the zygomatic and malar areas. The body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC of the included patients were used as parameters of obesity.Homeostatic Model of Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA2 IR was used as a parameter to evaluate insulin resistance. Histopathological features of the 6 skin biopsies that were possible were reviewed. Results: Among the 102 included individuals, the patterns of facial pigmentation seen in addition to the classic pattern involving zygomatic and malar areas were a hyperpigmented band on the forehead in 59.80%, periorbital darkening in 17.64%, perioral darkening in 12.74%, and generalized darkening in 9.8% of cases. 85.29% of the males and 100% of the females were found to be obese. Varying degrees of insulin resistance was noted in 82.34% of the individuals. Six biopsies available for evaluation showed changes such as mild epidermal hyperplasia with prominent basal melanin, however, without the typical papillomatosis seen in AN of the flexures. Conclusion: We document an increased prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in patients presenting with FAN and its presentations in addition to the classical description. We propose that FAN can be considered a cutaneous marker of insulin resistance and that HOMA2 IR can serve as a parameter of insulin resistance in such cases.

  17. Combined impact of lifestyle factors on prospective change in body weight and waist circumference in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study.

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    Anne M May

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evidence that individual dietary and lifestyle factors influence a person's weight and waist circumference is well established; however their combined impact is less well documented. Therefore, we investigated the combined effect of physical activity, nutrition and smoking status on prospective gain in body weight and waist circumference. METHODS: We used data of the prospective EPIC-PANACEA study. Between 1992 and 2000, 325,537 participants (94,445 men and 231,092 women, aged between 25-70 were recruited from nine European countries. Participants were categorised into two groups (positive or negative health behaviours for each of the following being physically active, adherent to a healthy (Mediterranean not including alcohol diet, and never-smoking for a total score ranging from zero to three. Anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and were mainly self-reported after a medium follow-up time of 5 years. RESULTS: Mixed-effects linear regression models adjusted for age, educational level, alcohol consumption, baseline body mass index and follow-up time showed that men and women who reported to be physically active, never-smoking and adherent to the Mediterranean diet gained over a 5-year period 537 (95% CI -706, -368 and 200 (-478, -87 gram less weight and 0.95 (-1.27, -0.639 and 0.99 (-1.29, -0.69 cm less waist circumference, respectively, compared to participants with zero healthy behaviours. CONCLUSION: The combination of positive health behaviours was associated with significantly lower weight and waist circumference gain.

  18. Physical Environment May Modify The Association Between Depressive Symptoms And Change In Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Roux, Ana V Diez; Szklo, Moyses; Crum, Rosa M; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Franco, Manuel; Schreiner, Pamela; Carnethon, Mercedes; Nettleton, Jennifer; Mujahid, Mahasin; Michos, Erin D.; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Golden, Sherita H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although the bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and adiposity has been recognized, the contribution of neighborhood factors to this relationship has not been assessed. Objective: This study evaluates whether physical and social neighborhood environments modify the bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and adiposity (measured by waist circumference and body mass index). Methods: Using data on 5,122 men and women (ages 45 to 84 years) from the Mul...

  19. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: fixed-effects associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Berkman, Lisa F; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (β=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (β=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time.

  20. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez; Paul A. Camacho; Daniel D. Cohen; Katherine Rincón-Romero; Laura Alvarado-Jurado; Sandra Pinzón; John Duperly; Patricio López-Jaramillo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents fro...

  1. A Six-week Low-level Laser Therapy Protocol is Effective for Reducing Waist, Hip, Thigh, and Upper Abdomen Circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornfeldt, Carl R; Thaxton, Paul M; Hornfeldt, Carl S

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of low-level laser therapy for noninvasive body contouring has been previously demonstrated in clinical trials leading to its market clearance. Subjects achieved these beneficial effects following three weekly low-level laser therapy treatments for two weeks. The objective of this study was to determine if the same aesthetic benefit can be achieved following one weekly low-level laser therapy treatment for six weeks. Two private dermatology practices. Healthy adults with a body mass index of 25 to 40kg/m(2) (N=54). Subjects underwent one weekly low-level laser therapy procedure for six consecutive weeks using a device consisting of six 17mW, 635nm red diodes. Waist, hip, thigh, and upper abdomen circumference were measured weekly. Study success criteria was a 4.5-inch mean decrease in combined body circumference. The mean decrease in combined circumference reduction at six weeks was 5.4 inches (plow-level laser therapy treatment for six weeks is clinically effective for reducing waist, hip, thigh, and upper abdomen circumference and may be more effective than the previous two-week treatment protocol. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02109107.

  2. Participant characteristics associated with greater reductions in waist circumference during a four-month, pedometer-based, workplace health program

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    Freak-Poli Rosanne LA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace health programs have demonstrated improvements in a number of risk factors for chronic disease. However, there has been little investigation of participant characteristics that may be associated with change in risk factors during such programs. The aim of this paper is to identify participant characteristics associated with improved waist circumference (WC following participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health program. Methods 762 adults employed in primarily sedentary occupations and voluntarily enrolled in a four-month workplace program aimed at increasing physical activity were recruited from ten Australian worksites in 2008. Seventy-nine percent returned at the end of the health program. Data included demographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biomedical measurements. WC change (before versus after was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Seven groupings of potential associated variables from baseline were sequentially added to build progressively larger regression models. Results Greater improvement in WC during the program was associated with having completed tertiary education, consuming two or less standard alcoholic beverages in one occasion in the twelve months prior to baseline, undertaking less baseline weekend sitting time and lower baseline total cholesterol. A greater WC at baseline was strongly associated with a greater improvement in WC. A sub-analysis in participants with a 'high-risk' baseline WC revealed that younger age, enrolling for reasons other than appearance, undertaking less weekend sitting time at baseline, eating two or more pieces of fruit per day at baseline, higher baseline physical functioning and lower baseline body mass index were associated with greater odds of moving to 'low risk' WC at the end of the program. Conclusions While employees with 'high-risk' WC at baseline experienced the greatest improvements in

  3. Differences in body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: association with serum adiponectin and disease parameters

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    Shereen R Kamel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion BMI, WC, and WHR measurements should be used and encouraged in the RA population. Our findings suggested that WHR was better associated with disease activity, disability, and severity than with other measures.

  4. Effect of a high-fat Mediterranean diet on bodyweight and waist circumference: a prespecified secondary outcomes analysis of the PREDIMED randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Ramon; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fitó, Montserrat; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Fiol, Miquel; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Arós, Fernando; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Sorlí, José V; Muñoz, Miguel A; Basora-Gallisá, Josep; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Serra-Mir, Mercè; Ros, Emilio

    2016-08-01

    Because of the high density of fat, high-fat diets are perceived as likely to lead to increased bodyweight, hence health-care providers are reluctant to recommend them to overweight or obese individuals. We assessed the long-term effects of ad libitum, high-fat, high-vegetable-fat Mediterranean diets on bodyweight and waist circumference in older people at risk of cardiovascular disease, most of whom were overweight or obese. PREDIMED was a 5 year parallel-group, multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial done in primary care centres affiliated to 11 hospitals in Spain. 7447 asymptomatic men (aged 55-80 years) and women (aged 60-80 years) who had type 2 diabetes or three or more cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1:1) with a computer-generated number sequence to one of three interventions: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (n=2543); Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (n=2454); or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat; n=2450). Energy restriction was not advised, nor was physical activity promoted. In this analysis of the trial, we measured bodyweight and waist circumference at baseline and yearly for 5 years in the intention-to-treat population. The PREDIMED trial is registered with ISRCTN.com, number ISRCTN35739639. After a median 4·8 years (IQR 2·8-5·8) of follow-up, participants in all three groups had marginally reduced bodyweight and increased waist circumference. The adjusted difference in 5 year changes in bodyweight in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group was -0·43 kg (95% CI -0·86 to -0·01; p=0·044) and in the nut group was -0·08 kg (-0·50 to 0·35; p=0·730), compared with the control group. The adjusted difference in 5 year changes in waist circumference was -0·55 cm (-1·16 to -0·06; p=0·048) in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group and -0·94 cm (-1·60 to -0·27; p=0·006) in the nut group, compared with the control group. A long-term intervention with an

  5. Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Madsen, Lise; Skjøth, Flemming; Berentzen, Tina L; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Schmidt, Erik B; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Kristiansen, Karsten; Overvad, Kim

    2017-05-01

    Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited. Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate:protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated. Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort ( n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later. Associations were investigated with the use of a linear regression model. Results: For high (1.22 g/d) compared with low (0.28 g/d) total n-3 PUFA intake, the difference in 5-y weight change was 147.6 g (95% CI: -42.3, 337.5 g); P -trend = 0.088. No associations between the individual n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P -trend = 0.027. No associations between total n-3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate:protein ratio or glycemic index was found. Conclusion: Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs were neither consistently nor appreciably associated with change in body weight

  6. Depression with atypical features and increase in obesity, body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass: a prospective, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Aurélie M; Glaus, Jennifer; Vandeleur, Caroline L; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Vaucher, Julien; Bastardot, François; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Preisig, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Depression and obesity are 2 prevalent disorders that have been repeatedly shown to be associated. However, the mechanisms and temporal sequence underlying this association are poorly understood. To determine whether the subtypes of major depressive disorder (MDD; melancholic, atypical, combined, or unspecified) are predictive of adiposity in terms of the incidence of obesity and changes in body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), waist circumference, and fat mass. This prospective population-based cohort study, CoLaus (Cohorte Lausannoise)/PsyCoLaus (Psychiatric arm of the CoLaus Study), with 5.5 years of follow-up included 3054 randomly selected residents (mean age, 49.7 years; 53.1% were women) of the city of Lausanne, Switzerland (according to the civil register), aged 35 to 66 years in 2003, who accepted the physical and psychiatric baseline and physical follow-up evaluations. Depression subtypes according to the DSM-IV. Diagnostic criteria at baseline and follow-up, as well as sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle (alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity), and medication, were elicited using the semistructured Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies. Changes in body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass during the follow-up period, in percentage of the baseline value, and the incidence of obesity during the follow-up period among nonobese participants at baseline. Weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat (bioimpedance) were measured at baseline and follow-up by trained field interviewers. Only participants with the atypical subtype of MDD at baseline revealed a higher increase in adiposity during follow-up than participants without MDD. The associations between this MDD subtype and body mass index (β = 3.19; 95% CI, 1.50-4.88), incidence of obesity (odds ratio, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.24-11.35), waist circumference in both sexes (β = 2.44; 95% CI, 0.21-4.66), and fat mass in men

  7. Does cocoa/dark chocolate supplementation have favorable effect on body weight, body mass index and waist circumference? A systematic review, meta-analysis and dose-response of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kord-Varkaneh, Hamed; Ghaedi, Ehsan; Nazary-Vanani, Ali; Mohammadi, Hamed; Shab-Bidar, Sakineh

    2018-03-19

    Cocoa and dark chocolate (DC) have been reported to be effective for health promotion; however the exact effect of cocoa/DC on anthropometric measures have not been yet defined. A comprehensive search to identify randomized clinical trials investigating the impact of cocoa/DC on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) was performed up to December 2017. A meta-analysis of eligible studies was performed using random effects model to estimate pooled effect size. Fractional polynominal modeling was used to explore dose-response relationships. A total of 35 RCTs investigated the effects of cocoa/DC on weight, BMI and WC were included. Meta-analysis did not suggest any significant effect of cocoa/DC supplementation on body weight (-0.108 kg, 95% CI -0.262, 0.046 P = 0.168), BMI (-0.014 kg/m 2 95% CI -0.105, 0.077, P: 0.759,) and WC (0.025 cm 95% CI -0.083, 0.129, P = 0.640). Subgroup analysis revealed that that weight and BMI were reduced with cocoa/DC supplementation ≥ 30 g chocolate per day in trials between 4-8 weeks. Cocoa/DC consumption resulted in WC reduction in non-linear fashion (r = 0.042, P-nonlinearity = 0.008). Cocoa/DC supplementation does not reduce anthropometric measures significantly. However subgroup analysis regarding dose (≥ 30 g/day) and duration (between 4 to 8 weeks) revealed significant reduction of body weight and BMI.

  8. Accuracy of self-reported body weight, height and waist circumference in a Dutch overweight working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, J.C.; Wier, M.F. van; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, W. van

    2008-01-01

    Background. In population studies, body mass index (BMI) is generally calculated from self-reported body weight and height. The self-report of these anthropometrics is known to be biased, resulting in a misclassification of BMI status. The aim of our study is to evaluate the accuracy of

  9. Relationship of body mass index to percent body fat and waist circumference among schoolchildren in Japan - the influence of gender and obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Hirotaka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI and percent body fat (%BF or waist circumference (WC has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren. Methods Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex. Results Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese, with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique. Conclusions BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese

  10. Influência da circunferência abdominal sobre o desempenho funcional de idosas Infuence of waist circumference on elderly women's functional performance

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    Luciana Campanha-Versiani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o desempenho funcional de idosas segundo a medida de suas circunfêrencias abdominais (CA. Foram avaliadas 48 idosas, divididas nos grupos 1, com CA>88 cm, e grupo 2, de CAThe purpose of this study was to compare physical performance of elderly women according to their waist circumference (WC. Forty-eight elderly women were divided into group 1, with WC>88 cm, and group 2, with WC<88 cm. Physical function was assessed by means of the six-minute walk test (6MWT and by the modified physical performance test (MPPT, non-dependent on physical fitness. Group 1 mean body mass and body mass index measures were statistically higher (p<0.05 than group 2's; group 1 also walked significantly shorter mean distances than group 2 (p<0.05, and scored lower at the MPPT (p<0.05. Data thus show that elderly women with over 88 cm waist circumference had poor performance at physical function tests, suggesting that the presence of visceral obesity may contribute to functional decline and further impairment among elderly women.

  11. Associations between health-related quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, physical activity and waist circumference in 10-year-old children: the ASK study.

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    Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Aadland, Eivind; Moe, Vegard Fusche; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Resaland, Geir Kåre

    2017-12-01

    To examine the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, physical activity and waist circumference with self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis that included 1129 school children aged 10 years from 57 schools in Sogn and Fjordane County, Norway. The HRQoL outcome was assessed by the self-reported KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire, which covers five life domains. Independent variables were cardiorespiratory fitness assessed by the Andersen intermittent field running test, handgrip strength measured by a hand dynamometer, explosive strength in the lower body using a standing broad jump test, physical activity (counts per minute) using an accelerometer and abdominal adiposity measured by waist circumference. Statistical analyses were performed using linear mixed-effect models including school site as a random effect. Age and sex were entered as covariates. Only cardiorespiratory fitness was positively associated with higher scores on all five KIDSCREEN-27 domains (P fitness might be especially useful for improving HRQoL in children.

  12. Increase in waist circumference over 6 years predicts subsequent cardiovascular disease and total mortality in nordic women

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    Klingberg, Sofia; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lanfer, Anne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite solid evidence of an association between centralized body fatness and subsequent disease risk, little is known about the consequences of changes in body fat distribution. Recently it was shown that large hip circumference (HC), measured once, was protective against total and ca...

  13. Índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal: associação com fatores de risco cardiovascular Body mass index and waist circumference: association with cardiovascular risk factors

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    Fabiane Aparecida Canaan Rezende

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a associação entre índice de massa corporal (IMC e circunferência abdominal (CA com fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se 231 servidores da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, sendo 54,1% do sexo masculino (21-76 anos. Analisou-se glicemia de jejum, colesterol total e frações, triglicérides, pressão arterial, IMC, CA, relação cintura-quadril e percentual de gordura corporal. Informações sobre tabagismo, ingestão de bebidas alcoólicas e atividade física também foram obtidas. RESULTADOS: As freqüências de sobrepeso/obesidade foram bastante elevadas, principalmente em mulheres. A obesidade abdominal foi observada em 74% das mulheres e 46,1% dos homens. Os homens apresentaram valores médios e medianos de colesterol total, HDL, triglicérides, IMC e percentual de gordura corporal maiores do que as mulheres (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between cardiovascular risk factors and the anthropometric values - body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC. METHODS: It was studied 231 employees of Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil, 54,1% of them were men (21-76 years old. Glycemia, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, blood pressure, BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio and body fatness were measured. It was also investigated smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight/obesity in this population was high mainly in women. The abdominal obesity was observed in 74% of the women and 46,1% of the men. The average of BMI, body fatness, total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides were significantly higher in men than in women. (p < 0,05. The sedentary lifestyle was a risk factor for obesity. Smoking and alcohol consumption were more common among men and normal weight volunteers. Most of the correlations between anthropometric indices and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were significant, but weak and the WC was the index that had

  14. Physical activity, diet and gene-environment interactions in relation to body mass index and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnehed, Nina; Tynelius, Per; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    dizygotic young adult male twin pairs. Increased knowledge about interactions between genes and environment may provide insight into why some individuals are more prone to obesity than others. DESIGN: Information about PA, BMI, dietary habits, WC and potential confounders was collected by questionnaire...

  15. Relação do índice de massa corporal, da relação cintura-quadril e da circunferência abdominal com a mortalidade em mulheres idosas: seguimento de 5 anos Relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio and mortality in elderly women: a 5-year follow-up study

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    Marcos A. S. Cabrera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a associação entre a relação cintura-quadril (RCQ, a circunferência abdominal (CA e o índice de massa corporal (IMC com a mortalidade total e cardiovascular em 575 mulheres idosas ambulatoriais por um seguimento de cinco anos. Os maiores quartis de RCQ, CA e IMC, bem como as categorias pré-determinadas de IMC, foram analisados como variáveis preditivas e analisada a interferência de algumas variáveis confundidoras. Oitenta e oito mulheres morreram durante o seguimento (15,4%. As mulheres com baixo peso (IMC 0,97 estava associado com a maior mortalidade total, entretanto, na análise multivariada o aumento de RCQ apresentou uma associação independente com a mortalidade total, apenas entre as mulheres de 60 a 80 anos. Nenhuma medida antropométrica apresentou uma associação significativa com a mortalidade cardiovascular. Os resultados identificaram o baixo peso e a RCQ como preditores de mortalidade total em idosas, principalmente entre as mulheres com até 80 anos.This study examines the association between body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and waist circumference (WC and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in elderly women in a 5-year longitudinal study of 575 female outpatients 60 years and over. The highest BMI, WHR, and WC quartiles and predefined BMI categories were analyzed as predictive variables. Death occurred in 88 (15.4%. Underweight (BMI 0.97 was associated with all-cause mortality. However, after adjustment for age, smoking, and previous cardiovascular diseases, the increase in WHR was positively associated only in women from 60 to 80 years of age. None of the anthropometric measurements was associated with cardiovascular mortality. The results indicate that underweight and increased waist-to-hip ratio were predictors of all-cause mortality in elderly women, mainly among those under 80 years.

  16. Nutritional quality of meals and snacks assessed by the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system in relation to overall diet quality, body mass index, and waist circumference in British adults.

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    Murakami, Kentaro

    2017-09-13

    Studies examining meal and snack eating behaviors in relation to overall diet and health markers are limited, at least partly because there is no definitive consensus about what constitutes a snack, a meal, or an eating occasion. This cross-sectional study examined how nutritional quality of meals and snacks is associated with overall diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. Based on 7-d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 0600-1000, 1200-1500, and 1800-2100 h; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (EI) (meals: ≥15%; snacks: meals and snacks was assessed as the arithmetic EI-weighted means of the British Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system score of each food and beverage consumed, based on the contents of energy, saturated fatty acid, total sugar, sodium, fruits/vegetables/nuts, dietary fiber, and protein per 100 g. Irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks, higher FSA scores (lower nutritional quality) of both meals and snacks were associated with unfavorable profiles of individual components of overall diet, including lower intakes of fruits/vegetables/nuts and higher intakes of biscuits/cakes/pastries, total fat, and saturated fatty acid. The FSA scores of meals and snacks were also inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the healthy diet indicator (regression coefficient (β) = -0.22 to -0.17 and -0.06 to -0.03, respectively) and Mediterranean diet score (β = -0.25 to -0.19 and -0.08 to -0.05, respectively) in both sexes (P ≤ 0.005). However, the associations were stronger for meals, mainly due to their larger contribution to total EI (64% to 84%). After adjustment for potential confounders, only the FSA score of snacks based on EI contribution was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference in women (P ≤ 0.005). Although lower nutritional quality of both meals and snacks assessed by the

  17. MRI sagittal abdominal diameter is a stronger predictor of metabolic syndrome than visceral fat area or waist circumference in a high-risk vascular cohort

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    Michel R Hoenig

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Michel R HoenigUniversity of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaObjective: To determine whether sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD is associated with the metabolic syndrome independently of visceral fat area (VFA and waist circumference (WC.Methods: Forty-three high-risk vascular patients were evaluated for metabolic syndrome criteria and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to quantify SAD and VFA at the L4–L5 disc.Comparisons: 1. Baseline differences in patients with and without the metabolic syndrome 2. Forward binary logistic regression analysis of predictors of the metabolic syndrome with SAD, VFA and WC as independents 3. Correlates of SAD.Results: Patients with metabolic syndrome had greater SAD, VFA and WC than patients without the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.01. Of SAD, VFA and WC, only SAD was associated with metabolic syndrome on forward binary logistic regression; beta 0.68, Wald’s statistic 10.8 (P = 0.001 and c-statistic 0.89 (P < 0.001. A > 22.7 cm SAD threshold identified metabolic syndrome with a 91% sensitivity and 80% specificity. SAD correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.918, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = –0.363, triglyceride (r = 0.401, fasting glucose (r = 0.428 and the QUICK index of insulin sensitivity (r = –0.667 (all P < 0.05.Conclusions: MRI-measured SAD is associated with the metabolic syndrome and renders the current gold standard of VFA redundant. This measure of obesity-related cardiovascular risk requires validation and evaluation in a prospective cohort.Keywords: obesity, insulin resistance

  18. A relação cintura quadril e o perímetro da cintura associados ao índice de massa corporal em estudo com escolares Waist-hip ratio and waist circumference associated with body mass index in a study with schoolchildren

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    Claudia Soar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os valores percentis de índice de massa corporal (IMC, relação cintura quadril (RCQ e perímetro da cintura (PC e verificar as possíveis correlações existentes entre esses índices em escolares matriculados no Instituto Estadual de Educação, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Foram investigadas 419 crianças entre sete e nove anos de idade, sendo 215 (51,3% do sexo masculino e 204 (48,7% do sexo feminino. O sexo masculino apresentou maiores valores de IMC, RCQ e PC em relação ao sexo feminino; entretanto, com diferença estatística somente para RCQ e PC. Encontrou-se prevalência de 17,9% de sobrepeso e 6,7% de obesidade. Os índices antropométricos que apresentam maior correlação foram o IMC e o PC (r = 0,87 e p The objectives of this study were to determine the percentile levels of the anthropometric indices body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and waist circumference (WC and to verify possible correlations among theses indices in schoolchildren registered at the State Institute of Education, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. A total of 419 children ages 7 to 9 years were investigated: 215 (51.3% boys and 204 (48.7% girls. BMI, WHR, and WC were higher for boys than for girls. However, the differences were only statistically significant for WHR and WC. Prevalence rates were 17.9% for overweight and 6.7% for obesity. The anthropometric indices with the highest correlation were BMI and WC (r = 0.87 and p < 0.01. For overweight, BMI and WC also presented the strongest correlation (r = 0.74. For obesity, WHR and WC showed the best correlation (r = 0.54.

  19. Measurement of waist and hip circumference with a body surface scanner: feasibility, validity, reliability, and correlations with markers of the metabolic syndrome.

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    Lina Jaeschke

    Full Text Available Body surface scanners (BS, which visualize a 3D image of the human body, facilitate the computation of numerous body measures, including height, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference (HC. However, limited information is available regarding validity and reliability of these automated measurements (AM and their correlation with parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS compared to traditional manual measurements (MM.As part of a cross-sectional feasibility study, AM of WC, HC and height were assessed twice in 60 participants using a 3D BS (VitussmartXXL. Additionally, MM were taken by trained personnel according to WHO guidelines. Participants underwent an interview, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and blood pressure measurement. Blood samples were taken to determine HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Validity was assessed based on the agreement between AM and MM, using Bland-Altman-plots, correlation analysis, and paired t-tests. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC based on two repeated AM. Further, we calculated age-adjusted Pearson correlation for AM and MM with fat mass, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid.Body measures were higher in AM compared to MM but both measurements were strongly correlated (WC, men, difference = 1.5 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 4.7 cm, r = 0.96; HC, men, d = 2.3 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 3.0 cm; r = 0.98. Reliability was high for all AM (nearly all ICC>0.98. Correlations of WC, HC, and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR with parameters of MetS were similar between AM and MM; for example the correlation of WC assessed by AM with HDL-cholesterol was r = 0.35 in men, and r = -0.48 in women, respectively whereas correlation of WC measured manually with HDL cholesterol was r = -0.41 in men, and r = -0.49 in women, respectively.Although AM of WC, HC, and WHR are higher when compared to MM based on WHO guidelines, our data

  20. Waist circumference measures: cutoff analyses to detect obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in a Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men population--a cross-sectional study.

