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Sample records for bmi waist circumference

  1. STUDY OF EFFECT OF BMI AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

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    Pedada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to evaluate any association between BMI, WC and Blood pressure and any tendency to develop prehypertension. The study comprises of 100 medical students of NRI medical college, Sangivalasa near Visakhapatnam. It was carried out ongirl students with age of 17 ye ars. Their BMI, WC and Blood pressure were determined. The examination included measurement of weight, height of the student to determine BMI, measurement of waist circumference, and measurement of blood pressure by sphygmomanometer. In the present study t he results are consistent with early clinical studies reporting that there is elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing BMI and waist circumference and there is tendency to develop prehypertension in students with higher BMI. Modificat ion of life style factors should be emphasized.

  2. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent of...... concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were...... associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  3. Waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and BMI as indicators of percentage fat mass and cardiometabolic risk factors in children aged 3-7 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Bocca, Gianni; L'abée, Carianne; Liem, Eryn T; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) is a better estimate of body fat percentage (BF %) and a better indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI or waist circumference (WC) in young children. Methods: WHtR, WC and BMI were measured by trained staff according to standardiz

  4. Maternal prepregnancy waist circumference and BMI in relation to gestational weight gain and breastfeeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Nøhr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M;

    2015-01-01

    , affects GWG and breastfeeding behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how maternal prepregnancy fat distribution, described by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), is associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior. DESIGN: We analyzed 1371 live births to 1024 women after enrollment in the...... size was differently associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior depending on the location of the fat mass. Thus, maternal fat distribution may be a more important determinant of GWG and breastfeeding behavior than BMI alone.......BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding behavior may influence long-term maternal abdominal fat mass. However, this could be confounded by abdominal fat mass before pregnancy because it is unknown whether abdominal fat mass, independently of body size...

  5. BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p children and adolescents aged 7–18 years, which can be adopted in future researches. Large longitudinal study is still needed to reveal the childhood growth pattern and validate the inconsistence between different percentile studies

  6. Glycemic index and glycemic load of thirteen year old children whose waist circumference (WC ≥ 90 percentile dependent on BMI

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    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the reasons for the accumulation of fat tissue (including visceral fat tissue in the body is an unbalanced diet in respect of the amount and the structure of carbohydrates and the value of the glycemic index (GI and the glycemic load (GL. The research describing the dependence between the BMI (Body Mass Index, WC (Waist Circumference, WHtR (Waist-to-Height Ratio, and GI and GL indexes in adults exists but only a limited number of works discuss children during the pubertal spurt. Therefore the objective of this research is the evaluation of the state of nutrition of 13-year-old children with waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile with various BMI, taking into consideration GL and GL of their meals. Material and methods.The state of nutrition (BMI, WC, WHtR of 871 thirteen-year-old children of both sexes was evaluated and 230 children with WC ≥ 90 percentile were selected (26.4% of the total number examined and divided into three groups regarding the BMI. In 71 children (30.9% of the selected group the method of nutrition, energy and nutritive value of menus, structure of consumption of food groups and GI and GL value were evaluated, on the basis of the analysis of their three day menus, which had been documented. Results.Significantly higher values of BMI and WC were ascertained in boys than in girls. No essential differences in values of WHtR index were ascertained between boys and girls. The analysis of children’s menus, in both sexes with a waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile showed, regardless of BMI value, a low realisation of recommended energetic value of the diet and low realisation of recommended supply of: dietary fibre, fat, mineral components (K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, vitamins (E, B1, PP and liquids with simultaneous occurrence of protein in general and animal protein, sodium and vitamins (A, B2, B6 supply. A significantly higher supply of the most of aforementioned ingredients was ascertained in the

  7. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

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    Shoukri Mohammed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI and waist circumference (W_C, together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. Methods 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P ≤ 0.001. W_C and BMI was positively correlated with sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P Conclusions A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  8. Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Anthropometric Index than Waist Circumference and BMI in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Mexican Adolescents

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    Edel Rafael Rodea-Montero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the degree of association between anthropometric indices and components of metabolic syndrome (MS and to determine optimal cut-off points of these indices for predicting MS in obese adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study with a sample of (n=110 Mexican obese adolescents grouped by sex and the presence/absence of MS. BMI percentile, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR were tested. ROC curves of the anthropometric indices were created to identify whether an index was a significant predictor of MS. Results. BMI percentile, WC, and WHtR were significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As predictors of MS overall patients, the BMI percentile generated an area under curve (AUC of 0.651 (P=0.008, cut-off point above the 99th percentile. WC generated an AUC of 0.704 (P<0.001, cut-off point of ≥90 cm. WHtR demonstrated an AUC of 0.652 (P=0.008, cut-off point of 0.60. WHtR ≥0.62 and WHtR ≥0.61 generate AUC of 0.737 (P=0.006 and AUC of 0.717 (P=0.014 for predicting hypertension and insulin resistance, respectively, in females. Conclusion. WHtR is a better tool than WC and BMI for identifying cardiometabolic risk. The overall criterion (WHtR ≥ 0.6 could be appropriate for predicting MS in obese Mexican adolescents.

  9. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV1 at 12 years of age; the PIAMA birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, Marga B; Alet H Wijga; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and large WC, with forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at age 12. Methods Height, weight, WC and FVC and FEV1 were measured during a medical examination in 1288 12-year-olds part...

  10. Effect of changes in BMI and waist circumference on ambulatory blood pressure in obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Kristian Nebelin; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Ibsen, Hans;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight reduction has been accompanied with a reduction in clinic blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents; however, the effect on ambulatory BP (ABP) is uncertain. The objective was to investigate the impact of weight changes on ABP in obese children and adolescents. METHODS......: Sixty-one severely obese patients aged 10-18 years underwent lifestyle intervention at the Children's Obesity Clinic. Patients were examined with ABP monitoring at baseline and after 1 year of treatment (follow-up). To account for growth, BP and BMI were standardized into z scores, whereas waist.......05). No relationship was found between changes in these anthropometric obesity measures and changes in clinic BP. CONCLUSION: Changes in obesity measures were closely related to changes in ABP, but not to changes in clinic BP, in severe obese children and adolescents after 1 year of lifestyle intervention...

  11. Long-term exposure to residential traffic noise and changes in body weight and waist circumference

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    Christensen, Jeppe S.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2015-01-01

    in waist circumference. We found baseline BMI (p<0.001) and waist circumference (p=0.001) to be significant effect modifiers for the association between road traffic noise and waist circumference, with gain in waist circumference only among the obese (BMI≥30) participants (1.20mm/year (95% CI: 0...... obese participants....

  12. Waist and hip circumferences and all-cause mortality

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    Bigaard, J; Frederiksen, K; Tjønneland, A; Thomsen, B L; Overvad, K; Heitmann, B L; Sørensen, T I A

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether waist and hip circumferences, in addition to body mass index (BMI), are related to all-cause mortality. We studied these associations and tested the usefulness of the waist-to-hip ratio for mortality prediction. DESIGN: A Danish prospective cohort study with data...... inverse for both men and women, but only after adjustment for waist circumference, or BMI, or both. The mortality rate ratios of mutually adjusted waist and hip circumferences were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.71), and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.79) times higher per 10% larger hip circumference in men and women......, respectively, and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.57) and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.31) times higher per 10% larger waist circumference. The adequacy of the waist-to-hip ratio as a substitute for separate measurements of waist and hip circumferences depended on which other variables the analysis was adjusted for, indicating...

  13. Body mass index a better predictor of insulin resistance than waist circumference in normoglycemics

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    B.L. Preethi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body Mass Index (BMI is the most common method of measuring obesity. Many studies have reported that waist circumference is a stronger predictor of insulin resistance in non-type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate whether waist circumference (WC or body mass index (BMI is a better predictor insulin resistance. Method: 79 normal young adult volunteers in the age range of 18 to 25 years were enrolled for the Study. All subjects underwent a detailed general physical examination including Blood Pressure, body weight, height, hip & waist circumference. BMI (Body Mass Index, waist and hip circumference & waist hip ratio calculated. 2hr OGTT with serum Insulin was performed and Insulin resistance calculated. Result: Simple clinical measures of obesity like height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and their indexes like BMI (body mass index, WHR (waist hip ratio were evaluated and correlated with the measures of Insulin resistance (IR and insulin sensitivity. BMI was found to significantly correlate with most of the IR parameters and there was a trend towards significance with weight. Waist circumference did not correlate significantly with IR parameters. Conclusion: Body Mass Index (BMI is a useful tool in evaluating obesity in normoglycemic subjects. BMI is a better predictor of Insulin Resistance and risk stratification than waist circumference.

  14. Hyperinsulinemia and waist circumference in childhood metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the characteristics of obese children presenting at a tertiary care hospital and the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) in them using two paediatric definitions. A total of 262 obese children aged 4-16 years, with BMI greater than 95 percentile were included. Children having obesity due to syndromes, medications causing weight gain, chronic illness and developmental disability were excluded. Blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, HDL, insulin and glucose levels were obtained. Obesity was defined as BMI > 95 percentile for age and gender according to the UK growth reference charts. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated using to the De Ferrantis and Lambert definitions. The frequency of MS varied between 16% and 52% depending on whether insulin levels were included in the definition. There was a significant positive correlation(r) when the metabolic parameters were correlated with waist circumference and insulin levels, except HDL which was negatively correlated. All the metabolic parameters like waist circumference, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure increased considerably across the insulin quartile (p < 0.05). The most noteworthy anthropometric and metabolic abnormality were the waist circumference (46.5%) and insulin levels (58%) respectively. There was a marked difference in the frequency of metabolic syndrome according to the definition used. The waist circumference and hyperinsulinemia are significant correlates of MS in obese children. There is a need for establishing normal insulin ranges according to age, gender and pubertal status. The clinical examination and investigations ought to include waist circumference and insulin levels together as a part of the definition of MS, for early detection and intervention of childhood obesity. (author)

  15. How do pregnancy-related weight changes and breastfeeding relate to maternal weight and BMI-adjusted waist circumference 7 y after delivery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Abrams, Barbara;

    2013-01-01

    breastfeeding are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine how prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, postpartum weight changes, and breastfeeding influence maternal weight and body mass index-adjusted waist circumference (WCBMI) 7 y after delivery. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study of...... show that postpartum weight retention at 6 mo and weight gain from 6 to 18 mo postpartum contribute equally to adverse maternal anthropometric measures 7 y after delivery. Breastfeeding duration may have a beneficial effect.......BACKGROUND: Reproduction has been related to long-term maternal weight gain, and changes in fat mass, with gestational weight gain, have been identified as an important contributor. However, the influence of weight changes during the whole reproductive cycle and the modifying effect of...

  16. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Angquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max; Huikari, Ville; Sebert, Sylvain; Cavadino, Alana; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Skaaby, Tea; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Toft, Ulla; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Power, Chris; Hypponen, Elina; Heitmann, Berit L.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2016-01-01

    body weight (ΔBW) or waist circumference (ΔWC), and whether the associations were modified by genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI). The study was based on 10,898 individuals from the Danish Inter99, the 1958 British Birth Cohort and the Northern Finland...

  17. Identifying Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Using Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference

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    Sarah M. Camhi, PhD

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMetabolic syndrome is increasing among adolescents. We examined the utility of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference to identify metabolic syndrome in adolescent girls.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 185 predominantly African American girls who were a median age of 14 years. Participants were designated as having metabolic syndrome if they met criteria for 3 of 5 variables: 1 high blood pressure, 2 low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 3 high fasting blood glucose level, 4 high waist circumference, and 5 high triglyceride level. We predicted the likelihood of the presence of metabolic syndrome by using previously established cutpoints of BMI and waist circumference. We used stepwise regression analysis to determine whether anthropometric measurements significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.ResultsOf total participants, 18% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. BMI for 118 (64% participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 25% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 4% of participants with a BMI below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001. Girls with a BMI above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a BMI below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002. The waist circumference for 104 (56% participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 28% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 1% of participants with a waist circumference below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001. Girls with a waist circumference above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a waist circumference below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002. Stepwise regression showed that only waist circumference significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.ConclusionBoth anthropometric measures were useful screening tools to identify metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference was a better predictor of

  18. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI, Body Adiposity Index (BAI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

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    Benjamin Chih Chiang Lam

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR, Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and CVD risk factors in the local adult population.This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%, aged 21-74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012 undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ≥23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ≥0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC.BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

  19. The relation between drinking pattern and body mass index and waist and hip circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J S; Heitmann, B. L.; Tjønneland, A M; Overvad, O K; Sørensen, T I A; Grønbaek, M N

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the association between alcohol drinking pattern and obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population study with assessment of quantity and frequency of alcohol intake, waist and hip circumference, height, weight, and lifestyle factors including diet. SUBJECTS: In all, 25 325 men...... and 24 552 women aged 50-65 y from the Diet, Cancer and Health Study, Denmark, 1993-1997 participated in the study. MEASUREMENTS: Drinking frequency, total alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and waist and hip circumference. RESULTS: Among men, total alcohol intake was positively associated with...... high BMI (>/=30 kg/m(2)), large waist circumference (>/=102 cm) and inversely associated with small hip circumference (<100 cm). Among women, the total alcohol was associated with high BMI, large waist (>/=88 cm), and small hips only for the highest intake (28+ drinks/week). The most frequent drinkers...

  20. Does the relationship between waist circumference, morbidity and mortality depend on measurement protocol for waist circumference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, R; Berentzen, T; Bradshaw, A J; Janssen, I; Kahn, H S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Kuk, J L; Seidell, J C; Snijder, M B; Sørensen, T I A; Després, J-P

    2008-01-01

    There is currently no consensus regarding the optimal protocol for measurement of waist circumference (WC), and no scientific rationale is provided for any of the WC protocols recommended by leading health authorities. A panel of experts conducted a systematic review of 120 studies (236 samples) to...... WC protocols performed measurement at the minimal waist (33%), midpoint (26%) and umbilicus (27%). Non-significant associations were reported for 27% (64) of the samples. Most of these protocols measured WC at the midpoint (36%), umbilicus (28%) or minimal waist (25%). Significant associations were...

  1. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

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    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  2. Changes in waist circumference and mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte;

    2010-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) adjusted for body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with mortality, but the association with changes in WC is less clear. We investigated the association between changes in WC and mortality in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent...

  3. Physical activity in leisure-time is not associated with 10-year changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, T.; Petersen, L.; Schnohr, P.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    To examine whether physical activity (PA) is associated with changes in waist circumference (WC), and changes in WC given changes in body mass index (BMI). Longitudinal population-based study including 2026 men and 2782 women aged 21-81 years. Subjects were examined in 1991-1993 (baseline) and 2001...

  4. Abdominal Obesity Indicators: Waist Circumference or Waist-to-hip Ratio in Malaysian Adults Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Norfazilah; Adam, Samia Ibrahim Mohamed; Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity as compared to waist–hip ratio (WHR). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with WC and WHR and suggest cutoff points for WC among Rural Malaysian adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 669 respondents from three villages in Tanjung Karang, located in the district of Kuala Selangor. Data collection was carried out by guided questionnaires and anthropometric measures. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity for BMI was almost similar for both gender across Caucasian and Asian BMI cutoff points. Based on Caucasian cutoff points, the prevalence of abdominal obesity for WC was 23.8% (male) and 66.4% (female) while for WHR was 6.2% (male) and 54.2% (female). Asian cutoff points gave higher prevalence of abdominal obesity compared to that of WC among male respondents and WHR for both genders. WC showed strong and positive correlation with BMI compared to WHR (in male WC r = 0.78, WHR r = 0.24 and in female WC r = 0.72, WHR r = 0.19; P analysis suggested WC cutoff points of 92.5 cm in men and 85.5 cm in women is the optimal number for detection of abdominal obesity. Conclusions: WC is the best indicator as compared with WHR for abdominal obesity for Malaysian adults.

  5. Waist Circumference: A Key Determinant of Bone Mass in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rapheeporn KHWANCHUEA; Sasithorn THANAPOP; Samuhasaneeto, Suchittra; Suree CHARTWAINGAM; Sirirak MUKEM

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) status, and to explore association between lifestyle behaviors, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and BMD status of 217 students (55 males and 162 females) aged between 17 - 23 years studying at Walailak University. The BMD was measured at distal-third radius, and confirmed at mid-shaft tibia by Quantitative ultrasound analysis. BMI and WC were recorded to assess obesity, and lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a questio...

  6. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI......) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were...

  7. Waist circumference does not predict circulating adiponectin levels in sub-Saharan women

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    Gautier Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of previously reported ethnic differences in determinants and markers of obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to investigate circulating levels of adiponectin and their correlates in a sub-Saharan African (sSA population. Subjects and Methods We studied 70 non-diabetic volunteers (33M/37F living in Yaoundé, Cameroon, aged 24–69 yr, with BMI 20–42 kg/m2. In all participants we measured waist circumference and total body fat by bioimpedance, and obtained a fasting venous blood sample for measurement of plasma glucose, serum insulin and adiponectin concentrations. We performed a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in 1/4 subjects, and HOMAIR was used as surrogate of fasting insulin sensitivity index since it best correlates to clamp measurements. Results Males had lower adiponectin levels than females (8.8 ± 4.3 vs. 11.8 ± 5.5 μg/L. There was no significant correlation between adiponectin and total body fat (rs = -0.03; NS, whereas adiponectin was inversely correlated with waist circumference (rs = -0.39; p = 0.001. Adiponectin correlated negatively with insulin resistance (rs = -0.35; p = 0.01. In a regression analysis using fasting adiponectin concentration as the dependent variable, and age, HOMAIR, waist circumference, and fat mass as predictors, waist circumference (β = -3.30; p = 0.002, fat mass (β = -2.68; p = 0.01, and insulin resistance (β = -2.38; p = 0.02 but not age (β = 1.11; p = 0.27 were independent predictors of adiponectin. When considering gender, these relations persisted with the exception of waist circumference in females. Conclusion Adiponectin correlates in this study population are comparable to those observed in Caucasians with the exception of waist circumference in women. The metabolic significance of waist circumference is therefore questioned in sSA women.

  8. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropome......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in...... anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight...... (∆BW) and waist circumference (∆WC). METHODS: A total of 7,569 participants' from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score...

  9. Standardisation of the Waist Circumference (WC for each range of Body Mass Index (BMI in adult outpatients attended to in Endocrinology and Nutrition Departments Estandarización de la circunferencia de cintura (WC, para cada rango de índice de masa corporal (BMI en pacientes adultos atendidos en un servicio de endocrinología y nutrición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. López de la Torre

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available By this study we seek the expectable range of waist circumference (WC for every degree of body mass index (BMI, which will serve to studies targeting ascertaining the health risk. We studied 2,932 patients (39.6% men and 60.4% women, between 18 and 96 years of the same ethnic group who consecutively attended outpatient departments of our clinics between 2000 and 2004.. BMI correlated linearly with the WC (cc: 0.85; p = 102 cm and women > = 88 cm in 94.3% of the obese, in 32.3% of overweight patients, in 3.8% of patients with BMI En este estudio hemos buscado el rango de circunferencia de cintura (WC para cada grado de índice de masa corporal (BMI, que sirva para estudios que determinen riesgos de salud. Estudiamos 2.932 pacientes (39,6% varones y 60,4% mujeres, entre 18 y 96 años del mismo grupo étnico que consecutivamente asistieron a consultas externas de nuestras clínicas entre 2000 and 2004. El BMI correlacionó linealmente con la WC (cc: 0,85; p = 102 cm y mujeres > = 88 cm la presentaban el 94,3% de los obesos, el 32,3% de los pacientes con sobrepeso y el 3,8% de pacientes con BMI < 25, el 84,3% de diabéticos y el 72,6% de pacientes sin diabetes. Elaboramos una estandarización gráfica de WC en relación con BMI y calculamos los precentiles 10, 25, 50, 75 y 90, agrupados en rangos de 2 kg/m² de BMI. Como el número de diabeticos es menor, los agrupamos en rangos de 4 kg/m². En conclusión presentamos una estandarización de la WC de pacientes atendidos en nuestra consulta de endocrinología y nutrición distribuidos en percentiles como herramienta utilizable clínicamente para definir rangos de WC para cada valor de BMI.

  10. Dietary predictors of 5-year changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim;

    2009-01-01

    , whereas snack foods intake was positively associated. Sex differences occurred for vegetables, high-fat dairy products, and processed meat. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a diet low in fruits and red meat and high in snack foods was associated with larger waist circumference gains in both sexes......, baseline diet (192 items food frequency questionnaire), body mass index, and selected potential confounders (eg, smoking status, sport activities, and intake of alcoholic beverages). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: For women, 5-year difference in waist circumference was...... inversely related to intake from red meat, vegetables, fruit, butter, and high-fat dairy products, whereas intake from potatoes, processed meat, poultry, and snack foods was positively associated. For men, red meat and fruit intakes were inversely associated with 5-year difference in waist circumference...

  11. Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR, and waist height ratio (WHtR to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.. Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.. Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5 cm in men and 91 cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.

  12. Interactions of dietary protein and adiposity measures in relation to subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    dietary protein, whether replacing carbohydrate or fat, and weight change. However, individuals in the highest tertile of baseline BMI (irrespective of baseline WCBMI ) had significantly inverse change in waist circumference when protein replaced carbohydrate, but not when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION......: Replacing carbohydrate with protein in the diet may prevent a relative increase in WC in individuals with a greater BMI....

  13. Measurement error of waist circumference: gaps in knowledge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is not clear whether measuring waist circumference in clinical practice is problematic because the measurement error is unclear, as well as what constitutes a clinically relevant change. The present study aimed to summarize what is known from state-of-the-art research. Design: To ident

  14. Measurement error of waist circumference: Gaps in knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.; Mechelen, W.V. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective It is not clear whether measuring waist circumference in clinical practice is problematic because the measurement error is unclear, as well as what constitutes a clinically relevant change. The present study aimed to summarize what is known from state-of-the-art research. Design To identif

  15. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hexing; Ying ZHOU; Tang, Chuanxi; He, Yanhong; Wu, Jingui; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2013-01-01

    Background Lab studies have suggested that ubiquitous phthalate exposures are related to obesity, but relevant epidemiological studies are scarce, especially for children. Objective To investigate the association of phthalate exposures with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Chinese school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary and three middle schools randomly selected from Changning District of Shanghai City of China in 2011–2012. Accordi...

  16. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio: Which Anthropometric Indicator is Better Predictor for the Hypertension Development in Women Population of the Island Cres

    OpenAIRE

    Kabalin, Milena; Kolarić, Branko; VASILJEV MARCHESI, VANJA; Pereza, Nina; Ostojić, Saša; Rukavina, Tomislav; Kapović, Miljenko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure and to prove which of three anthropometric indicators of obesity – waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) waist-to-hip ratio – is better predictor for the development of hypertension in women population of the island of Cres. We approached separately groups of women with measured high blood pressure and with previously diagnosed. The research was preformed within the research project ...

  17. EFFECT OF KAPALBHATI PRANAYAMA ON WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCE

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    Dinkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT (BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rapid industrialization, environmental pollution, overcrowding, sedentary lifestyle and var ious stress factors are responsible for the deterioration of the physical health of a person. Als o, prevalence of obesity in developing countries is believed to be on the rise. This requi res special and specific techniques to transcend the limits of our physical and mental abilities exper ienced in everyday life. Hence, in the present study beneficial effect of Kapalbhati pranayama on wa ist circumference and hip circumference was studied in overweight individuals. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study was conducted in a well-known tertiary hospital in Mumbai after th e institutional ethical clearance and written consent from each participant. A total of 60 overweig ht resident doctors were recruited in this study. The participants were divided into study and c ontrol groups, each group containing 30 subjects of both sexes. The study group was asked to perform Kapalbhati pranayama. The duration of the study was eight weeks. Waist circum ference and hip circumference were assessed in both the groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Paired t- test was applied for statistical analysis and p value <0.05 was considered the level of significance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In study group, waist circumference and hip circumfe rence decreased significantly as compared to that of control group. T his shows that Kapalbhati pranayama has reducing impact on waist circumference and hip circum ference in overweight individuals. The neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system mechani sms might be involved in the effects of Kapalbhati pranayama, which need further study.

  18. Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes

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    Lamichhane Archana P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth with diabetes are at increased risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease complications. However, less is known about the influence of built food environment on health outcomes in this population. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of accessibility and availability of supermarkets and fast food outlets with Body Mass Index (BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. Methods Information on residential location and adiposity measures (BMI z-score and waist circumference for 845 youths with diabetes residing in South Carolina was obtained from the South Carolina site of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlets data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and InfoUSA were merged based on names and addresses of the outlets. The comprehensive data on franchised supermarket and fast food outlets was then used to construct three accessibility and availability measures around each youth’s residence. Results Increased number and density of chain supermarkets around residence location were associated with lower BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. For instance, for a female child of 10 years of age with height of 54.2 inches and weight of 70.4 pounds, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with about 2.8–3.2 pounds higher weight, when compared to female child of same age, height and weight with highest supermarket density around residence location. Similarly, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with a 3.5–3.7 centimeter higher waist circumference, when compared to residence location with the highest supermarket density. The associations of number and density of chain fast food outlets with adiposity measures, however, were not significant. No significant associations were observed between distance to the nearest supermarket and adiposity measures

  19. Nutritional profile of the elderly - Relationship obesity and waist circumference sixty years after

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    Ramara Kadija Fonseca Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aging process the metabolic changes can cause changes in health, including nutritional status, making the absorption of nutrients or promoting the accumulation of adipose tissue. Given this, this study aimed to assess the nutritional status of the participants in an open design for the elderly, through documentary analysis of values of Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC. The analyzed results show a relationship between aging and the accumulation of visceral fat, since individuals considered eutrophic demonstrated a strong CC, as the data below, in which 11.53% of the data showed that subjects with low birth weight, 42,32 % normal weight, overweight and 46.5%, comparing with 80.76% of the values with large waist circumference, increasing the risk of developing some type of metabolic disease.

  20. Waist circumference and body mass index as predictors of health care costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Olsen, Kim Rose;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the present study we analyze the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and future health care costs. On the basis of the relation between these anthropometric measures and mortality, we hypothesized that for all levels of BMI increased WC implies...... added future health care costs (Hypothesis 1) and for given levels of WC increased BMI entails reduced future health care costs (Hypothesis 2). We furthermore assessed whether a combination of the two measures predicts health care costs better than either individual measure. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY....../PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were obtained from the Danish prospective cohort study Diet, Cancer and Health. The population includes 15,334 men and 16,506 women 50 to 64 years old recruited in 1996 to 1997. The relationship between future health care costs and BMI and WC in combination was analyzed by use of categorized...

  1. Waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference, and body mass index as indices of cardiometabolic risk among 36,642 Taiwanese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen-Cheng; Chen, I-Chuan; Chang, Yu-Che; Loke, Song-Seng; Wang, Shih-Hao; Hsiao, Kuang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with cardiometabolic risk. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 21,038 men and 15,604 women who participated in a health check-up were included. Results In both men and women, the area under the curve (AUC) of WHtR was significantly greater than that of BMI or WC in the prediction of diabetes, hypertension, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides, and low H...

  2. The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Hermann; S. Rohrmann; J. Linseisen; A.M. May; A. Kunst; H. Besson; D. Romaguera; N. Travier; M.J. Tormo; E. Molina; M. Dorronsoro; A. Barricarte; L. Rodriguez; F.L. Crowe; K.T. Khaw; N.J. Wareham; P.G.A. van Boeckel; H.B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; K. Overvad; M.U. Jakobsen; A. Tjonneland; J. Halkjaer; C. Agnoli; A. Mattiello; R. Tumino; G. Masala; P. Vineis; A. Naska; P. Orfanos; A. Trichopoulou; R. Kaaks; M.M. Bergmann; A. Steffen; B. van Guelpen; I. Johansson; S. Borgquist; J. Manjer; T. Braaten; G. Fagherazzi; F. Clavel-Chapelon; T. Mouw; T. Norat; E. Riboli; S. Rinaldi; N. Slimani; P.H.M. Peeters

    2011-01-01

    Background: To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Method: This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2

  3. Waist circumference and body composition in relation to all-cause mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J; Frederiksen, K; Tjønneland, A; Thomsen, B L; Overvad, K; Heitmann, B L; Sørensen, T I A

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Waist circumference is directly related to all-cause mortality when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). Body fat and fat-free body mass, when mutually adjusted, show with increasing values an increasing and decreasing relation to all-cause mortality. We investigated the association of ...

  4. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  5. Assessing Factors Related to Waist Circumference and Obesity: Application of a Latent Variable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Dalvand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome and obesity (binary outcome among Iranian adults. Methods. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20–65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity with independent variables including age, gender, PR (Place of Residence, PA (physical activity, smoking status, SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure, CHOL (cholesterol, FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose, diabetes, and FHD (family history of diabetes. Results. All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC. Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, physical inactivity, nonsmoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and having family history of diabetes were significant risk factors that increased WC and obesity. Conclusions. Findings from this study of Iranian adult settings offer more insights into factors associated with high WC and high prevalence of obesity in this population.

  6. Predictive Values of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference for Risk Factors of Certain Related Diseases in Chinese Adults - Study on Optimal Cut-off Points of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For prevention of obesity in Chinese population, it is necessary to define the optimal range of healthy weight and the appropriate cut-off points of BMI and waist circumference for Chinese adults. The Working Group on Obesity in China under the support of International Life Sciences Institute Focal point in China organized a meta-analysis on the relation between BMI, waist circumference and risk factors of related chronic diseases (e. g.,high diabetes, diabetes mellitus, and lipoprotein disorders). Methods 13 population studies in all met the criteria for enrollment, with data of 239 972 adults (20-70 year) surveyed in the 1990s. Data on waist circumference was available for 111411 persons and data on serum lipids and glucose were available for more than 80 000. The study populations located in 21provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in mainland China as well as in Taiwan. Each enrolled study provided data according to a common protocol and uniform format. The Center for data management in Department of Epidemiology, Fu Wai Hospital was responsible for statistical analysis. Results and conclusion The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors all increased with increasing levels of BMI or waist circumference. BMI at 24 with best sensitivity and specificity for identification of the risk factors, was recommended as the cut-off point for overweight, BMI at 28 which may identify the risk factors with specificity around 90 % was recommended as the cut-off point for obesity. Waist circumference beyond 85 cm for men and beyond 80 cm for women were recommended as the cut-off points for central obesity.Analysis of population attributable risk percent illustrated that reducing BMI to normal range (<24) could prevent 45%-50% clustering of risk factors. Treatment of obese persons (BMI ≥ 28)with drugs could prevent 15%-17% clustering of risk factors. The waist circumference controlled under 85 cm for men and under 80 cm for

  7. A CORRELATION BETWEEN HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE AND CHEST, WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCES IN YOUNG POPULATION OF KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The head and body measurements in human body vary because of differences in anatomical features which may be influenced by environmental or geographical factors. This also brings about differences in their bony structure and fat distribution. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between the Head circumference and Chest, Waist & Hip circumferences. METHODS: Head, Chest, Waist, and Hip circumferences were taken for 347 subjects. Then the subjects were classified as Total sample, Males and Females. Data was tabulated and statistical analysis (unpaired t test was carried out to find if any statistical significance between Cephalometric and Anthropometric measurements existed. The correlation co - efficient between head measurement and body measurements was determined using Karl Pearson’s formula. RESULTS: Statistically significant difference was observed for all parameters. Statistically significant correlations were observed in Total sample, Males and Females. CONCLUSION: These measurements will serve as a future frame work for comparing the craniofacial dimensions for differentiation of other racial groups. These are also useful in, anthropometric studies, cosmetology, and reconstructive surgery as well as garment industries. This is also an attempt to help a forensic scientist to identify the individual from dismembered and mutilated body parts in forensic examinations.

  8. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study of Japanese men

    OpenAIRE

    Hamachi Tadamichi; Yoshimitsu Shinichiro; Tabata Shinji; Abe Hiroshi; Ohnaka Keizo; Kono Suminori

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Visceral obesity is positively related to insulin resistance. The nature of the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance has not been known in Japanese populations. This study examined the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance and evaluated the optimal cutoff point for waist circumference in relation to insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. Methods Study subjects included 4800 Japanese men aged 39 to 60 years. Insu...

  9. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for Metabolic Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria in a Korean Rural Population

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Jang Hyun; Koh, Sang Baek; Lee, Mi Young; Jung, Pil Moon; Kim, Bo Hwan; Shin, Jang Yel; Shin, Young Goo; Ryu, So Yeon; Lee, Tae Yong; Park, Jong Ku; Chung, Choon Hee

    2010-01-01

    The Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO) has defined the waist circumference cutoff value of central obesity as 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the corresponding waist circumference values. A total of 3,508 persons in the Korean Rural Genomic Cohort Study were enrolled in this survey. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to find appropriate waist circumference cutoff values in relation to insulin resist...

  10. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

    OpenAIRE

    Zadeh-Vakili Azita; Tehrani Fahimeh R; Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC) for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, ...

  11. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study of Japanese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamachi Tadamichi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral obesity is positively related to insulin resistance. The nature of the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance has not been known in Japanese populations. This study examined the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance and evaluated the optimal cutoff point for waist circumference in relation to insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. Methods Study subjects included 4800 Japanese men aged 39 to 60 years. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The relationship of waist circumference with HOMA-IR was assessed by use of adjusted means of HOMA-IR and odds ratios of elevated HOMA-IR defined as the highest quintile (≥2.00. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using Youden index and the area under curve (AUC was employed to determine optimal cutoffs of waist circumference in relation to HOMA-IR. Results Adjusted geometric means of HOMA-IR and prevalence odds of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference. In the ROC curve analysis, the highest value of Youden index was obtained for a cutoff point of 85 cm in waist circumference across different values of HOMA-IR. Multiple logistic regression analysis also indicated that the AUC was consistently the largest for a waist circumference of 85 cm. Conclusion Waist circumference is linearly related to insulin resistance, and 85 cm in waist circumference is an optimal cutoff in predicting insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men.

  12. Changes in waist circumference relative to body mass index in Chinese adults, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Smith, Lindsey P; Zhang, Bing; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background Although BMI and waist circumference (WC) are correlated, the relationship between WC and BMI may have changed over time. Objectives Describe temporal trends in BMI and WC distributions and quantify the increase in WC at a given BMI over time. Subjects/Methods Data on adults aged 20–59 years from two waves (1993 and 2009) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used in a pooled cross-sectional analysis. Quantile regression examined age-adjusted temporal trends in the distributions of BMI and WC. Linear regression examined changes in mean WC over time, adjusting for BMI, age at survey and survey year. All models were stratified by gender. Results There was a significant increase in BMI and WC over time, particularly at the 95th quantile: on average, men had 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.4, 3.3) and women 1.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.0) higher BMI in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993. WC increased by 9.0 cm (95% CI: 7.5, 10.1) and 5.0 cm (95% CI: 3.4, 6.6) for and women had a 3.2 cm (95% CI: 2.8, 3.7) and 2.1 cm (95% CI: 1.7, 2.5) higher WC in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993, holding BMI and age constant. WC adjusted for BMI increased to a larger extent amongst obese versus lean individuals and amongst younger versus older women. Conclusions For both genders, BMI and WC increased significantly over time, with particularly greatest increase in magnitude in the upper tail of the BMI and WC distributions. Furthermore, WC at equivalent BMI was higher in 2009, compared to their counterparts in 1993. Our findings suggest that even if BMI remained constant from 1993 to 2009, adults in 2009 might be at increased cardiometabolic risk as a result of their higher WC. PMID:24813367

  13. Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management.

    OpenAIRE

    Lean, M E; Han, T.S.; Morrison, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that a single measurement, waist circumference, might be used to identify people at health risk both from being overweight and from having a central fat distribution. DESIGN--A community derived random sample of men and women and a second, validation sample. SETTING--North Glasgow. SUBJECT--904 men and 1014 women (first sample); 86 men and 202 women (validation sample). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Waist circumference, body mass index, waist:hip ratio. RESULTS--Wai...

  14. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females’ pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, a total of 257 young females aged 11 - 15 years old from Talaat Intelligent Guidance School, Tabriz, Iran (2007) were selected for the study using non-probability simple sampling method. Then, usual dietary intakes of all subjects were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference, and Body Mass Index (BMI) using the standard protocols. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics (One-way ANOVA, Tukey test for Post-Hoc Analysis, Chi-square test, age-adjusted means, analysis of covariance with Bonferroni correction, correlation and partial correlation) by SPSS software. Results: In the current study, six major dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis method. Before and after controlling the age, subjects in the upper tertile of the Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern (rich in cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, soft drinks, tomatoes, other vegetables and vegetable oils) had larger waist circumference in comparison with the ones in the lower tertile (before controlling for age: 64.2 ± 9 vs. 61.6 ± 7 P = 0.03; after: 64.5 ± 0.8 vs. 61.5 ± 0.8, P = 0.009). However in lacto vegetarian dietary pattern (rich in legumes, potato, other vegetables, dough, high-fat dairy products and margarine), individuals in the upper tertile had significantly lower weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with the ones

  15. Waist circumference as compared with body-mass index in predicting mortality from specific causes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Leitzmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether waist circumference provides clinically meaningful information not delivered by body-mass index regarding prediction of cause-specific death is uncertain. METHODS: We prospectively examined waist circumference (WC and body-mass index (BMI in relation to cause-specific death in 225,712 U.S. women and men. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.1. RESULTS: During follow-up from 1996 through 2005, we documented 20,977 deaths. Increased WC consistently predicted risk of death due to any cause as well as major causes of death, including deaths from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and non-cancer/non-cardiovascular diseases, independent of BMI, age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and alcohol intake. When WC and BMI were mutually adjusted in a model, WC was related to 1.37 fold increased risk of death from any cancer and 1.82 fold increase risk of death from cardiovascular disease, comparing the highest versus lowest WC categories. Importantly, WC, but not BMI showed statistically significant positive associations with deaths from lung cancer and chronic respiratory disease. Participants in the highest versus lowest WC category had a relative risk of death from lung cancer of 1.77 (95% CI, 1.41 to 2.23 and of death from chronic respiratory disease of 2.77 (95% CI, 1.95 to 3.95. In contrast, subjects in the highest versus lowest BMI category had a relative risk of death from lung cancer of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.17 and of death from chronic respiratory disease of 1.18 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.56. CONCLUSIONS: Increased abdominal fat measured by WC was related to a higher risk of deaths from major specific causes, including deaths from lung cancer and chronic respiratory disease, independent of BMI.

  16. Interaction between genetic predisposition to adiposity and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    ) and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (ΔBW) or change in WC (ΔWC). DESIGN: Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC or......BACKGROUND: Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI......-score: <0.1 mm/y/5 energy% protein/risk allele, [-0.1; 0.1]). Similar results were seen when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the genetic predisposition to general and abdominal adiposity, assessed by gene-scores, does not seem to modulate the influence of dietary protein on ΔBW...

  17. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether genetic predisposition...... to higher body mass index (BMI), WC, or waist-hip ratio (WHR) interacts with dietary calcium in relation to subsequent annual change in BW (ΔBW) and WC (ΔWC). DESIGN: The study was based on 7569 individuals from the MONItoring trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease Study, a sample from the...... Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study and the INTER99 study, with information on diet; 54 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC, or WHR adjusted for BMI; and potential confounders. The SNPs were combined in 4 scores as indicators of genetic predisposition; all SNPs in a general...

  18. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Romaguera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the association of food groups/items consumption on prospective annual changes in "waist circumference for a given BMI" (WC(BMI, a proxy for abdominal adiposity. DESIGN: We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on BMI, and annual change in WC(BMI (ΔWC(BMI, cm/y was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between food groups/items and ΔWC(BMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. RESULTS: Higher fruit and dairy products consumption was associated with a lower gain in WC(BMI whereas the consumption of white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks was positively associated with ΔWC(BMI. When these six food groups/items were analyzed in combination using a summary score, those in the highest quartile of the score--indicating a more favourable dietary pattern--showed a ΔWC(BMI of -0.11 (95% CI -0.09 to -0.14 cm/y compared to those in the lowest quartile. CONCLUSION: A dietary pattern high in fruit and dairy and low in white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks may help to prevent abdominal fat accumulation.

  19. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio: which anthropometric indicator is better predictor for the hypertension development in women population of the island Cres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalin, Milena; Kolarić, Branko; Marchesi, Vanja Vasiljev; Pereza, Nina; Ostojić, Sasa; Rukavina, Tomislav; Kapović, Miljenko

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure and to prove which of three anthropometric indicators of obesity - waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) waist-to-hip ratio - is better predictor for the development of hypertension in women population of the island of Cres. We approached separately groups of women with measured high blood pressure and with previously diagnosed. The research was preformed within the research project "Genetic and biomedical characteristics of the population of the island of Cres". This was the cross sectional study and data were obtained on the sample of 247 females over 18 years old that voluntarily participated in this study. In our study group the prevalence of overweight was 39.0%, obesity 27.5%, increased waist circumference was present in 69.4% while increased blood pressure was found in 53.0% examinees. Our results indicate that age, BMI, impaired glucose concentration and serum cholesterol could be considered as predictors for the development of arterial hypertension, whether measured or previously diagnosed. PMID:22856216

  20. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC) is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 s...

  1. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Richard W; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E;

    2015-01-01

    Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. RESULTS: The data included up to 66,809 never-smokers, 43,009 former smokers and 38,913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric...

  2. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio distributions in polish and german schoolchildren: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Nawarycz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To analyze differences in the distributions of waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR between Polish (PL and German (GE children and adolescents. Methods: Two samples of children and adolescents aged 7-18 y: From PL ( n = 11,326 GE ( n = 8,218 participated. The two WC cut-off points (WC1 as central fat distribution and WC2 as central obesity corresponding at age 18 to the adult criteria were determined. Furthermore, the mean WC cut-off points (WC1m, WC2m for boys and girls aged 14-18 from both countries were evaluated. For the WHtR, values over 0.5 were used as a definition of central fat distribution. The effect of different WC and WHtR criteria on the prevalence of abdominal obesity in both study groups was evaluated. Results: The mean and percentile values of WC and WHtR were generally higher in all German children as compared to their peers from Poland. When WC1m is used, the mean (95% CI prevalence of central fat distribution in the 14-18 y Polish groups was lower ( P 0.5, the results were similar for boys - 6.7% (5.9-7.5 vs. 8.5% (8.1-8.9; they were significantly ( P < 0.05 lower for Polish and German girls: 5.3% (5.0-5.6 vs. 12.7% (9.7-16.4. The prevalence of central obesity using WC2m as a criterion in the Polish vs. German groups was as follows: (boys - 1.1% (0.8-1.4 vs. 3.1% (2.2-4.0, P < 0.05; girls - 3.1% (2.5-3.7 vs. 10.2% (8.4-12.0, P < 0.05. Conclusions: The results highlight the greater central obesity associated with the German children, both in terms of WC and WHtR, in comparison to their peers from Poland. The prevalence of AO is significantly associated with the criteria used. The results demonstrate the need for the development of international WC references for pediatric subjects.

  3. Waist circumference as a marker for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Dal Molin, Bárbara; de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the relationship between the degree of waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese adolescents of both genders, analyzed according to quartiles of WC. Methods: Cross-sectional study that involved 247 obese adolescents aged 12–19 years. Mean values of the nutritional parameters and serum analyses were compared with the groups using the independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship of the parameters studied. Chi-square test for trend was used to determine the relationship between the prevalence of the NAFLD and WC quartile by gender. Results: NAFLD were presented in 60% of the study participants. Obese adolescents in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of WC presented higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared with that in the 1st quartile in both genders. The NAFLD patients had significantly higher values for body weight, BMI (body mass index), BAZ-score (BMI-for-age z-scores), total fat (% and kg), WC, visceral fat, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that an increase in WC can reliably predict the risk of NAFLD in obese adolescents. This is a low cost and easy-to-use tool that can help in screening in adolescents. PMID:26830602

  4. Augmenting BMI and waist-height ratio for establishing more efficient obesity percentiles among school-going children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjikkaran Seeja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Questions: 1. Are all the existing methods for estimating the obesity and overweight in school going children in India equally efficient? 2. How to derive more efficient obesity percentiles to determine obesity and overweight status in school-going children aged 7-12 years old? Objectives: 1. To investigate and analyze the prevalence rate of obesity and overweight children in India, using the established standards. 2. To compare the efficiency among the tools with the expected levels in the Indian population. 3. To establish and demonstrate the higher efficiency of the proposed percentile chart. Study Design: A cross-sectional study using a completely randomized design. Settings: Government, private-aided, unaided, and central schools in the Thrissur district of Kerala. Participants: A total of 1500 boys and 1500 girls aged 7-12 years old. Results: BMI percentiles, waist circumference percentiles, and waist to height ratio are the ruling methodologies in establishing the obese and overweight relations in school-going children. Each one suffers from the disadvantage of not considering either one or more of the obesity contributing factors in human growth dynamics, the major being waist circumference and weight. A new methodology for mitigating this defect through considering BMI and waist circumference simultaneously for establishing still efficient percentiles to arrive at obesity and overweight status is detailed here. Age-wise centiles for obesity and overweight status separately for boys and girls aged 7-12 years old were established. Comparative efficiency of this methodology over BMI had shown that this could mitigate the inability of BMI to consider waist circumference. Also, this had the advantage of considering body weight in obesity analysis, which is the major handicap in waist to height ratio. An analysis using a population of 1500 boys and 1500 girls has yielded 3.6% obese and 6.2% overweight samples, which is well within

  5. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Halkjaer, J.; Heitmann, B.L.; Tjonneland, A.M.; Overvad, K.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Grønbæk, Morten

    2008-01-01

    drinking, drinking on 1, 2-4, 5-6, and 7 d/wk, respectively, compared with men who drank alcohol on <1 d/wk (P for trend < 0.0001). Results for women were similar. Adjustment for the amount of alcohol intake or total energy intake did not affect results considerably. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking pattern may be......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from a...... prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined as...

  6. Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index - a proxy measure of visceral adiposity.

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    Dora Romaguera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype "waist circumference for a given body mass index (WC(BMI", a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess the association between dietary factors and prospective changes in visceral adiposity as measured by changes in the phenotype WC(BMI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on body mass index, and annual change in WC(BMI (DeltaWC(BMI, cm/y was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between energy, energy density (ED, macronutrients, alcohol, glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, fibre and DeltaWC(BMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Men and women with higher ED and GI diets showed significant increases in their WC(BMI, compared to those with lower ED and GI [1 kcal/g greater ED predicted a DeltaWC(BMI of 0.09 cm (95% CI 0.05 to 0.13 in men and 0.15 cm (95% CI 0.09 to 0.21 in women; 10 units greater GI predicted a DeltaWC(BMI of 0.07 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.12 in men and 0.06 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.10 in women]. Among women, lower fibre intake, higher GL, and higher alcohol consumption also predicted a higher DeltaWC(BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study suggest that a diet with low GI and ED may prevent visceral adiposity, defined as the prospective changes in WC(BMI. Additional effects may be obtained among women of low alcohol, low GL, and high fibre intake.

  7. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadeh-Vakili Azita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC. Results The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years. After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC Conclusions Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women.

  8. Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Adult Igbo’s of Nigeria: Interrelation with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Oladipo; P.A. Akande, K.C. Anugweje and I.G. Osogba

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference and waist to hip ratio are used as indicators of abdominal obesity in population studies. This study was carried out to predict if the Igbo ethnic groups are at a risk of cardiovascular disease. A total of 800 subjects were randomly selected, 400 males and 400 females between age range 20-65 years. A measuring tape was used to measure their waist and hip circumference to get its ratio. Their blood pressure and body mass index were also determined. The mean waist circumfere...

  9. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Halkjaer, Jytte; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tjønneland, Anne M; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbæk, Morten

    2008-01-01

    circumference in men. Drinking frequency was unassociated with major waist loss but was inversely associated with major waist gain: odds ratios among men were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.28), 0.95 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.12), 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.99), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71, -0.95), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.9) for never......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from a...... prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined as...

  10. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

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    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of waist circumference (WC is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  11. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

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    Tina Landsvig Berentzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Waist circumference (WC is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass index (DBMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on 15,577 men and 20,066 women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study were analyzed. Anthropometry was assessed in 1993-97 and 1999-02. Information on diabetes was obtained from The Danish National Diabetes Register. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated from Cox' proportional hazard models with individuals considered at risk from 1999-02 until December 31 2006. During 5.4 years of follow-up, 1,027 and 876 new cases of diabetes occurred among men and women, respectively. WC was positively associated with diabetes in both sexes also with adjustment for covariates and BMI. DWC was positively associated with diabetes in women, but not in men (HR per 5 cm change = 1.09 (1.04:1.15 in women, and 1.00 (0.94, 1.07 in men with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and DBMI. Associations with DWC were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to baseline WC or DBMI, or when individuals with diseases or diabetes occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While this study confirmed that WC is positively associated with the risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, it surprisingly showed that changes in WC were not associated with the subsequent risk of diabetes in men, and only weakly positively associated with the risk of diabetes in women. Accordingly, these findings suggest that a reduction in WC may be a weak or insufficient or target for prevention of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

  12. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte;

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass...

  13. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  14. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Halkjaer, Jytte; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from...

  15. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J.; Ribeiro, Luís P.; Fernandes, Romulo; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. Methods: The sample included…

  16. Body mass index, waist circumference, body adiposity index, and risk for type 2 diabetes in two populations in Brazil: general and Amerindian.

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    Rafael de Oliveira Alvim

    Full Text Available The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs.The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor.Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations.

  17. The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study

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    Vineis Paolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC. Method This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2000. Education, which was assessed by questionnaire, was classified into four categories; BMI and WC, measured by trained personnel in most participating centers, were modeled as continuous dependent variables. Associations were estimated using multilevel mixed effects linear regression models. Results Compared with the lowest education level, BMI and WC were significantly lower for all three higher education categories, which was consistent for all countries. Women with university degree had a 2.1 kg/m2 lower BMI compared with women with lowest education level. For men, a statistically significant, but less pronounced difference was observed (1.3 kg/m2. The association between WC and education level was also of greater magnitude for women: compared with the lowest education level, average WC of women was lower by 5.2 cm for women in the highest category. For men the difference was 2.9 cm. Conclusion In this European cohort, there is an inverse association between higher BMI as well as higher WC and lower education level. Public Health Programs that aim to reduce overweight and obesity should primarily focus on the lower educated population.