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    de Oliveira, Alessandro; Cocate, Paula G; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Bressan, Josefina; de Silva, Mateus Freitas; Rodrigues, Joel Alves; Natali, Antônio José

    2014-09-01

    Low-cost practical and reliable tools to evaluated obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases are of clinical practice and public heath relevance worldwide. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the anatomical point of waist circumference that best identify overweight, obesity and central obesity in Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men and to test the relationships of its cutoff points with metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin resistance (IR) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Three hundred men [age: 51 (47-54)] underwent anthropometric, body composition, clinical, sociodemographic and blood plasma biochemical evaluations. The umbilical line circumference (WCUL) was the best predictor for overweight (total body fat ≥ 20%; cutoff point: 88.8 cm), obesity (total body fat ≥ 25%; cutoff point: 93.4 cm) and central obesity (abdominal area fat ≥ 34.6%; cutoff point: 95.6 cm) as measured by dual beam X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects with WCUL ≥ 88.8 cm or ≥ 93.4 cm showed significantly higher values for MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors (i.e. glucose and lipid profiles, blood pressure). The occurrence of WCUL ≥ 88.8 cm was positively associated (p obesity prevalence by 19.3% while that of WCUL ≥ 93.4 cm was associated with the prevalence of MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors. WCUL measure seems to be the best predictor for overweight, obesity and central obesity in urban residents Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men; and the WCUL cutoff point (88.8 cm) is significantly associated with MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors in the studied population.

  1. Associations of Alcoholic Beverage Consumption with Dietary Intake, Waist Circumference, and Body Mass Index in US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lauren; Popkin, Barry M; Poti, Jennifer M

    2018-03-01

    Findings from studies of alcohol and obesity measures (eg, waist circumference [WC] and body mass index [BMI; calculated as kg/m 2 ]) are conflicting. Residual confounding by dietary intake, inconsistent definitions of alcohol consumption across studies, and the inclusion of former drinkers in the nondrinking comparison group can contribute to the mixed literature. This study examines associations of alcoholic beverage consumption with dietary intake, WC, and BMI. Cross-sectional data from the 2003-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Adults 20 to 79 years of age (n=7,436 men; n=6,939 women) were studied. Associations of alcoholic beverage consumption with energy (kcal), macronutrient and sugar intakes (% kcal), WC, and BMI were determined. Multivariable linear regression models were used to determine associations of average daily volume and drinking quantity (ie, drinks per drinking day) with dietary intake and obesity measures. Former and never drinkers were analyzed as distinct categories; associations of drinking with WC and BMI were examined with and without adjustment for dietary intake variables. Heavier-drinking men (≥3 drinks/day) and women (≥2 drinks/day) consumed less nonalcoholic energy (β -252 kcal/day, 95% CI -346 to -159 kcal/day and β -159 kcal/day, 95% CI -245 to -73 kcal/day, respectively) than moderate drinkers (1 to 2 drinks/day in men and 1 drink/day in women). By average daily drinking volume, differences in WC and BMI between former and moderate drinkers were +1.78 cm (95% CI 0.51 to 3.05 cm) and +0.65 (95% CI 0.12 to 1.18) in men and +4.67 cm (95% CI 2.95 to 6.39 cm) and +2.49 (95% CI 1.64 to 3.34) in women. Compared with moderate drinking, heavier drinking volume was not associated with WC or BMI among men or women. In men, drinking ≥5 drinks/drinking day was associated with higher WC (β 3.48 cm, 95% CI 1.97 to 5.00 cm) and BMI (β 1.39, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.00) compared with men who consumed 1

  2. Potential for waist-to-height ratio to detect overfat adolescents from a Pacific Island, even those within the normal BMI range.

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    Frayon, Stéphane; Cavaloc, Yolande; Wattelez, Guillaume; Cherrier, Sophie; Lerrant, Yannick; Ashwell, Margaret; Galy, Olivier

    2017-12-15

    Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is a simple anthropometric proxy for central body fat; it is easy to use from a health education perspective. A WHtR value >0.5 has been proposed as a first level indicator of health risk. The first aim of this study was to compare WHtR with values based on body mass index (BMI) in their prediction of the percentage of body fat (%BF) in a multi-ethnic population of adolescents from New-Caledonia (age 11-16year). Secondly, to see whether WHtR >0.5 could be used to detect overfat subjects whose BMI was in the normal range. Body fat percentage (%BF, based on skinfold measurements), BMI and WHtR were calculated for New Caledonian adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds. The relationship between %BF, BMI and WHtR was determined using quadratic models and from linear regression equations. The sensitivity and specificity of WHtR for detecting overfat adolescents (%BF >25% in boys and >30% in girls) were assessed and compared with those from the BMI-based classification. WHtR showed better correlation with %BF than BMI-based measurements. WHtR >0.5 was also more accurate than BMI in detecting overfat adolescents. Moreover, using this boundary value, 8% of adolescents in the normal BMI range were shown to be over-fat. WHtR is a good anthropometric proxy to detect overfat adolescents. Detecting overfat adolescents within the normal BMI range is particularly important for preventing non communicable diseases. We therefore recommend using WHtR for health education programs in the Pacific area and more generally. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. C-reactive protein, waist circumference, and family history of heart attack are independent predictors of body iron stores in apparently healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Arbeláez, A; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C

    2012-08-01

    Ferritin levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of ferritin levels by variables related to cardiometabolic disease risk in a multivariate analysis. For this aim, 123 healthy women (72 premenopausal and 51 posmenopausal) were recruited. Data were collected through procedures of anthropometric measurements, questionnaires for personal/familial antecedents, and dietary intake (24-h recall), and biochemical determinations (ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP), glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) in blood serum samples obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis was used and variables with no normal distribution were log-transformed for this analysis. In premenopausal women, a model to explain log-ferritin levels was found with log-CRP levels, heart attack familial history, and waist circumference as independent predictors. Ferritin behaves as other cardiovascular markers in terms of prediction of its levels by documented predictors of cardiometabolic disease and related disorders. This is the first report of a relationship between heart attack familial history and ferritin levels. Further research is required to evaluate the mechanism to explain the relationship of central body fat and heart attack familial history with body iron stores values.

  4. Association of reduction in waist circumference with normalization of mood in obese women initiating exercise supported by the Coach Approach protocol.

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    Annesi, James J; Gorjala, Srinivasa

    2010-06-01

    Interrelations of exercise, mood, and weight reduction are unclear in the behavioral treatment of obesity. Obese women volunteers with high tension (anxiety) (T), depression (D), or total mood disturbance (TMD) scores, who were previously randomized into conditions of (1) exercise supported by The Coach Approach: a protocol based on social cognitive and self-efficacy theory (CA; n = 53, 66, and 60, respectively), (2) personal demonstration and follow up of exercise methods (EX; n = 27, 27, and 21, respectively), and (3) exercise suggested through written information only (INFO; n = 24, 28, and 20, respectively), were subjects. Identical nutrition information was provided to all subjects in a small group format. Minutes of exercise over the 6-month study were greatest in the CA condition, with minutes in the EX condition greater than the INFO condition. T, D, and TMD scores were reduced to normal levels mostly in the CA condition, with the EX condition having significantly more normalized D scores than the INFO. Across conditions, normalized mood scores generally predicted a greater reduction in waist circumference, with CA associated with additional benefits when D scores were considered. Properly accounting for exercise-induced mood change may be important in the behavioral treatment of obesity.

  5. Associations between depression and different measures of obesity (BMI, WC, WHtR, WHR)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiltink, J?rg; Michal, Matthias; Wild, Philipp S; Zwiener, Isabella; Blettner, Maria; M?nzel, Thomas; Schulz, Andreas; Kirschner, Yvonne; Beutel, Manfred E

    2013-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests that abdominal obesity is a more important risk factor for the prognosis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than BMI. Somatic-affective symptoms of depression have also been linked to cardiovascular risk. The relationship between obesity and depression, however, has remained contradictory. Our aim was therefore to relate body mass index (BMI) and different measures for abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC, waist-to-hip ratio, WHR, waist-to-heig...

  6. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

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    EL Mabchour A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asma EL Mabchour,1 Hélène Delisle,1 Colette Vilgrain,2 Philippe Larco,2 Roger Sodjinou,3 Malek Batal1 1Transition Nutritionnelle (TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Haitian Foundation for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (FHADIMAC, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; 3West Africa Health Organization (WAHO, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Purpose: Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR in groups of African (Benin and African ancestry (Haiti Black subjects. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin and Port-au-Prince (Haiti, 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4 in women and ≥5 in men; insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR; and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, Youden's index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs. Results: High atherogenicity index (59.5%, high blood pressure (23.2%, and insulin resistance (25% by definition were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly

  7. A comparative research on obesity hypertension by the comparisons and associations between waist circumference, body mass index with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the clinical laboratory data between four special Chinese adult groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ou; Leng, Jian-Hang; Yang, Fen-Fang; Yang, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Hu; Li, Zeng-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Yu; Yuan, Cheng-Da; Li, Jia-Jia; Pan, Qi; Liu, Wei; Ren, Yan-Jun; Liu, Bing; Liu, Qing-Min; Cao, Cheng-Jian

    2018-01-01

    The obesity-hypertension pathogenesis is complex. From the phenotype to molecular mechanism, there is a long way to clarify the mechanism. To explore the association between obesity and hypertension, we correlate the phenotypes such as the waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SB), and diastolic blood pressure (DB) with the clinical laboratory data between four specific Chinese adult physical examination groups (newly diagnosed untreated just-obesity group, newly diagnosed untreated obesity-hypertension group, newly diagnosed untreated just-hypertension group, and normal healthy group), and the results may show something. To explore the mechanisms from obesity to hypertension by analyzing the correlations and differences between WC, BMI, SB, DB, and other clinical laboratory data indices in four specific Chinese adult physical examination groups. This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2012 to July 2014, and 153 adult subjects, 34 women and 119 men, from 21 to 69 years, were taken from four characteristic Chinese adult physical examination groups (newly diagnosed untreated just-obesity group, newly diagnosed untreated obesity-hypertension group, newly diagnosed untreated just-hypertension group, and normal healthy group). The study was approved by the ethics committee of Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. WC, BMI, SB, DB, and other clinical laboratory data were collected and analyzed by SPSS. Serum levels of albumin (ALB),alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid (Ua), and TC/HDLC (odds ratio) were statistically significantly different between the four groups. WC statistically significantly positively correlated with BMI, ALT, Ua, and serum levels of glucose (GLU), and TC/HDLC, and negatively with ALB, HDLC, and serum levels of conjugated bilirubin (CB). BMI

  8. Usefulness of the Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio in Screening for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Children and Adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010-2014.

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    Choi, Dong-Hyun; Hur, Yang-Im; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Kyoungwoo; Cho, Young Gyu; Hong, Soo-Min; Cho, Eun Byul

    2017-03-10

    The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10-19 years who were included in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2012) up to the second year of the sixth KNHANES (2013-2014). Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the optimal cutoff value and accuracy of WHtR for predicting individual obesity indicators or more than two non-WC components of MS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of the diagnostic power of a test. A perfect test will have an AUC of 1.0, and an AUC equal to 0.5 means that the test performs no better than chance. The optimal WHtR cutoff for the evaluation of general obesity and central obesity was 0.50 in boys and 0.47-0.48 in girls, and the AUC was 0.9. Regarding the assessment of each MS risk factor, the optimal WHtR cutoff was 0.43-0.50 in boys and 0.43-0.49 in girls, and these cutoffs were statistically significant only for the detection of high triglyceride and low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When a pairwise comparison of the AUCs was conducted between WHtR and BMI/WC percentiles to quantify the differences in power for MS screening, the WHtR AUC values (boys, 0.691; girls, 0.684) were higher than those of other indices; however, these differences were not statistically significant (boys, p = 0.467; girls, p = 0.51). The WHtR cutoff value was 0.44 (sensitivity, 67.7%; specificity, 64.6%) for boys and 0.43 (sensitivity, 66.4%; specificity, 66.9%) for girls. There was no significant difference between

  9. Importância relativa do Índice de Massa Corporal e da circunferência abdominal na predição da hipertensão arterial Relative importance of body mass index and waist circumference for hypertension in adults

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    Flávio Sarno

    2007-10-01

    importance of Body Mass Index (BMI and waist circumference for the determination of hypertension in adults. METHODS: Cross sectional analysis of a sample of employees (N=1,584, aged 18 to 64 years, from a private general hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data collection included the application of a structured questionnaire and blood pressure, weight, high, and waist circumference measurements. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure levels > 140/90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication. The relative importance of BMI and waist circumference was evaluated by calculating the attributable fraction of hypertension corresponding to each anthropometric indicator, employing both the usual cut-off points as well as cut-off points based on the observed distribution of the indicator in the population. In addition, an indicator combining simultaneously BMI and abdominal circumference values was also developed. RESULTS: Prevalence of hypertension was 18.9% (26.9% in men and 12.5% in women. In men, the fraction of hypertension attributable to BMI exceeded the fraction attributable to waist circumference based on the usual cut-off points for the indicators (56% vs. 48%, respectively and also considering the quartiles of the observed distribution for these indicators (73% vs. 69%, respectively. In women, the fraction of hypertension attributable to waist circumference was slightly higher than the fraction attributable to BMI based on the usual cut off points for both indicators (44% vs. 41%, but the reverse was true when quartiles of the observed distribution were used (41% vs. 57%, respectively. In women only, the fraction of hypertension attributable to the indicator combining BMI and waist circumference (64% was higher that observed using each indicator alone. CONCLUSIONS: Both BMI and abdominal circumference were positively and independently associated with the occurrence of arterial hypertension, the influence of BMI being higher among men.

  10. Curvas de crecimiento de la circunferencia de la cintura en niños y adolescentes habaneros Growth curves of waist circumference in Havana children and adolescents

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    Mercedes Esquivel Lauzurique

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. En los últimos decenios, el sobrepeso y la obesidad han aumentado en los niños y adolescentes cubanos, por lo que son necesarios instrumentos sencillos que permitan analizar en la práctica asistencial las características y evolución de la obesidad. Por esta razón, se decidió desarrollar curvas de crecimiento de la circunferencia de la cintura en niños y adolescentes habaneros, dimensión que muestra una alta correlación con la masa grasa intraabdominal y, por ende, con un perfil lipídico aterogénico. MÉTODOS. Se estimaron valores de percentiles de esta circunferencia según grupos de edad y sexo, utilizando el método de transformación de potencia de tipo Box-Cox (BCPE, en 4 360 niños y adolescentes entre 7,5 y 19,0 años, que integraron las muestras de los estudios transversales de crecimiento y desarrollo efectuados en La Habana durante los años 1998 y 2005. RESULTADOS. La circunferencia de la cintura aumentó de forma significativa con la edad en uno y otro sexo. Los niños mostraron cifras superiores a las de las niñas y los valores que se obtuvieron tienden a ser inferiores a los reportados en otros estudios. CONCLUSIONES. Estas curvas podrían usarse provisionalmente con propósitos clínicos y epidemiológicos hasta que se disponga de referencias de carácter nacional para la identificación de niños escolares y adolescentes con riesgo de desarrollar trastornos relacionados con la adiposidad visceral.INTRODUCTION. In past decades, the excess weight and obesity have increased in Cuban children and adolescents, thus, are necessaries simple tools allowing analyzing in health practice the characteristics and evolution of obesity. By this reason, we decide to develop growth curves of waist circumference in Havanan children and adolescents, a dimension showing a high correlation with the intra-abdominal fatty mass and consequently, with an atherogenic lipid profile. METHODS. Authors estimated the percentile

  11. Waist circumference cut-off values to predict the incidence of hypertension: an estimation from a Brazilian population-based cohort.

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    Gus, M; Cichelero, F Tremea; Moreira, C Medaglia; Escobar, G Fortes; Moreira, L Beltrami; Wiehe, M; Fuchs, S Costa; Fuchs, F Danni

    2009-01-01

    Central obesity is a key component in the definition of the metabolic syndrome, but the cut-off values proposed to define abnormal values vary among different guidelines and are mostly based on cross-sectional studies. In this study, we identify the best cut-off values for waist circumference (WC) associated with the incidence of hypertension. Participants for this prospectively planned cohort study were 589 individuals who were free of hypertension and selected at random from the community of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Hypertension was defined by a blood pressure measurement >or= 140/90 mmHg or the use of blood pressure lowering drugs. A logistic regression model established the association between WC and the incidence of hypertension. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to select the best WC cut-off point to predict the incidence of hypertension. During a mean follow-up of 5.5+/-0.9 years, 127 subjects developed hypertension. The hazard ratios for the development of hypertension, adjusted for age, baseline systolic blood pressure, alcohol consumption, gender and scholarship were 1.02 (95% CI; 1.00-1.04; P=0.02) for WC. The best cut-off WC values to predict hypertension were 87 cm in men and 80 cm in women, with an area under the curve of 0.56 (95% CI; 0.47-0.64; P=0.17) and 0.70 (95% CI; 0.63-0.77; Phypertension in individuals living in communities in Brazil, and this risk begins at lower values of WC that those recommended by some guidelines.

  12. Association of Waist Circumference Gain and Incident Prediabetes Defined by Fasting Glucose: A Seven-Year Longitudinal Study in Beijing, China

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    Li-Xin Tao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The risk of incident prediabetes with gain in waist circumference (WC has not been addressed among Chinese adults. A total of 7951 participants who underwent health check-ups at the Beijing Physical Examination Center and Beijing Xiaotangshan hospital were recruited in 2009 and followed up in 2016. Participants were classified into four groups according to categories of percent WC gain: ≤−2.5%, −2.5–2.5%, 2.5–5%, and >5%. The effect of WC gain on prediabetes was evaluated using modified Poisson regression models. Over seven years of follow-up, we identified 1034 prediabetes cases (413 women. Compared with a WC gain of ≤−2.5%, participants with a WC gain of >5% have a higher risk of prediabetes, be they male (non-abdominal obesity at baseline group: RR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.10–2.24, abdominal obesity at baseline group: RR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.20–2.30 or female (non-abdominal obesity at baseline group: RR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.14–2.64, abdominal obesity at baseline group: RR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.43–4.28. In conclusion, the risk of prediabetes increased significantly with increasing WC for both genders in the Chinese population. Lifestyle interventions aiming at preventing abdominal obesity are urgently needed to reduce the increasing burden of prediabetes, diabetes, and its complications.

  13. Changes in abdominal fat following antiretroviral therapy initiation in HIV-infected individuals correlate with waist circumference and self-reported changes.

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    Bhagwat, Priya; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; McComsey, Grace A; Brown, Todd T; Moser, Carlee; Sugar, Catherine A; Currier, Judith S

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether waist circumference (WC) and self-reported abdominal size changes can estimate visceral adipose tissue (VAT) changes for those initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prospectively collected data from ACTG A5257 and its metabolic substudy, A5260s, were used for this analysis. ART-naive HIV-infected participants were randomized to one of three contemporary ART regimens. Changes in abdominal CT-measured VAT and total adipose tissue (TAT) and DXA-measured trunk fat were tested for association with WC changes (by Pearson correlation) and categories of self-reported abdominal size changes (by ANOVA) between entry and week 96. Linear models compared WC and self-reported changes. The study population (n=328) was predominantly male (90%) and White non-Hispanic (44%) with a baseline median age of 36 years and body mass index of 25 kg/m 2 . At week 96, median WC change was +2.8 cm. Of those reporting at week 96, 53% indicated 'no change/lost', 39% 'gained some/somewhat larger' and 8% 'gained a lot/much larger' as their self-reported changes. Trunk fat, VAT and TAT changes differed across self-reported groups (ANOVA P<0.0001 for all), and the group ordering was as expected. WC changes were strongly correlated with CT and DXA changes (trunk fat: ρ=0.72, p<0.0001; VAT: ρ=0.52, p<0.0001; TAT: ρ=0.62, p<0.0001). While WC changes explained a greater proportion of VAT, TAT and trunk fat variation, self-reported changes remained a significant predictor after controlling for WC (p<0.05). WC and self-reported abdominal changes each correlated directly with imaging-derived abdominal fat measures, and can be used as reliable, affordable tools for central adiposity assessment.

  14. Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and long-term changes in body weight and waist circumference: results from a large cohort study.

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    Li, Yingjun; Roswall, Nina; Ström, Peter; Sandin, Sven; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-12-28

    Dietary patterns, which represent a broader picture of food and nutrient consumption, have gained increasing interest over the last decades. In a cohort design, we followed 27 544 women aged 29-49 years from baseline in 1991-1992. We collected data from an FFQ at baseline and body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) data both at baseline and at follow-up in 2003. We calculated the Mediterranean diet score (MDS, ranging from 0 to 9) and the Nordic diet score (NDS, ranging from 0 to 6). We used linear regression to examine the association between MDS and NDS (exposures) with subsequent BW change (ΔBW) and WC change (ΔWC) (outcomes) both continuously and categorically. Higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with ΔBW. The multivariable population average increment in BW was 0·03 kg (95 % CI -0·03, 0·09) per 1-point increase in MDS and 0·04 kg (95 % CI -0·02, 0·10) per 1-point increase in NDS. In addition, higher adherence to the MDS was not associated with ΔWC, with the multivariable population average increment per 1-point increase in MDS being 0·05 cm (95 % CI -0·03, 0·13). Higher adherence to the NDS was not significantly associated with gain in WC when adjusted for concurrent ΔBW. In conclusion, a higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with changes in average BW or WC in the present cohort followed for 12 years.

  15. The utility of dual bioelectrical impedance analysis in detecting intra-abdominal fat area in obese patients during weight reduction therapy in comparison with waist circumference and abdominal CT.

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    Yamakage, Hajime; Ito, Ryo; Tochiya, Mayu; Muranaka, Kazuya; Tanaka, Masashi; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Odori, Shinji; Kono, Shigeo; Shimatsu, Akira; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    An increase in intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) is an essential component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Waist circumference (WC) is not a precise measure of IAFA, and computed tomography (CT) is unsuitable for frequent monitoring. Here, we examined utility of a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis (Dual BIA) for measuring IAFA in obese patients during weight reduction. Fat distribution was measured by Dual BIA and CT in 100 obese outpatients. All fat areas including total, IAFA, and subcutaneous fat by Dual BIA were more closely correlated with those by CT than WC. Estimated IAFA by Dual BIA was significantly correlated with number of MetS components as well as CT, but WC was not. Furthermore, in 61 obese patients who received 6-month weight reduction therapy, estimated IAFA by Dual BIA showed an earlier and greater decrease as well as that by CT than WC and BMI. In addition, decrease in estimated IAFA by Dual BIA through weight reduction had a higher correlation with decrease in IAFA by CT, than WC. This study is the first to demonstrate that the change in estimated IAFA by Dual BIA was highly correlated with that in IAFA by CT during weight reduction therapy. Our findings also indicate that estimated IAFA by Dual BIA is, potentially, a better indicator of severity of MetS, cardiovascular risk factors, and effectiveness of weight reduction than WC, and equal to IAFA by CT. Estimated IAFA by Dual BIA may be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of weight reduction therapy in obese patients.

  16. Circunferência da cintura e índice de massa corporal como preditores da hipertensão arterial Waist circumference and body mass index as predictors of hypertension

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    Maria do Rosário Gondim Peixoto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre índices antropométricos, índice de massa corporal (IMC e circunferência da cintura (CC e hipertensão arterial (HA e avaliar a capacidade desses índices na predição da HA. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal populacional realizado em Goiânia (GO, em 2001, com amostra de 1.238 adultos, de vinte a 64 anos. Foi definida como obesidade total (IMC > 30 kg/m², como obesidade abdominal (CC no nível 2 - CC > 88 cm para mulheres e > 102 cm para homens e como HA (pressão sistólica > 140 mmHg ou pressão diastólica > 90 mmHg, ou uso de hipotensores. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla para avaliar as associações entre os índices antropométricos e a HA. Análise de curva ROC para avaliar a sensibilidade e especificidade do IMC (> 30 e nível 2 da CC na predição da HA e para determinar os pontos de corte com melhor predição da HA. RESULTADOS: A CC apresentou associação com a HA em ambos os sexos. O nível 2 da CC e o IMC >30 kg/m² apresentaram baixa sensibilidade em identificar a HA. Os pontos de corte com melhor capacidade preditiva de HA coincidiram com o nível 1 da CC (> 80 cm e com o IMC >25 kg/m² (sobrepeso, para as mulheres, e foram inferiores aos valores do nível 1 da CC e de sobrepeso, para os homens. CONCLUSÃO: O nível 2 da CC e o IMC > 30 kg/m² não são adequados para identificar os grupos de maior risco de HA, já que esse risco se eleva com pequenos aumentos na adiposidade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between anthropometric indexes - body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC - and hypertension, and to evaluate the predictive value of these indexes in detecting hypertension. METHODS: Cross-sectional population study conducted in the city of Goiânia (GO with a sample of 1,238 adults aged twenty to 64 years, in 2001. Total obesity was defined as BMI > 30 kg/m²; abdominal obesity was defined as level 2 WC > 88 cm for women and > 102 cm for men, and

  17. Daily Physical Activity Assessed by a Triaxial Accelerometer Is Beneficially Associated with Waist Circumference, Serum Triglycerides, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Patients with Prediabetes or Untreated Early Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Mishima, Shuichi; Kakei, Masafumi; Ezaki, Osamu; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the association between daily physical activity and metabolic risk factors in Japanese adults with prediabetes or untreated early type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. Daily physical activity level was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. We assessed correlations between physical activity level and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting levels of plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results. A t...

  18. Daily Physical Activity Assessed by a Triaxial Accelerometer Is Beneficially Associated with Waist Circumference, Serum Triglycerides, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Patients with Prediabetes or Untreated Early Type 2 Diabetes.

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    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Mishima, Shuichi; Kakei, Masafumi; Ezaki, Osamu; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between daily physical activity and metabolic risk factors in Japanese adults with prediabetes or untreated early type 2 diabetes (T2D). Daily physical activity level was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. We assessed correlations between physical activity level and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting levels of plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A total of 80 patients were studied. After adjustment for age and body mass index, in all subjects, physical activity level was negatively associated with waist circumference (β = -0.124, P = 0.018) and fasting serum triglycerides (β = -0.239, P = 0.035), insulin (β = -0.224, P = 0.022). In men, physical activity level was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (β = -0.351, P = 0.044), fasting plasma glucose (β = -0.369, P = 0.025) and insulin (β = -0.362, P = 0.012), and HOMA-IR (β = -0.371, P = 0.011). No significant associations were found between physical activity level and metabolic risk factors in women. Objectively measured daily physical activity is beneficially associated with waist circumference, serum triglycerides, and insulin resistance in individuals with prediabetes or untreated early T2D. (This trial is registered with UMIN000015774.).

  19. Daily Physical Activity Assessed by a Triaxial Accelerometer Is Beneficially Associated with Waist Circumference, Serum Triglycerides, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Patients with Prediabetes or Untreated Early Type 2 Diabetes

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    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the association between daily physical activity and metabolic risk factors in Japanese adults with prediabetes or untreated early type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods. Daily physical activity level was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. We assessed correlations between physical activity level and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting levels of plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Results. A total of 80 patients were studied. After adjustment for age and body mass index, in all subjects, physical activity level was negatively associated with waist circumference (β=-0.124, P=0.018 and fasting serum triglycerides (β=-0.239, P=0.035, insulin (β=-0.224, P=0.022. In men, physical activity level was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (β=-0.351, P=0.044, fasting plasma glucose (β=-0.369, P=0.025 and insulin (β=-0.362, P=0.012, and HOMA-IR (β=-0.371, P=0.011. No significant associations were found between physical activity level and metabolic risk factors in women. Conclusion. Objectively measured daily physical activity is beneficially associated with waist circumference, serum triglycerides, and insulin resistance in individuals with prediabetes or untreated early T2D. (This trial is registered with UMIN000015774.

  20. Índice de massa corporal e circunferência da cintura como marcadores de hipertensão arterial em adolescentes Body mass index and waist circumference as markers of arterial hypertension in adolescents

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    Maria Luiza Garcia Rosa

    2007-05-01

    sample of 456 students aged 12 to 17 years, from public and private schools of the Fonseca neighborhood, in Niterói, between 2003 and 2004. A subject was defined as hypertensive if he/she had systolic and diastolic pressures above the 95th percentile for sex, age and height. A questionnaire was applied and Body Mass Index (BMI and waist circumference (WC measurements were made. RESULTS: A statistically significant correlation was observed between hypertension and the cutoff points considered unfavorable, both for BMI and WC. The greatest association was with the cutoff point proposed for the Brazilian population. As to the BMI sensitivity used for American Black or White populations or for the Brazilian population, we found 52.4% to 57.1% and 52.4%, respectively. And BMI specificity was 69.3%, 70.0% and 80.88%, respectively. The sensitivity found in our sample, relative to the cutoff points for WC proposed for all American ethnic groups, was also low (45.0% and specificity was a little higher (77.6% and 74.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Existing American WC measurements showed low sensitivity and specificity for hypertension in our population. As to BMI, the available cutoff points also showed a low level of sensitivity. There is a need to establish body fat cutoff points that can provide a better prediction of cardiovascular risk.

  1. Association of Wrist Circumference and Waist-to-Height Ratio with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Type II Diabetics in a Ghanaian Population

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    Christian Obirikorang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study determined the association of wrist circumference (WrC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR with cardiometabolic risk factors among diabetics in a Ghanaian population. This cross-sectional study involved 384 diabetic patients at Begoro District Hospital, Ghana. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, and biochemical indices were measured. The overall prevalence of dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and hypertension was 42.4%, 76.3%, and 39.8%, respectively. The optimum cut-off range of WrC to identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk was 17.5 to –17.8 cm for men and 16.0 to 16.7 cm for women while that of WHtR was 0.52 to 0.61 for men and 0.53 to 0.59 for women. WrC for women was a significant independent predictor for MetS [aOR = 3.0 (1.39–6.72, p=0.005] and systolic blood pressure [aOR = 2.08 (1.17–3.68, p=0.012]. WHtR was a significant positive predictor for triglycerides [aOR = 3.23 (0.10–3.82, p=0.001] for women. Using Framingham risk scores, 61% of the subjects had elevated 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, with no significant difference in gender prevalence. WrC [aOR = 6.13 (0.34–111.4, p=0.107] and WHtR [aOR = 2.52 (0.42–15.02, p=0.309] were associated with statistically insignificant increased odds of moderate-to-high risk of developing CVDs in 10 years. The use of gender-specific cut-offs for WrC and WHtR may offer putative markers for early identification of CRFs.

  2. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

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    Jason Jiunshiou Lee

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10 students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989 were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857 and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795. The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile. Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17 compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups.

  3. Associação dos padrões alimentares com obesidade geral e abdominal em mulheres residentes no Sul do Brasil Association between dietary patterns and body mass index and waist circumference in women living in Southern Brazil

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    Gabriela Perozzo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de estudar a associação de padrões alimentares com obesidade, realizou-se estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra representativa de 1.026 mulheres (20 a 60 anos em São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A obesidade geral foi avaliada pela utilização de índice de massa corporal (IMC > 30kg/m² e a adiposidade abdominal, circunferência da cintura (CC> 88cm. Os padrões alimentares foram identificados por análise fatorial. Para análise multivariada, foi utilizada regressão de Poisson. Entre o total de mulheres, 18% (IC95%: 15,66-20,53 tinham obesidade geral e 23,3% (IC95%: 20,72-26,06 abdominal. Após controle para fatores de confusão, o baixo consumo do PA-frutas associou-se positivamente com o IMC (RP = 2,18; IC95%: 1,35-3,53; p = 0,001. Já o baixo consumo do PA-vegetais apresentou efeito protetor para o aumento nos níveis de IMC (RP = 0,64; IC95%: 0,47-0,86; p = 0,004 e o do PA-nozes/oleaginosas para o aumento na medida da CC (RP = 0,93; IC95%: 0,89-0,98; p = 0,008. O estudo aponta para a complexidade envolvida na relação entre padrões alimentares e obesidade e a necessidade de novos estudos, objetivando o melhor entendimento do tema.This study focused on the association between dietary patterns and obesity. A cross-sectional population-based study was performed in 1,026 adult women from Southern Brazil. Waist circumference (WC, height, and weight were measured according to a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Obesity was defined as BMI > 30kg/m² and WC > 88cm. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multivariate analysis used a Poisson regression model to estimate prevalence ratios and respective confidence intervals. After controlling for possible confounders, low consumption of "vegetables" protected against increased BMI (PR = 0.64; 95%CI: 0.47-0.86; p = 0.004, while low consumption of "nuts/oilseeds" protected against increased WC (PR = 0

  4. Body circumferences: clinical implications emerging from a new geometric model

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    Gallagher Dympna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body volume expands with the positive energy balance associated with the development of adult human obesity and this "growth" is captured by two widely used clinical metrics, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI. Empirical correlations between circumferences, BMI, and related body compartments are frequently reported but fail to provide an important common conceptual foundation that can be related to key clinical observations. A two-phase program was designed to fill this important gap: a geometric model linking body volume with circumferences and BMI was developed and validated in cross-sectional cohorts; and the model was applied to the evaluation of longitudinally monitored subjects during periods of voluntary weight loss. Concepts emerging from the developed model were then used to examine the relations between the evaluated clinical measures and body composition. Methods Two groups of healthy adults (n = 494 and 1499 were included in the cross-sectional model development/testing phase and subjects in two previous weight loss studies were included in the longitudinal model evaluation phase. Five circumferences (arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf; average of sum, C, height (H, BMI, body volume (V; underwater weighing, and the volumes of major body compartments (whole-body magnetic resonance imaging were measured. Results The evaluation of a humanoid geometric model based a cylinder confirmed that V derived from C and H was highly correlated with measured V [R2 both males and females, 0.97; p 0.5. The scaling of individual circumferences to V/H varied, with waist the highest (V/H~0.6 and calf the lowest (V/H~0.3, indicating that the largest and smallest between-subject "growth" with greater body volume occurs in the abdominal area and lower extremities, respectively. A stepwise linear regression model including all five circumferences2 showed that each contributed independently to V/H. These cross

  5. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

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    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  6. No consistent association between consumption of energy-dense snack foods and annual weight and waist circumference changes in Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Boer, J.M.A.; Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.; A, van der D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is conflicting evidence regarding an association between the consumption of energy-dense snack (EDS) foods and the development of overweight. Objective: In the current study, we examined whether there was an association between the intake of EDS foods and annual weight and waist

  7. Is the BMI a Relic of the Past?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used measure of adiposity is to express weight adjusted for height using the body mass index (BMI). However, its limitations such as its inability to distinguish muscle weight from fat weight are well known, leading public health authorities in the UK and US to recommend measuring waist circumference as a complementary diagnostic tool for obesity. Recent attention placed on the syndrome referred to as 'normal weight obesity' – individuals with normal BMI but high body fat cont...

  8. Comparison between BMI and Inverted BMI in Evaluating Metabolic Risk and Body Composition in Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Saki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare BMI and inverted BMI in evaluating body measurement, resting blood pressure, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA parameters of fat mass and metabolic risk factors in Iranian children Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on 477 children aged 9-18 yearsin the South of Iran. Weight, height, resting blood pressure, waist and hip circumference and pubertal stage of all participants was measured with standard methods. DEXA was used to determine body composition index. Blood samples were checked for serum lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar (FBS. Metabolic risk score (MRS was calculated by the summation of the Z-scores for TC, TG/HDL, LDL, systolic blood pressure, and waist circumference minus HDL Z-score. Results: BMI did not have a normal distribution in our participants but iBMI had a normal distribution. IBMI had more significant correlation with waist to hip ratio and systolic blood pressure (r2=0.053 and r2=0.182 than BMI (r2=0.041 and r2=0.101. MRS had a positive correlation with BMI (P

  9. Relationship of body mass index and waist to hip ratio measurement with hypertension in young adult medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Haque, I.U.; Rehman, A.U.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the BMI profile and waist to hip ratio measurements of young adult medical students of Lahore medical and dental college and its relationship with hypertension. All the students of Lahore medical and dental college were asked to undergo physical examination. Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded. The partial correlation coefficient was used to quantify the association between BMI and waist-to-hip circumference ratio with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the influence of body mass index and waist-to-hip circumference ratio on the variance of systolic and diastolic BP. Mean BMI was 23.24 (SD+-4.31). Descriptive analysis revealed that 103 (21.3%) of the study population were classified as underweight, 251 (52 %) as normal weight, 99 (20.5%) as overweight, and 30 (6.2 %) as obese. Abdominal adiposity, as measured by increased WHR, was present in 56 subjects (11.59 %). Partial correlation controlled for age revealed strong positive correlation between BMI and WHR for males. 7.24% had high systolic blood pressure, minimum systolic BP was 90 while maximum being 160 mmHg. Same was the value for high diastolic blood pressure i.e. 35 (7.24%), range was from 60 to 100mm Hg. Results of the partial correlation coefficient controlled for age, indicated a significant positive correlation between SBP and DBP. Stepwise linear regression analysis controlled for age revealed that both body mass index and waist-to-hip circumference ratio were independently correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The present results suggest that prevalence of overweight and obesity among the medical students is higher than in general population. Those with either higher BMI or central adiposity distribution are potential candidates of increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. (author)

  10. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Küçük

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI, but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. Objective: We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Results: Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Conclusion: Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness.

  11. No Obesity Paradox—BMI Incapable of Adequately Capturing the Relation of Obesity with All-Cause Mortality: An Inception Diabetes Cohort Study

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    Mohammadreza Bozorgmanesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To reconcile “the obesity paradox,” we tested if (1 the contribution of anthropometric measures to mortality was nonlinear and (2 the confounding of hip circumference contributed to the obesity paradox recently observed among diabetic patients. Methods. We analyzed data of diabetic patients attending a community-based prospective, “Tehran lipid and glucose study.” In the mortality analysis, anthropometric measures—body mass index (BMI, waist, and hip circumference—were assessed using Cox models incorporating cubic spline functions. Results. During 12 990 person-years follow-up, BMI levels below 27 and those above 40 kg·m−2 were associated with increased mortality. When we added waist circumference to the BMI in the multivariate-adjusted model, the steepness of BMI-mortality association curve slope for values below 27 kg·m−2 increased, whereas the steepness of BMI-mortality association curve slope for values above this threshold decreased. Further adjusting the model for hip circumference, the steepness of the slopes of the association curve moved towards null on both extremes and no associations between BMI and all-cause mortality remained. Conclusion. BMI harbors intermixed positive and negative confounding effects on mortality of waist and hip circumference. Failing to control for the confounding effect of hip circumference may stymie unbiased hazard estimation and render conclusions paradoxical.

  12. Association between blood Pressure, waist circumference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates a positive correlation of blood pressure parameters with age, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, thus the need for stakeholders to strengthen measures towards cardiovascular risk awareness and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) prevention in the general ...

  13. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.

  14. Índice cintura-cadera contra perímetro cintura para el diagnóstico del síndrome metabólico en niños y adolescentes con familiares de primer grado diabéticos tipo 1 Waist-hip index versus waist circumference for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in first degree-children and adolescents relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cabrera-Rode

    2011-12-01

    familiares de primer grado de personas con diabetes tipo 1 con síndrome metabólico. En cambio, encontramos diferencias significativas cuando comparamos las frecuencias del síndrome metabólico de la variante del consenso cubano (p= 0,0019, de Cook (p= 0,0053 y de Ford (p= 0,0032, con la definición sugerida por la Federación Internacional de Diabetes (2,23 %; 5/224 empleando el índice cintura-cadera. Conclusiones: nuestros datos indican que para el diagnóstico del síndrome metabólico debemos utilizar el índice cintura-cadera y no el perímetro cintura sugerido por la Asociación Latinoamericana de Diabetes, aún sin presentar datos propios del perímetro cintura de la población cubana.Objective: to compare the measurements of waist circumference and waist-hip circumference to determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in first degree relatives of persons with type 1diabetes, using different pediatric definitions. Methods: two hundred twenty four first degree relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes were studied in ages from 4 to 10 years. Weight, height, waist-hip circumference, blood pressure, glycemia, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol were determined. The definitions of metabolic syndrome according to Cook, Ford, International Federation of Diabetes and the Cuban consensus were applied. A variant of Cuban consensus was performed using: body mass index and waist-hip index according the Cuban tables, values of glucose ³ 5,6 mmol/L and blood pressure ³ 90 percentile (Cuban tables. In an independent way, criteria of HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were taken into account. The waist-hip index of Cuban tables, the waist circumference suggested by the Latin-American and European Association of Diabetes for study definitions were applied. For comparison of frequencies of metabolic syndrome the Fisher exact test was used. Results: the frequency of metabolic syndrome with application of Cuban consensus variant was of 9,37 % (21/224. Comparing the above variant

  15. Correlation of Waist-Hip-Ratio and Waist-Height-Ratio to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Height ratio(WHtR), could predict cardiovascular disease risk factors. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between central obesity measured by waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with cardiovascular ...

  16. Optimal waist circumference cut-off points and ability of different metabolic syndrome criteria for predicting diabetes in Japanese men and women: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

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    Huanhuan Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to establish the optimal waist circumference (WC cut-off point for predicting diabetes mellitus (DM and to compare the predictive ability of the metabolic syndrome (MetS criteria of the Joint Interim Statement (JIS and the Japanese Committee of the Criteria for MetS (JCCMS for DM in Japanese. Methods Participants of the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study, who were aged 20–69 years and free of DM at baseline (n = 54,980, were followed-up for a maximum of 6 years. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC for predicting DM. Time-dependent sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the prediction of DM were compared between the JIS and JCCMS MetS criteria. Results During 234,926 person-years of follow-up, 3180 individuals developed DM. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that the most suitable cut-off point of WC for predicting incident DM was 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women. MetS was associated with 3–4 times increased hazard for developing DM in men and 7–9 times in women. Of the MetS criteria tested, the JIS criteria using our proposed WC cut-off points (85 cm for men and 80 cm for women had the highest sensitivity (54.5 % for men and 43.5 % for women for predicting DM. The sensitivity and specificity of the JCCMS MetS criteria were ~37.7 and 98.9 %, respectively. Conclusion Data from the present large cohort of workers suggest that WC cut-offs of 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women may be appropriate for predicting DM for Japanese. The JIS criteria can detect more people who later develop DM than does the JCCMS criteria.

  17. Optimal waist circumference cut-off points and ability of different metabolic syndrome criteria for predicting diabetes in Japanese men and women: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huanhuan; Kurotani, Kayo; Sasaki, Naoko; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nagahama, Satsue; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Tomita, Kentaro; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Hori, Ai; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Akter, Shamima; Kashino, Ikuko; Kabe, Isamu; Liu, Weiping; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-03-03

    We sought to establish the optimal waist circumference (WC) cut-off point for predicting diabetes mellitus (DM) and to compare the predictive ability of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria of the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) and the Japanese Committee of the Criteria for MetS (JCCMS) for DM in Japanese. Participants of the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study, who were aged 20-69 years and free of DM at baseline (n = 54,980), were followed-up for a maximum of 6 years. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC for predicting DM. Time-dependent sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the prediction of DM were compared between the JIS and JCCMS MetS criteria. During 234,926 person-years of follow-up, 3180 individuals developed DM. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that the most suitable cut-off point of WC for predicting incident DM was 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women. MetS was associated with 3-4 times increased hazard for developing DM in men and 7-9 times in women. Of the MetS criteria tested, the JIS criteria using our proposed WC cut-off points (85 cm for men and 80 cm for women) had the highest sensitivity (54.5 % for men and 43.5 % for women) for predicting DM. The sensitivity and specificity of the JCCMS MetS criteria were ~37.7 and 98.9 %, respectively. Data from the present large cohort of workers suggest that WC cut-offs of 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women may be appropriate for predicting DM for Japanese. The JIS criteria can detect more people who later develop DM than does the JCCMS criteria.

  18. Waist-to-height ratio and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Guasch-Ferré

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several anthropometric measurements have been associated with cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk conditions, such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Waist-to-height-ratio has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing abdominal obesity, correcting other measurements for the height of the individual. We compared the ability of several anthropometric measurements to predict the presence of type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia or metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our cross-sectional analyses we included 7447 Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk, men aged 55-80 years and women aged 60-80 years, from the PREDIMED study. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the odds ratio of presenting each cardiovascular risk factor according to various anthropometric measures. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC were used to compare the predictive ability of these measurements. RESULTS: In this relatively homogeneous cohort with 48.6% of type-2 diabetic individuals, the great majority of the studied anthropometric parameters were significantly and positively associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between BMI and body weight and diabetes mellitus. The AUCs for the waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference were significantly higher than the AUCs for BMI or weight for type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Conversely, BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that measures of abdominal obesity showed higher discriminative ability for diabetes mellitus, high fasting plasma glucose, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome than BMI or weight in a large cohort of elderly Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. No significant differences were found between the predictive

  19. Avaliação de gordura corporal pela bioimpedância elétrica e sua correlação com diferentes pontos anatômicos de medida da circunferência da cintura em crianças Body fat assessment by bioelectrical impedance and its correlation with different anatomical sites used in the measurement of waist circumference in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Souza Lima Sant'Anna

    2009-02-01

    . Nutritional status was assessed through the body mass index (BMI/age as recommended by the World Health Organization. RESULTS: The sample was considered homogeneous in terms of sex, and the mean age was 7.2±1.2 years. Regarding nutritional status, 6.3% of the children had low weight, 75.1% were eutrophic, 7.3% were overweight, and 11.2% were obese. Among males, there was no statistical difference between the different sites of measurement; in females, the measurement above the navel was statistically higher. In the correlation analysis, the midpoint measurement showed the best correlation with percentage of body fat, with values of 0.50 in boys and 0.62 in girls. CONCLUSION: Waist circumference measured at the midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest presented the best correlation with percentage of body fat.

  20. Interaction between FTO rs9939609 and the Native American-origin ABCA1 rs9282541 affects BMI in the admixed Mexican population

    OpenAIRE

    Villalobos-Compar?n, Marisela; Antuna-Puente, B?rbara; Villarreal-Molina, Mar?a Teresa; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Vel?zquez-Cruz, Rafael; Le?n-Mimila, Paola; Villamil-Ram?rez, Hugo; Gonz?lez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Merino-Garc?a, Jos? Luis; Thompson-Bonilla, Mar?a Roc?o; Jarquin, Diego; S?nchez-Hern?ndez, Osvaldo Erik; Rodr?guez-Arellano, Martha Eunice; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Vargas-Alarc?n, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore whether interactions between FTO rs9939609 and ABCA1 rs9282541 affect BMI and waist circumference (WC), and could explain previously reported population differences in FTO-obesity and FTO-BMI associations in the Mexican and European populations. Methods A total of 3938 adults and 636 school-aged children from Central Mexico were genotyped for both polymorphisms. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies from 22 class III obesity patients...

  1. Correlação entre índice de massa corporal e circunferência da cintura em crianças Correlación entre índice de masa corporal y circunferencia de la cintura en niños Correlation between body mass index and waist circumference in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Coelho Damasceno

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer uma correlação entre a circunferência da cintura e o Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC na determinação do excesso de peso e distribuição de gordura em crianças de escolas públicas de Fortaleza - CE. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, realizado em 12 escolas da rede da pública da cidade de Fortaleza- CE. Participaram 727 crianças de ambos os sexos, com idade variando entre 6 a 11 anos. A coleta de dados ocorreu de março a junho de 2008. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do inquérito mostraram que, de acordo com o IMC,11,4% das crianças encontravam-se em sobrepeso, 6,6% eram obesas e 30,9% apresentaram obesidade central. CONCLUSÃO: Nem toda criança obesa apresentava obesidade central, demonstrando que uma só medida antropométrica não é eficaz na determinação do padrão de gordura na infância.OBJETIVO: Establecer una correlación entre la circunferencia de la cintura y el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC en la determinación del exceso de peso y distribución de grasa en niños de escuelas públicas en Fortaleza - CE. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado en 12 escuelas de la red pública de la ciudad de Fortaleza- CE. Participaron 727 niños de ambos sexos, con edad que varió de 6 a 11 años. La recolección de datos ocurrió de marzo a junio de 2008. RESULTADOS: Los resultados de la encuesta mostraron que, de acuerdo con el IMC, 11,4% de los niños se encontraban con sobrepeso, 6,6% eran obesos y 30,9% presentaron obesidad central. CONCLUSIÓN: No todos los niños obesos presentaban obesidad central, demostrando que solo una medida antropométrica no es eficaz para determinar el estándar de adiposidad en la infancia.OBJECTIVE: To establish a correlation between waist circumference and Body Mass Index (BMI and to determine overweight and fat distribution in children from public schools in Fortaleza - CE. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 12 public schools in the city

  2. Leptin and adiponectin DNA methylation levels in adipose tissues and blood cells are associated with BMI, waist girth and LDL-cholesterol levels in severely obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Andrée-Anne; Légaré, Cécilia; Biron, Simon; Lescelleur, Odette; Biertho, Laurent; Marceau, Simon; Tchernof, André; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Hivert, Marie-France; Bouchard, Luigi

    2015-05-01

    Leptin (LEP) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) genes encode adipokines that are mainly secreted by adipose tissues, involved in energy balance and suspected to play a role in the pathways linking adiposity to impaired glucose and insulin homeostasis. We have thus hypothesized that LEP and ADIPOQ DNA methylation changes might be involved in obesity development and its related complications. The objective of this study was to assess whether LEP and ADIPOQ DNA methylation levels measured in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissues (VAT) are associated with anthropometric measures and metabolic profile in severely obese men and women. These analyses were repeated with DNA methylation profiles from blood cells obtained from the same individuals to determine whether they showed similarities. Paired SAT, VAT and blood samples were obtained from 73 severely obese patients undergoing a bioliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. LEP and ADIPOQ DNA methylation and mRNA levels were quantified using bisulfite-pyrosequencing and qRT-PCR respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficients were computed to determine the associations between LEP and ADIPOQ DNA methylation levels, anthropometric measures and metabolic profile. DNA methylation levels at the ADIPOQ gene locus in SAT was positively associated with BMI and waist girth whereas LEP DNA methylation levels in blood cells were negatively associated with body mass index (BMI). Fasting LDL-C levels were found to be positively correlated with DNA methylation levels at LEP-CpG11 and -CpG17 in blood and SAT and with ADIPOQ DNA methylation levels in SAT (CpGE1 and CpGE3) and VAT (CpGE1). These results confirm that LEP and ADIPOQ epigenetic profiles are associated with obesity. We also report associations between LDL-C levels and both LEP and ADIPOQ DNA methylation levels suggesting that LDL-C might regulate their epigenetic profiles in adipose tissues. Furthermore, similar correlations were observed between LDL-C and LEP blood

  3. Low fitness is associated with abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation independent of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten

    2018-01-01

    fitness (fitness) is a determinant factor for the MHO individuals and aim to investigate the associations between fitness, abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation within different BMI categories. METHOD: Data from 10,976 individuals from the general population, DANHES 2007-2008, on waist...... (+5 mL min-1 kg-1) and hsCRP (-0.22 mg/L; 95% CI: -0.255 to -0.185 mg/L; pBMI. Similarly in women, an inverse association between fitness (+5 mL min-1 kg-1) and waist circumference (-1.15 cm; 95% CI: -1.25 to -1.0 cm; p... fitness (+5 mL min-1 kg-1) and hsCRP (-0.26 mg/L; 95% CI: -0.3 to -0.22 mg/L; pBMI. Additionally, significant positive associations between waist circumference and hsCRP were found for both men and women, independently of BMI. CONCLUSION: Fitness was found...