  18. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibíades Bustamante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  19. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-08-01

    The affordability of food is considered as an important factor influencing people's diet and hence health status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood food store availability is associated with some aspects of dietary intake and thus possibly with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. Subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 years of age. Neighborhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (meat stores, fish stores, fruit and vegetable stores, confectionery stores/bakeries, rice stores, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores). Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire. No association was seen between any measure of neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, except for a positive association between confectionery and bread availability (based on confectionery stores/bakeries, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores) and intake of these items (P for trend = .02). Further, no association was seen for BMI or waist circumference, except for an inverse relationship between availability of convenience stores and BMI and a positive relationship between store availability for meat (meat stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and fish (fish stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and waist circumference. In conclusion, this study of young Japanese women found no meaningful association between neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, BMI, or waist circumference, with the exception of a positive relationship between availability and intake for confectionery and bread. PMID:20851311

  20.  Trends in Waist Circumference and Central Obesity in Adults, Northern Iran

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    Ebrahim Tazik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: The main aim of this study is to determine the centralobesity trends during the period from 2006 to 2010 among 15-65years old people in Northern Iran.Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional studyconducted on 6466 subjects who had been chosen by a multistage cluster random sampling within five steps. The subjects wererandomly chosen from 325 clusters and each cluster included 20cases. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cmand ≥88 cm in men and women, respectively.Results: Compared to 2010, the mean waist circumference in2006 changed from 87.2 cm to 88.1 cm in men (p=0.237, andfrom 90.3 cm to 88.6 cm in women (p=0.045. The comparisonbetween 2006 and 2010 revealed that the prevalence of centralobesity slightly decreased, 6.8�0and 2.4�0in urban women andmen, respectively. Generally, the mean of waist circumferencesignificantly decreased in urban women (by 0.069 cm in each year;p=0.020; however, the decrease of waist circumference in urbanmen was not significant (0.006 cm decrease each year; p=0.915.Conclusion: The prevalence of central obesity declined amongboth males and females in the urban area; however, there wasan attenuated increasing trend in the rural area. The disparity oftrends between the two regions should be considered for furtherstudy.

  1. Moderate agreement between body mass index and measures of waist circumference in the identification of overweight among 5-year-old children; the ‘Be active, eat right’ study

    OpenAIRE

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; Jansen, Wilma; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n = 770...

  2. Relationship between Waist Circumference and Elevation of Carotid Intima-media Thickness in Newly-diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIA Wei Ping; SHEN Yun; ZHOU Jian; PAN Jie Min; YU Hao Yong; CHEN Hai Bing; LI Qing; LI Ming; BAO Yu Qian

    2014-01-01

    Objective Waist circumference, as a brief indicator of visceral obesity, is associated with multi-metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was aimed to find out the relationship between waist circumference and carotid intima media thickness (C-IMT), as well as the best waist circumference cutoff for identifying C-IMT elevation in Chinese male patients with newly-diagnosed diabetes. Methods Five hundred and seventy-eight patients from Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University were enrolled. Both physical examination (for measurement of waist circumference) and carotid ultrasonography (for measurement of C-IMT) were performed. Results After grouping according to the quartiles of C-IMT, the waist circumference increased across all its quartiles. The waist circumference in 3rd and 4th quartiles (90.7±9.8 cm and 90.8±9.6 cm) was significant higher than in 1st and 2nd quartiles (P Conclusion Among newly-diagnosed diabetic male patients, waist circumference over 90 cm not only reflects sub-clinical atherosclerosis in early stage, but also predicts the progression of atherosclerosis.

  3. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; COELHO E SILVA, MANUEL J.; RIBEIRO, LUÍS P.; FERNANDES, ROMULO; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially importante for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. METHODS: The sample included 254 students (114 boys, 140 girls), 13-16 years of age, from rural regions of the Portuguese midlands.Height, weight, andWCwere measured. Cardiore...

  4. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for the Diagnosis of Abdominal Obesity in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Yeong Sook; Oh, Sang Woo

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC) is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females...

  5. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.;

    physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...... MetS-markers in 8-11-year-olds at nine Danish schools without existing school meal programmes. Methods In a cluster-randomized cross-over design we assigned 834 third and fourth graders to school lunch and snacks based on the New Nordic Diet and usual home-packed lunch (control) for 3 months. We...... measured blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance based on the Homeostasis Model of Assessment (HOMA-IR), anthropometry and body composition at baseline, month 3 and 6. Results Seventy-six% of the children were normalweight; 10% were underweight and 14% overweight/obese. The NND school meals did...

  6. Waist circumference is better associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL-c than with body mass index (BMI in adults with metabolic syndrome Circunferencia de la cintura es mejor asociado con lipoproteínas de alta densidad (LAD-C que con el índice de masa corporal (IMC en adultos con síndrome metabólico

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    S. T. Arimura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The measurement of waist circumference (WC is the most prevalent cause of the metabolic syndrome (MS. Objective: The aim of this study was to correlate WC and BMI with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c levels in patients with MS being consulted by the Family Health Program (PSF, Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September to November 2008 with 42 patients (29 women and 13 men from 35 to 77 years. Dietary intake was reported, and biochemical and body composition measures were taken. Results: The HDL-c levels were higher in women when compared to men (48.4 ± 8.1 mg/dL vs. 36.4 ± 7.8 mg/dL. However, the triglycerides (TG/HDL-c ratio and TG concentrations were lower in women (3.8 ± 1.5 and 178.0 ± 57.8 mg/dL, respectively than in men (9.4 ± 8.5 and 471.5 ± 501.5 mg/dL, respectively. Regarding skinfold profile, the triceps was greater in females (37.0 ± 8.4 cm vs. 20.7 ± 10.5 cm. The dietetic profile showed that women had a lower intake of energy, fiber, phosphorus and sodium. The fruits and vegetables intake was diminished in the participants of this study, as less than 60% of the women and 50% of men met the daily recommendations. Approximately 54% of men and 28% of women had a lower intake of dairy products daily. Moreover, the results shows that the WC was negatively correlated to HDL-c (r = -0.41, p 0.06. Conclusion: Our findings showed that WC is a better predictor of changes in HDL-c than BMI.Antecedentes: La medición de la circunferencia de la cintura (CC es la causa más prevalente del síndrome metabólico (SM. Objetivo: el propósito de este estudio fue correlacionar la CC y el IMC con las concentraciones de lipoproteínas de densidad elevada (HDL-c en pacientes con SM vistos en consulta del Programa de salud familiar (PSF, de Brasil. Métodos: Este estudio trasversal se realizó entre septiembre y noviembre de 2008 en 42 pacientes (29 mujeres y 13 hombres de 35 a 77 años. Se registró la

  7. VALIDITY OF USING WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCE MEASUREMENTS TO DETERMINE BODY COMPOSITION OF YOUNG SYRIAN MEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz; Ahmad, Husam

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the relation between waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and triceps skin-fold thickness and percentage body fat in young Syrian men. The aim was to develop equations that can use these anthropometric characteristics to estimate percentage body fat in this group of subjects. A total of 2470 healthy Syrian men aged 18-19 years were enrolled in the study in 2010-2011. The anthropometric characteristics of all subjects were measured. The percentage body fat of 213 of the subjects was determined using the deuterium dilution (DD) technique as a reference method. The validity of using WC, HC, WHpR and WHtR to calculate percentage body fat, in comparison with the reference method (DD technique), was assessed by calculating biases and limits of agreement. The estimates of percentage body fat using 'WC' and 'WC with triceps skin-fold' measurements ranged from 13.00±5.56% to 14.55±8.63%, and were lower than those determined using the reference method (21.32±6.42%). A better prediction equation is proposed for young adults, based on a multiple linear regression model using WC, HC and WHtR. PMID:26971838

  8. Combined use of waist and thigh circumference to identify high-risk, abdominally obese HIV+ patients

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    T O'Neil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background We examined whether the combination of waist (WC and thigh (ThC circumference improves the prediction of visceral adipose tissue (VAT over WC and ThC independently in HIV-infected men and women after correction for age. We also examined the independent associations between VAT, and the combination of WC and ThC with metabolic risk factors, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and prior cardiovascular events in HIV-infected individuals. Methods Consecutive patients attending the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena in Italy between 2005 and 2009 were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Total and regional fat mass and lean mass were quantified using DEXA. A single CT image was taken for quantification of VAT and CAC. Prior cardiovascular events which occurred within a 5-year period of the clinical evaluation were analysed. A cross-fold test was used to explore different models in the ability to predict VAT in order to build an algorithm for VAT estimation (e-VAT. Regression analysis were performed to determine the univariate and multivariate relations between WC, ThC, and age with VAT. A comparison of beta coefficients for VAT and e-VAT to predict cardio-metabolic risk and events were performed using multivariable regression models after correction for BMI and age. Results 2322 HIV-infected patients were recruited: median duration of HIV infection was 182 months (IQR 126–236; median nadir and current CD4 were 172 (IQR 68–262 and 515.5 (IQR 369–700 and 75% of them had undetectable HIV1-VL. In this abstract only the results of men will be presented. Men (n=1481 had a mean age of 45.9±7.3 years, a BMI of 24.1 ± 3.8 kg/m2, a WC of 88.0±10.1 cm and a ThC of 47.8±4.3 cm. e-VAT algorithm for men was: (5.44*WC−(1.35*ThC−(1.70*age−348.1 In men, at multivariable regression models after correction for BMI and age, e-VAT was concordant to VAT in predicting HOMA, MetS Risk, prior cardiovascular events (OR=1

  9. Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood

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    Fitzpatrick Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

  10. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with PAboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  11. Comparison of Relative Waist Circumference between Asian Indian and US Adults

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    Harpreet S. Bajaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Relative to Europeans, Asian Indians have higher rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Whether differences in body composition may underlie these population differences remains unclear. Methods. We compared directly measured anthropometric data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES survey of southern Indians (I with those from three US ethnic groups (C: Caucasians, A: African Americans, and M: Mexican Americans from NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 15,733 subjects from CURES and 5,975 from NHANES III met inclusion criteria (age 20–39, no known diabetes. Results. Asian Indian men and women had substantially lower body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and body surface area relative to US groups (P values <0.0001. In contrast, the mean (±se waist-weight ratio was significantly higher (P<0.001 in I (men 1.35 ± 0.002 and women 1.45 ± 0.002 than in all the US groups (1.09, 1.21, and 1.14 in A, M, and C men; 1.23, 1.33, and 1.26 in A, M, and C women (se ranged from 0.005 to 0.006. Conclusions. Compared to the US, the waist-weight ratio is significantly higher in men and women from Chennai, India. These results support the hypothesis that Southeast Asian Indians are particularly predisposed toward central adiposity.

  12. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte;

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective was to inv...... investigate the association between intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products and subsequent changes in weight and WC. Furthermore, potential effect modification by sex, age, body mass index and WC at baseline was investigated....

  13. Trends in Waist Circumference and Central Obesity in Adults, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Tazik; Abdolhamid Angizeh; Pooneh Moharloei; Samieh Banihashem; Mehdi Sedaghat; Gholamreza Veghari; Abbas Moghaddami

    2012-01-01

     Objectives: The main aim of this study is to determine the centralobesity trends during the period from 2006 to 2010 among 15-65years old people in Northern Iran.Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional studyconducted on 6466 subjects who had been chosen by a multistage cluster random sampling within five steps. The subjects wererandomly chosen from 325 clusters and each cluster included 20cases. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cmand ≥88 cm in men and wome...

  14. Study of Low-grade Chronic Inflammatory Markers in Men with Central Obesity: Cathepsin S was Correlated with Waist Circumference

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    Adriana Todingrante

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a prevalence increase of overweight and obesity in Indonesia. Central obesity can lead a variety of chronic diseases through the inflammatory process. There are some markers for low-grade chronic inflammatory, such as cathepsin S, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, interleukin-1- beta (IL-1β. To our current interest that central obesity can lead to various chronic diseases through the inflammatory process, we conducted a study to investigate correlation of Cathepsin S, hs-CRP, IL-1β in men with central obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Seventy-eight selected subjects were examined to collect anthropometric data and prepared for sample collection. Collected samples were processed for the following biochemical analyses: fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cathepsin S, hs-CRP, and IL-1β. Data distribution and variable correlation were then statistically analyzed. RESULTS: There were significant correlations between waist circumference (WC and cathepsin S (p=0.030; r=0.214, hs-CRP and cathepsin S (p=0.007; r=0.276, triglyceride and IL-1β (p=0.019; r=-0.235, WC and systolic blood pressure (SBP (p=0.003; r=-0.312, WC and fasting glucose (p=0.000; r=0.380, WC and body mass index (BMI (p=0.000; r=0.708. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that cathepsin S was correlated with central obesity, suggesting that cathepsin S could be a potential inflammatory marker in central obesity in the future. KEYWORDS: obesity, inflammation, hs-CRP, cathepsin S, IL-1β, waist circumference.

  15. Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoff for overweight and central obesity among adults in Cambodia.

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    Yom An

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786 were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229 were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001 when BMI of 23.0 kg/m(2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2 for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001 when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥ 94.0 cm in men. CONCLUSION: Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years.

  16. 北京市城乡学生腰围臀围腰臀比分析%Waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio among students in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬盛鑫; 夏天; 杨忠; 安康; 尹丽君; 王东江; 宋玉珍; 刘淑娟

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解2010年北京市7~18岁中小学生腰围臀围和腰臀比的年龄、性别特征,为学生体质健康研究资料提供有益补充.方法 对2010年北京市体质调研7~18岁中小学生的腰围、臀围和腰臀比进行描述性分析.结果 男生腰围均值、腰臀比高于女生;城区男生臀围均值高于女生,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05或P<0.01),郊区男、女生臀围差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).腰围均值12岁前有随年龄增长而增加的趋势.学生臀围均值有随着年龄的增长而增加的趋势,差异有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).城区男生腰围均值高于郊区男生(P<0.05);城区女生腰围均值与郊区女生差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);城区男女生臀围均值大于郊区学生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);城郊区男生腰臀比均值差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);郊区女生腰臀比均值高于城区女生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 北京城乡7 ~18岁学生腰围、臀围和腰臀比随年龄变化总趋势一致,但城乡各指标间年龄、性别特征存在差异.%Objective To study the characteristics of waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio among students( aged 7-18 years) of different ages and sexes in Beijing. Methods As part of the Beijing students Physical fitness study, a stratified cluster representative sample of total population aged 7-18 years was selected. Anthropometric measure including waist circumference, hip circumference and the waist-hip ratio, using T test analysis methods to study the Beijing city and suburb students aged 7 to 18 waist circumference, hip circumference and the waist-hip ratio by age, gender differences in city and suburb areas. Results The boys' mean waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were higher than girls', the urban boys' mean hip circumference was higher than the urban girls( P 0.05). The mean waist circumference had an increasing trend with age before

  17. Interaction between genetic predisposition to adiposity and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Z Ankarfeldt

    Full Text Available Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry.To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (ΔBW or change in WC (ΔWC.Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with BMI, WC or WHRBMI, as well as potential confounders. Mean follow-up time was ∼5 years. Four genetic predisposition-scores were based on the SNPs; a complete-score including all selected adiposity- associated SNPs, and three scores including BMI, WC or WHRBMI associated polymorphisms, respectively. The association between protein intake and ΔBW or ΔWC were examined and interactions between SNP-score and protein were investigated. Analyses were based on linear regressions using macronutrient substitution models and meta-analyses.When protein replaced carbohydrate, meta-analyses showed no associations with ΔBW (41.0 gram/y/5 energy% protein, [95% CI: -32.3; 114.3] or ΔWC (<-0.1 mm/y/5 energy % protein, [-1.1; 1.1]. Similarly, there were no interactions for any SNP-scores and protein for either ΔBW (complete SNP-score: 1.8 gram/y/5 energy% protein/risk allele, [-7.0; 10.6] or ΔWC (complete SNP-score: <0.1 mm/y/5 energy% protein/risk allele, [-0.1; 0.1]. Similar results were seen when protein replaced fat.This study indicates that the genetic predisposition to general and abdominal adiposity, assessed by gene-scores, does not seem to modulate the influence of dietary protein on ΔBW or ΔWC.

  18. Body mass index and waist circumference combined predicts obesity-related hypertension better than either alone in a rural Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Guoan; Zhang, Hongyan; Ren, Yongcheng; Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Xiangyu; Han, Chengyi; Pang, Chao; Yin, Lei; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available on the association of obesity defined by both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with incident hypertension in rural China. A total of 9,174 participants ≥18 years old from rural areas in middle of China, free of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke, were selected in this cohort study. Questionnaire interview and anthropometric and laboratory measurements were performed at baseline (2007–2008) and follow-up (2013–2014). During the 6 years of follow-up, hypertension developed in 733/3,620 men and 1,051/5,554 women. After controlling for age, education level, smoking, drinking, physical activity, and family history of hypertension, the relative risk of hypertension was lower for participants with high BMI but normal WC than those with both BMI and WC obesity for men 18–39 and 40–59 years old. Women 18–39 years old with normal BMI but high WC showed a 1.96-fold risk of hypertension, and being female with age 40–59 years and high BMI but normal WC was independently associated with hypertension incidence as compared with both normal BMI and WC. BMI is more associated with hypertension as compared with WC in both genders. High WC tends to add additional risk of hypertension in young women. PMID:27545898

  19. Body mass index and waist circumference combined predicts obesity-related hypertension better than either alone in a rural Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Guoan; Zhang, Hongyan; Ren, Yongcheng; Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Xiangyu; Han, Chengyi; Pang, Chao; Yin, Lei; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available on the association of obesity defined by both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with incident hypertension in rural China. A total of 9,174 participants ≥18 years old from rural areas in middle of China, free of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke, were selected in this cohort study. Questionnaire interview and anthropometric and laboratory measurements were performed at baseline (2007-2008) and follow-up (2013-2014). During the 6 years of follow-up, hypertension developed in 733/3,620 men and 1,051/5,554 women. After controlling for age, education level, smoking, drinking, physical activity, and family history of hypertension, the relative risk of hypertension was lower for participants with high BMI but normal WC than those with both BMI and WC obesity for men 18-39 and 40-59 years old. Women 18-39 years old with normal BMI but high WC showed a 1.96-fold risk of hypertension, and being female with age 40-59 years and high BMI but normal WC was independently associated with hypertension incidence as compared with both normal BMI and WC. BMI is more associated with hypertension as compared with WC in both genders. High WC tends to add additional risk of hypertension in young women. PMID:27545898

  20. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Influence of Genetic Predisposition to Adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max; Huikari, Ville; Sebert, Sylvain; Cavadino, Alana; Singh Ahluwalia, Tarunveer; Skaaby, Tea; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Toft, Ulla; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Heitmann, Berit L.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and changes in measures of adiposity have shown inconsistent results, and interaction with genetic predisposition to obesity has rarely been examined. We examined whether 25(OH)D was associated with subsequent annual changes in body weight (ΔBW) or waist circumference (ΔWC), and whether the associations were modified by genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI). The study was based on 10,898 individuals from the Danish Inter99, the 1958 British Birth Cohort and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. We combined 42 adiposity-associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) into four scores indicating genetic predisposition to BMI, WC and WHRBMI, or all three traits combined. Linear regression was used to examine the association between serum 25(OH)D and ΔBW or ΔWC, SNP-score × 25(OH)D interactions were examined, and results from the individual cohorts were meta-analyzed. In the meta-analyses, we found no evidence of an association between 25(OH)D and ΔBW (-9.4 gram/y per 10 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D [95% CI: -23.0, +4.3; P = 0.18]) or ΔWC (-0.06 mm/y per 10 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D [95% CI: -0.17, +0.06; P = 0.33]). Furthermore, we found no statistically significant interactions between the four SNP-scores and 25(OH)D in relation to ΔBW or ΔWC. Thus, in view of the narrow CIs, our results suggest that an association between 25(OH)D and changes in measures of adiposity is absent or marginal. Similarly, the study provided evidence that there is either no or very limited dependence on genetic predisposition to adiposity. PMID:27077659

  1. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

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    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ into stunted (−1 > HAZ ≥ −2 and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ −1 groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. Results: WC cut-off points of 58.25 cm and 67.2 cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively, the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts.

  2. NRXN3 is a novel locus for waist circumference: a genome-wide association study from the CHARGE Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L Heard-Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Central abdominal fat is a strong risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. To identify common variants influencing central abdominal fat, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association analysis for waist circumference (WC. In total, three loci reached genome-wide significance. In stage 1, 31,373 individuals of Caucasian descent from eight cohort studies confirmed the role of FTO and MC4R and identified one novel locus associated with WC in the neurexin 3 gene [NRXN3 (rs10146997, p = 6.4x10(-7]. The association with NRXN3 was confirmed in stage 2 by combining stage 1 results with those from 38,641 participants in the GIANT consortium (p = 0.009 in GIANT only, p = 5.3x10(-8 for combined analysis, n = 70,014. Mean WC increase per copy of the G allele was 0.0498 z-score units (0.65 cm. This SNP was also associated with body mass index (BMI [p = 7.4x10(-6, 0.024 z-score units (0.10 kg/m(2 per copy of the G allele] and the risk of obesity (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.19; p = 3.2x10(-5 per copy of the G allele. The NRXN3 gene has been previously implicated in addiction and reward behavior, lending further evidence that common forms of obesity may be a central nervous system-mediated disorder. Our findings establish that common variants in NRXN3 are associated with WC, BMI, and obesity.

  3. Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Adult Igbo’s of Nigeria: Interrelation with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

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    G.S. Oladipo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Waist circumference and waist to hip ratio are used as indicators of abdominal obesity in population studies. This study was carried out to predict if the Igbo ethnic groups are at a risk of cardiovascular disease. A total of 800 subjects were randomly selected, 400 males and 400 females between age range 20-65 years. A measuring tape was used to measure their waist and hip circumference to get its ratio. Their blood pressure and body mass index were also determined. The mean waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, body mass index and hip circumference were 84.27±8.13 cm, 0.88±0.05, 125/80±12.18/10.44 mmHg, 25±2.97 (kg/m2 and 95.30±6.94 cm for males respectively and those of female subjects were 87.43±11.97 cm, 0.85±0.06, 122/79±11.95/10.98 mmHg, 27±4.88 (kg/m2 and102.48±9.87 cm, respectively. Using z-test, there was a significant difference in their systolic pressure, body mass index and waist to hip ratio (p<0.05. Based on their age range the calculated parameters increased with an advancing age, especially from 40-65 years which means that this age ranges were at a higher risk than those between 20-39 years. In the study, 50% of the adult males had a waist to hip ratio greater than 0.95 cm which kept them at a higher risk than their female counterparts of which 21.87% had a waist to hip ratio greater than 0.85 cm. The result of this studies showed that the Igbo ethnic groups were pre-hypertensive and obese with an advancing age. This study signifies that they are at a risk of cardiovascular disease and need urgent medical attention.

  4. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio and serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in European women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gram, Inger Torhild; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Dossus, Laure; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Téhard, B; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Gils, C H van; Noord, P A H van; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Nagel, Gabriele; Linseisen, Jakob; Lahmann, Petra H; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sieri, Sabina; Dorronsoro Iraeta, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Navarro, Carmen A; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, M-J; González, Carlos Alberto; Overvad, Kim; Paaske Johnsen, S; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, R; Allen, Naomi E; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stattin, P; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kalapothaki, V; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Casagrande, Corinne; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and its binding protein (IGFBP)-3. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study on 2139 women participating in a case-control study on breast cancer and endogeno

  5. Dietary energy density in relation to subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Ginder, Vanessa;

    2009-01-01

    centers. After adjusting for baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors, follow-up duration and energy from beverages, ED was not associated with weight change, but significantly associated with waist circumference change overall. For 1 kcal/g ED, the annual weight change was -42 g...

  6. Waist Circumference, Weight, and Body Mass Index of Iranians Based on National Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Surveillance

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    B Larijani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is an important and life-threatening disease, associated with different chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We sought to address the paucity of information on the trends of anthropometric indices such as weight, waist circumference, and body mass index in the adult population of Iran. Methods: We drew upon data from the First Non-communicable Disease Survey in Iran in 2005. In total, 79,611 participants between 20 and 64 years old were selected via the random multistage cluster sampling. The Lambda Median Scale method was applied to construct normal curves for anthropometric indices.Results: The mean of waist circumference in both genders increased with age and in all the age groups except those between 20 and 24 years old was higher in the women. The mean of body mass index was higher in all the age brackets in the women, but the means of weight and height were higher in the men. The association of theses indices with diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia was stronger in men. Conclusion: The ranges of waist circumference and body mass index in Iranian population are different from those of other countries. The higher body mass index and waist circumference in females and the direct association between obesity and chronic diseases, is advisable that the effects of this phenomenon be fully investigated and due heed be paid to the importance of lifestyle modification.

  7. Surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults: waist circumference and body mass index are more accurate than waist hip ratio, model of adipose distribution and visceral adiposity index.

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    Susana Borruel

    Full Text Available Surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity, a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, are routinely used in clinical practice because objective measurements of visceral adiposity are expensive, may involve exposure to radiation, and their availability is limited. We compared several surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in 99 young Caucasian adults, including 20 women without androgen excess, 53 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and 26 men. Obesity was present in 7, 21, and 7 subjects, respectively. We obtained body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, model of adipose distribution (MOAD, visceral adiposity index (VAI, and ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots and hepatic steatosis. WC and BMI showed the strongest correlations with ultrasound measurements of visceral adiposity. Only WHR correlated with sex hormones. Linear stepwise regression models including VAI were only slightly stronger than models including BMI or WC in explaining the variability in the insulin sensitivity index (yet BMI and WC had higher individual standardized coefficients of regression, and these models were superior to those including WHR and MOAD. WC showed 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.88-0.99 and BMI showed 0.91 (0.85-0.98 probability of identifying the presence of hepatic steatosis according to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, WC and BMI not only the simplest to obtain, but are also the most accurate surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults, and are good indicators of insulin resistance and powerful predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis.

  8. Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio percentiles and central obesity among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years

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    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ≥90th and WHtR ≥0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P Results First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ≥0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded

  9. Waist circumference cut-off values for the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering in Chinese school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

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    Xu Ying

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waist circumference has been identified as a valuable predictor of cardiovascular risk in children. The development of waist circumference percentiles and cut-offs for various ethnic groups are necessary because of differences in body composition. The purpose of this study was to develop waist circumference percentiles for Chinese children and to explore optimal waist circumference cut-off values for predicting cardiovascular risk factors clustering in this population. Methods Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured in 5529 children (2830 boys and 2699 girls aged 6-12 years randomly selected from southern and northern China. Blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose were obtained in a subsample (n = 1845. Smoothed percentile curves were produced using the LMS method. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to derive the optimal age- and gender-specific waist circumference thresholds for predicting the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. Results Gender-specific waist circumference percentiles were constructed. The waist circumference thresholds were at the 90th and 84th percentiles for Chinese boys and girls respectively, with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 67% to 83%. The odds ratio of a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among boys and girls with a higher value than cut-off points was 10.349 (95% confidence interval 4.466 to 23.979 and 8.084 (95% confidence interval 3.147 to 20.767 compared with their counterparts. Conclusions Percentile curves for waist circumference of Chinese children are provided. The cut-off point for waist circumference to predict cardiovascular risk factors clustering is at the 90th and 84th percentiles for Chinese boys and girls, respectively.

  10. The Impact of a 24 Month Housing First Intervention on Participants’ Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: Results from the At Home / Chez Soi Toronto Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Woodhall-Melnik; Vachan Misir; Vered Kaufman-Shriqui; Patricia O'Campo; Vicky Stergiopoulos; Stephen Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for...

  11. Association between Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and changes in weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Romaguera, Dora; Larsen, Sofus C; Østergaard, Jane N; Halkjaer, Jytte; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Wareham, Nicolas J; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Palli, Domenico; Boer, Jolanda M A; van der A, Daphne L; Boeing, Heiner; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2014-01-01

    between diet and genetic predisposition to adiposity, studies should consider both diet and genetics. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether FTO rs9939609 and TCF7L2 rs7903146 modified the association between the MDS and Nordic diet score (NDS) and changes in weight (Δweight), waist circumference (ΔWC), and...... Δweight (P = 0.53). The NDS was not significantly associated with any outcome. There was a borderline significant interaction between the MDS and TCF7L2 rs7903146 on weight gain (P = 0.05), which suggested a beneficial effect of the MDS only in subjects who carried 1 or 2 risk alleles. FTO did not modify...... observed associations. CONCLUSIONS: A high MDS is associated with a lower ΔWC and ΔWCBMI, regardless of FTO and TCF7L2 risk alleles. For Δweight, findings were less clear, but the effect may depend on the TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant. The NDS was not associated with anthropometric changes during follow-up....

  12. Optimal waist circumference cutoff values for the diagnosis of abdominal obesity in korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeong Sook; Oh, Sang Woo

    2014-12-29

    Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC) is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females. We analyzed the data from two large cohorts using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the incidences of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarct, angina, coronary artery disease, and multiple metabolic risk factors as outcome variables. Optimal WC cutoff points for Koreans were 85 cm in males and 80 cm in females. However, considering the prevalence of abdominal obesity and the health costs for its prevention and management, 90 cm in males and 85 cm in females are probably more appropriate thresholds for abdominal obesity. These values may be modified once better research is performed through prospective studies using representative populations, common health outcomes, and proper analytical approaches. PMID:25559570

  13. Hypertriglyceridemia and waist circumference predict cardiovascular risk among HIV patients: a cross-sectional study.

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    Peter M Janiszewski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although half of HIV-infected patients develop lipodystrophy and metabolic complications, there exists no simple clinical screening tool to discern the high from the low-risk HIV-infected patient. Thus, we evaluated the associations between waist circumference (WC combined with triglyceride (TG levels and the severity of lipodystrophy and cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected men and women. METHODS: 1481 HIV-infected men and 841 HIV-infected women were recruited between 2005 and 2009 at the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia in Italy. Within each gender, patients were categorized into 4 groups according to WC and TG levels. Total and regional fat and fat-free mass were assessed by duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT and abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT were quantified by computed tomography. Various cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in clinic after an overnight fast. RESULTS: The high TG/high WC men had the most VAT (208.0 ± 94.4 cm(2, as well as the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (42.2% and type-2 diabetes (16.2%, and the highest Framingham risk score (10.3 ± 6.5 in comparison to other groups (p<0.05 for all. High TG/high WC women also had elevated VAT (150.0 ± 97.9 cm(2 and a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (53.3%, hypertension (30.5% and type-2 diabetes (12.0%, and Framingham risk score(2.9 ± 2.8 by comparison to low TG/low WC women (p<0.05 for all. CONCLUSIONS: A simple tool combining WC and TG levels can discriminate high- from low-risk HIV-infected patients.

  14. Cut off values of waist circumference & associated cardiovascular risk in egyptians

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    Ibrahim M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent guidelines stressed the need to adopt different values of waist circumference (WC measurements to define abdominal obesity in different ethnic groups. The aim of this study is to identify WC cutoff points in normotensive and hypertensive subjects which are diagnostic of abdominal obesity in a Middle Eastern population and the prevalence of abdominal obesity in a nationwide sample. Methods Data were collected during phase-2 of the Egyptians National Hypertension Project survey. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements and laboratory studies were performed according to a standardized protocol by trained personnel. To derive the cutoff points for WC, we applied the factor analysis on CV risk factors: diabetes mellitus, decrease in HDL-C and increase in LDL-C, triglycerides and left ventricular mass index by echocardiography. Results The sample included 2313 individuals above the age of 25 years. WC values (mean ± SD were 88 ± 14 cm and 95 ± 14 cm for normotensive (NT and hypertensive (HT men respectively, and 89.6 ± 14.7 cm and 95.7 ± 15.9 cm for NT and HT women respectively. Applying factor analysis, the weighted average cutoff points were 93.5 cm for both NT and HT men and 91.5 and 92.5 cm for NT and HT women respectively. Based on these thresholds, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 48% in men and 51.5% in women. Conclusion This is the first report of specific abdominal obesity cutoff points in a Middle Eastern country. The cutoff points were different from the Europid standards. There is a high prevalence rate of abdominal obesity among Egyptians which is associated with increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  15. WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AS INDICATOR COMPONENTS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN THE SIBERIAN POPULATION

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    G. I. Simonova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Object of research: to determine the cut-off point of waist circumference (WC identify the components of metabolic syndrome (MS in a large industrial center of Western Siberia.In the period from 2003 to 2005 in the screening population surveyed 9362 people, including 4268 men (45.6% and 5094 women (54.4%.The response rate was 61%. The study protocol included a sociodemographic data, measurement of blood pressure (BP, anthropometry (height, weight, WC, the definition of biochemical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using the package SPSS. To determine the cut-off points of the used ROC model.In the group with ≥2 components of MS cut-off point WC from the men was 93.3 cm (sensitivity 72%, specificity 83%, women – 90.2 cm (sensitivity 72%, specificity 62%.The lowest cut-off point WC marked BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg for men – 90 cm (sensitivity 66.8%, specificity 58.1%, for women – 86.5 cm (sensitivity 71.0%, specificity 55.7%. The highest cut-off point from the defined patients with diabetes for men was 99.0 cm (sensitivity 61%, specificity 70.2%, for women – cm (sensitivity 64.1%, specificity 65.9%.Conclusions: Cut-off point from the persons with the presence of ≥2 MS components in Siberian population 45–69 years, in accordance with the ROC analysis are 93.3 cm for men and 90.2 cm for women. The lowest cut-off point WC marked BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg for men – 90 cm, for women – 86.5 cm. The highest cut-off point from the defined patients with diabetes for men was 99.0 cm, for women – 95 cm.

  16. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.;

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  17. Association between waist circumference and gray matter volume in 2344 individuals from two adult community-based samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, Deborah; Wittfeld, Katharina; Terock, Jan; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Habes, Mohamad; Hosten, Norbert; Friedrich, Nele; Nauck, Matthias; Domanska, Grazyna; Grabe, Hans Jörgen

    2015-11-15

    We analyzed the putative association between abdominal obesity (measured in waist circumference) and gray matter volume (Study of Health in Pomerania: SHIP-2, N=758) adjusted for age and gender by applying volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with VBM8 to brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We sought replication in a second, independent population sample (SHIP-TREND, N=1586). In a combined analysis (SHIP-2 and SHIP-TREND) we investigated the impact of hypertension, type II diabetes and blood lipids on the association between waist circumference and gray matter. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant inverse association between waist circumference and gray matter volume. VBM in SHIP-2 indicated distinct inverse associations in the following structures for both hemispheres: frontal lobe, temporal lobes, pre- and postcentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, insula, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, olfactory sulcus, para-/hippocampus, gyrus rectus, amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, fusiform and lingual gyrus, (pre-) cuneus and thalamus. These areas were replicated in SHIP-TREND. More than 76% of the voxels with significant gray matter volume reduction in SHIP-2 were also distinct in TREND. These brain areas are involved in cognition, attention to interoceptive signals as satiety or reward and control food intake. Due to our cross-sectional design we cannot clarify the causal direction of the association. However, previous studies described an association between subjects with higher waist circumference and future cognitive decline suggesting a progressive brain alteration in obese subjects. Pathomechanisms may involve chronic inflammation, increased oxidative stress or cellular autophagy associated with obesity. PMID:26256530

  18. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Determination of the Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points in a Rural South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to define optimal ethnic-specific waist-circumference cutoff points in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random-cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements taken, including a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement ...

  19. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females’ pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Method...

  20. Determining the waist circumference cut off which best predicts the metabolic syndrome components in urban Africans: the SABPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Malan, Leone; Potgieter, Johannes Cornelis; Steyn, Hendrik Stefanus; J. Prinsloo; De Ridder, Johannes Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and abdominal obesity is age, gender as well as ethnicity-dependent. WC criteria for Sub Saharan Africans have not been defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The aim was to determine which WC cut off best predicted Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in a group of urban African teachers (80 males and 93 females). We determined sphygmomanometer blood pressure, WC, glucose, high density lipoprotein cholest...

  1. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Based on Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Soo Lim; Young Ju Choi; Soo-Kyung Kim; Byoung Wook Huh; Eun Jig Lee; Kap Bum Huh

    2015-01-01

    Background Visceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff value for WC that signals insulin resistance (IR) and visceral obesity in Koreans with type 2 diabetes. Methods We evaluated 4,252 patients...

  2. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

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    Dong Yanbin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA and African-American (AA youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (P = 0.01, weight (P = 0.03 and waist circumference (P = 0.04, with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05, or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05. No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05. Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity.

  3. Corresponding waist circumference and body mass index values based on 10-year absolute type 2 diabetes risk in an Australian Aboriginal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of waist circumference (WC) thresholds to identify Aboriginal individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes. We generated gender-specific WC values with equivalent 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes as body mass index (BMI) points in an Australian Aboriginal community to contribute to guidelines needed for establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginals. Research design and methods A cohort of 803 adult participants free from type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal community was followed up for up to 20 years. We derived WC values with absolute risks equivalent for the development of type 2 diabetes as BMI values (20–35 kg/m2) using the Weibull accelerated failure-time model. Results After a mean follow-up of 15.7 years, 110 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased as WC increased, ranging from 3.52% (WC=77.5 cm) to 14.14% (WC=119.9 cm) in males, and 5.04% (WC=79.5 cm) to 24.25% (WC=113.7 cm) in females. In males, WC values with same absolute risks of type 2 diabetes as BMI values were 77.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 91.5 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2 (overweight threshold), 105.7 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 (obesity threshold) and 119.9 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. In females, WC values were 79.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 90.9 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2, 102.3 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 and 113.7 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. Interaction between WC and gender was not statistically significant (p=0.53). Conclusions The absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased with higher WC measured at baseline screening. Males were not significantly different from females in the association between WC and type 2 diabetes. Our findings are useful contributions for future establishment of WC cut-off points for identifying high-risk individuals in Aboriginal people. PMID:26405557

  4. Impact of waist circumference and body mass index on risk of cardiometabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults: a national diabetes and metabolic disorders survey.

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    Xuhong Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC or body mass index (BMI category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in Chinese adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 46,024 participants aged ≥20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007-2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96-2.44 vs 1.88 (1.67-2.12 and 1.12 (0.99-1.26; 5.70 (5.24-6.19 vs 1.51 (1.39-1.65 and 1.69 (1.57-1.82; and 3.73 (3.42-4.07 vs 2.16 (1.98-2.35 and 1.33 (1.25-1.40, respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk.

  5. Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999–2002

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    Singer Martha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. Methods We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999–2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP, mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP, mono-n-butyl (MBP, and mono-benzyl (MBzP phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP phthalate (2001–2002. Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. Results The most consistent associations were in males aged 20–59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002, and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In females, BMI and WC increased with MEP quartile in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 22.9, 23.8, 24.1, 24.7, p-trend = 0.03, and a similar but less strong pattern was seen in 20–59 year olds. In contrast, MEHP was inversely related to BMI in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 25.4, 23.8, 23.4, 22.9, p-trend = 0.02 and females aged 20–59 (adjusted mean BMI = 29.9, 29.9, 27.9, 27.6, p-trend = 0.02. There were no important associations among children, but several inverse associations among 60–80 year olds. Conclusion This exploratory, cross-sectional analysis revealed a number of interesting associations with different phthalate metabolites and obesity outcomes, including notable differences by gender and age subgroups. Effects of endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may depend upon endogenous hormone levels, which vary dramatically by age and gender. Individual phthalates also have different

  6. Hip circumference and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder; Lissner, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    waist circumference, predicted less incidence of CVD, CHD, and total death in women. This was not the case in men; BMI and waist circumference were the strongest independent predictors. DISCUSSION: A large hip circumference seems to have independent and positive effects on CVD and CHD morbidity and...

  7. The relationship of high sensitivity C-reactive protein to percent body fat mass, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference in a Taiwanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wen-Yuan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP is an easily measured inflammatory biomarker. This study compared the association of percent body fat mass (%FM, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR with hs-CRP in a Taiwanese population. Methods A total of 1669 subjects aged 40-88 years were recruited in 2004 in a metropolitan city in Taiwan. The relationships between obesity indicators and a high level of hs-CRP were examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The upper quartile of the hs-CRP distributions was defined as the high category group. The areas under the curve (AUCs of the receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for all obesity indicators to compare their relative ability to correctly classify subjects with a high level of hs-CRP. Results After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio for %FM was the only significant indicator that was associated with a high level of hs-CRP in men (1.55, 95% CI: 1.07-2.25. All indicators were associated with a high level of hs-CRP in women. In men, the AUCs for %FM were significantly higher than those for BMI, WHR, and WC, when demographic and lifestyle behaviors were considered (p Conclusions Our study demonstrates that %FM is the only obesity indicator that is strongly associated with a high level of hs-CRP after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle behaviors and components of metabolic syndrome in both genders in a Taiwanese population aged forty years and over. In men, %FM had the greatest ability to classify subjects with a high level of hs-CRP when only demographic and lifestyle behaviors were considered. Our study finding has important implications for the screening of obesity in community settings.

  8. Is high body fat estimated by body mass index and waist circumference a predictor of hypertension in adults? A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Diego Augusto Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body fat percentage (%BF estimated by equations using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC to identify hypertension and estimate measures of association between high %BF and hypertension in adults. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted with 1,720 adults (20–59 years from Florianopolis, southern Brazil. The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of cutoffs for %BF were calculated. The association between %BF and hypertension was analyzed using Poisson regression, estimating the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI. Results The %BF equations showed good discriminatory power for hypertension (area under the ROC curve > 0.50. Considering the entire sample, the cutoffs for %BF with better properties for screening hypertension were identified in the equation with BMI for men (%BF = 20.4 and with WC for women (%BF = 34.1. Adults with high %BF had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions The use of simple anthropometric measurements allowed identifying the %BF, diagnosing obesity, and screening people at risk of hypertension in order to refer them for more careful diagnostic evaluation.

  9. The relationship of violence and traumatic stress to changes in weight and waist circumference: longitudinal analyses from the study of women's health across the nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Clark, Cari Jo; Bromberger, Joyce; Gold, Ellen B

    2014-05-01

    This article investigates the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2,870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years, and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes, and confounders. At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese, and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.28-4.47]), weight loss (OR = 3.54, 95% CI = [1.73-7.22]), and gain (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = [1.37-4.37]) or loss (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = [1.23-5.77]) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women were associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  10. The Relationship of Violence and Traumatic Stress to Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Longitudinal Analyses from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Gold, Ellen B; Clark, Cari; Bromberger, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. Methods The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes and confounders. Results At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (OR=2.39, 95% CI= 1.28, 4.47), weight loss (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.73, 7.22), and gain (OR=2.44, 95% CI =1.37, 4.37) or loss (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.23, 5.77) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Conclusion Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women was associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  11. The Development Situation Investigation on the Waist Circumference and the Hip Circumference in Children and Adolescents of Qingdao%青岛市儿童青少年腰围臀围发育情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安乾; 陈暕; 高希宝; 于维森

    2015-01-01

    目的:掌握青岛市儿童青少年腰围和臀围发育情况,为制定全国标准提供参考。方法利用2014年全国学生体质健康调查研究所获得的腰围、臀围数据进行统计学分析。结果7~18岁儿童青少年腰围、臀围总的趋势是随年龄增长而增长;14岁以前,腰臀比随年龄的增长而增长,14岁以后趋于平稳。城市儿童青少年腰围、臀围高于乡村。不同体重状况儿童青少年的腰围、臀围发育水平均为肥胖组>超重组>体重正常组。结论儿童期的腰围和腰臀成为预测成人期肥胖及其相关健康危险的重要指标,青岛市儿童青少年腰围、臀围监测结果,可为制定全国统一的青少年腰围臀围标准提供参考,也为预防儿童肥胖和慢性病提供科学依据。%Objective To grasp the developmental state of the waist circumference and the hip circumference in children and ad -olescents of Qingdao ,so as to provide a reference for the national standard .Methods The statistical analysis was used to analyze the data of the waist circumference and the hip circumference which were obtained from the national student physical health research in 2014.Results The trend of the waist circumference and the hip circumference increased with the age in children and adolescents aged 7~18 years old ,and the same as the waist-hip ratio( WHR) before 14 years old,but stabilized after 14 years old.The waist circumference and the hip circumfer-ence in urban children were higher than the rural children'.The developmental level of the waist circumference and the hip circumference in children with different weight status was:obesity group>overweight group >normal group .Conclusion The waist circumference and the hip circumference have become important indicators to predict adult obesity and the related health hazards .The monitoring results of the waist circumference and the hip circumference in children of Qingdao provide not only a

  12. Waist circumference is related to low-grade inflammation in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kolle, Elin; Resaland, GK;

    2010-01-01

    included as controls. Inflammatory markers included C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), resistin and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The CVD risk factors included blood pressure, glucose.......51) compared with controls. All CVD risk factors differed between the HW group and controls. The CVD risk factors were not associated with TNFalpha or IL-6, but CRP, HGF and PAI-1 were related to the metabolic risk score. Conclusions. Low grade systemic inflammation is already present in youth with high waist...

  13. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P.; Berentzen, Tina L.; Østergaard, Jane N.;

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) plays a role in the development of obesity. The proportions of adipose tissue fatty acids not synthesised endogenously in humans, such as TFA, usually correlate well with the dietary intake. Hence, the use of these...... biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC......% central range 0·98, 2·19) in men and 1·47% (1·01, 2·19) in women. No significant associations were observed between the proportions of total 18 : 1t, 18:1 D6-10t, vaccenic acid or rumenic acid and changes in weight or WC. The present study suggests that the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue...

  14. The Current Waist Circumference Cut Point Used for the Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome in Sub-Saharan African Women Is Not Appropriate

    OpenAIRE

    Crowther, Nigel J.; Norris, Shane A.

    2012-01-01

    The waist circumference cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan African subjects is based on that obtained from studies in European populations. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders in an urban population of African females, a group at high risk for such diseases, and to determine the appropriate waist cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome. Anthropometry and fasting lipid, glucose and insulin levels wer...

  15. Interactions between genetic variants associated with adiposity traits and soft drinks in relation to longitudinal changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Ängquist, Lars; Larsen, Sofus C;

    2016-01-01

    soft drink intake and the annual change (Δ) in body weight (BW), WC, or waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCBMI) and possible interactions with the GRSs were examined with the use of linear regression analyses and meta-analyses. RESULTS: For each soft drink serving per day, soft drink consumption...... was significantly associated with a higher ΔBW of 0.07 kg/y (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13 kg/y; P = 0.020) but not with the ΔWC or ΔWCBMI In analyses of the ΔBW, we showed an interaction only with the GRSWC (per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: -0.06 kg/y; 95% CI: -0.10, -0.02 kg/y; P = 0.006). In analyses...... of the ΔWC, we showed interactions only with the GRSBMI and GRSComplete [per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.09 cm/y; P = 0.001) and 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.07 cm/y; P = 0.001), respectively]. Nearly identical results were observed in analyses of the ΔWCBMI...

  16. Optimal Waist Circumference Cut-off values for Identifying Metabolic Risk Factors in Middle-aged and Elderly Subjects in Shandong Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xin Guo; ZHANG Xiu Ping; JIANG Mei; WANG Wei Qing; NING Guang; ZHENG Hui Zhen; MA Ai Xia; SUN Yu; SONG Jun; LIN Peng; LIANG Kai; WANG Chuan; LIU Fu Qiang; LI Wen Juan; XIAO Juan; GONG Lei; WANG Mei Jian; LIU Ji Dong; YAN Fei; YANG Jun Peng; WANG Ling Shu; TIAN Meng; MA Ze Qiang; ZHAO Ru Xing; JIANG Ling; CHEN Li; YANG Wei Fang; WANG Ji Xiang; LI Cheng Qiao; WANG Yu Lian; LIU Shu Min; Hu Xiu Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the optimal waist circumference (WC) cut-off values for identifying metabolic risk factors in middle-aged and elderly subjects in Shandong Province of China. Methods A total of 2 873 men and 5 559 women were included in this cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed according to the definition of Chinese Diabetes Society in 2004. The relation between WC and MetS was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The optimal WC cut-off values were identified using the area under the ROC curve and the different diagnostic criteria for central obesity were compared. Results The WC was the risk factor for MetS independent of BMI, blood glucose, blood lipid, and blood pressure. The optimal WC cut-off value was 83.8 cm and 91.1 cm for identifying MetS in women and men, respectively. Compared with 80 cm and 85 cm for women and men, 85 cm and 90 cm had a higher Youden index for identifying all metabolic risk factors and MetS in women and men. Conclusion The appropriate WC cut-off value is 85 cm and 90 cm for identifying central obesity and MetS in women and men in Shandong Province of China.

  17. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC, as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011, and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026 were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  18. Does endothelial dysfunction correlate better with waist-to-hip ratio than with body mass index or waist circumference among obese patients? Em obesos, a disfunção endotelial correlaciona melhor com a relação cintura-quadril do que com a medida da cintura ou índice de massa corpórea

    OpenAIRE

    Nivaldo Ribeiro Villela; Luiz Guilherme Kraemer Aguiar; Luciana Bahia; Daniel Bottino; Eliete Bouskela

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, affecting large arteries and the microcirculation. Waist circumference and body mass index are routinely employed as measures for assessing obesity-related health risk, whereas waist-to-hip ratio is not. We aimed to investigate the association between brachial vascular reactivity and body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. METHODS: Eighty-five volunteers (21 men/66 women), aged between 20 and 55 years, underwent...

  19. Waist circumference in the prediction of obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes Circunferência da cintura na predição de desfechos adversos da gestação relacionados à obesidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. D. R. Wendland

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic properties of waist circumference in the prediction of obesity-related gestational outcomes. Pregnant women 20 years or older were consecutively enrolled in six Brazilian State capitals from 1991 to 1995. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Patients were followed through childbirth by chart review. Diagnostic performance for the different outcomes, as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, was estimated through logistic regression. Areas under the ROC curve (95%CI for waist circumference were 0.621(0.589-0.652 for gestational diabetes, 0.640 (0.588-0.692 for preeclampsia, and 0.645(0.617-0.673 for macrosomia. These areas were similar to those for BMI (p > 0.05. A waist circumference of 82cm jointly maximized sensitivity (63% and specificity (57%. Cutoff points of 23kg/m² for pre-pregnancy BMI and 26kg/m² for BMI at enrollment produced similar diagnostic properties. In conclusion, waist circumference predicts obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes at least as well as BMI.O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar as propriedades diagnósticas da circunferência da cintura na predição de desfechos adversos da gestação relacionados à obesidade. Gestantes com 20 ou mais anos de idade, foram arroladas consecutivamente, entre 20 e 28 semanas de gestação, em seis capitais do Brasil, entre 1991 e 1995. Peso, altura e circunferência da cintura foram aferidos e um teste de tolerância à glicose foi realizado. As pacientes foram acompanhadas até o parto através de revisão de prontuários. Propriedades diagnósticas para os diferentes desfechos, mensurados através da área sob a curva Receiver Operator Charactheristic (ROC, foram estimadas por regressão logística. Áreas (IC95% sob as curvas ROC para a cintura foram 0,621 (0,589-0,652 para diabetes gestacional, 0,640 (0,588-0,692 para pr

  20. Combined use of waist and hip circumference to identify abdominally obese HIV-infected patients at increased health risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor O'Neill

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine whether for a given waist circumference (WC, a larger hip circumference (HC was associated with a reduced risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD in HIV-infected patients. A second objective was to determine whether, for a given WC, the addition of HC improved upon estimates of abdominal adiposity, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT, compared to those obtained by WC alone. METHODS: HIV-infected men (N = 1481 and women (N = 841 were recruited between 2005 and 2009. WC and HC were obtained using standard techniques and abdominal adiposity was measured using computed tomography. RESULTS: After control for WC and covariates, HC was negatively associated with risk of insulin resistance (p<0.05 and T2D [Men: OR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.96; Women: OR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.98]. For a given WC, HC was also negatively associated with a lower risk of hypertension (p<0.05 and CVD [OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99] in men, but not women. Although HC was negatively associated with VAT in men and women after control for WC (p<0.05, the addition of HC did not substantially improve upon the prediction of VAT compared to WC alone. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of HIV-infected individuals at increased health risk by WC alone is substantially improved by the addition of HC. Estimates of visceral adipose tissue by WC are not substantially improved by the addition of HC and thus variation in visceral adiposity may not be the conduit by which HC identifies increased health risk.

  1. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, skinfold thickness and waist circumference for assessing body composition in ambulant and non-ambulant wheelchair games players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Willems

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Field-based assessments provide a cost–effective and accessible alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA for practitioners determining body composition in athletic populations. It remains unclear how the range of physical impairments classifiable in wheelchair sports may affect the utility of field-based body composition techniques. The present study assessed body composition using DXA in 14 wheelchair games players who were either wheelchair dependent (non-walkers; n =7 or relied on a wheelchair for sports participation only (walkers; n =7. Anthropometric measurements were used to predict body fat percentage with existing regression equations established for able-bodied persons by Sloan & Weir, Durnin & Womersley, Lean et al, Gallagher et al and Pongchaiyakul et al. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the association between body fat percentage and BMI, waist circumference, sum of 6 skinfold thicknesses and sum of 8 skinfold thicknesses. Results showed that non-walkers had significantly lower total lean tissue mass (46.2±=6.6 kg vs. 59.4±8.2 kg, P =.006 and total body mass (65.8 ±4.2 kg vs. 79.4 ±14.9 kg; P =0.05 than walkers. Body fat percentage calculated from most existing regression equations was significantly lower than that from DXA, by 2 to 9% in walkers and 8 to14% in non-walkers. Of the anthropometric measurements, the sum of 8 skinfold thicknesses had the lowest standard error of estimation in predicting body fat content. In conclusion, existing anthropometric equations developed in able-bodied populations substantially underestimated body fat content in wheelchair athletes, particularly non-walkers. Impairment specific equations may be needed in wheelchair athletes.

  2. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfold Thickness, and Waist Circumference for Assessing Body Composition in Ambulant and Non-Ambulant Wheelchair Games Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Annika; Paulson, Thomas A. W.; Keil, Mhairi; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Field-based assessments provide a cost–effective and accessible alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for practitioners determining body composition in athletic populations. It remains unclear how the range of physical impairments classifiable in wheelchair sports may affect the utility of field-based body composition techniques. The present study assessed body composition using DXA in 14 wheelchair games players who were either wheelchair dependent (non-walkers; n = 7) or relied on a wheelchair for sports participation only (walkers; n = 7). Anthropometric measurements were used to predict body fat percentage with existing regression equations established for able-bodied persons by Sloan and Weir, Durnin and Womersley, Lean et al, Gallagher et al, and Pongchaiyakul et al. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the association between body fat percentage and BMI, waist circumference, sum of 6 skinfold thickness and sum of 8 skinfold thickness. Results showed that non-walkers had significantly lower total lean tissue mass (46.2 ± 6.6 kg vs. 59.4 ± 8.2 kg, P = 0.006) and total body mass (65.8 ± 4.2 kg vs. 79.4 ± 14.9 kg; P = 0.05) than walkers. Body fat percentage calculated from most existing regression equations was significantly lower than that from DXA, by 2 to 9% in walkers and 8 to 14% in non-walkers. Of the anthropometric measurements, the sum of 8 skinfold thickness had the lowest standard error of estimation in predicting body fat content. In conclusion, existing anthropometric equations developed in able-bodied populations substantially underestimated body fat content in wheelchair athletes, particularly non-walkers. Impairment specific equations may be needed in wheelchair athletes. PMID:26640442

  3. Association between dietary phytochemical index and 3-year changes in weight, waist circumference and body adiposity index in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmiran Parvin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intakes of phytochemical-rich foods have favorable effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. In this study we assessed the dietary phytochemical index (PI in relation to 3-year change in weight, waist circumference (WC, body adiposity index (BAI among Tehranian adults. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, on 1938 adults, aged 19–70 y. The usual intake of participants was measured at baseline using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary PI was calculated. Anthropometric measures were assessed both at baseline and 3 years later. Multiple regression models were used to estimate mean difference changes in anthropometrics associated with various dietary PI. Results The mean age of participants was 40.4 ± 13.0 y, at baseline, respectively. Mean weight gain was 1.49 ± 5.06 kg (1.65 ± 5.3 kg in men and 1.34 ± 4.9 kg in women during 3-year period. After adjustment for potential confounding variables including age at baseline, sex, BMI, educational levels, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, dietary intake of carbohydrate, fat and protein, dietary intakes of whole grains in the highest quartile category of PI were inversely associated with 3-year changes in weight and WC (P for trend . Dietary intake of fruits in the highest quartile was also associated with lower weight gain during the study period (P for trend . There was significant inverse association between the highest quartile category of dietary PI with the 3-year changes in weight and BAI (P for trend . Conclusion Higher dietary PI could have favorable effects on prevention of weight gain and reduction of body adiposity in adults.

  4. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Based on Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Soo Lim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff value for WC that signals insulin resistance (IR and visceral obesity in Koreans with type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe evaluated 4,252 patients with type 2 diabetes (male 2,220, female 2,032, mean age 57.24 years who visited our clinic between January 2003 and June 2009. WC was measured at the midpoint between the lower rib and the iliac crest, and insulin sensitivity was assessed by the rate constant of plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt %/min using an insulin tolerance test. Visceral fat thickness was measured using ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve.ResultsThe optimal cutoff points for WC for identifying the presence of IR and visceral obesity, as well as two or more metabolic components, were 87 cm for men and 81 cm for women. Moreover, these cutoff points had the highest predictive powers for the presence of visceral obesity. The MetS defined by new criteria correlated with the increased carotid intima-media thickness in female subjects.ConclusionOur results suggest that the optimal cutoff values for WC in Koreans with type 2 diabetes should be reestablished based on IR and visceral obesity.

  5. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez; Paul A Camacho; Daniel D. Cohen; Katherine Rincón-Romero; Laura Alvarado-Jurado; Sandra Pinzón; John Duperly; Patricio López-Jaramillo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents fro...

  6. Combined impact of lifestyle factors on prospective change in body weight and waist circumference in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M May

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evidence that individual dietary and lifestyle factors influence a person's weight and waist circumference is well established; however their combined impact is less well documented. Therefore, we investigated the combined effect of physical activity, nutrition and smoking status on prospective gain in body weight and waist circumference. METHODS: We used data of the prospective EPIC-PANACEA study. Between 1992 and 2000, 325,537 participants (94,445 men and 231,092 women, aged between 25-70 were recruited from nine European countries. Participants were categorised into two groups (positive or negative health behaviours for each of the following being physically active, adherent to a healthy (Mediterranean not including alcohol diet, and never-smoking for a total score ranging from zero to three. Anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and were mainly self-reported after a medium follow-up time of 5 years. RESULTS: Mixed-effects linear regression models adjusted for age, educational level, alcohol consumption, baseline body mass index and follow-up time showed that men and women who reported to be physically active, never-smoking and adherent to the Mediterranean diet gained over a 5-year period 537 (95% CI -706, -368 and 200 (-478, -87 gram less weight and 0.95 (-1.27, -0.639 and 0.99 (-1.29, -0.69 cm less waist circumference, respectively, compared to participants with zero healthy behaviours. CONCLUSION: The combination of positive health behaviours was associated with significantly lower weight and waist circumference gain.

  7. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: Fixed-effect associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effect regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992–93 and 2000–01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%), and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effect regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (b=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00–2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (b=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19–1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time. PMID:22856616

  8. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: fixed-effects associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Berkman, Lisa F; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (β=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (β=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time. PMID:22856616

  9. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: Fixed-effect associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Timothy J.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported ...

  10. IMPACT OF SPORTS AND NUTRITION COUNSELING TO BLOOD PRESSURE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS BASED ON WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS AT BENGKULU MUNICIPALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emy Yuliantini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a condition when blood pressure at constant state is over 140190 mmHg. According to National Health Survey in 2001 the proportion of hypertension in Indonesia was 27% in male and 29% in female. The prevalence of hypertension at Bengkulu Municipality in 2005 was 1.7% (6.098, increased to 2.6% (7,244 in 2006, 2.6% (7,514 in 2007 and 7,175 in 2008. Respectively the management of hypertension therapy and lifestyle modification become important in the management of hypertensive patients. Objective: The study aimed to identify the impact of sports and nutrition counseling to blood pressure and nutrition status based on waist circumference in hypertensive patients at Bengkulu Municipality. Method: The study was a quasi experiment. Subject were hypertensive patients that fulfilled inclusion criteria (newly-diagnosed hypertension, age of 20-50 years, living in Bengkulu and willing to become respondents. Samples consisted of 120 people divided into 3 groups with intervention; Each group consisted of 40 people. Analysis used chi square, t-test, Anova and double linear regression. Result There was difference (p = 0.000 in waist circumference in female subject but not in male subject. Mutivariate test showed that aerobic sports within 60 minutes 3 times/week largely insignificant. T-test showed there was impact (p = 0.000 of nutrition counseling and sports to blood pressure status. Multivariate test showed that aerobic sports within 60 minutes 3 times/week largely affected systolic and diastolic blood pressure by controlling nutrition  counseling  and frequency of antihypertensive drug taking. Conclusion: The main factors affected to decrease of blood pressure and nutrional status patients based on waist circumference were nutritional counseling and sports.  Key words: sports, nutritional counseling, nutritional status, waist circumference, blood pressure

  11. Appropriate waist circumference cut points for identifying insulin resistance in black youth: a cross sectional analysis of the 1986 Jamaica birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Tulloch-Reid Marshall K; Ferguson Trevor S; Younger Novie OM; Van den Broeck Jan; Boyne Michael S; Knight-Madden Jennifer M; Samms-Vaughan Maureen E; Ashley Deana E; Wilks Rainford J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background While the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has ethnic specific waist circumference (WC) cut-points for the metabolic syndrome for Asian populations it is not known whether the cut-points for black populations should differ from those for European populations. We examined the validity of IDF WC cut points for identifying insulin resistance (IR), the underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome, in predominantly black, young Jamaican adults. Methods Participants from a ...

  12. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Antonis Polymeris; Peter D. Papapetrou; Georgios Katsoulis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as...

  13. Participant characteristics associated with greater reductions in waist circumference during a four-month, pedometer-based, workplace health program

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    Freak-Poli Rosanne LA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace health programs have demonstrated improvements in a number of risk factors for chronic disease. However, there has been little investigation of participant characteristics that may be associated with change in risk factors during such programs. The aim of this paper is to identify participant characteristics associated with improved waist circumference (WC following participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health program. Methods 762 adults employed in primarily sedentary occupations and voluntarily enrolled in a four-month workplace program aimed at increasing physical activity were recruited from ten Australian worksites in 2008. Seventy-nine percent returned at the end of the health program. Data included demographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biomedical measurements. WC change (before versus after was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Seven groupings of potential associated variables from baseline were sequentially added to build progressively larger regression models. Results Greater improvement in WC during the program was associated with having completed tertiary education, consuming two or less standard alcoholic beverages in one occasion in the twelve months prior to baseline, undertaking less baseline weekend sitting time and lower baseline total cholesterol. A greater WC at baseline was strongly associated with a greater improvement in WC. A sub-analysis in participants with a 'high-risk' baseline WC revealed that younger age, enrolling for reasons other than appearance, undertaking less weekend sitting time at baseline, eating two or more pieces of fruit per day at baseline, higher baseline physical functioning and lower baseline body mass index were associated with greater odds of moving to 'low risk' WC at the end of the program. Conclusions While employees with 'high-risk' WC at baseline experienced the greatest improvements in

  14. The influence of waist circumference on insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in apparently healthy Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Deok Yun; Choe, Young Gil; Shin, Dong Suk; Yoo, Su Hyeon; Yim, Seo Hyoung; Lee, Ji Yong; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Waist circumference (WC) is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and is related to insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this study was to determine the association between WC and IR and NAFLD in apparently healthy Korean adults. Methods The volunteers included in this cross-sectional study comprised 9,159 adults (5,052 men, 4,107 women) who participated in a comprehensive health checkup program. IR was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) and was considered to be present when the HOMA-IR score was >2. NAFLD was evaluated by ultrasound examination. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was defined as >40 IU/L in men and >35 IU/L in women. Logistic regression was performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for NAFLD, IR, and ALT according to categorized levels of WC. Results NAFLD was found in 2,553 (27.9%) of the participants (82.6% men, 17.4% women), while IR and elevated ALT were found in 17.2% (68.1% men, 31.9% women) and 10% (83% men, 17% women), respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, the prevalence of NAFLD, IR, and elevated ALT was significantly associated with increases in WC quartile: highest quartile for NAFLD in men, OR=15.539, 95% CI=12.687-19.033; highest quartile for NAFLD in women, OR=48.732, 95% CI=23.918-99.288 (P<0.001); and highest quartile for IR in men, OR=17.576, 95% CI=13.283-23.255; highest quartile for IR in women, OR=11.078, 95% CI=7.813-15.708 (P<0.001); highest quartile for elevated ALT in men, OR=7.952, 95% CI=6.046-10.459; and highest quartile for elevated ALT in women, OR=8.487, 95% CI=4.679-15.395 (P<0.001). Conclusions WC contributes to IR and NAFLD in apparently healthy Korean adults, and thus may be an important factor in the development of IR and NAFLD. PMID:23837138

  15. Relationship of body mass index to percent body fat and waist circumference among schoolchildren in Japan - the influence of gender and obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study

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    Ochiai Hirotaka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI and percent body fat (%BF or waist circumference (WC has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren. Methods Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex. Results Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese, with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique. Conclusions BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese

  16. Effectiveness of Different Waist Circumference Cut-off Values in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence and Risk Factors in Adults in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai Cheng; TIAN Hao Ming; JI Qiu He; ZHU Da Long; CHEN Li; GUO Xiao Hui; ZHAO Zhi Gang; Li Qiang; ZHOU Zhi Guang; GE Jia Pu; SHAN Guang Liang; LAI Ya Xin; SHAN Zhong Yan; JIA Wei Ping; YANG Wen Ying; LU Ju Ming; WENG Jian Ping; JI Li Nong; LIU Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effectiveness of waist circumference cut-off values in predicting the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and risk factors in adults in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was condcuted in 14 provinces (autonomous region, municipality) in China. A total of 47 325 adults aged ≥20 years were selected by multistage stratified sampling, and questionnaire survey and physical and clinical examination were conducted among them. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and modified IDF criteria. Results The age-standardized prevalence of MetS was 24.2%(22.1%in men and 25.8%in women) and 19.5% (22.1% in men and 18.0% in women) according to the IDF criteria and modified IDF criteria respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of pre-MetS was 8.1%(8.6%in men and 7.8%in women) according to the modified IDF criteria. The prevalence of MetS was higher in urban residents than rural residents and in northern China residents than in southern China residents. The prevalence of central obesity was about 30% in both men and women according to the ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference for central obesity (90 cm for men and 85 cm for women). Multivariate regression analysis revealed no significant difference in risk factors between the two MetS definitions. Conclusion Using both the modified IDF criteria and ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference can provide more useful information about the prevalence of MetS in China.

  17. Association of waist circumference with perception of own health in urban African males and females: the Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) study

    OpenAIRE

    J. Botha; Malan, L; Potgieter, J.C.; H. S. Steyn; De Ridder, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Current waist circumference (WC) cut-points of the Joint Statement Consensus (JSC) (male ≥ 94 cm, female ≥ 80 cm) were compared with a recently proposed WC cut-point (RPWC) (male ≥ 90 cm, female ≥ 98 cm). In this study, we aimed to compare the two cut-points to assess the association between central obesity and perception of own health. Method: We determined blood pressure and fasting bloods [glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides] as metabolic syndrome marke...

  18. Índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal: associação com fatores de risco cardiovascular Body mass index and waist circumference: association with cardiovascular risk factors

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    Fabiane Aparecida Canaan Rezende

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a associação entre índice de massa corporal (IMC e circunferência abdominal (CA com fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se 231 servidores da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, sendo 54,1% do sexo masculino (21-76 anos. Analisou-se glicemia de jejum, colesterol total e frações, triglicérides, pressão arterial, IMC, CA, relação cintura-quadril e percentual de gordura corporal. Informações sobre tabagismo, ingestão de bebidas alcoólicas e atividade física também foram obtidas. RESULTADOS: As freqüências de sobrepeso/obesidade foram bastante elevadas, principalmente em mulheres. A obesidade abdominal foi observada em 74% das mulheres e 46,1% dos homens. Os homens apresentaram valores médios e medianos de colesterol total, HDL, triglicérides, IMC e percentual de gordura corporal maiores do que as mulheres (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between cardiovascular risk factors and the anthropometric values - body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC. METHODS: It was studied 231 employees of Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil, 54,1% of them were men (21-76 years old. Glycemia, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, blood pressure, BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio and body fatness were measured. It was also investigated smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight/obesity in this population was high mainly in women. The abdominal obesity was observed in 74% of the women and 46,1% of the men. The average of BMI, body fatness, total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides were significantly higher in men than in women. (p < 0,05. The sedentary lifestyle was a risk factor for obesity. Smoking and alcohol consumption were more common among men and normal weight volunteers. Most of the correlations between anthropometric indices and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were significant, but weak and the WC was the index that had

  19. Influência da circunferência abdominal sobre o desempenho funcional de idosas Infuence of waist circumference on elderly women's functional performance

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    Luciana Campanha-Versiani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o desempenho funcional de idosas segundo a medida de suas circunfêrencias abdominais (CA. Foram avaliadas 48 idosas, divididas nos grupos 1, com CA>88 cm, e grupo 2, de CAThe purpose of this study was to compare physical performance of elderly women according to their waist circumference (WC. Forty-eight elderly women were divided into group 1, with WC>88 cm, and group 2, with WC<88 cm. Physical function was assessed by means of the six-minute walk test (6MWT and by the modified physical performance test (MPPT, non-dependent on physical fitness. Group 1 mean body mass and body mass index measures were statistically higher (p<0.05 than group 2's; group 1 also walked significantly shorter mean distances than group 2 (p<0.05, and scored lower at the MPPT (p<0.05. Data thus show that elderly women with over 88 cm waist circumference had poor performance at physical function tests, suggesting that the presence of visceral obesity may contribute to functional decline and further impairment among elderly women.

  20. Early insulin resistance predicts weight gain and waist circumference increase in first-episode psychosis--A one year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinänen, Jaakko; Mantere, Outi; Kieseppä, Tuula; Mäntylä, Teemu; Torniainen, Minna; Lindgren, Maija; Sundvall, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    First-episode psychosis (FEP) is associated with weight gain during the first year of treatment, and risk of abdominal obesity is particularly increased. To identify early risk markers of weight gain and abdominal obesity, we investigated baseline metabolic differences in 60 FEP patients and 27 controls, and longitudinal changes during the first year of treatment in patients. Compared to controls at baseline, patients had higher low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride and apolipoprotein B levels, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A-I but no difference in body mass index or waist circumference. At 12-month follow-up, 60.6% of patients were overweight or obese and 58.8% had abdominal obesity. No significant increase during follow-up was seen in markers of glucose and lipid metabolism or blood pressure, but increase in C-reactive protein between baseline and 12-month follow-up was statistically significant. Weight increase was predicted by baseline insulin resistance and olanzapine use, while increase in waist circumference was predicted by baseline insulin resistance only. In conclusion, insulin resistance may be an early marker of increased vulnerability to weight gain and abdominal obesity in young adults with FEP. Olanzapine should be avoided as a first-line treatment in FEP due to the substantial weight increase it causes. In addition, the increase in the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity was accompanied by the emergence of low-grade systemic inflammation. PMID:26589392

  1. Relação do índice de massa corporal, da relação cintura-quadril e da circunferência abdominal com a mortalidade em mulheres idosas: seguimento de 5 anos Relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio and mortality in elderly women: a 5-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. S. Cabrera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a associação entre a relação cintura-quadril (RCQ, a circunferência abdominal (CA e o índice de massa corporal (IMC com a mortalidade total e cardiovascular em 575 mulheres idosas ambulatoriais por um seguimento de cinco anos. Os maiores quartis de RCQ, CA e IMC, bem como as categorias pré-determinadas de IMC, foram analisados como variáveis preditivas e analisada a interferência de algumas variáveis confundidoras. Oitenta e oito mulheres morreram durante o seguimento (15,4%. As mulheres com baixo peso (IMC 0,97 estava associado com a maior mortalidade total, entretanto, na análise multivariada o aumento de RCQ apresentou uma associação independente com a mortalidade total, apenas entre as mulheres de 60 a 80 anos. Nenhuma medida antropométrica apresentou uma associação significativa com a mortalidade cardiovascular. Os resultados identificaram o baixo peso e a RCQ como preditores de mortalidade total em idosas, principalmente entre as mulheres com até 80 anos.This study examines the association between body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and waist circumference (WC and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in elderly women in a 5-year longitudinal study of 575 female outpatients 60 years and over. The highest BMI, WHR, and WC quartiles and predefined BMI categories were analyzed as predictive variables. Death occurred in 88 (15.4%. Underweight (BMI 0.97 was associated with all-cause mortality. However, after adjustment for age, smoking, and previous cardiovascular diseases, the increase in WHR was positively associated only in women from 60 to 80 years of age. None of the anthropometric measurements was associated with cardiovascular mortality. The results indicate that underweight and increased waist-to-hip ratio were predictors of all-cause mortality in elderly women, mainly among those under 80 years.

  2. STUDY OF SERUM ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC INDIVIDUALS & ITS COR R ELATION WITH BMI AND WAIST HIP RATIO

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    Arshiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is not simply an inert storage depot for lipids but an important endocrine organ. It secretes many hormones called Adipocytokines which include Adiponectin , which increase insulin sensitivity , has an ti - inflammatory and anti atherogenic properties. OBJECTIVES: To study serum Adiponectin levels in type II DM individuals and compare the results with healthy controls and also to study the effect of BMI and WHR on serum Adiponectin levels. MATERIALS AND ME THOD: The study was carried out in seventy seven subjects who included 6 healthy male controls and 6 healthy female controls , 30 diabetic males and 35 diabetic female individuals. The healthy controls both male and female of age around 40 to 50 years (+5 years were selected with no history of diabetes or hypertension. The study group were selected of the same age as the control group from the Outpatient Department , Diabetology unit , of our Medical College. Individuals Height , Weight and Waist Hip Ratio we re measured and BMI was calculated with the formula - Weight in Kg/ Height in m². Estimation of serum Adiponectin with Human Adiponectin/Acrp 30 Immunoassay by Solid - phase ELISA which employs – Quantitative Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassay Technique. Plasma Gluc ose by GOD/POD method. RESULTS: The result shows that 1. Males have low levels of Adiponectin when compared to females which is not statistically significant and could be due to androgens like testosterone which inhibits the secretion of Adiponectin from a dipocytes. 2. Comparison of serum Adiponectin levels in type 2 DM subjects and healthy controls shows statistically significant decrease in Serum Adiponectin levels (P Value < 0.05 in type II DM subjects. 3. Negative correlation between serum Adiponectin and WHR and BMI but it is not statistically significant. CONCLUSION : Serum Adiponectin levels are decreased in Type II DM individuals. Adiponectin may be considered as one of the significant novel markers in

  3. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

    OpenAIRE

    Shoukri Mohammed; Al-Rubeaan Khalid; Subhani Shazia N; Zaidi Marya Z; Collison Kate S; Al-Mohanna Futwan A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine th...

  4. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis Polymeris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r=0.95, P 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI.

  5. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeris, Antonis; Papapetrou, Peter D; Katsoulis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20-83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25-29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC) of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r = 0.95, P 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI. PMID:26556418

  6. Physical activity, diet and gene-environment interactions in relation to body mass index and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnehed, Nina; Tynelius, Per; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2006-01-01

    dizygotic young adult male twin pairs. Increased knowledge about interactions between genes and environment may provide insight into why some individuals are more prone to obesity than others. DESIGN: Information about PA, BMI, dietary habits, WC and potential confounders was collected by questionnaire in...

  7. A relação cintura quadril e o perímetro da cintura associados ao índice de massa corporal em estudo com escolares Waist-hip ratio and waist circumference associated with body mass index in a study with schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Soar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os valores percentis de índice de massa corporal (IMC, relação cintura quadril (RCQ e perímetro da cintura (PC e verificar as possíveis correlações existentes entre esses índices em escolares matriculados no Instituto Estadual de Educação, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Foram investigadas 419 crianças entre sete e nove anos de idade, sendo 215 (51,3% do sexo masculino e 204 (48,7% do sexo feminino. O sexo masculino apresentou maiores valores de IMC, RCQ e PC em relação ao sexo feminino; entretanto, com diferença estatística somente para RCQ e PC. Encontrou-se prevalência de 17,9% de sobrepeso e 6,7% de obesidade. Os índices antropométricos que apresentam maior correlação foram o IMC e o PC (r = 0,87 e p The objectives of this study were to determine the percentile levels of the anthropometric indices body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and waist circumference (WC and to verify possible correlations among theses indices in schoolchildren registered at the State Institute of Education, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. A total of 419 children ages 7 to 9 years were investigated: 215 (51.3% boys and 204 (48.7% girls. BMI, WHR, and WC were higher for boys than for girls. However, the differences were only statistically significant for WHR and WC. Prevalence rates were 17.9% for overweight and 6.7% for obesity. The anthropometric indices with the highest correlation were BMI and WC (r = 0.87 and p < 0.01. For overweight, BMI and WC also presented the strongest correlation (r = 0.74. For obesity, WHR and WC showed the best correlation (r = 0.54.

  8. Importância relativa do Índice de Massa Corporal e da circunferência abdominal na predição da hipertensão arterial Relative importance of body mass index and waist circumference for hypertension in adults

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    Flávio Sarno

    2007-10-01

    importance of Body Mass Index (BMI and waist circumference for the determination of hypertension in adults. METHODS: Cross sectional analysis of a sample of employees (N=1,584, aged 18 to 64 years, from a private general hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data collection included the application of a structured questionnaire and blood pressure, weight, high, and waist circumference measurements. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure levels > 140/90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication. The relative importance of BMI and waist circumference was evaluated by calculating the attributable fraction of hypertension corresponding to each anthropometric indicator, employing both the usual cut-off points as well as cut-off points based on the observed distribution of the indicator in the population. In addition, an indicator combining simultaneously BMI and abdominal circumference values was also developed. RESULTS: Prevalence of hypertension was 18.9% (26.9% in men and 12.5% in women. In men, the fraction of hypertension attributable to BMI exceeded the fraction attributable to waist circumference based on the usual cut-off points for the indicators (56% vs. 48%, respectively and also considering the quartiles of the observed distribution for these indicators (73% vs. 69%, respectively. In women, the fraction of hypertension attributable to waist circumference was slightly higher than the fraction attributable to BMI based on the usual cut off points for both indicators (44% vs. 41%, but the reverse was true when quartiles of the observed distribution were used (41% vs. 57%, respectively. In women only, the fraction of hypertension attributable to the indicator combining BMI and waist circumference (64% was higher that observed using each indicator alone. CONCLUSIONS: Both BMI and abdominal circumference were positively and independently associated with the occurrence of arterial hypertension, the influence of BMI being higher among men.

  9. Association between waist circumference/body mass index and blood triglyceride level in adults%成人腰围、体重指数与高三酰甘油血症的关系

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    王新宜; 汪毓诚; 林钟芳; 吴琦; 何毓箐; 王建英; 张莲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between body mass index(BMI)/waist circumference (WC)and blood triglyceride(TG)level in adults. To evaluate the value of the BMI and WC in diagnosing the hypertriglyceridemia by the receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve.Methods A total of 1 093 adults(707men and 356 women)were examined in our hospital from July to September in 2008.Height,weight,WC and blood triglyceride were measured and analyzed.The ROC curve was drawn to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the threshold values.Results The hypertriglyceridemia rate was 33.5%among men and 8.3%among women.The BMI and WC of hypertriglyceridemia group were significantly higher than those of normal TG group for both men and women(P<0.01).The area under ROC curve was 0.728±0.041 for men and 0.708±0.021 for women when using BMI to predict hypertriglyceridemia.The optimal threshold value was 24.5 for men and 22.5 for women.The area under ROC curve was 0.790±0.042 for men and 0.714±0.020 for women when using WC to predict hypertriglyceridemia.The optimal threshold value was 86 cm for men and 77 cm for women.Conclusions Both BMI and WC are associated blood triglyceride level. WC and BMI are useful parameters in predicting hypertriglyceridemia.%目的 探讨体重指数(BMI)、腰围(WC)与三酰甘油水平之间的关系,并用受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线评价BMI和WC对诊断高三酰甘油血症的价值.方法 以2008年7至9月在我院进行常规体检的1 093人(男性707人、女性386人)为研究对象,检测身高、体重、腰围和血三酰甘油水平.比较三酰甘油正常组与异常组BMI和WC的差异.建立BMI和WC的ROC曲线,获得曲线下面积及曲线上各界值点的灵敏度和特异度.结果 男女性三酰甘油异常率分别为33.5%和8.3%.三酰甘油异常者的BMI和WC明显大于三酰甘油正常者(P<0.01).以BMI诊断高三酰甘油血症的ROC曲线下面积:男性为0.728±0.041、女性为0.708±0.021,

  10. STUDY OF BODY MASS INDEX (BMI, BODY FAT PERCENT (%BF, AND WAIST TO HIP RATIO (WHR IN MALE PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS

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    Mehrzad Shabani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate body mass index (BMI, body fat percent (%BF and waist-hip ratio (WHR of physical education male students of Shahid Chamran University and comparison with national and international body composition standards. Material : Subjects were seventy five male students physical education male students of Shahid Chamran University of mean age (23.21±2.78, mean height (174±5.71 and mean weight (70.07±9.43 who were selected randomly. Some of body composition indices were determined with body composition analyzer apparatus (bioelectrical impedance apparatus. Results : Descriptive characteristics of subjects include: body fat percent (19.37±3.62, waist-hip ratio (0.80±0.037 and body mass index (23.18±2.68. To categorize and regulate data we used descriptive analyzes, to calculate Pearson correlation coefficient we used presumption analyzes and to compare the obtained data with national standards we used T-test statistical procedure. There are significant correlations between body mass index and waist-hip ratio (P=0.709, r=0.001, between body mass index and body fat percent (P=0.783, r=0.001 and between body fat percent and waist-hip ratio (P=0.809, r=0.001. There are significant differences between mean body mass index and its national standard (P=0.001, between mean waist-hip ratio and its national standard (P=0.001 and between mean body fat percentage and its national standard (P=0.001. Conclusions : Results revealed that according to national standards of body fat percentage and body mass index of subjects, they were assigned to more than intermediate limitation; it may be due to abnormal nutrition, unregulated exercise or physical activity and heredity.

  11. Circunferência da cintura e índice de massa corporal como preditores da hipertensão arterial Waist circumference and body mass index as predictors of hypertension

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    Maria do Rosário Gondim Peixoto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre índices antropométricos, índice de massa corporal (IMC e circunferência da cintura (CC e hipertensão arterial (HA e avaliar a capacidade desses índices na predição da HA. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal populacional realizado em Goiânia (GO, em 2001, com amostra de 1.238 adultos, de vinte a 64 anos. Foi definida como obesidade total (IMC > 30 kg/m², como obesidade abdominal (CC no nível 2 - CC > 88 cm para mulheres e > 102 cm para homens e como HA (pressão sistólica > 140 mmHg ou pressão diastólica > 90 mmHg, ou uso de hipotensores. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla para avaliar as associações entre os índices antropométricos e a HA. Análise de curva ROC para avaliar a sensibilidade e especificidade do IMC (> 30 e nível 2 da CC na predição da HA e para determinar os pontos de corte com melhor predição da HA. RESULTADOS: A CC apresentou associação com a HA em ambos os sexos. O nível 2 da CC e o IMC >30 kg/m² apresentaram baixa sensibilidade em identificar a HA. Os pontos de corte com melhor capacidade preditiva de HA coincidiram com o nível 1 da CC (> 80 cm e com o IMC >25 kg/m² (sobrepeso, para as mulheres, e foram inferiores aos valores do nível 1 da CC e de sobrepeso, para os homens. CONCLUSÃO: O nível 2 da CC e o IMC > 30 kg/m² não são adequados para identificar os grupos de maior risco de HA, já que esse risco se eleva com pequenos aumentos na adiposidade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between anthropometric indexes - body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC - and hypertension, and to evaluate the predictive value of these indexes in detecting hypertension. METHODS: Cross-sectional population study conducted in the city of Goiânia (GO with a sample of 1,238 adults aged twenty to 64 years, in 2001. Total obesity was defined as BMI > 30 kg/m²; abdominal obesity was defined as level 2 WC > 88 cm for women and > 102 cm for men, and

  12. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

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    EL Mabchour A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asma EL Mabchour,1 Hélène Delisle,1 Colette Vilgrain,2 Philippe Larco,2 Roger Sodjinou,3 Malek Batal1 1Transition Nutritionnelle (TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Haitian Foundation for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (FHADIMAC, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; 3West Africa Health Organization (WAHO, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Purpose: Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR in groups of African (Benin and African ancestry (Haiti Black subjects. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin and Port-au-Prince (Haiti, 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4 in women and ≥5 in men; insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR; and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, Youden's index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs. Results: High atherogenicity index (59.5%, high blood pressure (23.2%, and insulin resistance (25% by definition were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly

  13. Optimal Waist Circumference Cut-Off Point for Multiple Risk Factor Aggregation: Results from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

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    Valmore Bermúdez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal waist circumference (WC cut-off values for the detection of multiple risk factor aggregation in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela. Participants and Methods. A total of 1,902 adult individuals of both genders belonging to MMSPS were included. Complete physical, laboratory, and anthropometric examination were done to evaluate Metabolic Syndrome (MS components and insulin resistance. ROC curves were plotted for risk factor aggregation in order to assess WC cut-off point. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess risk factors associated with the WC. Results. There were 52.2% females and 47.8% males, with WC of 90.7±13.7 cm and 98.2±15.9 cm, respectively. ROC curves exhibited a WC cut-off point for women of 90.25 cm (68.4% sensitivity, 65.8% specificity and 95.15 cm (71.1% sensitivity, 67.4% specificity for men. HOMA2-IR and high blood pressure were associated with a WC over these cut-off points, as well as 2.5-fold risk increase for multiple risk factor aggregation (OR 2.56; CI 95%: 2.05–3.20; P<0.01. Conclusions. These population-specific WC cut-offs are readily applicable tools for detection of risk factor aggregation. Insulin resistance is closely associated with this definition of abdominal obesity, which may serve as a surrogate for its assessment.

  14. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Reflecting Insulin Resistance as a Diagnostic Criterion of Metabolic Syndrome in a Nondiabetic Korean Population Aged 40 Years and Over: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study

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    Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Lim, Sun Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Son, Ho-Young; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We aimed at determining the cutoff value of waist circumference with respect to its ability to reflect insulin resistance in a Korean population. Materials and Methods A total of 8,817 subjects aged 40 years and over were analyzed. Insulin resistant individuals were defined as those who had the highest quartile value of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a non-diabetic population. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and multiple logi...

  15. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

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    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  16. Associação dos padrões alimentares com obesidade geral e abdominal em mulheres residentes no Sul do Brasil Association between dietary patterns and body mass index and waist circumference in women living in Southern Brazil

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    Gabriela Perozzo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de estudar a associação de padrões alimentares com obesidade, realizou-se estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra representativa de 1.026 mulheres (20 a 60 anos em São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A obesidade geral foi avaliada pela utilização de índice de massa corporal (IMC > 30kg/m² e a adiposidade abdominal, circunferência da cintura (CC> 88cm. Os padrões alimentares foram identificados por análise fatorial. Para análise multivariada, foi utilizada regressão de Poisson. Entre o total de mulheres, 18% (IC95%: 15,66-20,53 tinham obesidade geral e 23,3% (IC95%: 20,72-26,06 abdominal. Após controle para fatores de confusão, o baixo consumo do PA-frutas associou-se positivamente com o IMC (RP = 2,18; IC95%: 1,35-3,53; p = 0,001. Já o baixo consumo do PA-vegetais apresentou efeito protetor para o aumento nos níveis de IMC (RP = 0,64; IC95%: 0,47-0,86; p = 0,004 e o do PA-nozes/oleaginosas para o aumento na medida da CC (RP = 0,93; IC95%: 0,89-0,98; p = 0,008. O estudo aponta para a complexidade envolvida na relação entre padrões alimentares e obesidade e a necessidade de novos estudos, objetivando o melhor entendimento do tema.This study focused on the association between dietary patterns and obesity. A cross-sectional population-based study was performed in 1,026 adult women from Southern Brazil. Waist circumference (WC, height, and weight were measured according to a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Obesity was defined as BMI > 30kg/m² and WC > 88cm. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multivariate analysis used a Poisson regression model to estimate prevalence ratios and respective confidence intervals. After controlling for possible confounders, low consumption of "vegetables" protected against increased BMI (PR = 0.64; 95%CI: 0.47-0.86; p = 0.004, while low consumption of "nuts/oilseeds" protected against increased WC (PR = 0

  17. The cutoff values of visceral fat area and waist circumference for identifying subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean: Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study

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    Koh Young

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Korea, the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS were suggested to be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women based on the analysis mainly in middle-aged adults. As aging is associated with increased fat, especially abdominal visceral fat, the cutoff value of WC may differ according to age. In addition, the usefulness of visceral abdominal fat area (VFA to predict MetS in the elderly has not been studied yet. We aimed to suggest WC and VFA criteria and to compare the predictability of WC and VFA to identify people at risk for MetS. Methods A total of 689 elderly subjects aged ≥63 years (308 men, 381 women were chosen in this cross-sectional study from an ongoing, prospective, population-based study, the Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study. VFA was measured by single slice abdominal computed tomography scanning. The metabolic risk factors except WC (plasma glucose, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were defined using modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. We estimated the accuracy of VFA and WC for identifying at least two of these factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results Two hundred three of 308 men and 280 of 381 women had ≥2 metabolic risk factors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC value for VFA to predict the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors was not significantly different from that for WC (men, 0.735 and 0.750; women, 0.715 and 0.682; AUC values for VFA and WC, respectively. The optimal cutoff points for VFA and WC for predicting the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors were 92.6 cm2 and 86.5 cm for men and 88.9 cm2 and 86.5 cm for women. Conclusion WC had comparable power with VFA to identify elderly people who are at risk for MetS. Elderly Korean men and women had very similar cutoff points for both VFA and WC measurements for estimating the risk of MetS. Age-specific cutoff point for WC might be

  18. Appropriate waist circumference cut points for identifying insulin resistance in black youth: a cross sectional analysis of the 1986 Jamaica birth cohort

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    Tulloch-Reid Marshall K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the International Diabetes Federation (IDF has ethnic specific waist circumference (WC cut-points for the metabolic syndrome for Asian populations it is not known whether the cut-points for black populations should differ from those for European populations. We examined the validity of IDF WC cut points for identifying insulin resistance (IR, the underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome, in predominantly black, young Jamaican adults. Methods Participants from a 1986 birth cohort were evaluated between 2005 and 2007 when they were 18-20 years old. Trained observers took anthropometric measurements and collected a fasting blood sample. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment computer programme (HOMA-IR. Sex specific quartiles for IR were generated using HOMA-IR values and participants in the highest quartile were classified as "insulin resistant". Receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves were used to estimate the best WC to identify insulin resistance. The sensitivity and specificity of these values were compared with the IDF recommended WC cut-points. Results Data from 707 participants (315 males; 392females were analysed. In both sexes those with IR were more obese, had higher mean systolic blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides and lower mean HDL cholesterol. The WC was a good predictor of IR with an ROC area under the curve (95% CI of 0.71(0.64,0.79 for men and 0.72(0.65,0.79 for women. Using the Youden Index (J the best WC cut point for identifying IR in male participants was 82 cm (sensitivity 45%, specificity 93%, J 0.38 while the standard cut point of 94 cm had a sensitivity of 14% and specificity of 98% (J 0.12. In the female participants 82 cm was also a good cut point for identifying IR (sensitivity 52%, specificity 87%, J 0.39 and was similar to the standard IDF 80 cm cut point (sensitivity 53%, specificity 82%, J 0.35. Conclusions The WC that identified IR in young black men is lower

  19. Comparison between BMI and Inverted BMI in Evaluating Metabolic Risk and Body Composition in Iranian Children

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    Forough Saki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare BMI and inverted BMI in evaluating body measurement, resting blood pressure, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA parameters of fat mass and metabolic risk factors in Iranian children Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on 477 children aged 9-18 yearsin the South of Iran. Weight, height, resting blood pressure, waist and hip circumference and pubertal stage of all participants was measured with standard methods. DEXA was used to determine body composition index. Blood samples were checked for serum lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar (FBS. Metabolic risk score (MRS was calculated by the summation of the Z-scores for TC, TG/HDL, LDL, systolic blood pressure, and waist circumference minus HDL Z-score. Results: BMI did not have a normal distribution in our participants but iBMI had a normal distribution. IBMI had more significant correlation with waist to hip ratio and systolic blood pressure (r2=0.053 and r2=0.182 than BMI (r2=0.041 and r2=0.101. MRS had a positive correlation with BMI (P

  20. 中青年体质指数、腰围及腰臀比与脑卒中发生的相关性研究%Association of Body Mass Index,Waist Circumference,and Waist-Hip Ratio with the Risk of Stroke in Young and Middle-Aged Individuals

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    赫鹏; 孙文慧; 马翠; 闫佳; 翟淑娜; 刘学文; 卢智泉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨中青年人肥胖的不同指标,如体质指数(BMI)、腰围(WC)及腰臀比(WHR)与脑卒中发生的关系.方法 采用以医院为基础的病例对照研究.病例组由280例脑卒中(缺血性脑卒中和出血性脑卒中)患者组成,对照组为患其他与脑卒中无关的疾病同期入住和病例组相同医院的280例患者.采用标准调查表对研究对象进行调查,收集研究对象的人口学特征、生活方式、个体疾病史、脑卒中家族遗传史以及实验室检查等资料,同时对身高、体质量、WC、臀围进行测量,并计算BMI及WHR.采用多元Logistic回归分析对研究对象的BMI、WC及WHR与脑卒中的比值比(OR)及其95%可信区间(CI)进行估计.结果 280例脑卒中患者中出血性76例,缺血性204例.与正常BMI者相比较,调整年龄、性别后的分析结果显示,超重或肥胖的病例发生缺血性脑卒中的危险性明显高于对照组[超重者:OR=2.03,95%CI(1.26,2.91),P<0.05;肥胖者:OR=1.88,95%CI(1.32,2.39),P<0.05].与BMI最低四分位数相比,BMI最高四分位数的病例发生缺血性脑卒中的危险性增加了18%[OR=1.18,95% CI(1.06,3.54),P<0.01].WC最高四分位数的病例发生出血性和缺血性脑卒中的危险性分别是WC最低四分位数的1.80和1.96倍[OR =1.80,95%CI(1.03,3.16)和OR =1.96,95%CI(1.37,3.78),P<0.01].与WHR最低四分位数比较,WHR最高四分位数的病例发生出血性及缺血性脑卒中的危险性分别增加了98%和126%[OR=1.98,95%CI(1.41,3.59),P<0.01和OR=2.26,95%CI(1.34,2.79),P<0.01].结论 BMI增高是发生脑卒中的一个重要危险因素,WC增加可使发生缺血性脑卒中的危险性显著升高,而WHR与发生出血性及缺血性脑卒中的危险性呈正相关.维持正常体质量可能是脑卒中发病的保护因素.%Objective To explore the association between adiposity indicators including body mass index ( BMI ), waist circumference ( WC ), and waist - hip ratio ( WHR

  1. Anatomical location for waist circumference measurement in older adults: a preliminary study Localización anatómica para medición de la circunferencia de la cintura en ancianos: estudio preliminar

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    R.S. Guerra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Different anatomical locations for measuring waist circumference are described in the literature but the best anatomical location for measuring waist circumference in older adults has yet to be established. Thus, an exploratory study was developed to examine which waist circumference best explains abdominal fat mass in older adults. Methods: Waist circumference was measured in the ten different anatomical locations from a sample of 51 older adults. The choice of which waist circumference measurement best associated with abdominal fat mass was evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA measurement of abdominal fat. Results: Mean waist circumference values varied from 81.9 (standard deviation (SD: 8.7 cm and 91.5 (SD: 11.2 cm for women and between 95.7 (SD: 8.2 cm and 101.5 (SD: 10.4 cm for men, according to the different anatomical locations. The coefficients of determination of the linear regression model varied from 0.545 to 0.698 (p Fundamento y objetivo: La literatura describe diferentes localizaciones anatómicas para medir la circunferencia de la cintura. Sin embargo, la mejor localización anatómica para tal medición en ancianos aun no se ha establecido. El presente estudio exploratorio pretende determinar cuál es el lugar anatómico que se asocia mejor entre la medida del perímetro de la cintura y el tejido adiposo abdominal en esta población. Método: Se midió la circunferencia de la cintura en diez lugares anatómicos diferentes, en una muestra de 51 ancianos. El tejido adiposo abdominal se determinó mediante absorciometría de doble energía de rayos X (DXA. Resultados: Los valores medios de la circunferencia de cintura, teniendo en cuenta las mediciones en distintos lugares anatómicos, variaron de 81,9 cm (desviación estándar (DE: 8,7 a 91,5 cm (DE: 11,2 entre las mujeres y de 95,7 cm (DE: 8,2 a 101,5 cm (DE: 10,4 entre los hombres. Los coeficientes de determinación del modelo de regresi

  2. A new formula for screening metabolic syndrome in Asians: skin fold thickness at A8 point on Erdheim diagram and waist circumference

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    Toan C Nguyen; Thai Q Ngo; Khoa TA Pham; Son V Nguyen; Hieu T Luong; Cong D Nguyen

    2007-01-01

    Background and objectives Recent studies have shown that abdominal obesity is an important component for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS) and MS is a high risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to develop a new formula for screening and diagnosis of MS using the waist circumference (WC) and skin fold thickness at the point A8(SFA8) on the Erdheim diagram. Methods A total of 358 essential hypertensive patients (189 male and 169 female) with a mean age of 59.0±9.7 years were included; 151 healthy people (79 male, 72 female) with a mean age of 57.3± 12.1 years (similar to hypertensive patients) who were non-hypertensive and non-diabetic served as a control group. All subjects had no evidence of hepatic, renal, or endocrine disease as determined by history, physical examination and screening blood tests. Height, weight, WC, SFA8, blood pressure (BP), fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in all subjects. Abdominal obesity measured by WC using the Asia-Pacific criteria (IDFA) was applied for meeting the MS definition. The normal value of SFA8 was measured in the nonMS group. Relationships between SFA8 and systolic BP, diastolic BP, fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were calculated in the control group. A new formula was developed according to high SFA8 and high WC. Results The normal value of SFA8 in non-MS group was 23.6±7.2 mm in male and 26.5±4.6 mm in female, respectively. The value of SFA8 in MS group was 36.7± 7.4 mm in male and 38.9 ± 8.1 mm in female, respectively. The value of WC in MS group and non-MS group were 92.5±3.0 cm and 79.4±6.1 cm in male and 86.3±6.4 cm and 74.7±5.4 cm in female, respectively. There was a correlation between SFA8 and systolic BP, diastolic BP, fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride in control group (the correlation coefficients were 0.29, 0.23, 0.25, -0.31and 0.46, respectively, P

  3. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    EL Mabchour A; Delisle H; Vilgrain C; Larco P; Sodjinou R; Batal M

    2015-01-01

    Asma EL Mabchour,1 Hélène Delisle,1 Colette Vilgrain,2 Philippe Larco,2 Roger Sodjinou,3 Malek Batal1 1Transition Nutritionnelle (TRANSNUT), WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Haitian Foundation for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (FHADIMAC), Port-au-Prince, Haiti; 3West Africa Health Organization (WAHO), Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Purpose: Waist circu...

  4. Comparison of the Suitability of 2 Years Change in Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index in Predicting Hypertension Risk: A Prospective Study in Chinese-Han.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshu Luo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, obesity has become a worldwide health problem and yet little is known about the impact of changes in obesity indicator on incident hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of changes in the WC and BMI on incident hypertension in a cohort population.After a baseline investigation, we conducted the first and the second follow-up assessments for subjects after 2 and 5 years, respectively. The associations between the changes in the WC and BMI (measured as the D-value, i.e., the value at the first follow-up minus the value at baseline and the hazard ratio (HR of incident hypertension were analyzed with a multilevel Cox proportional hazards regression model.Among 2778 participants without hypertension, 660 developed hypertension between the first and the second follow-up assessments. When both the BMI and WC D-values were included in the regression model, the WC D-value was a predictor of hypertension incidence in both sexes (OR= 1.03 and P values 0.05. In both sexes, hypertension risk was higher for subjects whose BMI was modified but WC was categorically increasing than for subjects whose WC and BMI were both modified.Both WC and BMI changes were associated with hypertension, but a change in the WC was a better predictor of the hypertension.