  4. Waist-to-height ratio distinguish obstructive sleep apnea from primary snoring in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Caixêta, Juliana Alves; Saramago, Alex Martins; de Cácia Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia Lourdes; Moreira, Gustavo Antônio; Tufik, Sergio; Fujita, Reginaldo Raimundo

    2015-03-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is caused by the interaction of multiple factors, including tonsillar hypertrophy, retrognathia, maxillary atresia, neuromuscular abnormalities, activation of inflammatory mediator cascades, and obesity. The prevalence and severity of obesity among children and adolescents increased worldwide during recent decades and has thus become a public health concern. The aim of this study is to assess the metabolic and anthropometric changes associated with sleep-disordered breathing in obese children. Prospective assessment of prepubertal obese children followed at a pediatric endocrinology outpatient clinic that had history of frequent snoring. Children were submitted to polysomnography, measurements of body weight, height, blood pressure, neck circumference, and waist circumference. BMI, neck-to-height, and waist-to-height ratios were calculated. Laboratory tests included a complete blood count, liver function tests, lipid profile, and glucose metabolism assessment. Additionally, the presence of metabolic syndrome was assessed. Differences between obstructive sleep apnea and primary snoring groups were calculated using unpaired t-test, Fisher's exact test or Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). The sample included 20 children with primary snoring and nine with obstructive sleep apnea. The two groups did not differ with regard to age, gender, BMI, or BMI z-score, serum lipids, glucose metabolism, cell count, liver function, or arterial blood pressure. Anthropometric data did not differ between groups. The waist-to-height ratio was greater among children with obstructive sleep apnea, compared to those with primary snoring. In the present study, the waist-to-height ratio was greater in children with obstructive sleep apnea and, thus, could distinguish these children from those with primary snoring.

  5. Neck Circumference as a Predictor of Adiposity among Healthy and Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in the upper part of body, is a major health problem. Because body mass index (BMI does not adequately describe regional adiposity, other indices of body fatness are being explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if neck circumference is a valid measure of adiposity (fat distribution among group of Egyptian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study, included 50 obese subjects, aged 7 - 12 years recruited from Endocrine, obesity and Metabolism Pediatric Unit at Children Hospital, Cairo University and 50 healthy children, age and sex matched. All children were subjected to blood pressure assessment (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP, and anthropometric assessment (body weight, height, neck circumference (NC, waist (WC and hip (HC circumferences, and skin fold thicknesses at three sites: biceps, triceps and sub scapular. BMI [weight (kg/height (m2] was calculated. RESULTS: In healthy females, significant associations were detected between NC and SBP, DBP and all anthropometric measurements. However, in healthy males NC was not significantly associated with BMI, SBP and DBP. In the obese group; both sexes; insignificant association was found between NC and SBP, DBP, BMI and skinfold thickness. CONCLUSION: NC is related to fat distribution among normal healthy female children. However, this relation disappears with increasing adiposity. The results do not support the use of NC as a useful screening tool for childhood obesity.

  6. Dietary flavonoid intake is inversely associated with CVD risk as assessed by BMI and waist circumference in U.S. adults: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavonoids are bioactive compounds that may reduce disease risk. To date, no research has examined whether flavonoid intake is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk defined by anthropometric measures. The objective of this study was to determine whether flavonoid intake is associated with h...

  7. Weight loss and waist reduction is associated with improvement in gastroesophageal disease reflux symptoms: A longitudinal study of 15 295 subjects undergoing health checkups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S-K; Lee, T; Yang, H-J; Park, J H; Sohn, C I; Ryu, S; Park, D I

    2017-05-01

    General obesity and abdominal obesity is an established risk factor of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the influence of weight or waist change on improvement of GERD is unclear. Our aim was to investigate if weight loss or waist reduction improves GERD symptoms and esophagitis. A retrospective longitudinal study of 15 295 subjects who underwent gastroscopy for a health checkup and reported GERD symptoms between 2011 and 2013, and repeated a checkup until 2014 was conducted. The improvement of GERD symptoms and esophagitis according to weight loss (≥-2, -0.5 to -2 kg/m 2 in body mass index [BMI]), waist reduction (≥-5, -0.1 to -0.5 cm) and baseline BMI/waist circumference (WC) categories was assessed using logistic regression. Weight loss or waist reduction was associated with improvement in GERD symptoms only in subjects with general or abdominal obesity. Among subjects with general obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 ) and decreased ≥2 kg/m 2 in BMI, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of improvement in GERD symptoms was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70-2.83). Among subjects with abdominal obesity (WC ≥90 cm) and decreased ≥5 cm in WC, the corresponding OR was 2.16 (95% CI 1.56-2.90). There was no association between weight loss or waist reduction and improvement in esophagitis. Weight loss or waist reduction was associated with improvement in GERD symptoms only in subjects with general or abdominal obesity. Weight loss or waist reduction will be an important treatment option in obese patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Twelve weeks CLA supplementation decreases the hip circumference in overweight and obese women. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądry, Edyta; Chudzicka-Strugała, Izabela; Grabańska-Martyńska, Katarzyna; Malikowska, Klaudia; Grebowiec, Philip; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Bogdański, Paweł; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body weight (BW), body fat mass (BFM), and increases or maintains lean body mass in animals. However, the results concerning the effect of CLA on weight reduction in humans are contradictory. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CLA supplementation on the BW and anthropometric parameters (waist and hip circumferences) in overweight and obese adult women. A total of 74 subjects (BMI: 28-42 kg/m2) were included in a double blind, placebocontrolled trial. Subjects were randomized into two groups, those supplemented with either 3.0 g/d CLA or with placebo (sunflower oil) for 12 weeks. CLA significantly decreased the hip circumferences compared to placebo (p = 0.016209), but had no effect on body weight, BMI, or waist circumference. The number of subjects with a reduction in hip circumference in the CLA group was significantly larger compared to that in the placebo group (p = 0.0017;  NNT= 2.65; CI [6.27-1.685]). In conclusion, our findings do not support the hypothesis that 12 weeks CLA supplementation, as dosed in the present study, is effective for body weight reduction in overweight and obese women. However, its local action in decreasing the hip circumference seems to be encouraging and suggests that CLA may represent an attractive dietary supplement.

  9. Neck circumference, along with other anthropometric indices, has an independent and additional contribution in predicting fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-xia Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that neck circumference is a valuable predictor for obesity and metabolic syndrome, but little evidence is available for fatty liver disease. We examined the association of neck circumference with fatty liver disease and evaluated its predictive value in Chinese adults.This cross-sectional study comprised 4053 participants (1617 women and 2436 men, aged 20-88 recruited from the Health Examination Center in Guangzhou, China between May 2009 and April 2010. Anthropometric measurements were taken, abdominal ultrasonography was conducted and blood biochemical parameters were measured. Covariance, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were employed.The mean neck circumference was greater in subjects with fatty liver disease than those without the disease in both women and men after adjusting for age (P<0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed that the age-adjusted ORs (95% CI of fatty liver disease for quartile 4 (vs. quartile 1 of neck circumference were 7.70 (4.95-11.99 for women and 12.42 (9.22-16.74 for men. After further adjusting for other anthropometric indices, both individually and combined, the corresponding ORs remained significant (all P-trends<0.05 but were attenuated to 1.94-2.53 for women and 1.45-2.08 for men. An additive interaction existed between neck circumference and the other anthropometric measures (all P<0.05. A high neck circumference value was associated with a much greater prevalence of fatty liver disease in participants with both high and normal BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio values.Neck circumference was an independent predictor for fatty liver disease and provided an additional contribution when applied with other anthropometric measures.

  10. Neck circumference as a marker of obesity and a predictor of cardiometabolic risk among Saudi subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alfadhli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the optimal cutoff value for neck circumference (NC that define overweight/obesity and assess its predictive potential for cardiometabolic risks (CMR among Saudi subjects. Methods: A cross sectional study of 785 adults recruited from a public health awareness campaign in Medina, Saudi Arabia during June 2015. Waist circumference (WC, NC, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (BP, and random blood glucose (RBG were assessed, and the presence of CMR were collected by a questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the associations of NC with other anthropometric indices and CMR. The optimal cutoff value for NC to identify overweight/obesity was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results: There were significant correlations between NC and BMI, weight, WC, age, RBG, and BP. The area under the curve for NC and WC in the ROC analysis was 0.86 for men and 0.77 for women, and NC ≥39.25 cm for men and ≥34.75 cm for women were the best cutoff levels for identifying subjects with central obesity with an 89% sensitivity and a 71% specificity for men and an 80% sensitivity and a 65% specificity for women. These cutoff levels for NC were associated with a significantly increased risk for diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Conclusion: Neck circumference is positively correlated with BMI and WC, and can be used to identify overweight/obesity and predict CMR in Saudi individuals.

  11. Neck Circumference as a Predictive Indicator of CKD for High Cardiovascular Risk Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neck circumference (NC is an anthropometric measure of obesity for upper subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution which is associated with cardiometabolic risk. This study investigated whether NC is associated with indicators of chronic kidney disease (CKD for high cardiometabolic risk patients. Methods. A total of 177 consecutive patients who underwent the outpatient departments of cardiology were prospectively enrolled in the study. The patients were aged >20 years with normal renal function or with stages 1–4 CKD. A linear regression was performed using the Enter method to present an unadjusted R2, standardized coefficients, and standard error, and the Durbin-Watson test was used to assess residual independence. Results. Most anthropometric measurements from patients aged ≧65 were lower than those from patients aged <65, except for women’s waist circumference (WC and waist hip ratio. Female NC obtained the highest R2 values for 24 hr CCR, uric acid, microalbuminuria, hsCRP, triglycerides, and HDL compared to BMI, WC, and hip circumference. The significances of female NC with 24 hr CCR and uric acid were improved after adjusted age and serum creatinine. Conclusions. NC is associated with indicators of CKD for high cardiometabolic risk patients and can be routinely measured as easy as WC in the future.

  12. Gender differences in waist circumference in Nigerian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WC showed significantly higher (p <0.0001) values in girls than in boys at ages 10-12 years, and this increased with age in both categories. The reference data obtained in this study can be used to identify children with high risk of developing obesity-related disorders and form the basis for future research studies.

  13. Dietary predictors of 5-year changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the association between macronutrient intake and the development of abdominal obesity, which carries an increased health risk, have not shown a consistent pattern, possibly due to mixed effects of other aspects of the food intake. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated...

  14. Maternal waist circumference as a prediction of children's stunted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... of children in that maternal malnutrition leads to malnourished children. The seemingly linear relationship of paired mother and child malnutrition has resulted in a public ... and middle-income countries, of which South Africa is one.1 The ... predictor of the mothers' children's metabolic syndrome status, but.

  15. Association of waist circumference with perception of own health in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-06

    Dec 6, 2011 ... traditional ideal body image among Africans, who have always ... Botha J,a MA, PhD Student; Malan L,b RN, PhD, Associate Professor; Potgieter JC,c PhD, Associate Professor. Steyn HS ... 90 cm) with regard to somatic symptoms, social dysfunction and GHQ-28 caseness, compared to those of the low WC ...

  16. Association of waist and hip circumferences with the presence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including hypertension. (HT) which is itself a risk factor for CVDs. ... studies shows that central obesity (accumulation of fat in the abdominal area) is a greater ..... Gender differences in meta- bolic risk factor prevalence in a South ...

  17. Association of waist circumference with perception of own health in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: We determined blood pressure and fasting bloods [glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides] as metabolic syndrome markers for 171 urban teachers. Perception of own health was determined via the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) to indicate probable psychological distress or a ...

  18. Effects of a physical activity and nutrition program for seniors on body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Linda; Lee, Andy H; Pasalich, Maria; Jancey, Jonine; Kerr, Deborah; Howat, Peter

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether a home-based program, physical activity and nutrition for seniors (PANS), made positive changes to central obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). A 6-month randomised controlled trial was conducted targeting overweight and sedentary older adults aged 60 to 70 years residing in low to medium socio-economic suburbs within metropolitan Perth. Intervention participants (n=248) received mailed materials and telephone/email support to improve nutrition and physical activity levels. Controls (n=230) received small incentives to complete baseline and post-intervention questionnaires. Both groups reported anthropometric measures following specific written instructions. Generalised estimating equation models were used to assess repeated outcomes of BMI and WHR over both time points. 176 intervention and 199 controls (response rate 78.5%) with complete data were available for analysis. After controlling for demographic and other confounding factors, the intervention group demonstrated a small (0.02) but significant reduction in WHR (p=0.03) compared to controls, no apparent change in BMI was evident for both groups. The 0.02 reduction in mean WHR corresponded to a 2.11 cm decrease in waist circumference for a typical hip circumference. PANS appears to improve the WHR of participants. Changes in BMI might require a longer term intervention to take effect, and/or a follow-up study to confirm its sustainability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of body mass index and waist circumstance with risk of hypertension and diabetes in Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan HE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the influences of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC on hypertension and diabetes among Chinese adults. Methods Seventy-nine thousand and twelve adults, aged 20-80 years old, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey using cluster sampling. Height, weight, WC, blood pressure (BP, and fasting blood glucose (FBG level were measured, the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was calculated with reference to BMI and WC distributions. Logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors. Results BMI is positively associated with hypertension and diabetes, and WC showed the similar pattern. The adjusted odds ratios (OR of hypertension and diabetes were 1.7 and 1.7, respectively, for 1 s.d. increase in BMI; the corresponding ORwere 1.7 and 2.0, respectively, for 1 s.d. increase in WC. Younger obese people and women were at higher risk of hypertension and diabetes when BMI(≥30kg/m2 and WC increased. Diabetes showed a higher raising rate with BMI and WC increase than that of hypertension. The combined indicators of BMI and WC were more strongly associated with hypertension and diabetes in both men and women. Conclusion Obesity or central obesity is associated with an increased risk of hypertension and diabetes, implying a practical need of developing strategies to prevent and control obesity and related chronic diseases. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.10.07

  20. Associations between depression and different measures of obesity (BMI, WC, WHtR, WHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltink, Jörg; Michal, Matthias; Wild, Philipp S; Zwiener, Isabella; Blettner, Maria; Münzel, Thomas; Schulz, Andreas; Kirschner, Yvonne; Beutel, Manfred E

    2013-09-12

    Growing evidence suggests that abdominal obesity is a more important risk factor for the prognosis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than BMI. Somatic-affective symptoms of depression have also been linked to cardiovascular risk. The relationship between obesity and depression, however, has remained contradictory. Our aim was therefore to relate body mass index (BMI) and different measures for abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC, waist-to-hip ratio, WHR, waist-to-height ratio, WHtR) to somatic vs. cognitive-affective symptoms of depression. In a cross-sectional population based study, data on the first N = 5000 participants enrolled in the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) are reported. To analyze the relationship between depression and obesity, we computed linear regression models with the anthropometric measure (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR) as the dependent variable and life style factors, cardiovascular risk factors and psychotropic medications as potential confounders of obesity/depression. We found that only the somatic, but not the cognitive-affective symptoms of depression are consistently positively associated with anthropometric measures of obesity. We could demonstrate that the somatic-affective symptoms of depression rather than the cognitive-affective symptoms are strongly related to anthropometric measures. This is also true for younger obese starting at the age of 35 years. Our results are in line with previous studies indicating that visceral adipose tissue plays a key role in the relationship between obesity, depression and cardiovascular disease.

  1. Head circumference (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area, above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head. During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  2. Waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, and body mass index in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic syndrome is the commonest controllable precursor of cardiovascular and end stage renal diseases. While central obesity is recognized universally as its strongest component, there is the need for an accurate and affordable tool to screen for the presence of metabolic syndrome in every community. The easiest ...

  3. Positive association between waist-to-height ratio and hypertension in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, Juliana Gomes; Moraes Silva, Flávia; Scherer Adami, Fernanda

    2016-09-01

    The obesity and overweight epidemic, together with increasing cardiovascular disease, represent a major public health problem worldwide, and their occurrence in childhood and adolescence has increased in recent decades. The objective of this study was to assess the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and the incidence of hypertension in adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional study of adolescents aged 10-17 years of both sexes attending municipal schools in inland Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Using a secondary database, weight and height measurements, blood pressure, and waist circumference (WC) were analyzed and body mass index (BMI) and WHR were calculated. Blood pressure was classified according to the Brazilian hypertension guidelines, BMI according to the curves of the World Health Organization, and WC according to Taylor et al. The cutoff used for WHR was 0.50 for both sexes. Of the 1030 adolescents studied, 29.6% (305) presented overweight/obesity and 30.4% (313) had hypertension; 24% (247) had high WC and 18.3% (189) presented high WHR. Participants with WHR ≥0.50 were 2.4 times more likely to have hypertension than those with WHR <0.50 (OR 2.39; 95% CI 1.73-3.32; p<0.001). A positive association was found between WHR and the presence of hypertension in adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype and the risk of coronary artery disease: results from the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, Benoit J.; Lemieux, Isabelle; Després, Jean-Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    Background: Screening for increased waist circumference and hypertriglyceridemia (the hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype) has been proposed as an inexpensive approach to identify patients with excess intra-abdominal adiposity and associated metabolic abnormalities. We examined the relationship

  5. Neck circumference as a screening measure of overweight/obesity among Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Nitish

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neck circumference (NC is an anthropometric measurement of differentiating body fat distributions and a marker of upper subcutaneous adiposity. The present study highlights the association and importance of NC as a suitable proxy screening measure of overweight/obesity as compared to the conventional anthropometric variables used among Indian adults. The present community based cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1169 Karbi adults (males: 625; females: 544 residing in Karbi Anglong district of Assam, Northeast India, who were selected through a multistage stratified random sampling method. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC and NC were recorded using standard procedures. The body mass index (BMI was calculated and prevalence of overweight/obesity was assessed using standard cut-offs. The prevalence of obesity using BMI (≥25.00 kg m-2 was 15.52% and 15.26% among males and females, respectively (p≥0.05.The prevalence of obesity using NC was observed to be significantly higher among males (48.80% than females (19.12% (p<0.01. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that NC predicted obesity over the conventional anthropometric variables with reasonable accuracy (p<0.01. The ROC-AUC analysis showed a relatively greater significant association between BMI, WC and HC and NC for obesity (p<0.01. Thus, NC appears to be a potentially simple, easyto- use screening measure for predicting obesity among adults. Further studies are required to validate its use for screening of obesity among other ethnic populations in India.

  6. Can low BMI Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes benefit from laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohui; Zhu, Liyong; Li, Weizheng; Yang, Xiangwu; Li, Pengzhou; Zhu, Shaihong

    2016-12-01

    The efficacy of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is closely associated with the preoperative body mass index (BMI) of the patient. There is a lack of long-term and large sampling evidence on the efficacy of LRYGB in T2D patients with low BMI in China. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment in a Chinese population with T2D (especially patients with BMIBMI≥27.5 kg/m 2 in group 1 (high BMI group) had significant improvements in waist circumference, blood glucose levels, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, and C-peptide levels after LRYGB (PBMIBMI group, including 19 T2D patients with BMIBMI<27.5 kg/m 2 in China. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Body composition in 13-year-old adolescents with abdominal obesity, depending on the BMI value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna S; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    Excessive adipocyte growth during the pubertal transition predisposes to the development and persistence of obesity in adulthood. Visceral accumulation of body fat is particularly disadvantageous when it is correlated with insulin resistance, secondary hyperinsulinaemia, dysglicaemia, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to conduct a nutritional status assessment and body composition analysis in 13-year-old adolescents of both genders with visceral fat accumulation (WC ≥ 90th percentile) and different BMI values. The evaluation of state of nutrition of 1,738 Polish boys (n = 882) and girls (n = 856) aged 13 was done based on anthropometric measurements and calculated BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference) and WHtR indices (waist-to-height ratio). Taking into consideration the value of WC ≥ 90 pc, 353 people were designated (20.3 % of the total) with visceral obesity (but with various BMI), whose body composition was examined by the method of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). A total of 249 adolescents of both sexes (70.5% of the selected, 102 boys and 147 girls) and their parents agreed to the study. In adolescents with visceral obesity a significant change of body content was ascertained depending on the value of the BMI. Even in the people with a proper value of the BMI, a significantly higher than standard increase of the percentage of total body fat (TBF) and decrease of both the percentage of body lean (BL) and the content of total body water (TBW) in the body was observed. The values of the BMI, WC and WHtR in adolescents were significantly correlated with each other as well as with TBF, BL and TBW, and the strength of correlation was dependent on sex. The state of nutrition in adolescents with visceral obesity, even with a proper BMI, might contribute to the development of a metabolic syndrome.

  8. Associação de aptidão cardiorrespiratória e circunferência abdominal com hipertensão em mulheres idosas brasileiras Asociación de aptitud cardiorrespiratoria y circunferencia abdominal con hipertensión en mujeres adultas mayores brasileñas Association of fitness and waist circumference with hypertension in Brazilian elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maressa Priscila Krause

    2009-07-01

    ,9%. El grupo obesidad central presentó mayor riesgo para hipertensión cuando comparado al grupo no-obesidad central, aun perteneciendo al mismo nivel de ACR. Además de ello, ambos grupos revelaron un aumento progresivo del riesgo para hipertensión del mayor para el menor grupo de ACR, indicando una relación inversa entre ACR y obesidad central. El grupo no-obesidad central obtuvo el menor odds ratio (OR de 1,49 (95%IC 0,97-2,28 y 1,54 (95%IC 0,94-2,51; mientras que en el grupo obesidad central, el OR fue 2,08 (95%IC 1,47-2,93, 2,79 (95%IC 1,79-4,33 y 3,09 (95%IC 1,86-5,12. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados encontrados indicaron que la CC es un fuerte predictor de hipertensión, y que el efecto protector de la ACR puede extenderse a las mujeres adultas mayores, aun a las con obesidad central.BACKGROUND: The protective effect of cardiorespiratory fitness, regardless of obesity, has been recognized in adults. However, this association is still not clear in elderly individuals. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between hypertension and cardiorespiratory fitness in 1,064 elderly Brazilian women. METHODS: Central obesity was estimated by waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness by the 6-minutes walk test. ANOVA one way, chi-square and logistic regression were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension was 53.9%. The central obesity group had higher odds for hypertension when compared with the non-central-obesity group, in the same cardiorespiratory fitness group. Furthermore, both the central obesity and non-central obesity groups had a progressive increase in the odds ratio for hypertension, from the highest to lowest fitness groups, indicating an inverse relation between fitness and central adiposity. The non-central obesity group had the lowest odds ratios (OR, 1.49 (95%IC 0.97-2.28 and 1.54 (95%IC 0.94-2.51; whereas the central obesity group had an OR of 2.08 (95%IC 1.47-2.93, 2.79 (95%IC 1.79-4.33 and 3.09 (95%IC 1

  9. Hip circumference and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder; Lissner, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    to 1988) participated in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) project, with measurements of height, weight, and hip and waist circumference taken. Through personal identification numbers, incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD...