  5. Does endothelial dysfunction correlate better with waist-to-hip ratio than with body mass index or waist circumference among obese patients? Em obesos, a disfunção endotelial correlaciona melhor com a relação cintura-quadril do que com a medida da cintura ou índice de massa corpórea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Ribeiro Villela

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, affecting large arteries and the microcirculation. Waist circumference and body mass index are routinely employed as measures for assessing obesity-related health risk, whereas waist-to-hip ratio is not. We aimed to investigate the association between brachial vascular reactivity and body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. METHODS: Eighty-five volunteers (21 men/66 women, aged between 20 and 55 years, underwent determination of waist circumference, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm blood flow was measured in response to intrabrachial artery infusions of 3 different concentrations of endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/min and endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside 2, 4, and 8 mg/min vasodilators. RESULTS: There was an inverse correlation of body mass index and waist circumference with forearm blood flow increments after acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside infusions, while waist-to-hip ratio showed an inverse correlation with forearm blood flow increments only after acetylcholine. When subjects older than 40 years (n = 25 were excluded from the analysis, the inverse correlation of body mass index with forearm blood flow increments after acetylcholine infusion no longer existed, while waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio showed the same results observed before. CONCLUSION: The waist-to-hip ratio is probably a better estimator of endothelial dysfunction and possibly of cardiovascular risk than body mass index. These findings underscore the importance of routinely collecting hip circumference as an obesity index and risk estimator.OBJETIVO: A obesidade é associada a doenças cardiovasculares e compromete tanto a macro como a microcirculação. As medidas da cintura e do índice de massa corpórea são rotineiramente empregadas para avaliação do risco

  6. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist–hip ratio and serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in European women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gram, I.T.; Norat, T.; Rinaldi, S.; Dossus, L.; Lukanova, A.; Tehard, B.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Gils, C.H. van; Noord, P.A.H. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Nagel, G.; Linseisen, J.; Lahmann, P.H.; Boeing, H.; Palli, D.; Sacerdote, C.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Sieri, S.; Dorronsoro, M.; Quirós, J.R.; Navarro, C.A.; Barricarte, A.; Tormo, M.J.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Overvad, K.; Paaske Johnsen, S.; Olsen, A.; Tjønneland, A.; Travis, R.; Allen, N.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K-T.; Stattin, P.; Trichopoulou, A.; Kalapothaki, V.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Casagrande, C.; Riboli, E.; Kaaks, R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and waist–hip ratio (WHR) with serum levels of insulinlike growth factor-I (IGF-I), and its binding protein (IGFBP)-3. Design: Cross-sectional study on 2139 women participating in a case–control study on breast cancer and endogenou

  7. Comparison of the Suitability of 2 Years Change in Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index in Predicting Hypertension Risk: A Prospective Study in Chinese-Han.

    OpenAIRE

    Wenshu Luo; Fengmei Chen; Zhirong Guo; Ming Wu; Chao Hao; Zhengyuan Zhou; Xingjuan Yao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Currently, obesity has become a worldwide health problem and yet little is known about the impact of changes in obesity indicator on incident hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of changes in the WC and BMI on incident hypertension in a cohort population. Methods After a baseline investigation, we conducted the first and the second follow-up assessments for subjects after 2 and 5 years, respectively. The associations between the changes in the WC ...

  8. Relationship of body mass index and waist to hip ratio measurement with hypertension in young adult medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the BMI profile and waist to hip ratio measurements of young adult medical students of Lahore medical and dental college and its relationship with hypertension. All the students of Lahore medical and dental college were asked to undergo physical examination. Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded. The partial correlation coefficient was used to quantify the association between BMI and waist-to-hip circumference ratio with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the influence of body mass index and waist-to-hip circumference ratio on the variance of systolic and diastolic BP. Mean BMI was 23.24 (SD+-4.31). Descriptive analysis revealed that 103 (21.3%) of the study population were classified as underweight, 251 (52 %) as normal weight, 99 (20.5%) as overweight, and 30 (6.2 %) as obese. Abdominal adiposity, as measured by increased WHR, was present in 56 subjects (11.59 %). Partial correlation controlled for age revealed strong positive correlation between BMI and WHR for males. 7.24% had high systolic blood pressure, minimum systolic BP was 90 while maximum being 160 mmHg. Same was the value for high diastolic blood pressure i.e. 35 (7.24%), range was from 60 to 100mm Hg. Results of the partial correlation coefficient controlled for age, indicated a significant positive correlation between SBP and DBP. Stepwise linear regression analysis controlled for age revealed that both body mass index and waist-to-hip circumference ratio were independently correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The present results suggest that prevalence of overweight and obesity among the medical students is higher than in general population. Those with either higher BMI or central adiposity distribution are potential candidates of increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. (author)

  9. Co-relation of blood pressure with Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist TO Hip Ratio (WHR in middle aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. D. B. Tambe MD

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and cardiovascular risks are closely associated. Hypertension is the most common and early complication of obesity. Obesity is measured with different parameters like Body Mass Index, Waist to Hip Ratio etc. In the present study we have tried to link parameters of obesity with hypertension. We have found that in hypertensive middle aged Indian males diastolic blood pressure showed a better correlation with Waist to Hip Ratio rather than with Body Mass Index.

  10. To study the obesity status among Rajput population of Mandi district in Himachal Pradesh in terms of Body mass index and waist hip ratio

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    Seerat Sachdeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Body mass index (BMI and Waist hip ratio (WHR are the two most commonly used anthropometric measurements to assess obesity. We measured height and weight to calculate BMI and, waist and hip circumference to calculate WHR. In the present study we have tried to understand the prevalence and the trend of obesity among 171 individuals among Rajput population of Himachal Pradesh, India. However, this study explains that WHR is better predictor obesity as mean BMI is found to be in the normal range for all the individuals.

  11. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico IMC materno y migración como predictor de obesidad infantil de México

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jiménez-Cruz; Wojcicki, J. M.; M. Bacardí-Gascón; Castellón-Zaragoza, A.; J. L. García-Gallardo; Schwartz, N.; Heyman, M B

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI) status, children's perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile), obesity (BMI > 95% ile) and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile). Methods: Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children's and parents' weigh...

  12. Neck Circumference as a Useful Marker for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mehri; Kajbaf, Tahereh Ziaei; Taheri, Mohammad-Reza; Aminzadeh, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Overweight and obesity at an early age are an important criterion for predicting chronic diseases. Each anthropometric method available to assess obesity has its limitations. Recently, one of the indices proposed to better detect this complication is neck circumference (NC). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between NC, and body mass index (BMI), and to find a cutoff NC size to identify children with a high BMI. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 864 students aged 6–17 years from the schools in Ahvaz, Iran. Measurements, including height, weight, neck, mid-arm, and waist circumference (WC), and clinical information were collected by trained physicians. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated between NC and other obesity indices, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the best cutoff value of NC in predicting high BMI. Results NC in both genders was significantly correlated with BMI, WC, and mid-arm circumference. The best cutoff value of NC to identify boys with a high BMI was 27.5–38.3 cm, and for girls was 26.7–33.4 cm. Conclusions NC is significantly correlated with overweight and obesity. It can be used with great reliability to screen overweight and obesity in children, and to identify those with a high BMI. PMID:27162586

  13. Waist-to-height ratio and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Guasch-Ferré

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several anthropometric measurements have been associated with cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk conditions, such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Waist-to-height-ratio has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing abdominal obesity, correcting other measurements for the height of the individual. We compared the ability of several anthropometric measurements to predict the presence of type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia or metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our cross-sectional analyses we included 7447 Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk, men aged 55-80 years and women aged 60-80 years, from the PREDIMED study. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the odds ratio of presenting each cardiovascular risk factor according to various anthropometric measures. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC were used to compare the predictive ability of these measurements. RESULTS: In this relatively homogeneous cohort with 48.6% of type-2 diabetic individuals, the great majority of the studied anthropometric parameters were significantly and positively associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between BMI and body weight and diabetes mellitus. The AUCs for the waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference were significantly higher than the AUCs for BMI or weight for type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Conversely, BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that measures of abdominal obesity showed higher discriminative ability for diabetes mellitus, high fasting plasma glucose, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome than BMI or weight in a large cohort of elderly Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. No significant differences were found between the predictive

  14. Mid-upper arm circumference is associated with biochemically determined nutritional status indicators among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2016-08-01

    Biochemically determined nutritional status measurements in low-income countries are often too expensive. Therefore, we hypothesized that some anthropometrical or functional measurements (handgrip) could reflect nutritional status measured by specific biochemical indicators. We did a population-based study from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts in Zambézia Province of Mozambique. The participants (n=386) were non-pregnant adolescent girls between 15 and 18 years of age. 96% had a normal BMI-for-age score. Weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were highly correlated (r>0.8) with each other and with total body muscle mass, body mass index (BMI), and with waist circumference, as well as with skinfolds (r>0.6). Upper and total arm lengths were correlated (r>0.7) with height and with each other, and right and left handgrip were correlated only with each other, as were triceps and subscapular skinfolds (r>0.7). Serum albumin correlated negatively with waist circumference (Padolescent girls in low-income countries. When nutrition transition proceeds, waist circumference together with MUAC could form tools for the prediction of worsening of nutritional status. PMID:27440538

  15. 高血压儿童腰围发育曲线及其与高血压相关性的研究%Relationship between waist circumference development curve of children and hypertension and risk of hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鹏; 王法艳; 赵玉秋; 王磊; 唐青松; 陶芳标

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解高血压儿童腰围发育曲线特点,探讨与儿童高血压相关的腰围正常值合理切点.方法 研究对象为安徽省北、中、南3个地市的8194名7~17岁汉族城乡中小学生,测量腰围与血压.以LMS( lambda-mu-sigma)法拟合腰围随年龄变化的百分位数曲线.建立Logistic回归模型,计算不同百分位数腰围学生发生高血压的OR值.结果 高血压男生的腰围发育曲线明显向上平行偏离总体男生标准曲线,而高血压女生腰围发育曲线在12岁前向上逐渐偏离总体女生标准曲线,之后逐渐回归.男生腰围上升至同年龄别第60百分位数、女生腰围上升至同年龄别第70百分位数时,高血压发生风险即开始显著增加,男生腰围p60~组、P70~组、P80~组和P90~组的OR值从1.88(95%CI:1.18 ~2.99)逐渐上升至4.87(95%CI:3.31 ~7.16),女生腰围P70~组、P80~组和P90~组的OR值从1.71 (95%CI:1.07~2.73)逐渐上升至3.32(95% CI:2.16~5.09).结论 高血压男生和女生的腰围发育曲线轨迹明显不同.从第85百分位数向下适当降低儿童腰围正常值切点有利于儿童心血管疾病风险的预防.%Objective The 85th percentile of waist circumference (WC) is considered an appropriate cutoff for Chinese children in the prediction of cardiovascular risks in previous researches,but the risk for hypertension of moderate WC maybe underestimated.The purpose of this study was to understand the characteristics of the WC curve trajectory of children with hypertension and to determine the appropriate cutoffs for waist circumference for Chinese school-age children and adolescents for predicting hypertension risk factors.Methods A total of 8194 Han children aged 7-17 years were selected from schools in Suzhou,Hefei,and Chizhou cities in Anhui province by stratified cluster sampling. WC and blood pressure were accurately measured in all subjects. LMS (lambda-mu-sigma) method was used to construct WC

  16. Predictive value of combined measurements of body mass index and waist circumference for the risk of cardiovascular disease%体质指数与腰围指标联合应用对心血管病危险的预测作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 赵冬; 孙佳艺; 刘静; 刘军; 秦兰萍; 吴兆苏

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predictive value of the combined measurements of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for the risk of cardiometabolic diseases (including diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia ) and ischemic cardiovascular disease.Method A total of 30 378 Chinese people from 11 provinces were studied in this prospective study conducted from 1992 to 2003.Multivariable logistic and Cox regression were used respectively to determine the predictive value of WC for cardiometabolic diseases and ischemic cardiovascular disease within each BMI categories.Results (1) The prevalence of obesity were 10% defined by BMI.Among them, 76.4% had abdominal obesity defined by WC.The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 17.5% by WC categories, and 43.4% of them were classified as obesity by BMI.(2) The prevalence rates of cardiometabolic diseases were higher in individuals with elevated WC within each BMI category.(3) Compared with subjects with normal BMI and WC, the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease increased by 38% ( RR = 1.383, 95% CI 1.083-1.765 ) in overweight subjects with elevated WC and by 57% ( RR = 1.570, 95% CI 1.226-2.010) in obese subjects with elevated WC.conclusion Combined measurements of BMI and WC provide a better prediction for the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and ischemic cardiovascular disease.%目的 分析和评价在体质指数(BMI)分层基础上,增加腰围指标对心血管病危险因素的检出作用以及对心血管病发病危险的预测作用.方法 以1992年建立的中国多省市前瞻性队列35~64岁共30 378人数据为依据,在基线BMI分为正常、超重和肥胖的基础上,分析和评价加入腰围指标对心血管病代谢因素的检出作用以及心血管病发病危险的预测作用.诊断标准分别参照中的BMI切点和中的腹部肥胖切点.结果 (1)联合应用BMI和腰围指标诊断肥胖时,呈现交叉重叠情况.以BMI为标准,队列人群肥胖率是10%,其中76.4%

  17. Circunferência abdominal avaliada antes da 12ª semana de gestação: correlação com níveis séricos de leptina Waist circumference measured before the 12th week of pregnancy: correlation with serum leptin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Silveira Castellano Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a correlação entre a circunferência abdominal materna, medida antes da 12ª semana de gestação, e os níveis séricos de leptina durante a gravidez, bem como, comparar os níveis médios de leptina entre gestantes com e sem obesidade abdominal, diagnosticada no início da gestação. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo incluindo 40 gestantes atendidas no pré-natal de baixo risco, superiores a 20 anos, não tabagistas, com gestação única, e sem doenças crônicas intercorrentes. A circunferência abdominal foi medida antes da 12ª semana, e os níveis séricos de leptina dosados entre a 9ª e a 12ª, a 25ª e a 28ª e entre a 34ª e a 37ª semanas de gestação. De acordo com a circunferência abdominal, a coorte foi dividida em dois grupos: com e sem obesidade abdominal. Os testes de Mann-Whitney e do χ² avaliaram as diferenças entre os grupos. A correlação de Pearson verificou a associação entre a circunferência abdominal e os níveis séricos de leptina durante a gestação. Considerou-se o valor de pPURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between maternal waist circumference measured before the 12th week of gestation and serum leptin levels during pregnancy, as well as to compare the leptin levels of women with and without abdominal obesity diagnosed in early pregnancy. METHODS: Prospective study including 40 pregnant women receiving low-risk prenatal care, older than 20 years, nonsmokers, with singleton pregnancies and without chronic disease. Waist circumference was measured before the 12th week and serum leptin levels were measured between the 9th and 12th, 25th and 28th and 34th and 37th weeks of gestation. According to waist circumference measurement, the cohort was divided into two groups: with and without abdominal obesity. The Mann-Whitney and χ² tests were used to assess the differences between groups. The Pearson correlation coeffient was used to assess the association between waist circumference and

  18. Standardized reference of waist circumference among children and adolescents in Beijing using the LMS Method%北京市儿童青少年腰围正常值LMS法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕若然; 孟灵慧; 孙颖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the standardized reference of waist circumference (WC) among children and adolescents in Beijing.Method Stratified by rural and urban areas,level of economic status,a total of 9 421 students aged in 6-22years from 40 primary and middle schools and 2 colleges in 6 districts of Beijing were investigated.The reference intervals were calculated using the LMS method.Results WC was increasing by age in boys aged 7-22 years old; the same trend was in girls before 12 years old.At 18 years old,average WC was 76.62 cm in boys and 72.55 cm in girls.The WC was highest in obese students,followed by overweight and normal-weight students.WC cut-off values for screening overweight and obesity was 79.72 cm and 89.35 cm in boys aged 18 and 74.38 cm and 84.40 cm in girls,respectively.Conclusion Standardized reference of WC for screening overweight and obesity by using the LMS method is reliable.It can be used in Beijing.%目的 通过分析2010年北京市学生体质健康调研结果,建立北京市儿童腰围筛查分类标准.方法 按城乡、经济水平分层,调查北京市6个区40所中小学校和2所大学的7 ~ 22岁大中小学生8 795名.按照《2010年全国学生体质健康调研工作手册》规定的方法进行身体测量,以LMS法计算性别年龄别腰围各百分位数值,并绘制LMS曲线,建立北京市儿童青少年腰围正常值.结果 北京市7 ~22岁男生腰围随年龄的增加而增大,女生在12岁以前呈现同样趋势,但之后趋于稳定.18岁男、女生腰围分别为76.62 cm和72.55 cm.不同BMI组别间腰围均值不同,肥胖组>超重组>正常组.北京市18岁男生超重/肥胖的腰围筛查标准是79.72 cm和89.31 cm,女生分别是74.38 cm和84.40 cm.结论 LMS法建立的北京市儿童青少年腰围筛查标准准确,可以在北京地区推广使用.

  19. The cutoff point of waist circumference in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease%腰围预测非酒精性脂肪性肝病的切点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海钊; 陈容平; 杨锐; 孙嘉; 张如意; 何芳; 蔡德鸿; 陈宏

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究腰围与非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)的关系,寻找腰围预测NAFLD的最佳切点.方法:采用分层随机抽样法,对研究对象进行体格检查、空腹血糖、血脂、腹部超声检查,通过受试者工作特性(ROC)曲线分析得到腰围预测NAFLD的最佳切点.结果:1 535例研究对象中共检出375例NAFLD,总患病率为24.4%,其中男性患病率为41.2%,女性为10.2%.腰围是NAFLD的危险因素.在ROC曲线分析中,男性腰围预测NAFLD的曲线下面积(AUC)为0.905,女性为0.949.男性及女性腰围预测NAFLD的最佳切点值分别为88.3 cm(敏感度:86.4%,特异度:85.9%)和82.4 cm(敏感度:93.2%,特异度:89.9%).结论:腰围对NAFLD有良好的诊断效能.佛山地区人群腰围预测NAFLD的最佳切点值男性为88.3 cm,女性为82.4 cm.%Objective To investigate the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to find the optimal cutoff point of WC to determine subjects with NAFLD. Methods A cross-sectional study with stratified and random samplings was performed. Physical examination, levels of fasting glucose and blood lipid, and abdominal ultrasound were conducted in all the subjects. Performance of WC for predicting NAFLD was undertaken using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC ) analysis. Results 375 of the 1535 subjects had NAFLD. The total prevalence was 24.4%, while the prevalence was 41.2% in males and 10.2% in females. WC was a risk factor of NAFLD. ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for WC and NAFLD was 0.905 for males and 0.949 for females. The optimal cutoff point of WC to determine subjects with NAFLD was 88.3 cm for males (86.4% for sensitivity and 85.9% for specificity) and 82.4 cm for females (93.2% and 89.9%) respectively. Conclusions WC has a good efficacy in diagnosing NAFLD. WC of 88.3 cm for males and 82.4 cm for females is the optimal cutoff point to determine people with NAFLD in

  20. Correlação entre índice de massa corporal e circunferência da cintura em crianças Correlación entre índice de masa corporal y circunferencia de la cintura en niños Correlation between body mass index and waist circumference in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Coelho Damasceno

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer uma correlação entre a circunferência da cintura e o Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC na determinação do excesso de peso e distribuição de gordura em crianças de escolas públicas de Fortaleza - CE. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, realizado em 12 escolas da rede da pública da cidade de Fortaleza- CE. Participaram 727 crianças de ambos os sexos, com idade variando entre 6 a 11 anos. A coleta de dados ocorreu de março a junho de 2008. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do inquérito mostraram que, de acordo com o IMC,11,4% das crianças encontravam-se em sobrepeso, 6,6% eram obesas e 30,9% apresentaram obesidade central. CONCLUSÃO: Nem toda criança obesa apresentava obesidade central, demonstrando que uma só medida antropométrica não é eficaz na determinação do padrão de gordura na infância.OBJETIVO: Establecer una correlación entre la circunferencia de la cintura y el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC en la determinación del exceso de peso y distribución de grasa en niños de escuelas públicas en Fortaleza - CE. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado en 12 escuelas de la red pública de la ciudad de Fortaleza- CE. Participaron 727 niños de ambos sexos, con edad que varió de 6 a 11 años. La recolección de datos ocurrió de marzo a junio de 2008. RESULTADOS: Los resultados de la encuesta mostraron que, de acuerdo con el IMC, 11,4% de los niños se encontraban con sobrepeso, 6,6% eran obesos y 30,9% presentaron obesidad central. CONCLUSIÓN: No todos los niños obesos presentaban obesidad central, demostrando que solo una medida antropométrica no es eficaz para determinar el estándar de adiposidad en la infancia.OBJECTIVE: To establish a correlation between waist circumference and Body Mass Index (BMI and to determine overweight and fat distribution in children from public schools in Fortaleza - CE. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 12 public schools in the city

  1. Relação da cintura abdominal com a condição nutricional, perfil lipídico e pressão arterial em pré-escolares de baixo estrato socioeconômico Relationship between waist circumference and nutritional status, lipid profile and blood pressure in low socioeconomic level pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Saccardo Sarni

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o diagnóstico nutricional, o perfil lipídico, os níveis pressóricos e a medida de cintura em pré-escolares. Pretende-se ainda verificar se a medida de cintura está associada com índices antropométricos usuais no diagnóstico nutricional, perfil lipídico e pressão arterial em crianças obesas e eutróficas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 65 pré-escolares de baixo estrato socioeconômico, em escola municipal de Santo André. As avaliações clínico-laboratoriais consistiram em: medida de PA (Task Force, 1996, peso (P e estatura (E expressos como escore z (OMS, 1995 e IMC (índice de massa corpórea; níveis séricos de triglicérides, colesterol total e frações (VLDL-c, HDL-c, LDL-c (Kwiterowich e AHA. Análise estatística: Teste exato de Fisher e correlação. RESULTADOS: Observamos alto porcentual de inadequação da PA e lipídios séricos, independentemente da condição nutricional. A medida de cintura mostrou correlação positiva e significante com IMC e ZPE (r = 0,87 e r = 0,83; p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate anthropometric data, blood lipid levels, blood pressure (BP and waist circumference (WC in preschool children. To relate WC with blood lipid levels and BP in obese and non-obese children. METHODS: In a transversal study we investigated 65 preschool children of low socioeconomic level in Santo André, São Paulo. The evaluation consisted of BP measurement (Task Force, 1996, weight (W, height (H expressed as z score (WHO,1995 and body mass index (BMI, triglycerides, total and fractions of cholesterol blood levels (Kwiterovich and AHA. Statistical analysis: Fisher test and correlations. RESULTS: We observed high BP and lipid levels unrelated to nutritional status. WC was significantly and positively correlated to BMI and ZWH (r = 0,87 and r = 0,83, respectively. Using as a cut-off 75 percentile of WC we found an accuracy of 89,1% with 87,2% specificity and 70,6% sensitivity and predictive value

  2. Neck Circumference as a Predictor of Adiposity among Healthy and Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in the upper part of body, is a major health problem. Because body mass index (BMI does not adequately describe regional adiposity, other indices of body fatness are being explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if neck circumference is a valid measure of adiposity (fat distribution among group of Egyptian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study, included 50 obese subjects, aged 7 - 12 years recruited from Endocrine, obesity and Metabolism Pediatric Unit at Children Hospital, Cairo University and 50 healthy children, age and sex matched. All children were subjected to blood pressure assessment (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP, and anthropometric assessment (body weight, height, neck circumference (NC, waist (WC and hip (HC circumferences, and skin fold thicknesses at three sites: biceps, triceps and sub scapular. BMI [weight (kg/height (m2] was calculated. RESULTS: In healthy females, significant associations were detected between NC and SBP, DBP and all anthropometric measurements. However, in healthy males NC was not significantly associated with BMI, SBP and DBP. In the obese group; both sexes; insignificant association was found between NC and SBP, DBP, BMI and skinfold thickness. CONCLUSION: NC is related to fat distribution among normal healthy female children. However, this relation disappears with increasing adiposity. The results do not support the use of NC as a useful screening tool for childhood obesity.

  3. Performance of the waist-to-height ratio in identifying obesity and predicting non-communicable diseases in the elderly population: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Márcia Mara; Thumé, Elaine; De Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Tomasi, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was carried out aiming to collect evidence on the use of the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) on the elderly population, focusing on validity measures to identify the best anthropometric indicator in assessing obesity associated with non-communicable diseases. The review consisted in a search of papers published on the databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Lilacs, with no restriction regarding period of publication, using the following combinations: abdominal fat or overweight or obesity and waist-to-height ratio or waist height or waist ht or WHtR or waist to stature ratio or wst stature or WSR or stature and girth. Sixteen papers were selected, most of which with high methodological quality. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was the validity measure explored in 13 papers, followed by sensitivity and specificity measures. In all studies, the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) received special attention for analysis along with WHtR. Five manuscripts showed evidence of WHtR being the best anthropometric index when used alone, four showed that both WHtR and WC had the best discriminatory power in predicting cardiovascular risk factors compared to the other indices, and two ranked WHtR at the same performance level as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and BMI. An association was shown of the obesity assessed by WHtR in predicting risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes compared to other anthropometric parameters. PMID:27061665

  4. Waist circumference and body mass index present situation investigation and analysis on the cognitive condition in Beijing Dongcheng District of primary school students parents%北京市东城区小学生父母腰围及体重指数的现状调查及认知情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛锦锋; 杨学军; 邢丽丽; 丁素琴; 魏群

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解北京市东城区小学生父母腹部肥胖的流行特征,为今后在中青年中开展知信行干预提供科学依据.方法 以参与发放腰围尺的全区31 279名在校小学生为范围,采用整群抽样的方法随机抽取630个班级的11520名小学生,将其父母同时列为调查对象,进行问卷调查.结果 基线调查学生父母22 270人,父亲平均腰围为89.9±9.2厘米,母亲的平均腰围为77.1±7.9厘米,父亲的超重率为43.2%,肥胖率为17.3%;母亲的超重率为16.4%,肥胖率为4.6%.母亲体重正常的占79.0%,而父亲体重正常者占39.5%,父亲的超重与肥胖水平明显高于母亲(P<0.01).结论 小学生父母亲腰围随年龄的增加而增长,母亲45岁以后腰围平均接近正常值的上限,而父亲从28岁开始腰围开始接近正常值的上限.为使小学生父母的腰围向健康的方向发展,今后需要对小学生父母亲展开针对性的干预措施,进而间接影响孩子的生活方式.%Objective To understand abdominal obesity epidemic characteristics in Beijing Dongcheng District of primary school students parents, for the future in the young of KAP intervention and provide a scientific basis. Methods To participate in the issuance of waist circumference ruler of the whole area is 31 279 school pupils as range, stratified random sampling method was selected from 630 classes of 11 520 pupils, their parents at the same time as the investigation object, conducted a questionnaire survey. Results The baseline survey parents of students 22 270 people, father average waist size of 89. 9 ± 9. 2 cm, mother's average waist size of 77. 1 ±7. 9 cm, father of overweight rate is 43. 2% , the obesity rate was 17. 3% ; mother of overweight rate was 16.4% , the rate of obesity was 4. 6%. Mothers of normal weight accounted for 79.0% , and the father of normal weight was 39.5% , his father' s overweight and obesity levels were significantly higher than those of the

  5. 非酒精性脂肪性肝病严重程度与腹腔内脂肪面积、身体质量指数及腰围的相关性分析%Correlation of severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with visceral adipose tissue area, body mass index, and waist circumference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志鹏; 苏智军; 蒋建家; 孙炳庆; 林振忠; 曾志雄

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)严重程度与腹腔内脂肪面积(VAT)、身体质量指数(BMI)及腰围(WC)的相关性.方法 127例NAFLD病例,根据彩超脂肪变严重程度分为轻、中、重三组,其中轻度61例、中度45例、重度21例,选择21例同期就诊的非脂肪肝患者作为对照.所有研究对象均由专人测量身高、体重、WC,接受肝脏超声波检查及肝功能等检测,并接受腹部CT扫描,测量VAT、腹壁皮下脂肪面积(SAT)、腹部脂肪总面积(TA).计量资料呈正态分布且方差齐性者以单因素方差分析比较组间差异,方差不齐者以ANOVA(Welch法)比较,否则改用非参数检验(Kruskal-Wallis H检验).计数资料采用x2检验进行组间比较.组间比较差异有统计学意义者再行两两比较.双变量正态分布资料采用Pearson相关分析,不服从双变量正态分布或等级变量资料相关性采用Spearman相关分析.结果 各组年龄、性别差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05),各组WC、VAT、TA、SAT、BMI、AST、ALT、GGT差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).NAFLD严重程度与BMI、WC、VAT、SAT、TA呈显著正相关,r分别为0.467(P=0.000)、0.503(P =0.000)、0.473(P=0.000)、0.280(P =0.001)、0.465 (P =0.000).结论 控制体重,尤其是中心性肥胖者,是预防NAFLD的重要措施之一.%Objective To analvze the correlation of the severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with visceral adipose tissue area (VAT),body mass index (BMI),and waist circumference (WC).Methods A total of 127 NAFLD patients were divided into mild NAFLD group (n =61),moderate NAFLD group (n =45),and severe NAFLD group (n =21) according to the severity of hepatic steatosis evaluated by color Doppler ultrasound; 21 patients without NAFLD who visited the hospital during the same period were selected as a control group.All subjects were examined by special professionals to measure the body height,body weight,and WC,underwent liver ultrasound

  6. Can lifestyle factors explain why body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio increase with increasing tobacco consumption? The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, C; Toft, U; Jørgensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between smoking, lifestyle, and weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WH ratio) is complex, and not fully understood. METHODS: In total, 6784 subjects (2408 daily smokers) were included in a population-based study (the Inter99 study) in Denmark. Weight......, height, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Self-reported tobacco consumption and lifestyle variables (dietary quality, energy intake, physical activity in leisure time and alcohol consumption) were registered. RESULTS: Daily smokers had a significantly lower BMI and significantly higher WH...... ratio than never smokers (P<0.001). Unhealthy lifestyle increased with increasing tobacco consumption (P<0.001 for all variables). Both BMI and WH ratio increased with increasing tobacco consumption. The association between increasing WH ratio and increasing tobacco consumption was largely explained by...

  7. Circunferência da cintura como indicador de gordura corporal e alterações metabólicas em adolescentes: comparação entre quatro referências Waist circumference as indicator of body fat and metabolic alterations in teenagers: comparison among four references

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Feliciano Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade diagnóstica de quatro tabelas de referência para circunferência da cintura em adolescentes do sexo feminino para detecção de alterações lipídicas, hiperinsulinemia, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA elevado, hiperleptinemia e elevada adiposidade corporal. MÉTODOS: Avaliadas 113 adolescentes com idade entre 14 e 19 anos, provenientes de escolas públicas de Viçosa (MG. Em amostras de sangue foram dosados colesterol total, LDL, HDL, triglicerídeos, insulina e leptina. Determinado percentual de gordura corporal através de bioimpedância elétrica tetrapolar. Pela medida de menor diâmetro abdominal foi determinada a circunferência da cintura do abdômen e calculados valores de sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e negativo. Foram elaboradas tabelas de contingência de classificação de circunferência da cintura em adolescentes para quatro critérios: Freedman et al., 1999; Taylor et al., 2000; McCarthy et al., 2001; e Moreno et al., 2007. RESULTADOS: Valores de sensibilidade em geral foram baixos para as referências avaliadas, sendo os maiores obtidos para a de McCarthy et al. Ao contrário, as especificidades foram altas, principalmente para a tabela de Freedman et al. Os valores preditivos positivos foram mais relevantes para colesterol total e percentual de gordura corporal. CONCLUSÃO: Os pontos de corte para circunferência da cintura de McCarthy et al. demonstraram-se os mais adequados para avaliações populacionais. A proposta de Freedman et al. por apresentar maior especificidade, é útil para uso clínico e pode substituir a realização de exames de custo elevado que em muitos locais não se encontram ao alcance dos profissionais de saúde, como leptina e insulina.OBJECTIVE: Assess diagnostic validity of four reference tables for waist circumference in female teenagers in order to detect lipid alterations, hyperinsulin, elevated homeostasis model assessment (HOMA

  8. Sagital abdominal diameter, but not waist circumference is strongly associated with glycemia, triacilglycerols and HDL-C levels in overweight adults Diámetro abdominal sagital, pero no la circunferencia de la cintura se asocia fuertemente con la glucemia, triacilglycerols y HDL-C en adultos con sobrepeso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Pimentel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To correlate the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD and waist circumference (WC with metabolic syndrome-associated abnormalities in adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study included onehundred twelve adults (M = 27, F = 85 aging 54.0 ± 11.2 yrs and average body mass index (BMI of 30.5 ± 9.0 kg/m². The assessment included blood pressure, plasma and anthropometric measurements. Results: In both men and female, SAD and WC were associated positively with body fat% (r = 0.53 vs r = 0.55, uric acid (r = 0.45 vs r = 0.45, us-PCR (r = 0.50 vs r = 0.44, insulin (r = 0.89 vs r = 0.75, insulin resistance HOMA-IR (r = 0.86 vs r = 0.65, LDL-ox (r = 0.51 vs r = 0.28, GGT (r = 0.70 vs r = 0.61, and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.35 vs r = 0.33, and negatively with insulin sensibility QUICKI (r = -0.89 vs r = -0.82 and total cholesterol/TG ratio (r = -0.40 vs r = -0.22. Glycemia, TG, and HDL-c were associated significantly only with SAD (r = 0.31; r = 39, r = -0.43, respectively. Conclusion: Though the SAD and WC were associated with numerous metabolic abnormalities, only SAD correlated with dyslipidemia (TG and HDL-c and hyperglycemia (glycemia.Objetivo: Correlacionar el diámetro abdominal sagital (DAS y la circunferencia de la cintura (CC con las anomalías asociadas al síndrome metabólico en adultos. Métodos: Este estudio transversal incluyó a 112 adultos (H = 27, M = 85 con edad de 54,0 ± 11,2 años y un promedio de índice de masa corporal (IMC de 30,5 ± 9,0 kg/m². La evaluación incluía la presión sanguínea y medidas plasmáticas y antropométricas. Resultados: Tanto en hombres como mujeres, DAS y CC se asociaban positivamente con el % grasa corporal (r = 0,53 vs r = 0,55, el ácido úrico (r = 0,45 vs r = 0,45, la us-PCR (r = 0,50 vs r = 0,44, la insulina (r = 0,89 vs r = 0,75, la resistencia a la insulina HOMA-IR (r = 0,86 vs r = 0,65, la LDL-ox (r = 0,51 vs r = 0,28, GGT (r = 0,70 vs r = 0,61, y la presión sanguínea diast

  9. Accuracy of sagittal abdominal diameter as predictor of abdominal fat among Brazilian adults: a comparation with waist circumference Precisión de diámetro abdominal sagital como predictor de la grasa abdominal en brasileños adultos: una comparación con la circunferencia de la cintura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duarte Pimentel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aim was to compare the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD with waist circumference (WC as a predictor of central obesity among adults and to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the best cut-off point for SAD. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 266 Brazilians adults (euthrophic and overweight, aged 31-84 years old, of which 89 men and 177 women, was carried out. Anthropometric measurements such as SAD, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, waist and hip ratio, body mass index, body fat percentage were performed. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve was used to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the best cut off point for SAD as a predictor of central obesity. Statistical analysis were considered significant with a value of p Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo es comparar el diámetro abdominal sagital (DAS con la circunferencia de la cintura (CC como predictor de la obesidad central entre los adultos y para determinar la sensibilidad y la especificidad de la mejor punto de corte para el DAS. Métodos: Estudio transversal de 266 adultos brasileños (eutróficos y con sobrepeso, de entre 31-84 años de edad, de los cuales 89 hombres y 177 mujeres, se llevó a cabo. Las medidas antropométricas como la DAS, peso, talla, circunferencia de la cintura y cadera, relación cintura-cadera, índice de masa corporal, porcentaje de grasa corporal se llevaron a cabo. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curva se utilizó para determinar la sensibilidad y la especificidad del mejor punto de corte para el DAS como predictor de la obesidad central. El análisis estadístico se consideró significativo un valor de p < 0,05. Resultados: La medición del DAS se correlacionó positivamente con CC para ambos sexos, aunque más fuerte entre las mujeres con sobrepeso y obesidad (r = 0,71, p < 0,001, r = 0,79, p < 0,001, respectivamente que los hombres. De curvas ROC identificado las mejores puntos de corte para el DAS de 23.1 cm y 20

  10. Body mass index and abdominal circumference among teens in the countryside of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionara Holanda de Moura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric techniques, establishing the diagnosis of overweight / obesity as body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, are increasingly important. With this research we aimed to learn about BMI and relate it to the WC of adolescent students in two institutions in Piaui. This descriptive cross-sectional study of quantitative prevalence. It carried out in two public schools in Picos - PI with 145 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years for both sexes. Data collection was performed through a form from the months of August to December 2010. The prevalence of overweight was 3.7%. Overweight was significantly associated with increased WC (<0.0001. These results emphasize the relevance of conducting prevention and control of excess weight so that the health of adolescents should be maintained.

  11. PPARγ Pro12Ala and ACE ID polymorphisms are associated with BMI and fat distribution, but not metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passaro Angela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS results from the combined effect of environmental and genetic factors. We investigated the possible association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2 Pro12Ala and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE I/D polymorphisms with MetS and interaction between these genetic variants. Methods Three hundred sixty four unrelated Caucasian subjects were enrolled. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI were recorded. Body composition was estimated by impedance analysis; MetS was diagnosed by the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. A fasting blood sample was obtained for glucose, insulin, lipid profile determination, and DNA isolation for genotyping. Results The prevalence of MetS did not differ across PPARγ2 or ACE polymorphisms. Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but lower systolic blood pressure compared with Pro/Pro homozygotes. A significant PPARγ2 gene-gender interaction was observed in the modulation of BMI, fat mass, and blood pressure, with significant associations found in women only. A PPARγ2-ACE risk genotype combination for BMI and fat mass was found, with ACE DD/PPARγ2 Ala subjects having a higher BMI (p = 0.002 and Fat Mass (p = 0.002. Pro12Ala was independently associated with waist circumference independent of BMI and gender. Conclusions Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but not a worse metabolic profile, possibly because of a more favorable adipose tissue distribution. A gene interaction exists between Pro12Ala and ACE I/D on BMI and fat mass. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of Pro12Ala polymorphism in adiposity distribution.

  12. Association of body mass index and waist circumstance with risk of hypertension and diabetes in Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan HE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the influences of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC on hypertension and diabetes among Chinese adults. Methods Seventy-nine thousand and twelve adults, aged 20-80 years old, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey using cluster sampling. Height, weight, WC, blood pressure (BP, and fasting blood glucose (FBG level were measured, the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was calculated with reference to BMI and WC distributions. Logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors. Results BMI is positively associated with hypertension and diabetes, and WC showed the similar pattern. The adjusted odds ratios (OR of hypertension and diabetes were 1.7 and 1.7, respectively, for 1 s.d. increase in BMI; the corresponding ORwere 1.7 and 2.0, respectively, for 1 s.d. increase in WC. Younger obese people and women were at higher risk of hypertension and diabetes when BMI(≥30kg/m2 and WC increased. Diabetes showed a higher raising rate with BMI and WC increase than that of hypertension. The combined indicators of BMI and WC were more strongly associated with hypertension and diabetes in both men and women. Conclusion Obesity or central obesity is associated with an increased risk of hypertension and diabetes, implying a practical need of developing strategies to prevent and control obesity and related chronic diseases. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.10.07

  13. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 years of age and weight or BMI status among older children: systematic review of prospective studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Pérez-Morales

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of prospective studies that examined the association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6y of age and later weight or BMI status among older children. An electronic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, and EBSCO databases of prospective studies published from 2001 to 2011. Seven studies were analyzed. The study population was from 72 to 10,904 children. Three studies showed a consistent association between SSB intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI, or waist circumference later in childhood, one study showed a positive trend of consumption of SSB and childhood obesity and the OR for incidence of overweight by baseline beverage intake was 1.04, another study it was observed that an increase in total sugar intake and sugar from sweets and beverages in children 1-2 y of age and 7-9 y of age have a tendency to increase BMI, and two studies showed no association. In conclusion, although the trend of the reviews studies, indicate an association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI or waist circumference later in childhood, to date, the results are inconsistent, and the two studies with the higher number of children showed a positive association.

  14. Evaluation of neck circumference as a predictor of central obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuhong; Zhang, Ning; Yu, Caiguo; Ji, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether neck circumference (NC) could be used as a valid and effective method for identifying obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 3307 adults aged 20-65 years were randomly recruited from two communities of Tongzhou, Beijing. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), neck circumference (NC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerid...

  15. A CORRELATION BETWEEN HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE AND CHEST, WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCES IN YOUNG POPULATION OF KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Suchitra S; Ramakrishna; Rohan

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The head and body measurements in human body vary because of differences in anatomical features which may be influenced by environmental or geographical factors. This also brings about differences in their bony structure and fat distribution. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between the Head circ...

  16. Susceptibility Variants for Waist Size in Relation to Abdominal, Visceral and Hepatic Adiposity in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Albright, Cheryl L.; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D.; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that may contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B g...

  17. Impact of HSD11B1 polymorphisms on BMI and components of the metabolic syndrome in patients receiving psychotropic treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Quteineh, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic treatments represents a major health issue. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes tissue regeneration of active cortisol from cortisone. Elevated enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD1 may lead to the development of MetS. Methods We investigated the association between seven HSD11B1 gene (encoding 11β-HSD1) polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in a psychiatric sample treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs (n=478). The polymorphisms that survived Bonferroni correction were analyzed in two independent psychiatric samples (n R1 =168, n R2 =188) and in several large population-based samples (n 1 =5338; n 2 =123 865; n 3 >100 000). Results HSD11B1 rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers were found to be associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure compared with the reference genotype (P corrected <0.05). These associations were exclusively detected in women (n=257) with more than 3.1 kg/m 2, 7.5 cm, and 4.2 mmHg lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, in rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers compared with noncarriers (P corrected <0.05). Conversely, carriers of the rs846906-T allele had significantly higher waist circumference and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol exclusively in men (P corrected =0.028). The rs846906-T allele was also associated with a higher risk of MetS at 3 months of follow-up (odds ratio: 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-7.17, P corrected =0.014). No association was observed between HSD11B1 polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in the population-based samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that HSD11B1 polymorphisms may contribute toward the development of MetS in psychiatric patients treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, but do not

  18. Neck circumference as a potential marker of metabolic syndrome among college students1

    OpenAIRE

    Dayse Christina Rodrigues Pereira; Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo; Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire de Freitas; Carla Regina de Souza Teixeira; Maria Lúcia Zanetti; Marta Maria Coelho Damasceno

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to relate neck circumference with metabolic syndrome and its criteria among college students. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted with 702 college students in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil from September 2010 to June 2011. Socio-demographic data, waist circumference and neck circumference were collected together with blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride levels, and HDL-C. RESULTS: 1.7% of the studied sample presented metabolic syndrome. Of these, 58.3% presented altered ne...

  19. The effect of PCSK1 variants on waist, waist-hip ratio and glucose metabolism is modified by sex and glucose tolerance status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Anette P; Vestmar, Marie A; Jørgensen, Torben; Heni, Martin; Holst, Jens J; Witte, Daniel R; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2011-01-01

    = 0.008) and increased waist-to-hip ratio of 0.004 (0.0005–0.008, p = 0.027). In the meta-analyses where men and women were combined, the rs6232 G-allele associated with increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.02) and the rs6235 C-allele associated with increased waist circumference (p = 0...... variants was also investigated in a subset of 62 glucose-tolerant men during a meal challenge including measures of serum incretins. In men we found an effect on body composition in sex-stratified analyses where the rs6235 C-allele conferred an increased waist circumference of 0.8 cm per allele (0.2–1.5, p...

  20. Neck circumference as a potential marker of metabolic syndrome among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Christina Rodrigues Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to relate neck circumference with metabolic syndrome and its criteria among college students.METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted with 702 college students in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil from September 2010 to June 2011. Socio-demographic data, waist circumference and neck circumference were collected together with blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride levels, and HDL-C.RESULTS: 1.7% of the studied sample presented metabolic syndrome. Of these, 58.3% presented altered neck circumference (p<0.006. As neck circumference decreases, pressure levels improve (p<0.001. Additionally, college students with high fasting blood sugar (p=0.003 and high triglyceride levels (p<0.001 presented higher values of neck circumference.CONCLUSION: neck circumference is a potential predictive marker in the detection of metabolic syndrome and its components among college students.

  1. Waist circumference reference values in Beijing versus the national values in detecting cardiovascular risk factors in 7-18 years old children%北京与全国7~18岁儿童青少年腰围适宜界值对心血管危险因素筛查效度的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟玲慧; 罗纳; 程红; 侯冬青; 赵小元; 米杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较北京与全国7~18岁儿童青少年腰围(WC)适宜界值对心血管危险因素的筛查效度和预测价值.方法 采用LMS曲线拟合法拟合北京市21 787名3~18岁儿童青少年WC百分位曲线,以性别、年龄别第75百分位数(P75)及第90百分位数(P90)作为北京市7~18岁儿童青少年WC适宜界值.在4927名7~18岁儿童青少年组成的验证人群中,比较北京和全国7~18岁儿童青少年WC适宜界值对高血压、脂代谢紊乱、糖耐量受损及非酒精性脂肪肝(NAFLD)等心血管危险因素诊断的特异度和灵敏度,通过回归分析比较该2个界值对心血管危险因素的预测价值.结果 北京市3~18岁儿童青少年WC适宜界值分别为:男童:P75为51.8~78.2 cm,P90为54.0~86.0 cm;女童:P75为50.8~72.1 cm,P90为53.3~77.3 cm.北京与全国界值筛查心血管危险因素的灵敏度分别为:高血压:男童分别为0.74和0.82,女童分别为0.68和0.73;低高密度脂蛋白胆固醇:男童分别为0.69和0.80,女童分别为0.64和0.71;NAFLD:男童分别为0.98和1.00,女童均为0.93.北京与全国界值筛查心血管危险因素的特异度分别为:高血压:男童分别为0.62和0.53,女童分别为0.68和0.63;低高密度脂蛋白胆固醇:男童分别为0.59和0.50,女童分别为0.66和0.61;NAFLD:男童分别为0.60和0.50,女童分别为0.56和0.51.北京和全国7~18岁儿童青少年WC的P90适宜界值预测心血管危险因素的OR(95%CI)值分别为:高血压分别为6.3(5.2~7.7)和6.0(4.9~7.4);空腹血糖受损均为1.3(1.1~1.5);脂代谢紊乱均为2.9(2.5~3.4);NAFLD分别为49.1(12.0~201.6)和69.8(9.7~504.2).结论 北京市7~18岁儿童青少年WC适宜界值可提高对心血管危险因素筛查的特异度;除对NAFLD预测价值低于全国界值外,北京界值对其他心血管危险因素的预测价值与全国界值没有明显差别.%Objective To compare the optimal references of waist circumference (WC) between

  2. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Mohammad Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Hadibarhaghtalab, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehi, Alireza; Askari, Alireza; Homayounfar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI) cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS) risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC) as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome) were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2). Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%). When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%). Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR) for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166-1.190). By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093-1.118). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc) = 69% and 61%, respectively)] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65%) with sensitivity and

  3. About BMI for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boy in the 95 th percentile for BMI - meaning that his BMI is greater than that of ... psychopathology in women: a three decade prospective study." International ... of life in relation to overweight and body fat distribution." American Journal ...

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ETHNIC DIFFERENCE IN SMOKING BEHAVIOR AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH BODY MASS INDEX AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN A RURAL AREA OF KUNMING%昆明市农村彝族和汉族吸烟行为与BMI指数和腰围关系的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡乐; 董峻; 毕卫红; 舒占坤; 黄文学; 叶亚怀

    2011-01-01

    [目的]对昆明市农村汉族和彝族村民吸烟行为与BMI指数和腰围的关系进行对比分析. [方法]在昆明市石林县采用PPS抽样方法对6 006名45岁以上村民通过问卷调查和体格检查获取所需资料. [结果]汉族的肥胖率明显高于彝族(χ2=4.88,P<0.01=.汉族与彝族村民的中心性肥胖率、汉族男性与彝族男性腰围的分布无差别(χ2=1.48,P>0.05);但汉族女性的中心性肥胖率明显高于彝族女性(χ2=3.97,P<0.01).汉族和彝族吸烟者与未吸烟者的肥胖率和中心性肥胖率没有差别(χ2=1.06,P>0.05),但不吸烟者的超重率和体重过轻者的比率均明显高于吸烟者(χ2=4.21,P<0.01). [结论]应在农村居民中开展戒烟的健康教育,特别是在汉族村民中加强合理饮食的健康教育,以减少超重和中心性肥胖的发生.%[Objective] To compare the ethnic difference in smoking behavior and the relationship with body mass index and waist circumsference in a rural area of Kunming. [Methods] Probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling method was used to select representative sample of 6 006 residents aged 45 years and over fmm Shilin County. Informacion was obtained from a questionnaire survey and physical examination. [Resuftsl In the study area, Han majority had obviously higher prevalence of obesity than Yi ethnic minority (P < 0.01). The prevalence of central obesity had no significant difference between Han majority and Yi ethnic minority (P> 0.05) , and waist circumstance had no significant difference between Han ethnic males and Yi eth nic minority malea as well (P > 0.05). Han ethnic females had higher prevalence of central obesity than Yi ethnic minority fe males (P < 0.01). For both Han ethnic and Yi ethnic minority, the prevalence of obesity and prevalence of central obesity had no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers (P > 0.05) . whereas non-smokers had higher prevalence of over weight and

  5. Prevalence Of The Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype In Iranian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaillzadeh A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: No evidence exists regarding the prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in adolescents. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of this phenotype in a representative sample of Tehranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: Anthropometry and biochemical measurement were assessed in a population-based cross-sectional study of 3036 Tehranian adolescents (1413 male and 1623 female aged 10-19 years. Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was defined as concurrently having serum triglyceride concentration ≥110 mg/dl and waist circumference ≥90th percentile for age and sex. Overweight (≥95th percentile and at risk for overweight (≥85th-<95th percentile was defined based on the standardized percentile curves of body mass index suggested for Iranian adolescents. Results: The prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was 6.4% (95%CI: 5.5-7.2 among Tehranian adolescents (males: 7.3%, 5.9-8.7 and females: 5.6%, 4.4-6.7. Overweight subjects had the highest proportion of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype than those at risk for overweight and those with normal-weight (male: 42.9 vs 2.9 and 0.0%, respectively, P<0.01; female: 32.5 vs 11.3 and 1.3%, respectively, P<0.01. Conclusion: This study provides evidence showing high prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in Tehranian adolescents, particularly among overweight adolescents. This finding highlights the need for effective preventive and therapeutic strategies relying on diet, physical activity and lifestyle modification.

  6. A weight-neutral versus weight-loss approach for health promotion in women with high BMI: A randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensinger, Janell L; Calogero, Rachel M; Stranges, Saverio; Tylka, Tracy L

    2016-10-01

    Weight loss is the primary recommendation for health improvement in individuals with high body mass index (BMI) despite limited evidence of long-term success. Alternatives to weight-loss approaches (such as Health At Every Size - a weight-neutral approach) have been met with their own concerns and require further empirical testing. This study compared the effectiveness of a weight-neutral versus a weight-loss program for health promotion. Eighty women, aged 30-45 years, with high body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) were randomized to 6 months of facilitator-guided weekly group meetings using structured manuals that emphasized either a weight-loss or weight-neutral approach to health. Health measurements occurred at baseline, post-intervention, and 24-months post-randomization. Measurements included blood pressure, lipid panels, blood glucose, BMI, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, distress, self-esteem, quality of life, dietary risk, fruit and vegetable intake, intuitive eating, and physical activity. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed using linear mixed-effects models to examine group-by-time interaction effects and between and within-group differences. Group-by-time interactions were found for LDL cholesterol, intuitive eating, BMI, weight, and dietary risk. At post-intervention, the weight-neutral program had larger reductions in LDL cholesterol and greater improvements in intuitive eating; the weight-loss program had larger reductions in BMI, weight, and larger (albeit temporary) decreases in dietary risk. Significant positive changes were observed overall between baseline and 24-month follow-up for waist-to-hip ratio, total cholesterol, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, self-esteem, and quality of life. These findings highlight that numerous health benefits, even in the absence of weight loss, are achievable and sustainable in the long term using a weight-neutral approach. The trial positions weight-neutral programs as a

  7. Relationship between neck circumference and insulin resistance in a community population%社区非糖尿病人群颈围和胰岛素抵抗的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉; 梁军; 腾飞; 邹彩艳; 刘学奎; 张倩; 卞文; 李洪艳; 邱勤勤

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析和探索中国社区人群健康成人的颈围和胰岛素抵抗的相关性.方法 选择常住江苏徐州地区的社Ⅸ健康人群2 31 8名为研究对象,检测受试者颈围、身高、腰围、臀围、体重和甘油三酯、总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(H DL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、空腹血糖和餐后2 h血糖等相关生化指标.胰岛素抵抗以稳态模型评估的胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)来评价.结果 颈围和年龄、体重指数(BMI)、腰围、臀围、腰臀比、收缩压、舒张压、甘油三酯、总胆固醇、LDL-C、尿酸正相关,与HDL-C负相关.校正年龄和其他心血管代谢危险因素后,无论男性和女性,颈围和HOMA-IR的增加趋势显著相关,进一步校正BMI和腰围后,这种相关性并没有明显变化.颈围和BMI或腰围对HOMA-IR有显著的叠加作用(P<0.01);在较大BMI和较大腰围的个体,颈围和HOMA-IR的相关性更明显.结论 在中国健康成人中,颈围和胰岛素抵抗、心血管代谢危险因素独立相关,并且和BMI、腰围有交互作用.%Objective To investigate the relationship between neck circumference (NC) and insulin resistance in a large Chinese cohort of community population.Methods A total of 2 318 subjects in this study were from a community-based health examination survey in Xuzhou.Serum triglyceride(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C),low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C),and glucose levels were determined.NC,height,waist circumference (WC),hip circumference,and body weight were measured.Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index.Results NC was positively correlated with age,body mass index(BMI),WC,hip circumference,waist-to-hip ratio,systolic blood pressure,diastolic blood pressure,uric acid,TC,TG,LDL-C,while negatively correlated with HDL-C.NC was significantly associated with increasing trend of HOMA

  8. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  9. Pregestational body mass index is related to neonatal abdominal circumference at birth--a Danish population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, M; Wehberg, S; Vinter, C A; Joergensen, J S; Ovesen, Per Glud; Beck-Nielsen, H; Jensen, D M; Christesen, H T

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of maternal pregestational body mass index (BMI) and smoking on neonatal abdominal circumference (AC) and weight at birth. To define reference curves for birth AC and weight in offspring of healthy, nonsmoking, normal weight women. DESIGN: Population-based study...... MEASURES: Birth AC and weight in relation to pregestational maternal BMI, maternal smoking and medical conditions (any). RESULTS: Birth AC and weight increased with increasing pregestational BMI, and decreased with smoking (P ...

  10. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  11. Fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference in European women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Due, Karen M; Dethlefsen, Claus;

    2012-01-01

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. However, human studies have suggested that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain. We investigated the associations between...

  12. Dietary n-6 PUFA, carbohydrate:protein ratio and change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Madsen, Lise; Dethlefsen, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    -order terms, protein intake, long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and other potential confounders. Due to adjustment for intake of protein, levels of carbohydrate indirectly reflect levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio. SETTING: Diet, Cancer and Health follow-up study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Women and men (n 29 152...

  13. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Boshuizen, Hendriek C;

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied.......Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied....

  14. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekary, Rania A; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre;

    2015-01-01

    confounders, a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend <0.001) was observed. Less age-associated WC increase was seen with a 20-min/day activity increase; this benefit was significantly stronger for weight training (-0.67 cm, 95% CI -0.93, -0.41) than for...

  15. Metabolic syndrome: no internationally defined standard cut-off value for waist circumference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olabode Oladeinde

    2007-01-01

    @@ The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin - metabolic risk factors that appear to directly promote the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and increase the risk of development of type 2 diabetes.

  16. Physical activity in leisure-time is not associated with 10-year changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, T; Petersen, L; Schnohr, P;

    2008-01-01

    sexes, and these were significant in some analyses. Associations were not altered by adjustment for confounders or by exclusions of subjects with diseases and/or treatment by obesity-inducing medication. This study suggests that LTPA, walking and biking have no appreciable effects on changes in WC or...

  17. Waist circumference and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, Radboud M.; Naude, Petrus J. W.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Both visceral obesity and depression are associated with impaired health and excess mortality, possibly through overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms like adipose tissue derived inflammatory markers. These results, however, are primarily based on population-based surveys, often restricted to a y

  18. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Angquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max;

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and changes in measures of adiposity have shown inconsistent results, and interaction with genetic predisposition to obesity has rarely been examined. We examined whether 25(OH)D was associated with subsequent annual changes ...

  19. The metabolic syndrome in black hypertensive women - Waist circumference more strongly related than body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rheeder, P; Stolk, RP; Veenhouwer, JF; Grobbee, DE

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between measures of. obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome in treated. black female hypertensive subjects. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. An urban primary health care centre in Mamelodi, Pretoria. Subjects. Women with hypertension and without k

  20. 24h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in weight, waist circumference and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus Christian; Ängquist, Lars; Sørensen, Thorkild I A;

    2013-01-01

    In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity....

  1. Measuring abdominal circumference and skeletal muscle from a single cross-sectional CT image: a step-by-step guide for clinicians using National Institutes of Health ImageJ

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Perez, Sandra L.; Haus, Jacob M.; Sheean, Patricia; Patel, Bimal; Mar, Winnie; Chaudhry, Vivek; McKeever, Liam; Braunschweig, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans provide numerous opportunities for body composition analysis including quantification of abdominal circumference, abdominal adipose tissues (subcutaneous, visceral and intermuscular) and skeletal muscle (SM). CT scans are commonly performed for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings and methods for estimating abdominal circumference and whole-body SM mass from them have been reported. A supine abdominal circumference is a valid measure of waist circ...

  2. BMI as a mediator of the relationship between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in children: a mediation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Díez-Fernández

    Full Text Available Muscular fitness levels have been associated with cardiometabolic risk in children, although whether body weight acts as a confounder or as an intermediate variable in this relationship remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors is mediated by body mass index (BMI.Cross-sectional study using a sample of 1158 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the province of Cuenca, Spain. We measured anthropometrics and biochemical variables and we calculated a muscular fitness index as the sum of z-scores of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing long jump, and we estimated a previously validated cardiometabolic risk index (CMRI. Linear regression models were fitted for mediation analysis to assess whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk was mediated by BMI.Children with normal weight (NW had a better cardiometabolic risk profile than their overweight (OW or obese (OB peers after controlling for muscular fitness. Marginal estimated mean ± SE values for NW, OW and OB categories of CMRI were -0.75 ± 0.06 0.05 ± 0.09 >-1.16 ± 0.13 for lower, middle and upper quartiles of muscular fitness in boys and 1.01 ± 0.16 > 0.10 ± 0.09 > -1.02 ± 0.15 in girls, both p < 0.001, but differences disappeared when controlling for BMI. BMI acted as a full mediator between muscular fitness and most cardiometabolic risk factors (Sobel test z = -11.44 for boys; z = -11.83 for girls; p < 0.001 in CMRI mediation model and as a partial mediator in the case of waist circumference (Sobel test z=-14.86 for boys; z=-14.51 for girls; p<0.001.BMI mediates the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in schoolchildren. Overall, good muscular fitness is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, but particularly when accompanied by normal weight.

  3. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cleliani de Cassia da Silva; Mariana Porto Zambon; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Rodrigues, Ana Maria de B.; Daniella Fernandes Camilo; Maria Ângela R.G.M Antonio; Roberta Soares L. Cassani; Bruno Geloneze

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist cir...

  4. Association of Neck Circumference with Obesity in Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Noor, Zujaja Tul; Rashed, Maitha; Jaberi, Hadeel Al

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity levels have been dramatically increased in the United Arab Emirates over the last few years. High levels of body Mass Index, waist circumference, and percent of total body fat as a measure of obesity have found to be related to cardiovascular risk factors and other diseases. Neck circumference is a new tool that has been linked to obesity. However, no studies in UAE have been conducted yet. AIM: The purpose of this study was to measure the obesity levels in a college population and to correlate them with NC and other anthropometrical indexes. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Two hundred forty three (243) female students aged 18-25 were conveniently selected to participate in the study. Anthropometrical indexes were obtained from all subjects e after fasting. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity together was found to be 28.4 % (n = 69). Pearson correlation showed that WC, NC and BF (%) were significantly positively related to obesity, (r = 0.790; r = 0.758; r = 0.767, p < 0.001), respectively. In multiple regression analysis, only NC (Beta: 1.627, 95 %CI: 0.370, 2.846, p < 0.001) and WC (Beta: 0.464, 95 %CI: 0.135, 0.664, p < 0.001) were found to be independently associated with obesity. CONCLUSION: NC was found to be independently associated with obesity levels in Emirati college students.

  5. DAFNE Operating Experience with Crab Waist Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    M. ZobovINFN LNF; for DAFNE Collaboration Team()

    2008-01-01

    The Phi-factory DAFNE was upgraded in the second half of 2007 in order to implement a recently proposed scheme of crab waist collisions aimed at substantial luminosity increase. Commissioning of the modified collider started in November 2007. In this paper we briefly describe the crab waist collision concept and discuss in detail the DAFNE hardware upgrade and obtained experimental results.

  6. Influence of lifestyle aspects on the association of body size and shape with all-cause mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2010-01-01

    Waist circumference, BMI and hip circumference are differentially associated with mortality. We investigated the potential influence of selected lifestyle aspects such as smoking, alcohol intake, sports activity and education.......Waist circumference, BMI and hip circumference are differentially associated with mortality. We investigated the potential influence of selected lifestyle aspects such as smoking, alcohol intake, sports activity and education....

  7. A proposed cutoff point of waist-to-height ratio for metabolic risk in African township adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, H. Salomé; Faber, Mieke; Schutte, Aletta E; Ellis, Suria M

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A waist:height ratio (WHtR) higher than 0.5 has been proposed as a cutoff point for abdominal obesity in both sexes and at all ages. It is unknown if this cutoff point is appropriate for previously undernourished adolescents. We assessed the cutoff value of the WHtR associated with an increased metabolic risk in 178 black South African 14- to 18-y-old adolescents (69 boys, 109 girls). Methods: We measured weight, height, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose an...

  8. Body mass index and waist/height ratio for prediction of severity of coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sabah, Khandker MD Nurus; Chowdhury, Abdul Wadud; Khan, HI Luftur Rahman; Hasan, ATM Hasibul; Haque, Serajul; Ali, Shomsher; Kawser, Shamima; Alam, Nur; Amin, Gaffar; Mahabub, S M Ear E

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine whether waist-to-height ratio correlates with coronary artery disease (CAD) severity better, than the body mass index (BMI) as assessed by coronary angiography in Bangladeshi population. Methods This cross sectional study was done on patients in Department of Cardiology in DMCH and those referred in the cath-lab of the Department of Cardiology for CAG during November 2009 to October 2010 involving 120 patients. They were divided into group-A (with coronary score ≥7) an...

  9. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  10. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleliani de Cassia da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents.METHODS:Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist circumferences, and biochemical evaluation. The pubertal stage was obtained by self-assessment, and the blood pressure, by auscultation. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. The correlation between two variables was evaluated by partial correlation coefficient adjusted for the percentage of body fat and pubertal stage. The performance of neck circumference to identify insulin resistance was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve.RESULTS: After the adjustment for percentage body fat and pubertal stage, neck circumference correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and markers of insulin resistance in both genders.CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the neck circumference is a useful tool for the detection of insulin resistance and changes in the indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The easiness of application and low cost of this measure may allow its use in Public Health services.

  11. Neck circumference as a predictor of obesity and overweight in rural central India

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar; Apurva Gupta; Shraddha Jain

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neck circumference is a simple screening measure for identifying overweight and obese patients. The present study is planned to determine if NC is a valid measure of obesity in rural Indian population. Aims: To determine whether a single measure of NC might be used to identify overweight patients and to define NC cutoff levels for overweight and obesity according to existing BMI cutoff levels. Settings and Design: A prospective cross-sectional study from rural medical ...

  12. Preferred Women’s Waist-to-Hip Ratio Variation over the Last 2,500 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanne Bovet; Michel Raymond

    2015-01-01

    The ratio between the body circumference at the waist and the hips (or WHR) is a secondary sexual trait that is unique to humans and is well known to influence men's mate preferences. Because a woman's WHR also provides information about her age, health and fertility, men's preference concerning this physical feature may possibly be a cognitive adaptation selected in the human lineage. However, it is unclear whether the preferred WHR in western countries reflects a universal ideal, as geograp...

  13. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population. PMID:17568760

  14. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype: Effect of Birthweight and Weight Gain in Childhood at 23 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando C.; Oliveira, Isabel; Silveira, Vera M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of birthweight and weight gain during different periods in childhood with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HWP). Methods In 1982, all hospitals births in Pelotas, South Brazil, were identified, and the 5914 liveborn were examined and their mothers interviewed. This population has been followed for several times. In 2004–05, we tried to follow the whole cohort and the subjects were interviewed, examined, and a blood sample was collected. HWP was defined as a triglycerides ≥ 2 mmol/L and a waist circumference ≥ 90 cm for men, and triglycerides ≥ 1.5 mmol/L and waist circumference ≥ 85 cm for woman. Poisson regression with robust adjustment of the variance was used to obtain adjusted estimates of the prevalence ratio. Results Subjects whose weight-for-age z-score at mean age of 42 months was one or more standard deviation above the mean, according to gender and age, were 8.77 (95% confidence interval: 2.60; 29.64) times more likely of presenting the HWP than those subjects whose weight-for-age z-score at 42 months was more than one standard deviation below the mean. Among those subjects whose birthweight was adequate-for-gestational age (AGA), conditional weight at 20 months was positively associated to the risk of HWP [relative risk: 1.59 (95%: confidence interval: 1.32; 1.92)], whereas for small for gestational age (SGA) subjects conditional weight was not associated with HWP [relative risk: 1.05 (95% confidence interval: 0.77; 1.43)], p-value for interaction 0.08. Conclusion Early weight gain among SGA infants, did not increase the risk of HWP in early adulthood, whereas among those who were AGA, early weight gain increased the risk of the having the phenotype in early adulthood. PMID:26309194

  15. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype: Effect of Birthweight and Weight Gain in Childhood at 23 Years Old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lanzetta Haack

    Full Text Available To evaluate the association of birthweight and weight gain during different periods in childhood with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HWP.In 1982, all hospitals births in Pelotas, South Brazil, were identified, and the 5914 liveborn were examined and their mothers interviewed. This population has been followed for several times. In 2004-05, we tried to follow the whole cohort and the subjects were interviewed, examined, and a blood sample was collected. HWP was defined as a triglycerides ≥ 2 mmol/L and a waist circumference ≥ 90 cm for men, and triglycerides ≥ 1.5 mmol/L and waist circumference ≥ 85 cm for woman. Poisson regression with robust adjustment of the variance was used to obtain adjusted estimates of the prevalence ratio.Subjects whose weight-for-age z-score at mean age of 42 months was one or more standard deviation above the mean, according to gender and age, were 8.77 (95% confidence interval: 2.60; 29.64 times more likely of presenting the HWP than those subjects whose weight-for-age z-score at 42 months was more than one standard deviation below the mean. Among those subjects whose birthweight was adequate-for-gestational age (AGA, conditional weight at 20 months was positively associated to the risk of HWP [relative risk: 1.59 (95%: confidence interval: 1.32; 1.92], whereas for small for gestational age (SGA subjects conditional weight was not associated with HWP [relative risk: 1.05 (95% confidence interval: 0.77; 1.43], p-value for interaction 0.08.Early weight gain among SGA infants, did not increase the risk of HWP in early adulthood, whereas among those who were AGA, early weight gain increased the risk of the having the phenotype in early adulthood.

  16. Changes in Weight, Waist Circumference and Compensatory Responses with Different Doses of Exercise among Sedentary, Overweight Postmenopausal Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Church, Timothy S.; Martin, Corby K.; Thompson, Angela M.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Mikus, Catherine R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that exercise training results in compensatory mechanisms that attenuate weight loss. However, this has only been examined with large doses of exercise. The goal of this analysis was to examine actual weight loss compared to predicted weight loss (compensation) acro

  17. Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Olsen, A; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, M U; Boeing, H; Buijsse, B; Palli, D; Tognon, G; Du, H; van der, D L; Forouhi, N G; Wareham, N J; Feskens, E J M; Sørensen, T I A; Tjønneland, A

    2011-01-01

    As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance.......As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance....

  18. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romaguera, Dora; Ängquist, Lars; Du, Huaidong;

    2011-01-01

    Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary....

  19. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M.; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1(act)) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1(act) and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, fu

  20. Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, H; van der A, D L; van Bakel, M M E;

    2009-01-01

    calculated on the basis of dietary intake assessed by food frequency questionnaires and by using a GI table developed for this study with published GI values as the main sources. Anthropometric data were collected both at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Multiple linear regression analyses were...... conducted in each centre and random-effect meta-analyses were used to combine the effects. Adjustment was made for baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors, follow-up duration and other dietary factors. RESULTS: Mean GI and GL were 57 and 134, respectively. Associations of GI and GL with...

  1. Susceptibility variants for waist size in relation to abdominal, visceral, and hepatic adiposity in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Albright, Cheryl L; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that can contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist-size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women was selected among study participants of The Multiethnic Cohort, who were aged 60 to 65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 18.5 and 40. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity, and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (P=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (P=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (P=0.03) and percent liver fat (P=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent of leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size might also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants can be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  2. Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts KidsHealth > For Parents > Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts Print A A A Text ... same age. Now they have another tool: body mass index (BMI). BMI is a calculation that uses ...

  3. Limb circumference and performance in junior tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Nuhmani, Shibili; Shaphe, MD Abu; Waseem, MD

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the correlation of limb circumference with functional performance of junior tennis players Design: correlation design Setting: Tennis academies all over Delhi and National Capital Region Subjects: 100 junior tennis players Measurement: The limb circumferences (thigh circumference and calf circumference) of each athlete have measured and have been correlated with all the three functional performance tests. Result and conclusion: Pearson's correlation test was used to cor...

  4. Maternal factors influencing infant abdominal circumference and birth weight - a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Objective: 1) To examine the impact of maternal pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and smoking on infant abdominal circumference (AC) and birth weight. 2) To define reference curves for AC and birth weight in offspring of healthy, non-smoking, normal weight women. Design: Population-based study...... outcome measures: Birth AC and weight in relation to pregestational maternal BMI, maternal smoking and medical conditions (any). Results: Infant AC and birth weight increased significantly (p<0.0001) with increasing maternal BMI. Smoking was negatively associated with AC resulting in a reduction in AC (95......% CI) of 0.47 (0.49-0.45) cm and a reduction in birth weight of 173 (177-169) g. In offspring of healthy non-smoking mothers with normal pregestational BMI, mean AC (±2SD) ranged from 30.1 (25.9-34.3) cm at GA 35 weeks to 33.9 (30.1- 37.7) cm at GA 41 weeks (girls), and from 30.2 (25.8-34.6) cm at GA...

  5. Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blijdorp

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI, is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes of BMI and body composition, as well as the value of BMI and waist-hip ratio representing obesity, were evaluated in adult childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: Data from 410 survivors who had visited the late effects clinic twice were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 16 years (interquartile range 11-21 and time between visits was 3.2 years (2.9-3.6. BMI was measured and body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy; available twice in 182 survivors. Data were compared with healthy Dutch references and calculated as standard deviation scores (SDS. BMI, waist-hip ratio and total fat percentage were evaluated cross-sectionally in 422 survivors, in who at least one DXA scan was assessed. RESULTS: BMI was significantly higher in women, without significant change over time. In men BMI changed significantly with time (ΔSDS = 0.19, P<0.001. Percentage fat was significantly higher than references in all survivors, with the highest SDS after cranial radiotherapy (CRT (mean SDS 1.73 in men, 1.48 in women, P<0.001. Only in men, increase in total fat percentage was significantly higher than references (ΔSDS = 0.22, P<0.001. Using total fat percentage as the gold standard, 65% of female and 42% of male survivors were misclassified as non-obese using BMI. Misclassification of obesity using waist-hip ratio was 40% in women and 24% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen years after treatment for childhood cancer, the increase in BMI and total fat percentage was significantly greater than expected, especially after CRT. This is important as we could show that obesity was grossly underestimated using BMI and waist-hip ratio.

  6. Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel; Kragelund, Charlotte; Kanaya, Alka M; Zeller, Marianne; Park, Jong-Seon; Kober, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Cottin, Yves; Lorgis, Luc; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Young-Jo; Thomas, Randal; Roger, Véronique L; Somers, Virend K; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients....

  7. Circunferência da cintura e relação cintura/estatura: úteis para identificar risco metabólico em adolescentes do sexo feminino? Waist and waist-to-height ratio: useful to identify the metabolic risk of female adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Feliciano Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a medida da circunferência da cintura e a relação cintura/estatura (RCE são preditoras de fatores de risco cardiovasculares em adolescentes do sexo feminino. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 113 adolescentes de 14 a 19 anos quanto à antropometria (peso, estatura e circunferência da cintura, parâmetros bioquímicos e clínicos (colesterol total, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglicerídeos, glicemia de jejum, insulina, homeostasis model assessment to assess insulin resistance - HOMA-IR, leptina, homocisteína e pressão arterial. Considerou-se como ponto de corte de obesidade abdominal valores de cintura e RCE>percentil 90. RESULTADOS: As adolescentes com obesidade abdominal apresentaram valores significantemente maiores de triglicerídeos (exceto para a RCE, insulina, HOMA-IR, leptina, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica; o HDL-C foi mais baixo no grupo com cintura >percentil 90, porém sem significância estatística (p=0,052. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo demonstrou que a cintura e a RCE são medidas úteis para identificar adolescentes do sexo feminino com maior risco cardiovascular; contudo, a circunferência da cintura, isoladamente, apresentou melhor desempenho.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the waist circumference and the waist-to-height ratio (WHTR are predictors of cardiovascular risk factors in female adolescents. METHODS: 113 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years old were assessed according to anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference, biochemical and clinical parameters (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model to assess insulin resistance - HOMA-IR, leptin, homocysteine and blood pressure. The cut points used for identification of abdominal fat were waist and WHTR values >90th percentile. RESULTS: Teenagers with abdominal obesity presented greater values of triglycerides (except for WHTR, insulin, HOMA-IR, leptin and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while the HDL

  8. Crab Waist Collision Studies for e+e- Factories

    OpenAIRE

    M. ZobovINFN LNF; P. RaimondiINFN LNF; D. ShatilovIYF, Novosibirsk; K. OhmiKEK

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulations have shown that the recently proposed "crab waist" scheme of beam-beam collisions can substantially boost the luminosity of existing and future electron-positron colliders. In this paper we describe the crab waist concept and discuss potential advantages that such a scheme can provide. We also present the results of beam-beam simulations for the two currently proposed projects based on the crab waist scheme: the DAFNE upgrade and the Super B-factory pro...

  9. Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.......The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients....

  10. Association Between the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype, Prediabetes, and Diabetes Mellitus Among Adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Santana, Mary Vanellys; Suárez Pérez, Erick L; Ortiz Martínez, Ana P; Guzmán Serrano, Manuel; Pérez Cardona, Cynthia M

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the association of the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype with prediabetes and diabetes (DM) in a group of Hispanics. Analysis of a cross-sectional study of 858 adults residing in Puerto Rico that collected data on blood pressure, biochemical, and anthropometric measurements was performed. HTGW phenotype was defined as elevated triglycerides and elevated waist circumference. Prediabetes was defined as a fasting glucose of 100-125 mg/dL and DM as a fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or prior diagnosis. Prevalence of HTGW, prediabetes, and DM was 27.9, 38.0, and 21.6 %, respectively. Subjects with the HTGW phenotype had higher adjusted odds of prediabetes (POR 5.55; 95 % CI 3.38-9.13) and DM (POR 7.28; 95 % CI 3.63-14.63) compared to those without the phenotype. The association for prediabetes was stronger for women than among men. HTGW phenotype was strongly associated with prediabetes and DM, reinforcing the need to further assess its performance as a screening tool to identify at-risk individuals for cardiometabolic conditions. PMID:24519258

  11. Thigh circumference and risk of heart disease and premature death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    of follow-up for total death. RESULTS: A small thigh circumference was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and total mortality in both men and women. A threshold effect for thigh circumference was evident, with greatly increased risk of premature death...... circumference seems to be associated with an increased risk of developing heart disease or premature death. The adverse effects of small thighs might be related to too little muscle mass in the region. The measure of thigh circumference might be a relevant anthropometric measure to help general practitioners in...... early identification of individuals at an increased risk of premature morbidity and mortality....

  12. Association between the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype, Prediabetes, and Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Chinese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to evaluate the association of the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW phenotype with prediabetes and diabetes (DM in rural Chinese population. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 11,579 adults (5361 men and 6218 women aged 35 years or older were recruited from rural areas of China. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory examinations and self-reported information were collected by trained personnel. The HTGW phenotype was defined as elevated triglycerides and elevated waist circumference. We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the associations of interest. Results: Adults with the HTGW phenotype had a significantly higher prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes than those without the HTGW phenotype. Compared with the normal waist-normal triglycerides (NWNT group, those in the HTGW group had a higher adjusted odds ratio of diabetes (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.62–2.73. The association for diabetes was stronger for men (OR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.52–3.40 than for women (OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.32–2.63. However, multivariate analysis indicated that the HTGW phenotype was not associated with prediabetes. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the HTGW phenotype was associated with diabetes in a large rural Chinese population, and suggested this phenotype as a simple screening tool to identify adults with cardiometabolic conditions.

  13. Subclinical inflammation during third trimester of pregnancy was not associated with markers of the metabolic syndrome in young adult offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte;

    2013-01-01

    for maternal smoking during pregnancy, height, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), education, and offspring's sex. Offspring MS markers included waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, HOMA insulin resistance, and plasma levels of fasting glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol fractions, insulin, and leptin...

  14. Optimal waist-to-hip ratios in women activate neural reward centers in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Steven M; Singh, Devendra

    2010-01-01

    Secondary sexual characteristics convey information about reproductive potential. In the same way that facial symmetry and masculinity, and shoulder-to-hip ratio convey information about reproductive/genetic quality in males, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) is a phenotypic cue to fertility, fecundity, neurodevelopmental resources in offspring, and overall health, and is indicative of "good genes" in women. Here, using fMRI, we found that males show activation in brain reward centers in response to naked female bodies when surgically altered to express an optimal (approximately 0.7) WHR with redistributed body fat, but relatively unaffected body mass index (BMI). Relative to presurgical bodies, brain activation to postsurgical bodies was observed in bilateral orbital frontal cortex. While changes in BMI only revealed activation in visual brain substrates, changes in WHR revealed activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with reward processing and decision-making. When regressing ratings of attractiveness on brain activation, we observed activation in forebrain substrates, notably the nucleus accumbens, a forebrain nucleus highly involved in reward processes. These findings suggest that an hourglass figure (i.e., an optimal WHR) activates brain centers that drive appetitive sociality/attention toward females that represent the highest-quality reproductive partners. This is the first description of a neural correlate implicating WHR as a putative honest biological signal of female reproductive viability and its effects on men's neurological processing. PMID:20140088

  15. Stressful life events in pregnancy and head circumference at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    A strong association between stress in pregnancy and small head circumference in infants at birth was reported in 1994. This important finding has never been replicated. In a follow-up study of 4211 participants with singleton pregnancies, information on life events was collected twice during...... pregnancy and head circumference measured shortly after birth following standard procedures. No association was found between experienced or perceived stress as a result of life events during pregnancy and head circumference in the infants. In conclusion, stress in pregnancy may influence foetal brain...... development in many ways, but we found no support for an effect on the size of the brain as measured by head circumference at birth. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Dec...

  16. Bmi-1, stem cells and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Jiang; Jun Li; Libing Song

    2009-01-01

    Bmi-1,a polycomb gene family member,plays an important role in cell cycle regulation,cell immortalization,and cell senescence.Recently,numerous studies have demonstrated that Bmi-1 is involved in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells.However,the molecular mechanism underlying this biological process remains largely unclear.In the present review,we summarized the function of Bmi-1 as a tran-scriptional regulator of gene expression,with particular reference to stem cells.

  17. Change in neck circumference after shoulder arthroscopy: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrividya Chellam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Shoulder arthroscopy requires fluid irrigation, which causes soft-tissue oedema around chest, neck, and arm intraoperatively, leading to postoperative airway complications. We decided to study the incidence of increase in the neck circumference in shoulder arthroscopy and its effects on the airway. Methods: We studied 32 cases of shoulder arthroscopies over a period of 1-year, performed under general anaesthesia with interscalene block. The neck circumference of patients before and after the procedure was measured along with other parameters. The endotracheal tube cuff was deflated at the end of surgery to determine air leak around the tube. The negative leak test suggested airway oedema. Results: Thirty out of 32 patients showed positive air leak test. The average change in neck circumference was 1.17 ± 1.16 cm and all could be extubated uneventfully. Two showed negative leak test with an increase in neck circumference by 4.5 and 6.4 cm and were not extubated. Multiple regression analysis for risk factors showed intraoperative hypertension as a single predictor for an increase in neck circumference. Conclusion: Change in the neck circumference beyond 4 cm may suggest airway compromise and below 4 cm, airway compromise is unlikely even in the presence of extensive soft-tissue oedema around the shoulder, upper arm and chest.

  18. Neurodevelopmental problems and extremes in BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Kerekes, Nóra; Tajnia, Armin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Råstam, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) and body mass index (BMI). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children. Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1) to define ...

  19. Preferred women's waist-to-hip ratio variation over the last 2,500 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Bovet

    Full Text Available The ratio between the body circumference at the waist and the hips (or WHR is a secondary sexual trait that is unique to humans and is well known to influence men's mate preferences. Because a woman's WHR also provides information about her age, health and fertility, men's preference concerning this physical feature may possibly be a cognitive adaptation selected in the human lineage. However, it is unclear whether the preferred WHR in western countries reflects a universal ideal, as geographic variation in non-western areas has been found, and discordances about its temporal consistency remain in the literature. We analyzed the WHR of women considered as ideally beautiful who were depicted in western artworks from 500 BCE to the present. These vestiges of the past feminine ideal were then compared to more recent symbols of beauty: Playboy models and winners of several Miss pageants from 1920 to 2014. We found that the ideal WHR has changed over time in western societies: it was constant during almost a millennium in antiquity (from 500 BCE to 400 CE and has decreased from the 15th century to the present. Then, based on Playboy models and Miss pageants winners, this decrease appears to slow down or even reverse during the second half of the 20th century. The universality of an ideal WHR is thus challenged, and historical changes in western societies could have caused these variations in men's preferences. The potential adaptive explanations for these results are discussed.

  20. Preferred women's waist-to-hip ratio variation over the last 2,500 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Jeanne; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The ratio between the body circumference at the waist and the hips (or WHR) is a secondary sexual trait that is unique to humans and is well known to influence men's mate preferences. Because a woman's WHR also provides information about her age, health and fertility, men's preference concerning this physical feature may possibly be a cognitive adaptation selected in the human lineage. However, it is unclear whether the preferred WHR in western countries reflects a universal ideal, as geographic variation in non-western areas has been found, and discordances about its temporal consistency remain in the literature. We analyzed the WHR of women considered as ideally beautiful who were depicted in western artworks from 500 BCE to the present. These vestiges of the past feminine ideal were then compared to more recent symbols of beauty: Playboy models and winners of several Miss pageants from 1920 to 2014. We found that the ideal WHR has changed over time in western societies: it was constant during almost a millennium in antiquity (from 500 BCE to 400 CE) and has decreased from the 15th century to the present. Then, based on Playboy models and Miss pageants winners, this decrease appears to slow down or even reverse during the second half of the 20th century. The universality of an ideal WHR is thus challenged, and historical changes in western societies could have caused these variations in men's preferences. The potential adaptive explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:25886537

  1. Waist Gain Is Associated with a Higher Incidence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Adults: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jisun; Park, Hye Soon; Chang, Yoosoo; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Chan-Won; Ko, Byung-Joon; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between changes in waist circumference (WC) and the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods A cohort study of 37,130 men and women were followed-up annually or biennially. Differences in WC between baseline and subsequent measurements were categorized in quartiles: first (WC loss), second (no change in WC as the reference), third and highest quartiles (WC gain). The presence of fatty liver was determined using ultrasound. Parametric Cox modeling was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the incidence of NAFLD. Results During 127,324.4 person-years of follow-up, 6249 participants developed NAFLD. Despite adjusting for possible confounders, the risk of development of NAFLD increased with increasing quartiles of WC change in a dose-response manner (p for trend < 0.001). Compared with the reference, WC loss was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD (men: aHR 0.79 [95% CI: 0.73–0.87]; women: 0.72 [0.63–0.81]), and the highest quartile (WC gain) was associated with a higher risk of NAFLD (men: 1.30 [1.19–1.42]; women: 1.48 [1.31–1.67]). Conclusion Waist gain appears to increase the risk of developing NAFLD, independently of the baseline body mass index and WC. PMID:27420035

  2. Learning circumference concepts from the didactical situations theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Sousa Cavalcanti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The circumference study, as its importance, it is one of the most relevant contents in the Analytical Geometry curriculum. However, the complexity of related concepts to this theme linked to the content fragmentation, it difficulties the students thinking of transforming geometrical problems into equations solution, systems or inequations. Within, in this article we present a partial report of a master research work, of qualitative mode, which aimed to develop and to evaluate an alternative methodology by using musical parody composition to the teaching of Mathematics in trying to contribute to the circumference concepts learning process. For that, we carried out a case study with 36 third year high school students of a public school from the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. The research work was based and discussed on Brousseau Didactical Situation Theory. It was chosen triangulation technique for the data analyses, collected from interviews, questionnaires and a list of mathematical exercises. We concluded that the parody composition resource allowed the students better understand the concepts of center, ratio, cord and the definition of the general circumference equation, as they were capable to identify the relative positions which a circumference assumes in relation to an equation of a straight line and between two circumferences in the various concepts that differentiated them. Thus, we can state that the musical parody composition as a didactical resource can contribute to the learning of mathematical contents.

  3. DEGREE OF ASSOCIATION OF BODY MASS INDEX AND WAIST HIP RATIO WITH TYPE 2 DM - A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Devi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Of late obesity has become a major malady among adult males and females more so in the latter. The significance of this problem cannot and should not be ignored as it predisposes to several pathological conditions. One such disease is Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Therefore it is imperative to identify obesity related factors which can predict the risk of Diabetes. Over a period of time Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR have evolved as dependable factors. In this study an attempt has been made to gauge the superiority of one factor over the other in risk prediction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our study was done in Gandhi Hospital, Secund a rabad over a period of two years (September 2000 to September 2012 300 diabetics (150 males and 150 females and 300 non - diabetics controls (150 males and 150 females attending Out Patient Endocrinology and Medicine departments were considered for the study. BMI and WHR were measured of diabetics and controls according to WHO recommended protocol . Subjects with WHR>0.9 in males and WHR >0.8 in females were taken to be obese. The degree of sensitivity and specificity of both parameters were calculated and tables prepared. CONCLUSION: Most sensitive indicator for predicting the risk of onset of Diabetes in males is zCXs BMI>25 and in females is WHR>0.8. Hence once these limits are crossed, measures to prevent the onset of Diabetes should be taken in full earnest.

  4. Correlation of Body Mass Index and Waist Hip Ratio with lipid and hormone profile in women in menopausal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Mešalić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Menopausal transition is a period characterised by psychic, somatic changes as well as changes in reproductive capabilities of a woman. It occurs as a consequence of ovarian’s function termination, and pertains to the periods of different meanings: perimenopause, menopause and postmenopause. Although there are numerous assessments of behaviour of the lipids and lipoproteins during menopausal transition, their relation to sexual hormones and body mass is still being assessed. The aim of this study is to determine the differences and connections between body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR and lipid and hormone profile among the assessees in premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause.Methods: The assessment was done on 150 assessees divided in three groups of 50, such as: premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause. The assessment included the following: interview, determination of BMI, WHR, and taking of blood sample and processing of hormone, lipid and lipoprotein concentration.Results: Based on the obtained results, it may not be concluded that BMI has a positive correlation with cholesterol and VLDL concentration in postmenopause, positive correlation with apo A in perimenopause and postmenopause, and positive correlation with Lp (a and apo B in premenopause and perimenopause, while negative correlation with HDL and estradiol concentrations in premenopause.Conclusion: WHR has negative correlation with HDL concentration in premenopause and perimenopause, and a negative correlation with estradiol concentrations in premenopause.

  5. The relationship between waist to stature ratio and hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in Qingdao%腰围身高比值与血压、糖脂代谢的关系及最佳切点的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井源; 董砚虎; 韩婷; 张磊; 王娜; 朱娅梅; 徐美华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between waist to stature ratio (WSR) and hypertension,diabetes,dyslipidemia in Qingdao. Methods Data were collected from a 2001 - 2007 Qingdao area diabetes survey,population-based cross-sectional study,and 30 712 Chinese adults aged > 18 years old were enrolled.Correlation analysis of BMI,WSR,hip circumference,waist circumference,waist to hip ratio (WHR) with blood glucose,blood pressure,blood lipid were conducted.ROC curve analysis in diabetes,bypertension,dyslipidemia and multivariate logistic regression analysis were also conducted.Results Anthropometric indicators were related with hypertension,diabetes and dyslipidemia in both men and women.Comparing with other anthropometric indicators,WSR was found to have the largest area under the ROC curve and the best cut-off point of WSR was 0.52.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, after controlling age, disease history, physical activity, sex, the diabetes hypertension and dyslipidemia risk OR of WSR≥0.52 were largest.Conclusions Anthropometric indicators intimately related with cardiovascular risk factors in Qingdao region,and may predict and evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease.WSR may be the best index for predicting cardiovascular risk factors in Qingdao area.The optimal WSR cut off point for identifying cardiovascular risk factors clustering is 0.52.%目的 探讨和评价青岛地区人群腰围身高比值(WSR)与高血压、糖尿病、脂代谢异常等心血管疾病危险因素的关系.方法 选取青岛地区糖尿病流行病学调查数据库中资料完整的汉族成年人共30 712例,分析BMI、腰围、WSR、腰臀比(WHR)和臀围与血糖、血压、血脂的相关关系;ROC曲线分析比较5个指标对糖尿病、高血压和脂代谢异常的预测价值并判断最佳切点;多因素logistic逐步回归分析比较5个指标对高血压、糖尿病、脂代谢异常风险的预测价值.结果 (1)各人体测量学指

  6. Interrelationships between anthropometric variables and overweight in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Brannsether-Ellingsen, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Júlíusson, Pétur Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To answer the questions: how does body mass index (BMI) correlate to five overweight related anthropometric variables during different ages in childhood, and which anthropometric variables contribute most to variation in BMI during childhood? Methods Data on BMI, height (H), sitting height (SH), waist circumference (WC), waist to height ratio (WHtR), waist to sitting height ratio (WSHtR), subscapular skinfold (SSF), and triceps skinfold (TSF), from 4,576 Norwegian children 4.00&...

  7. Head Circumferences in Twins with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20% of males and 27%…

  8. Head Circumference in Autism, Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Occipitofrontal circumference (OFC, measured at birth and after 16 months of age, was compared in 50 consecutive patients with Asperger syndrome, 50 diagnosed with autistic disorder, and 50 with ADHD and followed at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Goteborg University, Sweden.

  9. Head Circumference in Autism, Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), measured at birth and after 16 months of age, was compared in 50 consecutive patients with Asperger syndrome, 50 diagnosed with autistic disorder, and 50 with ADHD and followed at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Goteborg University, Sweden.

  10. Genetic Influences on Growth Traits of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Fagnani, Corrado; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the interplay between genetic factors influencing baseline level and changes in BMI in adulthood.Methods and Procedures:A longitudinal twin study of the cohort of Finnish twins (N = 10,556 twin individuals) aged 20-46 years at baseline was conducted and followed up 15 years....... Data on weight and height were obtained from mailed surveys in 1975, 1981, and 1990.Results:Latent growth models revealed a substantial genetic influence on BMI level at baseline in males and females (heritability (h(2)) 80% (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.80) for males and h(2) = 82% (0.81, 0.84) for...... females) and a moderate-to-high influence on rate of change in BMI (h(2) = 58% (0.50, 0.69) for males and h(2) = 64% (0.58, 0.69) for females). Only very weak evidence for genetic pleiotropy was observed; the genetic correlation between baseline and rate of change in BMI was very modest (-0.070 (-0.13, -0...

  11. Analysis list: BMI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BMI1 Blood,Digestive tract,Neural,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.5.tsv http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Digestive_tract.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Neural.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscie

  12. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico IMC materno y migración como predictor de obesidad infantil de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jiménez-Cruz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI status, children's perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile, obesity (BMI > 95% ile and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile. Methods: Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children's and parents' weights and heights were measured. Children were considered to have migrant parents if parents were not born in Baja California. Results: One hundred and twenty-two children and their parents were recruited. The mean age of the children was 10.1 ± 1.0 years. Forty nine per cent of children were overweight or obese. Children with obese parents (BMI > 30 had greater odds of being obese, Odds Ratio (OR 4.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI, 1.2-19, p = 0.03. Children with migrant parents had greater odds of being obese, OR= 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6-8.3, p = 0.01 and of having abdominal obesity, OR = 3.2 (95% CI, 1.4-7.1, p = 0.01. Children from migrant parents have greater risk of higher consumption of potato chips, OR = 8.0 (95% CI, 2.1 -29.1, p = 0.01. Children from non-migrant parents had greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Conclusions: Parental obesity and migration are associated with increased risk of obesity among Mexican children. Children whose parents were born in Baja California have greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Further studies should evaluate the role of migration on risk for childhood obesity.Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre la inmigración materna a Baja California, el índice de masa corporal (IMC, la percepción de inseguridad alimentaria de los niños, y los estilos de vida y el sobrepeso, (BMI > 85% ila, la obesidad (BMI > 95% ila y la obesidad abdominal (Circunferencia de Cintura > 90% ila. Métodos: Se realizó una muestra por

  13. Waist-to-Hip Ratio versus Body Mass Index as Predictor of Obesity-Related Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnold, Mollie; Mele, Lisa M; Myatt, Leslie; Hauth, John C; Leveno, Kenneth J; Reddy, Uma M; Mercer, Brian M

    2016-05-01

    Objective In nonpregnant populations the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is a better predictor of obesity-related outcomes than body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to determine, in pregnancy, the relationship between these measures of obesity, and large-for-gestational age (LGA) and cesarean delivery (CD). Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the Combined Antioxidant and Preeclampsia Prediction Study. Women with a WHR of ≥ 0.85 and 0.80 to 0.84 at 9 to 16 weeks gestation were compared with those with a WHR  90% by Alexander nomogram. Univariable analysis, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used. Results Data from 2,276 women were analyzed. After correcting for potential confounders, only BMI ≥ 30 was significantly associated with LGA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.07, 1.35-3.16) while BMI 25.0-29.9 (aOR: 1.5, 0.98-2.28), WHR 0.8-0.84 (aOR: 1.33, 0.83-2.13), and WHR ≥ 0.85 (aOR: 1.05, 0.67-1.65) were not. Risk for CD was increased for women with elevated WHR and with higher BMI compared with normal. Conclusion WHR is not associated with LGA. While BMI performed better than WHR, neither was a strong predictor of LGA or need for CD in low-risk nulliparous women. PMID:26788786

  14. Surrogate Markers of Visceral Adiposity in Young Adults: Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index Are More Accurate than Waist Hip Ratio, Model of Adipose Distribution and Visceral Adiposity Index

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Borruel; Moltó, José F.; Macarena Alpañés; Elena Fernández-Durán; Francisco Álvarez-Blasco; Manuel Luque-Ramírez; Héctor F Escobar-Morreale

    2014-01-01

    Surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity, a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, are routinely used in clinical practice because objective measurements of visceral adiposity are expensive, may involve exposure to radiation, and their availability is limited. We compared several surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in 99 young Caucasian adults, including 20 women without androgen excess, 53...

  15. Sex-differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K; Willemsen, G; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2003-01-01

    pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...... explained by additive genetic variance in all countries. Sex differences in the variance components were consistently significant. Results from analyses of opposite sex pairs also showed evidence of sex-specific genetic effects suggesting there may be some differences between men and women in the genetic...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....

  16. Palo Verde Unit 3 BMI nozzle modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 61 BMI (Bottom Mount Instrumentation) nozzles of the unit 3 of the Palo Verde plant have been examined through ASME Code Case N722. The nozzle 3 was the only one with leakage noted. The ultrasound testing results are characteristic of PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking). The initiation likely occurred at a weld defect which was exposed to the primary water environment resulting in PWSCC. All other nozzles (60) showed no unacceptable indications. Concerning nozzle 3 one crack in J-groove weld connected large defect to primary water. An environmental model has been used to simulate and optimize the repair. The AREVA crew was on site 18 days after contract award and the job was completed in 12 days, 30 hours ahead of baseline schedule. This series of slides describes the examination of the BMI nozzles, the repair steps, and alternative design concepts

  17. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with...... meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men......) obtained from the Infertility Center of Bondy, France. Abstracts of relevant articles were examined and studies that could be included in this review were retrieved. Authors of relevant studies for the meta-analysis were contacted by email and asked to provide standardized data. RESULTS A total of 21...

  18. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Gaifen; Zhu, Haidong; Lagou, Vasiliki; Gutin, Bernard; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S.; Treiber, Frank A.; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake s

  19. Inspection and repair technology for BMI penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, United States (US) nuclear power plant inspections of the reactor vessel bottom-mounted-instrument (BMI) penetrations have been limited to visual verification via a combination of walk-downs and pressure tests. However in France, more than 18 ultrasonic examination (UT) and weld-surface visual test (VT) campaigns had been performed to inspect the BMI penetration nozzles and welds since 1992 with no observed failures through 2002. In April 2003, South Texas Project Unit 1 discovered apparent leakage from two nozzles during a bare-metal examination. Based on the French inspection experience, Framatome-ANP was selected for inspection and repair services to address the leaking nozzles. Inspection activities included ultrasonic examination of the tube, enhanced visual test and eddy current testing (ECT) of the J-groove weld, bobbin ECT and profile measurement of the tube inside, helium leak test, phased-array UT, borescope VT, and boat-sample removal with destructive metallurgical analysis. Repair activities included sealing the top portion of the penetration, cutting out the old nozzles, and welding in new nozzles. This presentation discusses BMI inspection and repair technology focused particularly on the South Texas Project experience. (authors)

  20. Umbilical Cord Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Relation to Birthweight, Head Circumference and Infant Length at Age 14 Days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insufficient supply of vitamin D during early development may negatively affect offspring growth. METHODS: We examined the association between umbilical cord (UC) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and infant size in a study of two Faroese birth cohorts of 1038 singleton...... linear regression models with adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, sex, parity, gestational age, or infant age at examination, season of birth, smoking, gestational diabetes, examiner, and cohort identity, we found no relationship between birthweight or head circumference and UC 25(OH)D. However, infants...... with vitamin D status <12 nmol/L had a 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.05, 0.93) cm lower length than infants with vitamin D status >50 nmol/L in models further adjusted for birthweight. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that umbilical cord serum 25(OH)D concentrations are positively associated with infant...

  1. Neck circumference as an anthropometric measure of obesity in diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadamba Aswathappa; Sumit Garg; Karthiyanee Kutty; Vinutha Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthro...

  2. Circumference and COD control algorithm of NewSUBARU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We renewed a closed orbit correction program for NewSUBARU. We use a new horizontal orbit correction algorithm with a circumference control. A response matrix in the program is calculated using the correct equation of the response in an electron storage ring. It made the correction process faster and more stable. It also eliminated an interference with the control program of RF frequency. (author)

  3. Association of body mass index, sagittal abdominal diameter and waist-hip ratio with cardiometabolic risk factors and adipocytokines in Arab children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Attas Omar S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD is a novel anthropometric measure hypothesized to be a surrogate measure of visceral abdominal obesity in adults. This study aims to determine whether SAD is superior to other anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR in terms of association to cardiometabolic risk and circulating adipocytokine concentrations in a cohort of Saudi children and adolescents. Methods A total of 948 (495 boys and 453 girls apparently healthy children with varying BMI, aged 10–17 years, were included in this cross sectional study. Fasting glucose, lipid profile, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, insulin, TNF-α and aPAI-1 were measured in serum and HOMA-IR was calculated. MetS components were defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Results BMI was superior to SAD as well as WHR, and had the highest number of significant associations to MetS components and adipocytokines even after adjustment for age and gender, including blood pressure, lipids, glucose and leptin. Conclusion In conclusion, while SAD is significantly associated with components of MetS among children and adolescents, it is not superior to BMI. The use of SAD therefore may not be practical for use in the pediatric clinical setting. Follow-up studies are needed to determine whether SAD has clinical significance in terms of harder outcomes such as predicting diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Association of older women’s limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannon, Richard W; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all unde...

  5. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C;

    2006-01-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle.......A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle....

  6. BMI in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolska-Zarzycka Magdalena; Dunin-Wilczynska Izabella; Mitura Iwona; Szymanska Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease of multicasual etiology. The risk factors include obesity, among other issues. Hence, it is extremely important to determine the effect of body weight on the severity of OSA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the body weight expressed as body mass index (BMI), on the value of upper airways diameter and on the AHI (Apnea-Hypopnea Index) value. The study was comprised of 41 patients diagnosed with OSA by way of polysomnography. Each...

  7. Evaluation of mid-upper arm circumference in pre-school children: comparison between NCHS/CDC-2000 and WHO-2006 references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Viviane G; Machado, Thais Costa; Bertoli, Ciro João; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E; Leone, Claudio

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the classification of arm circumference (AC) in pre-school children by using National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS/CDC-2000) and World Health Organization (WHO-2006) references. We evaluated 205 children: weight, height and AC were assessed and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The BMI values were classified into Z-scores by the WHO referential. The AC was classified into Z-cores by two references, comparing the whole-sample value and among groups (tercis) of BMI Z-score. The correlation was also evaluated between differences of AC with BMI Z-score. The WHO referential classified the AC in Z-scores greater than the NCHS/CDC, which is more specific and less sensitive than the NCHS/CDC for lean children and at the same time more sensitive and less specific for children with overweight. In conclusion, a significant difference in the AC classification occurs according to the referential used. PMID:20852256

  8. Variations in Aging, Gender, Menopause, and Obesity and Their Effects on Hypertension in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shu C.; Tsai C. Lo; Jui H. Chang; Hsien W. Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Aim. We assessed obesity, sex, menopause, and gender differences on hypertension in a Hakka-majority Taiwanese sample. Methods. 9621 subjects aged 20 and over participated in this community-based study. Trained nurses collected blood pressure (BP) measurements and anthropometric indices, including weight, height, hip circumference (HC), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Results. Levels of systolic and diastolic BP sign...

  9. Parental correlations of physical activity and body mass index in young children-the GECKO Drenthe cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Sijtsma, Anna; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parental behavior can influence the development of overweight in children. The aim of this study is to examine whether parental BMI and parental physical activity are associated with BMI, waist circumference and physical activity in young children. Methods: In 3-4 year old children, weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Children's physical activity was measured in a subgroup (n = 299) using a tri-axial activity monitor, TracmorD. Data are represented as activity co...

  10. High Prevalence of Nickel Allergy in an Overweight Female Population: A Pilot Observational Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lusi, Elena Angela; Di Ciommo, Vincenzo Maria; Patrissi, Tommaso; Guarascio, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Context In our Allergy Unit, we incidentally observed that a low Nickel diet, prescribed for delayed allergy to Nickel sulfate, reduced body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in overweight patients. Objectives This pilot cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to compare the prevalence of Nickel allergy of overweight individuals versus the general population. We also had the chance to report the efficacy of a low Nickel diet on BMI and waist circumference in Nickel-sensitive overweight...

  11. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in portuguese adolescents: Comparison of different anthropometric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Minghelli; Carla Nunes; Raul Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample...

  12. Differential expression of two ß-amylase genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in developing and mature barley grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific (Bmy1) and ubiquitous (Bmy2) ß-amylase were studied during the late maturation phase of seed development in four genotypes. Sequencing of Bmy2 from genomic DNA revealed six polymorphisms in the introns and two synonymous SNPs in the coding region. Acc...

  13. Mendelian Randomisation Study of Childhood BMI and Early Menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah S. Mumby; Elks, Cathy E; Shengxu Li; Sharp, Stephen J.; Kay-Tee Khaw; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ken K Ong

    2011-01-01

    To infer the causal association between childhood BMI and age at menarche, we performed a mendelian randomisation analysis using twelve established “BMI-increasing” genetic variants as an instrumental variable (IV) for higher BMI. In 8,156 women of European descent from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, height was measured at age 39–77 years; age at menarche was self-recalled, as was body weight at age 20 years, and BMI at 20 was calculated as a proxy for childhood BMI. DNA was genotyped for twelve BM...

  14. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype in Adolescents Aged 15 to 18 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Hernández Gutiérrez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a predictor of cardiometabolic deterioration, increased type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Objective: to determine the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Area III of Cienfuegos. Method: a case series study was conducted in a universe of 198 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years who attended a consultation created for this study at the Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja University Polyclinic in Cienfuegos municipality from March to December 2013. Each patient completed a questionnaire including the following variables: age, sex, personal medical history, family medical history, weight, height, body mass index, presence of acanthosis nigricans, triglycerides and perimeter. Results: frequency of the phenotype was determined in 15.1 % of the participants with a slight predominance of the 18 age group (16.3 % and female sex (8.6 %. Twenty-one point six percent of the adolescents with a family history of obesity and 21.7 % of those with first-degree diabetic relatives presented the phenotype, being hypertriglyceridemia the most significant condition. Conclusions: a relationship between a family history of diabetes mellitus, obesity, body mass index above the 90th percentile value and presence of the phenotype was established.

  15. Treatment of scaphoid waist fractures with the HCS screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrmann, Sebastian V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical results of the Headless Compression Screw (HCS, Synthes when used for treatment of acute scaphoid waist fractures. The new screw design generates interfragmentary compression with use of a compression sleeve. Twenty-one patients were treated for acute scaphoid waist fractures type B2 with HCS screws. The average time to the final follow-up examination was 12.8 months. All 21 fractures united after a mean time of 7.2 weeks. The mean DASH score was 7.1. The average motion of the wrist in extension was 61°, flexion was 46°, radial abduction reached 25° and the ulnar abduction was 31°. The maximally achieved grip strength was 86% compared to the uninjured side. Treatment of type B2 scaphoid fractures with the Headless Compression Screw showed good functional and radiographic results. The results are similar to those identified using other screw fixation systems.

  16. A 233 km Circumference Tunnel for $e^+$$e^-$, $p$$\\bar {p}$, and $\\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, George T

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 a cost analysis survey was conducted to build a 233km circumference tunnel in northern Illinois in which to build a Very Large Hadron Collider. Ten years later I have reexamined the proposal, taking into consideration the technological advancements in all the aspects of construction cost analysis. I outline the implementations of $e^+ e^-$, $p{\\bar{p}}$, and $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ collider rings in the tunnel using 21${\\rm{st}}$ century technology. The $e^+e^-$ collider employs a Crab Waist Crossing, ultra low emittance damped bunches, 12 GV of superconducting RF, and 0.026 Tesla low coercivity grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. The $p{\\bar{p}}$ collider uses the high intensity Fermilab $\\bar{p}$ source, exploits high cross sections for $p\\bar{p}$ production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconductor magnets run with liquid neon. The $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ ring ramps the $p{\\bar{p}}$ magnets at 8 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of SRF, and mitigates neutrino radiation w...

  17. Bmi-1, stem cells and prostate carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Moscatelli; E Lynette Wilson

    2011-01-01

    @@ Malignant transformation is likely to arise in a subset of organ-specific primitive cells that are subverted to acquire the properties of uncontrolled self-renewal.1,2 It is therefore likely that stem cells and tumor-initiating cells share many properties and that an understanding of the biology of normal stem cells and the identification of the pathways and molecules that regulate their self-renewal may result in our ability to design inhibitors that control the growth of tumor cells.In an interesting recent paper, Lukacs et al.3 show that the polycomb group transcriptional repressor, Bmi-1, regulates the self-renewal of normal prostate stem cells and also contributes to the initiation of prostate cancer.

  18. Preferred Women’s Waist-to-Hip Ratio Variation over the Last 2,500 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Jeanne; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The ratio between the body circumference at the waist and the hips (or WHR) is a secondary sexual trait that is unique to humans and is well known to influence men’s mate preferences. Because a woman's WHR also provides information about her age, health and fertility, men's preference concerning this physical feature may possibly be a cognitive adaptation selected in the human lineage. However, it is unclear whether the preferred WHR in western countries reflects a universal ideal, as geographic variation in non-western areas has been found, and discordances about its temporal consistency remain in the literature. We analyzed the WHR of women considered as ideally beautiful who were depicted in western artworks from 500 BCE to the present. These vestiges of the past feminine ideal were then compared to more recent symbols of beauty: Playboy models and winners of several Miss pageants from 1920 to 2014. We found that the ideal WHR has changed over time in western societies: it was constant during almost a millennium in antiquity (from 500 BCE to 400 CE) and has decreased from the 15th century to the present. Then, based on Playboy models and Miss pageants winners, this decrease appears to slow down or even reverse during the second half of the 20th century. The universality of an ideal WHR is thus challenged, and historical changes in western societies could have caused these variations in men’s preferences. The potential adaptive explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:25886537

  19. Relationship between the percentage of body fat and surrogate indices of fatness in male and female Polish active and sedentary students

    OpenAIRE

    Lutoslawska, Grażyna; Malara, Marzena; Tomaszewski, Paweł; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Czajkowska, Anna; Kęska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data have indicated that body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) of athletes and young adults provide misleading results concerning body fat content. This study was aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between different surrogate indices of fatness (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR and body adiposity index (BAI)) with the percentage of body fat in Polish students with respect to their sex and physical activity. Met...

  20. Mid-arm and calf circumferences are stronger mortality predictors than body mass index for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho SC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shu-Chuan Ho,1,2 Jiun-Yi Wang,3,4 Han-Pin Kuo,5 Chien-Da Huang,5 Kang-Yun Lee,2,6 Hsiao-Chi Chuang,1,2 Po-Hao Feng,2,6 Tzu-Tao Chen,2,* Min-Fang Hsu7,* 1School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, 3Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Wufeng, 4Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, 5Department of Thoracic Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 6Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 7Department of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, Hsinchu City, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is currently the third most common cause of death in the world. Patients with COPD experience airflow obstruction, weight loss, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and comorbidities. Anthropometric indicators are risk factors for mortality in geriatric assessment. Purpose: This study examined and compared the associations of anthropometric indicators, such as low body mass index (BMI, low mid-arm circumference (MAC, and low calf circumference (CC, with the prediction of a 3-year follow-up mortality risk in patients with COPD. Methods: We recruited nonhospitalized patients with COPD without acute conditions from a general hospital in Taiwan. The BMI, MAC, and CC of all patients were measured, and they were followed for 3 years through telephone interviews and chart reviews. The Kaplan–Meier survival curves stratified by BMI, MAC, and CC were analyzed. Variables univariately associated with survival were entered into a multivariate Cox regression model. The Bayesian information criterion was used to compare the predictive ability of the three anthropometric

  1. Crab Waist collision scheme: a novel approach for particle colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Zobov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    A new concept of nonlinear focusing of colliding bunches, called Crab Waist (CW)collision scheme, has been proposed at LNF INFN. It has been successfully tested at the Italian lepton collider DAFNE in operational conditions providing luminosity for two different experimental detectors, SIDDHARTA and KLOE-2. Considering a high efficiency of the scheme for increasing collision luminosity and its relative simplicity for implementation several new collider projects have been proposed and are under development at present. These are the SuperKEKB B-factory ready to start commissioning in 2016 in Japan, the SuperC-Tau factory proposed in Novosibirsk and entered in the short list of Russian mega-science projects, the new 100-km electron-positron Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) under design study at CERN and some others. In this paper we describe the CW collision scheme, discuss its advantages and report principal results achieved at the electron-positron Phi-factory DAFNE.

  2. Wasp-waist interactions in the North Sea ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Fauchald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a "wasp-waist" ecosystem, an intermediate trophic level is expected to control the abundance of predators through a bottom-up interaction and the abundance of prey through a top-down interaction. Previous studies suggest that the North Sea is mainly governed by bottom-up interactions driven by climate perturbations. However, few studies have investigated the importance of the intermediate trophic level occupied by small pelagic fishes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the numeric interactions among 10 species of seabirds, two species of pelagic fish and four groups of zooplankton in the North Sea using decadal-scale databases. Linear models were used to relate the time series of zooplankton and seabirds to the time series of pelagic fish. Seabirds were positively related to herring (Clupea harengus, suggesting a bottom-up interaction. Two groups of zooplankton; Calanus helgolandicus and krill were negatively related to sprat (Sprattus sprattus and herring respectively, suggesting top-down interactions. In addition, we found positive relationships among the zooplankton groups. Para/pseudocalanus was positively related to C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus was positively related to krill. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that herring was important in regulating the abundance of seabirds through a bottom-up interaction and that herring and sprat were important in regulating zooplankton through top-down interactions. We suggest that the positive relationships among zooplankton groups were due to selective foraging and switching in the two clupeid fishes. Our results suggest that "wasp-waist" interactions might be more important in the North Sea than previously anticipated. Fluctuations in the populations of pelagic fish due to harvesting and depletion of their predators might accordingly have profound consequences for ecosystem dynamics through trophic cascades.

  3. The Validity of Administrative BMI Data in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmund C; Son, Min-Sun; Mossad, David; Toossi, Nader; Johanson, Norman A; Gonzalez, Mark H; Meller, Menachem M

    2015-10-01

    Identifying BMI via administrative data is a useful way to evaluate outcomes in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) for varying degrees of obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concordance between BMI coding in administrative claims data and actual clinical BMI measurements in the medical record for patients undergoing TJA. Clinical BMI value was shown to be a significant determinant of whether ICD-9 codes were used to report the patient's obesity status (P<0.01). Although a higher clinical BMI strongly increased the likelihood of having either of the ICD-9 diagnosis codes used to identify obesity status, only the accuracy of the V85 code increased with increasing levels of BMI. PMID:26088396

  4. Decreasing "circumference" for increasing "radius" in axially symmetric gravitating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lubo, M

    2001-01-01

    Apart from the flat space with an angular deficit, Einstein general relativity possesses another cylindrically symmetric solution. Because this configuration displays circles whose "circumferences" tend to zero when their "radius" go to infinity, it has not received much attention in the past. We propose a geometric interpretation of this feature and find that it implies field boundary conditions different from the ones found in the literature if one considers a source consisting of the scalar and the vector fields of a U(1) system . To obtain a non increasing energy density the gauge symmetry must be unbroken . For the Higgs potential this is achieved only with a vanishing vacuum expectation value but then the solution has a null scalar field. A non trivial scalar behaviour is exhibited for a potential of sixth order. The trajectories of test particles in this geometry are studied, its causal structure discussed. We find that this bosonic background can support a normalizable fermionic condensate but not suc...

  5. Measuring Abdominal Circumference and Skeletal Muscle From a Single Cross-Sectional Computed Tomography Image: A Step-by-Step Guide for Clinicians Using National Institutes of Health ImageJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Haus, Jacob M; Sheean, Patricia; Patel, Bimal; Mar, Winnie; Chaudhry, Vivek; McKeever, Liam; Braunschweig, Carol

    2016-03-01

    Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans provide numerous opportunities for body composition analysis, including quantification of abdominal circumference, abdominal adipose tissues (subcutaneous, visceral, and intermuscular), and skeletal muscle (SM). CT scans are commonly performed for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings, and methods for estimating abdominal circumference and whole-body SM mass from them have been reported. A supine abdominal circumference is a valid measure of waist circumference (WC). The valid correlation between a single cross-sectional CT image (slice) at third lumbar (L3) for abdominal SM and whole-body SM is also well established. Sarcopenia refers to the age-associated decreased in muscle mass and function. A single dimensional definition of sarcopenia using CT images that includes only assessment of low whole-body SM has been validated in clinical populations and significantly associated with negative outcomes. However, despite the availability and precision of SM data from CT scans and the relationship between these measurements and clinical outcomes, they have not become a routine component of clinical nutrition assessment. Lack of time, training, and expense are potential barriers that prevent clinicians from fully embracing this technique. This tutorial presents a systematic, step-by-step guide to quickly quantify abdominal circumference as a proxy for WC and SM using a cross-sectional CT image from a regional diagnostic CT scan for clinical identification of sarcopenia. Multiple software options are available, but this tutorial uses ImageJ, a free public-domain software developed by the National Institutes of Health. PMID:26392166

  6. Mid-arm and calf circumferences are stronger mortality predictors than body mass index for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shu-Chuan; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Kuo, Han-Pin; Huang, Chien-Da; Lee, Kang-Yun; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Feng, Po-Hao; Chen, Tzu-Tao; Hsu, Min-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the third most common cause of death in the world. Patients with COPD experience airflow obstruction, weight loss, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and comorbidities. Anthropometric indicators are risk factors for mortality in geriatric assessment. Purpose This study examined and compared the associations of anthropometric indicators, such as low body mass index (BMI), low mid-arm circumference (MAC), and low calf circumference (CC), with the prediction of a 3-year follow-up mortality risk in patients with COPD. Methods We recruited nonhospitalized patients with COPD without acute conditions from a general hospital in Taiwan. The BMI, MAC, and CC of all patients were measured, and they were followed for 3 years through telephone interviews and chart reviews. The Kaplan–Meier survival curves stratified by BMI, MAC, and CC were analyzed. Variables univariately associated with survival were entered into a multivariate Cox regression model. The Bayesian information criterion was used to compare the predictive ability of the three anthropometric indicators to predict mortality rate. Results In total, 104 patients were included (mean ± standard deviation age, 74.2±6.9 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second [%], 58.4±20.4 predicted; males, 94.2%); 22 patients (21.2%) died during the 36-month follow-up. During this long-term follow-up, the three anthropometric indicators could predict mortality risk in patients with COPD (low BMI [<21 kg/m2], hazard ratio [HR] =2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.10–7.10; low MAC [<23.5 cm], HR =3.09, 95% CI =1.30–7.38; low CC [<30 cm], HR =4.40, 95% CI =1.82–10.63). CC showed the strongest potential in predicting the mortality risk, followed by MAC and BMI. Conclusion Among the three anthropometric variables examined, CC can be considered a strong predictor of mortality risk in patients with COPD.

  7. Analysis of lipid status, body mass index and waist-hip ratio in post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Mešalić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Menopause is the absence of menses in the period longer that one year. It is widely accepted that menopause leads to changes in hormonal status, metabolism and lipid profi le. The aim of this study wasto analyze the infl uence of menopause on the concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins and also the influence of body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR on lipid profi le in post-menopausal women.Methods: Sixty post-menopausal women of average age of 52.82 years were compared to a group of 34 pre-menopausal women average age of 47.92 years.Results: Post-menopausal women had higher, but non signifi cant (p>0.05 concentrations of total cholesterol, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, low density lipoproteins (LDL and triglycerides than pre-menopausal women. The concentration of high density lipoproteins (HDL was significantly lower in post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal (p<0.05. The concentration of apolipoprotein B was also signifi cantly higher in post-menopausal women (p<0.05, but the concentrations of apolipoprotein and lipoprotein (a were lowerbut without signifi cance (p>0.05. There was no difference between body mass index (BMI and waste-hip ratio (WHR, but the WHR has shown as a signifi cant predictor of the LDL and cholesterol concentrations inpost-menopausal women.Conclusion: We can conclude that menopause leads to changes in lipid profi le by lowering of HDL and increasing the levels of apolipoprotein B, that increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. The WHR is thesignifi cant predictor of cardiovascular risk in post-menopausal women.

  8. Comparison between body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness and mid-arm muscle circumference in Saudi adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolescence is an important period in an individual's life. Overweight and obesity are fraught with several health problems even late in life. The objective of this study was estimate the overweight, obesity, body fat and muscle content of Saudi adolescents as compared to a recognized reference population. Data were collected from a sample of Saudi adolescents in Jeddah from 42 boys' and 42 girls' school during the month of April 2000. Data collection was done by personal interviews to collect sociodemograhic factors and by direct measurement of weight, height, triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) and mid-arm circumference (MAC). The 50th, 85th and 95th percentiles(P50, P85 and P95) for body mass index (BMI) and triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) were taken, then the 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles (P50, P90 and P95) for the mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were calculated. These measurements were compared with corresponding values of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I). The P85 and P95 for the BMI and TSF were higher for Saudi adolescents than the NHANES I and the difference was wider for P95. Conversely, there was a lower MAMC at P90 and P95thane the NHANES I reference population curves. The lower MAMC curves were less marked in girls than in boys. On the other hand Saudi boys and girls showed on average similar body mass index indicated by MBI at P50, which was misleading, since those adolescents showing similar body mass index had more fatness than of average reference population indicated by TSF and P50, and less muscularity on average than reference population indicated MAMC at P-50. Overweight and obesity with increased body fat content and decreased body muscle content appear to be widespread among Saudi adolescents even among those adolescents showing average body index. Public health interventions are required to improve quality of food, encourage physical, activity and exercise, as well as correct the perception of

  9. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to BMI Screening in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses advocates for body mass index (BMI) screening. Little research describes school nurse practice of BMI screening. In this descriptive study, 25 Ohio school nurses participated in three focus groups. An adapted "Healthy People 2010" Determinants of Health Model guided the research questions. School nurses…

  10. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  11. Immigrant assimilation and BMI and waist size: a longitudinal examination among Hispanic and Chinese participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Sandra S.; Roux, Ana V Diez; Kandula, Namratha R.; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Ni, Hanyu; Shrager, Sandi

    2013-01-01

    U.S. birth and longer length of U.S. residence among the foreign-born have been linked to higher anthropometric measures. However previous studies have been cross-sectional and few have examined heterogeneity by ethnic group. Cross-sectional findings that show immigrant weight converging to U.S.-born levels with longer time in the U.S. imply that immigrants’ weight is increasing at a faster rate relative to U.S.-born individuals. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm this pattern. Usin...

  12. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and sedentariness (Sed in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years. Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002 and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002. Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04, while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13, biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07, media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08 and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03 and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04 diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25, playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20 and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08 were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  13. The use of body circumferences for the prediction of intra-abdominal fat in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome El uso de circunferencias corporales para la predicción de la grasa intra-abdominal en mujeres obesas con el síndrome del ovario poliquístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodrigues de Oliveira Penaforte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Computerizd tomography (CT is the gold standard for the evaluation of intra- (IAF and total (TAF abdominal fat; however, the high cost of the procedure and exposure to radiation limit its routine use. Objective: To develop equations that utilize anthropometric measures for the estimate of IAF and TAF in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods: The weight, height, BMI, and abdominal (AC, waist (WC, chest (CC, and neck (NC circumferences of thirty obese women with PCOS were measured, and their IAF and TAF were analyzed by CT. Results: The anthropometric variables AC, CC, and NC were chosen for the TAF linear regression model because they were better correlated with the fat deposited in this region. The model proposed for TAF (predicted was: 4.63725 + 0.01483 x AC - 0.00117 x NC - 0.00177 x CC (R² = 0.78; and the model proposed for IAF was: IAF (predicted = 1.88541 + 0.01878 x WC + 0.05687 x NC -0.01529 x CC (R²=0.51. AC was the only independent predictor of TAF (p Introducción: La tomografia computarizada (TC es el estándar de oro para la evaluación de la grasa intra-abdominal (GIA y abdominal total (GAT, pero los altos costos y la exposición a la radiación limitan su uso rutinario. Objetivo: Desarrollar ecuaciones para la estimación de la GIA y la GAT en mujeres obesas con el sindrome del ovario poliquistico, utilizando medidas antropométricas. Métodos: Se evaluó el peso, la altura, el IMC y las circunferencias abdominal (CA, cintura (CC, pecho (CP y cuello (Ccu de 30 mujeres obesas con SOP. La GIA y GAT fueron analizados por la TC. Resultados: El modelo propuesto fue: GAT = 4,63725 + 0,01483 x CA - 0.00117 x CCu - 0,00177 x CP (R² = 0,78; y para la GIA fue: GIA = 1, 88541 + 0, 01878 x CC + 0,05687 x CCu - 0,01529 x CP (R² = 0,51. La CA fue La única variable predictora independiente de la GAT (p < 0,01. Conclusión: Las equaciones propuestas correlacionaronse bien con el valor real, medido a trav

  14. An improved beam waist formula for ultrashort, tightly-focused linearly, radially, and azimuthally polarized laser pulses in free space

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Liang Jie; Kaertner, Franz; Johnson, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    We derive an asymptotically accurate formula for the beam waist of ultrashort, tightly focused fundamental linearly polarized, radially polarized, and azimuthally polarized modes in free space. We compute the exact beam waist via numerical cubature to ascertain the accuracy with which our formula approximates the exact beam waist over a broad range of parameters of practical interest. Based on this, we describe a method of choosing parameters in the model given the beam waist and pulse durati...

  15. The effect of waist twisting on walking speed of an amphibious salamander like robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin-Yan; Jia, Li-Chao; Wang, Chen; Xie, Guang-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Amphibious salamanders often swing their waist to coordinate quadruped walking in order to improve their crawling speed. A robot with a swing waist joint, like an amphibious salamander, is used to mimic this locomotion. A control method is designed to allow the robot to maintain the rotational speed of its legs continuous and avoid impact between its legs and the ground. An analytical expression is established between the amplitude of the waist joint and the step length. Further, an optimization amplitude is obtained corresponding to the maximum stride. The simulation results based on automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems (ADAMS) and physical experiments verify the rationality and validity of this expression.

  16. The impact of BMI on subgroups of uterine cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lindemann, K; Vatten, L J; Ellstrøm-Engh, M; A. Eskild

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity increases the risk of uterine cancer, but results by histological type have differed. Methods: We followed 36 755 women for 17.8 years for uterine cancers. Results and conclusion: Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with uterine cancers as a whole, particularly for endometrioid adenocarcinomas, for which the relative risk for very obese women (BMI: ⩾40 kg m−2) compared with lean (BMI: 20–24 kg m−2) women, was 11.1 (95% confidence interval: 5.2–23.8)....

  17. The Association of Religious Affiliation and Body Mass Index (BMI): An Analysis from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Obesity and obesity-related morbidity and mortality are an ongoing concern in developed countries. Religion is associated with reduced premature mortality and morbidity. However, the association between religion and obesity is unclear and unexplored in the general English population. This cross-sectional study uses Health Survey for England 2012 data to investigate the association of religious affiliation and BMI. A representative sample of 7,414 adults (16 years or older) was included. Waist-to-hip ratio was measured in a smaller sample and was explored as a secondary outcome. Interviews were administered, questionnaires self-completed, and height and weight measured. Sequential linear regression models were used to adjust for health behaviours. Religious affiliation was associated with a 0.91 kg/m(2) higher BMI. Some of this was explained demographically, but it was not accounted for by smoking status, alcohol consumption or physical activity level. Evidence of this association was strongest among those affiliated to a Christian religion. A significantly higher WHR was also seen in Christian and Sikh men. English prospective studies measuring intrinsic religiosity and dietary energy are needed. Religious communities may need greater healthy weight promotion or benefit from tailored interventions built on their beliefs. PMID:25408535

  18. Education Modifies Genetic and Environmental Influences on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel;

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight......, and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and...... nonshared environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this...

  19. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  20. Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Wood, Angela M; Pennells, Lisa; Thompson, Alex; Sarwar, Nadeem; Kizer, Jorge R; Lawlor, Debbie A; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ridker, Paul; Salomaa, Veikko; Stevens, June; Woodward, Mark; Sattar, Naveed; Collins, Rory; Thompson, Simon G; Whitlock, Gary; Danesh, John; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines differ about the value of assessment of adiposity measures for cardiovascular disease risk prediction when information is available for other risk factors. We studied the separate and combined associations of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with risk of...

  1. Implications of central obesity-related variants in LYPLAL1, NRXN3, MSRA, and TFAP2B on quantitative metabolic traits in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Dorthe Sadowa; Banasik, Karina; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Sandholt, Camilla H; Sandbæk, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Jørgensen, Torben; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Holm, Jens-Christian; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2011-01-01

    -binding protein 2 beta (TFAP2B) associate with measures of central obesity. To elucidate potential underlying phenotypes we aimed to investigate whether these variants associated with: 1) quantitative metabolic traits, 2) anthropometric measures (waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio, and BMI), or 3) type 2...

  2. Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele;

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines differ about the value of assessment of adiposity measures for cardiovascular disease risk prediction when information is available for other risk factors. We studied the separate and combined associations of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with risk ...

  3. Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children

    OpenAIRE

    Vítor P. Lopes; Stodden, David F.; Bianchi, Mafalda M.; Maia, José A. R.; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the association between motor coordination (MC) and body mass index (BMI) across childhood and early adolescence. Design: This study is cross-sectional. Methods: Data were collected in 7175 children (boys n = 3616, girls n = 3559), ages 6–14 years. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight [body mass (kg)/height (m2)]. Motor coordination was evaluated using Kiphard-Schilling’s body coordination test (KTK). Spearman’s rank correlation was used to study ...

  4. A STUDY ON BRAIN – MACHINE INTERFACE (BMI)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Muqeeth*,

    2015-01-01

    A brain – machine interface (BMI), sometimes called a mind - machine interface (MMI), or sometimes called a direct neural interface (DNI), synthetic telepathy interface (STI) or a brain – machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often directed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or se nsory - motor functions. The field of BCI research and developmen...

  5. Satraplatin: BMS 182751, BMY 45594, JM 216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Satraplatin [BMS 182751, BMY 45594, JM 216] belongs to a series of orally-active platinum compounds with anticancer activity. It was jointly originated by Bristol-Myers Squibb, Johnson Matthey and the Institute of Cancer Research in the UK; however, Johnson Matthey has since ceased involvement with drug development. Subsequently, the agent has been licensed to and is under development with GPC Biotech, Pharmion and Spectrum Pharmaceuticals. Clinical trials are underway to evaluate satraplatin among patients with different tumour types, including prostate, breast, cervical and lung cancers. The compound is under regulatory review with the US FDA for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. NeoTherapeutics (now Spectrum Pharmaceuticals) granted GPC Biotech an exclusive worldwide licence to develop and market satraplatin in October 2002. Under the terms of the agreement, GPC Biotech is fully funding development costs and commercialisation requirements for the drug. The deal also involves GPC Biotech paying a signing fee, milestone and royalty payments. Spectrum is a member of a joint development committee headed by GPC Biotech to govern development of satraplatin. Previously in October 2001, NeoOncoRx (Spectrum Pharmaceuticals) gained the rights to develop and market the compound worldwide. In December 2005, GPC Biotech and Pharmion Corporation entered into a co-development and license agreement for satraplatin. Under the agreement terms, Pharmion has exclusive commercialisation rights for Europe, Turkey, the Middle East, Australia and New Zealand, while GPC Biotech retains rights to North America and all other territories. Pharmion made an upfront payment of $US37.1 million to GPC Biotech, which included reimbursement for past clinical development costs plus funding for ongoing and certain clinical development activities to be jointly conducted by the companies. In addition, both parties will pursue a joint development plan for satraplatin in a variety of

  6. A cross-sectional study on trans-fatty acids and risk markers of CHD among middle-aged men representing a broad range of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgit M.; Nielsen, Marie M.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.;

    2011-01-01

    interest (waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, percentage of truncal fat, C-reactive protein, IL-6, blood lipids, blood pressure, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity index) were obtained through clinical examination. The associations were assessed by linear regression analysis. The median intake of...... total TFA among the 393 men was 1·3 g/d, covering a daily I-TFA intake of 0·4 g (10–90th percentile 0·0–1·0) and R-TFA intake of 0·9 g (10–90th percentile 0·4–1·8). Intake of these amounts of TFA showed no significant associations with abdominal fatness, inflammatory markers, blood lipids, blood...

  7. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  8. Adolescent BMI Trajectory and Risk of Diabetes versus Coronary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Afek, Arnon; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Ayalon, Nir; Gordon, Barak; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Shamis, Ari; Vinker, Shlomo; Rudich, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association of body-mass index (BMI) from adolescence to adulthood with obesity-related diseases in young adults has not been completely delineated. METHODS We conducted a prospective study in which we followed 37,674 apparently healthy young men for incident angiography-proven coronary heart disease and diabetes through the Staff Periodic Examination Center of the Israeli Army Medical Corps. The height and weight of participants were measured at regular intervals, with the first measurements taken when they were 17 years of age. RESULTS During approximately 650,000 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up, 17.4 years), we documented 1173 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and 327 of coronary heart disease. In multivariate models adjusted for age, family history, blood pressure, lifestyle factors, and biomarkers in blood, elevated adolescent BMI (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters; mean range for the first through last deciles, 17.3 to 27.6) was a significant predictor of both diabetes (hazard ratio for the highest vs. the lowest decile, 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 3.58) and angiography-proven coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.77 to 10.62). Further adjustment for BMI at adulthood completely ablated the association of adolescent BMI with diabetes (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.37) but not the association with coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 6.85; 95% CI, 3.30 to 14.21). After adjustment of the BMI values as continuous variables in multivariate models, only elevated BMI in adulthood was significantly associated with diabetes (β = 1.115, P = 0.003; P = 0.89 for interaction). In contrast, elevated BMI in both adolescence (β = 1.355, P = 0.004) and adulthood (β = 1.207, P = 0.03) were independently associated with angiography-proven coronary heart disease (P = 0.048 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS An elevated BMI in adolescence — one that is well within the range

  9. Optimal waist-to-height ratio values for cardiometabolic risk screening in an ethnically diverse sample of South African urban and rural school boys and girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandi E Matsha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. METHODS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10-16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden's index and the closest-top-left (CTL point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. RESULTS: The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5, but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4 and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7 based on the Youden's index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden's index0.505 (31.6, 87.1 and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9. CONCLUSION: The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.

  10. Rare variant associations with waist-to-hip ratio in European-American and African-American women from the NHLBI-Exome Sequencing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Mengyuan; Auer, Paul L; Wang, Gao T; Bucasas, Kristine L; Hooker, Stanley; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Li, Biao; Ellis, Jaclyn; Adrienne Cupples, L; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Dupuis, Josée; Fox, Caroline S; Gross, Myron D; Smith, Joshua D; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Meigs, James B; Pankow, James S; Rotter, Jerome I; Siscovick, David; Wilson, James G; Shendure, Jay; Jackson, Rebecca; Peters, Ulrike; Zhong, Hua; Lin, Danyu; Hsu, Li; Franceschini, Nora; Carlson, Chris; Abecasis, Goncalo; Gabriel, Stacey; Bamshad, Michael J; Altshuler, David; Nickerson, Deborah A; North, Kari E; Lange, Leslie A; Reiner, Alexander P; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-08-01

    Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), a relative comparison of waist and hip circumferences, is an easily accessible measurement of body fat distribution, in particular central abdominal fat. A high WHR indicates more intra-abdominal fat deposition and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic loci influencing WHR, but the contributions of rare variants have not been previously reported. We investigated rare variant associations with WHR in 1510 European-American and 1186 African-American women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Exome Sequencing Project. Association analysis was performed on the gene level using several rare variant association methods. The strongest association was observed for rare variants in IKBKB (P=4.0 × 10(-8)) in European-Americans, where rare variants in this gene are predicted to decrease WHRs. The activation of the IKBKB gene is involved in inflammatory processes and insulin resistance, which may affect normal food intake and body weight and shape. Meanwhile, aggregation of rare variants in COBLL1, previously found to harbor common variants associated with WHR and fasting insulin, were nominally associated (P=2.23 × 10(-4)) with higher WHR in European-Americans. However, these significant results are not shared between African-Americans and European-Americans that may be due to differences in the allelic architecture of the two populations and the small sample sizes. Our study indicates that the combined effect of rare variants contribute to the inter-individual variation in fat distribution through the regulation of insulin response. PMID:26757982

  11. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  12. Combined influence of leisure time physical activity and hip circumference on all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Grønbæk, Morten; Ängquist, Lars Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Hip circumference has been shown to be inversely associated with mortality. Muscle atrophy in the gluteofemoral region may be a possible explanation and thus physical activity is likely to play an important role....

  13. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. PMID:25596500

  14. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman O Oloritun

    Full Text Available Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and R(2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001 of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as

  15. Comparision between body mass index and abdominal obesity for the screening for diabetes in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study about the usefulness of Waist-Height Ratio as a clinical marker in patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based study of patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic and correlation of their Anthropometry data like waist circumference, height to other parameters namely body mass index (BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio, Blood pressure, Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, and Duration of Diabetes. Inclusion Criteria: Randomly selected 10 000 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic. Exclusion Criteria: Type 1 DM, Gestational Diabetes. Result: Waist-Height Ratio is a better parameter than Waist-Hip Ratio and it is significant in applying for people with different Stature with Normal BMI. Conclusion: Waist-Height Ratio is a better and easier tool when compared with BMI or Waist-Hip Ratio and can be used for assessment of Cardio-metabolic parameter for public health.

  16. Maternal prepregancy BMI and lipid profile during early pregnancy are independently associated with offspring's body composition at age 5-6 years: the ABCD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike G J Gademan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that disturbances in maternal metabolism and, subsequently, intrauterine conditions affect foetal metabolism. Whether this has metabolic consequences in offspring later in life is not fully elucidated. We investigated whether maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI is associated with offspring's adiposity at age 5-6 years and whether this association is mediated by the mother's lipid profile during early pregnancy. METHODS: Data were derived from a multi-ethnic birth cohort, the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD study (inclusion 2003-2004. During early gestation mothers completed a questionnaire during pregnancy (pBMI and random non-fasting blood samples were analysed for total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1, apolipoprotein B (ApoB and total free fatty acids (FFA in early gestation. At age 5-6 years, child's BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR and fat% were assessed. RESULTS: Only non-diabetic mothers with at term-born children were included (n = 1727. Of all women, 15.1% were overweight(BMI: 25-29.9 kg/m2 and 4.3% were obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2. After adjustments for confounders, every unit increase in pBMI was linearly associated with various offspring variables: BMI (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08-0.12, WHtR*100 (β 0.13; 95% CI 0.09-0.17, fat% (β 0.21; 95% CI 0.13-0.29 and increased risk for overweight (OR:1.15; 95% CI 1.10-1.20. No convincing proof for mediation by maternal lipid profile during early gestation was found. Moreover, maternal FFA was associated with the child's fat percentage, BMI and risk for overweight. Maternal ApoB and TC were positively associated with the offspring's fat percentage and maternal TG was positively associated with their children's WHtR. CONCLUSIONS: Both pBMI and maternal lipids during early pregnancy are independently related to offspring adiposity.

  17. Fitness versus Fatness and Insulin Resistance in U.S. Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Doyle M; DuBose, Katrina D.; Satomi Imai; Collier, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Background. The present study examined the relationship between insulin resistance and both waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness in U.S. adolescents. Methods. NHANES assessed a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents (12–18 yrs) between 1999–2002. Abdominal adiposity was estimated by waist circumference, overall adiposity by BMI, and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from a treadmill exercise test). Insulin resistance was estimated from fastin...

  18. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Urban and Rural Women of Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Gurjeet Kaur; Singh, S.P.; AjitPal Singh

    2013-01-01

    A cross sectional study on 600 women (300 each belonging to urban and rural areas of Punjab) in the age range of 50-80 years is conducted with a view to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity. For assessment of overweight and obesity the height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference are taken on each subject using strandard procedures. The prevalence rates are calculated according to the critical limits of body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WH...

  19. The cross-sectional shape and circumference of the human trachea.

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, S; Myat, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    To design a large-volume, low-pressure cuff it is essential to take into consideration cross-sectional shape and circumference of human trachea. Two hundred adult tracheas were dissected and autopsy specimens examined. Cross-sectional tracheal shapes were studied and their circumference measured. There was a definite correlation between sex and the tracheal shapes studied. Forty five per cent of female tracheas were elliptical in shape and 38% were C shaped. The most common cross-sectional tr...

  20. Human sensory nerve compound action potential amplitude: variation with sex and finger circumference.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, C F; Carter, K M

    1980-01-01

    The amplitude of human, antidromic, sensory compound action potentials (CAP) recorded from median and ulnar digital nerves is greater in females than males. This sex difference is probably due entirely to females having digits of smaller circumference, resulting in digital nerves being closer to the recording ring electrode enclosing the digit. The negative linear correlation between CAP amplitude and circumference holds true for persons of the same sex.

  1. Obesity Related Indices for Screening of Obesity in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sohani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a fast growing problem in the developing countries like India and is now known to be associated with increased health risk. Realizing the fact that the obesity in adolescent age group does not receive the deserved attention in the prevention and control programme, the present study was undertaken on 585 adolescent subjects studying in one college and three schools. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescent population. 2. To find the association of body mass index (BMI with important parameters like skin fold thickness, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Methods: It was a cross sectional observational study. The study population was school and college going adolescents in the age group of 11-19 years. The estimated sample size for present study is 585 students. The subjects were screened by body mass index, skin fold thickness, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.14% and 4.44% respectively. It was found that there was strong association between the waist circumference with overweight and obesity. Similarly a strong association between waist to hip ratio with overweight and obesity has been found. Also it was found that there was a strong association between skin fold thickness with overweight and obesity. Skin-fold thickness has more sensitivity as compared to waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Waist to hip ratio has got maximum specificity amongst all but when both sensitivity and specificity criteria are considered together waist circumference stands out. Conclusion: It was found that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.14% and 4.44% respectively. Skin-fold thickness has more sensitivity as compared waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. Waist to hip ratio has got maximum specificity. When sensitivity and specificity criteria are considered together waist circumference can be

  2. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  3. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred James; Braun, Wiebke; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-01-01

    BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA). However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis) does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC) integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity) and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient). FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone. PMID:27286962

  4. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred James Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA. However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient. FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone.

  5. Waist to hip ratio and trunk to extremity fat (DXA are better surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively than for subcutaneous fat in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Melissa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL are associated with increased metabolic risk. Clinical and DXA body composition measures that are associated with VAT are generally even more strongly associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reflecting general adiposity, and thus are not specific for VAT. Measures more strongly associated with VAT than SAT (thus more specific for VAT, and predictors of IMCL have not been reported. Subjects/Methods We studied 30 girls 12-18 years; 15 obese, 15 normal-weight. The following were assessed: (1 anthropometric measures: waist circumference at the umbilicus and iliac crest (WC-UC and WC-IC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, (2 DXA measures: total fat, percent body fat (PBF, percent trunk fat (PTF, trunk-to-extremity fat ratio (TEFR, (3 MRI and 1H-MRS: VAT and SAT (L4-L5, soleus-IMCL. Results Group as a whole: WC, trunk fat and PBF were more strongly associated with SAT than VAT; none were specific for VAT. In contrast, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.83 and 0.81 respectively, p Subgroup analysis: In obese girls, WHR and WHtR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.62 and 0.82, p = 0.04 and 0.001 than SAT (r = 0.41 and 0.73, p not significant and 0.007, and for DXA measures, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.70 and 0.72, p = 0.007 and 0.006 than SAT (r = 0.52 and 0.53, p = 0.07 and 0.06. In controls, PTF and TEFR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.79, p = 0.0004 for both than SAT (r = 0.71 and 0.72, p = 0.003 for both. WHR was associated with IMCL in obese girls (r = 0.78, p = 0.008, but not controls. Conclusion Overall, WHR (anthropometry, and PTF and TEFR (DXA are good surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively in adolescent girls.

  6. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L; Gaylis, Jaclyn B

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was conducted at San Diego State University. Data were analysed by using t tests, χ(2) tests and regression analysis in SPSS. NMs exhibited a lower BMI than OMs (P food choices. NMs exercised longer than OMs in the habits and superior food choices among young adult females. More regular meal patterns, healthier snack choice and adherence to dietary guidelines may contribute to the lower BMI values observed among NMs compared with OMs. PMID:27066257

  7. The Relation of Weight Suppression and BMI to Bulimic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Juarascio, Adrienne; Lowe, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective High levels of weight suppression have been associated with greater binge eating and weight gain as well as poorer treatment outcome in bulimia nervosa. This study examined the relationship between weight suppression and bulimia nervosa symptoms and explored how weight suppression might interact with body mass index (BMI) in accounting for level of symptomatology at presentation for treatment. Method Participants were 64 women with threshold or sub-threshold bulimia nervosa. A clinical interview assessed binge eating and purging. Results Weight suppression and the interaction between BMI and weight suppression predicted frequency of binge eating such that participants with low BMI and high weight suppression engaged in the most binge eating. High levels of weight suppression also predicted more frequent purging. Discussion Additional research is warranted to examine mediators of these relationships. PMID:21997424

  8. Trends in BMI of urban Australian adults, 1980-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Helen L; Wolfe, Rory; Haby, Michelle M;

    2010-01-01

    . Survey participants were aged 25-64 years and resident in Australian capital cities. BMI was calculated as weight divided by height squared (kg/m2), where weight and height were measured using standard procedures. RESULTS: Mean BMI was higher in 2000 than 1980 in all sex and age groups. The age......-adjusted increase was 1.4 kg/m2 in men and 2.1 kg/m2 in women. The BMI distribution shifted rightwards for all sex and age groups and became increasingly right-skewed. The change between 1980 and 2000 ranged from a decrease of 0.04 kg/m2 at the lower end of the distribution for men aged 25-34 years to an increase...

  9. Association of BMI and interpregnancy BMI change with birth outcomes in an Australian obstetric population: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Agarwal, Catherine R; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with increasing body mass index (BMI) and interpregnancy BMI changes in an Australian obstetric population. Methods A retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2013 was undertaken. BMI for 14 875 women was categorised as follows: underweight (≤18 kg/m2); normal weight (19–24 kg/m2); overweight (25–29 kg/m2); obese class I (30–34 kg/m2); obese class II (35–39 kg/m2) and obese class III (40+ kg/m2). BMI categories and maternal, neonatal and birthing outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Interpregnancy change in BMI and the risk of adverse outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy were also examined. Results Within this cohort, 751 (5.1%) women were underweight, 7431 (50.0%) had normal BMI, 3748 (25.1%) were overweight, 1598 (10.8%) were obese class I, 737 (5.0%) were obese class II and 592 (4.0%) were obese class III. In bivariate adjusted models, obese women were at an increased risk of caesarean section, gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and neonatal morbidities including macrosomia, large for gestational age (LGA), hypoglycaemia, low 5 min Apgar score and respiratory distress. Multiparous women who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher adjusted OR (AOR) (CI) of the following adverse outcomes in their subsequent pregnancy: low 5-min Apgar score 3.242 (1.557 to 7.118); gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) 3.258 (1.129 to 10.665) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 3.922 (1.243 to 14.760). These women were more likely to give birth vaginally 2.030 (1.417 to 2.913). Conversely, women whose parity changed from 0 to 1 and who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher AOR (CI) of caesarean section in their second pregnancy 1.806 (1.139 to 2.862). Conclusions Women who are overweight or obese have a significantly increased risk of various adverse outcomes. Interpregnancy weight gain, regardless

  10. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansmann Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs, quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS. We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. Results GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. Conclusion GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  11. Stable isotope analysis challenges wasp-waist food web assumptions in an upwelling pelagic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Daniel J; Carlisle, Aaron B; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Litvin, Steven Y; Micheli, Fiorenza; Block, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    Eastern boundary currents are often described as 'wasp-waist' ecosystems in which one or few mid-level forage species support a high diversity of larger predators that are highly susceptible to fluctuations in prey biomass. The assumption of wasp-waist control has not been empirically tested in all such ecosystems. This study used stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis of wasp-waist control in the southern California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). We analyzed prey and predator tissue for δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N and used Bayesian mixing models to provide estimates of CCLME trophic dynamics from 2007-2010. Our results show high omnivory, planktivory by some predators, and a higher degree of trophic connectivity than that suggested by the wasp-waist model. Based on this study period, wasp-waist models oversimplify trophic dynamics within the CCLME and potentially other upwelling, pelagic ecosystems. Higher trophic connectivity in the CCLME likely increases ecosystem stability and resilience to perturbations. PMID:22977729

  12. ADRB3 Polymorphism Associated with BMI Gain in Japanese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiki Kuroda; Takahiko Katoh; Takenori Yamauchi; Shouhei Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3: rs4994) and BMI and serological and anthropometric data in healthy Japanese. Methods. Healthy Japanese recruited in a large-scale integrated manufacturing facility in Japan ( = 1 3 5 5 ; age: 37.25 ± 9.43; BMI: 22.86 ± 3.46) were eligible for analysis. The anthropometric data and serological data were measured during a comprehensive health check, a...

  13. Associations between Overall and Abdominal Obesity and Suicidal Ideation among US Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixiang Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with increased risks for mental disorders. This study examined associations of obesity indicators including body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and waist-height ratio with suicidal ideation among U.S. women. We analyzed data from 3,732 nonpregnant women aged ≥20 years who participated in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used anthropometric measures of weight, height, and waist circumference to calculate BMI and waist-height ratio. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Odds ratios with 95% conference intervals were estimated using logistic regression analyses after controlling for potential confounders. The age-adjusted prevalence of suicidal ideation was 3.0%; the prevalence increased linearly across quartiles of BMI, waist circumference, and waist-height ratio (P for linear trend <0.01 for all. The positive associations of waist circumference and waist-height ratio with suicidal ideation remained significant (<0.05 after adjustment for sociodemographics, lifestyle-related behavioral factors, and having either chronic conditions or current depression. However, these associations were attenuated after both chronic conditions and depression were entered into the models. Thus, the previously reported association between obesity and suicidal ideation appears to be confounded by coexistence of chronic conditions and current depression among women of the United States.

  14. Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 Health Topics 2 News & Resources 3 Intramural Research 4 Health Topics Educational Campaigns and Programs Resources Contact the Health ... BMI and Waist Circumference provides you with an idea of whether your BMI ... for Health Topics Associated With Obesity Along with being overweight or ...

  15. A novel quantitative body shape score for detecting association between obesity and hypertension in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shukang; Liu, Yanxun; Li, Fangyu; Jia, Hongying; Liu, Longjian; Xue, Fuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major independent risk factor for chronic diseases such as hypertension and coronary diseases, it might not be only related to the amount of body fat but its distribution. The single body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) or waist to stature ratio (WSR) provides limited information on fat distribution, and the debate about which one is the best remained. On the other hand, the current classification of body shape is qualitative rather...

  16. A two-phase population study: relationships between overweight, body composition and risk of eating disorders Estudio a doble fase: relación entre el sobrepeso, la composición corporal y el riesgo de trastorno de la conducta alimentaria

    OpenAIRE

    Babio, N.; Canals, J; Pietrobelli, A; Pérez, S.; Arija, V. (Victoria)

    2009-01-01

    Background: Overweight and eating disorder (ED) are major public health problems in adolescents. Aims: To assess the association of overweight, body composition and anthropometric characteristics with the probability being at risk of ED. Methods: A two-phase study was used. 329 girls and 96 boys (aged 12-18 years) from an initial sample of 2967 adolescents were studied. The BMI, percentage of fat mass estimated by bioimpedance (FM(BIA)), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-t...

  17. Relationships of low serum vitamin D3 with anthropometry and markers of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in overweight and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    McGill Anne-Thea; Stewart Joanna M; Lithander Fiona E; Strik Caroline M; Poppitt Sally D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Low serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D3) is known to perturb cellular function in many tissues, including the endocrine pancreas, which are involved in obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM). Vitamin D3 insufficiency has been linked to obesity, whether obesity is assessed by body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (waist). Central obesity, using waist as the surrogate, is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), insulin resistance, TIIDM and atherosclerotic ca...

  18. The Influence of Waist Thickness of Dolosse on the Hydraulic Stability of Dolosse Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Brejnegaard-Nielsen, Torben

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents results from experiments with Dolosse having the same mass and volume but with different waist thickness to height ratios. The armour was exposed to irregular waves simulating one storm with increasing wave heights and the effect of waist to height ratio on the hydraulic...... stability was studied. A low packing density of approximately 0.65 was used corresponding to a two-layer armour with high porosity. From the results it is concluded that the hydraulic stability of Dolos armour is not very sensitive to variations in the waist to height ratio. Only for damage levels exceeding...... is concluded that design criteria solely based on movements of armour units as observed in hydraulic models are not adequate for the assessment of structural integrity of the units. The paper also presents the results of each stability test as well as the scatter and the distributions. The large...

  19. The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in young adults from the Southern Region of Brazil Cintura hipertrigliceridémica en adultos jóvenes en el sur de Brasil Cintura hipertrigliceridêmica em adultos jovens no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Oliveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and its associated factors among subjects that have been followed up from birth. In 1982, all maternity hospitals in the city of Pelotas, in the Southern Region of Brazil, were visited and all births were recorded. Babies whose parents lived in the urban area of Pelotas were subsequently followed up on several occasions. A 22 to 23-year follow-up of this birth cohort was carried out in 2004 and 2005. The presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was defined as waist circumference ≥ 90cm and triglyceride levels ≥ 177mg/dL for males, and waist circumference ≥ 85cm and triglyceride levels ≥ 133mg/dL for females. The prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was 5.9% and 4.5% among men and women, respectively. Among males, a sedentary lifestyle during leisure time, smoking and obesity were associated with the presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, whereas among females the condition was positively associated with skin color, family income, obesity and dietary fat intake.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la prevalencia del fenotipo de la cintura hipertrigliceridémica y sus factores asociados entre individuos que fueron observados desde su nacimiento. En 1982, las maternidades de Pelotas, sur de Brasil, fueron visitadas y todos los nacimientos fueron identificados. En 2004-2005, se decidió realizar un seguimiento de toda la cohorte. La presencia del fenotipo de la cintura hipertrigliceridémica se definió como una circunferencia de la cintura ≥ 90cm y triglicéridos ≥ 177mg/dL para el sexo masculino y circunferencia de la cintura ≥ 85cm y triglicéridos ≥ 133mg/dL para las mujeres. La prevalencia del fenotipo de la cintura hipertrigliceridémica fue de un 5,9% y un 4,5% entre los hombres y mujeres, respectivamente. Para los hombres, el sedentarismo en el ocio, tabaquismo y obesidad

  20. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in the Lausanne population.

    OpenAIRE

    Paccaud Fred; Mooser Vincent; Bochud Murielle; Marques-Vidal Pedro; Waeber Gérard; Vollenweider Peter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity can be defined using body mass index (BMI) or waist (abdominal obesity). Little information exists regarding its prevalence and determinants in Switzerland. Hence, we assessed the levels of obesity as defined by BMI or waist circumference in a Swiss population-based sample. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based non-stratified random sample of 3,249 women and 2,937 men aged 35–75 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland. Overall participation rate was 41%. Results ...

  1. Utility of Anthropometric Measures in a Multiethnic Population: Their Association with Prevalent Diabetes, Hypertension and Other Chronic Disease Comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Tarleton, Heather P.; Lisa V. Smith; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are two common anthropometric measures of obesity in clinical and public health practice. Consensus, however, remains elusive regarding their utility for predicting cardiovascular disease risk in multiethnic populations. We address this gap in the literature by analyzing cross-sectional data from the first round of the Los Angeles County Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011. We characterized the relationships between BMI, WC, waist-t...

  2. Social ideological influences on reported food consumption and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worsley Anthony

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between ideological beliefs, perceptions of the importance of health behaviours, health attitudes, food consumption, and Body Mass Index (BMI. A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975. Methods A survey was conducted among shoppers aged between 40 and 70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested with this empirical data (n = 410 for younger (n = 151 and older (n = 259 age groups using structural equation modelling. Results The findings generally support the study hypotheses. For both groups, egalitarianism had a direct and positive influence on perceptions of the importance of health behaviours. Materialism and masculinity impacted negatively on health attitudes, which positively influenced importance of health behaviours. Perceptions of importance of health behaviours impacted positively on the consumption of healthy foods such as vegetables and fruits, but negatively on consumption of unhealthy foods including sweets and fats. However, BMI was significantly influenced by the consumption of unhealthy foods (e.g., sugar and fats only for the younger age group. Hence, the associations between beliefs, attitudes, consumption behaviours, and BMI outcomes differed between younger and older age populations. Conclusion Social ideological beliefs appear to influence health attitudes and thereafter, the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods and BMI via different pathways.

  3. Longitudinal association between marital disruption and child BMI and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7,299 observations for 2,333 children, aged 5-14, over the 1986-2006 period, from a US representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before-after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop. Despite having a larger sample than the previous studies, the results provide no evidence that, on average, children's BMI and BMI percentile scores (measured with continuous outcomes) are affected before the disruption, after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption, relative to a baseline period a few years before the disruption. However, children experiencing a family disruption do have an increased risk of obesity (having a BMI percentile score of 95 or higher) in the two years leading up to the disruption as well as after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption. PMID:22484366

  4. BMI and depressive symptoms: the role of media pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders. PMID:24183138

  5. Effect of BMI on Knee Joint Torques in Ergometer Rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity bi

  6. Bmi-1 Regulates Extensive Erythroid Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Ram Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs, responsible for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide exchange, are essential for our well-being. Alternative RBC sources are needed to meet the increased demand for RBC transfusions projected to occur as our population ages. We previously have discovered that erythroblasts derived from the early mouse embryo can self-renew extensively ex vivo for many months. To better understand the mechanisms regulating extensive erythroid self-renewal, global gene expression data sets from self-renewing and differentiating erythroblasts were analyzed and revealed the differential expression of Bmi-1. Bmi-1 overexpression conferred extensive self-renewal capacity upon adult bone-marrow-derived self-renewing erythroblasts, which normally have limited proliferative potential. Importantly, Bmi-1 transduction did not interfere with the ability of extensively self-renewing erythroblasts (ESREs to terminally mature either in vitro or in vivo. Bmi-1-induced ESREs can serve to generate in vitro models of erythroid-intrinsic disorders and ultimately may serve as a source of cultured RBCs for transfusion therapy.

  7. ADRB3 Polymorphism Associated with BMI Gain in Japanese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouhei Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3: rs4994 and BMI and serological and anthropometric data in healthy Japanese. Methods. Healthy Japanese recruited in a large-scale integrated manufacturing facility in Japan (=1355; age: 37.25 ± 9.43; BMI: 22.86 ± 3.46 were eligible for analysis. The anthropometric data and serological data were measured during a comprehensive health check, and a self-reporting questionnaire was used to assess lifestyle habits (current exercise, smoking status, alcohol intake, and working style and weight at age 20. Genotyping for the ADRB3 polymorphism was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Results. Among 1355 participants, the genotype frequencies of the Trp/Trp, Trp/Arg, and Arg/Arg variants were 920 (67.9%, 394 (29.1%, and 41 (3.05%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, a multiple linear regression model in men for the adjustment of age, drinking habits, smoking habits, exercise habits, working status and serological measurements statistically showed an overall weak significance between annual BMI gain from age 20 and age, LDL or ADRB3 polymorphism. Conclusions. The level of LDL, age, and ADRB3 polymorphism (Arg/Arg genotype were statistically associated with annual BMI gain in Japanese men.

  8. Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kishore Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33±13.12 years from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02±1.47 kg/m2 was compared with obese group (29.31±3.95 kg/m2, <0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92±4.28 kg was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1 kg, <0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

  9. Observer variation in measurements of waist-hip ratio and the abdominal sagittal diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Andersen, T; Breum, Leif; Hilsted, J; Gøtzsche, P C

    1993-01-01

    In an out-patient weight loss study of 63 patients (54 female, 9 male), 53 completed a 16 week treatment with a low calorie diet and a 9 g/day fibre supplement. In these 53 patients, the average weight loss was 8.3 kg (s.e.m. 0.8). Waist-hip ratio (WHR) and abdominal sagittal diameter (SagD) were...... were 0.0% for WHR and 0.4% for SagD. It is concluded that there is no need to use several observers or repeated measurements of waist, hip and SagD in clinical anti-obesity trials....

  10. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  11. Genetic Analysis of Low BMI Phenotype in the Utah Population Database

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, William R.; Johnson, Craig; McKee, Patrick; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    The low body mass index (BMI) phenotype of less than 18.5 has been linked to medical and psychological morbidity as well as increased mortality risk. Although genetic factors have been shown to influence BMI across the entire BMI, the contribution of genetic factors to the low BMI phenotype is unclear. We hypothesized genetic factors would contribute to risk of a low BMI phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a genealogy data analysis using height and weight measurements from driver...

  12. The Correlation Between Self-Reported and Measured Height, Weight, and BMI in Reproductive Age Women

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Lauren W.; Allshouse, Amanda A.; Lesh, Jennifer; Polotsky, Alex J.; Santoro, Nanette

    2013-01-01

    This prospective, cross-sectional study of 60 women compares self- reported height, weight, and BMI with measured values. Self-reported BMI (29.0 ± 8.37kg/m2) was slightly lower than measured BMI (29.1 ± 8.38kg/m2) (p=0.4). Eighty percent of participants reported a BMI in the same category in which their BMI was measured. Pearson's correlation coefficient for height (0.96, p

  13. Utility of waist-to-height ratio in assessing the status of central obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jihua

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body Mass Index (BMI is widely used to assess the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk in children but it does not always relate to central obesity and varies with growth and maturation. Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR is a relatively constant anthropometric index of abdominal obesity across different age, sex or racial groups. However, information is scant on the utility of WHtR in assessing the status of abdominal obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children, categorized according to the accepted BMI threshold values. Methods Cross-sectional cardiometabolic risk factor variables on 3091 black and white children (56% white, 50% male, 4-18 years of age were used. Based on the age-, race- and sex-specific percentiles of BMI, the children were classified as normal weight (5th - 85th percentiles and overweight/obese (≥ 85th percentile. The risk profiles of each group based on the WHtR ( Results 9.2% of the children in the normal weight group were centrally obese (WHtR ≥0.5 and 19.8% among the overweight/obese were not (WHtR Conclusion WHtR not only detects central obesity and related adverse cardiometabolic risk among normal weight children, but also identifies those without such conditions among the overweight/obese children, which has implications for pediatric primary care practice.

  14. Anthropometric indices to identify metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: a comparison between the three stages of adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Feliciano Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HW in a representative adolescent sample; as well as to establish which anthropometric indicator better identifies MS and HW, according to gender and adolescent age. METHODS: This cross sectional study had the participation of 800 adolescents (414 girls from 10-19 years old. Anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist perimeter, waist/stature ratio, waist/hip ratio, and central/peripheral skinfolds were determined by standard protocols. For diagnosis of MS, the criteria proposed by de Ferranti et al. (2004 were used. HW was defined by the simultaneous presence of increased waist perimeter (>75th percentile for age and sex and high triglycerides (>100 mg/dL. The ability of anthropometric indicators was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS was identical to HW (6.4%, without differences between genders and the adolescence phases. The waist perimeter showed higher area under the curve for the diagnosis of MS, except for boys with 17-19 years old, for whom the waist/stature ratio exhibited better performance. For diagnosing HW, waist perimeter also showed higher area under the curve, except for boys in initial and final phases, in which the waist/stature ratio obtained larger area under the curve. The central/peripheral skinfolds had the lowest area under the curve for the presence of both MS and HW phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The waist perimeter and the waist/stature showed a better performance to identify MS and HW in both genders and in all three phases of adolescence.

  15. Evaluation of marginal circumference and marginal thickness changes in precrimped stainless steel crowns, after recrimping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The need for recrimping precrimped stainless steel crowns by the dentist in clinic is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of marginal circumference and marginal thickness change of precrimped stainless steel crowns after recrimping. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 primary photos were taken from margins of 30 S.S.Cs (3M, Ni-Cr related to tooth 85 with a digital camera fixed at a determined distance. Margins of crowns were crimped by 114 and 137 pliers with a controlled force (0.2 N and then 30 secondary photos were taken in the same conditions. The circumference of crown margins in primary (group A and secondary (group B photos were assessed by a digitizer system. Comparing the circumferences of crown margins in primary and secondary photos showed a significant decrease after crimping. Thickness of 30 random points on the crown margins of a crown similar to mentioned cases was measured by SEM (×150. Then similar procedures including taking a primary photo, crimping and taking a secondary photo was done for the sample crown. After significant reduction in margin circumference, thickness of 30 other random points on the crown margin were measured by SEM. Data were analyzed by paired sample t-test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The mean marginal circumference of precrimped stainless steel crowns was reduced by 7.3% which was significant (P<0.001. On the other hand the mean marginal thickness of sample stainless steel crown showed 18µ increase. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, marginal circumference of precrimped stainless steel crowns (3M, Ni-Cr showed a significant decrease after crimping. It is concluded that crimping the stainless steel crowns even for precrimped ones seems necessary.

  16. Association between Serum Leptin Concentrations and Insulin Resistance: A Population-Based Study from China

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zuo; Zumin Shi; Baojun Yuan; Yue Dai; Gaolin Wu; Akhtar Hussain

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance contributes to the cardio-metabolic risk. The effect of leptin in obese and overweight population on insulin resistance was seldom reported. METHODS: A total of 1234 subjects (572 men and 662 women) aged ≥18 y was sampled by the procedure. Adiposity measures included BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold and body fat percentage. Serum leptin concentrations were measured by an ELISA method. The homeostasis mod...

  17. Gene expression profiling of differentially expressed genes in bull testicle between different scrotal circumference using DDRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify tissue-specific expression gene in testicle of differential scrotal circumference bulls and analyze the function of the specific gene on the development of the bull's scrotum in this study. The DDRT-PCR and Reverse Northern Blot Analysis were used to identify tissue-specific expression genes in bulls with differential scrotal circumference. The experiment was designed sixty 6-month-old crossbreeds (Charolais with indigenous Fuzhou female). These were raised under the same age, cross generation, raising condition and management. When the feeding was over after 6 months, the scrotal circumferences of bulls were measured. Four bulls were selected and classified into two groups, and the difference of scrotal circumference is significant between the two groups (P < 0.01). A group was consisted of two bulls with larger scrotal circumference 26±2.5cm. The control group was two crossbreed bulls with smaller scrotal circumference 17±2.2 cm. When the scrotal circumferences were measured, the bulls were castrated by surgical operations. A piece of tissue (2 by 2 by 2 cm) was removed from the deeper area of the testis and stored in liquid nitrogen. A small section (0.5 by 0.5 by 0.5 cm) was used for total RNA extraction by using the TRIZOL reagent kit (GIBCO/BRL, Bethesda, MA, USA). The RNA was prepared for DDRT-PCR experiments and quantitative real-time PCR. The results were shown that six genes corresponded to genes of known or inferred function; either the bovine gene or the likely human orthologue and three genes or ESTs were unknown. Bos taurus similar to galactosidase, beta 1-like; Bos taurus similar to Kinesin heavy chain isoform 5C; Bos taurus similar to ankyrin repeat domain protein 15 isoform and Bos taurus ebd-P2 pseudogene were founded both highly expressed in bulls which had bigger scrotal circumference by qRT-PCR. Their functions may be involved with sperm maturation in the epididymis, sperm protection and preventing the ascent of microorganisms

  18. Simulation of Crab Waist Collisions In DA$\\Phi$NE With KLOE-2 Interaction Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zobov, M. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Drago, A. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Gallo, A. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Milardi, C. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Shatilov, D. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics (BINP); Valishev, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-06-24

    After the successful completion of the SIDDHARTA experiment run with crab waist collisions, the electron-positron collider DAΦNE has started routine operations for the KLOE-2 detector. The new interaction region also exploits the crab waist collision scheme, but features certain complications including the experimental detector solenoid, compensating anti-solenoids, and tilted quadrupole magnets. We have performed simulations of the beam-beam collisions in the collider taking into account the real DAΦNE nonlinear lattice. In particular, we have evaluated the effect of crab waist sextupoles and beam-beam interactions on the DAΦNE dynamical aperture and energy acceptance, and estimated the luminosity that can be potentially achieved with and without crab waist sextupoles in the present working conditions. A numerical analysis has been performed in order to propose possible steps for further luminosity increase in DAΦNE such as a better working point choice, crab sextupole strength optimization, correction of the phase advance between the sextupoles and the interaction region. The proposed change of the e- ring working point was implemented and resulted in a significant performance increase.

  19. Simulation of Crab Waist Collisions in DAΦNE with KLOE-2 Interaction Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zobov, M. [Frascati; Drago, A. [Frascati; Gallo, A. [Frascati; Milardi, C. [Frascati; Shatilov, D. [Novosibirsk, IYF; Valishev, A. [Fermilab

    2015-06-24

    After the successful completion of the SIDDHARTA experiment run with crab waist collisions, the electron-positron collider DAΦNE has started routine operations for the KLOE-2 detector. The new interaction region also exploits the crab waist collision scheme, but features certain complications including the experimental detector solenoid, compensating anti-solenoids, and tilted quadrupole magnets. We have performed simulations of the beam-beam collisions in the collider taking into account the real DAΦNE nonlinear lattice. In particular, we have evaluated the effect of crab waist sextupoles and beam-beam interactions on the DAΦNE dynamical aperture and energy acceptance, and estimated the luminosity that can be potentially achieved with and without crab waist sextupoles in the present working conditions. A numerical analysis has been performed in order to propose possible steps for further luminosity increase in DAΦNE such as a better working point choice, crab sextupole strength optimization, correction of the phase advance between the sextupoles and the interaction region. The proposed change of the e⁻ ring working point was implemented and resulted in a significant performance increase.

  20. Simulation of Crab Waist Collisions in DAΦNE with KLOE-2 Interaction Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobov, Mikhail; Valishev, Alexander; Shatilov, Dmitry; Milardi, Catia; De Santis, Antonio; Drago, Alessandro; Gallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    After the successful completion of the SIDDHARTA experiment run with crab waist collisions, the electron- positron collider DA{\\Phi}NE has started routine operations for the KLOE-2 detector. The new interaction region also exploits the crab waist collision scheme, but features certain complications including the experimental detector solenoid, compensating anti-solenoids, and tilted quadrupole magnets. We have performed simulations of the beam-beam collisions in the collider taking into account the real DA{\\Phi}NE nonlinear lattice. In particular, we have evaluated the effect of crab waist sextupoles and beam-beam interactions on the DA{\\Phi}NE dynamical aperture and energy acceptance, and estimated the luminosity that can be potentially achieved with and without crab waist sextupoles in the present working conditions. A numerical analysis has been performed in order to propose possible steps for further luminosity increase in DA{\\Phi}NE such as a better working point choice, crab sextupole strength optimization, correction of the phase advance between the sextupoles and the interaction region. The proposed change of the e- ring working point was implemented and resulted in a significant performance increase.

  1. The Waist Width of Skis Influences the Kinematics of the Knee Joint in Alpine Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zorko, Bojan Nemec, Jan Babič, Blaz Lešnik, Matej Supej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently alpine skis with a wider waist width, which medially shifts the contact between the ski edge and the snow while turning, have appeared on the market. The aim of this study was to determine the knee joint kinematics during turning while using skis of different waist widths (65mm, 88mm, 110mm. Six highly skilled skiers performed ten turns on a predefined course (similar to a giant slalom course. The relation of femur and tibia in the sagital, frontal and coronal planes was captured by using an inertial motion capture suit, and Global Navigation Satellite System was used to determine the skiers’ trajectories. With respect of the outer ski the knee joint flexion, internal rotation and abduction significantly decreased with the increase of the ski waist width for the greatest part of the ski turn. The greatest abduction with the narrow ski and the greatest external rotation (lowest internal rotation with the wide ski are probably the reflection of two different strategies of coping the biomechanical requirements in the ski turn. These changes in knee kinematics were most probably due to an active adaptation of the skier to the changed biomechanical conditions using wider skis. The results indicated that using skis with large waist widths on hard, frozen surfaces could bring the knee joint unfavorably closer to the end of the range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as potentially increasing the risk of degenerative knee injuries.

  2. Interaction of both hypertriglyceridemic waist and impaired fasting glucose on the incidence of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秋荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the use of hypertriglyceridemic waist(HTGW) to predict the occurrence of diabetes. Also to independently study whether there was an interaction between HTGW and impaired fasting glucose(IFG) on the cause of diabetes. Methods We undertook a cohort study based on data from the

  3. Peer effects in adolescent BMI: evidence from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Toni; Gil, Joan

    2013-05-01

    This paper extends the recent literature on the influence of peers on adolescent weight on three new fronts. First, based on a survey of secondary school students in Spain in which peers are formed by nominated classmate friends, we find a more powerful positive and significant causal effect of friends' mean BMI on adolescent BMI than previous US-based research. These results are in line with international data, which show that peer group contact tends to vary across countries. Our findings cover a large set of controls, fixed effects, the testing of correlated unobservables, contextual influences and instrumental variables. Second, social interactions are identified through the property of intransitivity in network relationships. Finally, we report evidence of a strong, positive effect of peer pressure on several subgroups of adolescents in an attempt to study their vulnerability to social influences. PMID:22473688

  4. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L.; Gaylis, Jaclyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was c...

  5. Socioeconomic status in relation to BMI in Macedonian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bojadzieva, Biljana; Nakeva, Natasa; Zafirova, Biljana; Matveeva, Niki; Chadikovska, Elizabeta; Jovevska, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status in Macedonian high school students in relation to their socioeconomic status (SES), education and employment of their parents. In this study 117 adolescent students (48 males and 69 females) at the age of 17 and 18 were included. We measured weight and height using standard procedures while BMI was calculated. The examinees completed the questionnaire including data for SES, parents’ education and employment. Male ...

  6. An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cognitive/Academic Performance among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Kuang Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study examines the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and total cholesterol and cognitive/academic performance. In this study, 1297 Taiwanese tenth-grade volunteers are recruited. Scores from the Basic Competency Test, an annual national competitive entrance examination, are used to evaluate academic performance. Cognitive abilities are accessed via the Multiple Aptitude Test Battery. The results indicate that systolic blood pressure is significantly, negatively associated with academic performance, both in male and female subjects. BMI and waist circumference are associated with verbal reasoning performance with an inverse U-shaped pattern, suggesting that both low and high BMI/waist circumference may be associated with lower verbal reasoning performance.

  7. An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cognitive/Academic Performance among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Cho, Ying-Chun; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Hu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Li-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and total cholesterol) and cognitive/academic performance. In this study, 1297 Taiwanese tenth-grade volunteers are recruited. Scores from the Basic Competency Test, an annual national competitive entrance examination, are used to evaluate academic performance. Cognitive abilities are accessed via the Multiple Aptitude Test Battery. The results indicate that systolic blood pressure is significantly, negatively associated with academic performance, both in male and female subjects. BMI and waist circumference are associated with verbal reasoning performance with an inverse U-shaped pattern, suggesting that both low and high BMI/waist circumference may be associated with lower verbal reasoning performance. PMID:26137484

  8. Does change in hip circumference predict cardiovascular disease and overall mortality in Danish and Swedish women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanfer, Anne; Mehlig, Kirsten; Heitmann, Berit L; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence consistently shows that small hip circumference (HC) is related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease, diabetes, and premature death in women. This study aims to clarify whether this inverse association can be found in both normal- and ove...... overweight individuals and if change in HC over time relates to morbidity and mortality risk....

  9. Association of older women's limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all underwent bioimpedance analysis. Relationships were examined by using Pearson (r) correlations, Cronbach's alpha, and factor analysis. [Results] Circumferential measures correlated significantly with one another (r = 0.745-0.968) and with the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis (r = 0.480-0.628). The Cronbach's alpha for the measures was 0.905. Factor analysis confirmed that all of the measures were reflective of a common construct. [Conclusion] On the basis of their correlations with one another and the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis, circumferential measures of the mid-arm or calf may be considered crude indicators of reduced muscle mass. PMID:27134404

  10. Association of older women’s limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W.; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all underwent bioimpedance analysis. Relationships were examined by using Pearson (r) correlations, Cronbach’s alpha, and factor analysis. [Results] Circumferential measures correlated significantly with one another (r = 0.745–0.968) and with the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis (r = 0.480–0.628). The Cronbach’s alpha for the measures was 0.905. Factor analysis confirmed that all of the measures were reflective of a common construct. [Conclusion] On the basis of their correlations with one another and the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis, circumferential measures of the mid-arm or calf may be considered crude indicators of reduced muscle mass.

  11. Neck circumference as predictor of excess body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether neck circumference can predict cardiovascular risk factors and excess body fat in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included male and female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The following data were collected: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, percentage of body fat according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. The anthropometric measurements were used for calculating indices and assessing nutritional status. The receiver operating characteristic curve tested whether neck circumference could predict cardiovascular risk. We also investigated how neck circumference related to the study parameters. The significance level was set at 5% (p0.5; p<0.05, varying from 0.610 for high-density lipoprotein to 0.817 for blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Neck circumference was capable of predicting excess fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents.

  12. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. METHODS: We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. RESULTS: Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative

  13. Methodology for adjusting scrotal circumference to 365 or 452 days of age and correlations of scrotal circumference with growth traits in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D J; Spitzer, J C; Bridges, W C; Olson, L W

    1996-09-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on data collected from 1983 through 1991, where weight and hip height were measured at start of test and every 28 d on 604 bulls completing a 224-d forage-based gain test. Scrotal circumference (SC) was measured at start of test, and at either end of test or end of the weigh period after individual bulls reached 365 d of age. Over 3 yr of this study, SC was additionally measured every 28 d. Bulls were representatives of 5 breed groups: Angus, Santa Gertrudis, Simmental, Continental (predominantly Charolais), and Zebu (predominantly Simbrah). Adjusted 365-d SC and adjusted 452-d SC were calculated by regression analysis and from formulas based on SC growth of individuals to 140 and 224 d on test, respectively. Breed group differences were observed for age of dam, birth weight, hip height, weight per day of age, average daily gain and SC at start of test, 140 d, and end of test (224 d). Scrotal circumference was positively correlated with all growth traits. Scrotal circumference was related to breed group, age, weight, hip height, average daily gain, weight per day of age, age by year, and age-by-breed group (P<0.05), as determined by regression analysis. However, omitting weight, hip height, average daily gain, and weight per day of age from the regression model did not significantly affect R2 value. Scrotal circumference growth was linear to 140 d on test; however, SC growth to 224 d on test was curvilinear. The 365-d SC predicted from the formula and from regression analysis differed for Simmental and Zebu by 0.3 and 0.4 cm, respectively (P<0.05). The 452-d SC differed for Santa Gertrudis and Zebu by 0.5 and 0.6 cm, respectively (P<0.05). Formulas based on SC growth of individuals are reasonably accurate predictors of SC at 365 and 452 d of age, when compared with more complex regression analysis. Basing SC adjustments on individual growth appears to account for variables known to affect yearling SC. PMID:16727931

  14. The Waist Width of Skis Influences the Kinematics of the Knee Joint in Alpine Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorko, Martin; Nemec, Bojan; Babič, Jan; Lešnik, Blaz; Supej, Matej

    2015-09-01

    Recently alpine skis with a wider waist width, which medially shifts the contact between the ski edge and the snow while turning, have appeared on the market. The aim of this study was to determine the knee joint kinematics during turning while using skis of different waist widths (65mm, 88mm, 110mm). Six highly skilled skiers performed ten turns on a predefined course (similar to a giant slalom course). The relation of femur and tibia in the sagital, frontal and coronal planes was captured by using an inertial motion capture suit, and Global Navigation Satellite System was used to determine the skiers' trajectories. With respect of the outer ski the knee joint flexion, internal rotation and abduction significantly decreased with the increase of the ski waist width for the greatest part of the ski turn. The greatest abduction with the narrow ski and the greatest external rotation (lowest internal rotation) with the wide ski are probably the reflection of two different strategies of coping the biomechanical requirements in the ski turn. These changes in knee kinematics were most probably due to an active adaptation of the skier to the changed biomechanical conditions using wider skis. The results indicated that using skis with large waist widths on hard, frozen surfaces could bring the knee joint unfavorably closer to the end of the range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as potentially increasing the risk of degenerative knee injuries. Key pointsThe change in the skis' waist width caused a change in the knee joint movement strategies, which had a tendency to adapt the skier to different biomechanical conditions.The use of wider skis or, in particular, skis with a large waist width, on a hard or frozen surface, could unfavourably bring the knee joint closer to the end of range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as may potentially increase the risk of degenerative knee injuries.The overall results of the abduction and internal

  15. Separating bedtime rest from activity using waist or wrist-worn accelerometers in youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin J Tracy

    Full Text Available Recent interest in sedentary behavior and technological advances expanded use of watch-size accelerometers for continuous monitoring of physical activity (PA over extended periods (e.g., 24 h/day for 1 week in studies conducted in natural living environment. This approach necessitates the development of new methods separating bedtime rest and activity periods from the accelerometer recordings. The goal of this study was to develop a decision tree with acceptable accuracy for separating bedtime rest from activity in youth using accelerometer placed on waist or wrist. Minute-by-minute accelerometry data were collected from 81 youth (10-18 years old, 47 females during a monitored 24-h stay in a whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with a force platform covering the floor to detect movement. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to determine the accelerometer cut points for rest and activity. To examine the classification differences, the accelerometer bedtime rest and activity classified by the algorithm in the development group (n = 41 were compared with actual bedtime rest and activity classification obtained from the room calorimeter-measured metabolic rate and movement data. The selected optimal bedtime rest cut points were 20 and 250 counts/min for the waist- and the wrist-worn accelerometer, respectively. The selected optimal activity cut points were 500 and 3,000 counts/min for waist and wrist-worn accelerometers, respectively. Bedtime rest and activity were correctly classified by the algorithm in the validation group (n = 40 by both waist- (sensitivity: 0.983, specificity: 0.946, area under ROC curve: 0. 872 and wrist-worn (0.999, 0.980 and 0.943 accelerometers. The decision tree classified bedtime rest correctly with higher accuracy than commonly used automated algorithm for both waist- and wrist-warn accelerometer (all p<0.001. We concluded that cut points developed and validated for waist- and wrist

  16. Anthropometric measurements of Australian Aboriginal adults living in remote areas: comparison with nationally representative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang; Briganti, Esther; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Chadban, Steven; Shaw, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    To compare body size measurements in Australian Aboriginals living in three remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia with those of the general Australian population. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences and derivative values of body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHT), and waist-weight ratios (WWT) of adult Aboriginal volunteers (n = 814), aged 25 to 74 years were compared with participants in the nationally representative 'AusDiab' survey (n = 10,434). The Aboriginal body habitus profiles differed considerably from the Australian profile. When compared to Australian females, Aboriginal females were taller and had lower hip circumference but had higher WC, WHR, WHT, and WWT (P Australian counterparts, Aboriginal males were shorter, had lower body weight, WC, hip circumference, BMI, and WHT but had higher WHR and WWT (P Aboriginal females were classified as overweight and or obese using cutoffs defined by WC and by WHR than by BMI. Aboriginal males were less often overweight and/or obese by BMI than their counterparts, but were significantly more often overweight or obese by WHR. There were significant variations in body size profiles between Aboriginal communities. However, the theme of excess waist measurements relative to their weight was uniform. Aboriginal people had preferential central fat deposition in relation to their overall weight. BMI significantly underestimated overweight and obesity as assessed by waist measurements among Aboriginals. This relationship of preferential central fat deposition to the current epidemic of chronic diseases needs to be explored further. PMID:18203125

  17. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer; Olsen, Marie; Bandholm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two of the most utilized outcome measures to assess knee joint range of motion (ROM) and intra-articular effusion are goniometry and circumference, respectively. Neither goniometry nor circumference of the knee joint have been examined for both intra-tester and inter-teste...

  18. Association of the waist-to-height ratio with cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents: The three cities heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robespierre C Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index in rela-tion to cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study was conducted among a random sample of 3179 students, aged 6 to 18 years, in three large cities in Brazil. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10% and 5%, respectively. In relation to the students in the lower quartile (Q1 of the distribution of subscapular skinfold, the students in the upper quartile (Q4 presented a 2.0 times higher risk (odds ratio of having elevated total cholesterol levels. Overweight and obese students had a 3.3 times higher risk of having elevated sys-tolic blood pressure, and a 1.9 times higher risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure than other students. The less active students presented a 1.58 times higher risk of having waist-to-height ratio (WHtR above the upper tertile (Q3. WHtR mean values was 0.46 (SE 0.00 presented the largest area under the curve (AUC [0.613 (CI995%:0.578-0.647] for high total cholesterol levels, [0.546 (CI995%: 0.515-0.578] for low HDL-C levels, and [0.614 (CI95%: 0.577-0.651] for high LDL-C levels, while body mass index presented the largest AUC [0.669 (CI95%: 0.64-0.699] for increased diastolic blood pressure followed by the waist circum-ference for increased systolic blood pressure [0.761 (CI95%: 0.735-0.787]. Conclusions: WHtR is considered as a simple and accurate anthropometric parameter that identifies youth with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, WHtR above 0.44 was indicative of risk factors in children and adolescents. These findings can be applied in future preventive strategies against CVDs, and screening pro-grams.

  19. African-American Parents' Knowledge and Perceptions About BMI Measurements, School-Based BMI Screening Programs, and BMI Report Cards: Results from a Qualitative Investigation and Implications for School-to-Parent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Dominique G; Bass, Sarah Bauerle

    2016-06-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) screenings can help parents make informed decisions about their child's health, but schools have questioned parents' understanding and attitudes about BMI measures and report cards. Although researchers have investigated minority parents' perceptions of their child's weight, no research has explored minority parents' knowledge and perceptions related to BMI measurements, school-based BMI screening programs, and BMI report cards. To address this gap, focus groups were conducted (n = 20) with female Black or African-American parents/guardians from a large urban school district. Participants were asked to share their perceptions before and after receiving education about BMI measurements and screening programs. Pre-education: Many participants had heard of BMI, thought it was similar to body fat, believed screenings were intended to track students' weights and monitor eating habits, and were concerned that screenings could cause their child embarrassment. Post-education: Most participants did not object to screenings, but said they would have without education about why and how BMI measurements are taken. They also voiced concerns about lack of prior notice, confidentiality, and the need for schools to serve healthier food. Some of these findings support those of other qualitative studies of parents' concerns about BMI screenings, but no previous studies have compared parents' perceptions of screening programs pre-/post-education. The results reinforce that schools' efforts to explain what BMI measurements are as well as why and how they are taken can increase parents' confidence in the schools and level of comfort with BMI screening programs and report cards. PMID:27271073

  20. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  1. Associations of the pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational BMI gain with pregnancy outcomes in Chinese women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Dongmei; Li, Feifei; Zhang, Ya; Xu, Xianming

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight change in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy likely have an effect on pregnancy outcome. However, limited clinical evidence is available to support the correlation. Aims: To investigate the relationship of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational BMI gains and their effect on pregnancy outcome among Chinese women with GDM. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 1418 pregnant patients with GDM who receive...

  2. Structural characterization of APPJ treated Bismaleimide coatings and heat treated Titania-BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Shrinidhi, S.; Suman, S; Shah, A.; PRABHAKAR. P; Kumar, A. Chaurasia A.; Chauhan, K. G.; Bhattacharyya, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) are thermosetting polymers mainly used in aerospace applications having properties of dimensional stability, low shrinkage, chemical resistance, fire resistance, good mechanical properties and high resistance against various solvents, acids, and water. BMI is commercially available as Homide 250. BMI coating has also been used for the corrosion protection. Metallization (AL) of BMI using vacuum evaporation was done which serves the purpose of prevention of space charge accu...

  3. Internal Friction in Rail Waist of BNb and BNbRE Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ning; Sun Zhenyan; Ji Jingwen; Wang Yunsheng; Ren Xinjian

    2005-01-01

    The internal frictions of the specimens in the waist centre of the commercial BNb and BNbRE rails, which were left in air for two years, were measured. It is found that there is an obvious Snoek-Kê-Kster (SKK) peak in both steels, and still exists a measurable deformation-enhanced Snoek peak(DESP) in the specimens of the BNbRE steel. The internal frictions in the deformed specimens of the both steel rails were also measured. Unlike the case of the tread specimens showing a decrease of SKK damping due to deformation, the SKK damping of the rail waist specimens increases after deformation; and the specimens containing rare earth(RE) show more noticeable damping increase than those without RE. The results of the internal friction measured during ascending and descending temperature under 700 ℃ show that there is a high temperature damping which can be completely disappeared during descending temperature for both steels.

  4. Interaction region for crab waist scheme of the Future Electron-Positron Collider (CERN)

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomyagkov, A

    2015-01-01

    Design study in CERN of the accelerator that would fit 80-100 km tunnel called Future Circular Colliders (FCC) includes high-luminosity $e^+ e^−$ collider (FCC-ee) with center-of-mass energy from 90 to 350 GeV to study Higgs boson properties and perform precise measurements at the electroweak scale [1–3]. Crab waist interaction region provides collisions with luminosity higher than 2 × 10$^{36}$ cm$^{−2}$ sec$^{−1}$ at beam energy of 45 GeV. The small values of the beta functions at the interaction point and distant final focus lenses are the reasons for high nonlinear chromaticity limiting energy acceptance of the whole ring. The paper describes interaction region for crab waist collision scheme in the FCC-ee, principles of tuning the chromaticity correction section in order to provide large energy acceptance.

  5. Modelling BMI trajectories in children for genetic association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Warrington

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The timing of associations between common genetic variants and changes in growth patterns over childhood may provide insight into the development of obesity in later life. To address this question, it is important to define appropriate statistical models to allow for the detection of genetic effects influencing longitudinal childhood growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: Children from The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine; n=1,506 Study were genotyped at 17 genetic loci shown to be associated with childhood obesity (FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, GNPDA2, KCTD15, NEGR1, BDNF, ETV5, SEC16B, LYPLAL1, TFAP2B, MTCH2, BCDIN3D, NRXN3, SH2B1, MRSA and an obesity-risk-allele-score was calculated as the total number of 'risk alleles' possessed by each individual. To determine the statistical method that fits these data and has the ability to detect genetic differences in BMI growth profile, four methods were investigated: linear mixed effects model, linear mixed effects model with skew-t random errors, semi-parametric linear mixed models and a non-linear mixed effects model. Of the four methods, the semi-parametric linear mixed model method was the most efficient for modelling childhood growth to detect modest genetic effects in this cohort. Using this method, three of the 17 loci were significantly associated with BMI intercept or trajectory in females and four in males. Additionally, the obesity-risk-allele score was associated with increased average BMI (female: β=0.0049, P=0.0181; male: β=0.0071, P=0.0001 and rate of growth (female: β=0.0012, P=0.0006; male: β=0.0008, P=0.0068 throughout childhood. CONCLUSIONS: Using statistical models appropriate to detect genetic variants, variations in adult obesity genes were associated with childhood growth. There were also differences between males and females. This study provides evidence of genetic effects that may identify individuals early in life that are more likely to rapidly increase their BMI

  6. Optimal Waist-to-Hip Ratios in Women Activate Neural Reward Centers in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Platek, Steven M.; Singh, Devendra

    2010-01-01

    Secondary sexual characteristics convey information about reproductive potential. In the same way that facial symmetry and masculinity, and shoulder-to-hip ratio convey information about reproductive/genetic quality in males, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) is a phenotypic cue to fertility, fecundity, neurodevelopmental resources in offspring, and overall health, and is indicative of “good genes” in women. Here, using fMRI, we found that males show activation in brain reward centers in response to n...

  7. SVM-based posture identification with a single waist-located triaxial accelerometer

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Martín, Daniel Manuel; Samà Monsonís, Albert; Pérez López, Carlos; Català Mallofré, Andreu; Cabestany Moncusí, Joan; Rodríguez Molinero, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of human body movement is an important research area, specially for health applications. In order to assess the quality of life of people with mobility problems like Parkinson’s disease o stroke patients, it is crucial to monitor and assess their daily life activities. The main goal of this work is the characterization of basic activities using a single triaxial accelerometer located at the waist. This paper presents a novel postural detection algorithm based in SVM methods which is ...

  8. Identification of postural transitions using a waist-located inertial sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Martín, Daniel Manuel; Samà Monsolís, Albert; Pérez López, Carlos; Català Mallofré, Andreu; Cabestany Moncusí, Joan; Rodríguez Molinero, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of human movement is an important research area, specially for health applications. In order to assess the quality of life of people with mobility problems like Parkinson’s disease (PD) or stroke patients, it is crucial to monitor their daily life activities. The main goal of this work is to characterize basic activities and their transitions using a single sensor located at the waist. This paper presents a novel postural detection algorithm which is able to detect and identify 6 dif...

  9. The decline in BMI among Japanese women after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka

    2015-07-01

    The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II. PMID:26057102

  10. Modification effects of physical activity and protein intake on heritability of body size and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Lallukka, Tea;

    2009-01-01

    Mx statistical package (Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA). RESULTS: High physical activity was associated with lower mean values, and a high proportion of protein in the diet was associated with higher mean BMI, waist...... circumference, and percentage body fat and a reduction in genetic and environmental variances. Genetic modification by physical activity was statistically significant for BMI (-0.18; 95% CI: -0.31, -0.05) and waist circumference (-0.14; 95% CI: -0.22, -0.05) in the merged data. A high proportion of protein in...

  11. Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann;

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of children are exhibiting features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) including abdominal fatness, hypertension, adverse lipid profile and insulin resistance. Healthy eating practices during school hours may improve the cardiometabolic profile, but there is a lack of evidence....... In the present study, the effect of provision of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on a MetS score (primary outcome) and on individual cardiometabolic markers and body composition (secondary outcomes) was investigated in 834 Danish school children. The study was carried out as a cluster......-randomised, controlled, non-blinded, cross-over trial at nine schools. Children aged 8-11 years received freshly prepared school lunch and snacks or usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months. Dietary intake, physical activity, cardiometabolic markers and body composition were measured at baseline and...

  12. Association of the Waist-to-Height Ratio with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents: The Three Cities Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robespierre C Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index in relation tocardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents.Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study was conductedamong a random sample of 3179 students, aged 6 to 18 years, in threelarge cities in Brazil.Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10% and 5%,respectively. In relation to the students in the lower quartile (Q1 of thedistribution of subscapular skinfold, the students in the upper quartile(Q4 presented a 2.0 times higher risk (odds ratio of having elevatedtotal cholesterol levels. Overweight and obese students had a 3.3 timeshigher risk of having elevated systolic blood pressure, and a 1.9 timeshigher risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure than other students.The less active students presented a 1.58 times higher risk of havingwaist-to-height ratio (WHtR above the upper tertile (Q3. WHtR meanvalues was 0.46 (SE 0.00 presented the largest area under the curve(AUC [0.613 (CI995%:0.578-0.647] for high total cholesterol levels,[0.546 (CI995%: 0.515-0.578] for low HDL-C levels, and [0.614(CI95%: 0.577-0.651] for high LDL-C levels, while body mass indexpresented the largest AUC [0.669 (CI95%: 0.64-0.699] for increaseddiastolic blood pressure followed by the waist circumference for increasedsystolic blood pressure [0.761 (CI95%: 0.735-0.787].Conclusions: WHtR is considered as a simple and accurate anthropometricparameter that identifies youth with cardiovascular risk factors.In this study, WHtR above 0.44 was indicative of risk factors inchildren and adolescents. These findings can be applied in future preventivestrategies against CVDs, and screening programs.

  13. How well do we know the circumference of a storage ring?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M. [DESY (Germany); Ziemann, V., E-mail: volker.ziemann@physics.uu.se [Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2015-01-21

    High-precision nuclear physics experiments in storage rings require precise knowledge of the beam energy. In the absence of electron cooling, which provides this information, one can use the frequency of the radio-frequency system in conjunction with knowledge of the circumference of the ring. We investigate to which precision the latter can be determined in the presence of magnet misalignment and orbit correction.

  14. How well do we know the circumference of a storage ring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, M.; Ziemann, V.

    2015-01-01

    High-precision nuclear physics experiments in storage rings require precise knowledge of the beam energy. In the absence of electron cooling, which provides this information, one can use the frequency of the radio-frequency system in conjunction with knowledge of the circumference of the ring. We investigate to which precision the latter can be determined in the presence of magnet misalignment and orbit correction.

  15. Rate of Head Circumference Growth as a Function of Autism Diagnosis and History of Autistic Regression

    OpenAIRE

    WEBB, SARA JANE; Nalty, Theresa; Munson, Jeff; Brock, Catherine; Abbott, Robert; Dawson, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    Several reports indicate that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with increased rate of head growth in early childhood. Increased rate of growth may index aberrant processes during early development, may precede the onset of symptoms, and may predict severity of the disease course. We examined rate of change in occipitofrontal circumference measurements (abstracted from medical records) in 28 boys with ASD and in 8 boys with developmental delay without autism from birth to age 36 mo...

  16. How well do we know the circumference of a storage ring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-precision nuclear physics experiments in storage rings require precise knowledge of the beam energy. In the absence of electron cooling, which provides this information, one can use the frequency of the radio-frequency system in conjunction with knowledge of the circumference of the ring. We investigate to which precision the latter can be determined in the presence of magnet misalignment and orbit correction

  17. Neck circumference as predictor of excess body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves; Eliane Rodrigues de Faria; Sylvia Do Carmo Castro Franceschini; Silvia Eloiza Priore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify whether neck circumference can predict cardiovascular risk factors and excess body fat in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included male and female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The following data were collected: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, percentage of body fat according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipop...

  18. Bmi1 Is Required for Hedgehog Pathway-Driven Medulloblastoma Expansion12

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Lowell Evan; Westerman, Bart A.; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Wang, Aiqin; Ferris, Jennifer; Liu, Jianhong; Blom, Marleen; Ellison, David W.; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.

    2008-01-01

    Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh) signaling underlies development of a subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in transgenic mice expressing an oncogenic Hh effector, SmoA1, driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Whereas 100% of SmoA1; Bmi1+/+ or SmoA1;Bmi1+/- mice examined between postnatal (P) ...

  19. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Reproductive Health of Daughters in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariansdatter, Saga Elise; Ernst, Andreas; Toft, Gunnar;

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 1988......-significantly lower dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS), estradiol, and free estrogen index (FEI), compared to the middle BMI tertile. This was supported by a sub-analysis using the WHO classification (underweight, BMI < 18.50; normal range, BMI 18.50-24.99; overweight/obese, BMI ≥ 25.00 kg/m2) as exposure groups...

  20. Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taal, H Rob; St Pourcain, Beate; Thiering, Elisabeth;

    2012-01-01

    studies (combined N = 19,089). rs7980687 on chromosome 12q24 (P = 8.1 × 10(-9)) and rs1042725 on chromosome 12q15 (P = 2.8 × 10(-10)) were robustly associated with head circumference in infancy. Although these loci have previously been associated with adult height, their effects on infant head...... circumference were largely independent of height (P = 3.8 × 10(-7) for rs7980687 and P = 1.3 × 10(-7) for rs1042725 after adjustment for infant height). A third signal, rs11655470 on chromosome 17q21, showed suggestive evidence of association with head circumference (P = 3.9 × 10(-6)). SNPs correlated to the 17......q21 signal have shown genome-wide association with adult intracranial volume, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, indicating that a common genetic variant in this region might link early brain growth with neurological disease in later life....

  1. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. Methods We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Results Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P P P P P > 0.5. In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P P P > 0.05. Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P P Conclusion Expression of Bmi-1 was greater in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues. The examination of Bmi-1 protein expression is potentially valuable in prognostic evaluation of bladder cancer.

  2. Construction of antisense Bmi-1 expression plasmid and its inhibitory effect on K562 cells proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiu-xiang; LIU Wei-hong; LIU Dan-dan; ZHAO Xin-yu; SU Ben-li

    2005-01-01

    Background Bmi-1 gene determines the proliferative capacity of normal and leukemia stem cells. Expression of Bmi-1 has been found in all types of myeloid leukemia cells in both humans and mice. This study aimed at assessing the effect of antisense Bmi-1 expression on K562 cells proliferation and p16 protein (p16) expression.Results K562 cells transfected with antisense Bmi-1 plasmid grew significantly slower than that of controls (the parental K562 and cells transfected with empty plasmid). The colony forming ability of antisense Bmi-1 plasmid transfected cells decreased significantly (P<0.01) compared with controls. The p16 expression of cells transfected with antisense Bmi-1 was upgraded more apparently than that of controls.Conclusion The antisense Bmi-1 gene can inhibit the growth of K562 cell and upgrade expression of p16 in K562 cells.

  3. Evolution of the THz Beam Profile from a Two-Color Air Plasma Through a Beam Waist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally measure the profile of a THz beam generated by a two-color air plasma as it passes through a beam waist, and show that it can be approximated as a Bessel-Gauss beam.......We experimentally measure the profile of a THz beam generated by a two-color air plasma as it passes through a beam waist, and show that it can be approximated as a Bessel-Gauss beam....

  4. Effectiveness of telenutrition in a women’s weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac E. Kuzmar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of telenutrition versus traditional nutritional consultations for female obese patients in need of nutritional treatment. Methods. A comparative clinical study was conducted among 233 obese or overweight women (including 20 who dropped out and 60 who failed who consulted a nutrition clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia for nutritional assessment and chose either telenutrition or a traditional consultation that included a weekly follow-up consultation over 16 weeks, food consumption patterns, Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2 registeration and waist and hip circumference registeration. Treatment responses and differences between telenutrition and the traditional consultations were made according to BMI, waist, hip and initial-waist/height ratio (iWaist, calculating for the relative risk. Results. In 68 (29.2% women who chose traditional attention, 9 (37.5% dropped out, 24 (40% failed and 35 (23.5% were successful, showing 1.4% (1.0 SD BMI loss, 5.8% (3.4 SD in waist circumference, 4.5% (2.8 SD in hip circumference and 0.04% (0.02 SD in iWaist/height ratio. In 165 (70.8% women who chose telenutrition, 15 (62.5% dropped out, 36 (60% failed and 114 (76.5% were successful, showing 1.1% (1.0 SD BMI loss, 5.0% (3.2 SD in waist circumference, 3.5% (3.1 SD in hip circumference and 0.03% (0.02 SD in iWaist/height ratio. A significance level of p < 0.05 is considered. Conclusion. Telenutrition has a failure or dropout risk factor of about half of the value of traditional consultation, and showed slight, statistically significant differences. This study concludes that telenutrition can support or sometimes replace traditional consultations when developing weight loss programs for obese women.

  5. Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents' BMI and educational level: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilato Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are responsible not only for the genetic structure of their children, but also for passing onto them their behaviours and attitudes toward life. The aim of this study was to analyse the connection between school-age children's obesity and that of their parents as well as between child obesity and parents' educational level, as a proxy indicator of the socio-economic status (SES of families in Tuscany. Methods The children sample was selected from "OKkio alla Salute 2010" (a cross sectional survey carried out by the Italian Institute of Health and consisted of 1,751 (922 males and 855 females 8-9 year-old school children. Weight and height were measured by ad hoc trained personnel, and Body Mass Index (BMI categories were calculated using Cole et al.'s cut-off. Parents' weight, height and educational level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The educational levels were classified as high, medium and low. Results The prevalence of obese children increased along the parents' BMI category: from 1.4% for underweight mothers to 30.3% for obese mothers and from 4% for under-normal-weight fathers to 23.9% for obese fathers (p Conclusion Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of the family, particularly the father's, seem to influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tuscan children.

  6. Distribution of abdominal adipose tissue as a predictor of hepatic steatosis assessed by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducluzeau, P.-H. [Department of endocrinology-Diabetology-Nutrition, Universitary Hospital of Angers, Faculty of Medicine of Angers (France); Manchec-Poilblanc, P., E-mail: Manchecp@yahoo.f [Department of Radiology, Universitary Hospital of Angers, Faculty of Medicine of Angers (France); Roullier, V. [Department of Radiology, Universitary Hospital of Angers, Faculty of Medicine of Angers (France); LISA, Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Systemes Automatises, Universitary Hospital of Angers, Faculty of Medicine of Angers (France); Cesbron, E. [Department of digestive and liver disease, Universitary hospital of Angers, Faculty of Medicine of Angers (France); Lebigot, J. [Department of Radiology, Universitary Hospital of Angers, Faculty of Medicine of Angers (France); Bertrais, S. [HIFIH Laboratory, UPRES EA 3859, IFR 132, Universitary Hospital of Angers, Faculty of Medicine of Angers (France); Aube, C. [Department of Radiology, Universitary Hospital of Angers, Faculty of Medicine of Angers (France); HIFIH Laboratory, UPRES EA 3859, IFR 132, Universitary Hospital of Angers, Faculty of Medicine of Angers (France)

    2010-09-15

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between the distribution of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and hepatic steatosis assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: One T1-weighted, in-/out-of-phase, single-section sequence at the L3/L4 level and one multi-echo gradient MRI (MGRE) sequence were performed on 65 patients [19 females and 46 males; age 57 {+-} 9.5 years; body mass index (BMI) 31 {+-} 5.1 kg/m{sup 2}]. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) surfaces, and hepatic steatosis were automatically calculated using in-house software. Weight, height, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist:hip ratio were recorded. The probability of having a steatosis greater than 10% on MRI was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: The anthropometric parameter best correlated to hepatic steatosis was the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.301). VAT and proportion of VAT were correlated to liver fat content (r = 0.307 and r = 0.249, respectively). No significant correlations were found for BMI, hip circumference, and SAT. The area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROCs) for the relationship between liver steatosis and BMI, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, VAT surface, and proportion of VAT, were respectively 0.52, 0.63, 0.71, 0.73 and 0.75. Conclusion: Adipose tissue distribution is more relevant than total fat mass when assessing the possibility of liver steatosis in overweight patients.

  7. Dysregulation of Bmi1 promotes malignant transformation of hepatic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Wu, W R; Shi, X D; Xu, L B; Zhu, M S; Zeng, H; Liu, C

    2016-01-01

    Adult hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are involved in a wide range of human liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bmi1 has been reported to have vital roles in stem cell self-renewal and carcinogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that Bmi1 is upregulated in HCC with bile duct tumor thrombi, a subtype of HCC characterized by profuse expression of hepatic stem cell markers. However, the function of Bmi1 in HPCs has not yet been well elucidated. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of Bmi1 on the biological properties of rat HPCs. To accomplish this, Bmi1 was silenced or enhanced in two HPC cell lines (WB-F344 and OC3) by, respectively, using either small interfering RNA against Bmi1 or a forced Bmi1 expression retroviral vector. The biological functions of Bmi1 in HPCs were investigated through cell proliferation assays, colony-formation assays, cell cycle analysis and invasion assays, as well as through xenograft-formation assays. In this study, genetic depletion of Bmi1 repressed cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion in both assessed HPC cell lines relative to controls. Conversely, forced expression of Bmi1 in two HPCs cell lines promoted cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion in vitro. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) assay revealed a significant increase in the number of ALDH-positive cells following the forced expression of Bmi1 in HPCs. Most importantly, transplantation of forced Bmi1 expression HPCs into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors with histological features of poorly differentiated HCC. Taken together, our findings indicate that forced expression of Bmi1 promotes the malignant transformation of HPCs, suggesting Bmi1 might be a potential molecular target for the treatment of HCC. PMID:26926789

  8. Bmi1 Is Required for Hedgehog Pathway-Driven Medulloblastoma Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Evan Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh signaling underlies development of a subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in transgenic mice expressing an oncogenic Hh effector, SmoA1, driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter. Whereas 100% of SmoA1; Bmi1+/+ or SmoA1;Bmi1+/- mice examined between postnatal (P days 14 and 26 had typical medulloblastomas (N = 29, tumors were not detected in any of the SmoA1;Bmi1-/- animals examined (N = 6. Instead, small ectopic collections of cells were present in the region of greatest tumor load in SmoA1 animals, suggesting that medulloblastomas were initiated but failed to undergo expansion into frank tumors. Cells within these Bmi1-/- lesions expressed SmoA1 but were largely nonproliferative, in contrast to cells in Bmi1+/+ tumors (6.2% vs 81.9% PCNA-positive, respectively. Ectopic cells were negative for the progenitor marker nestin, strongly GFAP-positive, and highly apoptotic, relative to Bmi1+/+ tumor cells (29.6% vs 6.3% TUNEL-positive. The alterations in proliferation and apoptosis in SmoA1;Bmi1-/- ectopic cells are associated with reduced levels of Cyclin D1 and elevated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19Arf, two inversely regulated downstream targets of Bmi1. These data provide the first demonstration that Bmi1 is required for spontaneous de novo development of a solid tumor arising in the brain, suggest a crucial role for Bmi1-dependent, nestin-expressing progenitor cells in medulloblastoma expansion, and implicate Bmi1 as a key factor required for Hh pathway-driven tumorigenesis.

  9. Westernization, intuitive eating, and BMI: an exploration of Jordanian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Amanda L; Madanat, Hala N

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Arabic-version of the adapted Marin Bidimensional Acculturation Scale and investigate the relationship between Westernization, intuitive eating, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of Jordanian female adolescents. A total of 199 subjects between the ages of 11-18 were surveyed. Participants who scored higher on the Arabic domain exhibited higher Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) intrinsic subscale scores (r = 0.147, P = 0.048) suggesting that those who are more orientated toward Arabic culture may respond more naturally to physical hunger cues than their more Westernized counterparts. Reinforcing intuitive eating attitudes and behaviors and emphasizing body ideals resonant with the Arabic culture may propagate the continuation of intuitive eating in this population, potentially reducing the risk of obesity and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. PMID:23896036

  10. Bmi1 is required for hepatic progenitor cell expansion and liver tumor development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Fan

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a polycomb group transcriptional repressor and it has been implicated in regulating self-renewal and proliferation of many types of stem or progenitor cells. In addition, Bmi1 has been shown to function as an oncogene in multiple tumor types. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of Bmi1 in regulating hepatic oval cells, the major type of bipotential progenitor cells in adult liver, as well as the role of Bmi1 during hepatocarcinogenesis using Bmi1 knockout mice. We found that loss of Bmi1 significantly restricted chemically induced oval cell expansion in the mouse liver. Concomitant deletion of Ink4a/Arf in Bmi1 deficient mice completely rescued the oval cell expansion phenotype. Furthermore, ablation of Bmi1 delayed hepatocarcinogenesis induced by AKT and Ras co-expression. This antineoplastic effect was accompanied by the loss of hepatic oval cell marker expression in the liver tumor samples. In summary, our data demonstrated that Bmi1 is required for hepatic oval cell expansion via deregulating the Ink4a/Arf locus in mice. Our study also provides the evidence, for the first time, that Bmi1 expression is required for liver cancer development in vivo, thus representing a promising target for innovative treatments against human liver cancer.

  11. Disentangling the associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition using the four‐component model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813

  12. Experimental demonstration of interaction region beam waist position knob for luminosity leveling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of the model-dependent control of the interaction region beam waist position (s* knob) at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The s* adjustment provides an alternative way of controlling the luminosity and is only known method to control the luminosity and reduce the pinch effect of the future eRHIC. In this paper, we will first demonstrate the effectiveness of the s* knob in luminosity controlling and its application in the future electron ion collider, eRHIC, followed by the detail experimental demonstration of such knob in RHIC.

  13. Experimental demonstration of interaction region beam waist position knob for luminosity leveling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yue [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bai, Mei [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany). Inst. for Advanced Simulation; Duan, Zhe [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Luo, Yun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, Aljosa [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, Guillaume [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shen, Xiaozhe [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-03

    In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of the model-dependent control of the interaction region beam waist position (s* knob) at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The s* adjustment provides an alternative way of controlling the luminosity and is only known method to control the luminosity and reduce the pinch effect of the future eRHIC. In this paper, we will first demonstrate the effectiveness of the s* knob in luminosity controlling and its application in the future electron ion collider, eRHIC, followed by the detail experimental demonstration of such knob in RHIC.

  14. Neck circumference correlates with tumor size and lateral lymph node metastasis in men with small papillary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Sang Soo; Huh, Jung Eun; Lee, Byung Joo; Lee, Jin Choon; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seong Jang; Wang, Soo Geun; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Joo

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Obesity is correlated with numerous diseases, including thyroid cancer, but the clinical significance of obesity with regard to the clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer remains unclear. Neck circumference is an index of upper-body adipose tissue distribution. Methods In total, 401 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) measuring ≤ 2 cm were included. Neck circumference was measured horizontally at the level just below the thyroid cartilage on preoperative neck c...

  15. Chest and occipito-frontal circumference measurements in the detection of low birth weight among Nigerian newborns of Igbo ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ndu, Ikenna K; Ibeziako, Stella N; Obidike, Egbuna O; Adimora, Gilbert N.; Edelu, Benedict O.; Chinawa, Josephat M.; Asinobi, Isaac N; Uleanya, Nwachinemere D

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organisation has recommended the use of anthropometric measurements as birth weight surrogates. However, it has been found that cut-off points for these anthropometric measurements vary across nations and ethnic groups. Objectives To determine the predictive values of chest circumference (CC), occipito-frontal circumference (OFC) and their combinations for low birth weight (LBW) detection in Igbo newborns. Methods Live newborns of Igbo origin were recruited within ...

  16. Age of Equalization of Head and Chest Circumference in Term Normal and Small for Gestational Age Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Bhalla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the timing of equalization of the head and chest circumference in full-term 74 normal Punjabi and 200 small for gestational age (SGA infants of the two sexes born to parents representing upper socio-economic strata was serially studied. A regular increase in both the head and chest circumference of normal Punjabi and SGA infants of the two sexes was noticed between 1 to 12 months of age. Normal Punjabi infants of the two sexes as compared to their SGA counterparts possessed significantly (p=0.001 larger head and chest circumference during first year of life. In general, both Punjabi and SGA male infants possessed greater head and chest circumference values than their respective female peers throughout the study span. Amongst normal male and female Punjabi infants equalization of head and chest circumference took place by 4 and 5 months of age respectively. While, the equalization of head and chest circumference never occurred amongst SGA of both the sexes between 1 to 12 months of age. This clearly shows that SGA infants as compared to normal Punjabi peers remain undernourished during infancy and failed to compensate for the effect of earlier nutritional insult experienced by them during pre-natal life.

  17. Genetic associations between scrotal circumference and female reproductive traits in Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakado, A P N; Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Silva, J A I I V; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic associations between scrotal circumference obtained at 12 (SC12; mean of 21.46 ± 2.74 cm), 15 (SC15; mean of 25.31 ± 3.19 cm), and 18 mo of age (SC18; mean of 26.77 ± 2.95 cm) and reproductive traits measured directly in heifers (age at first calving [AFC]: mean of 1,062.06 ± 114.79 d; heifer pregnancy at 16 mo of age [HP]: mean of 15.4 ± 0.36%; and subsequent rebreeding of primiparous heifers [HR]: mean of 27.1 ± 0.44%) using Bayesian inference to evaluate the possible inclusion of these traits as selection criteria in beef cattle breeding programs. Genetic gains comparisons were also estimated. A total of 53,683 data of Nelore animals born between 1990 and 2006, obtained from the livestock archive of Agropecuária Jacarezinho Ltda. (Valparaíso, São Paulo, Brazil), were analyzed. Two-trait analysis provided heritability estimates of 0.35 ± 0.08, 0.40 ± 0.04, 0.37 ± 0.03, 0.21 ± 0.01, 0.55 ± 0.03, and 0.17 ± 0.03 for SC12, SC15, SC18, AFC, HP, and HR, respectively. The genetic correlations between scrotal circumference and AFC, HP, and HR were -0.42 ± 0.12, 0.43 ± 0.13, and -0.13 ± 0.17, respectively, for SC12; -0.25 ± 0.07, 0.26 ± 0.07, and -0.11 ± 0.10, respectively, for SC15; and -0.22 ± 0.06, 0.39 ± 0.06, and 0.11 ± 0.09, respectively, for SC18. The direct selection response for HP was 0.12%, but when HP is indirectly selected based on the scrotal circumferences, the gains on these correlated responses were higher (0.16, 0.16, and 0.22%) for selection based on SC12, SC15, and SC18, respectively. These findings suggest that the selection of animals for larger scrotal circumference, particularly at 12 mo of age, should result in higher rates of HP and younger AFC of Nelore females. PMID:26115258

  18. Short children with a low midupper arm circumference respond to food supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Phelan, Kevin P Q; Cichon, Bernardette;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) is based on food supplementation in outpatient programs. When midupper arm circumference (MUAC) is used as the sole admission criterion, it is common practice to exclude children with lengths <67 cm from treatment. The ...... children <67 cm in supplementary feeding programs if their MUAC is between 115 and 124 mm and their WHZ is ≥-2. This could benefit millions of children currently excluded from supplementary feeding. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN42569496....

  19. Evaluation of marginal circumference and marginal thickness changes in precrimped stainless steel crowns, after recrimping

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar H; Mozafari Kojidi M

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aim: The need for recrimping precrimped stainless steel crowns by the dentist in clinic is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of marginal circumference and marginal thickness change of precrimped stainless steel crowns after recrimping. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 primary photos were taken from margins of 30 S.S.Cs (3M, Ni-Cr) related to tooth 85 with a digital camera fixed at a determined distance. Margins of crowns were crimped by 1...

  20. Assessment of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and dental age

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Sharifi; Hosein Agha Aghili; Maryam Zangouei-Booshehri; Fatemeh Ezoddini-Ardakani

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the rela-tionship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and accelerated dental development. The dental developmental ages of 100 children aged between 8 and 12 years were determined using the Demirjian method and panoramic radiographs. BMI status was determined for each subject on the basis of the system developed by the International Obesity Task Force. There was a significant direct relationship between dental development and BMI (P < 0.01). Obese children h...

  1. Overweight and obesity may lead to under-diagnosis of airflow limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Marott, Jacob Louis; Vestbo, Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) are scarce. METHODS: Data was derived from the third examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study from 1991 until 1994 (n = 10,135). We examine the impact of different adiposity markers (weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist...... and significantly associated with FEV1/FVC independent of age, sex, height, smoking status, and cumulative tobacco consumption. Among all adiposity markers, BMI was the strongest predictor of FEV1/FVC. FEV1/FVC increased with 0.04 in men and 0.03 in women, as BMI increased with 10 units (kg · m-2...

  2. Comparison of seat, waist, and arm sit-to-stand assistance modalities in elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeswin Jeyasurya, MASc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perform a sit-to-stand (STS motion is important for ambulatory adults to function independently and maintain daily activities. Roughly 6% of community-dwelling older adults experience significant difficulties with STS, a major risk factor for institutionalization. While mechanical STS assistance can help address this problem, full dependence on STS assistance provided by devices such as lift chairs can lead to atrophy of the leg muscles. We investigated the mechanics of assisted STS motion in order to better understand how load-sharing STS mechanisms may facilitate STS motions while still requiring activation of the leg muscles. Experiments were conducted with 17 nondisabled older adults performing unassisted and assisted STS rises with grab bar, arm, seat, and waist assistance. Each mode of rise was evaluated based on a subject questionnaire and key biomechanical metrics relating to stability, knee effort reduction, and rise trajectory. Results show that the seat- and waist-assist modes provide statistically significant improvements in stability metrics and reductions in required knee torques over unassisted rises and bar assistance. The assists most preferred by the subjects were the seat and bar assists. Overall, our results favor a seat-assisted STS modality for nonclinical applications and indicate further testing of this modality with a clinical population.

  3. Measurement of power density distribution and beam waist simulation for electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims to measure the power density distribution of the electron beam (EB) for further estimating its characteristics. A compact device combining deflection signal controller and current signal acquisition circuit of the EB was built. A software modelling framework was developed to investigate structural parameters of the electron beam. With an iterative algorithm, the functional relationship between the electron beam power and its power density was solved and the corresponding contour map of power density distribution was plotted through isoline tracking approach. The power density distribution of various layers of cross-section beam was reconstructed for beam volume by direct volume rendering technique. The further simulation of beam waist with all-known marching cubes algorithm reveals the evolution of spatial appearance and geometry measurement principle was explained in detail. The study provides an evaluation of promising to replace the traditional idea of EB spatial characteristics. - Highlights: ► We build a framework for measuring power density distribution for electron beam. ► We capture actual electron and build transient spatial power distribution for EB. ► Tracing algorithm of power density contour for cross-section was designed. ► The volume and waist of the beam are reconstructed in 4D mode. ► Geometry measurement is finished which is befit for designing of process welding.

  4. BMI and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.;

    2006-01-01

    BMI differentiation and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people were analysed. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years. 21 food patterns were separated by the factor analysis. On the basis of the self-reported body mass and height, the BMI and percentages of...... overweight or obese people were calculated. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence for both sexes was unequivocally connected with eating rye. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence depended among women on consuming pork meat and alcoholic beverages. For men the...

  5. SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH BMI OF 25 OR MORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Body mass index [BMI] of 25 or greater is a significant health problem associated with a variety of disorders and in adults it has been found to be a risk factor for hearing loss. Higher BMI is independently associated with increased hearing loss. We investigated the hypothesis that young adults with a BMI of 25 or more are at increased risk of mild sensorineural hearing loss. AIMS AN D OBJECTIVES: To assess hearing acuity in individuals with high BMI (≥25 by audiometric assessment and compare it with the control group (BMI <25. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A comparative and cross sectional study among volunteers residing in Bengaluru. METHODS AND MATERIAL : Data collected from 2 groups containing 30 participants each, test group contained individual with a BMI of 25 or more and the control group consisted individuals with BMI of <25, in the age group of 18 - 35 yrs. Pure tone audiometry was carried out across various frequencies (0. 5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 kHz in both groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student t - test was used to compare hearing thresholds across various frequencies in both groups. RESULTS: Compared to control group, high BMI (≥25 was associated with increased pure tone hearing thresholds across lower frequencies (0. 5, 1, 2 kHz. The degree of hearing loss is mild (26 - 40dB . CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that young adults with a BMI of 25 or more are at increasing risk of mild sensorineural hearing loss.

  6. Overexpression of Bmi1 in Lymphocytes Stimulates Skeletogenesis by Improving the Osteogenic Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xichao; Dai, Xiuliang; Wu, Xuan; Ji, Ji; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Yang, Xiangjiao; Miao, Dengshun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes can stimulate skeletogenesis by improving the osteogenic microenvironment, we examined the skeletal phenotype of EμBmi1 transgenic mice with overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes. The size of the skeleton, trabecular bone volume and osteoblast number, indices of proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were increased significantly, ROS levels were reduced and antioxidative capacity was enhanced in EμBmi1 mice compared to WT mice. In PTHrP1–84 knockin (PthrpKI/KI) mice, the expression levels of Bmi1 are reduced and potentially can mediate the premature osteoporosis observed. We therefore generated a PthrpKI/KI mice overexpressing Bmi1 in lymphocytes and compared them with PthrpKI/KI and WT littermates. Overexpression of Bmi1 in PthrpKI/KI mice resulted in a longer lifespan, increased body weight and improvement in skeletal growth and parameters of osteoblastic bone formation with reduced ROS levels and DNA damage response parameters. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes can stimulate osteogenesis in vivo and partially rescue defects in skeletal growth and osteogenesis in PthrpKI/KI mice. These studies therefore indicate that overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes can stimulate skeletogenesis by inhibiting oxidative stress and improving the osteogenic microenvironment. PMID:27373231

  7. Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemont, Sébastien; Reymond, Alexandre; Zufferey, Flore; Harewood, Louise; Walters, Robin G.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Martinet, Danielle; Shen, Yiping; Valsesia, Armand; Beckmann, Noam D.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Belfiore, Marco; Bouquillon, Sonia; Campion, Dominique; De Leeuw, Nicole; De Vries, Bert B. A.; Esko, Tõnu; Fernandez, Bridget A.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Gratacòs, Mònica; Guilmatre, Audrey; Hoyer, Juliane; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kooy, Frank R.; Kurg, Ants; Le Caignec, Cédric; Männik, Katrin; Platt, Orah S.; Sanlaville, Damien; Van Haelst, Mieke M.; Villatoro Gomez, Sergi; Walha, Faida; Wu, Bai-Lin; Yu, Yongguo; Aboura, Azzedine; Addor, Marie-Claude; Alembik, Yves; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Arveiler, Benoît; Barth, Magalie; Bednarek, Nathalie; Béna, Frédérique; Bergmann, Sven; Beri, Mylène; Bernardini, Laura; Blaumeiser, Bettina; Bonneau, Dominique; Bottani, Armand; Boute, Odile; Brunner, Han G.; Cailley, Dorothée; Callier, Patrick; Chiesa, Jean; Chrast, Jacqueline; Coin, Lachlan; Coutton, Charles; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe; David, Albert; De Freminville, Bénédicte; Delobel, Bruno; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Demeer, Bénédicte; Descamps, Dominique; Didelot, Gérard; Dieterich, Klaus; Disciglio, Vittoria; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Drunat, Séverine; Duban-Bedu, Bénédicte; Dubourg, Christèle; El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia S.; Elliott, Paul; Faas, Brigitte H. W.; Faivre, Laurence; Faudet, Anne; Fellmann, Florence; Ferrarini, Alessandra; Fisher, Richard; Flori, Elisabeth; Forer, Lukas; Gaillard, Dominique; Gerard, Marion; Gieger, Christian; Gimelli, Stefania; Gimelli, Giorgio; Grabe, Hans J.; Guichet, Agnès; Guillin, Olivier; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heron, Délphine; Hippolyte, Loyse; Holder, Muriel; Homuth, Georg; Isidor, Bertrand; Jaillard, Sylvie; Jaros, Zdenek; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Joly Helas, Géraldine; Jonveaux, Philippe; Kaksonen, Satu; Keren, Boris; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Koolen, David A.; Kroisel, Peter M.; Kronenberg, Florian; Labalme, Audrey; Landais, Emilie; Lapi, Elisabetta; Layet, Valérie; Legallic, Solenn; Leheup, Bruno; Leube, Barbara; Lewis, Suzanne; Lucas, Josette; Macdermot, Kay D.; Magnusson, Pall; Marshall, Christian R.; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Mccarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Antonietta Mencarelli, Maria; Merla, Giuseppe; Moerman, Alexandre; Mooser, Vincent; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Mucciolo, Mafalda; Nauck, Matthias; Coumba Ndiaye, Ndeye; Nordgren, Ann; Pasquier, Laurent; Petit, Florence; Pfundt, Rolph; Plessis, Ghislaine; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica; Paolo Ramelli, Gian; Rauch, Anita; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Reis, Andre; Renieri, Alessandra; Richart, Cristobal; Ried, Janina S.; Rieubland, Claudine; Roberts, Wendy; Roetzer, Katharina M.; Rooryck, Caroline; Rossi, Massimiliano; Saemundsen, Evald; Satre, Véronique; Schurmann, Claudia; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Tengström, Carola; Thorsteinsdóttir, Unnur; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Touraine, Renaud; Vallée, Louis; Van Binsbergen, Ellen; Van Der Aa, Nathalie; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Vulto-Van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Waeber, Gérard; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Witwicki, Robert M.; Zwolinksi, Simon; Andrieux, Joris; Estivill, Xavier; Gusella, James F.; Gustafsson, Omar; Metspalu, Andres; Scherer, Stephen W.; Stefansson, Kari; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Froguel, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Both underweight and obesity have been associated with increased mortality1,2. Underweight, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18,5 kg/m2 in adults 3 and ≤ −2 standard deviations (SD) in children4,5, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions such as failure to thrive (FTT) 6–8, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa9,10. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported 11, 12. We previously demonstrated that hemizygosity of a ~600 kb region on the short arm of chromosome 16 (chr16:29.5–30.1Mb), causes a highly-penetrant form of obesity often associated with hyperphagia and intellectual disabilities13. Here we show that the corresponding reciprocal duplication is associated with underweight. We identified 138 (132 novel cases) duplication carriers (108 unrelated carriers) from over 95,000 individuals clinically-referred for developmental or intellectual disabilities (DD/ID), psychiatric disorders or recruited from population-based cohorts. These carriers show significantly reduced postnatal weight (mean Z-score −0.6; p=4.4×10−4) and BMI (mean Z-score −0.5; p=2.0×10−3). In particular, half of the boys younger than 5 years are underweight with a probable diagnosis of FTT, while adult duplication carriers have an 8.7-fold (p=5.9×10−11; CI_95=[4.5–16.6]) increased risk of being clinically underweight. We observe a significant trend towards increased severity in males, as well as a depletion of male carriers among non-medically ascertained cases. These features are associated with an unusually high frequency of selective and restrictive feeding behaviours and a significant reduction in head circumference (mean Z-score −0.9; p=7.8×10−6). Each of the observed phenotypes is the converse of one reported in carriers of deletions at this locus, correlating with changes in transcript levels for genes mapping within the duplication but not within flanking

  8. The survey of School Circumference Hygiene in Area 2 Arak City and that’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ganji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe main goal of present research study condition of school circumference hygiene and that’s conformitywith national standard like: security, workshop and laberatory, buffet, enclosure, w.c, w.b,…the methodresearch is description and cross sectional that to register category data with diverts observation and censusand complete enumeration. There are many research results:- 58.33 percent of population is fit for girls' school and 41.66 percent is fit for son.53.44 percent is highschool and 46.55 percent is middle school.12.12 percent is one time school and 87.87 percent is two timesschool.- According to dimensions and indicators school circumference hygiene standard, average conformity in thisresearch is 45.04 percent and arrangement that conformity from up to down average conformity is:- The condition of repulse of sewage and rubbish is 100 percent.- The condition of enclosure is 55.38.- The condition of workshop and laboratory is 43.95- The condition of W.C, W.B and drinking cup is 38.43- The condition of security is 37.37- The condition of class is 37.13- The condition of buffet is 3.04

  9. The Significance of Macrocephaly or Enlarging Head Circumference in Infants With the Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Barnes, Patrick; Miller, Marvin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infants with the triad (neurologic dysfunction, subdural hematoma [SDH], and retinal hemorrhage) are often diagnosed as victims of shaken baby syndrome. Medical conditions/predisposing factors to developing the triad are often dismissed: short falls, birth-related SDH that enlarges, macrocephaly, sinus/cortical vein thrombosis, and others. Six infants with the triad are described in which child abuse was diagnosed, but parents denied wrongdoing. All 6 had either macrocephaly or enlarging head circumference, which suggested medical explanations. Three infants incurred short falls, 1 had a difficult delivery in which there was likely a rebleed of a birth-related SDH, 1 had a spontaneous SDH associated with increased extra-axial fluid spaces, and 1 had a sinus thrombosis. Following legal proceedings, all 6 infants were returned to their parents, and there has been no child maltreatment in follow-up, suggesting child abuse never happened. The results indicate that alternative medical explanations for causing the triad should be considered and that macrocephaly or an enlarging head circumference raises the possibility of a medical explanation. PMID:25893912

  10. Dipolar quantization and the infinite circumference limit of two-dimensional conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Elaborating on our previous presentation, where the term {\\it dipolar quantization} was introduced, we argue here that adopting $L_0-(L_1+L_{-1})/2+{\\bar L}_0-({\\bar L}_1+{\\bar L}_{-1})/2$ as the Hamiltonian instead of $L_0+{\\bar L}_0$ yields an infinite circumference limit in two-dimensional conformal field theory. The new Hamiltonian leads to dipolar quantization instead of radial quantization. As a result, the new theory exhibits a continuous and strongly degenerated spectrum in addition to the Virasoro algebra with a continuous index. Its Hilbert space exhibits a different inner product than that obtained in the original theory. The idiosyncrasy of this particular Hamiltonian is its relation to the so-called sine-square deformation, which is found in the study of a certain class of quantum statistical systems. The appearance of the infinite circumference explains why the vacuum states of sine-square deformed systems are coincident with those of the respective closed-boundary systems.

  11. Obesity indices and adipokines in non-diabetic obese patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Stępień, Mariusz; Stępień, Anna; Wlazeł, Rafał Nikodem; Paradowski, Marek; Banach, Maciej; Rysz, Magdalena; Rysz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate obesity parameters: waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), weight-to-height ratio (WHtR), visceral adiposity index (VAI), body adiposity index (BAI), and serum adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin) and their associations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum creatinine, and microalbuminuria (MA) in patients with early stages of CKD and in non-CKD obese patients. Material/Methods 67 non-diabetic obese (BMI ≥30...

  12. The Use of Obesity Indicators for the Prediction of Hypertension Risk among Youth in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    SS Al-Sharbatti; RB Shaikh; Mathew, E; Jayadevan Sreedharan; J Muttappallymyalil; SA Basha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a significant risk factor for metabolic disorders including increase in blood pressure. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and Waist/Hip ratio (WHR) are simple and effective indicators of obe­sity. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationships between obesity anthropometric indicators and hy­pertension and to identify the best anthropometric indicator/s that can predict hypertension risk among youth in the UAE.Methods: A 110 first year stud...

  13. Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Keri L Monda; Taylor, Kira C.; Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Jaclyn C Ellis; Mara Z Vitolins; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J.; Michael A Nalls

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in...

  14. Associations between insulin and glucose concentrations and anthropometric measures of fat mass in Australian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Denney-Wilson Elizabeth; Cowell Christopher T; Okely Anthony D; Hardy Louise L; Aitken Robert; Dobbins Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background One of the most serious, yet common co-morbidities of obesity is insulin resistance, which if untreated may progress to type 2 diabetes. This paper describes the insulin and glucose concentration distributions, the prevalence of elevated insulin, the associations between insulin and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and fat mass index in a representative sample of Australian adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional population-based study ...

  15. Association between anthropometric indices and cardiometabolic risk factors in pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizabal, Juan C.; Barona, Jacqueline; Hoyos, Marcela; Ruiz, Marcela; Marín, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Background The world health organization (WHO) and the Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants- study (IDEFICS), released anthropometric reference values obtained from normal body weight children. This study examined the relationship between WHO [body mass index (BMI) and triceps- and subscapular-skinfolds], and IDEFICS (waist circumference, waist to height ratio and fat mass index) anthropometric indices with cardiometabolic risk...

  16. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis-BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Ojo, Diane; Wei, Fengxiang; Wong, Nicholas; Gu, Yan; Tang, Damu

    2015-01-01

    BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase. Through mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119Ub), BMI1 represses multiple gene loci; among these, the INK4A/ARF locus has been most thoroughly investigated. The locus encodes the p16INK4A and p14/p19ARF tumor suppressors that function in the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Its repression contributes to BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. BMI1 also possesses other oncogenic functions, specifically its regulative role in DNA damage response (DDR). In this process, BMI1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and γH2AX, thereby facilitating the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) through stimulating homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Additionally, BMI1 compromises DSB-induced checkpoint activation independent of its-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We review the emerging role of BMI1 in DDR regulation and discuss its impact on BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. PMID:26633535

  17. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis—BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozeng Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1, and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase. Through mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119Ub, BMI1 represses multiple gene loci; among these, the INK4A/ARF locus has been most thoroughly investigated. The locus encodes the p16INK4A and p14/p19ARF tumor suppressors that function in the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Its repression contributes to BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. BMI1 also possesses other oncogenic functions, specifically its regulative role in DNA damage response (DDR. In this process, BMI1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and γH2AX, thereby facilitating the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs through stimulating homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Additionally, BMI1 compromises DSB-induced checkpoint activation independent of its-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We review the emerging role of BMI1 in DDR regulation and discuss its impact on BMI1-derived tumorigenesis.

  18. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Urban and Rural Women of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjeet Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study on 600 women (300 each belonging to urban and rural areas of Punjab in the age range of 50-80 years is conducted with a view to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity. For assessment of overweight and obesity the height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference are taken on each subject using strandard procedures. The prevalence rates are calculated according to the critical limits of body mass index (BMI and waist hip ratio (WHR. Urban women of present study are found to be obese than their rural counterparts. Urban women have registered more waist circumference (96.25 cm and hip circumference (95.58cm than rural women , who have these parameters 88.87 cm and 89.05cm respectively. The mean values for BMI and waist hip ratio (WHR are more for urban women (26.92 Kg/m2 and 1.007 respectively. According to body mass index (BMI, the prevalence of grade-2- overweight and grade -3-overweight is 29.33%; 1% and 17%;0.66% in urban and rural women, respectively. Similarly the prevalence of central obesity according to waist hip ratio (WHR cutoffs is 56.66% in urban and 47% in rural women. According to Snehalatha et al.,(2003 cut offs it is concluded that all women of urban and rural area of Punjab have central obesity.

  19. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Faughnan, Patrick D.; Batterson, Lawrence M.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Engineers today are presented with the opportunity to design and build the next generation of space vehicles out of the lightest, strongest, and most durable materials available. Composites offer excellent structural characteristics and outstanding reliability in many forms that will be utilized in future aerospace applications including the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program and the Orion space capsule. NASA's Composites for Exploration (CoEx) project researches the various methods of manufacturing composite materials of different fiber characteristics while using proven infusion methods of different resin compositions. Development and testing on these different material combinations will provide engineers the opportunity to produce optimal material compounds for multidisciplinary applications. Through the CoEx project, engineers pursue the opportunity to research and develop repair patch procedures for damaged spacecraft. Working in conjunction with Raptor Resins Inc., NASA engineers are utilizing high flow liquid infusion molding practices to manufacture high-temperature composite parts comprised of intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) carbon fiber material. IM7 is a continuous, high-tensile strength composite with outstanding structural qualities such as high shear strength, tensile strength and modulus as well as excellent corrosion, creep, and fatigue resistance. IM7 carbon fiber, combined with existing thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems, can provide improvements in material strength reinforcement and deformation-resistant properties for high-temperature applications. Void analysis of the different layups of the IM7 material discovered the largest total void composition within the [ +45 , 90 , 90 , -45 ] composite panel. Tensile and compressional testing proved the highest mechanical strength was found in the [0 4] layup. This paper further investigates the infusion procedure of a low-cost/high-performance BMI resin into an IM7 carbon fiber material and the

  20. Preconception metabolic indicators predict gestational diabetes and offspring birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T

    2014-11-01

    Pregnancy conditions such as gestational diabetes (GDM) and macrosomia lead to an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the offspring, perpetuating a cycle of poor health. We hypothesized that (1) pre-pregnancy indicators of metabolism would be associated with GDM and birthweight; and (2) the lipid accumulation product (LAP; incorporating waist circumference and triglycerides) and visceral adiposity index (VAI; incorporating waist circumference, triglycerides, and HDL-c) would be better predictors of GDM and birthweight than other indicators. Data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study were linked to the Finnish birth registry for 349 women. BMI, triglycerides, waist circumference, insulin, HOMA-IR, LAP, and VAI at the visit prior to the pregnancy were examined as predictors of GDM and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) using logistic regression with adjustment for age, parity, and smoking. Waist circumference was the strongest predictor of GDM (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.38) and LGA (aOR 1.41, 1.00-1.99). For GDM, all markers had similar discrimination; for LGA, the area under the receiver operating curve for waist circumference was significantly higher than for BMI (p < 0.01). This analysis suggests that pregnancy and even offspring health is affected by risk factors outside the immediate time period of pregnancy. PMID:25007009

  1. AGE AND GENDER SPECIFIC BMI PERCENTILES ARE LIMITED FOR TRACKING THE CHILDHOOD OBESITY EPIDEMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To evaluate pediatric nutrition and physical activity interventions a reliable and feasible way of tracking change in body status is needed. Historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used in adults. BMI percentiles or Z scores, which are theoretically age and gender adjusted, have been...

  2. Body-Image Perceptions: Reliability of a BMI-Based Silhouette Matching Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Ellenberg, Deborah; Crossan, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the reliability of a BMI-based Silhouette Matching Test (BMI-SMT). Methods: The perceptions of ideal and current body images of 215 ninth through twelfth graders' were assessed at 5 different schools within a mid-Atlantic state public school system. Results: Findings provided quantifiable data and discriminating measurements…

  3. Correlation of Bmi-1 expression and telomerase activity in human ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, F. B.; Sui, L. H.; Xin, T.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the correlation between the oncoprotein Bmi-1 and telomerase activity in ovarian cancer. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is used to detect the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Bmi-1 protein in 47 ovarian epithelial cancer cases, and immunohistochemistry i

  4. Loss of Bmi1 causes anomalies in retinal development and degeneration of cone photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabino, Andrea; Plamondon, Vicky; Abdouh, Mohamed; Chatoo, Wassim; Flamier, Anthony; Hanna, Roy; Zhou, Shufeng; Motoyama, Noboru; Hébert, Marc; Lavoie, Joëlle; Bernier, Gilbert

    2016-05-01

    Retinal development occurs through the sequential but overlapping generation of six types of neuronal cells and one glial cell type. Of these, rod and cone photoreceptors represent the functional unit of light detection and phototransduction and are frequently affected in retinal degenerative diseases. During mouse development, the Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is expressed in immature retinal progenitors and differentiated retinal neurons, including cones. We show here that Bmi1 is required to prevent post natal degeneration of cone photoreceptors and bipolar neurons and that inactivation of Chk2 or p53 could improve but not overcome cone degeneration in Bmi1(-/-) mice. The retinal phenotype of Bmi1(-/-) mice was also characterized by loss of heterochromatin, activation of tandem repeats, oxidative stress and Rip3-associated necroptosis. In the human retina, BMI1 was preferentially expressed in cones at heterochromatic foci. BMI1 inactivation in human embryonic stem cells was compatible with retinal induction but impaired cone terminal differentiation. Despite this developmental arrest, BMI1-deficient cones recapitulated several anomalies observed in Bmi1(-/-) photoreceptors, such as loss of heterochromatin, activation of tandem repeats and induction of p53, revealing partly conserved biological functions between mouse and man. PMID:26965367

  5. Validation of Bmi1 as a Therapeutic Target of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibo Qi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb group family of proteins, and it drives the carcinogenesis of various cancers and governs the self-renewal of multiple types of stem cells. Our previous studies have revealed that Bmi1 acts as an oncogene in hepatic carcinogenesis in an INK4a/ARF locus independent manner. However, whether Bmi1 can be used as a potential target for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment has not been fully confirmed yet. Here, we show that perturbation of Bmi1 expression by using short hairpin RNA can inhibit the tumorigenicity and tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, Bmi1 knockdown can block the tumor growth, both in the initiating stages and the fast growing stages. Cellular biology analysis revealed that Bmi1 knockdown induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our findings verify Bmi1 as a qualified treatment target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and support Bmi1 targeting treatment with chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    -groups, P ≤ 0.041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late...

  7. Genetics of dietary habits and obesity - a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2010-01-01

    . The study showed, however, consistent positive associations between intake of sugar-sweetened soft drink and BMI, FMI and waist circumference in men. Gene-environment interaction models showed that while high physical activity is associated with a down-regulation of genes predisposing to obesity...

  8. Obesity and Your Digestive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obesity. BMI ___________ Waist Circumference ___________ Portion Control Understanding a normal portion size can help control excess caloric intake. 1/2 ... obesity Great tools including a food tracker, portion size information, tips on ... Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://win.niddk.nih.gov/index.htm ...

  9. OBESITY AND RELATED METABOLIC DISORDERS ARE PREVALENT IN MOROCCAN WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is associated with hypertension and a cluster of metabolic disturbances that mediates the development and progression of chronic disease. The aim of this paper was to study the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distribution of Moroccan women of child-bearing age and to exami...

  10. The stabilizing effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine - a randomized, double-blind trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Anna Holka-Pokorska

    2015-04-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation results in stabilization of BMI, waist circumference and fasting glycaemia values in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine. To confirm the insulin-like effect of dehydroepiandrosterone, long-term research concentrating on the evaluation of glucose metabolism has to be performed.

  11. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  12. Are associations between electronic media use and BMI different across levels of physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Haug, Ellen; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of electronic media has been found to be a risk factor for higher BMI and for being overweight. Physical activity has been found to be associated with lower BMI and lower risk for being overweight. Little is known about whether the associations between physical activity and...... girls who did not comply with physical activity guidelines. Among physically active adolescents, EM was found to be significantly associated with BMI or odds for overweight among girls, but not among boys. CONCLUSION: While the usage of EM appear to be inconsequential for BMI and the risk of overweight...... among physically active boys, we find evidence indicating that EM use is associated with BMI and risk for overweight among girls, including those who report complying with MVPA guidelines....

  13. Nativity, US Length of Residence, and BMI Among Diverse Asian American Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups. PMID:25192818

  14. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  15. Overexpression of AtBMI1C, a polycomb group protein gene, accelerates flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Polycomb group protein (PcG-mediated gene silencing is emerging as an essential developmental regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic organisms. PcGs inactivate or maintain the silenced state of their target chromatin by forming complexes, including Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1 and 2 (PRC2. Three PRC2 complexes have been identified and characterized in Arabidopsis; of these, the EMF and VRN complexes suppress flowering by catalyzing the trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 of FLOWER LOCUS T (FT and FLOWER LOCUS C (FLC. However, little is known about the role of PRC1 in regulating the floral transition, although AtRING1A, AtRING1B, AtBMI1A, and AtBMI1B are believed to regulate shoot apical meristem and embryonic development as components of PRC1. Moreover, among the five RING finger PcGs in the Arabidopsis genome, four have been characterized. Here, we report that the fifth, AtBMI1C, is a novel, ubiquitously expressed nuclear PcG protein and part of PRC1, which is evolutionarily conserved with Psc and BMI1. Overexpression of AtBMI1C caused increased H2A monoubiquitination and flowering defects in Arabidopsis. Both the suppression of FLC and activation of FT were observed in AtBMI1C-overexpressing lines, resulting in early flowering. No change in the H3K27me3 level in FLC chromatin was detected in an AtBMI1C-overexpressing line. Our results suggest that AtBMI1C participates in flowering time control by regulating the expression of FLC; moreover, the repression of FLC by AtBMI1C is not due to the activity of PRC2. Instead, it is likely the result of PRC1 activity, into which AtBMI1C is integrated.

  16. Comparison of head circumference in an Israeli child population with United States and British standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palti, H; Peritz, E; Flug, D; Gitlin, M; Adler, B

    1983-01-01

    The head circumference (HC) growth pattern of infants from 1 to 24 months of age was studied in a Jerusalem community. The means of HC of the study population are smaller for each age and sex group than those of the National Center of Health Statistics, USA reference population, London children and the Nellhaus standard. The regression of HC on length explains about 20% of the variance. In an analysis of variance controlling for social class, birth order and length, the differences by region of origin of the mother were not significant. The smaller HC of the study population is probably due to these children being shorter and lighter than the above-mentioned western populations. Malnutrition as a factor for small HC was excluded. PMID:6838166

  17. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer;

    2010-01-01

    -tester in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference in patients with TKA when administered by physiotherapists (testers) with different clinical experience. METHOD......: The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were...... and between physiotherapists (except passive knee extension). Changes in knee joint ROM of more than 6.6 degrees and 10 degrees (except active knee flexion) and knee joint circumference of more than 1.0 cm and 1.63 cm represent a real clinical improvement (SRD) or deterioration for a single individual within...

  18. Effects of selection for scrotal circumference in Limousin bulls on reproductive and growth traits of progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; McCann, M A; Kiser, T E

    1996-09-01

    Nine pairs of Limousin bulls from nine contemporary groups were acquired, with each pair consisting of one large scrotal circumference (SC) bull and one small SC bull. Average adjusted yearling scrotal circumferences were 36.3 cm (SD 1.6 cm) and 28.5 cm (SD .9 cm) for large SC (LP) and small SC (SP) bulls, respectively. In addition to the phenotypic grouping, non-parent SC EPD were used to group bulls into high (HE, > .53 cm), average (AE), and low (LE, Brangus x Hereford cows each yr for 1 to 3 yr. Birth weights, weaning and yearling weights and heights, and ultrasound measurements for backfat and ribeye measurements were taken on 407 progeny. Blood samples were collected on 210 heifer progeny when they averaged 11, 13, and 15 mo of age to determine whether they had reached puberty. When subjected to a breeding soundness exam (BSE), LP bulls scored higher (P < .01) for motility as well as total BSE score. The LP calves had heavier birth weights (P < .05) and greater testicular mass at weaning (P < .01) than SP calves. The HE and AE bull calves had greater (P < .02) testicular mass than did the LE bull calves. A greater (P < .05) percentage of HE heifers had reached puberty by the 11- and 13-mo measurements than either the AE or LE heifers. The HE heifers reached puberty at a younger age than AE (P < .01) or LE (P < .001) heifers. Selection using SC EPD was more effective than phenotypic selection in reducing age at puberty in daughters. PMID:8880405

  19. Adolescent BMI at Northern Israel: From Trends, to Associated Variables and Comorbidities, and to Medical Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machluf, Yossy; Fink, Daniel; Farkash, Rivka; Rotkopf, Ron; Pirogovsky, Avinoam; Tal, Orna; Shohat, Tamar; Weisz, Giora; Ringler, Erez; Dagan, David; Chaiter, Yoram

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of abnormal body mass index (BMI), mainly obesity, is becoming a significant public health problem. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide a comprehensive view of secular trends of BMI, and the associated socio-demographic variables and comorbidities among adolescents with abnormal BMI. Individuals of the study population were born mainly between 1970 and 1993, and were examined at 16 to 19 years of age during the years 1987 to 2010, at 1 conscription center in the northern district of Israel.The study population included 113,694 adolescents. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between BMI categories, socio-demographic variables, and medical conditions.A downward trend in the prevalence of normal BMI among both male and female adolescents was obtained, while trends of overweight and obesity (in both genders) and underweight (only among females) rose. Socio-demographic variables such as religion, education, family-related parameters, residential environment, country of birth, and origin were all associated with different risks for abnormal BMI. Obesity was associated with higher risk for hyperlipidemia, endocrine disorders (only in males), knee disorders, and hypertension type I + II (in both genders). Overweight was associated with knee disorders (only in females). Underweight, exclusively in males, was associated with increased risk for endocrine disorders, proteinuria, and cardiac disorders. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the intricate relations between gender, BMI, and medical signatures. It brought to light novel clusters of diseases that were abundant among populations having above-normal BMI or underweight males. Furthermore, above-normal BMI was associated with a lower rate of cardiac anomalies and scoliosis/kyphosis, whereas being underweight was associated with a lower risk for hypertension and flat foot.This study provides a reliable and in-depth view

  20. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI group. It is found that BMI does not have much influence on head injuries but it is influenced more by the height of the occupant. Results of logistic analysis suggest that