  10. BMI OF FEMALE STUDENTS NEWLY ENROLLED AT TODOR KABLESHKOV UNIVERSITY OF TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Peeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper presents the results of a study where besides using the conventional anthropometry, the individual Body Mass Index (BMI or Ketle Index was calculated. Being established in the mid-nineteenth century, Ketle Index gained wide popularity in the 1950s and 1960s when the problem of obesity in the developed countries acquire serious levels. The aim was to prove the relationship between anthropometric parameters and Body Mass Index as well as the possible health risks of the individual. Methods: The study was carried out on 78 first-year female students at the Todor Kableshkov University of Transport (VTU. The indicators examined were: height, weight, skin fold, waist circumference and BMI. Descriptive statistics was used with data processing and different methods were applied to establish the anthropometric parameters: Body Mass Index or Kettle Index; quantitative subcutaneous fat according to the method developed by Deurenberg; comparative analysis of the link between waist circumference; BMI and the state of the individual’s body. Results: The study showed that the average BMI for the entire group of students was 23.1 and subcutaneous fat of 26.6% respectively. Nearly 10% of those being examined are overweight combining high levels of subcutaneous fat and waist circumference, which is a prerequisite for increased risk of disease. Discussion: In the academic year 2011/2012 a study of anthropometric indicators of the newly-enrolled female students was carried out at the Todor Kableshkov University of Transport (VTU. In compliance with some studies (Popov, 1969 a slight increase of size and weight is observed with increasing the age of women during the time of study at university while according to others (Karapetrov, 1978 changes in anthropometric indicators are reported to a later age. According to the research related to introduction of Euro fit tests, BMI as an indicator of general health of the body works in combination

  11. Childhood BMI and Adult Type 2 Diabetes, Coronary Artery Diseases, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Cardiometabolic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tingting; Smith, Caren E; Li, Changwei; Huang, Tao

    2018-05-01

    To test the causal effect of childhood BMI on adult cardiometabolic diseases using a Mendelian randomization analysis. We used 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms as instrumental variables for childhood BMI to test the causal effect of childhood BMI on cardiometabolic diseases using summary-level data from consortia. We found that a 1-SD increase in childhood BMI (kg/m 2 ) was associated with an 83% increase in risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.83 [95% CI 1.46, 2.30]; P = 2.5 × 10 -7 ) and a 28% increase in risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) (OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.17, 1.39]; P = 2.1 × 10 -8 ) at the Bonferroni-adjusted level of significance ( P BMI was associated with a 0.587-SD increase in adulthood BMI (kg/m 2 ), a 0.062-SD increase in hip circumference (cm), a 0.602-SD increase in waist circumference (cm), a 0.111 pmol/L increase in log fasting insulin, a 0.068 increase in log-transformed HOMA of ß-cell function (%), a 0.126 increase in log-transformed HOMA of insulin resistance (%), and a 0.109-SD increase in triglyceride (mg/dL) but a 0.138-SD decrease in HDL (mg/dL) in adults at the Bonferroni-adjusted level of significance ( P BMI was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and CAD in adult life. These results provide evidence supportive of a causal association between childhood BMI and these outcomes. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Risk factors for incident type 2 diabetes in individuals with a BMI of Resistance Syndrome (DESIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, A; Balkau, B; Lange, C; Tichet, J; Bonnet, F

    2010-02-01

    Risk factors for incident type 2 diabetes, in particular, hepatic markers, have rarely been studied in leaner individuals. We aimed to identify the metabolic and hepatic markers associated with incident diabetes in men and women with a BMI of or=27 kg/m(2). Risk factors for 9 year incident diabetes were compared in the French Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) cohort. Comparisons were made between the 2,947 participants with a BMI of or=27 kg/m(2). There were 92 incident cases of diabetes in individuals with a BMI of or=27 kg/m(2). Among those who were not markedly overweight, classical biological markers were associated with 9 year incident diabetes, glycaemia being the strongest predictor. gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), either considered as a continuous variable or at levels >or=20 U/l, was associated with incident diabetes, with a stronger effect in the BMI or=27 kg/m(2) (results after adjustment for alcohol intake, alanine aminotransferase, waist circumference and the HOMA insulin resistance index). In individuals with a BMI of resistance, suggesting potential interactions between GGT, enhanced hepatic neoglucogenesis and/or early alterations of insulin secretion.

  13. Muscle mass, BMI, and mortality among adults in the United States: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Matthew K; Hall, Charles B; Amodu, Afolarin; Sharma, Deep; Androga, Lagu; Hawkins, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    The level of body-mass index (BMI) associated with the lowest risk of death remains unclear. Although differences in muscle mass limit the utility of BMI as a measure of adiposity, no study has directly examined the effect of muscle mass on the BMI-mortality relationship. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 11,687 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Low muscle mass was defined using sex-specific thresholds of the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI). Proportional hazards models were created to model associations with all-cause mortality. At any level of BMI ≥22, participants with low muscle mass had higher body fat percentage (%TBF), an increased likelihood of diabetes, and higher adjusted mortality than other participants. Increases in %TBF manifested as 30-40% smaller changes in BMI than were observed in participants with preserved muscle mass. Excluding participants with low muscle mass or adjustment for ASMI attenuated the risk associated with low BMI, magnified the risk associated with high BMI, and shifted downward the level of BMI associated with the lowest risk of death. Higher ASMI was independently associated with lower mortality. Effects were similar in never-smokers and ever-smokers. Additional adjustment for waist circumference eliminated the risk associated with higher BMI. Results were unchanged after excluding unintentional weight loss, chronic illness, early mortality, and participants performing muscle-strengthening exercises or recommended levels of physical activity. Muscle mass mediates associations of BMI with adiposity and mortality and is inversely associated with the risk of death. After accounting for muscle mass, the BMI associated with the greatest survival shifts downward toward the normal range. These results provide a concrete explanation for the obesity paradox.

  14. Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and nutritional factors: a study with participants of ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Juliana Rodrigues de; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Mill, José Geraldo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between fat and fiber intakes and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HWP). Cross-sectional survey conducted from the baseline of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health Adult (ELSA-Brasil). Anthropometric measurements were conducted and the body mass index was calculated (BMI). Participants were classified according to the presence of HWP when waist circumference ≥ 102 and ≥ 88 cm, respectively, in men and women, and triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL. Fat and fiber intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and socioeconomic, demographic and behavioral variables were collected through a questionnaire. The χ² test, Mann-Whitney and Poisson regression were performed with significance level of 5%. There was no association between fiber and fat intakes with HWP. A lower prevalence of HWP among men was observed (IRR = 0.959; 95%CI 0.948 - 0.969). A higher prevalence of HWP was observed in participants with low physical activity (OR = 1.039, 95%CI 1.021 - 1.057), smoking history (OR = 1.044, 95%CI 1.031 - 1.057), lower per capita income (IRR = 1.035; 95%CI 1.022 - 1.049) and obesity (OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.305 - 1.341). Fat and fiber intakes were not associated with HWP. A higher prevalence of HWP was found in obese, but no association was found between intake of fat and fiber and phenotype.

  15. Where is the human waist? Definitions, manual compared toscanner measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    Where exactly is the human waist? How do definitions work for women who deviate from the conventional body shape? Does the measuring instrument matter? Waist is conventionally understood to be a measurable zone within the abdominal region of the torso, a zone of considerable importance. There needs to be a good consistent waist definition, one accurate and valid for everyone. Incorrect definition and measurement will result in technical errors, commercial wastage and customer dissatisfaction. This paper investigates the waist's location and size from the point of view of garment construction for 90 adult women scanned and manually measured in a breast reduction study at Flinders Medical Center, South Australia. There are differing definitions of the location of the human waist as well as different measuring instruments. This study compares:• Two definitions:• ISO 8559, 2.1.11 and • CAESAR, Waist Circumference Preferred.• Two different instruments:• the traditional tape measure, and • software-extracted computer-aided anthropometry (CAA). Substantial discrepancies between the results from these two locations-definitions were found. The choice of instrument used seriously affects the measurement obtained. This study demonstrates three things:• waist is not horizontal for a significant sub group of the population,• CAA extracted waist measurements are not accurate (same as real values) or valid (measures the characteristic) for a sub group, and • manually measured CAESAR Preferred Waist accurately and validly measured all individuals studied. There is a clear need to modify ISO waist definition for garment construction to include the full range of anatomical variation encountered amongst women.

  16. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-09-01

    Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. A gordura epicárdica é um depósito de gordura visceral na parte superior do organismo que pode desempenhar um papel importante no desenvolvimento de perfis cardiovasculares e metabólicos adversos. Há uma relação direta significativa entre a quantidade de gordura epicárdica e a adiposidade corporal geral (índice de massa corporal, IMC), mas dados sobre a adiposidade

  17. Thigh circumference and risk of heart disease and premature death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between thigh circumference and incident cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease and total mortality. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study with Cox proportional hazards model and restricted cubic splines. SETTING: Random subset of adults...... in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 1436 men and 1380 women participating in the Danish MONICA project, examined in 1987-8 for height, weight, and thigh, hip, and waist circumference, and body composition by impedance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year incidence of cardiovascular and coronary heart disease and 12.5 years...... of follow-up for total death. RESULTS: A small thigh circumference was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and total mortality in both men and women. A threshold effect for thigh circumference was evident, with greatly increased risk of premature death below...

  18. Impact of HSD11B1 polymorphisms on BMI and components of the metabolic syndrome in patients receiving psychotropic treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Quteineh, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic treatments represents a major health issue. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes tissue regeneration of active cortisol from cortisone. Elevated enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD1 may lead to the development of MetS. Methods We investigated the association between seven HSD11B1 gene (encoding 11β-HSD1) polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in a psychiatric sample treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs (n=478). The polymorphisms that survived Bonferroni correction were analyzed in two independent psychiatric samples (n R1 =168, n R2 =188) and in several large population-based samples (n 1 =5338; n 2 =123 865; n 3 >100 000). Results HSD11B1 rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers were found to be associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure compared with the reference genotype (P corrected <0.05). These associations were exclusively detected in women (n=257) with more than 3.1 kg/m 2, 7.5 cm, and 4.2 mmHg lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, in rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers compared with noncarriers (P corrected <0.05). Conversely, carriers of the rs846906-T allele had significantly higher waist circumference and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol exclusively in men (P corrected =0.028). The rs846906-T allele was also associated with a higher risk of MetS at 3 months of follow-up (odds ratio: 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-7.17, P corrected =0.014). No association was observed between HSD11B1 polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in the population-based samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that HSD11B1 polymorphisms may contribute toward the development of MetS in psychiatric patients treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, but do not

  19. Interaction between FTO rs9939609 and the Native American-origin ABCA1 rs9282541 affects BMI in the admixed Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Antuna-Puente, Bárbara; Villarreal-Molina, María Teresa; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; León-Mimila, Paola; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Merino-García, José Luis; Thompson-Bonilla, María Rocío; Jarquin, Diego; Sánchez-Hernández, Osvaldo Erik; Rodríguez-Arellano, Martha Eunice; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón-Castro, Jorge; Carnevale, Alessandra; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra

    2017-05-02

    The aim of this study was to explore whether interactions between FTO rs9939609 and ABCA1 rs9282541 affect BMI and waist circumference (WC), and could explain previously reported population differences in FTO-obesity and FTO-BMI associations in the Mexican and European populations. A total of 3938 adults and 636 school-aged children from Central Mexico were genotyped for both polymorphisms. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies from 22 class III obesity patients were analyzed for FTO and ABCA1 mRNA expression. Generalized linear models were used to test for associations and gene-gene interactions affecting BMI, WC and FTO expression. FTO and ABCA1 risk alleles were not individually associated with higher BMI or WC. However, in the absence of the ABCA1 risk allele, the FTO risk variant was significantly associated with higher BMI (P = 0.043) and marginally associated with higher WC (P = 0.067), as reported in Europeans. The gene-gene interaction affecting BMI and WC was statistically significant only in adults. FTO mRNA expression in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue according to ABCA1 genotype was consistent with these findings. This is the first report showing evidence of FTO and ABCA1 gene variant interactions affecting BMI, which may explain previously reported population differences. Further studies are needed to confirm this interaction.

  20. Waist-to-Height Ratio as an Indicator of High Blood Pressure in Urban Indian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, P E; Shastri, L; Thomas, T; Duggan, C; Bosch, R; McDonald, C M; Kurpad, A V; Kuriyan, R

    2015-09-01

    To examine the utility of waist-to-height ratio to identify risk of high blood pressure when compared to body mass index and waist circumference in South Indian urban school children. Secondary data analysis from a cross-sectional study. Urban schools around Bangalore, India. 1913 children (58.1% males) aged 6-16 years with no prior history of chronic illness (PEACH study). Height, weight, waist circumference and of blood pressure were measured. Children with blood pressure ?90th percentile of age-, sex-, and height-adjusted standards were labelled as having high blood pressure. 13.9% had a high waist-to-height ratio, 15.1% were overweight /obese and 21.7% had high waist circumference. High obesity indicators were associated with an increased risk of high blood pressure. The adjusted risk ratios (95% CI) of high systolic blood pressure with waist-to-height ratio, body mass index and waist circumference were 2.48 (1.76, 3.47), 2.59 (1.66, 4.04) and 2.38 (1.74, 3.26), respectively. Similar results were seen with high diastolic blood pressure. Obesity indicators, especially waist-to-height ratio due to its ease of measurement, can be useful initial screening tools for risk of high blood pressure in urban Indian school children.

  1. Hip circumference is associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol response following statin therapy in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio-Magalhães, J A; Ferreira-Sae, M C; Souza, F A; Grespan-Magossi, A M; Schreiber, R; Velloso, L A; Geloneze, B; Franchini, K G; Nadruz, W

    2011-10-01

    This report investigated the relationship between anthropometric measurements of body fat distribution and lipid response to statins in hypercholesterolemic hypertensive patients. We prospectively examined 129 subjects who used either simvastatin 20 mg/day (no.=83) or atorvastatin 10 mg/day (no.=46) for 3 months. Anthropometry included evaluation of body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip-ratio. Significant decreases in LDL (pcorrelation between waist circumference and HDLcholesterol levels was detected (r=-0.18; p=0.04). Conversely, a direct relationship between hip circumference and HDLcholesterol response to statins was found in the whole sample (r=0.24; p=0.006), while no other anthropometric measurement displayed significant correlation with lipid changes. The association between HDL-cholesterol response and hip circumference was further confirmed by stepwise regression analysis adjusted for baseline HDL-cholesterol levels, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, and waist circumference. Hip circumference, a surrogate marker of peripheral adiposity, is associated with HDL-cholesterol changes following statin therapy in hypertensive patients.

  2. Effects of head circumference and metabolic syndrome on cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Eom, Jin-Sup; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Hong, Chang Hyung

    2010-01-01

    Brain volume progressively decreases with an increase in atrophy, and the brain becomes more susceptible to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Metabolic syndrome has also been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline in the elderly. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of head circumference and metabolic syndrome on cognitive decline. This study was part of a longitudinal study conducted on Koreans aged 60 years or older. We analyzed a final sample of 596 Korean participants with complete baseline and 2-year follow-up data. The cognitive function of the subjects was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Head circumference was measured from the glabella to the occipital protuberance using a measuring tape. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the NCEP-ATP III standards. Central obesity was assessed on the basis of waist-circumference values, in accordance with the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region report on Asians. We used a longitudinal factorial design in which the MMSE score was the dependent variable, and head circumference and metabolic syndrome were considered as factors. After adjusting the results for age, gender, education, height, weight, baseline MMSE, and number of follow-up years, we observed that smaller head circumference and the presence of metabolic syndrome were independently associated with rapid cognitive decline. All these findings suggest that smaller head circumference and the presence of metabolic syndrome have additive effects on cognitive decline. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Sleep duration is associated with body fat and muscle mass and waist-to-height ratio beyond conventional obesity parameters in Korean adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jee Hyun; Seo, Won Hee

    2017-08-01

    While evidence has supported a strong association between sleep duration and obesity globally, results from studies of children and adolescents have been conflicting, and information about a sex-specific association has been limited. This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep duration with various parameters of obesity among South Korean adolescents. This population-based, cross-sectional study analysed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2009 and 2010. Data of 990 adolescents were analysed. Sleep duration was based on a self-reported questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BFP) and skeletal muscle index (SMI, appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight) were assessed as parameters of obesity. Mean sleep duration in boys was associated inversely with BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and positively with SMI. Proportions of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI increased significantly with increased sleep duration only in boys. Also, in boys, decreased sleep duration was associated significantly with the increased risk of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI, even after adjusting for confounding factors. However, in girls, there was no significant association between sleep duration and obesity parameters except WC. Periodic assessment of sleep duration in relation to body fat or muscle mass in male adolescents may be considered, especially in those who are at risk for obesity or related disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Association of Waist-Height Ratio with Diabetes Risk: A 4-Year Longitudinal Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jeong Son

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWaist-to-height ratio (WHtR is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of various baseline adiposity indices, including WHtR, with the development of diabetes over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean individuals.MethodsA total of 2,900 nondiabetic participants (mean age, 44.3 years; 2,078 men in a health screening program, who repeated the medical check-up in 2005 and 2009, were recruited. Subjects were divided into two groups according to development of diabetes after 4 years. The cut-off values of baseline body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and WHtR for the development of diabetes over 4 years were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, and mean area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC of each index were assessed. The odds ratio (OR for diabetes development was analyzed for each of the three baseline adiposity indices.ResultsDuring the follow-up period, 101 new cases (3.5% of diabetes were diagnosed. The cut-off WHtR value for diabetes development was 0.51. Moreover, WHtR had the highest AUROC value for diabetes development among the three adiposity indices (0.716, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.669 to 0.763; 0.702, 95% CI, 0.655 to 0.750 for WC; 0.700, 95% CI, 0.651 to 0.750 for BMI. After adjusting for confounding variables, the ORs of WHtR and WC for diabetes development were 1.95 (95% CI, 1.14 to 3.34 and 1.96 (95% CI, 1.10 to 3.49, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding BMI.ConclusionIncreased baseline WHtR and WC correlated with the development of diabetes after 4 years. WHtR might be a useful screening measurement to identify individuals at high risk for diabetes.

  5. Waist-to-height ratio and sedentary lifestyle as predictors of metabolic syndrome in children in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre P, F; Coca, A; Aguirre, M F; Celis, G

    2017-11-04

    To determine the predictors and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the presence of vascular inflammation in apparently-normal children (10-15 years) of both sexes in Guayaquil, Ecuador. We included 395 apparently-healthy students from a middle-income school in a cross-sectional survey. Informed consent was obtained from students and parents. Anthropometric measurements including blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and blood tests were recorded. Vascular inflammation parameters were assessed. Percentiles of the different parameters were used, and MS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (NCEP-ATPIII). Waist circumference>P 75, blood pressure>P 90, glucose>100mg/dl, triglycerides>100mg/dl, HDL100mg/dl were present in 70% of subjects with MS. The WHtR threshold≥0.5 was 100% sensitive in both sexes (67% specificity in boys and 69% in girls). There were significant associations between the WHtR and pre-hypertension and sedentary lifestyle (P<0.001 and P<0.003 respectively). A WHtR value of ≥0.50 indicated a 2.2-fold increased risk of MS compared with normal WHtR, and normal weight. A WHtR≥0.5 was 100% sensitive in detecting MS in 10-15 year-old boys and girls in the normal or overweight range of the BMI. This assessment is a simple and practical tool for use in population-based studies of cardiovascular risk. When combined with pre-hypertension and a sedentary lifestyle, the WHtR is highly sensitive in predicting MS. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting cardiometabolic disturbances from waist-to-height ratio: findings from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Marcelo; Chor, Dóra; Braga, José Uéleres; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in predicting cardiometabolic outcomes and compare cut-off points for Brazilian adults. Cross-sectional study. WHtR areas under the curve (AUC) were compared with those for BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). The outcomes of interest were hypertension, diabetes, hypertriacylglycerolaemia and presence of at least two components of metabolic syndrome (≥2 MetS). Cut-offs for WHtR were compared and validity measures were estimated for each point. Teaching and research institutions in six Brazilian state capitals, 2008-2010. Women (n 5026) and men (n 4238) aged 35-54 years who participated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) at baseline. WHtR age-adjusted AUC ranged from 0·68 to 0·72 in men and 0·69 to 0·75 in women, with smaller AUC for hypertriacylglycerolaemia and the largest for ≥2 MetS. WHtR performed better than BMI for practically all outcomes; better than WHR for hypertension in both sexes; and displayed larger AUC than WC in predicting diabetes mellitus. It also offered better discriminatory power for ≥2 MetS in men; and was better than WC, but not WHR, in women. Optimal cut-off points of WHtR were 0·55 (women) and 0·54 (men), but they presented high false-negative rate compared with 0·50. We recommend using WHtR (which performed similarly to, or better than, other available indices of adiposity) as an anthropometric index with good discriminatory power for cardiometabolic outcomes in Brazilian adults, indicating the already referenced limit of WHtR≥0·50.

  7. Waist-hip ratio is a poor predictor of changes in visceral fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Droop, A.; Bakker, C J

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of weight loss on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at trochanter level. Changes in fat depots were compared with changes in circumference measures and the waist-hip ratio (WHR) in obese

  8. The Correlations between Extremity Circumferences with Total and Regional Amounts of Skeletal Muscle and Muscle Strength in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwi Ryun Kwon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInsulin resistance is related to central obesity and the amount of skeletal muscle. A simple and practical anthropometric marker for muscle mass is not known, although waist circumference (WC is used as an indicator of abdominal obesity. The aims of this study were to investigate whether arm (AC and thigh circumferences (TC can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and if they are related to muscle strength.MethodsA total of 110 obese (body mass index [BMI]≥25 kg/m2 women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, and WC, AC, and TC were measured. Abdominal visceral fat (AVF, subcutaneous fat (ASF, and total fat (ATF were assessed by computed tomography, regional muscle (MM, and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength by one repetition maximum (1RM of both extremities (chest and leg press and insulin resistance by KITT.ResultsThe mean age was 56.2±7.3 years, duration of diabetes was 4.2±4.4 years, and BMI was 27.2±2.8 kg/m2. WC was correlated with ATF, AVF, and ASF (r=0.728, P<0.001; r=0.515, P<0.001; r=0.608, P<0.001, respectively. Arm MM was correlated with AC (r=0.500, P<0.001, and leg MM with TC (r=0.291, P=0.002. Upper 1RM was related to AC/WC ratio (r=0.359, P<0.001, and lower 1RM was to TC/WC ratio (r=0.286, P=0.003. Insulin resistance had significant relations with AVF, WC, and total MM (r=-0.262, P=0.008; r=-0.217, P=0.029; r=0.160, P=0.031, respectively.ConclusionThe muscle mass was related to extremity circumferences, and muscle strength was to extremity/waist circumference ratio in obese women with type 2 diabetes.

  9. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cruz, A; Wojcicki, J M; Bacardí-Gascón, M; Castellón-Zaragoza, A; García-Gallardo, J L; Schwartz, N; Heyman, M B

    2011-01-01

    To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI) status, children's perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile), obesity (BMI > 95% ile) and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile). Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children's and parents' weights and heights were measured. Children were considered to have migrant parents if parents were not born in Baja California. One hundred and twenty-two children and their parents were recruited. The mean age of the children was 10.1 ± 1.0 years. Forty nine per cent of children were overweight or obese. Children with obese parents (BMI > 30) had greater odds of being obese, Odds Ratio (OR) 4.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.2-19, p = 0.03). Children with migrant parents had greater odds of being obese, OR= 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6-8.3), p = 0.01) and of having abdominal obesity, OR = 3.2 (95% CI, 1.4-7.1, p = 0.01). Children from migrant parents have greater risk of higher consumption of potato chips, OR = 8.0 (95% CI, 2.1-29.1, p = 0.01). Children from non-migrant parents had greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Parental obesity and migration are associated with increased risk of obesity among Mexican children. Children whose parents were born in Baja California have greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Further studies should evaluate the role of migration on risk for childhood obesity.

  10. Cardiovascular risk assessment in children: role of physical activity, family history and parental smoking on BMI and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giussani, Marco; Antolini, Laura; Brambilla, Paolo; Pagani, Massimo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Valsecchi, Maria G; Lucini, Daniela; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2013-05-01

    Aim of the study was to assess the role of family history, physical activity and parental smoking in the prediction of BMI, SBP and hypertension risk in children. In a paediatric primary care setting, a sample of 1310 children aged 5-14 years was systematically selected by 48 family paediatricians in northern Italy. BMI, waist circumference-to-height ratio (WtHr), SBP and DBP were measured and the information on the presence of small birth weight for gestational age (SGA) and early adiposity rebound (EAR) was collected. Data concerning exercise, video time, family history for cardiovascular diseases and parental smoking were derived from parental interview. Data were collected using an 'ad hoc designed' electronic sheet available online. Multiple linear regression showed that the presence of EAR, low exercise (2  h/day TV/videogames/computer) and parental smoking were associated to higher BMI (z-score; P child health. Physical exercise plays a pivotal role in obesity prevention and protection from hypertension risk.

  11. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Babai

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2. Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%. When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%. Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166-1.190. By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093-1.118. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc = 69% and 61%, respectively] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65% with sensitivity and

  12. Arm circumference: its importance for dialysis patients in the obesity era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpolat, Tekin; Kaya, Coşkun; Utaş, Cengiz; Arinsoy, Turgay; Taşkapan, Hülya; Erdem, Emre; Yilmaz, M Emin; Ataman, Rezzan; Bozfakioğlu, Semra; Özener, Çetin; Karayaylali, Ibrahim; Kazancioğlu, Rümeyza; Çamsari, Taner; Yavuz, Mahmut; Ersoy, Fevzi; Duman, Soner; Ateş, Kenan

    2013-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the association between arm circumference and body mass index (BMI) and to discuss problems, mainly arm circumference and cuff size mismatch, that could affect the reliability of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) among peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients. 525 PD and 502 HD patients from 16 centers were included in the study. A two-part questionnaire was used to gather information from the participants. Arm circumferences were categorized into four groups according to the British Hypertension Society cuff size recommendations. Mean BMI and arm circumference of all participants were 25.0 kg/m(2) and 27.6 cm, respectively. There was a significant correlation between BMI and arm circumference. The mean BMI and arm circumference values were higher in PD patients than in HD patients. Requirement of a large-sized adult cuff was more common among PD patients compared to HD patients (14 % vs 8 %, p = 0.002). Since HBPM is a useful tool for clinicians to improve BP control, nephrologists should be aware of the problems related to HBPM in dialysis patients and take an active role to increase the reliability of HBPM.

  13. Association of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and type 2 diabetes mellitus among adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongcheng; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Jingzhi; Wang, Chongjian; Luo, Xinping; Zhang, Jiatong; Zhu, Tian; Li, Xi; Yin, Lei; Pang, Chao; Feng, Tianping; Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Lu; Li, Linlin; Yang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Hongyan; Hu, Dongsheng

    2016-09-01

    To clarify the association of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and type 2 diabetes mellitus among adults in China. In the present case-control study, we included 1,685 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 7,141 normal glucose-tolerant controls from the Henan Province of China in 2011. Elevated waist circumference (GW) was defined as ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women. Hypertriglyceridemia (HT) was defined as >1.7 m mol/L triglycerides (TG) level. The association of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and type 2 diabetes mellitus was investigated by sex, body mass index, physical activity, and family history of diabetes. Cases and controls differed in age, waist circumference (WC), weight, TG level, fasting glucose, body mass index, smoking status, diabetic family history, physical activity and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (P type 2 diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 4.14, 2.42 and 6.23, respectively). Only HTGW was consistently associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, with or without adjustment. The strongest relationship between HTGW and type 2 diabetes mellitus was for subjects with body mass index 24.0 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 6.54, 95% confidence interval 4.22-10.14) after adjustment for cofounding variables. HTGW was stably and significantly associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adult Chinese. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Richard W; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E

    2015-01-01

    in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes. PARTICIPANTS: 148,731 current, former and never-smokers of European ancestry aged ≥ 16 years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research...

  15. Association between Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and changes in weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet measured by using the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) is associated with lower obesity risk. The newly proposed Nordic Diet could hold similar beneficial effects. Because of the increasing focus on the interaction...

  16. Waist circumference and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, Radboud M.; Naude, Petrus J. W.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    Both visceral obesity and depression are associated with impaired health and excess mortality, possibly through overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms like adipose tissue derived inflammatory markers. These results, however, are primarily based on population-based surveys, often restricted to a

  17. Lower waist circumference in mildly‐stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut‐off point than in non‐stunted counterparts.

  18. Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick Caroline; Pagani Linda S; Barnett Tracie A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the st...

  19. 24h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in weight, waist circumference and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus Christian; Ängquist, Lars; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2013-01-01

    In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity.......In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity....

  20. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Boshuizen, Hendriek C

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied.......Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied....

  1. The metabolic syndrome in black hypertensive women - Waist circumference more strongly related than body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rheeder, P; Stolk, RP; Veenhouwer, JF; Grobbee, DE

    Objective. To examine the association between measures of. obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome in treated. black female hypertensive subjects. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. An urban primary health care centre in Mamelodi, Pretoria. Subjects. Women with hypertension and without

  2. Waist circumference and Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, R.M.; Naude, P.J.; Comijs, H.C.; Schoevers, R.A.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Both visceral obesity and depression are associated with impaired health and excess mortality, possibly through overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms like adipose tissue derived inflammatory markers. These results, however, are primarily based on population-based surveys, often restricted to a

  3. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, H.; A, van der A.D.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Forouchi, N.G.; Wareham, N.; Halkjaer, J.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Boeing, H.; Buijsse, B.; Masala, G.; Palli, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and fruit and vegetable fiber with

  4. Fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference in European women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobsen, M.U.; Due, K.M.; Dethlefsen, C.; Halkjaer, J.; Holst, C.; Forouhi, N.G.; Tjonneland, A.; Boeing, H.; Buijsse, B.; Palli, D.; Masala, G.; A, van der D.; Wareham, N.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Overvad, K.

    2012-01-01

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. However, human studies have suggested that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain. We investigated the associations between

  5. Waist-to-height ratio is the best anthropometric predictor of hypertension: A population-based study with women from a state of northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminha, Tainá C S; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Costa, Narithania S; Nakano, Ricardo P; Carvalho, Renata Elyonara S; Xavier, Antônio F S; Assunção, Monica L

    2017-01-01

    The WHO recommends the use of some anthropometric parameters as a screening resource for individuals under cardiometabolic risk. However, in the validation of these indicators, Brazilian women were not included. These women have different anthropometric profile compared to women who integrated the samples of the validation studies. We aimed to verify the accuracy of anthropometric indicators as a resource for the screening of women with hypertension. A cross-sectional study, with a probability sample of 3143 women (20-49 years) from the state of Alagoas (northeast of Brazil), was carried out. Hypertension was identified by systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg and/or regular use of antihypertensive drugs. The anthropometric indicators analyzed were BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage, and conicity index. The accuracy definition of the indicators and the identification of best cut-off points were carried out on the basis of ROC curve analysis and Youden index, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 21.8%. All indicators used in hypertension identification had area under the ROC curve (AUC) >0.5. The WHtR with cut-off point of 0.54 was the best performance indicator (AUC = 0.72; P hypertension. In the absence of specific studies and considering the largest ethnic proximity and environmental/epidemiological similarity, the findings now obtained can be extended to women of other Brazilian states, especially those in the Northeastern region.

  6. Use of BMI as marker of adiposity in a metabolic syndrome severity score: derivation and validation in predicting long-term disease outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Filipp, Stephanie L; Musani, Solomon K; Sims, Mario; DeBoer, Mark D

    2018-02-01

    Estimates of adiposity in evaluating the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have traditionally utilized measures of waist circumference (WC), whereas body mass index (BMI) is more commonly used clinically. Our objective was to determine if a MetS severity Z-score employing BMI as its measure of adiposity (MetS-Z-BMI) would perform similarly to a WC-based score (MetS-Z-WC) in predicting future disease. To formulate the MetS-Z-BMI, we performed confirmatory factor analysis on a sex- and race/ethnicity-specific basis on MetS-related data for 6870 adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 1999-2010. We then validated this score and compared it to MetS-Z-WC in assessing correlations with future coronary heart disease (CHD) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using Cox proportional hazard analysis of 13,094 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and Jackson Heart Study. Loading factors, which represent the relative contribution of each component to the latent MetS factor, were lower for BMI than for WC in formulating the two respective scores (MetS-Z-BMI and MetS-Z-WC). Nevertheless, MetS-Z-BMI and MetS-Z-WC exhibited similar hazard ratios (HR) toward future disease. For each one standard-deviation-unit increase in MetS-Z-BMI, HR for CHD was 1.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65, 1.88) and HR for T2DM was 3.39 (CI 3.16, 3.63) (both p BMI scores in their associations with future CHD and T2DM. A MetS severity Z-score utilizing BMI as its measure of adiposity operated similarly to a WC-based score in predicting future CHD and T2DM, suggesting overall similarity in MetS-based risk as estimated by both measures of adiposity. This indicates potential clinical usefulness of MetS-Z-BMI in assessing and following MetS-related risk over time. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. About BMI for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 95% of similarly aged boys in this reference population – and he would be considered to have obesity. For more information and to access the CDC Growth Charts For adults, the interpretation of BMI does ...

  8. Maternal Obesity and Neck Circumference

    OpenAIRE

    Anglim, B.; O'Higgins, Amy; Daly, Niamh; Farren, Maria; Turner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Obese women are more likely to require general anaesthesia for an obstetric intervention than non-obese. Difficult tracheal intubation and oxygen desaturation is more common in pregnancy. Failed tracheal intubation has been associated with an increase in neck circumference (NC). We studied the relationship between maternal obesity and NC as pregnancy advanced in women attending a standard antenatal clinic. Of the 96 women recruited, 13.5% were obese. The mean NC was 36.8cm (SD 1.9) in the obe...

  9. Fedmerelatererede sundhedsomkostninger vurderet ud fra måling af enten BMI eller taljeomkreds--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Olsen, Kim Rose; Søgaard, Jes

    2009-01-01

    circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). The analyses show that the combination of BMI and WC does not improve the identification of high-risk individuals compared with the use of WC alone. The health service costs increase by 1.24% in women and 2.08% in men pr. cm increase in WC above the normal range....

  10. Fedmerelatererede sundhedsomkostninger vurderet ud fra måling af enten BMI eller taljeomkreds--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Olsen, Kim Rose; Søgaard, Jes

    2009-01-01

    circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). The analyses show that the combination of BMI and WC does not improve the identification of high-risk individuals compared with the use of WC alone. The health service costs increase by 1.24% in women and 2.08% in men pr. cm increase in WC above the normal range...

  11. Specific Metabolic Markers Are Associated with Future Waist-Gaining Phenotype in Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Merz

    Full Text Available Our study aims to identify metabolic markers associated with either a gain in abdominal (measured by waist circumference or peripheral (measured by hip circumference body fat mass.Data of 4 126 weight-gaining adults (18-75 years from three population-based, prospective German cohort studies (EPIC, KORA, DEGS were analysed regarding a waist-gaining (WG or hip-gaining phenotype (HG. The phenotypes were obtained by calculating the differences of annual changes in waist minus hip circumference. The difference was displayed for all cohorts. The highest 10% of this difference were defined as WG whereas the lowest 10% were defined as HG. A total of 121 concordant metabolite measurements were conducted using Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ® kits in EPIC and KORA. Sex-specific associations with metabolite concentration as independent and phenotype as the dependent variable adjusted for confounders were calculated. The Benjamini-Hochberg method was used to correct for multiple testing.Across studies both sexes gained on average more waist than hip circumference. We could identify 12 metabolites as being associated with the WG (n = 8 or HG (n = 4 in men, but none were significant after correction for multiple testing; 45 metabolites were associated with the WG (n = 41 or HG (n = 4 in women. For WG, n = 21 metabolites remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Respective odds ratios (OR ranged from 0.66 to 0.73 for tryptophan, the diacyl-phosphatidylcholines (PC C32:3, C36:0, C38:0, C38:1, C42:2, C42:5, the acyl-alkyl-PCs C32:2, C34:0, C36:0, C36:1, C36:2, C38:0, C38:2, C40:1, C40:2, C40:5, C40:6, 42:2, C42:3 and lyso-PC C17:0.Both weight-gaining men and women showed a clear tendency to gain more abdominal than peripheral fat. Gain of abdominal fat seems to be related to an initial metabolic state reflected by low concentrations of specific metabolites, at least in women. Thus, higher levels of specific PCs may play a protective role in gaining

  12. Mid-upper arm circumference: A surrogate for body mass index in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, pregnancy-associated weight gain and oedema, as well as late booking in our population setting, cause concern about the reliability of using the BMI to assess body fat or nutritional status in pregnancy. The mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) has been used for many decades to assess malnutrition in children ...

  13. Upper arm circumference measurement for detecting overweight and obesity in children aged 6-7 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Rosariah Ayu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a worldwide problem and is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Nutritional status in children has traditionally been determined by body mass index (BMI scores, but with limitations. Upper arm circumference measurement may be a better predictor of energy, protein, and fat storage, as well as a simpler method for screening overweight and obesity in children. Objective To determine the diagnostic value of upper arm circumference compared to BMI for detecting overweight and obesity in children aged 6-7 years. Methods This diagnostic study with a cross-sectional design was performed from September to October 2015 at 16 primary schools in Palembang, Indonesia. We measured the heights, weights, and upper arm circumferences, and calculated BMIs of 2,258 children. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to find an optimal upper arm circumference cut-off point to detect overweight and obesity. Diagnostic value was calculated by using a 2x2 table analysis. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 5.8% and 11.7%, respectively. The optimal upper arm circumference cut-off points for detecting overweight in children aged 6-7 years was 185 mm (sensitivity 88.1% and specificity 78.3%, and for obesity was 195 mm (sensitivity 90.15% and specificity 86.65%. Upper arm circumference had a strong correlation with BMI. Conclusion Upper arm circumference measurement is an accurate method fordistinguishing between normoweight, overweight, and obesity in children aged 6-7 years.

  14. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H Marike; Schouten, Jan P; Schröder, Carolien P; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Vonk, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and

  15. Final focus designs for crab waist colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084369; Levichev, Evgeny; Piminov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The crab waist collision scheme promises significant luminosity gain. The successful upgrade of the DA$\\Phi$NE collider proved the principle of crab waist collision and increased luminosity 3 times. Therefore, several new projects try to implement the scheme. The paper reviews interaction region designs with the crab waist collision scheme for already existent collider DA$\\Phi$NE and SuperKEKB, presently undergoing commissioning, for the projects of SuperB in Italy, CTau in Novosibirsk and FCC-ee at CERN.

  16. Final focus designs for crab waist colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bogomyagkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab waist collision scheme promises significant luminosity gain. The successful upgrade of the DAΦNE collider proved the principle of crab waist collision and increased luminosity 3 times. Therefore, several new projects try to implement the scheme. The paper reviews interaction region designs with the crab waist collision scheme for already existent collider DAΦNE and SuperKEKB, presently undergoing commissioning, for the projects of SuperB in Italy, CTau in Novosibirsk and FCC-ee at CERN.

  17. Association of Neck Circumference with Obesity in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Noor, Zujaja Tul; Rashed, Maitha; Jaberi, Hadeel Al

    2015-12-15

    Obesity levels have been dramatically increased in the United Arab Emirates over the last few years. High levels of body Mass Index, waist circumference, and percent of total body fat as a measure of obesity have found to be related to cardiovascular risk factors and other diseases. Neck circumference is a new tool that has been linked to obesity. However, no studies in UAE have been conducted yet. The purpose of this study was to measure the obesity levels in a college population and to correlate them with NC and other anthropometrical indexes. Two hundred forty three (243) female students aged 18-25 were conveniently selected to participate in the study. Anthropometrical indexes were obtained from all subjects e after fasting. The prevalence of overweight and obesity together was found to be 28.4 % (n = 69). Pearson correlation showed that WC, NC and BF (%) were significantly positively related to obesity, (r = 0.790; r = 0.758; r = 0.767, p obesity. NC was found to be independently associated with obesity levels in Emirati college students.

  18. The predictive value of waist-to-height ratio for ischemic stroke in a population-based prospective cohort study among Mongolian men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Xu, Tian; Bu, Xiaoqing; Peng, Hao; Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Mingzhi; Zhang, Yonghong

    2014-01-01

    To explore the associations between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and risk of ischemic stroke among Mongolian men in China. A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted from June 2003 to July 2012 in Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region in north China. A total of 1034 men aged 20 years and older free of cardiovascular disease were included in the cohort and followed up for an average of 9.2 years. The subjects were divided into four groups by WHtR levels (WHtR0.60). The cumulative survival rates of ischemic stroke among the four groups were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier curves and compared by log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were employed to evaluate the associations between obesity indices and ischemic stroke. A total of 47 ischemic stroke patients were observed during the follow-up period. The cumulative incidence and incidence density of ischemic stroke were 4.55% and 507.61/100 000 person-years, respectively. After the major risk factors were adjusted, individuals with WHtR>0.60 had a 3.56-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke compared with those with 0.40≤WHtR≤0.50. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ischemic stroke for a 1-SD increase in WHtR was 1.34(95% CI: 1.00-1.81). After adding BMI or WC to models, higher WHtR remained significantly associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the cumulative survival rate in the group with WHtR>0.60 was significantly lower than in the group with 0.40≤WHtR≤0.50 (log-rank test, P = 0.025). The areas under the curve for each index were as follows: 0.586 for WHtR, 0.543 for WC; 0.566 for BMI. Higher WHtR is associated with risk of ischemic stroke in Mongolian males. WHtR may be useful in predicting ischemic stroke incidence in males.

  19. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  20. The activity of the endocannabinoid metabolising enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in subcutaneous adipocytes correlates with BMI in metabolically healthy humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Stephen PH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endocannabinoid system (ECS is a ubiquitously expressed signalling system, with involvement in lipid metabolism and obesity. There are reported changes in obesity of blood concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglcyerol (2-AG, and of adipose tissue expression levels of the two key catabolic enzymes of the ECS, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL. Surprisingly, however, the activities of these enzymes have not been assayed in conditions of increasing adiposity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether FAAH and MGL activities in human subcutaneous adipocytes are affected by body mass index (BMI, or other markers of adiposity and metabolism. Methods Subcutaneous abdominal mature adipocytes, fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained from 28 metabolically healthy subjects representing a range of BMIs. FAAH and MGL activities were assayed in mature adipocytes using radiolabelled substrates. Serum glucose, insulin and adipokines were determined using ELISAs. Results MGL activity showed no relationship with BMI or other adiposity indices, metabolic markers (fasting serum insulin or glucose or serum adipokine levels (adiponectin, leptin or resistin. In contrast, FAAH activity in subcutaneous adipocytes correlated positively with BMI and waist circumference, but not with skinfold thickness, metabolic markers or serum adipokine levels. Conclusions In this study, novel evidence is provided that FAAH activity in subcutaneous mature adipocytes increases with BMI, whereas MGL activity does not. These findings support the hypothesis that some components of the ECS are upregulated with increasing adiposity in humans, and that AEA and 2-AG may be regulated differently.

  1. BMI as a mediator of the relationship between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in children: a mediation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Díez-Fernández

    Full Text Available Muscular fitness levels have been associated with cardiometabolic risk in children, although whether body weight acts as a confounder or as an intermediate variable in this relationship remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors is mediated by body mass index (BMI.Cross-sectional study using a sample of 1158 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the province of Cuenca, Spain. We measured anthropometrics and biochemical variables and we calculated a muscular fitness index as the sum of z-scores of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing long jump, and we estimated a previously validated cardiometabolic risk index (CMRI. Linear regression models were fitted for mediation analysis to assess whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk was mediated by BMI.Children with normal weight (NW had a better cardiometabolic risk profile than their overweight (OW or obese (OB peers after controlling for muscular fitness. Marginal estimated mean ± SE values for NW, OW and OB categories of CMRI were -0.75 ± 0.06 0.05 ± 0.09 >-1.16 ± 0.13 for lower, middle and upper quartiles of muscular fitness in boys and 1.01 ± 0.16 > 0.10 ± 0.09 > -1.02 ± 0.15 in girls, both p < 0.001, but differences disappeared when controlling for BMI. BMI acted as a full mediator between muscular fitness and most cardiometabolic risk factors (Sobel test z = -11.44 for boys; z = -11.83 for girls; p < 0.001 in CMRI mediation model and as a partial mediator in the case of waist circumference (Sobel test z=-14.86 for boys; z=-14.51 for girls; p<0.001.BMI mediates the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in schoolchildren. Overall, good muscular fitness is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, but particularly when accompanied by normal weight.

  2. Carbohydrate intake and cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Lindsay S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intakes of subgroups of energy-providing carbohydrate, and markers of cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American (AA children. A cross sectional analysis was performed on data from a sample of 9-11 year old children (n = 95 with BMI greater than the 85th percentile. Fasting hematological and biochemical values for selected markers of cardiometabolic risk factors were related to intakes of carbohydrates and sugars. After adjusting for gender, pubertal stage and waist circumference, multivariate regression analysis showed that higher intakes of carbohydrate (with fat and protein held constant were associated with higher plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C, and worse insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR. After dividing carbohydrate into non-sugar versus sugar fractions, sugars were significantly related to higher TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C, lower adipocyte fatty acid insulin sensitivity (ISI-FFA, and was closely associated with increased HOMA-IR. Similar trends were observed for sugars classified as added sugars, and for sugars included in beverages. Further dividing sugar according to the food group from which it was consumed showed that consuming more sugar from the candy/soda food group was highly significantly associated with increased TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C and closely associated with increased HOMA-IR. Sugars consumed in all fruit-containing foods were significantly associated with lower ISI-FFA. Sugars consumed as fruit beverages was significantly associated with VLDL-C, IDL-C and ISI-FFA whereas sugars consumed as fresh, dried and preserved fruits did not show significant associations with these markers. Sugars consumed from in all dairy foods were significantly associated with higher TG, VLDL-C and IDL-C, and with significantly lower HDL-C and ISI-FFA. These effects were associated with sugars consumed

  3. Chromosomal contacts connect loci associated with autism, BMI and head circumference phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loviglio, M N; Leleu, M; Männik, K

    2017-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) are major contributors to genomic imbalance disorders. Phenotyping of 137 unrelated deletion and reciprocal duplication carriers of the distal 16p11.2 220 kb BP2-BP3 interval showed that these rearrangements are associated with autism spectrum disorders and mirror...

  4. Low serum 25(OH)D levels are assocıated to hıgher BMI and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overweight and obese) had higher waist circumferences, triglyceride levels, LDL cholesterol levels, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR ratios, parathyroid hormone levels, and fat mass, and had lower 25(OH)D levels (p<0.05). The overweight group ...

  5. Mid-arm circumference and mid-arm/head circumference ratio in term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Barbosa Duque Figueira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Mid-arm circumference of the newborn is strongly associated with birth weight and is a very good indicator of low and insufficient birth weight. However, there are few Brazilian studies on the relationship between mid-arm and head circumferences and, thus, this does not form part of the routine evaluation for newborns. OBJECTIVES: To establish the mid-arm circumference and mid-arm/head circumference ratio in a population of term newborns. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional study carried out between June 1997 and August 1999. SETTING: Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: Term newborns (66 males and 65 females of appropriate growth for gestational age, whose mothers were healthy, were included in the study. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Arm circumference, arm circumference/head circumference ratio, birth weight and gestational age were measured within 48 hours of birth. Data were considered significant when p < 0.01. RESULTS: The mean values for the mid-arm circumference were 10.76 cm (standard deviation, SD = 0.68 for females and 10.76 (SD = 0.81 for males. The mean value for the mid-arm/head circumference ratio was 0.31 (SD = 0.02 for both sexes. Mid-arm circumference values were significantly related to birth weight and gestational age, whereas mid-arm/head circumference ratio was related only to birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Mid-arm circumference and mid-arm/head circumference ratio values were established for the studied population. It was possible to obtain curves for both mid-arm circumference and mid-arm/head circumference ratio in relation to birth weight. However, for mid-arm circumference, it was only possible to obtain curves in relation to gestational age. The use of the regression curves did not seem powerful enough to predict the mid-arm circumference and mid-arm/head circumference ratio in this population of term newborns. There were no gender differences for either of the measurements studied.

  6. Male preferences for female waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Sagata, Katayo; Linklater, Wayne L; Dixson, Alan F

    2010-04-01

    One hundred men, living in three villages in a remote region of the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea were asked to judge the attractiveness of photographs of women who had undergone micrograft surgery to reduce their waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs). Micrograft surgery involves harvesting adipose tissue from the waist and reshaping the buttocks to produce a low WHR and an "hourglass" female figure. Men consistently chose postoperative photographs as being more attractive than preoperative photographs of the same women. Some women gained, and some lost weight, postoperatively, with resultant changes in body mass index (BMI). However, changes in BMI were not related to men's judgments of attractiveness. These results show that the hourglass female figure is rated as attractive by men living in a remote, indigenous community, and that when controlling for BMI, WHR plays a crucial role in their attractiveness judgments. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, H; van der A, D L; van Bakel, M M E

    2009-01-01

    calculated on the basis of dietary intake assessed by food frequency questionnaires and by using a GI table developed for this study with published GI values as the main sources. Anthropometric data were collected both at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Multiple linear regression analyses were...

  8. Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Olsen, A; Overvad, Kim

    2011-01-01

    As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance.......As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance....

  9. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P.; Berentzen, Tina L.; Østergaard, Jane N.

    2014-01-01

    enrolment. The exposure measures were total trans-octadecenoic acids (18 : 1t), 18 : 1 D6-10t, vaccenic acid (18 : 1 D11t) and rumenic acid (18 : 2 D9c, 11t). Data were analysed using multiple regression with cubic spline modelling. The median proportion of total adipose tissue 18 : 1t was 1·52% (90...

  10. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Angquist, L.; Du, H.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Forouhi, N.G.; Halkjaer, J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; A, van der D.; Masala, G.; Steffen, A.; Palli, D.; Wareham, N.J.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Boeing, H.; Riboli, E.; Sorensen, T.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. Objective: To ascertain the association of food groups/items

  11. [Prediction equations for fat percentage from body circumferences in prepubescent children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Campos, Rossana; De Marco, Ademir; de Arruda, Miguel; Martínez Salazar, Cristian; Margarita Salazar, Ciria; Valgas, Carmen; Fuentes, José Damián; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of body composition through direct and indirect methods allows the study of the various components of the human body, becoming the central hub for assessing nutritional status. The objective of the study was to develop equations for predicting body fat% from circumferential body arm, waist and calf and propose percentiles to diagnose the nutritional status of school children of both sexes aged 4-10 years. We selected intentionally (non-probabilistic) 515 children, 261 children and 254 being girls belonging to Program interaction and development of children and adolescents from the State University of Campinas (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Anthropometric variables were evaluated for weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfolds and body circumferences of arm, waist and calf, and the% fat determined by the equation proposed by Boileau, Lohman and Slaughter (1985). Through regression method 2 were generated equations to predict the percentage of fat from the body circumferences, the equations 1 and 2 were validated by cross validation method. The equations showed high predictive values ranging with a R² = 64-69%. In cross validation between the criterion and the regression equation proposed no significant difference (p > 0.05) and there was a high level of agreement to a 95% CI. It is concluded that the proposals are validated and shown as an alternative to assess the percentage of fat in school children of both sexes aged 4-10 years in the region of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Female waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index and sexual attractiveness in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. DIXSON, Baoguo LI, A.F. DIXSON

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Men and women at Northwest University (n = 751, Xi’an, China were asked to judge the attractiveness of photographs of female patients who had undergone micrograft surgery to reduce their waist-to-hip ratios (WHR. Micrograft surgery involves harvesting adipose tissue from the waist and reshaping the buttocks to produce a low WHR and an ‘hourglass’ female figure. This gynoid distribution of female body fat has been shown to correlate with measures of fertility and health. Significantly larger numbers of subjects, of both sexes, chose post-operative photographs, with lower WHRs, as more attractive than pre-operative photographs of the same women. Some patients had gained, and some had lost weight, post-operatively, with resultant changes in body mass index (BMI. However, these changes in BMI were not related to judgments of attractiveness. These results show that the hourglass female figure is rated as attractive in China, and that WHR, rather than BMI, plays a crucial role in such attractiveness judgments [Current Zoology 56 (2: 175–181, 2010].

  13. [Waist-to-height ratio is an indicator of metabolic risk in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Leal, Jaime; Abundis-Castro, Leticia; Hernández-Escareño, Juan; Flores-Rubio, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal fat, particularly visceral, is associated with a high risk of metabolic complications. The waist-height ratio (WHtR) is used to assess abdominal fat in individuals of all ages. To determine the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to detect metabolic risk in mexican schoolchildren. A study was conducted on children between 6 and 12 years. Obesity was diagnosed as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile, and an ICE ≥0.5 was considered abdominal obesity. Blood levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative value, area under curve, the positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of the WHtR and BMI were calculated in order to identify metabolic alterations. WHtR and BMI were compared to determine which had the best diagnostic efficiency. Of the 223 children included in the study, 51 had hypertriglyceridaemia, 27 with hypercholesterolaemia, and 9 with hyperglycaemia. On comparing the diagnostic efficiency of WHtR with that of BMI, there was a sensitivity of 100% vs. 56% for hyperglycaemia, 93 vs. 70% for cholesterol, and 76 vs. 59% for hypertriglyceridaemia. The specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and area under curve were also higher for WHtR. The WHtR is a more efficient indicator than BMI in identifying metabolic risk in mexican school-age. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Body weight, scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare testosterone concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference and age to penis detachment from days 30 to 240 in young Boer goat males (n = 22) born during the dry (n = 11) and the rainy (n = 11) seasons. In the dry season the parameters varied as follows: body weight from 3.7 ± 1.1 ...

  15. Appropriate neck circumference cut-off points for metabolic syndrome in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Ismail; Yardimci, Bulent; Tunckale, Aydin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the association between neck circumference (NC), overweight, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 264 diabetic patients (mean age: 52.9±8.1 years) were recruited from two centers in Istanbul to perform anthropometric measurements, including waist and hip circumference, NC, and body mass index. Blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels) were determined. NC correlated with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides in men, whereas NC only correlated with waist circumference in women. Additionally, NC was shown to negatively correlate with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both men and women. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for NC and overweight was 0.95 for both men and women (P<0.001). Moreover, a NC of 38cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point for determining overweight. The area under the curve for NC and MS was 0.87 for men and 0.83 for women (P<0.001). A NC of 39cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point to determine participants with MS. Our findings suggest a positive correlation of NC with MetS in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes, and could be a useful and accurate tool to identify MS. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. High Plasma Glucagon Levels Correlate with Waist-to-Hip Ratio, Suprailiac Skinfold Thickness, and Deep Subcutaneous Abdominal and Intraperitoneal Adipose Tissue Depots in Nonobese Asian Indian Males with Type 2 Diabetes in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajith Anoop

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to correlate plasma glucagon levels with anthropometric measures and abdominal adipose tissue depots. Nonobese males (n=81; BMI < 25 kg/m2 with T2DM of less than one-year duration and nonobese males without diabetes (n=30 were evaluated for the following: anthropometry (BMI, waist circumference, W-HR, and truncal skinfolds, whole-body DEXA (for body fat and fat-free mass, and MRI scan (for volumes of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT including superficial and deep, intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue (including intraperitoneal adipose tissue (IPAT, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver span and fatty liver, and pancreatic volume. Plasma glucose and glucagon, serum insulin, hepatic transaminases, and lipid profile were measured. Significantly higher levels of fasting and postprandial glucagon (p<0.001 and fasting and postprandial insulin (p<0.001 were seen in patients with T2DM. The mean values of fasting and postprandial plasma glucagon levels were higher in T2DM patients with NAFLD (n=37 as compared to T2DM patients without NAFLD (n=44. Four independent predictors were derived for fasting glucagon levels in patients with T2DM, namely, W-HR, suprailiac skinfold thickness, IPAT, and deep SCAT (p<0.05; r2=0.84. These observations in Asian Indians may have significance for diabetes therapies which impact glucagon levels.

  17. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H. Marike; Schouten, Jan P.; Schröder, Carolien P.; de Vries, E. G. Elisabeth; Vonk, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and lifetime changes in BMI (calculated over different time periods (i.e. short time period: annual change in BMI between successive surveys, long time period: annual change in BMI over the entire study period) with mortality from any cancer, and lung, colorectal, prostate and breast cancer in a large cohort study (n=8,645. Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen, 1965-1990) with a follow-up on mortality status on December 31st 2008. We used multivariate Cox regression models with adjustments for age, smoking, sex, and place of residence. Being overweight at baseline was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer mortality (hazard ratio (HR) =2.22; 95% CI 1.19-4.17). Obesity at baseline was associated with a higher risk of any cancer mortality [all subjects (1.23 (1.01-1.50)), and females (1.40 (1.07-1.84))]. Chronically obese females (females who were obese during the entire study-period) had a higher risk of mortality from any cancer (2.16 (1.47-3.18), lung (3.22 (1.06-9.76)), colorectal (4.32 (1.53-12.20)), and breast cancer (2.52 (1.15-5.54)). We found no significant association between long-term annual change in BMI and cancer mortality risk. Both short-term annual increase and decrease in BMI were associated with a lower mortality risk from any cancer [all subjects: (0.67 (0.47-0.94)) and (0.73 (0.55-0.97)), respectively]. In conclusion, a higher BMI is associated with a higher cancer mortality risk. This study is the first to show that short-term annual changes in BMI were associated with lower mortality from any type of cancer. PMID:25881129

  18. MTNR1B G24E variant associates With BMI and fasting plasma glucose in the general population in studies of 22,142 Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ehm A; Holst, Birgitte; Sparsø, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Common variants in the melatonin receptor type 1B (MTNR1B) locus have been shown to increase fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the risk of type 2 diabetes. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether nonsynonymous variants in MTNR1B associate with monogenic forms of hyperglycemia......, type 2 diabetes, or related metabolic traits. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: MTNR1B was sequenced in 47 probands with clinical maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), in 51 probands with early-onset familial type 2 diabetes, and in 94 control individuals. Six nonsynonymous variants (G24E, L60R, V124...... specific, and none of the investigated MTNR1B variants associated with type 2 diabetes. The common 24E variant associated with increased prevalence of obesity (odds ratio 1.20 [1.08-1.34]; P = 8.3 x 10(-4)) and increased BMI (beta = 0.5 kg/m(2); P = 1.2 x 10(-5)) and waist circumference (beta = 1.2 cm; P...

  19. Visceral adiposity index, hypertriglyceridemic waist and risk of diabetes: the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T; Sun, X; Huo, R; Yu, X

    2014-06-01

    The visceral adiposity index (VAI) and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (the simultaneous presence of waist circumference (WC)≥90/80 cm for men/women and plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration ≥1.7 mmol l(-1) for both genders) have been identified as good indicators of visceral adiposity, which is an independent risk factor for diabetes. The Chinese population is characterized by a predominance of visceral fat accumulation despite having comparatively low weight. These two surrogate markers of visceral adiposity might effectively identify Chinese adults who are at risk of getting diabetes. We aimed to examine the association between VAI and risk of diabetes or between the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and diabetes risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7639 Chinese men and women aged ≥18 years using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations. For men, compared with participants in the lowest quartile of VAI scores, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (with 95% confidence intervals) for diagnosed diabetes were 1.1 (0.7-1.7), 1.9 (1.3-2.8) and 3.6 (2.5-5.3) for those in the second, third, and top quartile of VAI scores, respectively. For women, the corresponding figures were 0.9 (0.5-1.4), 1.7 (1.1-2.6) and 2.8 (1.9-4.2), respectively. The multivariate-adjusted ORs (with 95% confidence intervals) for diabetes in men with the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype compared with men with both WC and TG measurements below the defined cut points were 3.7 (2.6-5.4). For women, the corresponding figure was 3.7 (2.4-5.5). For both men and women, the associations between the 4th quartile of VAI scores and risk of diabetes or between the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and risk of diabetes were consistently seen in various subgroups. Among Chinese adults, high VAI scores and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype are strongly associated with diabetes risk.

  20. Design of a thermal waist-pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursun Bahadir, S.; Sahin, U. K.; Acikgoz Tufan, H.

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the current study is designing a thermal waist-pad for people who have backaches with a sandwich-like multi-layered structure. Two model is developed; one is three-layered and second is five-layered with waterproof woven outer layer fabric, Thermolite® knitted fabric (for five-layered structures), wool knitted, polyester nonwoven fabric, polypropylene nonwoven fabric and viscose nonwoven fabric for mid-layer. 10 different structures are designed and produced. All samples are tested for thermal comfort properties of waist-pad. Multi-layer structures were tested, and according to their thermal performance and thermal comfort criteria, all results are evaluated for identifying the best product. These three factors are examined by analysis of thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, thermal absorptivity, relative water vapour/air permeability, water absorption. Highest thermal resistance test result, 150,42 mK/Wm2, is achieved in five-layered sandwich structure with waterproof fabric, Thermolite® fabric, wool based knitted fabric, Thermolite® fabric and waterproof fabric, respectively. Thermal conductivity result of this structure is 46,2 mW/mK, which is one of the lowest results among the alternative structures. Structures with Thermolite® fabric show higher thermal comfort when compared to others.

  1. Association between Infancy BMI Peak and Body Composition and Blood Pressure at Age 5–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5–6 years were investigated. Methods Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage) were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n = 2822). All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0–4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. Results After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (pBMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5–6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5–6 years were found. Conclusion The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5–6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. PMID:24324605

  2. Can lifestyle factors explain why body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio increase with increasing tobacco consumption? The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, C; Toft, U; Jørgensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between smoking, lifestyle, and weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WH ratio) is complex, and not fully understood. METHODS: In total, 6784 subjects (2408 daily smokers) were included in a population-based study (the Inter99 study) in Denmark. Weight...

  3. Analysis of image quality according to BMI of digital chest radiography: Focusing on bureau of radiological health evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Seong Jin [Gammaknife center, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Im, In Chul [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Ji Hwan [Dept. of Health Care Clinic, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Visual evaluation of chest radiograph images is the most practical and effective method. This study compared the Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and mAs with chest radiographs of 351 women. The Bureau of Radiological Health method was used to evaluate the image quality of chest X-ray images by anatomical and physical methods. The average age of the subjects was 30.17±4.73 and the average waist circumference was 66.91±4.67 cm. The mean Body Mass Index value was 20.21±2.23, the mean value of mAs was 3.04±0.78, and the mean value of Bureau of Radiological Health was 79.83±8.45. When the Body Mass Index value increased, waist circumference and mAs mean value increased. The mean value of Body Mass Index was statistically significant(p<0.05) in Group 4 compared to Groups 1 and 2, with increasing Body Mass Index. Exposure control of the automatic exposure control system is considered to be well performed according to body thickness or Body Mass Index at the time of chest radiography. As the Body Mass Index increases, the thickness of the body increases and the breast thickness of the woman also increases. Therefore, it is considered that the exposure amount is changed by the automatic exposure control device to affect the image quality.

  4. Waist-to-hip ratio, attractiveness and gender discrimination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women with lower waist-to-hip ratio are considered more attractive to the men. It is suggested that attractiveness is related to the sexual dimorphism of body fat distribution in gluteofemoral region. It is hypothesized that women with lower waist-to-hip ratio provide better energy for pregnancy and lactation; therefore in the ...

  5. Circunferência da cintura e relação cintura/estatura: úteis para identificar risco metabólico em adolescentes do sexo feminino? Waist and waist-to-height ratio: useful to identify the metabolic risk of female adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Feliciano Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a medida da circunferência da cintura e a relação cintura/estatura (RCE são preditoras de fatores de risco cardiovasculares em adolescentes do sexo feminino. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 113 adolescentes de 14 a 19 anos quanto à antropometria (peso, estatura e circunferência da cintura, parâmetros bioquímicos e clínicos (colesterol total, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglicerídeos, glicemia de jejum, insulina, homeostasis model assessment to assess insulin resistance - HOMA-IR, leptina, homocisteína e pressão arterial. Considerou-se como ponto de corte de obesidade abdominal valores de cintura e RCE>percentil 90. RESULTADOS: As adolescentes com obesidade abdominal apresentaram valores significantemente maiores de triglicerídeos (exceto para a RCE, insulina, HOMA-IR, leptina, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica; o HDL-C foi mais baixo no grupo com cintura >percentil 90, porém sem significância estatística (p=0,052. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo demonstrou que a cintura e a RCE são medidas úteis para identificar adolescentes do sexo feminino com maior risco cardiovascular; contudo, a circunferência da cintura, isoladamente, apresentou melhor desempenho.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the waist circumference and the waist-to-height ratio (WHTR are predictors of cardiovascular risk factors in female adolescents. METHODS: 113 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years old were assessed according to anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference, biochemical and clinical parameters (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model to assess insulin resistance - HOMA-IR, leptin, homocysteine and blood pressure. The cut points used for identification of abdominal fat were waist and WHTR values >90th percentile. RESULTS: Teenagers with abdominal obesity presented greater values of triglycerides (except for WHTR, insulin, HOMA-IR, leptin and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while the HDL

  6. Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blijdorp

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI, is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes of BMI and body composition, as well as the value of BMI and waist-hip ratio representing obesity, were evaluated in adult childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: Data from 410 survivors who had visited the late effects clinic twice were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 16 years (interquartile range 11-21 and time between visits was 3.2 years (2.9-3.6. BMI was measured and body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy; available twice in 182 survivors. Data were compared with healthy Dutch references and calculated as standard deviation scores (SDS. BMI, waist-hip ratio and total fat percentage were evaluated cross-sectionally in 422 survivors, in who at least one DXA scan was assessed. RESULTS: BMI was significantly higher in women, without significant change over time. In men BMI changed significantly with time (ΔSDS = 0.19, P<0.001. Percentage fat was significantly higher than references in all survivors, with the highest SDS after cranial radiotherapy (CRT (mean SDS 1.73 in men, 1.48 in women, P<0.001. Only in men, increase in total fat percentage was significantly higher than references (ΔSDS = 0.22, P<0.001. Using total fat percentage as the gold standard, 65% of female and 42% of male survivors were misclassified as non-obese using BMI. Misclassification of obesity using waist-hip ratio was 40% in women and 24% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen years after treatment for childhood cancer, the increase in BMI and total fat percentage was significantly greater than expected, especially after CRT. This is important as we could show that obesity was grossly underestimated using BMI and waist-hip ratio.

  7. Colombian reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Paola; Merker, Andrea; Briceño, Germán; Colón, Eugenia; Line, Dionne; Abad, Verónica; Del Toro, Kenny; Chahín, Silvia; Matallana, Audrey Mary; Lema, Adriana; Llano, Mauricio; Céspedes, Jaime; Hagenäs, Lars

    2016-03-01

    Published Growth studies from Latin America are limited to growth references from Argentina and Venezuela. The aim of this study was to construct reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference of Colombian children in a format that is useful for following the growth of the individual child and as a tool for public health. Prospective measurements from 27 209 Colombian children from middle and upper socio-economic level families were processed using the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Descriptive statistics for length and height, weight, BMI and head circumference for age are given as raw and smoothed values. Final height was 172.3 cm for boys and 159.4 cm for girls. Weight at 18 years of age was 64.0 kg for boys and 54 kg for girls. Growth curves are presented in a ± 3 SD format using logarithmic axes. The constructed reference growth curves are a start for following secular trends in Colombia and are also in the presented layout an optimal clinical tool for health care. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Persistently High Hip Circumference after Bariatric Surgery Is a Major Hurdle to Successful Hip Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menachem M. Meller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of class III obesity (BMI≥40 kg/m2 in black women is 18%. As class III obesity leads to hip joint deterioration, black women frequently present for orthopedic care. Weight loss associated with bariatric surgery should lead to enhanced success of hip replacements. However, we present a case of a black woman who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with the expectation that weight loss would make her a better surgical candidate for hip replacement. Her gastric bypass was successful as her BMI declined from 52.0 kg/m2 to 33.7 kg/m2. However, her hip circumference after weight loss remained persistently high. Therefore, at surgery the soft tissue tunnel geometry presented major challenges. Tunnel depth and immobility of the soft tissue interfered with retractor placement, tissue reflection, and surgical access to the acetabulum. Therefore a traditional cup placement could not be achieved. Instead, a hemiarthroplasty was performed. After surgery her pain and reliance on external support decreased. But her functional independence never improved. This case demonstrates that a lower BMI after bariatric surgery may improve the metabolic profile and decrease anesthesia risk, but the success of total hip arthroplasties remains problematic if fat mass in the operative field (i.e., high hip circumference remains high.

  9. Sarcopenia, calf circumference, and physical function of elderly women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Yves; Lauwers-Cances, Valérie; Cournot, Maxime; Nourhashémi, Fati; Reynish, William; Rivière, Daniel; Vellas, Bruno; Grandjean, Hélène

    2003-08-01

    To determine whether calf circumference (CC), related to appendicular skeletal muscle mass, can be used as a measure of sarcopenia and is related to physical function. Retrospective analysis of data from 1992 to 1994 of the European Patient Information and Documentation Systems Study. Community setting in France. One thousand four hundred fifty-eight French women aged 70 and older without previous history of hip fracture were recruited from the electoral lists. Muscular mass was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). CC was measured using a tape measure. Anthropometric measurements (height; weight; and waist, hip, and calf circumference), strength markers (grip strength), and self-reported physical function were also determined. Sarcopenia was defined (using DEXA) as appendicular skeletal muscle mass (weight (kg)/height (m2)) less than two standard deviations below the mean of a young female reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 9.5%. CC was correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.63). CC under 31 cm was the best clinical indicator of sarcopenia (sensitivity = 44.3%, specificity = 91.4%). CC under 31 cm was associated with disability and self-reported physical function but not sarcopenia (defined using DEXA), independent of age, comorbidity, obesity, income, health behavior, and visual impairment. CC cannot be used to predict sarcopenia defined using DEXA but provides valuable information on muscle-related disability and physical function.

  10. HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE REFERENCES FOR SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN IN WESTERN ROMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Doros, Gabriela; Simina, Iulia Jurca; Gafencu, Mihai; Puiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To provide head circumference references for school-aged children in western Romania, and compare them with references from other European countries. A total of 2742 children, aged 6-19 years, from Timis county, were examined by medical students, between February 2010-June 2011. Head circumference references were constructed by Cole's LMS method with LMSChartMaker software. The Romanian 3rd, 50th and 97th percentiles for head circumference were compared with recent references from Belgium and Germany. Generally, boys show significantly larger head circumference compared to girls at any age. The head circumference increments between 6 and 19 years are references from Romania to those from Germany and Belgium, we found lower median head circumference in Romanian boys and girls, that could be explained by a taller stature of boys and girls in Germany and Belgium compared to Romania.

  11. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannsether, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Júlíusson, Pétur Benedikt

    2017-02-01

    Background Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m 2 ) and BMI SDS are summarised by percentiles. Differences according to sex, age, height, weight, initial BMI and weight status on the BMI and BMI SDS increments were assessed with multiple linear regression. Conditional change in BMI SDS was based on the correlation between annual BMI measurements converted to SDS. Results BMI increments depended significantly on sex, height, weight and initial BMI. Changes in BMI SDS depended significantly only on the initial BMI SDS. The distribution of conditional change in BMI SDS using a two-correlation model was close to normal (mean = 0.11, SD = 1.02, n = 1167), with 3.2% (2.3-4.4%) of the observations below -2 SD and 2.8% (2.0-4.0%) above +2 SD. Conclusion Conditional change in BMI SDS can be used to detect unexpected large changes in BMI SDS. Although this method requires the use of a computer, it may be clinically useful to detect aberrant weight development.

  12. Effects of standard and low dose 17beta-estradiol plus norethisterone acetate on body composition and leptin in postmenopausal women at risk of body mass index and waist girth related cardiovascular and metabolic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odabasi, Ali R.; Yuksel, H.; Sezer, Selda D.; Onur, E.; Karul, A.; Kozaci, D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to compare the effects of standard and low dose of 17beta-estradiol plus norethisterone acetate (E2/NETA) on body composition and leptin in postmenopausal women at risk of body mass index (BMI) and waist girth (WG) related cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Ninety postmenopausal women aged 45-55 years with BMI >-25kg/m2 participated in this 6-month prospective, randomized, single-blinded and controlled study, conducted between September 2004 and April 2006 at Adnan Menderes University Hospital. According to their WG, the subjects were divided into 2 risk groups: WG -88 cm (Group high risk [HR], n=42). The subjects in each group were equally assigned to 1mg E2/0.5 mg NETA). Accordingly, the 2 groups were divided into 4 subgroups. Serum leptin levels (SLLs), body weight/height, waist/hip girth, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio was evaluated before and after therapy. In the Group IR, WG decreased significantly only in low dose subgroup. In the Group HR, both standard and low dose subgroups had a significant reduction in WG. Those who had WG>88 cm showed more reduction than those who had EG<88 cm in response to both doses of E2/NETA, insignificantly. Basal SLLs had a significant correlation with body weight, BMI and WG. Oral standard and low dose E2/NETA reduce WG and attenuate the BMI- and waist girth- related risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in post menopausal women. (author)

  13. Fully vectorial highly nonparaxial beam close to the waist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumet, Patrick C

    2006-12-01

    I use the angular spectrum representation to compute exactly the Gaussian beam close to the waist (w(0)) in the case of a highly nonparaxial field (w(0)lambda). The computation is done in the vectorial case for a polarized Gaussian beam. In the area of the waist, the contribution of the propagating and evanescent waves is discussed. Moreover, the Gaussian wave is developed in terms of a series, which permits one to get analytical expressions for both propagating and evanescent waves when the observation is close to the waist.

  14. Arnebia euchroma ointment can reduce abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference of overweight women: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Siavash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After explaining the procedure and obtaining informed consent, the candidates were randomly divided into the case and control groups. The participants of the case and control groups applied AE ointment or placebo for 6 weeks on their abdominal area. Body mass index, waist and buttock circumference, and abdominal fat thickness were measured in both case and control groups at their first visit and then at the next 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We used t-test for comparing parametric variables between groups, paired t-test for changes from baseline to final, and repeated measure ANOVA for changes at different steps. Results: Sixty female candidates participated in this study (thirty in each group. Ten patients left the study and fifty participants finished the trial. At the end of the study, participants had a significant weight loss (2.96 ± 1.6 kg, P < 0.001 that was slightly more in the case group (3.15 ± 1.5 kg vs. 2.75 ± 1.7, P = 0.375. Abdominal circumference also decreased significantly in the participants (11.3 ± 6.7 cm, P < 0.001, but the changes were more significant in the case group (13.9 vs. 6.5 cm, P = 0.004. Similarly, abdominal fat thickness decreased significantly in the participants (2.3 ± 1.1 cm, P < 0.001, although changes were not significantly different between two groups (2.53 vs. 2.04 cm, P = 0.139. Conclusion: Topical

  15. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on height ...

  16. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change

    OpenAIRE

    Brannsether-Ellingsen, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Juliusson, Petur Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim: To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods: The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m2) and BMI SDS are summarised by...

  17. Scrotal circumference in young beef bulls: Relationships to growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Young beef bulls, scrotal circumference, growth para- meters, compatible. 149 ... dairy cattle, but natural mating accounts for most of the pregnancies .... quality and fertility. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 5, 31. SWANEPOEL, F.J.C. & HEYNS, H., 1986. Relationships between growth parameters and scrotal circumference in.

  18. Modeling growth in arm circumference of infants in Jimma Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper models the growth in arm circumference of 450 infants during their first year of life. The model is based on longitudinal data obtained from Jimma, a town in southeast Ethiopia. A linear mixed model was employed to see how arm circumference of these infants change over their first year of life. A polynomial model ...

  19. Head circumference of children with sickle cell disease in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: growth retardation and under-nutrition are common in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The aim of this study was to compare the head circumference (HC) of SCD children and non-SCD children and to determine the effect of malnutrition on head circumference of children with SCD. Methods: this was a ...

  20. Is neck circumference measurement an indicator for abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neck circumference (NC) measurement is one of the simple screening measurements which can be used as an index of upper body fat distribution to identify obesity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between neck circumferences and obesity. Methods:A total 411 volunteer ...

  1. Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients....

  2. Translation of fetal abdominal circumference-guided therapy of gestational diabetes complicated by maternal obesity to a clinical outpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Stephen F; Bovbjerg, Marit L; Kington, Randi L

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of fetal abdominal circumference-guided therapy for gestational diabetes (GDM) in an outpatient population characterized by highly-prevalent maternal obesity. Data for this translational retrospective cohort study come from medical records. Fetal abdominal circumference was assessed by ultrasound in late second trimester, and sex- and gestational age-specific percentiles assigned. Taking fetal abdominal circumference percentile as a marker for adequacy of fetal growth, maternal glucose targets were set accordingly: loose, moderate or tight. Associations between mother's targets and neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and neonatal hypoglycemia) were assessed using unconditional logistic regression, controlling for pre-gravid body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. In 419 consecutive pregnancies complicated by GDM, neonatal outcomes compared favorably with previous randomized trials of intensive GDM management. Importantly, adverse outcomes were observed less often than might be expected in an obese GDM population. BMI did not have an independent effect on neonatal outcomes. Ultrasound-guided therapy of GDM, in general clinic use, can limit excess macrosomia and LGA, even in a population with significant maternal obesity.

  3. Low mid-upper arm circumference, calf circumference, and body mass index and mortality in older persons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, H.A.H.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.; Heijmans, M.W.; de Vet, H.C.; Kruizenga, H.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Visser, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background.Low body mass index is a general measure of thinness. However, its measurement can be cumbersome in older persons and other simple anthropometric measures may be more strongly associated with mortality. Therefore, associations of low mid-upper arm circumference, calf circumference, and

  4. Waist-height ratio in children of 7 to 11 years with high weight at birth and its relationship with gender, age and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Vargas, Nuris; Fernandez-Britto, Jose Emilio; Martinez Perez, Tania Paula; Martinez Garcia, Rolando; Castañeda Garcia, Cecilia Margarita; Garriga Reyes, Mailin; Cabrera Estrada, Claudia; Plana Labrada, Rossana; García Niebla, Rosa María; Blanco Aranguren, Fabiola

    2018-03-26

    Obesity (OB), considered as one of the Non-Transmissible Chronic Diseases, has as its fundamental characteristics that of being prevalent at a global level, increasing in number, affecting developed and developing countries, affecting both genders, and all ages and social groups. To identify if high birth weight is a predictive factor (risk factor) for abdominal obesity in children 7 to 11 years old, and its relationship to gender, age and diet. A case-control descriptive study was carried out with children born between January 1992 and December 1995, in order to identify early risk factors (atherosclerotic accelerators) such as abdominal obesity in children aged 7 to 11, and who have a history of macrosomia or high birth weight, as well as their relationship with gender, age and diet. It was observed that the waist/height value was normal in 60.8% of the study group and in 64.00% in the control group. The difference between groups, gender, and age was not significant (P=.6859). As regards the diet in the study group (macrosomic), there was no significant association between the type of diet and waist circumference/height values, with an χ 2 =0.223 and P=.6373 (not significant). In the control group (with normal weight at birth), it was found that there is a significant statistical association between the type of diet and waist circumference/height values. This means that it can be stated, with 95% reliability, that the type of diet is associated with waist/height values. High birth weight is not a predictive factor (risk factor) for abdominal obesity (increased waist/height index). Gender and age are independent for abdominal obesity (macrosomic and normal weight at birth). The diet in high birth weight children is not related to the index waist-height index, which is not the case in those born with normal weight under the same conditions. The marked increase in abdominal obesity (Waist/height index) in children between 7 and 11 years old in both groups is

  5. Associations between Overall and Abdominal Obesity and Suicidal Ideation among US Adult Women

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guixiang; Li, Chaoyang; Ford, Earl S.; Tsai, James; Dhingra, Satvinder S.; Croft, Janet B.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Balluz, Lina S.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risks for mental disorders. This study examined associations of obesity indicators including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-height ratio with suicidal ideation among U.S. women. We analyzed data from 3,732 nonpregnant women aged ≥20 years who participated in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used anthropometric measures of weight, height, and waist circumference to calculate BMI and waist-height ratio...

  6. Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.......The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients....

  7. Stressful life events in pregnancy and head circumference at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2003-01-01

    A strong association between stress in pregnancy and small head circumference in infants at birth was reported in 1994. This important finding has never been replicated. In a follow-up study of 4211 participants with singleton pregnancies, information on life events was collected twice during...... pregnancy and head circumference measured shortly after birth following standard procedures. No association was found between experienced or perceived stress as a result of life events during pregnancy and head circumference in the infants. In conclusion, stress in pregnancy may influence foetal brain...

  8. Sonographic large fetal head circumference and risk of cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschuetz, Michal; Cohen, Sarah M; Israel, Ariel; Baron, Joel; Porat, Shay; Valsky, Dan V; Yagel, Oren; Amsalem, Hagai; Kabiri, Doron; Gilboa, Yinon; Sivan, Eyal; Unger, Ron; Schiff, Eyal; Hershkovitz, Reli; Yagel, Simcha

    2018-03-01

    Persistently high rates of cesarean deliveries are cause for concern for physicians, patients, and health systems. Prelabor assessment might be refined by identifying factors that help predict an individual patient's risk of cesarean delivery. Such factors may contribute to patient safety and satisfaction as well as health system planning and resource allocation. In an earlier study, neonatal head circumference was shown to be more strongly associated with delivery mode and other outcome measures than neonatal birthweight. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the association of sonographically measured fetal head circumference measured within 1 week of delivery with delivery mode. This was a multicenter electronic medical record-based study of birth outcomes of primiparous women with term (37-42 weeks) singleton fetuses presenting for ultrasound with fetal biometry within 1 week of delivery. Fetal head circumference and estimated fetal weight were correlated with maternal background, obstetric, and neonatal outcome parameters. Elective cesarean deliveries were excluded. Multinomial regression analysis provided adjusted odds ratios for instrumental delivery and unplanned cesarean delivery when the fetal head circumference was ≥35 cm or estimated fetal weight ≥3900 g, while controlling for possible confounders. In all, 11,500 cases were collected; 906 elective cesarean deliveries were excluded. A fetal head circumference ≥35 cm increased the risk for unplanned cesarean delivery: 174 fetuses with fetal head circumference ≥35 cm (32%) were delivered by cesarean, vs 1712 (17%) when fetal head circumference cesarean delivery by an adjusted odds ratio of 1.75 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.18) controlling for gestational age, fetal gender, and epidural anesthesia. The rate of prolonged second stage of labor was significantly increased when either the fetal head circumference was ≥35 cm or the estimated fetal weight ≥3900 g, from 22.7% in the total

  9. The Report Card on BMI Report Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah R; Madsen, Kristine A

    2017-06-01

    Half of states in the USA have legislation requiring that schools conduct body mass index (BMI) screening among students; just under half of these states report results to parents. The effectiveness of school-based BMI screening and reporting in reducing childhood obesity is not established and the practice has raised concerns about the potential for increased weight-based stigmatization. Recent experimental studies of BMI screening and reporting have not demonstrated a positive impact on students' weight status. However, the language and formatting of BMI reports used in studies to date have been suboptimal and have likely limited the potential effectiveness of the practice. This article reviews the recent literature on school-based BMI screening and reporting and highlights important areas for future inquiry. The present review suggests that evidence to date is not sufficient to support definitive conclusions about the value of school-based BMI screening and reporting as a childhood obesity prevention tool.

  10. BMI1: A Biomarker of Hematologic Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagh A. Sahasrabuddhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BMI1 oncogene is a catalytic member of epigenetic repressor polycomb group proteins. It plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression pattern and consequently several cellular processes during development, including cell cycle progression, senescence, aging, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and importantly self-renewal of adult stem cells of several lineages. Preponderance of evidences indicates that deregulated expression of PcG protein BMI1 is associated with several human malignancies, cancer stem cell maintenance, and propagation. Importantly, overexpression of BMI1 correlates with therapy failure in cancer patients and tumor relapse. This review discusses the diverse mode of BMI1 regulation at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels as well as at various critical signaling pathways regulated by BMI1 activity. Furthermore, this review highlights the role of BMI1 as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several subtypes of hematologic malignancies and the importance to target this biomarker for therapeutic applications.

  11. Fit-To-Fight: Waist vs Waist/Height Measurements to Determine an Individual's Fitness Level - A Study in Statistical Regression and Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swiderski, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    .... The abdominal measurement is a "one-size-fits-all" fitness standard. This research determines that a person's waist-to-height ratio is a better measurement than the waist measurement to estimate an individual's fitness level...

  12. Brain-machine interface (BMI) in paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, U; Birbaumer, N; Curado, M R

    2015-02-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) use brain activity to control external devices, facilitating paralyzed patients to interact with the environment. In this review, we focus on the current advances of non-invasive BMIs for communication in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and for restoration of motor impairment after severe stroke. BMI represents a promising strategy to establish communication with paralyzed ALS patients as it does not need muscle engagement for its use. Distinct techniques have been explored to assess brain neurophysiology to control BMI for patients' communication, especially electroencephalography (EEG) and more recently near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Previous studies demonstrated successful communication with ALS patients using EEG-BMI when patients still showed residual eye control, but patients with complete paralysis were unable to communicate with this system. We recently introduced functional NIRS (fNIRS)-BMI for communication in ALS patients in the complete locked-in syndrome (i.e., when ALS patients are unable to engage any muscle), opening new doors for communication in ALS patients after complete paralysis. In addition to assisted communication, BMI is also being extensively studied for motor recovery after stroke. BMI for stroke motor recovery includes intensive BMI training linking brain activity related to patient's intention to move the paretic limb with the contingent sensory feedback of the paretic limb movement guided by assistive devices. BMI studies in this area are mainly focused on EEG- or magnetoencephalography (MEG)-BMI systems due to their high temporal resolution, which facilitates online contingency between intention to move and sensory feedback of the intended movement. EEG-BMI training was recently demonstrated in a controlled study to significantly improve motor performance in stroke patients with severe paresis. Neural basis for BMI-induced restoration of motor function and perspectives for future

  13. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Toshinari; Kita, Yuki; Nakagen, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Isobe, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Kawai, Kohzo; Urabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study. Various anthropometric indices such as circumferences of the arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf were measured. Body composition (fat and lean body mass) was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles (iliopsoas, erector spinae, gluteus, femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles) were measured using computed tomography. Fat and lean body mass were significantly correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. When adjusted by weight, relationships of fat and lean body mass with metabolic parameters were mirror images of each other. The weight-adjusted lean body mass negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures; fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride, and insulin levels; and hepatic insulin resistance indices, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and muscle insulin sensitivity indices. Compared with weight-adjusted lean body mass, weight-adjusted sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles showed similar, but not as strong, correlations with metabolic parameters. Among anthropometric measures, the calf circumference best reflected lean body mass, and weight-adjusted calf circumference negatively correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective

  14. Pedestrian navigation based on a waist-worn inertial sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C

    2012-01-01

    We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications.

  15. Genetic Risk Score Mendelian Randomization Shows that Obesity Measured as Body Mass Index, but not Waist:Hip Ratio, Is Causal for Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jodie N; O'Mara, Tracy A; Marquart, Louise; Webb, Penelope M; Attia, John; Medland, Sarah E; Cheng, Timothy; Dennis, Joe; Holliday, Elizabeth G; McEvoy, Mark; Scott, Rodney J; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Hodgson, Shirley V; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Rübner, Matthias; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Amant, Frederic; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Cunningham, Julie M; Dowdy, Sean C; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Winham, Stacey J; Njølstad, Tormund S; Salvesen, Helga B; Trovik, Jone; Werner, Henrica M J; Ashton, Katie A; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Anthony; Mints, Miriam; Tham, Emma; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Hopper, John L; Peto, Julian; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Lindblom, Annika; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J; Giles, Graham G; Kristensen, Vessela N; Cox, Angela; Pharoah, Paul D P; Tomlinson, Ian; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Thompson, Deborah J; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2016-11-01

    The strongest known risk factor for endometrial cancer is obesity. To determine whether SNPs associated with increased body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with endometrial cancer risk, independent of measured BMI, we investigated relationships between 77 BMI and 47 WHR SNPs and endometrial cancer in 6,609 cases and 37,926 country-matched controls. Logistic regression analysis and fixed effects meta-analysis were used to test for associations between endometrial cancer risk and (i) individual BMI or WHR SNPs, (ii) a combined weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) for BMI or WHR. Causality of BMI for endometrial cancer was assessed using Mendelian randomization, with BMIwGRS as instrumental variable. The BMIwGRS was significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 3.4 × 10 -17 ). Scaling the effect of the BMIwGRS on endometrial cancer risk by its effect on BMI, the endometrial cancer OR per 5 kg/m 2 of genetically predicted BMI was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.89-2.21], larger than the observed effect of BMI on endometrial cancer risk (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.44-1.68, per 5 kg/m 2 ). The association attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for BMI (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10-1.39; P = 5.3 × 10 -4 ). There was evidence of directional pleiotropy (P = 1.5 × 10 -4 ). BMI SNP rs2075650 was associated with endometrial cancer at study-wide significance (P < 4.0 × 10 -4 ), independent of BMI. Endometrial cancer was not significantly associated with individual WHR SNPs or the WHRwGRS. BMI, but not WHR, is causally associated with endometrial cancer risk, with evidence that some BMI-associated SNPs alter endometrial cancer risk via mechanisms other than measurable BMI. The causal association between BMI SNPs and endometrial cancer has possible implications for endometrial cancer risk modeling. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(11); 1503-10. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Genetic risk score Mendelian randomization shows obesity measured as body mass index, but not waist:hip ratio, is causal for endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jodie N; O’Mara, Tracy A; Marquart, Louise; Webb, Penelope M; Attia, John; Medland, Sarah E; Cheng, Timothy; Dennis, Joe; Holliday, Elizabeth G; McEvoy, Mark; Scott, Rodney J; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Hodgson, Shirley V; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Rübner, Matthias; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Amant, Frederic; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Cunningham, Julie M; Dowdy, Sean C; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Winham, Stacey J; Njølstad, Tormund S; Salvesen, Helga B; Trovik, Jone; Werner, Henrica MJ; Ashton, Katie A; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Anthony; Mints, Miriam; Tham, Emma; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Hopper, John L; Peto, Julian; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Lindblom, Annika; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J; Giles, Graham G; Kristensen, Vessela N; Cox, Angela; Pharoah, Paul D P; Tomlinson, Ian; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Thompson, Deborah J; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2016-01-01

    Background The strongest known risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC) is obesity. To determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with EC risk, independent of measured BMI, we investigated relationships between 77 BMI and 47 WHR SNPs and EC in 6,609 cases and 37,926 country-matched controls. Methods Logistic regression analysis and fixed-effects meta-analysis were used to test for associations between EC risk and (i) individual BMI or WHR SNPs, (ii) a combined weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) for BMI or WHR. Causality of BMI for EC was assessed using Mendelian randomization, with BMIwGRS as instrumental variable. Results The BMIwGRS was significantly associated with EC risk (P=3.4×10−17). Scaling the effect of the BMIwGRS on EC risk by its effect on BMI, the EC odds ratio (OR) per 5kg/m2 of genetically predicted BMI was 2.06 (95% confidence interval(CI)=1.89–2.21), larger than the observed effect of BMI on EC risk (OR=1.55, 95%CI 1.44–1.68, per 5kg/m2). The association attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for BMI (OR=1.22, 95%CI=1.10–1.39,P=5.3×10−4). There was evidence of directional pleiotropy (P=1.5×10−4). BMI SNP rs2075650 was associated with EC at study-wide significance (P<4.0×10−4), independent of BMI. EC was not significantly associated with individual WHR SNPs or the WHRwGRS. Conclusions BMI, but not WHR, is causally associated with EC risk, with evidence that some BMI-associated SNPs alter EC risk via mechanisms other than measurable BMI. Impact The causal association between BMI SNPs and EC has possible implications for EC risk modeling. PMID:27550749

  17. Change in neck circumference after shoulder arthroscopy: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrividya Chellam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Shoulder arthroscopy requires fluid irrigation, which causes soft-tissue oedema around chest, neck, and arm intraoperatively, leading to postoperative airway complications. We decided to study the incidence of increase in the neck circumference in shoulder arthroscopy and its effects on the airway. Methods: We studied 32 cases of shoulder arthroscopies over a period of 1-year, performed under general anaesthesia with interscalene block. The neck circumference of patients before and after the procedure was measured along with other parameters. The endotracheal tube cuff was deflated at the end of surgery to determine air leak around the tube. The negative leak test suggested airway oedema. Results: Thirty out of 32 patients showed positive air leak test. The average change in neck circumference was 1.17 ± 1.16 cm and all could be extubated uneventfully. Two showed negative leak test with an increase in neck circumference by 4.5 and 6.4 cm and were not extubated. Multiple regression analysis for risk factors showed intraoperative hypertension as a single predictor for an increase in neck circumference. Conclusion: Change in the neck circumference beyond 4 cm may suggest airway compromise and below 4 cm, airway compromise is unlikely even in the presence of extensive soft-tissue oedema around the shoulder, upper arm and chest.

  18. BMI Trajectories Associated With Resolution of Elevated Youth BMI and Incident Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscot, Marie-Jeanne; Thomson, Russell J; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew A; Burgner, David P; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma S A; Jokinen, Eero; Tossavainen, Paivi; Laitinen, Tomi; Raitakari, Olli T; Magnussen, Costan G

    2018-01-01

    Youth with high BMI who become nonobese adults have the same cardiovascular risk factor burden as those who were never obese. However, the early-life BMI trajectories for overweight or obese youth who avoid becoming obese adults have not been described. We aimed to determine and compare the young-childhood BMI trajectories of participants according to their BMI status in youth and adulthood. Bayesian hierarchical piecewise regression modeling was used to analyze the BMI trajectories of 2717 young adults who had up to 8 measures of BMI from childhood (ages 3-18 years) to adulthood (ages 34-49 years). Compared with those with persistently high BMI, those who resolved their high youth BMI by adulthood had lower average BMI at age 6 years and slower rates of BMI change from young childhood. In addition, their BMI levels started to plateau at 16 years old for females and 21 years old for males, whereas the BMI of those whose high BMI persisted did not stabilize until 25 years old for male subjects and 27 years for female subjects. Compared with those youth who were not overweight or obese and who remained nonobese in adulthood, those who developed obesity had a higher BMI rate of change from 6 years old, and their BMI continued to increase linearly until age 30 years. Efforts to alter BMI trajectories for adult obesity should ideally commence before age 6 years. The natural resolution of high BMI starts in adolescence for males and early adulthood for females, suggesting a critical window for secondary prevention. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Inducing circular vection with tactile stimulation encircling the waist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, A.M.; Jansen, C.; Smagt, M.J. van der; Nijboer, T.C.W.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2018-01-01

    In general, moving sensory stimuli (visual and auditory) can induce illusory sensations of self-motion (i.e. vection) in the direction opposite of the sensory stimulation. The aim of the current study was to examine whether tactile stimulation encircling the waist could induce circular vection

  20. Hypertriglyceridemic waist - a simple clinical tool to detect cardiometabolic risk: comparison with harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaverková, H; Karásek, D; Novotný, D; Halenka, M; Orság, J; Slavík, L

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and especially abdominal obesity, a simple clinical tool is needed that identifies the cardiometabolic risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of our study was to evaluate a broad spectrum of metabolic variables and IMT in subjects with and without hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) and compare it with the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome (MS) with both a higher (MS-I) and lower waist circumference (MS-II) for Europids. We enrolled 607 asymptomatic dyslipidemic subjects (295 men and 312 women) into our cross-sectional study. The subjects with HTGW had an atherogenic lipid profile (significantly higher triglycerides, AIP, non-HDL-C, lower HDL-C and ApoA-1, and the women also higher TC and ApoB), increased markers of insulin resistance (insulin, HOMA, C-peptide, proinsulin), inflammation (hsCRP), thrombosis (fibrinogen, PAI-1), SBP and DBP, and lower adiponectin (prisk factors were entirely similar in HTGW, MS-I and MS-II. Age-adjusted IMT was significantly higher only in the women with HTGW but this significance disappeared after further adjustment for TC, SBP, and smoking. Our results support the routine use of HTGW as a simple and inexpensive screening tool to detect subjects at increased cardiometabolic risk in clinical practice.

  1. Increased association of coronary artery calcification in apparently healthy Korean adults with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byung Sub; Park, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Min-Kyung; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Yong; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2015-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a simple screening parameter to identify people at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype increases the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 32,186 participants (mean age 41.3, 80.2% men) in a health screening program, in whom the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured, were analyzed. Subjects were divided into four groups: 1) normal waist circumference (WC)-normal triglyceride (TG) (NWNT), 2) normal WC-high TG (NWHT), 3) enlarged WC-normal TG (EWNT), and 4) enlarged WC-high TG (EWHT). Enlarged WC was defined as WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 85 cm for women; high serum TG was defined as TG ≥ 150 mg/dL. The presence of CAC was defined by CACS >0, and CACS was analyzed in a logarithmized form of CACS plus 1 {ln(CACS+1)}. A total of 14.9% of the participants had CAC. The EWHT group showed the highest mean value for ln(CACS+1) among the four groups. The EWHT group showed the highest odds ratio for CAC, with NWHT group the second, and with EWNT group the third compared with the NWNT group after adjusting for confounding variables (1.579, 1.302, and 1.266 vs. NWNT). The EWHT group showed the highest association for CAC, suggesting this HTGW phenotype as a useful marker for the detection of subjects with high cardiometabolic risk in healthy Korean adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. In utero head circumference is associated with childhood allergy

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    David eEviston

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAltered fetal growth is known to be associated with allergic disease. Specifically, increased head circumference at birth has been linked to asthma and elevated IgE. However, few studies have examined a link between early fetal anthropometry and allergic disease. The aim of this study was to examine head circumference at mid-gestation in children diagnosed with allergy.MethodsThis was a retrospective cohort study, comprising pregnancies delivered between 10/2006 and 9/2010 at Nepean Hospital, Australia. Exclusion criteria were illegal drug use, alcohol consumption, gestation <35 weeks and gestational hypertension. Pregnancy data was sourced from the Nepean Obstetric Database. Atopic diseases (asthma, atopic dermatitis and IgE-mediated food allergy were assessed by questionnaire, at age 1-5 years. Infants from pregnancies with completed questionnaires, who also had a mid-gestation ultrasound scan, were included (N=121. Multiple logistic regression techniques were used to model head circumference against the development of allergies.ResultsSmaller head circumference at mid-gestation was associated with an increased odds of allergic disease in children aged 1-5 years. A 1 mm smaller head circumference was associated with a 7% increased chance of allergies being later diagnosed, adjusted for gestation (95% CI: 1%-14%, p=0.036. Head circumference at mid-gestation was also inversely correlated with the presence of multiple atopic disease.ConclusionsSmaller mid-gestational head circumference is associated with early childhood allergic disease, which suggests fetal programming of allergic disease occurs before mid-gestation. This suggests that mediators such as brain-derived neurotropic factor may be dysregulated early in utero in a milieu, which also predisposes to atopic disease.

  3. High prevalence of malnutrition among patients with solid non-hematological tumors as found by using skinfold and circumference measurements

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    Adriana Garófolo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition in cancer patients has many causes. Nutritional status is usually assessed from weight/height indices. These present limitations for the nutritional assessment of cancer patients: their weights include tumor mass, and lean mass changes are not reflected in weight/height indices. The objective was to evaluate differences between two anthropometric methods and compare deficits, in non-hematological tumor patients and hematological disease patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at Instituto de Oncologia Pediátrica, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Children and adolescents were evaluated between March 1998 and January 2000. Traditional anthropometric measurements were obtained in the first month of treatment (induction therapy, by weight-for-height (W/H using z-scores index for children and body mass index (BMI for adolescents. Body composition evaluations consisted of specific anthropometric measurements: triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC and arm muscle circumference (AMC. Data were analyzed to compare nutritional assessment methods for diagnosing malnutrition prevalence. The chi-squared test was used for comparative analyses between tumor patients and hematological disease patients. RESULTS: Analysis was done on 127 patients with complete data. Higher percentages of deficits were found among tumor patients, by W/H z-scores or BMI and by MUAC and AMC. Higher percentages of deficits were shown by TSFT (40.2% and MUAC (35.4% than by W/H z-scores or BMI (18.9%. CONCLUSION: Non-hematological tumor patients presented higher malnutrition prevalence than did hematological disease patients. Body composition measurements by TSFT and MUAC detected more patients with malnutrition than did W/H or BMI.

  4. BMI, a performance parameter for speed improvement.

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    Adrien Sedeaud

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996-2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r = 0.71 and BMI (r = 0.71 in world-class runners and moderately with height (r = 0.39. Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. « Lighter and smaller is better » in endurance events but « heavier and taller is better » for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distance-specific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique.