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Sample records for bmi reactor

  1. About BMI for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boy in the 95 th percentile for BMI - meaning that his BMI is greater than that of ... psychopathology in women: a three decade prospective study." International ... of life in relation to overweight and body fat distribution." American Journal ...

  2. Inspection and repair technology for BMI penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, United States (US) nuclear power plant inspections of the reactor vessel bottom-mounted-instrument (BMI) penetrations have been limited to visual verification via a combination of walk-downs and pressure tests. However in France, more than 18 ultrasonic examination (UT) and weld-surface visual test (VT) campaigns had been performed to inspect the BMI penetration nozzles and welds since 1992 with no observed failures through 2002. In April 2003, South Texas Project Unit 1 discovered apparent leakage from two nozzles during a bare-metal examination. Based on the French inspection experience, Framatome-ANP was selected for inspection and repair services to address the leaking nozzles. Inspection activities included ultrasonic examination of the tube, enhanced visual test and eddy current testing (ECT) of the J-groove weld, bobbin ECT and profile measurement of the tube inside, helium leak test, phased-array UT, borescope VT, and boat-sample removal with destructive metallurgical analysis. Repair activities included sealing the top portion of the penetration, cutting out the old nozzles, and welding in new nozzles. This presentation discusses BMI inspection and repair technology focused particularly on the South Texas Project experience. (authors)

  3. Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts KidsHealth > For Parents > Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts Print A A A Text ... same age. Now they have another tool: body mass index (BMI). BMI is a calculation that uses ...

  4. Bmi-1, stem cells and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Jiang; Jun Li; Libing Song

    2009-01-01

    Bmi-1,a polycomb gene family member,plays an important role in cell cycle regulation,cell immortalization,and cell senescence.Recently,numerous studies have demonstrated that Bmi-1 is involved in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells.However,the molecular mechanism underlying this biological process remains largely unclear.In the present review,we summarized the function of Bmi-1 as a tran-scriptional regulator of gene expression,with particular reference to stem cells.

  5. Neurodevelopmental problems and extremes in BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Kerekes, Nóra; Tajnia, Armin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Råstam, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) and body mass index (BMI). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children. Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1) to define ...

  6. Genetic Influences on Growth Traits of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Fagnani, Corrado; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the interplay between genetic factors influencing baseline level and changes in BMI in adulthood.Methods and Procedures:A longitudinal twin study of the cohort of Finnish twins (N = 10,556 twin individuals) aged 20-46 years at baseline was conducted and followed up 15 years....... Data on weight and height were obtained from mailed surveys in 1975, 1981, and 1990.Results:Latent growth models revealed a substantial genetic influence on BMI level at baseline in males and females (heritability (h(2)) 80% (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.80) for males and h(2) = 82% (0.81, 0.84) for...... females) and a moderate-to-high influence on rate of change in BMI (h(2) = 58% (0.50, 0.69) for males and h(2) = 64% (0.58, 0.69) for females). Only very weak evidence for genetic pleiotropy was observed; the genetic correlation between baseline and rate of change in BMI was very modest (-0.070 (-0.13, -0...

  7. Analysis list: BMI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BMI1 Blood,Digestive tract,Neural,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.5.tsv http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Digestive_tract.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Neural.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscie

  8. Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide a spray cooling structure wherein the steam phase in a bwr reactor vessel can sufficiently be cooled and the upper cap and flanges in the vessel can be cooled rapidly which kept from direct contaction with cold water. Constitution: An apertured shielding is provided in parallel spaced apart from the inner wall surface at the upper portion of a reactor vessel equipped with a spray nozzle, and the lower end of the shielding and the inner wall of the vessel are closed to each other so as to store the cooling water. Upon spray cooling, cooling water jetting out from the nozzle cools the vapor phase in the vessel and then hits against the shielding. Then the cooling water mostly falls as it is, while partially enters through the apertures to the back of the shielding plate, abuts against stoppers and falls down. The stoppers are formed in an inverted L shape so that the spray water may not in direct contaction with the inner wall of the vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Comparison between BMI and Inverted BMI in Evaluating Metabolic Risk and Body Composition in Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Saki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare BMI and inverted BMI in evaluating body measurement, resting blood pressure, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA parameters of fat mass and metabolic risk factors in Iranian children Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on 477 children aged 9-18 yearsin the South of Iran. Weight, height, resting blood pressure, waist and hip circumference and pubertal stage of all participants was measured with standard methods. DEXA was used to determine body composition index. Blood samples were checked for serum lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar (FBS. Metabolic risk score (MRS was calculated by the summation of the Z-scores for TC, TG/HDL, LDL, systolic blood pressure, and waist circumference minus HDL Z-score. Results: BMI did not have a normal distribution in our participants but iBMI had a normal distribution. IBMI had more significant correlation with waist to hip ratio and systolic blood pressure (r2=0.053 and r2=0.182 than BMI (r2=0.041 and r2=0.101. MRS had a positive correlation with BMI (P

  10. Sex-differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K; Willemsen, G; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2003-01-01

    pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...... explained by additive genetic variance in all countries. Sex differences in the variance components were consistently significant. Results from analyses of opposite sex pairs also showed evidence of sex-specific genetic effects suggesting there may be some differences between men and women in the genetic...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....

  11. Palo Verde Unit 3 BMI nozzle modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 61 BMI (Bottom Mount Instrumentation) nozzles of the unit 3 of the Palo Verde plant have been examined through ASME Code Case N722. The nozzle 3 was the only one with leakage noted. The ultrasound testing results are characteristic of PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking). The initiation likely occurred at a weld defect which was exposed to the primary water environment resulting in PWSCC. All other nozzles (60) showed no unacceptable indications. Concerning nozzle 3 one crack in J-groove weld connected large defect to primary water. An environmental model has been used to simulate and optimize the repair. The AREVA crew was on site 18 days after contract award and the job was completed in 12 days, 30 hours ahead of baseline schedule. This series of slides describes the examination of the BMI nozzles, the repair steps, and alternative design concepts

  12. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with...... meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men......) obtained from the Infertility Center of Bondy, France. Abstracts of relevant articles were examined and studies that could be included in this review were retrieved. Authors of relevant studies for the meta-analysis were contacted by email and asked to provide standardized data. RESULTS A total of 21...

  13. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C;

    2006-01-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle.......A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle....

  14. BMI in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolska-Zarzycka Magdalena; Dunin-Wilczynska Izabella; Mitura Iwona; Szymanska Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease of multicasual etiology. The risk factors include obesity, among other issues. Hence, it is extremely important to determine the effect of body weight on the severity of OSA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the body weight expressed as body mass index (BMI), on the value of upper airways diameter and on the AHI (Apnea-Hypopnea Index) value. The study was comprised of 41 patients diagnosed with OSA by way of polysomnography. Each...

  15. Differential expression of two ß-amylase genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in developing and mature barley grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific (Bmy1) and ubiquitous (Bmy2) ß-amylase were studied during the late maturation phase of seed development in four genotypes. Sequencing of Bmy2 from genomic DNA revealed six polymorphisms in the introns and two synonymous SNPs in the coding region. Acc...

  16. Mendelian Randomisation Study of Childhood BMI and Early Menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah S. Mumby; Elks, Cathy E; Shengxu Li; Sharp, Stephen J.; Kay-Tee Khaw; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ken K Ong

    2011-01-01

    To infer the causal association between childhood BMI and age at menarche, we performed a mendelian randomisation analysis using twelve established “BMI-increasing” genetic variants as an instrumental variable (IV) for higher BMI. In 8,156 women of European descent from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, height was measured at age 39–77 years; age at menarche was self-recalled, as was body weight at age 20 years, and BMI at 20 was calculated as a proxy for childhood BMI. DNA was genotyped for twelve BM...

  17. Bmi-1, stem cells and prostate carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Moscatelli; E Lynette Wilson

    2011-01-01

    @@ Malignant transformation is likely to arise in a subset of organ-specific primitive cells that are subverted to acquire the properties of uncontrolled self-renewal.1,2 It is therefore likely that stem cells and tumor-initiating cells share many properties and that an understanding of the biology of normal stem cells and the identification of the pathways and molecules that regulate their self-renewal may result in our ability to design inhibitors that control the growth of tumor cells.In an interesting recent paper, Lukacs et al.3 show that the polycomb group transcriptional repressor, Bmi-1, regulates the self-renewal of normal prostate stem cells and also contributes to the initiation of prostate cancer.

  18. The Validity of Administrative BMI Data in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmund C; Son, Min-Sun; Mossad, David; Toossi, Nader; Johanson, Norman A; Gonzalez, Mark H; Meller, Menachem M

    2015-10-01

    Identifying BMI via administrative data is a useful way to evaluate outcomes in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) for varying degrees of obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concordance between BMI coding in administrative claims data and actual clinical BMI measurements in the medical record for patients undergoing TJA. Clinical BMI value was shown to be a significant determinant of whether ICD-9 codes were used to report the patient's obesity status (P<0.01). Although a higher clinical BMI strongly increased the likelihood of having either of the ICD-9 diagnosis codes used to identify obesity status, only the accuracy of the V85 code increased with increasing levels of BMI. PMID:26088396

  19. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to BMI Screening in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses advocates for body mass index (BMI) screening. Little research describes school nurse practice of BMI screening. In this descriptive study, 25 Ohio school nurses participated in three focus groups. An adapted "Healthy People 2010" Determinants of Health Model guided the research questions. School nurses…

  20. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  1. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and sedentariness (Sed in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years. Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002 and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002. Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04, while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13, biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07, media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08 and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03 and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04 diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25, playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20 and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08 were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  2. The impact of BMI on subgroups of uterine cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lindemann, K; Vatten, L J; Ellstrøm-Engh, M; A. Eskild

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity increases the risk of uterine cancer, but results by histological type have differed. Methods: We followed 36 755 women for 17.8 years for uterine cancers. Results and conclusion: Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with uterine cancers as a whole, particularly for endometrioid adenocarcinomas, for which the relative risk for very obese women (BMI: ⩾40 kg m−2) compared with lean (BMI: 20–24 kg m−2) women, was 11.1 (95% confidence interval: 5.2–23.8)....

  3. Education Modifies Genetic and Environmental Influences on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel;

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight......, and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and...... nonshared environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this...

  4. Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children

    OpenAIRE

    Vítor P. Lopes; Stodden, David F.; Bianchi, Mafalda M.; Maia, José A. R.; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the association between motor coordination (MC) and body mass index (BMI) across childhood and early adolescence. Design: This study is cross-sectional. Methods: Data were collected in 7175 children (boys n = 3616, girls n = 3559), ages 6–14 years. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight [body mass (kg)/height (m2)]. Motor coordination was evaluated using Kiphard-Schilling’s body coordination test (KTK). Spearman’s rank correlation was used to study ...

  5. A STUDY ON BRAIN – MACHINE INTERFACE (BMI)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Muqeeth*,

    2015-01-01

    A brain – machine interface (BMI), sometimes called a mind - machine interface (MMI), or sometimes called a direct neural interface (DNI), synthetic telepathy interface (STI) or a brain – machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often directed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or se nsory - motor functions. The field of BCI research and developmen...

  6. Satraplatin: BMS 182751, BMY 45594, JM 216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Satraplatin [BMS 182751, BMY 45594, JM 216] belongs to a series of orally-active platinum compounds with anticancer activity. It was jointly originated by Bristol-Myers Squibb, Johnson Matthey and the Institute of Cancer Research in the UK; however, Johnson Matthey has since ceased involvement with drug development. Subsequently, the agent has been licensed to and is under development with GPC Biotech, Pharmion and Spectrum Pharmaceuticals. Clinical trials are underway to evaluate satraplatin among patients with different tumour types, including prostate, breast, cervical and lung cancers. The compound is under regulatory review with the US FDA for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. NeoTherapeutics (now Spectrum Pharmaceuticals) granted GPC Biotech an exclusive worldwide licence to develop and market satraplatin in October 2002. Under the terms of the agreement, GPC Biotech is fully funding development costs and commercialisation requirements for the drug. The deal also involves GPC Biotech paying a signing fee, milestone and royalty payments. Spectrum is a member of a joint development committee headed by GPC Biotech to govern development of satraplatin. Previously in October 2001, NeoOncoRx (Spectrum Pharmaceuticals) gained the rights to develop and market the compound worldwide. In December 2005, GPC Biotech and Pharmion Corporation entered into a co-development and license agreement for satraplatin. Under the agreement terms, Pharmion has exclusive commercialisation rights for Europe, Turkey, the Middle East, Australia and New Zealand, while GPC Biotech retains rights to North America and all other territories. Pharmion made an upfront payment of $US37.1 million to GPC Biotech, which included reimbursement for past clinical development costs plus funding for ongoing and certain clinical development activities to be jointly conducted by the companies. In addition, both parties will pursue a joint development plan for satraplatin in a variety of

  7. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  8. Adolescent BMI Trajectory and Risk of Diabetes versus Coronary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Afek, Arnon; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Ayalon, Nir; Gordon, Barak; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Shamis, Ari; Vinker, Shlomo; Rudich, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association of body-mass index (BMI) from adolescence to adulthood with obesity-related diseases in young adults has not been completely delineated. METHODS We conducted a prospective study in which we followed 37,674 apparently healthy young men for incident angiography-proven coronary heart disease and diabetes through the Staff Periodic Examination Center of the Israeli Army Medical Corps. The height and weight of participants were measured at regular intervals, with the first measurements taken when they were 17 years of age. RESULTS During approximately 650,000 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up, 17.4 years), we documented 1173 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and 327 of coronary heart disease. In multivariate models adjusted for age, family history, blood pressure, lifestyle factors, and biomarkers in blood, elevated adolescent BMI (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters; mean range for the first through last deciles, 17.3 to 27.6) was a significant predictor of both diabetes (hazard ratio for the highest vs. the lowest decile, 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 3.58) and angiography-proven coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.77 to 10.62). Further adjustment for BMI at adulthood completely ablated the association of adolescent BMI with diabetes (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.37) but not the association with coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 6.85; 95% CI, 3.30 to 14.21). After adjustment of the BMI values as continuous variables in multivariate models, only elevated BMI in adulthood was significantly associated with diabetes (β = 1.115, P = 0.003; P = 0.89 for interaction). In contrast, elevated BMI in both adolescence (β = 1.355, P = 0.004) and adulthood (β = 1.207, P = 0.03) were independently associated with angiography-proven coronary heart disease (P = 0.048 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS An elevated BMI in adolescence — one that is well within the range

  9. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. PMID:25596500

  10. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman O Oloritun

    Full Text Available Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and R(2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001 of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as

  11. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  12. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred James; Braun, Wiebke; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-01-01

    BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA). However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis) does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC) integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity) and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient). FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone. PMID:27286962

  13. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred James Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA. However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient. FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone.

  14. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L; Gaylis, Jaclyn B

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was conducted at San Diego State University. Data were analysed by using t tests, χ(2) tests and regression analysis in SPSS. NMs exhibited a lower BMI than OMs (P food choices. NMs exercised longer than OMs in the habits and superior food choices among young adult females. More regular meal patterns, healthier snack choice and adherence to dietary guidelines may contribute to the lower BMI values observed among NMs compared with OMs. PMID:27066257

  15. The Relation of Weight Suppression and BMI to Bulimic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Juarascio, Adrienne; Lowe, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective High levels of weight suppression have been associated with greater binge eating and weight gain as well as poorer treatment outcome in bulimia nervosa. This study examined the relationship between weight suppression and bulimia nervosa symptoms and explored how weight suppression might interact with body mass index (BMI) in accounting for level of symptomatology at presentation for treatment. Method Participants were 64 women with threshold or sub-threshold bulimia nervosa. A clinical interview assessed binge eating and purging. Results Weight suppression and the interaction between BMI and weight suppression predicted frequency of binge eating such that participants with low BMI and high weight suppression engaged in the most binge eating. High levels of weight suppression also predicted more frequent purging. Discussion Additional research is warranted to examine mediators of these relationships. PMID:21997424

  16. Trends in BMI of urban Australian adults, 1980-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Helen L; Wolfe, Rory; Haby, Michelle M;

    2010-01-01

    . Survey participants were aged 25-64 years and resident in Australian capital cities. BMI was calculated as weight divided by height squared (kg/m2), where weight and height were measured using standard procedures. RESULTS: Mean BMI was higher in 2000 than 1980 in all sex and age groups. The age......-adjusted increase was 1.4 kg/m2 in men and 2.1 kg/m2 in women. The BMI distribution shifted rightwards for all sex and age groups and became increasingly right-skewed. The change between 1980 and 2000 ranged from a decrease of 0.04 kg/m2 at the lower end of the distribution for men aged 25-34 years to an increase...

  17. Association of BMI and interpregnancy BMI change with birth outcomes in an Australian obstetric population: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Agarwal, Catherine R; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with increasing body mass index (BMI) and interpregnancy BMI changes in an Australian obstetric population. Methods A retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2013 was undertaken. BMI for 14 875 women was categorised as follows: underweight (≤18 kg/m2); normal weight (19–24 kg/m2); overweight (25–29 kg/m2); obese class I (30–34 kg/m2); obese class II (35–39 kg/m2) and obese class III (40+ kg/m2). BMI categories and maternal, neonatal and birthing outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Interpregnancy change in BMI and the risk of adverse outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy were also examined. Results Within this cohort, 751 (5.1%) women were underweight, 7431 (50.0%) had normal BMI, 3748 (25.1%) were overweight, 1598 (10.8%) were obese class I, 737 (5.0%) were obese class II and 592 (4.0%) were obese class III. In bivariate adjusted models, obese women were at an increased risk of caesarean section, gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and neonatal morbidities including macrosomia, large for gestational age (LGA), hypoglycaemia, low 5 min Apgar score and respiratory distress. Multiparous women who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher adjusted OR (AOR) (CI) of the following adverse outcomes in their subsequent pregnancy: low 5-min Apgar score 3.242 (1.557 to 7.118); gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) 3.258 (1.129 to 10.665) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 3.922 (1.243 to 14.760). These women were more likely to give birth vaginally 2.030 (1.417 to 2.913). Conversely, women whose parity changed from 0 to 1 and who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher AOR (CI) of caesarean section in their second pregnancy 1.806 (1.139 to 2.862). Conclusions Women who are overweight or obese have a significantly increased risk of various adverse outcomes. Interpregnancy weight gain, regardless

  18. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansmann Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs, quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS. We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. Results GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. Conclusion GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  19. ADRB3 Polymorphism Associated with BMI Gain in Japanese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiki Kuroda; Takahiko Katoh; Takenori Yamauchi; Shouhei Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3: rs4994) and BMI and serological and anthropometric data in healthy Japanese. Methods. Healthy Japanese recruited in a large-scale integrated manufacturing facility in Japan ( = 1 3 5 5 ; age: 37.25 ± 9.43; BMI: 22.86 ± 3.46) were eligible for analysis. The anthropometric data and serological data were measured during a comprehensive health check, a...

  20. Social ideological influences on reported food consumption and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worsley Anthony

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between ideological beliefs, perceptions of the importance of health behaviours, health attitudes, food consumption, and Body Mass Index (BMI. A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975. Methods A survey was conducted among shoppers aged between 40 and 70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested with this empirical data (n = 410 for younger (n = 151 and older (n = 259 age groups using structural equation modelling. Results The findings generally support the study hypotheses. For both groups, egalitarianism had a direct and positive influence on perceptions of the importance of health behaviours. Materialism and masculinity impacted negatively on health attitudes, which positively influenced importance of health behaviours. Perceptions of importance of health behaviours impacted positively on the consumption of healthy foods such as vegetables and fruits, but negatively on consumption of unhealthy foods including sweets and fats. However, BMI was significantly influenced by the consumption of unhealthy foods (e.g., sugar and fats only for the younger age group. Hence, the associations between beliefs, attitudes, consumption behaviours, and BMI outcomes differed between younger and older age populations. Conclusion Social ideological beliefs appear to influence health attitudes and thereafter, the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods and BMI via different pathways.

  1. Longitudinal association between marital disruption and child BMI and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7,299 observations for 2,333 children, aged 5-14, over the 1986-2006 period, from a US representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before-after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop. Despite having a larger sample than the previous studies, the results provide no evidence that, on average, children's BMI and BMI percentile scores (measured with continuous outcomes) are affected before the disruption, after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption, relative to a baseline period a few years before the disruption. However, children experiencing a family disruption do have an increased risk of obesity (having a BMI percentile score of 95 or higher) in the two years leading up to the disruption as well as after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption. PMID:22484366

  2. BMI and depressive symptoms: the role of media pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders. PMID:24183138

  3. Effect of BMI on Knee Joint Torques in Ergometer Rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity bi

  4. Bmi-1 Regulates Extensive Erythroid Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Ram Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs, responsible for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide exchange, are essential for our well-being. Alternative RBC sources are needed to meet the increased demand for RBC transfusions projected to occur as our population ages. We previously have discovered that erythroblasts derived from the early mouse embryo can self-renew extensively ex vivo for many months. To better understand the mechanisms regulating extensive erythroid self-renewal, global gene expression data sets from self-renewing and differentiating erythroblasts were analyzed and revealed the differential expression of Bmi-1. Bmi-1 overexpression conferred extensive self-renewal capacity upon adult bone-marrow-derived self-renewing erythroblasts, which normally have limited proliferative potential. Importantly, Bmi-1 transduction did not interfere with the ability of extensively self-renewing erythroblasts (ESREs to terminally mature either in vitro or in vivo. Bmi-1-induced ESREs can serve to generate in vitro models of erythroid-intrinsic disorders and ultimately may serve as a source of cultured RBCs for transfusion therapy.

  5. ADRB3 Polymorphism Associated with BMI Gain in Japanese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouhei Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3: rs4994 and BMI and serological and anthropometric data in healthy Japanese. Methods. Healthy Japanese recruited in a large-scale integrated manufacturing facility in Japan (=1355; age: 37.25 ± 9.43; BMI: 22.86 ± 3.46 were eligible for analysis. The anthropometric data and serological data were measured during a comprehensive health check, and a self-reporting questionnaire was used to assess lifestyle habits (current exercise, smoking status, alcohol intake, and working style and weight at age 20. Genotyping for the ADRB3 polymorphism was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Results. Among 1355 participants, the genotype frequencies of the Trp/Trp, Trp/Arg, and Arg/Arg variants were 920 (67.9%, 394 (29.1%, and 41 (3.05%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, a multiple linear regression model in men for the adjustment of age, drinking habits, smoking habits, exercise habits, working status and serological measurements statistically showed an overall weak significance between annual BMI gain from age 20 and age, LDL or ADRB3 polymorphism. Conclusions. The level of LDL, age, and ADRB3 polymorphism (Arg/Arg genotype were statistically associated with annual BMI gain in Japanese men.

  6. Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kishore Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33±13.12 years from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02±1.47 kg/m2 was compared with obese group (29.31±3.95 kg/m2, <0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92±4.28 kg was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1 kg, <0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

  7. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  8. Genetic Analysis of Low BMI Phenotype in the Utah Population Database

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, William R.; Johnson, Craig; McKee, Patrick; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    The low body mass index (BMI) phenotype of less than 18.5 has been linked to medical and psychological morbidity as well as increased mortality risk. Although genetic factors have been shown to influence BMI across the entire BMI, the contribution of genetic factors to the low BMI phenotype is unclear. We hypothesized genetic factors would contribute to risk of a low BMI phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a genealogy data analysis using height and weight measurements from driver...

  9. The Correlation Between Self-Reported and Measured Height, Weight, and BMI in Reproductive Age Women

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Lauren W.; Allshouse, Amanda A.; Lesh, Jennifer; Polotsky, Alex J.; Santoro, Nanette

    2013-01-01

    This prospective, cross-sectional study of 60 women compares self- reported height, weight, and BMI with measured values. Self-reported BMI (29.0 ± 8.37kg/m2) was slightly lower than measured BMI (29.1 ± 8.38kg/m2) (p=0.4). Eighty percent of participants reported a BMI in the same category in which their BMI was measured. Pearson's correlation coefficient for height (0.96, p

  10. Peer effects in adolescent BMI: evidence from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Toni; Gil, Joan

    2013-05-01

    This paper extends the recent literature on the influence of peers on adolescent weight on three new fronts. First, based on a survey of secondary school students in Spain in which peers are formed by nominated classmate friends, we find a more powerful positive and significant causal effect of friends' mean BMI on adolescent BMI than previous US-based research. These results are in line with international data, which show that peer group contact tends to vary across countries. Our findings cover a large set of controls, fixed effects, the testing of correlated unobservables, contextual influences and instrumental variables. Second, social interactions are identified through the property of intransitivity in network relationships. Finally, we report evidence of a strong, positive effect of peer pressure on several subgroups of adolescents in an attempt to study their vulnerability to social influences. PMID:22473688

  11. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L.; Gaylis, Jaclyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was c...

  12. Socioeconomic status in relation to BMI in Macedonian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bojadzieva, Biljana; Nakeva, Natasa; Zafirova, Biljana; Matveeva, Niki; Chadikovska, Elizabeta; Jovevska, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status in Macedonian high school students in relation to their socioeconomic status (SES), education and employment of their parents. In this study 117 adolescent students (48 males and 69 females) at the age of 17 and 18 were included. We measured weight and height using standard procedures while BMI was calculated. The examinees completed the questionnaire including data for SES, parents’ education and employment. Male ...

  13. African-American Parents' Knowledge and Perceptions About BMI Measurements, School-Based BMI Screening Programs, and BMI Report Cards: Results from a Qualitative Investigation and Implications for School-to-Parent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Dominique G; Bass, Sarah Bauerle

    2016-06-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) screenings can help parents make informed decisions about their child's health, but schools have questioned parents' understanding and attitudes about BMI measures and report cards. Although researchers have investigated minority parents' perceptions of their child's weight, no research has explored minority parents' knowledge and perceptions related to BMI measurements, school-based BMI screening programs, and BMI report cards. To address this gap, focus groups were conducted (n = 20) with female Black or African-American parents/guardians from a large urban school district. Participants were asked to share their perceptions before and after receiving education about BMI measurements and screening programs. Pre-education: Many participants had heard of BMI, thought it was similar to body fat, believed screenings were intended to track students' weights and monitor eating habits, and were concerned that screenings could cause their child embarrassment. Post-education: Most participants did not object to screenings, but said they would have without education about why and how BMI measurements are taken. They also voiced concerns about lack of prior notice, confidentiality, and the need for schools to serve healthier food. Some of these findings support those of other qualitative studies of parents' concerns about BMI screenings, but no previous studies have compared parents' perceptions of screening programs pre-/post-education. The results reinforce that schools' efforts to explain what BMI measurements are as well as why and how they are taken can increase parents' confidence in the schools and level of comfort with BMI screening programs and report cards. PMID:27271073

  14. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  15. Associations of the pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational BMI gain with pregnancy outcomes in Chinese women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Dongmei; Li, Feifei; Zhang, Ya; Xu, Xianming

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight change in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy likely have an effect on pregnancy outcome. However, limited clinical evidence is available to support the correlation. Aims: To investigate the relationship of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational BMI gains and their effect on pregnancy outcome among Chinese women with GDM. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 1418 pregnant patients with GDM who receive...

  16. Structural characterization of APPJ treated Bismaleimide coatings and heat treated Titania-BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Shrinidhi, S.; Suman, S; Shah, A.; PRABHAKAR. P; Kumar, A. Chaurasia A.; Chauhan, K. G.; Bhattacharyya, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) are thermosetting polymers mainly used in aerospace applications having properties of dimensional stability, low shrinkage, chemical resistance, fire resistance, good mechanical properties and high resistance against various solvents, acids, and water. BMI is commercially available as Homide 250. BMI coating has also been used for the corrosion protection. Metallization (AL) of BMI using vacuum evaporation was done which serves the purpose of prevention of space charge accu...

  17. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  18. Modelling BMI trajectories in children for genetic association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Warrington

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The timing of associations between common genetic variants and changes in growth patterns over childhood may provide insight into the development of obesity in later life. To address this question, it is important to define appropriate statistical models to allow for the detection of genetic effects influencing longitudinal childhood growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: Children from The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine; n=1,506 Study were genotyped at 17 genetic loci shown to be associated with childhood obesity (FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, GNPDA2, KCTD15, NEGR1, BDNF, ETV5, SEC16B, LYPLAL1, TFAP2B, MTCH2, BCDIN3D, NRXN3, SH2B1, MRSA and an obesity-risk-allele-score was calculated as the total number of 'risk alleles' possessed by each individual. To determine the statistical method that fits these data and has the ability to detect genetic differences in BMI growth profile, four methods were investigated: linear mixed effects model, linear mixed effects model with skew-t random errors, semi-parametric linear mixed models and a non-linear mixed effects model. Of the four methods, the semi-parametric linear mixed model method was the most efficient for modelling childhood growth to detect modest genetic effects in this cohort. Using this method, three of the 17 loci were significantly associated with BMI intercept or trajectory in females and four in males. Additionally, the obesity-risk-allele score was associated with increased average BMI (female: β=0.0049, P=0.0181; male: β=0.0071, P=0.0001 and rate of growth (female: β=0.0012, P=0.0006; male: β=0.0008, P=0.0068 throughout childhood. CONCLUSIONS: Using statistical models appropriate to detect genetic variants, variations in adult obesity genes were associated with childhood growth. There were also differences between males and females. This study provides evidence of genetic effects that may identify individuals early in life that are more likely to rapidly increase their BMI

  19. The decline in BMI among Japanese women after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka

    2015-07-01

    The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II. PMID:26057102

  20. Bmi1 Is Required for Hedgehog Pathway-Driven Medulloblastoma Expansion12

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Lowell Evan; Westerman, Bart A.; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Wang, Aiqin; Ferris, Jennifer; Liu, Jianhong; Blom, Marleen; Ellison, David W.; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.

    2008-01-01

    Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh) signaling underlies development of a subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in transgenic mice expressing an oncogenic Hh effector, SmoA1, driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Whereas 100% of SmoA1; Bmi1+/+ or SmoA1;Bmi1+/- mice examined between postnatal (P) ...

  1. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Reproductive Health of Daughters in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariansdatter, Saga Elise; Ernst, Andreas; Toft, Gunnar;

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 1988......-significantly lower dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS), estradiol, and free estrogen index (FEI), compared to the middle BMI tertile. This was supported by a sub-analysis using the WHO classification (underweight, BMI < 18.50; normal range, BMI 18.50-24.99; overweight/obese, BMI ≥ 25.00 kg/m2) as exposure groups...

  2. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. Methods We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Results Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P P P P P > 0.5. In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P P P > 0.05. Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P P Conclusion Expression of Bmi-1 was greater in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues. The examination of Bmi-1 protein expression is potentially valuable in prognostic evaluation of bladder cancer.

  3. Construction of antisense Bmi-1 expression plasmid and its inhibitory effect on K562 cells proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiu-xiang; LIU Wei-hong; LIU Dan-dan; ZHAO Xin-yu; SU Ben-li

    2005-01-01

    Background Bmi-1 gene determines the proliferative capacity of normal and leukemia stem cells. Expression of Bmi-1 has been found in all types of myeloid leukemia cells in both humans and mice. This study aimed at assessing the effect of antisense Bmi-1 expression on K562 cells proliferation and p16 protein (p16) expression.Results K562 cells transfected with antisense Bmi-1 plasmid grew significantly slower than that of controls (the parental K562 and cells transfected with empty plasmid). The colony forming ability of antisense Bmi-1 plasmid transfected cells decreased significantly (P<0.01) compared with controls. The p16 expression of cells transfected with antisense Bmi-1 was upgraded more apparently than that of controls.Conclusion The antisense Bmi-1 gene can inhibit the growth of K562 cell and upgrade expression of p16 in K562 cells.

  4. Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents' BMI and educational level: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilato Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are responsible not only for the genetic structure of their children, but also for passing onto them their behaviours and attitudes toward life. The aim of this study was to analyse the connection between school-age children's obesity and that of their parents as well as between child obesity and parents' educational level, as a proxy indicator of the socio-economic status (SES of families in Tuscany. Methods The children sample was selected from "OKkio alla Salute 2010" (a cross sectional survey carried out by the Italian Institute of Health and consisted of 1,751 (922 males and 855 females 8-9 year-old school children. Weight and height were measured by ad hoc trained personnel, and Body Mass Index (BMI categories were calculated using Cole et al.'s cut-off. Parents' weight, height and educational level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The educational levels were classified as high, medium and low. Results The prevalence of obese children increased along the parents' BMI category: from 1.4% for underweight mothers to 30.3% for obese mothers and from 4% for under-normal-weight fathers to 23.9% for obese fathers (p Conclusion Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of the family, particularly the father's, seem to influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tuscan children.

  5. Dysregulation of Bmi1 promotes malignant transformation of hepatic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Wu, W R; Shi, X D; Xu, L B; Zhu, M S; Zeng, H; Liu, C

    2016-01-01

    Adult hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are involved in a wide range of human liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bmi1 has been reported to have vital roles in stem cell self-renewal and carcinogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that Bmi1 is upregulated in HCC with bile duct tumor thrombi, a subtype of HCC characterized by profuse expression of hepatic stem cell markers. However, the function of Bmi1 in HPCs has not yet been well elucidated. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of Bmi1 on the biological properties of rat HPCs. To accomplish this, Bmi1 was silenced or enhanced in two HPC cell lines (WB-F344 and OC3) by, respectively, using either small interfering RNA against Bmi1 or a forced Bmi1 expression retroviral vector. The biological functions of Bmi1 in HPCs were investigated through cell proliferation assays, colony-formation assays, cell cycle analysis and invasion assays, as well as through xenograft-formation assays. In this study, genetic depletion of Bmi1 repressed cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion in both assessed HPC cell lines relative to controls. Conversely, forced expression of Bmi1 in two HPCs cell lines promoted cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion in vitro. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) assay revealed a significant increase in the number of ALDH-positive cells following the forced expression of Bmi1 in HPCs. Most importantly, transplantation of forced Bmi1 expression HPCs into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors with histological features of poorly differentiated HCC. Taken together, our findings indicate that forced expression of Bmi1 promotes the malignant transformation of HPCs, suggesting Bmi1 might be a potential molecular target for the treatment of HCC. PMID:26926789

  6. Bmi1 Is Required for Hedgehog Pathway-Driven Medulloblastoma Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Evan Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh signaling underlies development of a subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in transgenic mice expressing an oncogenic Hh effector, SmoA1, driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter. Whereas 100% of SmoA1; Bmi1+/+ or SmoA1;Bmi1+/- mice examined between postnatal (P days 14 and 26 had typical medulloblastomas (N = 29, tumors were not detected in any of the SmoA1;Bmi1-/- animals examined (N = 6. Instead, small ectopic collections of cells were present in the region of greatest tumor load in SmoA1 animals, suggesting that medulloblastomas were initiated but failed to undergo expansion into frank tumors. Cells within these Bmi1-/- lesions expressed SmoA1 but were largely nonproliferative, in contrast to cells in Bmi1+/+ tumors (6.2% vs 81.9% PCNA-positive, respectively. Ectopic cells were negative for the progenitor marker nestin, strongly GFAP-positive, and highly apoptotic, relative to Bmi1+/+ tumor cells (29.6% vs 6.3% TUNEL-positive. The alterations in proliferation and apoptosis in SmoA1;Bmi1-/- ectopic cells are associated with reduced levels of Cyclin D1 and elevated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19Arf, two inversely regulated downstream targets of Bmi1. These data provide the first demonstration that Bmi1 is required for spontaneous de novo development of a solid tumor arising in the brain, suggest a crucial role for Bmi1-dependent, nestin-expressing progenitor cells in medulloblastoma expansion, and implicate Bmi1 as a key factor required for Hh pathway-driven tumorigenesis.

  7. Westernization, intuitive eating, and BMI: an exploration of Jordanian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Amanda L; Madanat, Hala N

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Arabic-version of the adapted Marin Bidimensional Acculturation Scale and investigate the relationship between Westernization, intuitive eating, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of Jordanian female adolescents. A total of 199 subjects between the ages of 11-18 were surveyed. Participants who scored higher on the Arabic domain exhibited higher Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) intrinsic subscale scores (r = 0.147, P = 0.048) suggesting that those who are more orientated toward Arabic culture may respond more naturally to physical hunger cues than their more Westernized counterparts. Reinforcing intuitive eating attitudes and behaviors and emphasizing body ideals resonant with the Arabic culture may propagate the continuation of intuitive eating in this population, potentially reducing the risk of obesity and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. PMID:23896036

  8. Bmi1 is required for hepatic progenitor cell expansion and liver tumor development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Fan

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a polycomb group transcriptional repressor and it has been implicated in regulating self-renewal and proliferation of many types of stem or progenitor cells. In addition, Bmi1 has been shown to function as an oncogene in multiple tumor types. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of Bmi1 in regulating hepatic oval cells, the major type of bipotential progenitor cells in adult liver, as well as the role of Bmi1 during hepatocarcinogenesis using Bmi1 knockout mice. We found that loss of Bmi1 significantly restricted chemically induced oval cell expansion in the mouse liver. Concomitant deletion of Ink4a/Arf in Bmi1 deficient mice completely rescued the oval cell expansion phenotype. Furthermore, ablation of Bmi1 delayed hepatocarcinogenesis induced by AKT and Ras co-expression. This antineoplastic effect was accompanied by the loss of hepatic oval cell marker expression in the liver tumor samples. In summary, our data demonstrated that Bmi1 is required for hepatic oval cell expansion via deregulating the Ink4a/Arf locus in mice. Our study also provides the evidence, for the first time, that Bmi1 expression is required for liver cancer development in vivo, thus representing a promising target for innovative treatments against human liver cancer.

  9. Disentangling the associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition using the four‐component model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813

  10. Measures for reduction of severe accident consequences: Comprehensive evaluation of the results sponsored by the BMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of analytical studies were initial in the past by the Federal Ministry of Interior (BMI) of FRG, to investigate the potential of additional constructive measures for risk reduction. Those measures were proposed especially against uncontrolled overpressurization of the containment due to continuous gas/steam generation, penetration of the foundation of the reactor building by melt-concrete interaction, and failure of the containment due to violent hydrogen combustion. This report gives an overview about those studies and summarizes their results. Concerning uncontrolled overpressurization, only filtered venting may be a reasonable measure, while it seems to make not much sense, to look at measures against penetration of the foundation like 'core-catcher' in further detail. To prevent hydrogen combustion with severe consequences, several potential possibilities exist, but none of them can be considered as a safe measure. Additional analysis concerning hydrogen distribution and combustion in a multi-compartment containment are necessary. All studies mentioned in this report, deal with additional constructive measures to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents. Up to day in FRG, the potential of accident prevention and mitigation of its consequences by still or again operable and already existing systems of a plant have not been investigated in detail. As indicated by first results, the use of those systems in the frame of an appropriate accident management may have a large potential for risk reduction. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and dental age

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Sharifi; Hosein Agha Aghili; Maryam Zangouei-Booshehri; Fatemeh Ezoddini-Ardakani

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the rela-tionship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and accelerated dental development. The dental developmental ages of 100 children aged between 8 and 12 years were determined using the Demirjian method and panoramic radiographs. BMI status was determined for each subject on the basis of the system developed by the International Obesity Task Force. There was a significant direct relationship between dental development and BMI (P < 0.01). Obese children h...

  12. BMI and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.;

    2006-01-01

    BMI differentiation and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people were analysed. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years. 21 food patterns were separated by the factor analysis. On the basis of the self-reported body mass and height, the BMI and percentages of...... overweight or obese people were calculated. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence for both sexes was unequivocally connected with eating rye. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence depended among women on consuming pork meat and alcoholic beverages. For men the...

  13. SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH BMI OF 25 OR MORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Body mass index [BMI] of 25 or greater is a significant health problem associated with a variety of disorders and in adults it has been found to be a risk factor for hearing loss. Higher BMI is independently associated with increased hearing loss. We investigated the hypothesis that young adults with a BMI of 25 or more are at increased risk of mild sensorineural hearing loss. AIMS AN D OBJECTIVES: To assess hearing acuity in individuals with high BMI (≥25 by audiometric assessment and compare it with the control group (BMI <25. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A comparative and cross sectional study among volunteers residing in Bengaluru. METHODS AND MATERIAL : Data collected from 2 groups containing 30 participants each, test group contained individual with a BMI of 25 or more and the control group consisted individuals with BMI of <25, in the age group of 18 - 35 yrs. Pure tone audiometry was carried out across various frequencies (0. 5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 kHz in both groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student t - test was used to compare hearing thresholds across various frequencies in both groups. RESULTS: Compared to control group, high BMI (≥25 was associated with increased pure tone hearing thresholds across lower frequencies (0. 5, 1, 2 kHz. The degree of hearing loss is mild (26 - 40dB . CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that young adults with a BMI of 25 or more are at increasing risk of mild sensorineural hearing loss.

  14. Overexpression of Bmi1 in Lymphocytes Stimulates Skeletogenesis by Improving the Osteogenic Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xichao; Dai, Xiuliang; Wu, Xuan; Ji, Ji; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Yang, Xiangjiao; Miao, Dengshun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes can stimulate skeletogenesis by improving the osteogenic microenvironment, we examined the skeletal phenotype of EμBmi1 transgenic mice with overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes. The size of the skeleton, trabecular bone volume and osteoblast number, indices of proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were increased significantly, ROS levels were reduced and antioxidative capacity was enhanced in EμBmi1 mice compared to WT mice. In PTHrP1–84 knockin (PthrpKI/KI) mice, the expression levels of Bmi1 are reduced and potentially can mediate the premature osteoporosis observed. We therefore generated a PthrpKI/KI mice overexpressing Bmi1 in lymphocytes and compared them with PthrpKI/KI and WT littermates. Overexpression of Bmi1 in PthrpKI/KI mice resulted in a longer lifespan, increased body weight and improvement in skeletal growth and parameters of osteoblastic bone formation with reduced ROS levels and DNA damage response parameters. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes can stimulate osteogenesis in vivo and partially rescue defects in skeletal growth and osteogenesis in PthrpKI/KI mice. These studies therefore indicate that overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes can stimulate skeletogenesis by inhibiting oxidative stress and improving the osteogenic microenvironment. PMID:27373231

  15. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis-BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Ojo, Diane; Wei, Fengxiang; Wong, Nicholas; Gu, Yan; Tang, Damu

    2015-01-01

    BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase. Through mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119Ub), BMI1 represses multiple gene loci; among these, the INK4A/ARF locus has been most thoroughly investigated. The locus encodes the p16INK4A and p14/p19ARF tumor suppressors that function in the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Its repression contributes to BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. BMI1 also possesses other oncogenic functions, specifically its regulative role in DNA damage response (DDR). In this process, BMI1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and γH2AX, thereby facilitating the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) through stimulating homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Additionally, BMI1 compromises DSB-induced checkpoint activation independent of its-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We review the emerging role of BMI1 in DDR regulation and discuss its impact on BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. PMID:26633535

  16. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis—BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozeng Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1, and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase. Through mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119Ub, BMI1 represses multiple gene loci; among these, the INK4A/ARF locus has been most thoroughly investigated. The locus encodes the p16INK4A and p14/p19ARF tumor suppressors that function in the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Its repression contributes to BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. BMI1 also possesses other oncogenic functions, specifically its regulative role in DNA damage response (DDR. In this process, BMI1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and γH2AX, thereby facilitating the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs through stimulating homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Additionally, BMI1 compromises DSB-induced checkpoint activation independent of its-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We review the emerging role of BMI1 in DDR regulation and discuss its impact on BMI1-derived tumorigenesis.

  17. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Faughnan, Patrick D.; Batterson, Lawrence M.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Engineers today are presented with the opportunity to design and build the next generation of space vehicles out of the lightest, strongest, and most durable materials available. Composites offer excellent structural characteristics and outstanding reliability in many forms that will be utilized in future aerospace applications including the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program and the Orion space capsule. NASA's Composites for Exploration (CoEx) project researches the various methods of manufacturing composite materials of different fiber characteristics while using proven infusion methods of different resin compositions. Development and testing on these different material combinations will provide engineers the opportunity to produce optimal material compounds for multidisciplinary applications. Through the CoEx project, engineers pursue the opportunity to research and develop repair patch procedures for damaged spacecraft. Working in conjunction with Raptor Resins Inc., NASA engineers are utilizing high flow liquid infusion molding practices to manufacture high-temperature composite parts comprised of intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) carbon fiber material. IM7 is a continuous, high-tensile strength composite with outstanding structural qualities such as high shear strength, tensile strength and modulus as well as excellent corrosion, creep, and fatigue resistance. IM7 carbon fiber, combined with existing thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems, can provide improvements in material strength reinforcement and deformation-resistant properties for high-temperature applications. Void analysis of the different layups of the IM7 material discovered the largest total void composition within the [ +45 , 90 , 90 , -45 ] composite panel. Tensile and compressional testing proved the highest mechanical strength was found in the [0 4] layup. This paper further investigates the infusion procedure of a low-cost/high-performance BMI resin into an IM7 carbon fiber material and the

  18. AGE AND GENDER SPECIFIC BMI PERCENTILES ARE LIMITED FOR TRACKING THE CHILDHOOD OBESITY EPIDEMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To evaluate pediatric nutrition and physical activity interventions a reliable and feasible way of tracking change in body status is needed. Historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used in adults. BMI percentiles or Z scores, which are theoretically age and gender adjusted, have been...

  19. Body-Image Perceptions: Reliability of a BMI-Based Silhouette Matching Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Ellenberg, Deborah; Crossan, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the reliability of a BMI-based Silhouette Matching Test (BMI-SMT). Methods: The perceptions of ideal and current body images of 215 ninth through twelfth graders' were assessed at 5 different schools within a mid-Atlantic state public school system. Results: Findings provided quantifiable data and discriminating measurements…

  20. Correlation of Bmi-1 expression and telomerase activity in human ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, F. B.; Sui, L. H.; Xin, T.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the correlation between the oncoprotein Bmi-1 and telomerase activity in ovarian cancer. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is used to detect the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Bmi-1 protein in 47 ovarian epithelial cancer cases, and immunohistochemistry i

  1. Loss of Bmi1 causes anomalies in retinal development and degeneration of cone photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabino, Andrea; Plamondon, Vicky; Abdouh, Mohamed; Chatoo, Wassim; Flamier, Anthony; Hanna, Roy; Zhou, Shufeng; Motoyama, Noboru; Hébert, Marc; Lavoie, Joëlle; Bernier, Gilbert

    2016-05-01

    Retinal development occurs through the sequential but overlapping generation of six types of neuronal cells and one glial cell type. Of these, rod and cone photoreceptors represent the functional unit of light detection and phototransduction and are frequently affected in retinal degenerative diseases. During mouse development, the Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is expressed in immature retinal progenitors and differentiated retinal neurons, including cones. We show here that Bmi1 is required to prevent post natal degeneration of cone photoreceptors and bipolar neurons and that inactivation of Chk2 or p53 could improve but not overcome cone degeneration in Bmi1(-/-) mice. The retinal phenotype of Bmi1(-/-) mice was also characterized by loss of heterochromatin, activation of tandem repeats, oxidative stress and Rip3-associated necroptosis. In the human retina, BMI1 was preferentially expressed in cones at heterochromatic foci. BMI1 inactivation in human embryonic stem cells was compatible with retinal induction but impaired cone terminal differentiation. Despite this developmental arrest, BMI1-deficient cones recapitulated several anomalies observed in Bmi1(-/-) photoreceptors, such as loss of heterochromatin, activation of tandem repeats and induction of p53, revealing partly conserved biological functions between mouse and man. PMID:26965367

  2. Validation of Bmi1 as a Therapeutic Target of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibo Qi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb group family of proteins, and it drives the carcinogenesis of various cancers and governs the self-renewal of multiple types of stem cells. Our previous studies have revealed that Bmi1 acts as an oncogene in hepatic carcinogenesis in an INK4a/ARF locus independent manner. However, whether Bmi1 can be used as a potential target for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment has not been fully confirmed yet. Here, we show that perturbation of Bmi1 expression by using short hairpin RNA can inhibit the tumorigenicity and tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, Bmi1 knockdown can block the tumor growth, both in the initiating stages and the fast growing stages. Cellular biology analysis revealed that Bmi1 knockdown induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our findings verify Bmi1 as a qualified treatment target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and support Bmi1 targeting treatment with chemotherapeutic agents.

  3. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    -groups, P ≤ 0.041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late...

  4. STUDY OF EFFECT OF BMI AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to evaluate any association between BMI, WC and Blood pressure and any tendency to develop prehypertension. The study comprises of 100 medical students of NRI medical college, Sangivalasa near Visakhapatnam. It was carried out ongirl students with age of 17 ye ars. Their BMI, WC and Blood pressure were determined. The examination included measurement of weight, height of the student to determine BMI, measurement of waist circumference, and measurement of blood pressure by sphygmomanometer. In the present study t he results are consistent with early clinical studies reporting that there is elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing BMI and waist circumference and there is tendency to develop prehypertension in students with higher BMI. Modificat ion of life style factors should be emphasized.

  5. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  6. Are associations between electronic media use and BMI different across levels of physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Haug, Ellen; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of electronic media has been found to be a risk factor for higher BMI and for being overweight. Physical activity has been found to be associated with lower BMI and lower risk for being overweight. Little is known about whether the associations between physical activity and...... girls who did not comply with physical activity guidelines. Among physically active adolescents, EM was found to be significantly associated with BMI or odds for overweight among girls, but not among boys. CONCLUSION: While the usage of EM appear to be inconsequential for BMI and the risk of overweight...... among physically active boys, we find evidence indicating that EM use is associated with BMI and risk for overweight among girls, including those who report complying with MVPA guidelines....

  7. Nativity, US Length of Residence, and BMI Among Diverse Asian American Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups. PMID:25192818

  8. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  9. Overexpression of AtBMI1C, a polycomb group protein gene, accelerates flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Polycomb group protein (PcG-mediated gene silencing is emerging as an essential developmental regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic organisms. PcGs inactivate or maintain the silenced state of their target chromatin by forming complexes, including Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1 and 2 (PRC2. Three PRC2 complexes have been identified and characterized in Arabidopsis; of these, the EMF and VRN complexes suppress flowering by catalyzing the trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 of FLOWER LOCUS T (FT and FLOWER LOCUS C (FLC. However, little is known about the role of PRC1 in regulating the floral transition, although AtRING1A, AtRING1B, AtBMI1A, and AtBMI1B are believed to regulate shoot apical meristem and embryonic development as components of PRC1. Moreover, among the five RING finger PcGs in the Arabidopsis genome, four have been characterized. Here, we report that the fifth, AtBMI1C, is a novel, ubiquitously expressed nuclear PcG protein and part of PRC1, which is evolutionarily conserved with Psc and BMI1. Overexpression of AtBMI1C caused increased H2A monoubiquitination and flowering defects in Arabidopsis. Both the suppression of FLC and activation of FT were observed in AtBMI1C-overexpressing lines, resulting in early flowering. No change in the H3K27me3 level in FLC chromatin was detected in an AtBMI1C-overexpressing line. Our results suggest that AtBMI1C participates in flowering time control by regulating the expression of FLC; moreover, the repression of FLC by AtBMI1C is not due to the activity of PRC2. Instead, it is likely the result of PRC1 activity, into which AtBMI1C is integrated.

  10. Adolescent BMI at Northern Israel: From Trends, to Associated Variables and Comorbidities, and to Medical Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machluf, Yossy; Fink, Daniel; Farkash, Rivka; Rotkopf, Ron; Pirogovsky, Avinoam; Tal, Orna; Shohat, Tamar; Weisz, Giora; Ringler, Erez; Dagan, David; Chaiter, Yoram

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of abnormal body mass index (BMI), mainly obesity, is becoming a significant public health problem. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide a comprehensive view of secular trends of BMI, and the associated socio-demographic variables and comorbidities among adolescents with abnormal BMI. Individuals of the study population were born mainly between 1970 and 1993, and were examined at 16 to 19 years of age during the years 1987 to 2010, at 1 conscription center in the northern district of Israel.The study population included 113,694 adolescents. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between BMI categories, socio-demographic variables, and medical conditions.A downward trend in the prevalence of normal BMI among both male and female adolescents was obtained, while trends of overweight and obesity (in both genders) and underweight (only among females) rose. Socio-demographic variables such as religion, education, family-related parameters, residential environment, country of birth, and origin were all associated with different risks for abnormal BMI. Obesity was associated with higher risk for hyperlipidemia, endocrine disorders (only in males), knee disorders, and hypertension type I + II (in both genders). Overweight was associated with knee disorders (only in females). Underweight, exclusively in males, was associated with increased risk for endocrine disorders, proteinuria, and cardiac disorders. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the intricate relations between gender, BMI, and medical signatures. It brought to light novel clusters of diseases that were abundant among populations having above-normal BMI or underweight males. Furthermore, above-normal BMI was associated with a lower rate of cardiac anomalies and scoliosis/kyphosis, whereas being underweight was associated with a lower risk for hypertension and flat foot.This study provides a reliable and in-depth view

  11. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI group. It is found that BMI does not have much influence on head injuries but it is influenced more by the height of the occupant. Results of logistic analysis suggest that

  12. MDR1 mediated chemoresistance: BMI1 and TIP60 in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee Mustafi, Soumyajit; Chakraborty, Prabir Kumar; Naz, Sarwat; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar; Street, Mark; Basak, Rumki; Yang, Da; Ding, Kai; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Bhattacharya, Resham

    2016-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced emergence of drug resistant cells is frequently observed and is exemplified by the expression of family of drug resistance proteins including, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). However, a concise mechanism for chemotherapy-induced MDR1 expression is unclear. Mechanistically, mutational selection, epigenetic alteration, activation of the Wnt pathway or impaired p53 function have been implicated. The present study describes that the surviving fraction of cisplatin resistant cells co- upregulate MDR1, BMI1 and acetyl transferase activity of TIP60. Using complementary gain and loss of function approaches, we demonstrate that the expression of MDR1 is positively regulated by BMI1, a stem-cell factor classically known as a transcriptional repressor. Our study establishes a functional interaction between TIP60 and BMI-1 resulting in upregulation of MDR1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays further establish that the proximal MDR1 promoter responds to cisplatin in a BMI1 dependent manner. BMI1 interacts with a cluster of E-box elements on the MDR1 promoter and recruits TIP60 resulting in acetylation of histone H2A and H3. Collectively, our data establish a hitherto unknown liaison among MDR1, BMI1 and TIP60 and provide mechanistic insights into cisplatin-induced MDR1 expression resulting in acquired cross-resistance against paclitaxel, doxorubicin and likely other drugs. In conclusion, our results advocate utilizing anti-BMI1 strategies to alleviate acquired resistance to chemotherapy. PMID:27295567

  13. BMI and Health Status in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes Trial (BARI 2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng-Chia; Hlatky, Mark A.; Stone, Roslyn A.; Rana, Jamal S.; Escobedo, Jorge; Rogers, William J.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Brooks, Maria Mori

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The longitudinal association between obesity, weight variability and health status outcomes is important for patients with coronary disease and diabetes. METHODS The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial (BARI 2D) was a multi-center randomized clinical trial to evaluate the best treatment strategy for patients with both documented stable ischemic heart disease and type 2 diabetes. We examined BARI 2D participants for four years to study how BMI was associated with health status outcomes. Health status was evaluated by the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI), RAND Energy/fatigue, Health Distress, and Self-rated health. BMI was measured quarterly throughout follow-up years, and health status was assessed at each annual follow-up visit. Variation in BMI measures was separated into between-person and within-person change in longitudinal analysis. RESULTS Higher mean BMI over follow-up years (the between-person BMI) was associated with poorer health status outcomes. Decreasing BMI (the within-person BMI change) was associated with better Self-rated health. The relationships between BMI variability and DASI or Energy appeared to be curvilinear, and differed by baseline obesity status. Decreasing BMI was associated with better outcomes if patients were obese at baseline, but was associated with poorer DASI and Energy outcomes if patients were non-obese at baseline. CONCLUSIONS For patients with stable ischemic heart disease and diabetes, weight gain was associated with poorer health status outcomes, independent of obesity-related comobidities. Weight reduction is associated with better functional capacity and perceived energy for obese patients but not for non-obese patients at baseline. PMID:21742107

  14. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  15. Association between Bmi1 and clinicopathological status of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ting He; Xiu-Feng Cao; Lv Ji; Bin Zhu; Jin Lv; Dong-Dong Wang; Pei-Hua Lu; Heng-Guan Cui

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinicopathological roles of Bmi1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining for Bmi1 were performed in cancerous and adjacent noncancerous paraffin-embedded esophageal specimens. RESULTS: The Bmi1 expression level was unaffected by gender and age. The level of Bmi1 mRNA in ESCC was significantly higher than that in the adjacent noncancerous tissues (2.181 ± 2.158 vs 0.931 ± 0.894, P = 0.0152), and its over-expression was aggressively associated with lymph node metastasis (3.580 ± 2.487 vs 1.703 ± 0.758, P = 0.0003), poorer cell differentiation ( P = 0.0000) and advanced pathological stage (3.827 ± 2.673 vs 1.590 ± 0.735, P = 0.0001). The patients were divided into high-expression and low-expression groups based on the median expression level of Bmi1 mRNA, and a shorter overall survival time in the former group was observed. Immunohistochemistry for Bmi1 oncoprotein showed diffusely positive, focally positive and negative expression in 44, 16 and 10 of 70 ESCC cases, respectively, compared with three, two and five of 10 adjacent non-cancerous cases ( P = 0.027). The positive rate of the oncoprotein in samples of histological grade Ⅲ was higher than that of grade Ⅱ ( P = 0.031), but its expression had no relation to the lymph node metastasis and pathological staging. In 70 ESCC samples, Bmi1 showed high intense expression in the cytoplasm and less or even no expression in the nucleus. CONCLUSION: Bmi1 was over-expressed in ESCC. Increased Bmi1 mRNA expression was significantly associated with ESCC progression, and the oncoprotein was largely distributed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells.

  16. A SHORT STUDY ON CHANGE IN BP WITH BMI IN OBESE AND NONOBESE YOUNG GIRL STUDENTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Divyashree N Uchil; NS Satish Kumar; Udaya Kumar Rao; Deepa; Pavana Krishnamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    Title: Short study on change in BP and BMI in obese and non obese young girl students. Introduction: High blood pressure (BP) is a major determinant of cardiovascular events in obesity. This study was undertaken to analyze the differences in certain well-defined cardiovascular parameters in obese and non-obese young girl students between age 17 to 21 with respect to their BMI. Aims and Objectives: To compare change in BP and BMI in obese and non obese young girls. Materials and methods: This ...

  17. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40...... analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not...

  18. Breast feeding duration, age at starting periods and high BMI risk and adiposity in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Caleyachetty, A.; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C H; Wills, A K

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1–4 to ?21 months) and age of start...

  19. Slow rates of habituation predict greater zBMI gains over 12 months in lean children

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Slow rates of habituation are related to greater energy intake, and cross-sectionally to body weight. The present study is designed to assess whether slow rates of habituation are prospectively related to zBMI change over a 12 month period in 66 lean 8–12 year-old children, and whether the rate of habituation is a stable behavioral phenotype. Results showed slower rates of habituation predicted greater zBMI change, controlling for child sex, age, initial zBMI, dietary awareness and minority s...

  20. Contribution of the BMI Level or the Body Fat Percentage Level to Bone-Mass

    OpenAIRE

    高畑,陽子; 穴井,孝信

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear which body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage level has the strongest effect on the bone mass in young women.We examined the data gathered from 233 adolescent girls in a junior high,high school,and university to ascertain the relationship between BMI or body fat percentage and bone mass. The transmission index (TI) of the calcaneus was measured using an ultrasound bone densitometer. The subjects were classified into 3 groups by BMI and body fat percentage se...

  1. N Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The last of Hanfordqaodmasdkwaspemas7ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdflss nine plutonium production reactors to be built was the N Reactor.This reactor was called a dual purpose...

  2. Fat and lean BMI reference curves in children and adolescents and their utility in identifying excess adiposity compared with BMI and percentage body fat1234

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, David R.; Moore, Reneé H.; Leonard, Mary B.; Babette S. Zemel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) are widely used to assess adiposity. These indexes fail to account for independent contributions of fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) to body weight, which vary according to age, sex, pubertal status, and population ancestry in the pediatric population.

  3. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Hedderson, Monique; Ehrlich, Samantha; Sridhar, Sneha; Darbinian, Jeanne; Moore, Susan; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and BMI category varies by racial/ethnic group. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a cohort of 123,040 women without recognized pregravid diabetes who delivered babies between 1995 and 2006 at Kaiser Permanente of Northern California, we examined racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of GDM by BMI category and the population-attributable risk (PAR) associated with overweight/obesity. RESULTS Among all r...

  4. Sociodemographic Status and Self-Reported BMI-related Morbidity in Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kayoung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study examined whether the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the morbidity of chronic diseases differs by marital status, education, and income level. Materials and Methods From a nationally representative sample of 5,526 adults from the third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005), data regarding measured height and weight to classify BMI category (< 23, 23-24.9, ≥ 25), self-reported sociodemographics (marital status, education, income, age, ...

  5. Toughness and Hot/Wet Properties of a Novel Modified BMI/Carbon Fiber Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The toughness and hot/wet properties of a novel modified bismaleimide (BMI) 5428/carbon fiber composite was investigated. Results indicate that the prepared BMI/T700 composite owns high toughness, excellent hot/wet properties and mechanical properties. The compression strength after impact (CAl) of 5428/T700 composite is 260 MPa, and the results of hot/wet test show that the long-term service temperature of 5428/T700 composite can maintain at 170°C.

  6. The Effects of Breastfeeding on Childhood BMI: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Gibson; Hernandez, M; Kelly, M; Campbell, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of breastfeeding on childhood body mass index (BMI). We use data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), a nationally representative UK cohort survey, containing detailed infant feeding information, which allow us to explore the effects of a range of breastfeeding variables on the mean BMI of children breastfed for different durations and for exclusive and partial breastfeeding. Using propensity score matching, we find statistically significant influences of...

  7. The prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and the association with BMI status

    OpenAIRE

    Veldwijk Jorien; Proper Karin I; Hoeven-Mulder Henriëtte B; Bemelmans Wanda JE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and exa...

  8. Bmi1 reprograms CML B-lymphoid progenitors to become B-ALL–initiating cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Amitava; Ficker, Ashley M.; Dunn, Susan K.; Madhu, Malav; Cancelas, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The characterization and targeting of Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)–initiating cells remains unresolved. Expression of the polycomb protein Bmi1 is up-regulated in patients with advanced stages of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We report that Bmi1 transforms and reprograms CML B-lymphoid progenitors into stem cell leukemia (Scl) promoter-driven, self-renewing, leukemia-initiating cells to result in B-lymphoid leukemia (B-ALL) in vivo. In vitro,...

  9. Changes of BMI Distribution in Chinese Adults from 1989 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-fei OUYANG; Hui-jun WANG; Chang SU; Wen-wen DU; Ji-guo ZHANG; Bing ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the changing trends of body mass index (BMI) distribution in Chinese adults from 1989 to 2011. MethodsThe data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected in 1989, 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 were used. A total of 14831 participants aged 18-45 years with 39497 observations were included in the final analysis. Lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method was applied to describe the changes of BMI distribution.ResultsFrom 1989 to 2011, the distribution curve of BMI showed shifts toward the right in both men and women. All percentile curves displayed an increasing trend and the change was much larger at higher percentile levels mainly among men. The median values of BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity exhibited increasing trends in both genders, especially in the period from 1997 to 2011. The quartile range of BMI increased from 3.4kg/m2 to 4.8kg/m2 for men and from 3.7kg/m2 to 4.4 kg/m2 for women. The prevalence of overweight and obesity appeared to be higher in three megacities than in nine provinces in both men and women. ConclusionAs indicated by the changes of the BMI distribution in Chinese adults, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased greatly during the past 23 years, especially in men. It is urgent to take strategies for obesity prevention and control immediately in China.

  10. BMI1 is downregulated by the natural compound curcumin, but not by bisdemethoxycurcumin and dimethoxycurcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyeni, Temitope A; Khatwani, Natasha; San, KayKay; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R

    2016-08-01

    The B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1) locus encodes a 37-kD protein that is a key regulatory component of the polycomb regulatory complex 1 (PRC1). When overexpressed in various cancer types, the BMI1 protein induces cell growth and promotes tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin, a major phytochemical in turmeric (Curcuma longa), inhibits the proliferation and survival of many types of cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo, and has been reported to reduce BMI1 expression in breast cancer cells. In this study, effects of curcumin and two analogs (bisdemethoxycurcumin and dimethoxycurcumin) on BMI1 expression were evaluated in DLD-1 colorectal cancer cells. Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is naturally occurring in turmeric, whereas dimethoxycurcumin (DMC) is a synthetic analog of curcumin. All three compounds reduced cell survival, but only the natural compound downregulated BMI1 protein expression; curcumin significantly reduced BMI1 levels more than bisdemethoxycurcumin and dimethoxycurcumin. In addition, curcumin and BDMC inhibit survival of the DLD-1 colorectal cancer cells by inducing apoptosis, whereas DMC inhibits survival by a mechanism other than apoptosis. PMID:27550987

  11. Higher BMI Is Associated with Reduced Cognitive Performance in Division I Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fedor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Poor cardiovascular fitness has been implicated as a possible mechanism for obesity-related cognitive decline, though no study has examined whether BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in persons with excellent fitness levels. The current study examined the relationship between BMI and cognitive function by the Immediate Post Concussion and Cognitive Test (ImPACT in Division I collegiate athletes. Methods: Participants had an average age of 20.14 ± 1.78 years, were 31.3% female, and 53.9% football players. BMI ranged from 19.04 to 41.14 and averaged 26.72 ± 4.62. Results: Regression analyses revealed that BMI incrementally predicted performance on visual memory (R2 change = 0.015, p = 0.026 beyond control variables. Follow-up partial correlation analyses revealed small but significant negative correlations between BMI and verbal memory (r = -0.17, visual memory (r = -0.16, and visual motor speed (r = -0.12. Conclusions: These results suggest that higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive function, even in a sample expected to have excellent levels of cardiovascular fitness. Further work is needed to better understand mechanisms for these associations.

  12. Radiosensitization of esophageal carcinoma cells by the silencing of BMI-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Xiao; Sang, Mei-Xiang; Zhu, Shu-Chai; Liu, Zhi-Kun; Ma, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) has been widely used to treat cancer patients, particularly esophageal cancer patients. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site-1 (BMI-1) plays an important role in promoting the growth of cancer cells after exposure to irradiation. The present study aimed to characterize the effects of BMI-1 on the proliferation and invasion of cancer cells, as well as the mechanism involved in the regulation of the growth of esophageal cancer ECA109 and TE13 cells. The expression levels of the BMI-1 gene and protein in esophageal cancer ECA109 and TE13 cells were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting after transfection. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay was employed to detect the interaction of BMI-1 with r-H2AX and H2AK119ub. We used flow cytometry to analyze the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of transfected cells after irradiation or not, and examined cellular growth and invasion in vitro by MTS and Transwell assays. The results revealed that shRNA targeting the BMI-1 gene and protein downregulated BMI-1 expression after transfection for 24 h. The proliferation and invasion of tumor cells in the BMI-1‑shRNA group were suppressed after RT. In addition, the interaction of BMI-1, H2AK119ub and r-H2AX was increased after exposure to IR, followed by an increased apoptosis rate and decreased percentage of cells arrested at the G2/M phase after irradiation and silencing of BMI-1 by shRNA. Knockdown of BMI-1 expression decreased the phosphorylation of H2AX, upregulated p16, and induced the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer ECA109 and TE13 cells in vitro and significantly inhibited the growth and invasion of tumor cells. The mechanisms were found to be abrogation of cell cycle arrest at the G2/M stage and promotion of apoptosis. PMID:27108688

  13. Hydrogen problems in reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BMFT and BMI have initiated a workshop 'Hydrogen Problems in Reactor Safety Research' that took place October 3./4., 1983. The objective of this workshop was to present the state of the art in the main areas - Hydrogen-Production - Hydrogen-Distribution - Hydrogen-Ignition - Hydrogen-Burning and Containment Behaviour - Mitigation Measures. The lectures on the different areas are compiled. The most important results of the final discussion are summarized as well. (orig.)

  14. Adaptation to elastic loads and BMI robot controls during rat locomotion examined with point-process GLMs

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Weiguo; Cajigas, Iahn; Emery N Brown; Giszter, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Currently little is known about how a mechanically coupled BMI system's actions are integrated into ongoing body dynamics. We tested a locomotor task augmented with a BMI system driving a robot mechanically interacting with a rat under three conditions: control locomotion (BL), “simple elastic load” (E) and “BMI with elastic load” (BMI/E). The effect of the BMI was to allow compensation of the elastic load as a function of the neural drive. Neurons recorded here were close to one another in c...

  15. Is there an association between food portion size and BMI among British adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Cade, Janet E

    2014-09-14

    The prevalence of obesity has increased simultaneously with the increase in the consumption of large food portion sizes (FPS). Studies investigating this association among adolescents are limited; fewer have addressed energy-dense foods as a potential risk factor. In the present study, the association between the portion size of the most energy-dense foods and BMI was investigated. A representative sample of 636 British adolescents (11-18 years) was used from the 2008-2011 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey. FPS were estimated for the most energy-dense foods (those containing above 10·5 kJ/g (2·5 kcal/g)). Regression models with BMI as the outcome variable were adjusted for age, sex and misreporting energy intake (EI). A positive association was observed between total EI and BMI. For each 418 kJ (100 kcal) increase in EI, BMI increased by 0·19 kg/m2 (95 % CI 0·10, 0·28; Pbreakfast cereals, cream and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated)) were found to be positively associated with a higher BMI among all adolescents after adjusting for misreporting. When eliminating the effect of under-reporting, larger portion sizes of a number of high-energy-dense foods (biscuits, cheese, cream and cakes) were found to be positively associated with BMI among normal reporters. The portion sizes of only high-fibre breakfast cereals and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated) were found to be positively associated with BMI among under-reporters. These findings emphasise the importance of considering under-reporting when analysing adolescents' dietary intake data. Also, there is a need to address adolescents' awareness of portion sizes of energy-dense foods to improve their food choice and future health outcomes. PMID:24998364

  16. Changes in BMI over 6 years: the role of demographic and neighborhood characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, TR; Spence, JC; Blanchard, C; Cutumisu, N; Edwards, J; Nykiforuk, C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To undertake a 6-year longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the built environment (perceived and objectively measured) and change in body mass index (BMI). Specifically, this research examined whether change in BMI was predicted by objectively measured neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived neighborhood characteristics (for example, crime, traffic and interesting things to look at) in addition to other factors such as age, gender, education, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoking. Design Longitudinal study Subjects 500 adults who provided complete data in 2002 and 2008 and who did not move over the course of the study (47.8% female; age in 2002: 18–90 years). Measurements Telephone surveys in 2002 and 2008 measuring perceptions of their neighborhood environment and demographic factors. Objective measures of neighborhood characteristics were calculated using census data and geographical information systems in 2006. Results Age, neighborhood SES and perceived traffic were significantly related to increased BMI over the 6 years. Younger participants and those in lower SES neighborhoods were more likely to have increased BMI. Agreement with the statement that traffic made it difficult to walk also predicted increased BMI. Conclusion This study adds to the literature to show that BMI increased in low SES neighborhoods. Although more research is needed to fully understand how neighborhood SES contributes to obesity, it is without question that individuals in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods face more barriers to health than their wealthier counterparts. This study also calls into question the relationship between walkability and changes in BMI and emphasizes the necessity of longitudinal data rather than relying on cross-sectional research. PMID:20157324

  17. The association of plasma cysteine and gamma-glutamyltransferase with BMI and obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Elshorbagy, Amany K

    2009-07-01

    We recently reported a strong positive association of plasma total cysteine (tCys) with fat mass in over 5,000 subjects. As gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) enzyme increases cysteine availability by catalyzing glutathione breakdown and is positively associated with BMI and adiposity, we hypothesized that GGT might explain the association of tCys with adiposity. To study whether the associations of tCys and serum GGT with BMI and obesity were interrelated we conducted a cross-sectional study using data from 1,550 subjects recruited from nine European countries in the COMAC project. Multiple linear and logistic regression models and concentration-response curves were used. In age and sex-adjusted analyses, tCys showed strong positive associations with BMI (partial r = 0.19, P < 0.001), and obesity (odds ratio (OR) for 4th vs. 1st tCys quartile: 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.6-5.0, P < 0.001), both of which remained robust after adjustment for GGT and other metabolic and lifestyle confounders. Serum GGT was also a positive predictor of BMI (partial r = 0.17, P < 0.001) and obesity (OR for 4th vs. 1st GGT quartile: 4.8; 95% confidence interval: 2.5-9.2, P < 0.001), independent of tCys. However, the associations of GGT with BMI and obesity were weakened by adjustment for obesity-related factors such as serum lipids and blood pressure. These results indicate that tCys is a strong positive predictor of BMI and obesity, independent of GGT and other obesity-related factors. We also suggest that the association of serum GGT with BMI and obesity is unrelated to the role of GGT in cysteine turnover. The potential link between cysteine and fat metabolism should be further evaluated.

  18. A Smart Modeling Framework for Integrating BMI-enabled Models as Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P.; Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Peckham, S. D.; Liu, R.; Marini, L.; Hsu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Serviced-oriented computing provides an opportunity to couple web service models using semantic web technology. Through this approach, models that are exposed as web services can be conserved in their own local environment, thus making it easy for modelers to maintain and update the models. In integrated modeling, the serviced-oriented loose-coupling approach requires (1) a set of models as web services, (2) the model metadata describing the external features of a model (e.g., variable name, unit, computational grid, etc.) and (3) a model integration framework. We present the architecture of coupling web service models that are self-describing by utilizing a smart modeling framework. We expose models that are encapsulated with CSDMS (Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System) Basic Model Interfaces (BMI) as web services. The BMI-enabled models are self-describing by uncovering models' metadata through BMI functions. After a BMI-enabled model is serviced, a client can initialize, execute and retrieve the meta-information of the model by calling its BMI functions over the web. Furthermore, a revised version of EMELI (Peckham, 2015), an Experimental Modeling Environment for Linking and Interoperability, is chosen as the framework for coupling BMI-enabled web service models. EMELI allows users to combine a set of component models into a complex model by standardizing model interface using BMI as well as providing a set of utilities smoothing the integration process (e.g., temporal interpolation). We modify the original EMELI so that the revised modeling framework is able to initialize, execute and find the dependencies of the BMI-enabled web service models. By using the revised EMELI, an example will be presented on integrating a set of topoflow model components that are BMI-enabled and exposed as web services. Reference: Peckham, S.D. (2014) EMELI 1.0: An experimental smart modeling framework for automatic coupling of self-describing models, Proceedings of HIC 2014

  19. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  20. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised

  1. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  2. BMI Influences Prognosis Following Surgery and Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Lymph Node Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolins, Mara Z.; Kimmick, Gretchen G.; Case, L. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence and death. However, the association has not been consistent in the literature and may depend on several factors such as menopausal status, extent of disease, and receptor status. We performed a secondary analysis on what we believe is the largest prospective trial of adjuvant chemotherapy to assess the effect of BMI on prognosis in women with lymph node positive breast cancer. The study included 636 women with a median follow-up of over 13 years. Cox’s proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the effect of BMI on outcomes. Kaplan–Meier methods were used to estimate survival curves and log rank tests were used to assess differences in survival for BMI groups. We found that increased BMI was generally predictive of faster time to recurrence and decreased survival, but that the relationship was stronger for younger women, those with progesterone receptor negative disease and those with a greater number of lymph nodes that were positive. PMID:18540954

  3. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children's BMI or risk of overweight. PMID:22548089

  4. A Comparative Study of the Taste Choice of Adolescents in Terms of Gender and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Kucukkmurler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the attitudes and choices of taste of adolescents, the conditions that affect these choices, and its variations with respect to BMI and gender. METHODS: 385 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 14, in Ankara, Turkey, participated in the research. In order to determine taste choices and attitudes towards taste, a Likert-type questionnaire was applied. Independent Samples t-test and correlational analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Boys preferred sweet and bitter tastes more than girls, but girls preferred salty tastes more than boys (p<0.05. It was found that when the BMI of adolescents increases, their taste scores decrease significantly (p<0.05. As the BMI increases, the sum preferences of sweet, sour, umami and salty taste scores decrease. There is a positive relation between sour and bitter and umami and bitter with umami (p< 0.01 CONCLUSION: . It is fair to argue that as BMI increases tendencies towards tastes decrease and that boys preferred sweet and bitter tastes more than girls did whereas girls preferred salty tastes more than boys.The fact that the tendencies towards tastes decrease with increasing BMI, and that taste preferences vary with respect to gender may imply that physiological requirements drive taste preferences. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 451-458

  5. Association of BMI-1 and p16 as prognostic factors for head and neck carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Marie; Renkonen, Suvi; Haglund, Caj; Mattila, Petri S; Leivo, Ilmo; Hagström, Jaana; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions BMI-1 is an upstream repressor of tumor suppressor p16 and their inverse expression patterns have been linked with patient survival in OPSCC. In this material only p16 remained a relevant prognostic marker in OPSCC. Objectives HNSCC tumors carry variable phenotypes and clinical outcomes depending on their anatomical location. In OPSCC, expression of tumor suppressor p16 is used as a surrogate marker of HPV infection and has prognostic value. There are no good prognostic biomarkers for HNSCC tumors of other anatomical locations. Aim To study the expression patterns of p16 and BMI-1 in not only oropharyngeal but also oral, hypopharyngeal, and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and to clarify their putative connections with clinical parameters, survival, and each other. Method Hospital records on 130 patients (59 OPSCC, 18 OSCC, 20 HPSCC, and 33 LSCC) diagnosed between 1997-2008 at the Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, were reviewed. BMI-1 and p16 expressions were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results Sixty-eight per cent of OPSCC expressed p16 and expression correlated with lower age, lower T- and higher N-category, and with improved OS and DFS. BMI-1 expression was most prevalent in OPSCC and LSCC, but had no clinical correlations. No correlation between p16 and BMI-1 expression was found. PMID:27052966

  6. Gender and Stress Perception Based Differences in BMI, Hormonal Response and Appetite in Adult Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the gender based variations in stress perception induced changes in leptin, cortisol and serotonin (5-HT) trends, appetite and Body Mass Index (BMI). Study Design: An analytical comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Neurochemistry Laboratory, University of Karachi, from January to August 2013. Methodology: Appetite, BMI and serum leptin, cortisol, and 5-HT were measured in 100 men and women of aged 30 - 60 years, working in teaching institutes of Karachi, to evaluate gender based, stress perception induced variations. The samples were identified by stratified random technique. The chemical variables were estimated through ELISA. Results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and multivariate general linear model using SPSS version 17. Results: Mean stress perception, BMI and serum leptin levels were significantly more in women (p < 0.05). Serum cortisol and 5-HT were found significantly reduced in women (p < 0.05). BMI, serum cortisol and leptin were found to be increased with increasing level of stress perception (p < 0.05). VAS for hunger and desire to eat as the measure of appetite was significantly higher in men (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Stress perception attenuates the positive effect of cortisol and negative effects of leptin and 5-HT on appetite through changes in their circulatory levels. Women perceive more stress and exhibit significantly attenuated changes in hormonal levels and appetite which may be the contributing factor towards obesity. Increased BMI in women despite decreased appetite merits more studies. (author)

  7. Viewers vs. doers. The relationship between watching food television and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Latimer, Lara; Wansink, Brian

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine where nutritional gatekeepers obtain information about new foods, and whether information source is associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as whether any association varied according to how often the participant cooked from scratch. A national panel survey of 501 females aged 20-35 assessed how participants obtained information on new recipes, and asked a series of questions about their cooking habits, their weight and height. Linear regressions were run to determine associations between information source, cooking from scratch, and BMI. Obtaining information from cooking shows was positively correlated with BMI (p media (p media - versus other sources - appears to have a unique relationship with BMI. Furthermore, watching cooking shows may have a differential effect on BMI for those who are merely TV "viewers," versus those who are "doers." Promoting healthy foods on cooking shows may be one way to positively influence the weight status of "doers" as well as "viewers." PMID:25747286

  8. BMI modulates calorie-dependent dopamine changes in accumbens from glucose intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Jack Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Dopamine mediates the rewarding effects of food that can lead to overeating and obesity, which then trigger metabolic neuroadaptations that further perpetuate excessive food consumption. We tested the hypothesis that the dopamine response to calorie intake (independent of palatability in striatal brain regions is attenuated with increases in weight. METHOD: We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine changes triggered by calorie intake by contrasting the effects of an artificial sweetener (sucralose devoid of calories to that of glucose to assess their association with body mass index (BMI in nineteen healthy participants (BMI range 21-35. RESULTS: Neither the measured blood glucose concentrations prior to the sucralose and the glucose challenge days, nor the glucose concentrations following the glucose challenge vary as a function of BMI. In contrast the dopamine changes in ventral striatum (assessed as changes in non-displaceable binding potential of [11C]raclopride triggered by calorie intake (contrast glucose - sucralose were significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.68 indicating opposite responses in lean than in obese individuals. Specifically whereas in normal weight individuals (BMI <25 consumption of calories was associated with increases in dopamine in the ventral striatum in obese individuals it was associated with decreases in dopamine. CONCLUSION: These findings show reduced dopamine release in ventral striatum with calorie consumption in obese subjects, which might contribute to their excessive food intake to compensate for the deficit between the expected and the actual response to food consumption.

  9. Assessing the Influence of Sleep-Wake Variables on Body Mass Index (BMI in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has established an association between overweight/obesity and sleep duration, suggesting that short sleep duration and timing of sleeping may lead to overweight. Most of these studies considered sleep-length rather than any other aspects associated with the sleep and wake rhythm, e.g. chronotype, which is a measure of timing of sleeping (‘when to sleep’; based on the midpoint of sleep. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different factors of the sleep-wake cycle and of co-variates on the Body Mass Index in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Nine hundred and thirteen pupils (406 boys, 507 girls from Southwestern Germany participated in this study. Mean age was 13.7 ± 1.5 (SD years and range was between 11 – 16 years. We found that chronotype (β = .079 and social jetlag (β = .063 showed a significant influence on Body Mass Index (BMI, while sleep duration did not. Social jetlag is the absolute difference between mid-sleep time on workdays and free days. Further, screen time (in front of TV, computer, β = .13 was positively related with BMI. Self-efficacy on nutrition (β = -.11, a psychological variable important in health-behaviour models, showed an influence with high scores on self-efficacy related to lower BMI. A high BMI was correlated with low fast-food consumption (β = -.12 suggesting that adolescents with high BMI may exert some control over their eating.

  10. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  11. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  12. Bmi-1 promotes the aggressiveness of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognosis of human glioma is poor, and the highly invasive nature of the disease represents a major impediment to current therapeutic modalities. The oncoprotein B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 protein (Bmi-1) has been linked to the development and progression of glioma; however, the biological role of Bmi-1 in the invasion of glioma remains unclear. A172 and LN229 glioma cells were engineered to overexpress Bmi-1 via stable transfection or to be silenced for Bmi-1 expression using RNA interfering method. Migration and invasiveness of the engineered cells were assessed using wound healing assay, Transwell migration assay, Transwell matrix penetration assay and 3-D spheroid invasion assay. MMP-9 expression and activity were measured using real-time PCR, ELISA and the gelatin zymography methods. Expression of NF-kappaB target genes was quantified using real-time PCR. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity was assessed using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter system. Expression of Bmi-1 and MMP-9 in clinical specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical assay. Ectopic overexpression of Bmi-1 dramatically increased, whereas knockdown of endogenous Bmi-1 reduced, the invasiveness and migration of glioma cells. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and MMP-9 expression and activity were significantly increased in Bmi-1-overexpressing but reduced in Bmi-1-silenced cells. The reporter luciferase activity driven by MMP-9 promoter in Bmi-1-overexpressing cells was dependent on the presence of a functional NF-kappaB binding site, and blockade of NF-kappaB signaling inhibited the upregulation of MMP-9 in Bmi-1 overexpressing cells. Furthermore, expression of Bmi-1 correlated with NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as well as MMP-9 expression in clinical glioma samples. Bmi-1 may play an important role in the development of aggressive phenotype of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 pathway and therefore might represent a novel therapeutic

  13. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent of...... concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were...... associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  14. Infant BMI peak, breastfeeding, and body composition at age 3 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Ritz, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the increasing focus on obesity, growth patterns in infancy and early childhood have gained much attention. Although the adiposity rebound has been in focus because of a shown association with adult obesity, not much has been published about the infant peak in body mass index (BMI......). OBJECTIVE: This study links age and BMI at infant peak to duration of breastfeeding and body composition at 3 y of age. DESIGN: Frequent weight and height measurements for 311 Danish children in the SKOT (Complementary and Young Child Feeding - Impact on Short and Long Term Development and Health; in Danish...... questionnaires. Assessment of body composition at age 3 y was made based on bioelectrical impedance, weight, and height. RESULTS: A longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with an earlier peak in infant BMI (P = 0.0003) and a lower prepeak velocity (P

  15. Induction of neural stem cell-like cells (NSCLCs) from mouse astrocytes by Bmi1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Bmi1 was shown to control the proliferation and self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs). In this study, we demonstrated the induction of NSC-like cells (NSCLCs) from mouse astrocytes by Bmi1 under NSC culture conditions. These NSCLCs exhibited the morphology and growth properties of NSCs, and expressed NSC marker genes, including nestin, CD133, and Sox2. In vitro differentiation of NSCLCs resulted in differentiated cell populations containing astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes. Following treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (trichostatin A and valproic acid), the potential of NSCLCs for proliferation, dedifferentiation, and self-renewal was significantly inhibited. Our data indicate that multipotent NSCLCs can be generated directly from astrocytes by the addition of Bmi1

  16. Expression of polycomb protein BMI-1 maintains the plasticity of basal bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, Elizabeth; Heath, Meg; Mee, Maureen; Shaw, Dominick; Sharp, Tyson V; Sayers, Ian

    2016-08-01

    The airway epithelium is altered in respiratory disease and is thought to contribute to disease etiology. A caveat to disease research is that the technique of isolation of bronchial epithelial cells from patients is invasive and cells have a limited lifespan. The aim of this study was to extensively characterize the plasticity of primary human bronchial epithelial cells that have been engineered to delay cell senescence including the ability of these cells to differentiate. Cells were engineered to express BMI-1 or hTERT using viral vector systems. Cells were characterized at passage (p) early (p5), mid (p10), and late (p15) stage for: BMI-1, p16, and CK14 protein expression, viability and the ability to differentiate at air-liquid interface (ALI), using a range of techniques including immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), MUC5AC and beta tubulin (BTUB) staining. BMI-1-expressing cells maintained elevated levels of the BMI-1 protein and the epithelial marker CK14 and showed a suppression of p16. BMI-1-expressing cells had a viability advantage, differentiated at ALI, and had a normal karyotype. In contrast, hTERT-expressing cells had a reduced viability, showed limited differentiation, and had an abnormal karyotype. We therefore provide extensive characterization of the plasticity of BMI-1 expressing cells in the context of the ALI model. These cells retain properties of wild-type cells and may be useful to characterize respiratory disease mechanisms in vitro over sustained periods. PMID:27558999

  17. Breastfeeding duration, age of starting solids and high BMI risk and adiposity in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleyachetty, Amrit; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqui; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D; Wills, Andrew K

    2013-04-01

    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (four categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant-feeding practices, socio-economic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis that accounted for potential confounders demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breastfeeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breastfeeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) [adjusted β = -0.12 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.19 to -0.05 per category change in breastfeeding duration, P = 0.001], and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.53-5.56, P < 0.001). In our sample, findings suggest that longer breastfeeding duration and later introduction of solids has a small reduction on later high BMI risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population level. PMID:21978208

  18. BMI and cardiovascular function in children and adolescents of Mauritius Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Chan, Jennifer L; Joonas, Noorjehan; Joganah, Shashee; Larhubarbe, Jose; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G

    2013-01-01

    Among countries which have undergone a rapid socio-economic and nutrition transition over the past few decades, the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius is among those with the greatest surge in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and CVD. The aim of the present study was to characterise the BMI and cardiovascular functions of children and adolescents of this at-risk population. Data were collected through measurements of anthropometry, resting heart rate and blood pressure in a nationally representative sample (n 2489) of children (5-10 years) and adolescents (11-18 years), and analysed according to sex and ethnic identity: South Asian Hindus and Muslims (both of Indian ancestry), Creole (of varying degrees of African ancestry) and Chinese (of mainland China ancestry). Based on standards of the WHO or International Obesity Task Force, one in six of these young individuals exhibit a high BMI-for-age. Analysis by ethnicity revealed that Creole males and females show higher BMI-for-age but also lower heart rate (P vegetarian v. non-vegetarian) or to fruit consumption. This study in children and adolescents of this multi-ethnic at-risk population for CVD reveal ethnic differences in BMI-for-age as well as consistent BMI-independent ethnic differences in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. These findings underscore the need to establish the BMI-fat % relationship across the various ethnic groups and for more detailed investigations about their differences in lifestyle and dietary habits that might explain their differential cardiovascular functions prior to adulthood. PMID:25191579

  19. Change with age in regression construction of fat percentage for BMI in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage. PMID:21483178

  20. Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Frederick H. [Argonne National Laboratory; Jacobson, Norman H.

    1968-09-01

    This booklet discusses research reactors - reactors designed to provide a source of neutrons and/or gamma radiation for research, or to aid in the investigation of the effects of radiation on any type of material.

  1. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrenˋs BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Drenowatz, Clemens; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA) and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male) and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Childre...

  2. Quality of life and BMI changes in youth participating in an integrated pediatric obesity treatment program

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Keeley J; Lazorick, Suzanne; Lamson, Angela L; Ivanescu, Andrada; Collier, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Changes in Quality of Life (QOL) measures over time with treatment of obesity have not previously been described for youth. We describe the changes from baseline through two follow up visits in youth QOL (assessed by the Pediatric Quality Life Inventory, PedsQL4.0), teen depression (assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ9A), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score. We also report caregiver proxy ratings of youth QOL. Methods A sample of 267 pairs of youth and caregiver par...

  3. The relationship between BMI and striatal dopamine transporter with 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the relationship between the BMI and the brain DAT, and the influence of BMI on the brain SPECT imaging with 99Tcm-TRODAT-1. Methods: MRI and 99Tcm-TRODAT-1SPECT imaging were performed in 31 healthy volunteers (16 males and 15 females), and then the three-dimensional reconstruction of SPECT images were completed. Based on the MRI images, right striatum (RST) and the left striatum (LST) were drawn as ROI on the 4 most clearly consecutive transverse slices.The cerebellum (CB) was taken as the background reference area and the corresponding uptake ratios of ST/CB, LST/CB and RST/CB were calculated. The Pearson correlation tests for radio-uptake ratios (ST/CB, LST/CB, RST/CB), BMI and age were performed, Then multiple linear regression analysis using ST/CB as dependent variable and BMI and age as independent variables was performed. SPSS 15.0 was used in data analysis. Results: The ST imaging was symmetrical. The radioactivity was higher in the ST front area than that of the back area. The average uptake ratios of ST/CB, LST/CB, RST/CB were 1.71±0.16,1.70±0.16 and 1.72±0.17 respectively, in which the three ratios of the female were 1.74±0.18, 1.71±0.19 and 1.76±0.19 respectively and those of the male were 1.68±0.14, 1.68±0.13 and 1.69±0.15 respectively. ST/CB, LST/CB and RST/CB were negatively correlated with patients' BMI (r = -0.53, -0.57, -0.47, all P<0.05). The ST/CB was negatively correlated with patients' age (r=-0.39, P=0.03). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the BMI was significant independent variable (β=-0.53, t= -3.36, P=0.002). Conclusions: The ST DAT level may decrease as patients' BMI and age increase. Females' DAT level is slightly higher than males'. For ST DAT imaging, age, gender and BMI should be all taken into consideration. (authors)

  4. Association Between BMI and QoL Improvement in AF Patients Following Catheter Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Martinek, MD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As quite a lot of data has been recently reported on the impact of body mass index (BMI on (1. the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF development, (2. peri-procedural risk in pulmonary vein isolation (PVI and (3. PVI outcome, as well as (4. quality of life (QoL after PVI, we would like to dedicate our review to these topics. We will try to give a general picture about the impact of obesity on AF and end our review commenting on new data specifically highlighting the association between BMI and QoL improvement in AF patients following catheter ablation.

  5. Does BMI influence hospital stay and morbidity after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Gromov, Kirill;

    2016-01-01

    patients who were operated with the fast-track methodology and compared the levels with those in patients with normal BMI. Patients and methods - This was a prospective observational study involving 13,730 procedures (7,194 THA and 6,536 TKA operations) performed in a standardized fast-track setting...... patients only) was associated with a LOS of >4 days (p = 0.001), but not with re-admission. No such relationship existed for TKA. Interpretation - A fast-track setting resulted in similar length of hospital stay and re-admission rates regardless of BMI, except for very obese and morbidly obese THA patients....

  6. miR-203 inhibits melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities by targeting the polycomb group gene BMI1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiao [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Sun, Yong [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an 223300 (China); Han, Siqi [Department of Medical Oncology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhu, Wei [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Zhang, Haiping, E-mail: zhanghaiping_2000@163.com [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Lian, Shi, E-mail: lianshi_2020@163.com [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • First reported deregulation of miR-203 and up-regulation of BMI1 in metastatic melanoma. • miR-203 decreased BMI1 expression by directly binding to 3′UTR. • Further found miR-203 overexpression suppressed cell invasion and stemness. • Re-expression of BMI1 rescued miR-203-mediated suppression. • miR-203-BMI1 axis may be potential therapeutic targets of melanoma metastasis. - Abstract: Metastasis is the major problem in malignant melanoma, posing a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. The investigation of the underlying mechanism driving this progress remains a large unmet need. In this study, we revealed a miR-203-BMI1 axis that regulated melanoma metastasis. We found significantly deregulation of miR-203 and up-regulation of BMI1 in melanoma, particularly in metastatic melanoma. An inverse correlation between the levels of miR-203 and BMI1 was further observed in melanoma tissues and cell lines. We also identified BMI1 as a downstream target gene of miR-203, which bound to the 3′UTR of BMI1. Overexpression of miR-203 was associated with decreased BMI1 expression and impaired cell invasion and tumor sphere formation activities. Re-expression of BMI1 markedly rescued miR-203-mediated suppression of these events. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-203 regulated melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities in part by targeting BMI1, providing new insights into potential mechanisms of melanoma metastasis.

  7. miR-203 inhibits melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities by targeting the polycomb group gene BMI1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First reported deregulation of miR-203 and up-regulation of BMI1 in metastatic melanoma. • miR-203 decreased BMI1 expression by directly binding to 3′UTR. • Further found miR-203 overexpression suppressed cell invasion and stemness. • Re-expression of BMI1 rescued miR-203-mediated suppression. • miR-203-BMI1 axis may be potential therapeutic targets of melanoma metastasis. - Abstract: Metastasis is the major problem in malignant melanoma, posing a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. The investigation of the underlying mechanism driving this progress remains a large unmet need. In this study, we revealed a miR-203-BMI1 axis that regulated melanoma metastasis. We found significantly deregulation of miR-203 and up-regulation of BMI1 in melanoma, particularly in metastatic melanoma. An inverse correlation between the levels of miR-203 and BMI1 was further observed in melanoma tissues and cell lines. We also identified BMI1 as a downstream target gene of miR-203, which bound to the 3′UTR of BMI1. Overexpression of miR-203 was associated with decreased BMI1 expression and impaired cell invasion and tumor sphere formation activities. Re-expression of BMI1 markedly rescued miR-203-mediated suppression of these events. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-203 regulated melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities in part by targeting BMI1, providing new insights into potential mechanisms of melanoma metastasis

  8. Associations between severity of obesity in childhood and adolescence, obesity onset and parental BMI: a longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, V; Jacobsson, J A; Fredriksson, R.; Danielsson, P; Sobko, T; Schiöth, H B; Marcus, C

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between severity of obesity at age 7 and age 15, age at onset of obesity, and parental body mass index (BMI) in obese children and adolescents. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Subjects: Obese children (n=231) and their parents (n=462) from the Swedish National Childhood Obesity Centre. Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were applied with severity of obesity (BMI standard deviation score (BMI SDS)) and onset of obesity as dependent variables. Th...

  9. A Bmi1-miRNAs cross-talk modulates chemotherapy response to 5-fluorouracil in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yin

    Full Text Available The polycomb group transcriptional modifier Bmi1 is often upregulated in numerous cancers and is intensely involved in normal and cancer stem cells, and importantly is as a prognostic indicator for some cancers, but its role in breast cancer remains unclear. Here, we found Bmi1 overexpression in 5-Fu (5-fluorouracil-resistant MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/5-Fu derived from MCF-7 breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells compared to MCF-7 cells, was related with 5-Fu resistance and enrichment of CD44(+/CD24(- stem cell subpopulation. Bmi1 knockdown enhanced the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to 5-Fu and 5-Fu induced apoptosis via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and decreased the fraction of CD44(+/CD24(- subpopulation. In addition, our analysis showed inverse expression pattern between Bmi1 and miR-200c and miR-203 in selected breast cancer cell lines, and miR-200c and miR-203 directly repressed Bmi1 expression in protein level confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. MiR-200c and miR-203 overexpression in breast cancer cells downregulated Bmi1 expression accompanied with reversion of resistance to 5-Fu mediated by Bmi1. Inversely, Bmi1 overexpression inhibited miR-200c expression in MCF-7 cells, but not miR-203, however ectopic wild-type p53 expression reversed Bmi1 mediated miR-200c downregulation, suggesting the repressive effect of Bmi1 on miR-200c maybe depend on p53. Thus, our study suggests a cross-talk between Bmi1 and miR-200c mediated by p53, and Bmi1 interference would improve chemotherapy efficiency in breast cancer via susceptive apoptosis induction and cancer stem cell enrichment inhibition.

  10. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  11. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  12. Differential RNA expression of Bmy1 during seed development and the association with beta-amylase accumulation, activity, and total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four genotypes carrying different Bmy1 intron III alleles were analyzed for differences in Bmy1 RNA expression in developing seeds at 17, 19, and 21 days after anthesis (DAA). Ashqelon and PI 296897, wild barleys which carry the Bmy1.c and Bmy1.d intron III alleles, respectively, had 2.5 to 3- fold...

  13. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world's research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted

  14. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To provide a jet and missile protective wall of a configuration being inflated toward the center of a reactor container on the inside of a body of the reactor container disposed within a biological shield wall to thereby increase safety of the reactor container. Structure: A jet and missile protective wall comprised of curved surfaces internally formed with a plurality of arch inflations filled with concrete between inner and outer iron plates and shape steel beam is provided between a reactor container surrounded by a biological shield wall and a thermal shield wall surrounding the reactor pressure vessel, and an adiabatic heat insulating material is filled in space therebetween. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Intensive expression of Bmi-1 is a new independent predictor of poor outcome in patients with ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that the B-cell specific moloney leukemia virus insertion site 1 (Bmi-1) gene plays an oncogenic role in several types of human cancer, but the status of Bmi-1 amplification and expression in ovarian cancer and its clinical/prognostic significance are unclear. The methods of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization were utilized to examine protein expression and amplification of Bmi-1 in 30 normal ovaries, 30 ovarian cystadenomas, 40 borderline ovarian tumors and 179 ovarian carcinomas. Intensive expression of Bmi-1 was detected in none of the normal ovaries, 3% cystadenomas, 10% borderline tumors, and 37% ovarian carcinomas, respectively. Amplification of Bmi-1 was detected in 8% of ovarian carcinomas. In ovarian carcinomas, significant positive associations were found between intensive expression of Bmi-1 and the tumors ascending histological grade, later pT/pN/pM and FIGO stages (P < 0.05). In univariate survival analysis of the ovarian carcinoma cohorts, a significant association of intensive expression of Bmi-1 with shortened patient survival (mean 49.3 months versus 100.3 months, p < 0.001) was demonstrated. Importantly, Bmi-1 expression provided significant independent prognostic parameters in multivariate analysis (p = 0.005). These findings provide evidence that intensive expression of Bmi-1 might be important in the acquisition of an invasive and/or aggressive phenotype of ovarian carcinoma, and serve as a independent biomarker for shortened survival time of patients

  16. Analysis of a BWR MKI utilizing advanced BMI-2104 computational techniques to calculate source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of incorporating code modifications to more realistically represent accident phenomenology were examined with specific focus on the BWR MKI AE γ-sequence. Results indicate that the source terms are only a fraction of those reported in BMI-2104 and that core/concrete interaction is not a significant source term contributor for the BWR MKI containments. (author)

  17. School environment factors were associated with BMI among adolescents in Xi'an City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibley Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School environment influences students' behaviours. The purpose of this research was to identify school environment factors associated with BMI. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1792 school-aged adolescents from 30 schools in six districts in Xi'an City in 2004. Height and weight were taken from students by trained field staff. School environment characteristics such as physical factors (school facilities, school shops and fast food outlets in school area, school curricula and policies were collected from school doctors using school environment questionnaire. School environment factors were identified in linear mixed effect models with BMI as outcome and adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Results After adjusted for socio-demographic factors, BMI was associated with the availability of soft drinks at school shops, the availability and the number of western food outlet in the school vicinity. School curricula such as sports-meeting and health education session were also associated with BMI. Conclusions Urgent actions are needed to address the obesogenic elements of school environments. Community and school policy makers should make efforts for students to avoid exposure to fast food outlet in school area and soft drinks at school shops, and to improve school curricula to promote healthy behaviours.

  18. Sociodemographic correlates of BMI categories among female University students of Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Zaidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Youth is considered a crucial period for launching positive health and social behaviours. It is a life stage when young people are experiencing rapid emotional, physical and intellectual changes, and when they begin the transition from childhood to adolescence to independent adulthood. The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide urged the authors to study the sociodemographic factors that might work as causal factors for obesity among young Saudi female university students. The study aimed at unveiling the causes of obesity among this group and to find out the association of normal and overweight with socio-demographic variables.Material and Method: A total of 500 female students were participated in this study from February to Novembers 2015. Weight and height were measured to determine the Body mass Index (BMI, the socio-demographic variables were examined by using sociodemographic form. Data was gathered from female students (N=500 enrolled in bachelors program during the period of November 2014-October 2015.Results: The findings of the BMI measurements had shown that there is 54% of the university students were in the normal weight whose BMI is 24 or below and 35% were showing a BMI that is over 24 and were in the range of overweight or obesity.Conclusion: This study concluded that there is an urgent need for guidance of university students regarding a healthy lifestyle and for fostering physical activity and nutrition programs on the campus to reduce and to keep the healthy weight.

  19. Longterm Changes in BMI Growth Charts Pattern for Czech Children and Adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vignerová, J.; Paulová, M.; Brabec, Marek; Bláha, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, Suppl 1 (2008), S188-S188. ISSN 0307-0565. [European Congress on Obesity . 14.05.2008-17.05.2008, Geneva] R&D Projects: GA MZd NR7857 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : growth charts * growth curves * BMI Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  20. The role of BMI change on smoking abstinence in a sample of HIV-infected smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchberg, Meredith K; Gritz, Ellen R; Kypriotakis, George; Arduino, Roberto C; Vidrine, Damon J

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is approximately 40%, significantly higher than that of the general population. Identifying predictors of successful smoking cessation for PLWHA is necessary to alleviate the morbidity and mortality associated with smoking in this population. Weight gain has been associated with smoking relapse in the general population, but has not been studied among PLWHA. Data from 474 PLWHA enrolled in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial were analyzed to examine the effect of BMI change, from baseline to 3-month follow-up, on smoking outcomes using multiple logistic regression. The odds of 7-day smoking abstinence at 3-month follow-up were 4.22 (95% CI = 1.65, 10.82) times higher for participants classified as BMI decrease and 4.22 (95% CI = 1.62, 11.01) times higher for participants classified as BMI increase as compared to participants with a minimal increase or decrease in BMI. In this sample, both weight gain and loss following smoking cessation were significantly associated with abstinence at 3-month follow-up among HIV-infected smokers. Further research and a better understanding of predictors of abstinence will encourage more tailored interventions, with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26666313

  1. BMI, Income, and Social Capital in a Native Amazonian Society: Interaction between Relative and Community Variables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Godoy, R.; Reyes-García, V.; Leonard, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2007), s. 459-474. ISSN 1042-0533 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : BMI * economic factors * social capital * interaction models * separation of hierarchical effects * random effects models Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.805, year: 2007

  2. Sickness Presenteeism Among Health Care Workers and the Effect of BMI, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kongstad, Malte Bue; Sjøgaard, Gisela;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between sickness presenteeism and body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). METHODS: Female health care workers (n = 139) were analyzed cross-sectional as well as ...

  3. Social class and BMI among Canadian adults: a focus on occupational prestige.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; Godley, Jenny

    2009-02-01

    The objective was to examine BMI of working-age Canadian adults in relation to occupational prestige, adjusting for other aspects of social class including household income and respondent's education. We analyzed data from 49,252 adults (age 25-64) from Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional self-report survey conducted in 2003. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the relation between BMI and occupational prestige, adjusting for other sociodemographic variables. For women, higher ranking occupations showed lower average BMI relative to the lowest ranking occupations, but this effect was largely eliminated when adjusting for education. For men, occupation effects endured in adjusted models and we detected some evidence of a pattern whereby men in occupations characterized by management/supervisory responsibilities were heavier than those in the lowest ranking occupations (i.e., elemental sales and service). Results are interpreted in light of the symbolic value of body size in western culture, which differs for men and women. Men in positions of management/supervision may benefit from the physical dominance conveyed by a larger body size, and thus occupational prestige rankings may help us to understand the gender differences in the patterning of BMI by different indicators of social class. PMID:19039314

  4. A variant in FTO shows association with melanoma risk not due to BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Mark M; Law, Matthew H; Stacey, Simon N; Han, Jiali; Fang, Shenying; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Harland, Mark; MacGregor, Stuart; Taylor, John C; Aben, Katja K; Akslen, Lars A; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Azizi, Esther; Bakker, Bert; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Bergman, Wilma; Scarrà, Giovanna Bianchi; Brown, Kevin M; Calista, Donato; Chaudru, Valerié; Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Cust, Anne E; Demenais, Florence; de Waal, Anne C; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Elder, David E; Friedman, Eitan; Galan, Pilar; Ghiorzo, Paola; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Goldstein, Alisa M; Gruis, Nelleke A; Hansson, Johan; Helsing, Per; Hočevar, Marko; Höiom, Veronica; Hopper, John L; Ingvar, Christian; Janssen, Marjolein; Jenkins, Mark A; Kanetsky, Peter A; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Lang, Julie; Lathrop, G Mark; Leachman, Sancy; Lee, Jeffrey E; Lubiński, Jan; Mackie, Rona M; Mann, Graham J; Mayordomo, Jose I; Molven, Anders; Mulder, Suzanne; Nagore, Eduardo; Novaković, Srdjan; Okamoto, Ichiro; Olafsson, Jon H; Olsson, Håkan; Pehamberger, Hubert; Peris, Ketty; Grasa, Maria Pilar; Planelles, Dolores; Puig, Susana; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Randerson-Moor, Juliette; Requena, Celia; Rivoltini, Licia; Rodolfo, Monica; Santinami, Mario; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Snowden, Helen; Song, Fengju; Sulem, Patrick; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Tuominen, Rainer; Van Belle, Patricia; van der Stoep, Nienke; van Rossum, Michelle M; Wei, Qingyi; Wendt, Judith; Zelenika, Diana; Zhang, Mingfeng; Landi, Maria Teresa; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Bishop, D Timothy; Amos, Christopher I; Hayward, Nicholas K; Stefansson, Kari; Bishop, Julia A Newton; Barrett, Jennifer H

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of an association study of melanoma based on the genome-wide imputation of the genotypes of 1,353 cases and 3,566 controls of European origin conducted by the GenoMEL consortium. This revealed a novel association between several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 8 of the FTO gene, including rs16953002, which replicated using 12,313 cases and 55,667 controls of European ancestry from Europe, the USA and Australia (combined p=3.6×10−12, per-allele OR for A=1.16). As well as identifying a novel melanoma susceptibility locus, this is the first study to identify and replicate an association with SNPs in FTO not related to body mass index (BMI). These SNPs are not in intron 1 (the BMI-related region) and show no association with BMI. This suggests FTO’s function may be broader than the existing paradigm that FTO variants influence multiple traits only through their associations with BMI and obesity. PMID:23455637

  5. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Elementary School Students’ BMI Values Based on the System Dynamics Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Tian-Syung Lan; Kai-Ling Chen; Pin-Chang Chen; Chao-Tai Ku; Pei-Hsuan Chiu; Meng-Hsiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students’ BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student’s personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and im...

  6. Asthma, Smoking and BMI in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, L.; Naqvi, H.; Russ, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent research evidence from the general population has shown that tobacco smoking and raised body mass index (BMI) are associated with worse asthma outcomes. There are indications that asthma morbidity and mortality may be higher among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) than the general population, but the reason for this is…

  7. BMI in relation to sperm count : an updated systematic review and collaborative meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sermondade, N.; Faure, C.; Fezeu, L.; Shayeb, A. G.; Bonde, J. P.; Jensen, T. K.; Van Wely, M.; Cao, J.; Martini, A. C.; Eskandar, M.; Chavarro, J. E.; Koloszar, S.; Twigt, J. M.; Ramlau-Hansen, C. H.; Borges, E.; Lotti, F.; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. M.; Zorn, B.; Polotsky, A. J.; La Vignera, S.; Eskenazi, B.; Tremellen, K.; Magnusdottir, E. V.; Fejes, I.; Hercberg, S.; Levy, R.; Czernichow, S.

    2013-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with meta-analysis

  8. A BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit: asynchronous control by SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KenjiKansaku

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brain-machine interface (BMI is an interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines. Recent invasive BMI technologies have succeeded in the asynchronous control of robot arms for a useful series of actions, such as reaching and grasping. In this study, we developed non-invasive BMI technologies aiming to make such useful movements using the subject's own hands by preparing a BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit (BOTAS. We prepared a pre-recorded series of useful actionsa grasping-a-ball movement and a carrying-the-ball movementand added asynchronous control using steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP signals. A SSVEP signal was used to trigger the grasping-a-ball movement and another SSVEP signal was used to trigger the carrying-the-ball movement. A support vector machine was used to classify EEG signals recorded from the visual cortex (Oz in real time. Untrained, able-bodied participants (n = 12 operated the system successfully. Classification accuracy and time required for SSVEP detection were approximately 88% and 3 s, respectively. We further recruited three patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries; they also succeeded in operating the system without training. These data suggest that our BOTAS system is potentially useful in terms of rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities.

  9. Fridel-Crafts acylation using bismuth triflate in [BMI][PF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Duus, Fritz; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2012-01-01

    Bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate was found to be a good catalyst for the Friedel–Craftsacylation. Bismuthtriflate immobilized in an ionic liquid was the most efficient catalytic system. Bismuthtriflate in [BMI][PF6] catalyzes this reaction under microwave irradiation allowing the rapid synthesis...

  10. Should Schools Send BMI Report Cards to Parents? A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Alexander; Boros, Piroska; Ingvalson, Kent; Fontana, Fabio E.; Matvienko, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    A body mass index (BMI) report card is a tool to inform parents about their child's weight status. Body mass index notifications could curb childhood obesity by prompting parents to encourage their children to be more physically active and make better dietary choices, but they could also lower children's self-esteem and increase weight-related…

  11. Rise in Extracellular Fluid Volume During High Sodium Depends on BMI in Healthy Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Folkert W.; Krikken, Jan A.; Muntinga, Jaap H. J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Navis, Gerjan J.

    2009-01-01

    A high sodium (HS) intake is associated to increased cardiovascular and renal risk, especially in overweight subjects. We hypothesized that abnormal sodium and fluid handling is involved, independent of hypertension or insulin resistance. Therefore, we studied the relation between BMI and sodium-ind

  12. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  13. A SHORT STUDY ON CHANGE IN BP WITH BMI IN OBESE AND NONOBESE YOUNG GIRL STUDENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyashree N Uchil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Title: Short study on change in BP and BMI in obese and non obese young girl students. Introduction: High blood pressure (BP is a major determinant of cardiovascular events in obesity. This study was undertaken to analyze the differences in certain well-defined cardiovascular parameters in obese and non-obese young girl students between age 17 to 21 with respect to their BMI. Aims and Objectives: To compare change in BP and BMI in obese and non obese young girls. Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 50 girl students of our medical college. The parameters studied were change in BP and BMI. They were divided in to 2 groups, obese and non obese. Their baseline BP, SBP after moderate exercise and their body mass index were noted. The values obtained were analyzed by unpaired t test and p value <0.05 considered as significant. Results: The mean and std dev of SBP after moderate exercise in obese and non obese young girls were 143.64±18.4184 and 132.08±12.6948 respectively and their p value is 0.0129. The mean and std dev of BMI in obese and non obese young girls were 25.7048±0.0578 and 20.8316±0.5185 respectively and their p value is 0.0001. The mean and std dev of change in BP in obese and non obese young girls were 32.6±18.5539 and 22.24±12.2925 respectively and their p value is 0.0242. Conclusion: There is a significant rise in SBP in obese girls with moderate exercise limiting their physical abilities.

  14. BMY 30047: A novel topically active retinoid with low local and systemic toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, X.; Quigley, J.; Tramposch, K.M.; Carroll, F.I.; Lewin, A.H.; Kiss, I. (Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Buffalo, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In the treatment of various dermatological disorders, topically applied retinoids have potential therapeutic use with the advantage of improved localized activity and lower toxicity over systemically administered retinoids. However, most retinoids cause a significant degree of local irritation. In the present study, the ability to produce local activity with low local irritation potential was evaluated with a novel retinoic acid derivative. BMY 30047 (11-cis, 13-cis-12-hydroxymethylretinoic acid delta-lactone) is one of a series of retinoic acid derivatives in which the carboxyl function of the polar end was modified with the aim of achieving reduced local irritation and systemic toxicity while retaining the local therapeutic effect. BMY 30047 was evaluated and compared with all-trans retinoic acid for topical retinoid activity in several preclinical assay systems, including the utricle reduction assay in rhino mice, 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate ester-stimulated ornithine decarboxylase induction in hairless mice and the UV light-induced photodamaged skin model in hairless mice. BMY 30047 was assessed for retinoid-type side effects by evaluating the skin irritation potential in rabbits after repeated topical application, and hypervitaminosis A-inducing potential in mice after i.p. injection. BMY 30047 demonstrated significant topical retinoid activity in several in vivo models with less skin irritation potential relative to the most used clinical concentrations of all-trans retinoic acid. BMY 30047 also showed very little systemic activity and did not produce any evidence of hypervitaminosis A syndrome at systemic doses 20 times greater than the no-effect dose of all-trans retinoic acid.

  15. A Pilot Study on BMI, Serum Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Allergic Male Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Lokaj-Berisha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dramatic increase in the prevalence of high body mass index (BMI increases the prevalence of allergic diseases, both in adults and children and obesity is associated with hypogonadism in adult males. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the effect of high body mass index on plasma concentrations of testosterone and estradiol in young pubertal and adult males with allergic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Morning fasting blood samples were obtained form 51 allergic patients and 6 healthy volunteer males between the ages 11-57 years (Mean 26.9, DS ± 11.9 years. Total testosterone, estradiol, FSH and LH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. All participants were subjected to skin prick tests with test kit G aeroallergens, and BMI was calculated according to the body weight divided by the square of height (kg/m2. RESULTS: Low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol were associated with high BMI only in patients with asthma/rhinitis, but not in asthma patients. Allergic dermatitis/urticaria group along with healthy controls were overweight but within normal ranges for total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. Patients with allergic rhinitis were within normal ranges for BMI, total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. CONCLUSION: High BMI is not always associated with low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol in our patients with allergic diseases, but low levels of testosterone are present in patients with asthma and asthma/rhinitis although not among patients with rhinitis only. Our results should be confirmed in a larger group of participants.

  16. In a safety net population HPV4 vaccine adherence worsens as BMI increases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Harper

    Full Text Available Obesity adversely inhibits antibody response to vaccination. Three doses of HPV4 may or may not provide adequate long term protection against HPV 16/18 in obese females. The aim of this study was to determine whether adherence to HPV4 vaccination in a safety net population was reduced with increasing body mass index (BMI.We designed a historical prospective study evaluating the number and dates of HPV4 dosing that occurred from July 1, 2006 through October 1, 2009 by the demographic characteristics of the 10-26 year old recipient females. The defined dosing intervals were adapted from the literature and obesity categories were defined by the WHO.1240 females with BMI measurements received at least one dose of HPV4; 38% were obese (class I, II and III and 25% were overweight. Females with normal BMI received on-time triplet dosing significantly more often than did the obese class II and III females (30% vs. 18%, p<0.001. Obese class II/III females have a significant 45% less chance of completing the on-time triplet HPV4 series than normal women (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.83. Pregnancy history has a significant influence on BMI and HPV4 dosing compliance in this safety net population where 71% had been gravid. Hispanic females were less likely to complete HPV4 dosing regardless of BMI (aOR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.95.Obesity, as well as gravidity and Hispanic race, are risk factors for lack of HPV4 vaccine adherence among young females in a safety net population.

  17. A Pilot Study on BMI, Serum Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Allergic Male Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Berisha, Naser; Gashi-Hoxha, Sanije

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dramatic increase in the prevalence of high body mass index (BMI) increases the prevalence of allergic diseases, both in adults and children and obesity is associated with hypogonadism in adult males. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the effect of high body mass index on plasma concentrations of testosterone and estradiol in young pubertal and adult males with allergic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Morning fasting blood samples were obtained form 51 allergic patients and 6 healthy volunteer males between the ages 11-57 years (Mean 26.9, DS ± 11.9 years). Total testosterone, estradiol, FSH and LH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. All participants were subjected to skin prick tests with test kit G aeroallergens, and BMI was calculated according to the body weight divided by the square of height (kg/m2). RESULTS: Low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol were associated with high BMI only in patients with asthma/rhinitis, but not in asthma patients. Allergic dermatitis/urticaria group along with healthy controls were overweight but within normal ranges for total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. Patients with allergic rhinitis were within normal ranges for BMI, total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. CONCLUSION: High BMI is not always associated with low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol in our patients with allergic diseases, but low levels of testosterone are present in patients with asthma and asthma/rhinitis although not among patients with rhinitis only. Our results should be confirmed in a larger group of participants.

  18. Inhibition of lung cancer stem cells self-renewal and tumorigenicity by lentivirus-delivered Bmi1 shRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhou; Yu Xu; Ping Hao; Yide Hu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to observe the effect of Bmi1 reduction on the self-renewal and tumorigenic-ity ability of lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) in human lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: Human lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 were consecutively passaged in NOD/SCID mice treated with Paclitaxel weekly. The proportions of LCSCs in A549 cells and the cells from the third passage (A549-3rd) were compared. The expression of Bmi1 in LCSCs was silenced by intratumoral injection with lentivirus-delivered Bmi1 small hairpin RNA (shRNA). RT-PCR and Western blot were used to test the mRNA and protein expressions of Bmi1 in LCSCs. The protein level of p16INK4A was analyzed by Western blotting. The self-renewal and tumorigenicity ability of LCSCs were evaluated by counting the sphere formation rate in serum-free medium and the tumor formation rate in NOD/SCID mice. Results: In vivo passaging of A549 cells under chemotherapy pressure enriched for LCSCs. The expression of Bmi1 in LCSCs increased. Down-regulation of Bmi1 by RNA interference resulted in reduced self-renewal and tumorigenicity ability of LCSCs and paralleled the increased expression of p16INK4A, a Bmi1 target. Conclu-sion: Bmi1 regulates self-renewal and tumorigenicity of LCSCs by silencing some target genes, including p16INK4A.

  19. Bmi1 overexpression in the cerebellar granule cell lineage of mice affects cell proliferation and survival without initiating medulloblastoma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourinaz Behesti

    2013-01-01

    BMI1 is a potent inducer of neural stem cell self-renewal and neural progenitor cell proliferation during development and in adult tissue homeostasis. It is overexpressed in numerous human cancers – including medulloblastomas, in which its functional role is unclear. We generated transgenic mouse lines with targeted overexpression of Bmi1 in the cerebellar granule cell lineage, a cell type that has been shown to act as a cell of origin for medulloblastomas. Overexpression of Bmi1 in granule cell progenitors (GCPs led to a decrease in cerebellar size due to decreased GCP proliferation and repression of the expression of cyclin genes, whereas Bmi1 overexpression in postmitotic granule cells improved cell survival in response to stress by altering the expression of genes in the mitochondrial cell death pathway and of Myc and Lef-1. Although no medulloblastomas developed in ageing cohorts of transgenic mice, crosses with Trp53−/− mice resulted in a low incidence of medulloblastoma formation. Furthermore, analysis of a large collection of primary human medulloblastomas revealed that tumours with a BMI1high TP53low molecular profile are significantly enriched in Group 4 human medulloblastomas. Our data suggest that different levels and timing of Bmi1 overexpression yield distinct cellular outcomes within the same cellular lineage. Importantly, Bmi1 overexpression at the GCP stage does not induce tumour formation, suggesting that BMI1 overexpression in GCP-derived human medulloblastomas probably occurs during later stages of oncogenesis and might serve to enhance tumour cell survival.

  20. Impact of Baseline BMI upon the Success of Latina Participants Enrolled in a 6-Month Physical Activity Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri J. Hartman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High rates of obesity in Latinas highlight the need to determine if physical activity interventions are equally effective across the body mass index (BMI range. Thus, this study assessed how BMI impacts success of Spanish-speaking Latinas in a culturally and linguistically adapted theory-based physical activity intervention (=45. Longitudinal regression models tested the relationship between baseline BMI and outcomes. Overall, a trend for a negative association was found between baseline BMI and self-reported physical activity and theoretical constructs targeted by the intervention over time. For example, someone with a 25 kg/m2 BMI would report, on average, 27.5 more minutes/week of activity compared to someone with a 30 kg/m2 BMI at followup. Furthermore, higher baseline BMI was significantly associated with lower self-efficacy, behavioral and cognitive processes of change, and family social support over time. These findings suggest that participants with higher BMI may need additional intervention to promote physical activity.

  1. Bmi-1 extends the life span of normal human oral keratinocytes by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Reuben H., E-mail: rkim@dentistry.ucla.edu [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lieberman, Mark B.; Lee, Rachel [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shin, Ki-Hyuk [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju-Eun [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Park, No-Hee [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kang, Mo K., E-mail: mkang@dentistry.ucla.edu [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that Bmi-1 extended the in vitro life span of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We now report that the prolonged life span of NHOK by Bmi-1 is, in part, due to inhibition of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. Serial subculture of NHOK resulted in replicative senescence and terminal differentiation and activation of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. This was accompanied with enhanced intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 levels, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and increased expression of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. An ectopic expression of Bmi-1 in NHOK (HOK/Bmi-1) decreased the level of intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 induced dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, and diminished the level of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. Moreover, Bmi-1 expression led to the inhibition of TGF-{beta}-responsive promoter activity in a dose-specific manner. Knockdown of Bmi-1 in rapidly proliferating HOK/Bmi-1 and cancer cells increased the level of phosphorylated Smad2/3, p15{sup INK4B}, and p57{sup KIP2}. In addition, an exposure of senescent NHOK to TGF-{beta} receptor I kinase inhibitor or anti-TGF-{beta} antibody resulted in enhanced replicative potential of cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 suppresses senescence of cells by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in NHOK.

  2. Body Mass Index (BMI Trajectories from Birth to 11.5 Years: Relation to Early Life Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy M. Simpson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that the pattern of change over time, or trajectory, of body mass index (BMI varies among children. However, the factors that underlie the heterogeneity in these trajectories remain largely unexplored. Our aim was to use a growth mixture model to empirically identify classes of BMI trajectories (from birth to 11.5 years and examine the effects of breastfeeding, introduction of solids, as well as food and nutrient intake at 18 months on these BMI trajectories. We identified three BMI growth trajectories between birth and age 11.5 years, separately in boys and girls. Breastfeeding duration less than six months and the early introduction of solids did not adversely influence BMI trajectories in our sample but high intakes of meat, particularly high fat varieties, and high intakes of carbohydrate at age around 18 months were associated with a high BMI trajectory in boys. It is not clear whether these dietary factors confer a direct risk of higher BMI in childhood or are markers for other dietary patterns that are present early and/or develop through childhood and contribute to higher BMI.

  3. Bmi-1 extends the life span of normal human oral keratinocytes by inhibiting the TGF-β signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously demonstrated that Bmi-1 extended the in vitro life span of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We now report that the prolonged life span of NHOK by Bmi-1 is, in part, due to inhibition of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Serial subculture of NHOK resulted in replicative senescence and terminal differentiation and activation of TGF-β signaling pathway. This was accompanied with enhanced intracellular and secreted TGF-β1 levels, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and increased expression of p15INK4B and p57KIP2. An ectopic expression of Bmi-1 in NHOK (HOK/Bmi-1) decreased the level of intracellular and secreted TGF-β1 induced dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, and diminished the level of p15INK4B and p57KIP2. Moreover, Bmi-1 expression led to the inhibition of TGF-β-responsive promoter activity in a dose-specific manner. Knockdown of Bmi-1 in rapidly proliferating HOK/Bmi-1 and cancer cells increased the level of phosphorylated Smad2/3, p15INK4B, and p57KIP2. In addition, an exposure of senescent NHOK to TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor or anti-TGF-β antibody resulted in enhanced replicative potential of cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 suppresses senescence of cells by inhibiting the TGF-β signaling pathway in NHOK.

  4. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2010-01-01

    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  5. Longitudinal Changes in BMI in Older Adults Are Associated with Meat Consumption Differentially, by Type of Meat Consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Hughes, L.A.E.; Ambergen, T.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Goldbohm, A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the role of meat consumption in body weight modulation are contradictory. Prospective studies on an association between meat consumption and BMI change are limited. We assessed the association between meat consumption and change in BMI over time in 3902 men and women aged 55-69

  6. Regulation of the New Arabidopsis Imprinted Gene AtBMI1C Requires the Interplay of Different Epigenetic Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabian Bratzel; ChaoYang; Alexandra Ancelova; Gema López-Torrejón; Marcus Koch; Juan Carlos del Pozo; Myriam Calonje

    2012-01-01

    Recently,it has been shown that plants contain homologs to the animal Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1)components BMI1 and RING1A/B.In Arabidopsis,there are three BMI1-like genes,two of which,AtBMI1A and B,are required during post-embryonic plant growth to repress embryonic traits and allow cell differentiation.However,little is known about the third BMI1-like gene,AtBMI1C.In this work,we show that AtBMI1C is only expressed during endosperm and stamen development.AtBMI1C is an imprinted gene expressed from the maternal allele in the endosperm but biallelically expressed in stamen.We found that the characteristic expression pattern of AtBMI1C is the result of a complex epigenetic regulation that involves CG DNA methylation,RNA-directed non-CG DNA methylation (RdDM),and PcG activity.Our results show the orchestrated interplay of different epigenetic mechanisms in regulating gene expression throughout development,shedding light on the current hypotheses for the origin and mechanism of imprinting in plant endosperm.

  7. Effect of BMI and urinary pH on urolithiasis and its composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common urological disease predominantly affecting males. The lifetime risk of urolithiasis varies from 1% to 5% in Asia, 5% to 9% in Europe, 10% to 15% in the USA and 20% to 25% in the middle-east; lowest prevalence is reported from Greenland and Japan. Such differences have been explained on the basis of race, diet and climate factors. Furthermore, changing socio-economic conditions have generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of lithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical as well as the physical composition of the calculi. The aim of our study was to determine the association between body mass index (BMI and urine pH in patients with urolithiasis and the influence of body size, as reflected by the BMI, on the composition. The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, on urolithiatic patients. The data included patient′s age, sex, BMI, urine pH, serum calcium, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and stone composition. Data from 100 patients, 70 men (70% and 30 women (30%, were analyzed, with 28 patients having normal weight, 38 patients being overweight and 34 patients being obese. The mean age of the patients was 36.58 ± 9.91 years in group I, 40.47 ± 14.48 years in group II and 37.85 ± 12.46 years in group III (P > 0.05. The stone composition was calcium oxalate (CaOx in 66 patients, calcium phosphate (CaP in 60 patients, uric acid (UA in 38 patients, combined calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in 28 patients and three stones in 10 patients. The urinary pH levels (mean ± SD were 7.78 ± 1.49 in group I, 7.15 ± 1.11 in group II and 6.29 ± 1.14 in group III patients (P = 0.0001. Urine pH showed a stepwise decrease with increasing BMI (inverse correlation. Urine pH is inversely related to BMI among patients with urolithiasis, as is the occurrence of urate, calcium oxalate and calcium

  8. The relation between BMI with exercise test in individuals with cardiac ischemic pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanbakhsh Esmaeili1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 19 Nov, 2008; Accepted 28 Jan, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Prevalence of over weight and obesity is increasing in the world. Those over weight are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases than other individual's. Studies indicate that body fat distribution has a determining role in the identification of risk factors. Also, the relation between BMI, cardiac ischemic pains and exercise test condition in such patients, is in need further investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between BMI with exercise tolerance test in patients with cardiac ischemic pains, who were referred to the Cardiac Center of Mazandaran Province, in Sari Township.Materials and methods: In this case control study considering the BMI in ischemic patients, 65 were selected as case and 65 persons as control using Tread mill and according to Bruce Protocol, results and tolerance test time was recorded. Independent T test was used for comparison of quantitative indexes mean, while x2 test using SPSS soft ware was used for comparison of the ratio of persons with the qualitative features.Results: Data indicated mean weight of 57.1 kg and height of 1.64m in the case group. Also, 58.5% had history of hyperlipidemia (Cholesterol higher than 200mg/dl and 78.8% with history of blood sugar (higher than 120mg/dl (P<0.001. Even 63.6% had hypertension of 140/9o mm Hg. Our findings showed that BMI in the case and control groups were (26.95±3.94 and (25.95±3.49 respectively. Moreover, a significant relationship between high BMI with cardiac ischemic pains and exercise tolerance test (P<0.001 were demonstrated.Conclusion: Cardiac ischemic pains in individuals with high BMI is common. Exercise tolerance test as one of the non invasive and less expensive procedures, can be an indicator of cardiac ischemic disease.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(68: 64-69 (Persian

  9. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  10. Heterogeneous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microscopic study of a cell is meant for the determination of the infinite multiplication factor of the cell, which is given by the four factor formula: K(infinite) = n(epsilon)pf. The analysis of an homogeneous reactor is similar to that of an heterogeneous reactor, but each factor of the four factor formula can not be calculated by the formulas developed in the case of an homogeneous reactor. A great number of methods was developed for the calculation of heterogeneous reactors and some of them are discussed. (Author)

  11. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ in 5-year-old children: a cohort based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Bliddal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R. RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of -0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of -0.27 (-0.50 to -0.03. After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of -0.26 (-0.59 to 0.07, which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (-0.20 (-0.44 to 0.04. CONCLUSION: Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect.

  12. Testing the Utility of a Data-Driven Approach for Assessing BMI from Face Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt; Hahn, Amanda C.; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard;

    2015-01-01

    predictive power. Here we employed a data-driven approach in which statistical models were built using principal components (PCs) derived from objectively defined shape and color characteristics in face images. The predictive power of these models was then compared with models based on previously studied...... facial proportions (perimeter-to-area ratio, width-to-height ratio, and cheek-to-jaw width). Models based on 2D shape-only PCs, color-only PCs, and 2D shape and color PCs combined each performed significantly and substantially better than models based on one or more of the previously studied facial...... proportions. A non-linear PC model considering both 2D shape and color PCs was the best predictor of BMI. These results highlight the utility of a "bottom-up", data-driven approach for assessing BMI from face images....

  13. The effects of height and BMI on prostate cancer incidence and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Neil M; Gaunt, Tom R; Lewis, Sarah J; Holly, Jeff; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Kemp, John P; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Blot, William J; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Lathrop, Mark; Smith, George Davey; Martin, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest a potential role for obesity and determinants of adult stature in prostate cancer risk and mortality, but the relationships described in the literature are complex. To address uncertainty over the causal nature of previous observational findings, we...... investigated associations of height- and adiposity-related genetic variants with prostate cancer risk and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study based on 20,848 prostate cancers and 20,214 controls of European ancestry from 22 studies in the PRACTICAL consortium. We constructed genetic risk......, respectively. There was only weak evidence that genetic variants previously associated with increased BMI were associated with a lower prostate cancer risk (odds ratio per standard deviation increase in BMI genetic score 0.98; 95% CI 0.96, 1.00; p = 0.07). Genetic variants associated with increased height were...

  14. THE IMPACT OF FAST FOOD CONSUMPTION ON THE LIPID PROFILE, BMI AND BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroz Afshan*, Veeresh B Salgar, Manjushree Sugoor and Anupriya Deshpande

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In India smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary life style and junk foods are risk factors that has increased the burden of cardiovascular disease. To evaluate and compare the lipid profile, BMI and blood sugar levels in vegetarian home food eaters and fast food eaters. Apparently healthy 300 males aged between 15-35years were participants of our study. Out of them 150 vegetarian home food eaters formed control group, 150 fast food eaters formed study group. We observed over all highly significant effect of fast food in study group compared to control group. In our study we found that BMI, RBS and lipid profile was significantly increased with p value <0.001 in the study group. With regular consumption of fast food there is a derangement of lipid function and increased blood sugar leading to early obesity and ill health. Hence the habit of fast food consumption should be curbed at the earliest.

  15. Interrelationship of BMI and steroids on glycaemic levels in patient on chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The present study was done to highlight strict glycaemic control, (FBS <110 and PLBS <140-160 mg/dL. Patient on steroids during the chemotherapy with all these predisposing factors are vulnerable to develop Diabetes. This study is very significant as it outlines the necessity of awareness and precautions to be observed when dealing with patients with raised BMI without diabetes mellitus who are also likely to go in to hyperglycaemic and in extreme cases even ketoacidosis. Patients with high BMI and Prediabetes are prone to develop diabetes. Patient on these chemotherapy drugs like L- Asparginase, Streptozocin and Cytokine interferon and ndash; alpha are associated with drug induced insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 491-494

  16. Cognitive biases to healthy and unhealthy food words predict change in BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calitri, Raff; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Tapper, Katy; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    The current study explored the predictive value of cognitive biases to food cues (assessed by emotional Stroop and dot probe tasks) on weight change over a 1-year period. This was a longitudinal study with undergraduate students (N = 102) living in shared student accommodation. After controlling for the effects of variables associated with weight (e.g., physical activity, stress, restrained eating, external eating, and emotional eating), no effects of cognitive bias were found with the dot probe. However, for the emotional Stroop, cognitive bias to unhealthy foods predicted an increase in BMI whereas cognitive bias to healthy foods was associated with a decrease in BMI. Results parallel findings in substance abuse research; cognitive biases appear to predict behavior change. Accordingly, future research should consider strategies for attentional retraining, encouraging individuals to reorient attention away from unhealthy eating cues. PMID:20379149

  17. Maternal prepregnancy waist circumference and BMI in relation to gestational weight gain and breastfeeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Nøhr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M;

    2015-01-01

    , affects GWG and breastfeeding behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how maternal prepregnancy fat distribution, described by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), is associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior. DESIGN: We analyzed 1371 live births to 1024 women after enrollment in the...... size was differently associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior depending on the location of the fat mass. Thus, maternal fat distribution may be a more important determinant of GWG and breastfeeding behavior than BMI alone.......BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding behavior may influence long-term maternal abdominal fat mass. However, this could be confounded by abdominal fat mass before pregnancy because it is unknown whether abdominal fat mass, independently of body size...

  18. Characteristics of a successful program to decrease BMI and LNED intake in school children

    OpenAIRE

    Rosário, Rafaela; Araújo, Ana; Padrão, Patrícia; Lopes, Óscar; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira; Moreira, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eating habits are essential to reduce children · s risk of health problems. The prevalence of obesity continues to increase and is growing concern in Portugal and Europe (Wijnhoven et ai., 2014). This study aims to describe the characteristics of a successful program to decrease BMI and LNED intake among school children. 464 children (239 female, 6 to 12 years) from seven schools participated in this randomized triaL ln Portugal children from elementary schools have ...

  19. Dopamine Depletion Reduces Food-Related Reward Activity Independent of BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Sabine; Veit, Ralf; Sauer, Helene; Enck, Paul; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Unholzer, Theresa; Bauer, Ute-Maria; Linder, Katarzyna; Heni, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2016-05-01

    Reward sensitivity and possible alterations in the dopaminergic-reward system are associated with obesity. We therefore aimed to investigate the influence of dopamine depletion on food-reward processing. We investigated 34 female subjects in a randomized placebo-controlled, within-subject design (body mass index (BMI)=27.0 kg/m(2) ±4.79 SD; age=28 years ±4.97 SD) using an acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion drink representing dopamine depletion and a balanced amino acid drink as the control condition. Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging during a 'wanting' and 'liking' rating of food items. Eating behavior-related traits and states were assessed on the basis of questionnaires. Dopamine depletion resulted in reduced activation in the striatum and higher activation in the superior frontal gyrus independent of BMI. Brain activity during the wanting task activated a more distributed network than during the liking task. This network included gustatory, memory, visual, reward, and frontal regions. An interaction effect of dopamine depletion and the wanting/liking task was observed in the hippocampus. The interaction with the covariate BMI was significant in motor and control regions but not in the striatum. Our results support the notion of altered brain activity in the reward and prefrontal network with blunted dopaminergic action during food-reward processing. This effect is, however, independent of BMI, which contradicts the reward-deficiency hypothesis. This hints to the hypothesis suggesting a different or more complex mechanism underlying the dopaminergic reward function in obesity. PMID:26450814

  20. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Ellen Aagaard Nohr; Michael Gamborg; Mette Juhl; Camilla Schou Andersen

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children’s body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children’s w...

  1. Correlation of leptin receptor expression with BMI in differential grades of human meningiomas

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Robert; Reszec, Joanna; Hermanowicz, Adam; CHRZANOWSKI, ROBERT; Lyson, Tomasz; Mariak, Zenon; Chyczewski, Lech

    2016-01-01

    Meningioma is one of the most common primary brain tumor, especially in postmenopausal women. The most important risk factors include radiation, primary head injury or genetic alterations, however it is currently unclear why postmenopausal women are predominantly affected. The aim of the present study was to evaluate leptin receptor (LEPR) expression and body mass index (BMI) in patients with meningiomas of differential grades. Specimens of 158 meningiomas were classified as either G1 (low-gr...

  2. Weight status of adolescents in secondary schools in port Harcourt using Body Mass Index (BMI)

    OpenAIRE

    Adesina Adesuwa F; Peterside Oliemen; Anochie Ifeoma; Akani Nwadiuto A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescent weight status is a cumulative effect of health and nutritional problems. Adolescent weight problems often go unnoticed as weight assessment is not considered a priority in adolescents. Objectives To determine the weight status of adolescents using BMI and to identify the contributing factors to adolescent weight problems. Methods In April 2010, 960 adolescents aged 10–19 years in secondary schools in Port Harcourt were selected for the study using a stratified m...

  3. Appetitive traits and relationships with BMI in adults: Development of the Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunot, Claudia; Fildes, Alison; Croker, Helen; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a validated parent-report measure of appetitive traits associated with weight in childhood. There is currently no matched measure for use in adults. The aim of this study was to adapt the CEBQ into a self-report Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ) to explore whether the associations between appetitive traits and BMI observed in children are present in adults. Two adult samples were recruited one year apart from an online survey panel in 2013 (n = 708) and 2014 (n = 954). Both samples completed the AEBQ and self-reported their weight and height. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to derive 35 items for the AEBQ in Sample 1 and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to replicate the factor structure in Sample 2. Reliability of the AEBQ was assessed using Cronbach's α and a two week test-retest in a sub-sample of 93 participants. Correlations between appetitive traits measured by the AEBQ and BMI were calculated. PCA and CFA results showed the AEBQ to be a reliable questionnaire (Cronbach's α > 0.70) measuring 8 appetitive traits similar to the CEBQ [Hunger (H), Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Over-Eating (EOE), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Emotional Under-eating (EUE), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE)]. Associations with BMI showed FR, EF (p < 0.05) and EOE (p < 0.01) were positively associated and SR, EUE and SE (p < 0.01) were negatively associated. Overall, the AEBQ appears to be a reliable measure of appetitive traits in adults which translates well from the validated child measure. Adults with a higher BMI had higher scores for 'food approach' traits (FR, EOE and EF) and lower scores for 'food avoidance' traits (SR, EUE and SE). PMID:27215837

  4. No effect of weight cycling on the post-career BMI of weight class elite athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Marquet, Laurie-anne; Brown, Morgan; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Mouraby, Rémy; Bourhaleb, Samir; Toussaint, Jean-François; Desgorces, François-Denis

    2013-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: Repetitions of pre-competition weight-loss diets done by athletes participating in weight class sports can be regarded as periods of weight cycling. The aim of the present study is to identify the long term post-career (22 years) evolutionary profile of athletes' BMI after such weight cycling. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-six retired French athletes who participated in major international competitions in weight class sports (rowers, wrestlers, boxers, ...

  5. BMI and cardiovascular function in children and adolescents of Mauritius Island

    OpenAIRE

    Miles-Chan, Jennifer L.; Joonas, Noorjehan; Joganah, Shashee; Larhubarbe, Jose; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G.

    2013-01-01

    Among countries which have undergone a rapid socio-economic and nutrition transition over the past few decades, the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius is among those with the greatest surge in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and CVD. The aim of the present study was to characterise the BMI and cardiovascular functions of children and adolescents of this at-risk population. Data were collected through measurements of anthropometry, resting heart rate and blood pressure in a nationally represen...

  6. BMI changes in children and adolescents attending a specialized childhood obesity center: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Maggio, Albane Bertha; Saunders, Catherine Tamsin; Gal-Duding, Claudine; Beghetti, Maurice; Martin, Xavier; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Chamay-weber, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary group therapies for obese children and adolescents are effective but difficult to implement. There is a crucial need to evaluate simpler management programs that target the obese child and his family. This study aimed to determine changes in body mass indexes (BMI) after individual family-based obesity intervention with a pediatrician in a specialized obesity center for child and adolescent. Methods This cohort study included 283 patients (3.3 to 17.1 years, mean ...

  7. THE IMPACT OF FAST FOOD CONSUMPTION ON THE LIPID PROFILE, BMI AND BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS

    OpenAIRE

    Afroz Afshan*, Veeresh B Salgar, Manjushree Sugoor and Anupriya Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    In India smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary life style and junk foods are risk factors that has increased the burden of cardiovascular disease. To evaluate and compare the lipid profile, BMI and blood sugar levels in vegetarian home food eaters and fast food eaters. Apparently healthy 300 males aged between 15-35years were participants of our study. Out of them 150 vegetarian home food eaters formed control group, 150 fast food eaters formed study group. We observed over all highly signi...

  8. Blood Pressure Variation Throughout Pregnancy According to Early Gestational BMI: A Brazilian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rebelo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes progressive adaptations throughout pregnancy, causing blood pressure fluctuations. However, no consensus has been established on its normal variation in uncomplicated pregnancies. Objective: To describe the variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP levels during pregnancy according to early pregnancy body mass index (BMI. Methods: SBP and DBP were measured during the first, second and third trimesters and at 30-45 days postpartum in a prospective cohort of 189 women aged 20-40 years. BMI (kg/m2 was measured up to the 13th gestational week and classified as normal-weight (<25.0 or excessive weight (≥25.0. Longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were used for statistical analysis. Results: A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed from the first to the second trimester (βSBP=-0.394; 95%CI: -0.600- -0.188 and βDBP=-0.617; 95%CI: -0.780- -0.454, as was an increase in SBP and DBP up to 30-45 postpartum days (βSBP=0.010; 95%CI: 0.006-0.014 and βDBP=0.015; 95%CI: 0.012-0.018. Women with excessive weight at early pregnancy showed higher mean SBP in all gestational trimesters, and higher mean DBP in the first and third trimesters. Excessive early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with prospective changes in SBP (βSBP=7.055; 95%CI: 4.499-9.610 and in DBP (βDBP=3.201; 95%CI: 1.136-5.266. Conclusion: SBP and DBP decreased from the first to the second trimester and then increased up to the postpartum period. Women with excessive early pregnancy BMI had higher SBP and DBP than their normal-weight counterparts throughout pregnancy, but not in the postpartum period.

  9. The Transition to Post-Industrial BMI Values in the United States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komlos, J.; Brabec, Marek

    Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012 - (Offer, A.; Pechey, R.; Ulijaszek, S.), s. 141-159. (Proceedings of the British Academy. 174). ISBN 978-0-19-726498-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : BMI * secular trend * GAMLSS * semiparametric modeling * quantile estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://britishacademy.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.5871/bacad/9780197264980.001.0001/upso-9780197264980-chapter-8

  10. A Comparative Study of the Taste Choice of Adolescents in Terms of Gender and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Saime Kucukkmurler

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the attitudes and choices of taste of adolescents, the conditions that affect these choices, and its variations with respect to BMI and gender. METHODS: 385 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 14, in Ankara, Turkey, participated in the research. In order to determine taste choices and attitudes towards taste, a Likert-type questionnaire was applied. Independent Samples t-test and correlational analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Boys prefe...

  11. Behavioral and physiological indices related to BMI in a cohort of primary schoolchildren in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Moschonis, George; Magkos, Faidon; Skenderi, Katerina; Zampelas, Antonis

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between normal weight and overweight primary schoolchildren in terms of certain cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and furthermore to identify behavioral correlates significantly affecting their body mass index (BMI). The sample consisted of 198 children with a mean age of 11.5 +/- 0.4 years (106 females and 92 males). Data was obtained on children anthropometry, plasma lipids, plasma glucose, dietary intake, cardiorespiratory fitness, and physical activity. Significant gender differences were observed for most of these parameters, with boys being more active and fit but also spending more time on sedentary activities and exhibiting higher intake of energy and fat compared to girls. Using the International Obesity Task Force's (IOTF) BMI cut-off points, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated to be 35.6% and 6.7% among boys and 25.7% and 6.7% among girls, respectively. Overweight and obese children had higher levels of plasma triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio and lower levels of HDL-C and physical fitness compared to their normal-weight peers. Among the behavioral variables tested, only participation in organized sports, cardiorespiratory fitness, and TV watching were significantly correlated with BMI, while energy and fat intake were found to have no significant effect. The current study suggests that even in childhood, overweight and obesity are indicative of an unfavorable lipidemic profile. Among the behavioral parameters known to affect BMI, those found to exert a significant effect were organized physical activities, cardiorespiratory fitness, and TV watching, but not energy or fat intake. PMID:15495234

  12. BMI Development of Normal Weight and Overweight Children in the PIAMA Study

    OpenAIRE

    Willers, Saskia; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriëtte; Beek, Eline; Gehring, Ulrike; de Jongste, Johan; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard; Wijga, Alet

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with overweight later in life. However, results from studies exploring other critical periods for the development of overweight are inconsistent. Objective: The objective was to investigate BMI development to assess at what ages essential differences between normal weight and overweight children occur, and to assess which age intervals the most strongly influence the risk of overweight...

  13. Evidential Value That Exercise Improves BMI z-Score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, George A.; Kelley, Kristi S

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the cardiovascular disease (CVD) related importance of understanding the true effects of exercise on adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents, this study examined whether there is evidential value to rule out excessive and inappropriate reporting of statistically significant results, a major problem in the published literature, with respect to exercise-induced improvements in BMI z-score among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Using da...

  14. BMI in relation to sperm count: an updated systematic review and collaborative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L; Shayeb, A G; Bonde, J P; Jensen, T K; Van Wely, M; Cao, J; Martini, A C; Eskandar, M; Chavarro, J E; Koloszar, S; Twigt, J M; Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Borges, E; Lotti, F; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Zorn, B; Polotsky, A J; La Vignera, S; Eskenazi, B; Tremellen, K; Magnusdottir, E V; Fejes, I; Hercberg, S; Lévy, R; Czernichow, S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men) obtained from the Infertility Center of Bondy, France. Abstracts of relevant articles were examined and studies that could be included in this review were retrieved. Authors of relevant studies for the meta-analysis were contacted by email and asked to provide standardized data. RESULTS A total of 21 studies were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in a sample of 13 077 men from the general population and attending fertility clinics. Data were stratified according to the total sperm count as normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Standardized weighted mean differences in sperm concentration did not differ significantly across BMI categories. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI categories and risk of oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Compared with men of normal weight, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for oligozoospermia or azoospermia was 1.15 (0.93-1.43) for underweight, 1.11 (1.01-1.21) for overweight, 1.28 (1.06-1.55) for obese and 2.04 (1.59-2.62) for morbidly obese men. CONCLUSIONS Overweight and obesity were associated with an increased prevalence of azoospermia or oligozoospermia. The main limitation of this report is that studied populations varied, with men recruited from both the general population and infertile couples. Whether weight normalization could improve sperm parameters should be evaluated further. PMID:23242914

  15. BMI, Diet and Female Reproductive Factors as Risks for Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Peterson; De, Prithwish; Robert Nuttall

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI), diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically ass...

  16. Plasma reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Mansilla, Ricardo; Erra Serrabasa, Pilar; Bertrán Serra, Enric

    2008-01-01

    [EN] A plasma reactor that can operate in a wide pressure range, from vacuum and low pressures to atmospheric pressure and higher pressures. The plasma reactor is also able to regulate other important settings and can be used for processing a wide range of different samples, such as relatively large samples or samples with rough surfaces.

  17. Reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in research on reactor physics in 1997 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. Activities in the following four domains are discussed: core physics, ex-core neutron transport, experiments in Materials Testing Reactors, international benchmarks

  18. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  19. Oxandrolone Improves Height Velocity and BMI in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seffrood ErinE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of oxandrolone in improving the nutritional status and linear growth of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Methods. Medical records of patients with CF treated with oxandrolone were reviewed for height z score, height velocity (HV, BMI z score, weight velocity (WV, Tanner stage, pulmonary function, liver enzyme levels, and any reported adverse events. Data were compared before (pre-Ox and after (Ox oxandrolone using a paired t-test. Results. 5 subjects (ages 8.5–14.5 years were treated with oxandrolone 2.5 mg daily for 8–38 months. After 8–12 months of treatment, there was a statistically significant improvement in HV (  cm/yr,  cm/yr, and BMI z score ( , , . Both height z score ( , , and WV (  kg/yr, Ox  kg/yr, showed beneficial trends that did not reach statistical significance. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. In this brief clinical report, oxandrolone improved the HV and BMI z score in patients with CF. Larger studies are needed to determine if oxandrolone is an effective, safe, and affordable option to stimulate appetite, improve weight gain, and promote linear growth in patients with CF.

  20. Changes in blood pressure, bmi and ecg patterns in women using low-dose contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the cardiovascular risk factors in users of second generation contraceptives by recording changes in body mass index, blood pressure and electrocardiogram. Sixty four women volunteered for this study (age range 20-35 years), belonging to low-income group with similar socio-cultural background. The Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by measuring height and weight of the subjects, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and ECG recording by standard method. The group means, standard deviations and coefficient correlation for interrelationship among variables in respective groups of subjects were calculated using relevant statistical method and software program. There was no significant difference between BMI of two types of contraceptive users as compared to non users, but BMI was significantly correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in injectable users as compared to controls. ECG alterations frequently observed in contraceptive users (40%) as compared to controls were normal findings. It was observed that women aged < 30 years and using contraceptives for more than three years had a tendency to gain weight and developed a mild increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. (author)

  1. Programs of Active Aging – A Relation between BMI and Triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Honório

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To enhance the importance of physical activity programs for elderly and their influence on BMI and triglycerides. Methods: The sample consisted of 91 elderly individuals, 63 females and 28 males aged between 65 and 78 years of age. All seniors practice water activities, including swimming and gymnastics. Were analyzed with respect to two aspects: BMI, Triglycerides and practice time, seniors who were physically active at least 2 months, and seniors who maintained habits of physical activity between 2 and 6 months and still accumulated 30 or more minutes of other activities. We have established contingency tables were confronted where the variables described in the analysis. Results: It was found that elderly who maintained physical activity programs were broader outnumbered those who were overweight and obesity rates in Table I of BMI, and lower triglycerides values. Conclusions: We concluded therefore that physical activity programs that contemplate 2 or more hours per week, duly organized and systematized constitute a positive factor in combating inactivity and turn into a more active and cheerful elderly.

  2. Testing the Utility of a Data-Driven Approach for Assessing BMI from Face Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffhechel, Karin; Hahn, Amanda C; Jarmer, Hanne; Fisher, Claire I; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that facial cues of adiposity may be important for human social interaction. However, tests for quantifiable cues of body mass index (BMI) in the face have examined only a small number of facial proportions and these proportions were found to have relatively low predictive power. Here we employed a data-driven approach in which statistical models were built using principal components (PCs) derived from objectively defined shape and color characteristics in face images. The predictive power of these models was then compared with models based on previously studied facial proportions (perimeter-to-area ratio, width-to-height ratio, and cheek-to-jaw width). Models based on 2D shape-only PCs, color-only PCs, and 2D shape and color PCs combined each performed significantly and substantially better than models based on one or more of the previously studied facial proportions. A non-linear PC model considering both 2D shape and color PCs was the best predictor of BMI. These results highlight the utility of a "bottom-up", data-driven approach for assessing BMI from face images. PMID:26460526

  3. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Adriana C; Murtha, Amy P; Murphy, Susan K; Fortner, Kimberly; Overcash, Francine; Henry, Nikki; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Forman, Michele R; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Jirtle, Randy; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation) were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile), those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile) were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient = 230, se = 58.0, P = 0.0001), after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2); the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.0004). Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity. PMID:23861689

  4. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  5. The influence of BMI on the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Soliman, Ghada A; Meza, Jane L; Islam, K M Monirul; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2016-04-01

    Overweight and obese individuals have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome because of subsequent chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, which the antioxidant nutrient lycopene can reduce. However, studies indicate that different BMI statuses can alter the positive effects of lycopene. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how BMI influences the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome. The tertile rank method was used to divide 13 196 participants, aged 20 years and older, into three groups according to serum concentrations of lycopene. The associations between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome were analysed separately for normal-weight, overweight and obese participants. Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first tertile group (OR 38·6 %; 95 % CI 36·9, 40·3) compared with the second tertile group (OR 29·3 %; 95 % CI 27·5, 31·1) and the third tertile group (OR 26·6 %; 95 % CI 24·9, 28·3). However, the associations between lycopene and the metabolic syndrome were only significant for normal-weight and overweight participants (P0·05), even after adjusting for possible confounding variables. In conclusion, BMI appears to strongly influence the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:26857614

  6. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  7. A high BMI is a risk factor in younger patients with de novo acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crysandt, Martina; Kramer, Michael; Ehninger, Gerhard; Bornhäuser, Martin; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Serve, Hubert; Röllig, Christoph; Kaifie, Andrea; Jost, Edgar; Brummendorf, Tim H; Wilop, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Overweight and obese patients have an increased risk to develop several malignancies and, additionally, body mass index (BMI) impacts on outcome in several solid tumors. However, little is known for AML. We analyzed a cohort of 3526 patients with AML treated in three prospective multicenter trials within the German Study Alliance Leukemia. In multivariate analyses, we identified BMI as an independent risk factor for both DFS (HR 1.014, P = 0.0217) and OS (HR 1.015, P AML younger than 65 yr with intermediate risk and adverse cytogenetics. Overweight with a BMI ≥25 kg/m² best discriminated the worse outcome and led to an absolute reduction in long-term survival of 5-7% in the group of all younger patients (3-yr OS 39.9% vs. 47.3%; 10-yr OS 28.7% vs. 33.8%, P = 0.0002). Additionally, response to induction therapy was significantly reduced in these patients (76.9% vs. 82.8%, P AML, overweight and obesity are risk factors for impaired response to induction therapy, DFS and OS. This effect is, in part but not fully, explained by dose reduction such as dose-capping at a body surface area of 2 m². PMID:26277604

  8. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status. PMID:27472358

  9. Bmi-1 promotes the aggressiveness of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis of human glioma is poor, and the highly invasive nature of the disease represents a major impediment to current therapeutic modalities. The oncoprotein B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 protein (Bmi-1 has been linked to the development and progression of glioma; however, the biological role of Bmi-1 in the invasion of glioma remains unclear. Methods A172 and LN229 glioma cells were engineered to overexpress Bmi-1 via stable transfection or to be silenced for Bmi-1 expression using RNA interfering method. Migration and invasiveness of the engineered cells were assessed using wound healing assay, Transwell migration assay, Transwell matrix penetration assay and 3-D spheroid invasion assay. MMP-9 expression and activity were measured using real-time PCR, ELISA and the gelatin zymography methods. Expression of NF-kappaB target genes was quantified using real-time PCR. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity was assessed using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter system. Expression of Bmi-1 and MMP-9 in clinical specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical assay. Results Ectopic overexpression of Bmi-1 dramatically increased, whereas knockdown of endogenous Bmi-1 reduced, the invasiveness and migration of glioma cells. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and MMP-9 expression and activity were significantly increased in Bmi-1-overexpressing but reduced in Bmi-1-silenced cells. The reporter luciferase activity driven by MMP-9 promoter in Bmi-1-overexpressing cells was dependent on the presence of a functional NF-kappaB binding site, and blockade of NF-kappaB signaling inhibited the upregulation of MMP-9 in Bmi-1 overexpressing cells. Furthermore, expression of Bmi-1 correlated with NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as well as MMP-9 expression in clinical glioma samples. Conclusions Bmi-1 may play an important role in the development of aggressive phenotype of glioma via activating the NF

  10. The prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and the association with BMI status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldwijk Jorien

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and examined the association of these abuse subtypes with BMI status. Methods In total, data of 51,856 secondary school students aged 13–16 who had completed a questionnaire on health, well-being and lifestyle were used. BMI was classified into four categories, underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Adolescents reported if they had ever been physically, sexually or mentally abused. Crude and adjusted General Estimation Equation (GEE analyses were performed to investigate the association between abuse subtypes and BMI status. Analyses were adjusted for ethnicity and parental communication, and stratified for gender and educational level. Results Eighteen percent of the adolescents reported mental abuse, 7% reported sexual abuse, and 6% reported physical abuse. For underweight, overweight and obese adolescents these percentages were 17%, 25%, and 44%; 7%, 8%, and 16%; and 6%, 8%, 18% respectively. For the entire population, all these subtypes of abuse were associated with being overweight and obese (OR=3.67, 1.79 and 1.50 and all but sexual abuse were associated with underweight (OR=1.21 and 1.12. Stratified analyses showed that physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with obesity among boys (OR=1.77 and 2.49 and among vocational school students (OR=1.60 and 1.69, and with underweight among girls (OR=1.26 and 0.83. Conclusion Mental abuse was reported by almost half of the obese adolescents and associated with underweight, overweight and

  11. The BMI1 polycomb protein represses cyclin G2-induced autophagy to support proliferation in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgues, L; Imbert, V; Nebout, M; Colosetti, P; Neffati, Z; Lagadec, P; Verhoeyen, E; Peng, C; Duprez, E; Legros, L; Rochet, N; Maguer-Satta, V; Nicolini, F-E; Mary, D; Peyron, J-F

    2015-10-01

    The BMI1 polycomb protein regulates self-renewal, proliferation and survival of cancer-initiating cells essentially through epigenetic repression of the CDKN2A tumor suppressor locus. We demonstrate here for the first time that BMI1 also prevents autophagy in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines, to support their proliferation and clonogenic activity. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we identified CCNG2/cyclin G2 (CCNG2) as a direct BMI1 target. BMI1 downregulation in CD34+ CML cells by PTC-209 pharmacological treatment or shBMI1 transduction triggered CCNG2 expression and decreased clonogenic activity. Also, ectopic expression of CCNG2 in CD34+ CML cells strongly decreased their clonogenicity. CCNG2 was shown to act by disrupting the phosphatase 2A complex, which activates a PKCζ-AMPK-JNK-ERK pathway that engages autophagy. We observed that BMI1 and CCNG2 levels evolved inversely during the progression of CML towards an acute deadly phase, and therefore hypothesized that BMI1 could support acute transformation of CML through the silencing of a CCNG2-mediated tumor-suppressive autophagy response. PMID:25925206

  12. Nanoparticle siRNA against BMI-1 with a Polyethylenimine-Laminarin Conjugate for Gene Therapy in Human Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueling; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Yuxue; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Li, Huixiang

    2016-01-20

    The B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus inset site 1 gene (BMI-1) has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of its key role in breast cancer development and metastasis. The downregulation of BMI-1 expression via small interfering RNA (siRNA) effectively inhibits tumor growth. However, the successful application of this therapy is limited by the unavailability of an appropriate vector for siRNA transfer. Therefore, this study aimed to construct a novel laminarin-based nonviral gene transfer vector to carry a constructed BMI-1-targeting siRNA and to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of this siRNA on breast cancer cells. To enhance the siRNA-carrying capacity, we introduced polyethylenimine (PEI) to laminarin's surface via N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole, which produced the cationic PEI-modified laminarin conjugate nLP. Subsequent in vitro experiments indicated that nLP not only formed a nanoparticle with a diameter of 200 nm through electrostatic interactions with siRNA but also showed high efficiency (95.0%) in the delivery siRNA to MCF-7 cells. The nanoparticle targeting BMI-1 (nLP/siBMI-2) reduced BMI-1 expression in breast MCF-7 cells by 90.9% reduction. An in vivo tumor suppression experiment demonstrated that the nLP/siBMI-2 nanoparticle had relatively low toxicity and good gene-therapeutic efficacy, with a tumor inhibition rate of 46.6%. PMID:26629893

  13. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Mohammad Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Hadibarhaghtalab, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehi, Alireza; Askari, Alireza; Homayounfar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI) cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS) risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC) as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome) were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2). Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%). When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%). Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR) for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166-1.190). By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093-1.118). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc) = 69% and 61%, respectively)] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65%) with sensitivity and

  14. Compact Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date

  15. BMI1 Cooperates with H-RAS to Induce an Aggressive Breast Cancer Phenotype with Brain Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Hoenerhoff, Mark J.; Chu, Isabel; Barkan, Dalit; Liu, Zi-yao; Datta, Sonal; Goberdhan P. Dimri; Green, Jeffery E.

    2009-01-01

    BMI1 is a member of the polycomb group of transcription repressors that functions in stem cell maintenance and oncogenesis through inhibition of the INK4A/ARF tumour suppressor locus. Overexpression of BMI1 is associated with poor prognosis in several human cancers, including breast cancer. We have previously shown that BMI1 collaborates with H-RAS to induce transformation of MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells via dysregulation of multiple growth pathways independent of the INK4A/ARF locus...

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  18. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This draft chart contains graphical symbols from which the type of (nuclear) reactor can be seen. They will serve as illustrations for graphical sketches. Important features of the individual reactor types are marked out graphically. The user can combine these symbols to characterize a specific reactor type. The basic graphical symbol is a square with a point in the centre. Functional groups can be depicted for closer specification. If two functional groups are not clearly separated, this is symbolized by a dotted line or a channel. Supply and discharge lines for coolant, moderator and fuel are specified in accordance with DIN 2481 and can be further specified by additional symbols if necessary. The examples in the paper show several different reactor types. (orig./AK)

  19. Multifunctional reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much emphasis in research in the last decade. A survey is given of modern developments and the first successful applications on a large scale. It is explained why their application in many instances is ...

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  1. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce neutron embrittlement of the pressue vessel of an LWR, blanked off elements are fitted at the edge of the reactor core, with the same dimensions as the fuel elements. They are parallel to each other, and to the edge of the reactor taking the place of fuel rods, and are plates of neutron-absorbing material (stainless steel, boron steel, borated Al). (HP)

  2. Breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons for the development of fast reactors are briefly reviewed (a propitious neutron balance oriented towards a maximum uranium burnup) and its special requirements (cooling, fissile material density and reprocessing) discussed. The three stages in the French program of fast reactor development are outlined with Rapsodie at Cadarache, Phenix at Marcoule, and Super Phenix at Creys-Malville. The more specific features of the program of research and development are emphasized: kinetics and the core, the fuel and the components

  3. Cycling to School Is Associated With Lower BMI and Lower Odds of Being Overweight or Obese in a Large Population-Based Study of Danish Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Grøntved, Anders; Bjørkelund Børrestad, Line Anita;

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have been inconclusive concerning the effect of active transport on BMI. Our objective was to investigate the association between travel mode and BMI in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents.......Previous studies have been inconclusive concerning the effect of active transport on BMI. Our objective was to investigate the association between travel mode and BMI in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents....

  4. Maternal attitudes and child-feeding practices: relationship with the BMI of Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uauy Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile has experienced the nutritional transition due to both social and economic progress. As a consequence, higher rates of overweight and obesity have been observed in children. In western countries, researchers have tried to determine pathways by which parents influence their children's eating behavior; up to now findings have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional and retrospective relationship between maternal attitudes and child-feeding practices and children's weight status in children who had been subject of an obesity prevention intervention for two years. Methods In 2006, for a cross-sectional study, a random sample of 232 children (125 girls, mean age 11.91 ± 1.56 y and 107 boys mean age 11.98 ± 1.51 y was selected from three primary schools from a small city called Casablanca. Weight and height were determined to assess their nutritional status, using body mass index (BMI z scores. Child-feeding practices and attitudes were determined cross-sectionally in 2006, using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. To analyze the relationship between trends in weight change and child-feeding practices and attitudes, BMI z scores of all the 232 children in 2003 were used. Results Cross-sectionally, mothers of overweight children were significantly more concerned (P z score was positively correlated with concern for child's weight (r = 0.28, P z score between age 9 and 12 was positively correlated with concern for child's weight, but only in boys (r = 0.21, P z score at age 12. Conclusion Mothers of overweight children were more concerned with their children's weight; this indicated the Western negative attitude towards childhood overweight. None of the child-feeding practices were significantly correlated with a change in BMI z score.

  5. Cisplatin Induces Bmi-1 and Enhances the Stem Cell Fraction in Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Nör

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has unveiled a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic, multipotent cells capable of self-renewal in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs. These unique cells, named here cancer stem cells (CSCs, proliferate slowly and might be involved in resistance to conventional chemotherapy. We have shown that CSCs are found in perivascular niches and rely on endothelial cell-secreted factors [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6] for their survival and self-renewal in HNSCC. Here, we hypothesized that cisplatin enhances the stem cell fraction in HNSCC. To address this hypothesis, we generated xenograft HNSCC tumors with University of Michigan-squamous cell carcinoma 22B (UM-SCC-22B cells and observed that cisplatin treatment increased (P = .0013 the fraction of CSCs [i.e., aldehyde dehydrogenase activity high and cluster of differentiation 44 high (ALDHhighCD44high]. Cisplatin promoted self-renewal and survival of CSCs in vitro, as seen by an increase in the number of orospheres in ultralow attachment plates and induction in B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1 and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 expression. Cisplatin-resistant cells expressed more Bmi-1 than cisplatinsensitive cells. IL-6 potentiated cisplatin-induced orosphere formation generated when primary human HNSCC cells were sorted for ALDHhighCD44high immediately after surgery and plated onto ultralow attachment plates. IL-6-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 phosphorylation (indicative of stemness was unaffected by treatment with cisplatin in UM-SCC-22B cells, whereas IL-6-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation (indicative of differentiation processes was partially inhibited by cisplatin. Notably, cisplatin-induced Bmi-1 was inhibited by interleukin-6 receptor blockade in parental and cisplatin-resistant cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that cisplatin enhances the fraction of CSCs

  6. BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p children and adolescents aged 7–18 years, which can be adopted in future researches. Large longitudinal study is still needed to reveal the childhood growth pattern and validate the inconsistence between different percentile studies

  7. Cisplatin induces Bmi-1 and enhances the stem cell fraction in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nör, Carolina; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Warner, Kristy A; Bernardi, Lisiane; Visioli, Fernanda; Helman, Joseph I; Roesler, Rafael; Nör, Jacques E

    2014-02-01

    Recent evidence has unveiled a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic, multipotent cells capable of self-renewal in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). These unique cells, named here cancer stem cells (CSCs), proliferate slowly and might be involved in resistance to conventional chemotherapy. We have shown that CSCs are found in perivascular niches and rely on endothelial cell-secreted factors [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] for their survival and self-renewal in HNSCC. Here, we hypothesized that cisplatin enhances the stem cell fraction in HNSCC. To address this hypothesis, we generated xenograft HNSCC tumors with University of Michigan-squamous cell carcinoma 22B (UM-SCC-22B) cells and observed that cisplatin treatment increased (P = .0013) the fraction of CSCs [i.e., aldehyde dehydrogenase activity high and cluster of differentiation 44 high (ALDH(high)CD44(high))]. Cisplatin promoted self-renewal and survival of CSCs in vitro, as seen by an increase in the number of orospheres in ultralow attachment plates and induction in B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1) and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 expression. Cisplatin-resistant cells expressed more Bmi-1 than cisplatin-sensitive cells. IL-6 potentiated cisplatin-induced orosphere formation generated when primary human HNSCC cells were sorted for ALDH(high)CD44(high) immediately after surgery and plated onto ultralow attachment plates. IL-6-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation (indicative of stemness) was unaffected by treatment with cisplatin in UM-SCC-22B cells, whereas IL-6-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation (indicative of differentiation processes) was partially inhibited by cisplatin. Notably, cisplatin-induced Bmi-1 was inhibited by interleukin-6 receptor blockade in parental and cisplatin-resistant cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that cisplatin enhances the fraction of CSCs

  8. Cisplatin Induces Bmi-1 and Enhances the Stem Cell Fraction in Head and Neck Cancer12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nör, Carolina; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Warner, Kristy A; Bernardi, Lisiane; Visioli, Fernanda; Helman, Joseph I; Roesler, Rafael; Nör, Jacques E

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has unveiled a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic, multipotent cells capable of self-renewal in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). These unique cells, named here cancer stem cells (CSCs), proliferate slowly and might be involved in resistance to conventional chemotherapy. We have shown that CSCs are found in perivascular niches and rely on endothelial cell-secreted factors [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] for their survival and self-renewal in HNSCC. Here, we hypothesized that cisplatin enhances the stem cell fraction in HNSCC. To address this hypothesis, we generated xenograft HNSCC tumors with University of Michigan-squamous cell carcinoma 22B (UM-SCC-22B) cells and observed that cisplatin treatment increased (P = .0013) the fraction of CSCs [i.e., aldehyde dehydrogenase activity high and cluster of differentiation 44 high (ALDHhighCD44high)]. Cisplatin promoted self-renewal and survival of CSCs in vitro, as seen by an increase in the number of orospheres in ultralow attachment plates and induction in B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1) and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 expression. Cisplatin-resistant cells expressed more Bmi-1 than cisplatinsensitive cells. IL-6 potentiated cisplatin-induced orosphere formation generated when primary human HNSCC cells were sorted for ALDHhighCD44high immediately after surgery and plated onto ultralow attachment plates. IL-6-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation (indicative of stemness) was unaffected by treatment with cisplatin in UM-SCC-22B cells, whereas IL-6-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation (indicative of differentiation processes) was partially inhibited by cisplatin. Notably, cisplatin-induced Bmi-1 was inhibited by interleukin-6 receptor blockade in parental and cisplatin-resistant cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that cisplatin enhances the fraction of CSCs and suggest

  9. BMI, diet and female reproductive factors as risks for thyroid cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI, diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically assessed. RESULTS: Among the thirty-seven studies reviewed and despite variation in the risk estimates, most papers supported a small but positive association for BMI (risk estimate range: 1.1-2.3 in males and 1.0-7.4 in females.. Among specific dietary components, there was no consistent association of thyroid cancer risk with iodine intake through fortification (risk estimate range: 0.49-1.6 or fish consumption (risk estimate range 0.6-2.2, nor with diets high in cruciferous vegetables (risk estimate range 0.6-1.9. A small number of studies showed a consistent protective effect of diets high in non-cruciferous vegetable (risk estimate range: 0.71-0.92. Among reproductive factors (pregnancy, parity, number of live births, use of prescription hormones, menstrual cycle regularity, and menopausal status, none were consistently associated with higher thyroid cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: BMI had the strongest link to thyroid cancer risk among those examined. Detailed examinations of population-level risk factors can help identify and support prevention efforts to reduce the burden of thyroid cancer.

  10. Home and neighbourhood correlates of BMI among children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David A; Ball, Kylie; Cleland, Verity J; Campbell, Karen J; Timperio, Anna F; Abbott, Gavin; Brug, Johannes; Baur, Louise A; Salmon, Jo A

    2012-04-01

    A detailed understanding of the underlying drivers of obesity-risk behaviours is needed to inform prevention initiatives, particularly for individuals of low socioeconomic position who are at increased risk of unhealthy weight gain. However, few studies have concurrently considered factors in the home and local neighbourhood environments, and little research has examined determinants among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The present study examined home, social and neighbourhood correlates of BMI (kg/m2) in children living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were collected from 491 women with children aged 5-12 years living in forty urban and forty rural socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (suburbs) of Victoria, Australia in 2007 and 2008. Mothers completed questionnaires about the home environment (maternal efficacy, perceived importance/beliefs, rewards, rules and access to equipment), social norms and perceived neighbourhood environment in relation to physical activity, healthy eating and sedentary behaviour. Children's height and weight were measured at school or home. Linear regression analyses controlled for child sex and age. In multivariable analyses, children whose mothers had higher efficacy for them doing physical activity tended to have lower BMI z scores (B = - 0·04, 95 % CI - 0·06, - 0·02), and children who had a television (TV) in their bedroom (B = 0·24, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·44) and whose mothers made greater use of food as a reward for good behaviour (B = 0·05, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·09) tended to have higher BMI z scores. Increasing efficacy among mothers to promote physical activity, limiting use of food as a reward and not placing TV in children's bedrooms may be important targets for future obesity prevention initiatives in disadvantaged communities. PMID:21824445

  11. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    -old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI......BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year...... and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with...

  12. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Börnhorst

    Full Text Available Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences.The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008 and follow-up examination (2009/2010 supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences.Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers' smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found.Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association

  13. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Siani, Alfonso; Russo, Paola; Kourides, Yannis; Sion, Isabelle; Molnár, Denés; Moreno, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Howe, Laura; Lissner, Lauren; Mehlig, Kirsten; Regber, Susann; Bammann, Karin; Foraita, Ronja

    2016-01-01

    Background Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences. Methods The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden) participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008) and follow-up examination (2009/2010) supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences. Results Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries) with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG) was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers’ smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found. Conclusion Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed

  14. Pregravid BMI is associated with dietary restraint and psychosocial factors during pregnancy1

    OpenAIRE

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Dole, Nancy; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; London, Emily

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the association of pregravid weight status, dietary restraint and psychosocial factors during pregnancy. We used data from the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition study, that recruited 2,006 women at prenatal clinics before 20 weeks’ gestation who were >16 years and English speaking. Institute of Medicine BMI cutpoints of underweight (26.0–29.0), obese (>29.0–34.9) and an additional category morbidly obese (≥ 35.0), were used to categorize weight status. Eight ...

  15. Using kernel density estimation to understand the influence of neighbourhood destinations on BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tania L; Bentley, Rebecca J; Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about how the distribution of destinations in the local neighbourhood is related to body mass index (BMI). Kernel density estimation (KDE) is a spatial analysis technique that accounts for the location of features relative to each other. Using KDE, this study investigated whether individuals living near destinations (shops and service facilities) that are more intensely distributed rather than dispersed, have lower BMIs. Study design and setting A cross-sectional study of 2349 residents of 50 urban areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Methods Destinations were geocoded, and kernel density estimates of destination intensity were created using kernels of 400, 800 and 1200 m. Using multilevel linear regression, the association between destination intensity (classified in quintiles Q1(least)–Q5(most)) and BMI was estimated in models that adjusted for the following confounders: age, sex, country of birth, education, dominant household occupation, household type, disability/injury and area disadvantage. Separate models included a physical activity variable. Results For kernels of 800 and 1200 m, there was an inverse relationship between BMI and more intensely distributed destinations (compared to areas with least destination intensity). Effects were significant at 1200 m: Q4, β −0.86, 95% CI −1.58 to −0.13, p=0.022; Q5, β −1.03 95% CI −1.65 to −0.41, p=0.001. Inclusion of physical activity in the models attenuated effects, although effects remained marginally significant for Q5 at 1200 m: β −0.77 95% CI −1.52, −0.02, p=0.045. Conclusions This study conducted within urban Melbourne, Australia, found that participants living in areas of greater destination intensity within 1200 m of home had lower BMIs. Effects were partly explained by physical activity. The results suggest that increasing the intensity of destination distribution could reduce BMI levels by encouraging higher levels of physical activity

  16. Associations of Six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Obesity-Related Genes With BMI and Risk of Obesity in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lijun; Xi, Bo; Zhang, Meixian; SHEN, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Sun, Dandan; Ott, Jurg; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Childhood obesity strongly predisposes to some adult diseases. Recently, genome-wide association (GWA) studies in Caucasians identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI and obesity. The associations of those SNPs with BMI and obesity among other ethnicities are not fully described, especially in children. Among those previously identified SNPs, we selected six (rs7138803, rs1805081, rs6499640, rs17782313, rs6265, and rs10938397, in or near obesity-...

  17. Prediction of critical weight loss during radiation treatment in head and neck cancer patients is dependent on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon; Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt;

    2016-01-01

    loss above 5 % in patients with BMI >25 were 3.00 ± 0.64 times higher compared with patients with BMI <25 (p < 0.0001). Patients with pharyngeal, oral cavity, or supraglottic tumors had 3.12 ± 0.80 times higher odds of weight loss above 5 % compared with glottic cancer patients (p < 0.0001), and the...

  18. Representativeness and optimal use of body mass index (BMI) in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskaran, K; Forbes, H. J.; Douglas, I.; Leon, D. A.; Smeeth, L

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the completeness and representativeness of body mass index (BMI) data in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), and determine an optimal strategy for their use. Design: Descriptive study. Setting: Electronic healthcare records from primary care. Participants: A million patient random sample from the UK CPRD primary care database, aged ≥16 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures: BMI completeness in CPRD was evaluated by age, sex and calendar period. CPR...

  19. Greater screen time is associated with adolescent obesity: a longitudinal study of the BMI distribution from ages 14 to 18

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Audrain-Mcgovern, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has examined the association between screen time and average changes in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Until now, no study has evaluated the longitudinal relationship between screen time and changes in the BMI distribution across mid to late adolescence. Participants (n=1,336) were adolescents who were followed from age 14 to age 18 and surveyed every six months. Time spent watching television/videos and playing video games was self-reported (

  20. PPARγ Pro12Ala and ACE ID polymorphisms are associated with BMI and fat distribution, but not metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passaro Angela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS results from the combined effect of environmental and genetic factors. We investigated the possible association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2 Pro12Ala and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE I/D polymorphisms with MetS and interaction between these genetic variants. Methods Three hundred sixty four unrelated Caucasian subjects were enrolled. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI were recorded. Body composition was estimated by impedance analysis; MetS was diagnosed by the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. A fasting blood sample was obtained for glucose, insulin, lipid profile determination, and DNA isolation for genotyping. Results The prevalence of MetS did not differ across PPARγ2 or ACE polymorphisms. Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but lower systolic blood pressure compared with Pro/Pro homozygotes. A significant PPARγ2 gene-gender interaction was observed in the modulation of BMI, fat mass, and blood pressure, with significant associations found in women only. A PPARγ2-ACE risk genotype combination for BMI and fat mass was found, with ACE DD/PPARγ2 Ala subjects having a higher BMI (p = 0.002 and Fat Mass (p = 0.002. Pro12Ala was independently associated with waist circumference independent of BMI and gender. Conclusions Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but not a worse metabolic profile, possibly because of a more favorable adipose tissue distribution. A gene interaction exists between Pro12Ala and ACE I/D on BMI and fat mass. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of Pro12Ala polymorphism in adiposity distribution.

  1. Prevalence of Central Obesity among Adults with Normal BMI and Its Association with Metabolic Diseases in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Jiang, Lingling; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of central obesity among adults with normal BMI and its association with metabolic diseases in Jilin Province, China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Jilin Province of China. Information was collected by face to face interview. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Log-binomial regression analyses were used to find the independent factors associated with central obesity and to explore the adjusted association between central obesity and metabolic diseases among adults with normal BMI. Results Among the adult residents with normal BMI in Jilin Province, 55.6% of participants with central obesity self-assessed as normal weight and 27.0% thought their body weight were above normal. 12.7% of central obesity people took methods to lose weight, while 85.3% didn’t. Female, older people and non-manual worker had higher risk to be central obesity among adults with normal BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI, the PRs were 1.337 (1.224–1.461), 1.323 (1.193–1.456) and 1.261 (1.152–1.381) separately when adjusted for gender, age and BMI. Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI in Jilin Province, China. The low rates of awareness and control of central obesity among adults with normal BMI should be improved by government and health department. PMID:27467819

  2. Does food vendor density mediate the association between neighborhood deprivation and BMI? A G-computation mediation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tara Zhang, Y; Larai, BA; Mujahid, MS; Tamayo, A; Blanchard, SD; Margaret Warton, E.; Maggi Kelly, N; Moffet, HH; Schillinger, D.; Adler, N; Karter, AJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Background: in previous research, neighborhood deprivation was positively associated with body mass index (BMi) among adults with diabetes. We assessed whether the association between neighborhood deprivation and BMi is attributable, in part, to geographic variation in the availability of healthful and unhealthful food vendors. Methods: Subjects were 16,634 participants of the Diabetes Study of northern California, a multiethnic cohort o...

  3. Relationship between blood pressure and BMI: a cross sectional study among government employees of Gujarat state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Gadhavi

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: There is significant correlation between BMI and DBP or SBP among government employees of Gujarat state situated in western part of India, thus basic measurement of weight and height to determine the BMI as a routine assessment during clinic visitation with appropriate lifestyle modification would help in controlling hypertension as well as reduce its prevalence. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1637-1640

  4. The importance of blood lipids in the association between BMI and blood pressure among Chinese overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Yi-de; Wang, Shuo; Dong, Bin; Li, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Jun

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to examine the contribution of blood lipids to the association between BMI and blood pressure (BP) in children with overweight and obesity. Data were collected in elementary and high schools of Chaoyang District, Beijing, China in 2012. Participants' weight, height, BP and fasting plasma lipid profile were measured by standard protocols. Mediation analysis was used to examine the mediation role of blood lipids on the relation between BMI and BP, with age included as a covariate. We found that in boys 8·29 % (mediation effect=0·106, P=0·012) of the association between BMI and systolic BP was mediated through TAG. TAG mediated 12·53 % (mediation effect=0·093, P=0·018) and LDL-cholesterol mediated 7·75 % (mediation effect=0·57, P=0·046) of the association between BMI and diastolic BP was mediated by TAG and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. However, blood lipids did not show the mediation effect in girls. Our findings suggested that there was a sex difference in the contribution of blood lipids to the association between BMI and BP. Controlling TAG or LDL-cholesterol may be beneficial for reducing the risk of the BMI-related high BP in overweight boys; however, this outcome is not the case when controlling TAG or LDL-cholesterol in girls. This study may provide clues to explore the underlying mechanism of the association between obesity and hypertension. PMID:27169905

  5. BMI, all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Chinese Singaporean men and women: the Singapore Chinese health study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew O Odegaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The optimal range of relative weight for morbidity and mortality in Asian populations is an important question in need of more thorough investigation, especially as obesity rates increase. We aimed to examine the association between body mass index (BMI, all cause and cause-specific mortality to determine the optimal range of BMI in relation to mortality in Chinese men and women in Singapore. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data from a prospective cohort study of 51,251 middle-aged or older (45-74 Chinese men and women in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Participants were enrolled and data on body weight and covariates were collected in 1993-1998 and participants were followed through 2008. The analysis accounted for potential methodological issues through stratification on smoking and age, thorough adjustment of demographic and lifestyle confounders and exclusion of deaths early in the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increased risk of mortality was apparent in underweight (<18.5 and obese BMI categories (≥27.5 independent of age and smoking. Regardless of age or BMI, smoking considerably increased the rate of mortality and modified the association between BMI and mortality. The most favorable range of BMI for mortality rates and risk in non-smoking persons below age 65 was 18.5-21.4 kg/m(2, and for non-smoking persons aged 65 and above was 21.5-24.4 kg/m(2.

  6. BMI differences in 1st and 2nd generation immigrants of Asian and European origin to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Katharina; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Morgan, Lawrie

    2011-01-01

    We estimate assimilation of immigrants' body mass index (BMI) to the host population of Australia over one generation, conducting separate analyses for immigrants from 7 regions of Europe and Asia. We use quantile regressions to allow for differing impact of generational status across 19 quantiles of BMI from under-weight to morbidly obese individuals. We find that 1st generation South European immigrants have higher, and South and East Asian immigrants have lower BMI than Australians, but have assimilated to the BMI of their hosts in the 2nd generation. There are no or only small BMI differences between Australians and 1st and 2nd generation immigrants from East Europe, North-West Europe, Middle East and Pacific regions. We conclude that both upward and downward assimilation in some immigrant groups is most likely caused by factors which can change over one generation (such as acculturation), and not factors which would take longer to change (such as genetics). Our results suggest that public health policies targeting the lifestyles of well educated Asian immigrants may be effective in preventing BMI increase in this subgroup. PMID:20869292

  7. Research reactors - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. ETHNICITY AND INCOME IMPACT ON BMI AND STATURE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN LIVING IN URBAN SOUTHERN MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Nina; Barrera-Pérez, The Late Mario; Palma-Solis, Marco; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Dickinson, Federico; Azcorra, Hugo; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Obesity affects quality of life and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Mexico, a middle-income country, has a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban children. Merida is the most populated and growing city in southern Mexico with a mixed Mayan and non-Maya population. Local urbanization and access to industrialized foods have impacted the eating habits and physical activity of children, increasing the risk of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to contribute to the existing literature on the global prevalence of overweight and obesity and examined the association of parental income, ethnicity and nutritional status with body mass index (BMI) and height in primary school children in Merida. The heights and weights of 3243 children aged 6-12 from sixteen randomly selected schools in the city were collected between April and December 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the prevalence of BMI and height categories (based on WHO reference values) by ethnicity and income levels. Of the total students, 1648 (50.9%) were overweight or obese. Stunting was found in 227 children (7%), while 755 (23.3%) were defined as having short stature. Combined stunting and overweight/obesity was found in 301 students (9.3%) and twelve (0.4%) were classified as stunted and of low weight. Having two Mayan surnames was inversely associated with having adequate height (OR=0.69, pMexican families of all ethnic groups, particularly those of lower income. PMID:26041567

  9. Weight status of adolescents in secondary schools in port Harcourt using Body Mass Index (BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesina Adesuwa F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent weight status is a cumulative effect of health and nutritional problems. Adolescent weight problems often go unnoticed as weight assessment is not considered a priority in adolescents. Objectives To determine the weight status of adolescents using BMI and to identify the contributing factors to adolescent weight problems. Methods In April 2010, 960 adolescents aged 10–19 years in secondary schools in Port Harcourt were selected for the study using a stratified multi-staged sampling method. Structured questionnaires were filled by the investigators while weight and height were measured. BMI was calculated using the formula weight/height2 (kg/m2. Results The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and stunting were 6.4%, 6.3%, 1.8% and 5.4% respectively. Factors which were commoner in overweight adolescents were high socioeconomic class, higher maternal education, spending > 3 hours a day watching television and frequent ingestion of snacks. Conclusion There is a need for periodic weight assessment of adolescents and health education to promote healthy eating habits and regular physical exercise as part of the School Health Programme.

  10. Reactor utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1962, the RA reactor was operated almost three times more than in 1961, producing total of 25 555 MWh. Diagram containing comparative data about reactor operation for 1960, 1961, and 1962, percent of fuel used and U-235 burnup shows increase in reactor operation. Number of samples irradiated was 659, number of experiments done was 16. mean powered level was 5.93 MW. Fuel was added into the core twice during the reporting year. In fact the core was increased from 56 to 68 fuel channels and later to 84 fuel channels. Fuel was added to the core when the reactivity worth decreased to the minimum operation level due to burnup. In addition to this 5 central fuel channels were exchanged with fresh fuel in february for the purpose of irradiation in the VISA-2 channel

  11. Reactor Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, T; Lasserre, Thierry; Sobel, Henry W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrino oscillation physics in the last years. It is now widely accepted that a new middle baseline disappearance reactor neutrino experiment with multiple detectors could provide a clean measurement of the last undetermined neutrino mixing angle theta13. We conclude by opening on possible use of neutrinos for Society: NonProliferation of Nuclear materials and Geophysics.

  12. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor has a large prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. A reactor core assembly of a plurality of fluid-tight fuel elements is located within a water-filled tank. Each fuel element contains a solid homogeneous mixture of 50-79 w/o zirconium hydride, 20-50 w/o uranium and 0.5-1.5 W erbium. The uranium is not more than 20 percent enriched, and the ratio of hydrogen atoms to zirconium atoms is between 1.5:1 and 7:1. The core has a long lifetime, E.G., at least about 1200 days

  13. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a liquid cooled nuclear reactor, the combination is described for a single-walled vessel containing liquid coolant in which the reactor core is submerged, and a containment structure, primarily of material for shielding against radioactivity, surrounding at least the liquid-containing part of the vessel with clearance therebetween and having that surface thereof which faces the vessel make compatible with the liquid, thereby providing a leak jacket for the vessel. The structure is preferably a metal-lined concrete vault, and cooling means are provided for protecting the concrete against reaching a temperature at which damage would occur. (U.S.)

  14. Bmi-1 expression predicts prognosis in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma and correlates with epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chun; Li, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Chuan-Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is known for its high propensity to invade and metastasize. Bmi-1 acts as an oncogene by controlling cell cycle and self-renewal of adult stem cells, and its overexpression correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis in several cancers. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a central role in cancer metastasis. A key step in EMT is the down-regulation of E-cadherin that can be repressed by the transcriptional factors, such as Snail and Slug. In the present study, we investigated Bmi-1, Snail, Slug, and E-cadherin expression by immunohistochemistry in 102 patients with AdCC and analyzed statistically whether their expression correlated with clinicopathologic factors and prognosis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was also performed in 22 tumor tissues and the adjacent noncancerous tissues to confirm Bmi-1 status in AdCCs. Our data demonstrated significant associations between the tumor metastasis and the expression of Bmi-1, Snail, Slug, and E-cadherin. Furthermore, a high level of Bmi-1 was not only correlated with the overexpression of Snail and Slug but also indicated an unfavorable metastasis-free survival and served as a high-risk marker for AdCC. In addition, Bmi-1 messenger RNA level was found much higher in AdCC tissues than in the adjacent noncancerous salivary gland tissues. Our results suggest that Bmi-1 may play a crucial role in AdCC progression by interaction with EMT-related markers and predict poor survival. PMID:27180058

  15. HEIGHT, WEIGHT, BMI, FBS, PPBS, CORRELATED WITH NERVE CONDUCTION VELOCITY IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athikari ChandraSekhar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To look for changes in nerve conduction velocity (NCV in newly diagnosed type II diabetic subjects. To compare the nerve conduction velocity studies of both sensory and motor nerves in upper and lower limb are correlated with height, weight, BMI, fasting and PPBS. Materials and Methods: The study comprises of 40 subjects, 25 subjects were male and 15 subjects were female aged between 38-62 years. All the patents are on oral hypoglycaemic agents. Random sampling techniques were applied for the criteria of sample selection. Results: The mean MCV was significantly lower in type II diabetics common peroneal nerve (38.37±9.43 m/s and posterior tibial nerve (9.78±9.39 m/s. The mean SNC in the type II diabetes median nerve 43.25±11.64, ulnar nerve 43.62±15.77 m/sec sural nerve 38.27±14.32 m/sec and posterior tibial nerve 33.51±20.39. The height mean 163.53±7.23 cm, weight mean 66.98±8.70 kg, BMI 25.10±3.29, FBS mean 158.70±56.58 mg/dl and PPBS mean 223.68±67.95 mg/dl. Abnormal MCV, SCV was found to be associated with FBS and PPBS. Conclusion: Hyperglycaemia is a well established risk factor in type 2 diabetic subjects. Other parameters correlated with Height, Weight, BMI, FBS, PPBS increases most recognized neurological complications. Predominately sensorimotor distal polyneuropathy is the most common of the diabetic neuropathy. Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy. In our study conducted the changes of diabetic neuropathy affected sensorimotor nerves in both limbs. Nerve conduction studies not only used to diagnose the DM but also monitor the effects of treatment of DM by regular NCS good glycemic control, symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can be reversed and further complication like foot ulceration.

  16. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an improved reactor core for a high conversion BWR reactor, Pu-breeding type BWR type reactor, Pu-breeding type BWR type rector, FEBR type reactor, etc., two types of fuel assemblies are loaded such that fuel assemblies using a channel box of a smaller irradiation deformation ratio are loaded in a high conversion region, while other fuel assemblies are loaded in a burner region. This enables to suppress the irradiation deformation within an allowable limit in the high conversion region where the fast neutron flux is high and the load weight from the inside of the channel box due to the pressure loss is large. At the same time, the irradiation deformation can be restricted within an allowable limit without deteriorating the neutron economy in the burner region in which fast neutron flux is low and the load weight from the inside of the channel box is small since a channel box with smaller neutron absorption cross section or reduced wall thickness is charged. As a result, it is possible to prevent structural deformations such as swelling of the channel box, bending of the entire assemblies, bending of fuel rods, etc. (K.M.)

  17. Yin Yang 1 is associated with cancer stem cell transcription factors (SOX2, OCT4, BMI1) and clinical implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufhold, Samantha; Garbán, Hermes; Bonavida, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is frequently overexpressed in cancerous tissues compared to normal tissues and has regulatory roles in cell proliferation, cell viability, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, metastasis and drug/immune resistance. YY1 shares many properties with cancer stem cells (CSCs) that drive tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance and are regulated by overexpression of certain transcription factors, including SOX2, OCT4 (POU5F1), BMI1 and NANOG. Based on these similarities, it was expected that YY1 expression would be associated with SOX2, OCT4, BMI1, and NANOG's expressions and activities. Data mining from the proteomic tissue-based datasets from the Human Protein Atlas were used for protein expression patterns of YY1 and the four CSC markers in 17 types of cancer, including both solid and hematological malignancies. A close association was revealed between the frequency of expressions of YY1 and SOX2 as well as SOX2 and OCT4 in all cancers analyzed. Two types of dynamics were identified based on the nature of their association, namely, inverse or direct, between YY1 and SOX2. These two dynamics define distinctive patterns of BMI1 and OCT4 expressions. The relationship between YY1 and SOX2 expressions as well as the expressions of BMI1 and OCT4 resulted in the classification of four groups of cancers with distinct molecular signatures: 1) Prostate, lung, cervical, endometrial, ovarian and glioma cancers (YY1(lo)SOX2(hi)BMI1(hi)OCT4(hi)) 2) Skin, testis and breast cancers (YY1(hi)SOX2(lo)BMI1(hi)OCT4(hi)) 3) Liver, stomach, renal, pancreatic and urothelial cancers (YY1(lo)SOX2(lo)BMI1(hi)OCT4(hi)) and 4) Colorectal cancer, lymphoma and melanoma (YY1(hi)SOX2(hi)BMI1(lo)OCT4(hi)). A regulatory loop is proposed consisting of the cross-talk between the NF-kB/PI3K/AKT pathways and the downstream inter-regulation of target gene products YY1, OCT4, SOX2 and BMI1. PMID:27225481

  18. Eating attitudes and weight concern among Chinese middle-age women: A comparison between different age and BMI groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoli Tao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Few studies have been conducted to explore eating behavior and weight concern among middle-aged women. Methods: Participants were a sample of 236 Chinese women aged 30-52. Outcome measures were various symptoms related to eating disorders, the weight concern and psychological characteristics subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 questionnaire (EDI-2. Independent variables were age, education level and BMI. ANOVA-Test and Linear Regression were performed. Results: A group of women (N = 132, 78% with normal weight (19 < BMI < 24 showed dissatisfaction with their weight and wanted to reduce it. Overweight and obese women scored significantly higher on the subscale Body Dissatisfaction on the EDI-2 than women with lower BMI. In comparison to the older group (50-59, the younger group (30-39 and middle-aged group (40-49 expressed the desire to lose weight with a lower BMI. Conclusions: In comparison to age, the BMI had a stronger impact on the psychological and behavioral traits related to the eating disorders among a group of middle-aged Chinese women.

  19. A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BMI AND BLOOD PRESSURE AMONG FIRST YEAR MBBS STUDENTS OF MYSORE MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohith Rao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS & OBJECTIVE: To evaluate relationship between BMI and Blood Pressure among 1ST Year M.B.B . S . students of Mysore medical college. METHODOLOGY: A total of 126 students, 79 males and 47 females participated in the study conducted between June and July 2014 at Mysore Medical College . All students were divided into underweight, normal, over weight according to Western Pacific Regional Or ganization 2000 (WPRO BMI classification. Hypertension was determined from the measurement of Blood pressure (BP. Comparison of blood pressure among different groups was made by ANOVA. RESULTS: Their mean age was calculated to be 18.6 years. Among studen ts 23.8% were overweight and 22.2% were underweight while rest had normal BMI.A consistent increase was seen in the prevalence of hypertension in Underweight, Normal, Overweight Mean values of systolic BP (110.9, 114.3, 124.0 mmHg and diastolic BP (76.2, 74.0, 78.4 mmhg also increased with increasing BMI. CONCLUSION: The present study tested the hypothesis that there is a significant correlation between BMI with SBP , MBP & RRP

  20. BMI1 is recruited to DNA breaks and contributes to DNA damage-induced H2A ubiquitination and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjala, Vasudeva; Nacerddine, Karim; Kulkarni, Atul; Oza, Jay; Hill, Sarah J; Yao, Ming; Citterio, Elisabetta; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Ganesan, Shridar

    2011-05-01

    DNA damage activates signaling pathways that lead to modification of local chromatin and recruitment of DNA repair proteins. Multiple DNA repair proteins having ubiquitin ligase activity are recruited to sites of DNA damage, where they ubiquitinate histones and other substrates. This DNA damage-induced histone ubiquitination is thought to play a critical role in mediating the DNA damage response. We now report that the polycomb protein BMI1 is rapidly recruited to sites of DNA damage, where it persists for more than 8 h. The sustained localization of BMI1 to damage sites is dependent on intact ATM and ATR and requires H2AX phosphorylation and recruitment of RNF8. BMI1 is required for DNA damage-induced ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119. Loss of BMI1 leads to impaired repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination and the accumulation of cells in G(2)/M. These data support a crucial role for BMI1 in the cellular response to DNA damage. PMID:21383063

  1. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children’s BMI at 7 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Schou Andersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children’s body mass index (BMI and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children’s weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children’s BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children’s BMI or risk of overweight.

  2. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Elementary School Students’ BMI Values Based on the System Dynamics Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Syung Lan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students’ BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student’s personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students’ peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students’ amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students’ high-calorie diets.

  3. Preschool Participation and BMI at Kindergarten Entry: The Case for Early Behavioral Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. McGrady

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preschool years (ages 3–5 are a critical period in growth and development. Emerging studies suggest that preschool attendance may be linked to future weight, and perhaps obesity. This study examined relationships between public preschool attendance, demographic variables, and weight at kindergarten entry. Participants included 2,400 children entering kindergarten in 2006. Height and weight were used to calculate a child's BMI category based on CDC norms. At kindergarten entry, 17% of participants were overweight, and 18% were obese. Children attending a public preschool were at an increased risk for overweight (OR=1.06 and obesity (OR=1.34 at kindergarten entry, χ2(2=6.81, P=.03 relative to children who did not attend preschool. No significant trends relationships between demographics and weight status were found, but demographic variables are summarized descriptively. Policy and clinical implications are provided.

  4. Depression and BMI influences the serum vascular endothelial growth factor level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Foldager, Leslie;

    2014-01-01

    measured in serum by immunoassay and independent determinants of the serum VEGF level were assessed by generalized linear models.The main findings were that depression, severity of depression, previous depressive episodes, age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher serum VEGF levels. The......Recent studies suggest that the angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. However, only a few studies have investigated serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression, or the possible association between genetic variants within...... the VEGF gene and depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences between serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression vs. control individuals, and associations between genetic markers located within VEGF and depression. In addition, determinants of the serum VEGF...

  5. An investigation of factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values based on the system dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian-Syung; Chen, Kai-Ling; Chen, Pin-Chang; Ku, Chao-Tai; Chiu, Pei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student's personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students' peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students' amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students' high-calorie diets. PMID:24701250

  6. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrenˋs BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanette Erkelenz, Susanne Kobel, Sarah Kettner, Clemens Drenowatz, Jürgen M. Steinacker and the Research Group "Join the Healthy Boat - Primary School"

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children’s MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children’s PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively. There was no association between parental and children’s PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively. Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children.

  7. Association of single nucleotide polymorphism Rs2236518 in PRDM16 gene with BMI in Chinese males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua YUE; Jin-wei HE; Yao-hua KE; Hao ZHANG; Chun WANG; Wei-wei HU; Jie-mei GU

    2013-01-01

    PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing protein-16 (PRDM16) is a cell-autonomous transcriptional component that stimulates the development of brown fat cells.The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of genetic variants of PRDM16 to obesity-related phenotype variations in Chinese.Methods:A total of 3204 subjects (consisting of 400 male-offspring nuclear families,401 female-offspring nuclear families,and 729 unrelated older males) were recruited.Ten tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the PRDM16 gene were genotyped using multiplex quantitative real-time PCR by Taqman assay.Body compositions were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).The associations of the SNPs with the obesity-related phenotypes were analyzed using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT),GLM-ANOVA and PLINK statistical methods.Results:Rs2236518 was the only SNP that was associated with BMI in young (aged 20-40 years) males (P=0.011) using QTDT,and in the older men (aged 50-80 years) (P=0.03) using GLM-ANOVA.No significant associations were detected in the females.Nor was a relationship found between any haplotype and obesity-related phenotypes.When PLINK was used,no significant relationship was detected between 10 SNPs and obesity-related phenotypes in any of the studied cohorts.Conclusion:Rs2236518 is associated with BMI in the young males (using QTDT),and the older males (using GLM-ANOVA).However,the result is not confirmed using PLINK.The discrepancy needs to be further addressed.

  8. Correlation Studies with BMI and Physical Fitness of College Students in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古大学生 BMI 指数与身体素质的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑娟; 李刚; 德力格尔; 任洪波

    2015-01-01

    To analyses the correlation in BMI and physical fitness of college student.By using the data was from “2014 national student physique and health survey projects”in the Inner Mongolia.The grip strength、50 m run、standing long jump、pull-ups (sit-ups)、800 m (1000 m)run and sit-and-reach was selected.According to BMI,all subjects was classified as obese and overweight,normal,partial thin four types,and the physical fitness of different types was tested.Correlation coefficient among the BMI and physical fitness was range form -0.282 to 0.254.The 50 m run、standing long jump、pull-ups(sit-ups)and 800 m(1000 m)run of normal and partial thin types was higher than obese and overweight.And the greater BMI,the more grip strength.No obvious differences in the sit-and-reach.%根据《2014年全国学生体质与健康调研》内蒙古自治区数据库的高校数据资料,选取握力、50 m 跑、立定跳远、引体向上(仰卧起坐)、800 m 跑(1000 m 跑)和坐位体前屈等指标,研究内蒙古蒙汉族大学生 BMI 指数与身体素质的相关性.将研究对象按照 BMI 指数分为肥胖、超重、正常、偏瘦4种类型,检验不同类型之间身体素质的差异性.结果显示,蒙古族和汉族大学生 BMI 指数与身体素质项目之间存在不同程度的相关性(相关系数-0.282~0.254);体重正常和偏瘦型学生的50 m 跑、立定跳远、引体向上/仰卧起坐、800 m/1000 m 跑等项目的成绩明显高于肥胖和超重型;BMI 指数越大握力成绩越好;坐位体前屈未见明显差异.

  9. Mental disorders in motherhood according to prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy-related weight changes-A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown an association between prepregnancy BMI and postpartum depression, but little is known about this association beyond one year postpartum and the influence of postpartum weight retention (PPWR). METHODS: We used data from 70355 mothers from the Danish Nation...... behind the associations are largely unknown. CONCLUSIONS: Low prepregnancy body weight and postpartum weight gain or loss are associated with occurrence of depression and anxiety disorders.......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown an association between prepregnancy BMI and postpartum depression, but little is known about this association beyond one year postpartum and the influence of postpartum weight retention (PPWR). METHODS: We used data from 70355 mothers from the Danish National...... Birth Cohort to estimate the associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and PPWR, respectively, and incident depression/anxiety disorders until six years postpartum. Outcome was depression or anxiety diagnosed clinically or filling a prescription for an antidepressant. Cox regression was used to...

  10. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor container has a suppression chamber partitioned by concrete side walls, a reactor pedestal and a diaphragm floor. A plurality of partitioning walls are disposed in circumferential direction each at an interval inside the suppression chamber, so that independent chambers in a state being divided into plurality are formed inside the suppression chamber. The partition walls are formed from the bottom portion of the suppression chamber up to the diaphragm floor to isolate pool water in a divided state. Operation platforms are formed above the suppression chamber and connected to an access port. Upon conducting maintenance, inspection or repairing, a pump is disposed in the independent chamber to transfer pool water therein to one or a plurality of other independent chambers to make it vacant. (I.N.)

  11. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a structure of ABWR-type reactor buildings, which can increase the capacity of a spent fuel storage area at a low cost and improved earthquake proofness. In the reactor building, the floor of a spent fuel pool is made flat, and a depth of the pool water satisfying requirement for shielding is ensured. In addition, a depth of pool water is also maintained for a equipment provisionally storing pool for storing spent fuels, and a capacity for a spent fuel storage area is increased by utilizing surplus space of the equipment provisionally storing pool. Since the flattened floor of the spent fuel pool is flushed with the floor of the equipment provisionally storing pool, transfer of horizontal loads applied to the building upon occurrence of earthquakes is made smooth, to improve earthquake proofness of the building. (T.M.)

  12. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor cooled by a freezable liquid has a vessel for containing said liquid and comprising a structure shaped as a container, and cooling means in the region of the surface of said structure for effecting freezing of said liquid coolant at and for a finite distance from said surface for providing a layer of frozen coolant on and supported by said surface for containing said liquid coolant. In a specific example, where the reactor is sodium-cooled, the said structure is a metal-lined concrete vault, cooling is effected by closed cooling loops containing NaK, the loops extending over the lined surface of the concrete vault with outward and reverse pipe runs of each loop separated by thermal insulation, and air is flowed through cooling pipes embedded in the concrete behind the metal lining. 7 claims, 3 figures

  13. Expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in oral potentially malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early diagnosis is vital for effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The optimal time for clinical intervention is prior to malignancy when patients present with oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia or erythroplakia. Transformation rates for oral dysplasia vary greatly and more rigorous methods are needed to predict the malignant potential of oral lesions. We hypothesized that the expression of two putative stem cell markers, ABCG2 and Bmi-1, would correlate with disease severity for non diseased, potentially malignant and OSCC specimens and cell lines derived from an equivalent range of tissues. We compared immunoreactive protein and relative gene expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in eight cell lines derived from source tissues ranging in disease severity from normal (OKF6-TERT2) through mild and moderate/severe dysplasia (DOK, POE-9n) to OSCC (PE/CA-PJ15, SCC04, SCC25, SCC09, SCC15). We also analyzed immunoreactive protein expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in 189 tissue samples with the same range of disease severity. A trend between oral lesion severity to ABCG2 and Bmi-1 immunostain intensity was observed. Flow cytometry of oral cell lines confirmed this trend and gave good correlation with RT-PCR results for ABCG2 (r = 0.919, P = 0.001; Pearson) but not Bmi-1 (r = −0.311). The results provide evidence of increased density of ABCG2 and Bmi-1-positive populations in malignant and oral potentially malignant lesions and derived cell lines, but that intragroup variability within IHC, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR results compromise the diagnostic potential of these techniques for discriminating oral dysplasia from normal tissue or OSCC

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.B.

    1960-01-01

    A reactor is described which comprises a tank, a plurality of coaxial steel sleeves in the tank, a mass of water in the tank, and wire grids in abutting relationship within a plurality of elongated parallel channels within the steel sleeves, the wire being provided with a plurality of bends in the same plane forming adjacent parallel sections between bends, and the sections of adjacent grids being normally disposed relative to each other.

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactor has got fuel subassemblies which are bundled and enclosed by a common can. In order to reduce bending of the sides of the can because of the load caused by the coolant pressure the can has got a dodecagon-shaped crosssection. The surfaces of the can may be of equal width. One out of two surfaces may also be convex towards the center. (RW)

  16. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detector having high sensitivity to fast neutrons and having low sensitivity to thermal neutrons is disposed for reducing influences of neutron detector signals on detection values of neutron fluxes when the upper end of control rod pass in the vicinity of the neutron flux detector. Namely, the change of the neutron fluxes is greater in the thermal neutron energy region while it is smaller in the fast neutron energy region. This is because the neutron absorbing cross section of B-10 used as neutron absorbers of control rods is greater in the thermal neutron region and it is smaller in the fast neutron region. As a result, increase of the neutron detection signals along with the local neutron flux change can be reduced, and detection signals corresponding to the reactor power can be obtained. Even when gang withdrawal of operating a plurality of control rods at the same time is performed, the reactor operation cycle can be measured accurately, thereby enabling to shorten the reactor startup time. (N.H.)

  17. The Relationship between BMI and DMFT/dmft among 7-11 Year-old Children in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Bahrololoomi

    2014-02-01

    Results: Mean of DMFT/dmft was 5.09 ± 1.95. Eighteen percent of children were at risk of overweight or were overweight. Children at risk of overweight and overweight children had a higher frequency of DMFT/dmft≥ 5P<0.001. Consumption of snacks and frequency of toothbrushing had a significant effect on this Index. Conclusion: This study showed a positive relationship between BMI and dental caries score, so that children with higher BMI had a higher DMFT/dmft. In Further research, this relationship should be investigated by longitudinal studies

  18. APPLICATION OF THE MOMENT METHODS TO ANALYSIS OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION LINE PROFILE FOR PA1010-BMI SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongfang; YU Li; ZHANG Lihua; MO Zhishen; MU Zhongchen

    1995-01-01

    Pure X-ray diffraction profiles have been analysed for polyamide 1010 and PA1010-BMI system by means of multipeak fitting resolution of X-ray diffraction. The methods of variance and fourth moment have been applied to determine the particle size and strain values for the paracrystalline materials. The results indicated that both variance and fourth moment of X-ray diffraction line profile yielded approximately the same values of the particle size and the strain. The particle sizes of (100) reflection have been found to decrease with increasing BMI content, whereas the strain values increased.

  19. Associations between parental BMI, socioeconomic factors, family structure and overweight in Finnish children: a path model approach

    OpenAIRE

    Parikka, Suvi; Mäki, Päivi; Levälahti, Esko; Lehtinen-Jacks, Susanna; Martelin, Tuija; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the less studied interrelationships and pathways between parental BMI, socioeconomic factors, family structure and childhood overweight. Methods The cross-sectional LATE-study was carried out in Finland in 2007–2009. The data for the analyses was classified into four categories: younger boys and girls (ca 3–8 years) (n = 2573) and older boys and girls (ca 11–16 years) (n = 1836). Associations between parental BMI, education, labor market status, ...

  20. Principal design criteria of nuclear power plants. The norm CNEN-NE-1.04 and general design criteria from US NRC, BMI and IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Rabello, Sidney Luiz [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: bayout@cnen.gov.br; sidney@cnen.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The norm CNEN-NE-1.04 'Licensing of Nuclear Facilities' establishes that an applicant of a Construction License of a nuclear power plant should present, among other information, the design bases and the demonstration that these design bases are in accordance with the Principal Design Criteria, as described in the Preliminary Report of Safety Analysis (PSAR). The definition of Principal Design Criteria is related to design requirements for the manufacturing, construction, test and performance of structures, systems and components that are important for the safety. These requirements will guarantee that the plant can operate without undue risk to the workers, public and environment. On the other hand, General Design Criteria establish the minimum requirements, with the same objective of the Principal Design Criteria, applicable to a specific plant type, for instance, a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In this article, the authors discuss the Brazilian experience of licensing in which three groups of General Design Criteria from different origins were used: the North American (US NRC), the German (BMI) and the international (IAEA). They also present a comparative study, showing the implication of their differences in the design bases, as well as the impact in the nuclear safety. (author)

  1. Principal design criteria of nuclear power plants. The norm CNEN-NE-1.04 and general design criteria from US NRC, BMI and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The norm CNEN-NE-1.04 'Licensing of Nuclear Facilities' establishes that an applicant of a Construction License of a nuclear power plant should present, among other information, the design bases and the demonstration that these design bases are in accordance with the Principal Design Criteria, as described in the Preliminary Report of Safety Analysis (PSAR). The definition of Principal Design Criteria is related to design requirements for the manufacturing, construction, test and performance of structures, systems and components that are important for the safety. These requirements will guarantee that the plant can operate without undue risk to the workers, public and environment. On the other hand, General Design Criteria establish the minimum requirements, with the same objective of the Principal Design Criteria, applicable to a specific plant type, for instance, a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In this article, the authors discuss the Brazilian experience of licensing in which three groups of General Design Criteria from different origins were used: the North American (US NRC), the German (BMI) and the international (IAEA). They also present a comparative study, showing the implication of their differences in the design bases, as well as the impact in the nuclear safety. (author)

  2. Radionuclide release under specific accident conditions for the Zion plant - BMI-2104 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of radioactive material being released to the environment from LWRs has long been the impetus for considerable concern and research. Most reactors in the United States were designed, and their sites were chosen, on the basis of research report TID-14844. Published in 1962, TID-14844 makes certain assumptions about the release of fission products to the reactor containment area during a hypothetical severe accident. Although these assumptions are representative of the state of knowledge at the time, the behavior of fission products has become better understood in the intervening years. Accordingly, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission conducted the Reactor Safety Study to reassess the accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The report of that study, known as WASH-1400, was published in 1975 and provided a more comprehensive and physically accurate description of fission product behavior. The amount of fission product release to the environment (the source term) estimated in WASH-1400 has since been used extensively in planning and evaluating reactor operations

  3. Reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a BWR type nuclear reactor, the number of first fuel assemblies (uranium) loaded in a reactor core is smaller than that of second fuel assemblies (mixed oxide), the average burnup degree upon take-out of the first fuel assemblies is reduced to less than that of the second fuel assemblies, and the number of the kinds of the fuel rods constituting the first fuel assemblies is made smaller than that of the fuel rods constituting the second fuel assemblies. As a result, the variety of the plutonium enrichment degree is reduced to make the distribution of the axial enrichment degree uniform, thereby enabling to simplify the distribution of the enrichment degree. Then the number of molding fabrication steps for MOX fuel assemblies can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost for molding and fabrication. (N.H.)

  4. Bmi1 Drives Stem-Like Properties and is Associated with Migration, Invasion, and Poor Prognosis in Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qianting; Liu, Zhonghua; Zhao, Tingting; Zhao, Luodan; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Wang, Anxun

    2015-01-01

    Bmi1 (B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1) had been found to involve in self -renewal of stem cells and tumorigenesis in various malignancies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of Bmi1 in the development of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and its functional effect on the migration and invasion of TSCC. Initially, immunohistochemistry revealed that Bmi1 overexpression was a common event in premalignant dysplasia, primary TSCC, and lymph node met...

  5. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico IMC materno y migración como predictor de obesidad infantil de México

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jiménez-Cruz; Wojcicki, J. M.; M. Bacardí-Gascón; Castellón-Zaragoza, A.; J. L. García-Gallardo; Schwartz, N.; Heyman, M B

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI) status, children's perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile), obesity (BMI > 95% ile) and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile). Methods: Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children's and parents' weigh...

  6. Genetic influences on adult BMI followed over 29 years and their effects on late life mobility: a study of twin sisters

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kujala, Urho M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rantanen, Taina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The rise in body mass index (BMI) during adulthood increases the risk for metabolic disorders, functional limitations and disability in old age. This twin study examined prospectively whether genetic and environmental influences on women?s BMI also account for mobility 29 years later. Design: The sample consisted of 103 monozygotic and 114 dizygotic pairs of twin sisters reared together. Main outcomes measures: BMI was initially ev...

  7. BMI percentiles for the identification of abdominal obesity and metabolic risk in children and adolescents: Evidence in support of the CDC 95th percentile

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Deirdre M.; Amanda E. Staiano; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Gupta, Alok K; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives BMI percentiles have been routinely and historically used to identify elevated adiposity. This paper aimed to investigate the optimal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI) percentile that predicts elevated visceral adipose tissue (VAT), fat mass and cardiometabolic risk in a biracial sample of children and adolescents. Participants and Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 369 white and African American children (5–18 y). BMI was calculated...

  8. Childhood Maltreatment and BMI Trajectories to Mid-Adult Life: Follow-Up to Age 50y in a British Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Power; Snehal M Pinto Pereira; Leah Li

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment including abuse and neglect has been associated with adult obesity, but evidence on life-course development of obesity or BMI gain is unclear. We aim to establish whether childhood maltreatments are related to obesity or BMI at different life-stages 7y-50y and to identify possible explanations for associations. Methods Childhood physical, psychological and sexual abuse, neglect and BMI at seven ages were recorded in the 1958 birth cohort (n~15,000). Associati...

  9. Types of Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation is based on the following areas: Types of Nuclear Reactors, coolant, moderator, neutron spectrum, fuel type, pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor pressurized heavy water (PHWR), gas-cooled reactor, RBMK , Nuclear Electricity Generation,Challenges in Nuclear Technology Deployment,EPR, APR1400, A P 1000, A PWR, ATMEA 1, VVER-1000, A PWR, VVER 1200, Boiling Water Reactor, A BWR, A BWR -II, ESBUR, Ke ren, AREVA, Heavy Water Reactor, Candu 6, Acr-1000, HWR, Bw, Iris, CAREM NuCcale, Smart, KLT-HOS, Westinghouse small modular Reactor, Gas Cooled Reactors, PBMR.

  10. Associations between Family-Related Factors, Breakfast Consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-Year-Old European Children: The Cross-Sectional ENERGY-Study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lippevelde, Wendy; te Velde, Saskia J; Verloigne, Maïté; van Stralen, Maartje M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Bere, Elling; Vik, Froydis N; Jan, Nataša; Fernández Alvira, Juan M.; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kovacs, Eva; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations of family-related factors with children's breakfast consumption and BMI-z-score and to examine whether children's breakfast consumption mediates associations between family-related factors and children's BMI-z-score. Subjects: Ten-to twelve-year-old children (n = 6374; mean age = 11.6 +/- 0.7 years, 53.2% girls, mean BMI-z-score = 0.4 +/- 1.2) and one of their parents (n = 6374; mean age = 41.4 +/- 5.3 years, 82.7% female, mean BMI = 24.5 +/- 4.2 kg/...

  11. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assemblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters in the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters in the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance

  12. Different expression of EZH2, BMI1 and Ki67 in low and high grade neuroendocrine tumors of the lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondgaard, Anna-Louise Reinert Ørsum; Poulsen, Thomas Tuxen; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard;

    2012-01-01

    Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) and B lymphoma Mo-MLV Insertion region 1 polycomb ring finger (BMI1) are involved in malignant transformation of many human carcinomas. Still, in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (NELT) their expression pattern is largely unknown. This study evaluated their exp...

  13. Liver enzymes: interaction analysis of smoking with alcohol consumption or BMI, comparing AST and ALT to γ-GT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz P Breitling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A detrimental interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption with respect serum γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT has recently been described. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present work aimed to provide further insights by examining similar interactions pertaining to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT, routine liver markers less prone to enzyme induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present cross-sectional analysis was based on records from routine occupational health examinations of 15,281 male employees predominantly of the construction industry, conducted from 1986 to 1992 in Southern Germany. Associations of smoking intensity with log-transformed activities of γ-GT, AST, and ALT were examined in regression models adjusted for potential confounders and including an interaction of smoking with alcohol consumption or body mass index (BMI. Statistically significant interactions of smoking were observed with both alcohol consumption (AST and ALT, each with P<0.0001 and BMI (AST only, P<0.0001. The interactions all were in the same directions as for γ-GT, i.e. synergistic with alcohol and opposite with BMI. CONCLUSION: The patterns of interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption or BMI with respect to AST and ALT resembled those observed for γ-GT. This renders enzyme induction a less probable mechanism for these associations, whereas it might implicate exacerbated hepatocellular vulnerability and injury.

  14. Effect of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Polymorphism on Plasma Lipid Levels, BMI and Subcutaneous Fat Distribution in Simple Obesity Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Hind Ⅲ DNA polymorphis in the lipoprotein lipase ( LPL )gene on plasma lipid levels, body mass index ( BMI) and subcutaneous fat distribution in simple obesity children. Methods The LPL Hind Ⅲ genotypes were detected with the polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) and restriction fragment length polymorphism ( RFLP ) techniques in 92 children with simple obesity. The levels of the plnsma lipid, plasma lipoproteins, BMI and skinfold thickness in three regions (biceps, subscapular and abdominal uall) were also measured. Results It was shown that the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ApoB, BMI, biceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, and the average value of the skinfold thickness in three regions were significantly higher in the obese children uyith H -H- genotype than those with H-+-H- genotype. Conclusions It can be concluded that LPL-Hind Ⅲ polymorphism may modify the levels of plasma lipid, plasma lipoprotein and BMI in children with simple obesity, and meanwhile alters the distribution of subcutaneous fat.

  15. Effect of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Polymorphism on Plasma Lipid Levels, BMI and Subcutaneous Fat Distribution in Simple Obesity Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Hind Ⅲ DNA polymorphis in the lipoprotein lipase ( LPL )gene on plasma lipid levels, body mass index ( BMI) and subcutaneous fat distribution in simple obesity children. Methods The LPL Hind Ⅲ genotypes were detected with the polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) and restriction fragment length polymorphism ( RFLP ) techniques in 92 children with simple obesity. The levels of the plnsma lipid, plasma lipoproteins, BMI and skinfold thickness in three regions (biceps, subscapular and abdominal uall) were also measured. Results It was shown that the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ApoB, BMI, biceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, and the average value of the skinfold thickness in three regions were significantly higher in the obese children uyith H -H- genotype than those with H-+-H- genotype. Conclusions It can be concluded that LPL-Hind Ⅲ polymorphism may modify the levels of plasma lipid, plasma lipoprotein and BMI in children with simple obesity, and meanwhile alters the distribution of subcutaneous fat.

  16. Self-reported and measured weight, height and body mass index (BMI) in Italy, the Netherlands and North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, A.J.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Choi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Self-reported values of height and weight are used increasingly despite warnings that these data - and derived body mass index (BMI) values - might be biased. The present study investigates whether differences between self-reported and measured values are the same for populations from di

  17. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and adverse pregnancy outcomes among Chinese women: Results from the C-ABCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X-X; Xu, S-J; Hao, J-H; Huang, K; Su, P-Y; Tao, F-B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and adverse pregnancy outcomes among Chinese pregnant women. A prospective population-based cohort study was performed using data collected as part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study or C-ABCS. A total of 13,121 pregnant women who received the first prenatal visit were enrolled from November 2008 to October 2010. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy outcomes. Results indicated that the increased pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as hypertensive disorder (adjusted relative risk (ARR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-3.6), gestational diabetes (ARR 3.5, 95% CI 2.3-5.2), caesarean delivery (ARR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6-2.4), and medically indicated preterm delivery (ARR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9). Women with pre-pregnancy BMI above the normal range pose an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26492517

  18. Relations of self-regulation and self-efficacy for exercise and eating and BMI change: A field investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annesi James J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study aimed to assess relations of self-regulatory skill use with self-efficacy for exercise and appropriate eating, and the resulting change in weight associated with participation in a nutrition and exercise treatment supported by cognitive-behavioral methods. Methods Adults with severe obesity (N = 95; mean BMI = 40.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2 participated in a 6-month exercise and nutrition treatment emphasizing self-regulatory skills. Changes in self-regulatory skills usage, self-efficacy, overall mood, and BMI were measured. Relations of changes in self-regulatory skill use and self-efficacy, for both physical activity and appropriate eating, were assessed, as was the possibility of mood change being a mediator of these relationships. Indirect effects of the variables associated with the present treatment on BMI change were then estimated. Results For both exercise and appropriate eating, changes in self-regulation were associated with self-efficacy change. Mood change partially mediated the relationship between changes in self-regulation for appropriate eating and self-efficacy for appropriate eating. Self-efficacy changes for physical activity and controlled eating, together, explained a significant portion of the variance in BMI change (R2 = 0.26, p Conclusion Findings suggest that training in self-regulation for exercise and eating may benefit self-efficacy and weight-loss outcomes. Thus, these variables should be considered in both the theory and behavioral treatment of obesity.

  19. Polycystic ovary syndrome patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Mao, Yundong; Diao, Feiyang; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Biochemical or clinical changes of hyperandrogenism are important elements of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There is currently no consensus on the definition and diagnostic criteria of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. The aim of this study was to investigate the complex symptoms of hyperandrogenic disorders and the correlations between metabolism and hyperandrogenism in patients with PCOS from an outpatient reproductive medicine clinic in China. We conducted a case control study of 125 PCOS patients and 130 controls to evaluate differences in body mass index (BMI), total testosterone (TT), modified Ferriman-Gallwey hirsutism score, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and free androgen index (FAI) between PCOS patients and controls and subgroups of PCOS. The prevalence of acne and hirsutism did not differ significantly between the hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic subgroup. Patients with signs of hyperandrogenism had significantly higher BMI (P PCOS patients. Our results suggest that PCOS patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess; therefore, BMI may be a strong predictor of hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

  20. Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacquemont, S.; Reymond, A.; Zufferey, F.; Harewood, L.; Walters, R.G.; Kutalik, Z.; Martinet, D.; Shen, Y.; Valsesia, A.; Beckmann, N.D.; Thorleifsson, G.; Belfiore, M.; Bouquillon, S.; Campion, D.; Leeuw, N. de; Vries, B.B. de; Esko, T.; Fernandez, B.A.; Fernandez-Aranda, F.; Fernandez-Real, J.M.; Gratacos, M.; Guilmatre, A.; Hoyer, J.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Kooy, R.F.; Kurg, A.; Caignec, C. Le; Mannik, K.; Platt, O.S.; Sanlaville, D.; Haelst, M.M. van; Villatoro Gomez, S.; Walha, F.; Wu, B.L.; Yu, Y.; Aboura, A.; Addor, M.C.; Alembik, Y.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Arveiler, B.; Barth, M.; Bednarek, N.; Bena, F.; Bergmann, S.; Beri, M.; Bernardini, L.; Blaumeiser, B.; Bonneau, D.; Bottani, A.; Boute, O.; Brunner, H.G.; Cailley, D.; Callier, P.; Chiesa, J.; Chrast, J.; Coin, L.; Coutton, C.; Cuisset, J.M.; Cuvellier, J.C.; David, A.; Freminville, B. de; Delobel, B.; Delrue, M.A.; Demeer, B.; Descamps, D.; Didelot, G.; Dieterich, K.; Disciglio, V.; Doco-Fenzy, M.; Drunat, S.; Duban-Bedu, B.; Dubourg, C.; El-Sayed Moustafa, J.S.; Elliott, P.; Faas, B.H.W.; Faivre, L.; Faudet, A.; Fellmann, F.; Ferrarini, A.; Fisher, R.; Flori, E.; Forer, L.; Gaillard, D.; Gerard, M.; Gieger, C.; Gimelli, S.; Gimelli, G.; Grabe, H.J.; Guichet, A.; Guillin, O.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Heron, D.; Hippolyte, L.; Holder, M.; Homuth, G.; Isidor, B.; Jaillard, S.; Jaros, Z.; Jimenez-Murcia, S.; Helas, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Both obesity and being underweight have been associated with increased mortality. Underweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI)

  1. The trend of BMI values of US adults by deciles, birth cohorts 1882–1986 stratified by gender and ethnicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komlos, J.; Brabec, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2011), s. 234-250. ISSN 1570-677X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : BMI * USA * NHANES * obesity * overweight * semiparametric modeling * GAMLSS model * percentile estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.722, year: 2011

  2. Nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's presented data about nuclear research reactors in the world, retrieved from the Sien (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: research reactors by countries; research reactors by type; research reactors by fuel and research reactors by purpose. (E.G.)

  3. Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated

  4. DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL FITNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION DEPEND ON BMI IN KOREAN MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi-Young So

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the associations between cardiovascular function and both body mass index and physical fitness in Korean men. The subjects were 2,013 men, aged 20 to 83 years, who visited a health promotion center for a comprehensive medical and fitness test during 2006-2009. The WHO's Asia-Pacific Standard Report definition of BMI was used in this study. Fitness assessment of cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, power, agility, and balance were evaluated by VO2max (ml/kg/min, grip strength (kg, sit-ups (reps/min, sit and reach (cm, vertical jump (cm, side steps (reps/30s, and standing on one leg with eyes closed (sec, respectively. For cardiovascular function, we evaluated systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, resting heart rate (RHR, double product (DP, and vital capacity. There were significant decreases in cardiorespiratory endurance (p < 0.001, power (p < 0.001, and balance (p < 0.001, and increases in muscular strength (p < 0.001. Further, cardiovascular function, including SBP (p < 0.001, DBP (p < 0.001, double product (p < 0.001, and vital capacity (p=0.006 appeared to be lower for the obesity group. We conclude that an obese person exhibits lower fitness level and weaker cardiovascular function than a normal person

  5. [Relative validity of self-assessment of silhouette and BMI (body mass index)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence is unquestionable risk factor for pathogenic obesity in adulthood, high mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases and other health disorders, and also may cause the worse social and economical adaptation. Nevertheless, little is yet known about subjective perception of own body, the pathway leading to dissatisfaction of the body, development of chronic stress and behavioural disorders (anorexia, binge eating, bulimia) as a consequence. In Health Promotion Department of the National Institute of Hygiene the multidimensional investigations of adolescents' health and life style were undertaken, and analysis of association between subjective image of body and real body mass was a part of these investigations. Data were obtained from 672 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 14-15 years attending seventeen public and private schools in Warsaw. Respondents informed about their weight and high for calculation BMI. Simultaneously, they were asked, whether they assess themselves as leaner than their peers, the same or thicker. The study showed that girls in comparison with boys more accurately assessed their silhouette. The boys were more likely than girls to perceive themselves as the same as their peers, despite they had real underweight or overweight. Our findings suggest that real mass of body itself account for variance of subjective perceived body in moderate degree, and there are other factors influencing body image at least as real mass of body. PMID:14755858

  6. Overestimation of physical activity level is associated with lower BMI: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corder Kirsten

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor recognition of physical inactivity may be an important barrier to healthy behaviour change, but little is known about this phenomenon. We aimed to characterize a high-risk population according to the discrepancies between objective and self-rated physical activity (PA, defined as awareness. Methods An exploratory cross-sectional analysis of PA awareness using baseline data collected from 365 ProActive participants between 2001 and 2003 in East Anglia, England. Self-rated PA was defined as 'active' or 'inactive' (assessed via questionnaire. Objective PA was defined according to achievement of guideline activity levels (≥30 minutes or Results 63.3% of participants (N = 231 were inactive according to objective measurement. Of these, 45.9% rated themselves as active ('Overestimators'. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for age and smoking, males (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.12, 3.98, those with lower BMI (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.84, 0.95, younger age at completion of full-time education (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.93 and higher general health perception (OR = 1.02 CI = 1.00, 1.04 were more likely to overestimate their PA. Conclusions Overestimation of PA is associated with favourable indicators of relative slimness and general health. Feedback about PA levels could help reverse misperceptions.

  7. Physician Consultations According to Different BMI Levels of the Greek General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Pappa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity constitutes a global epidemic which is rapidly becoming a major public health problem in many parts of the world, threatening peoples’ health and quality of life. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence and impact of overweight and obesity on physician consultations and frequency of use and furthermore, to investigate whether physician consultations in each of the groups defined by BMI level correspond to the need for care implied by health risk level, using logistic regression models. The survey was carried out in Greece in 2006 and involved complete data from 645 individuals consulted by physicians. Overweight and obese users constituted 41.7% and 19% of the sample respectively. The findings showed firstly that the odds of obese individuals visiting a physician (OR 2.15 or making more than three visits (OR 2.12 was doubled compared to the odds of individuals with normal weight. Secondly, we conclude that physician consultations in overweight and obese subgroups as well as the frequency of visits were predicted by factors such as co-morbidities, low HRQL, low educational level which are associated directly or indirectly with obesity, and thus with a greater health need, assuming vertical equity in the utilization of such services.

  8. The differential expression pattern of the BMI-1, SALL4 and ABCA3 genes in myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Qi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods In order to characterize the expression pattern of SALL4, BMI-1 and ABCA3 genes in patients with myeloid leukemia and those who achieved complete remission (CR after chemotherapy. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression level of these genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 24 patients with AML, eight patients with AML-CR, 13 patients with CML in the chronic phase (CML-CP, 12 patients with CML in blast crisis (CML-BC, 13 patients with CML-CR and 11 healthy individuals (HI. Results Overexpression of the BMI-1 gene was found in the AML, CML-CP and CML-BC groups as compared with HI group, while the BMI-1 expression level was lower in patients who achieved CR. In contrast, significantly increased SALL4 expression was only found in AML group, additionally, SALL4 expression was lower in the CML-CP and CML-CR groups compared with the HI group, while the SALL4 expression level in the CML-BC group was higher and significantly greater than that in the CML-CP and CML-CR groups. Moreover, a positive correlation between the expression of SALL4 and BMI-1 genes was found in samples from most groups. There was no significant difference of ABCA3 expression level in AML and CML-BC group in comparison with HI group. Interestingly, the ABCA3 expression level was significantly decreased in the CML-CP, AML-CR and CML-CR in comparison with the HI group. Moreover, the ABCA3 expression level in all of the CR groups was lower than that in their corresponding groups. Conclusions These results describe the altered SALL4, ABCA3 and BMI-1 expression pattern in different phases of myeloid leukemia, which may relate to the development and progression to different diseases. SALL4 expression was strongly correlated with BMI-1 in most of the myeloid leukemia patient groups, providing a potential link between SALL4 and BMI-1 in leukemogenesis.

  9. BMI1, stem cell factor acting as novel serum-biomarker for Caucasian and African-American prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hifzur Rahman Siddique

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of reliable predictive biomarkers is a stumbling block in the management of prostate cancer (CaP. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA widely used in clinics has several caveats as a CaP biomarker. African-American CaP patients have poor prognosis than Caucasians, and notably the serum-PSA does not perform well in this group. Further, some men with low serum-PSA remain unnoticed for CaP until they develop disease. Thus, there is a need to identify a reliable diagnostic and predictive biomarker of CaP. Here, we show that BMI1 stem-cell protein is secretory and could be explored for biomarker use in CaP patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Semi-quantitative analysis of BMI1 was performed in prostatic tissues of TRAMP (autochthonous transgenic mouse model, human CaP patients, and in cell-based models representing normal and different CaP phenotypes in African-American and Caucasian men, by employing immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and Slot-blotting. Quantitative analysis of BMI1 and PSA were performed in blood and culture-media of siRNA-transfected and non-transfected cells by employing ELISA. BMI1 protein is (i secreted by CaP cells, (ii increased in the apical region of epithelial cells and stromal region in prostatic tumors, and (iii detected in human blood. BMI1 is detectable in blood of CaP patients in an order of increasing tumor stage, exhibit a positive correlation with serum-PSA and importantly is detectable in patients which exhibit low serum-PSA. The clinical significance of BMI1 as a biomarker could be ascertained from observation that CaP cells secrete this protein in higher levels than cells representative of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BMI1 could be developed as a dual bio-marker (serum and biopsy for the diagnosis and prognosis of CaP in Caucasian and African-American men. Though compelling these data warrant further investigation in a cohort of African-American patients.

  10. Healthier home food preparation methods and youth and caregiver psychosocial factors are associated with lower BMI in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca F; Coutinho, Anastasia J; Vaeth, Elisabeth; Christiansen, Karina; Suratkar, Sonali; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2012-05-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American (AA) children and adolescents and leads to an increased risk of adult chronic diseases. Eating few meals at home has been implicated as a cause of obesity among youth, but to our knowledge, previous studies have not specifically investigated this relationship in AA adolescents or looked at both the healthfulness and frequency of home meals in AA households. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between home food preparation and adolescent BMI in a sample of 240 AA adolescents aged 10-15 y and their caregivers. Multiple linear regressions were used to model psychosocial characteristics, household factors, and adolescent and caregiver food preparation behaviors as predictors of adolescent BMI, and psychosocial and household factors as predictors of food preparation behavior. Adolescents in the sample had a mean BMI-for-age percentile of 70.4, and >90% of the sample families received at least one form of food assistance. Adolescent children of caregivers who used healthier cooking methods were more likely to use healthy cooking methods themselves (P = 0.02). Having more meals prepared by a caregiver was predictive of higher BMI-for-age percentile in adolescents (P = 0.02), but healthier cooking methods used by the caregiver was associated with reduced risk of adolescent overweight or obesity (P home in AA households do not necessarily promote healthy BMI in youth. Family meals are a promising adolescent obesity prevention strategy, but it is important to target both frequency and healthfulness of meals prepared at home for effective health promotion in AA families. PMID:22457390

  11. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukri Mohammed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI and waist circumference (W_C, together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. Methods 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P ≤ 0.001. W_C and BMI was positively correlated with sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P Conclusions A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  12. Effects of zacopride and BMY25801 (batanopride) on radiation-induced emesis and locomotor behavior in the ferret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, G.L.; Landauer, M.R. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The antiemetic and locomotor effects of two substituted benzamides, zacopride and batanopride (BMY25801), were compared in ferrets after bilateral 60Co irradiation at 2, 4 or 6 Gy. Both zacopride and BMY25801 were effective against emesis and related signs. Zacopride, tested at several doses (0.003, 0.03 and 0.3 mg/kg), appeared to be more potent because it abolished emesis at 100-fold lower doses than did BMY25801 (3 mg/kg). The ED50 value for the antiemetic effect of zacopride was 0.026 mg/kg (confidence levels = 0.0095, 0.072 mg/kg). However, analysis of emetic parameters recorded from vomiting animals (e.g., latency to first emesis) demonstrated that BMY25801 provided greater antiemetic protection in this population than zacopride without any apparent side effects. Locomotor activity was significantly depressed by both radiation (all doses) and zacopride alone (0.03 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg). BMY25801 alone did not affect locomotor activity, and protected against the radiation-induced locomotor decrement. Although zacopride potentiated the locomotor decrement to radiation, no clear dose-response relationship was evident. Bilateral abdominal vagotomy significantly increased the latency to the first emetic episode and significantly reduced the number of retches, but did not alter the duration of the prodromal response to 4-Gy irradiation. Unilateral vagotomies had no effect. Zacopride (at 0.03 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg) remained an effective antiemetic in animals that received a bilateral vagotomy, abolishing emesis in four of eight and two of eight ferrets, respectively. These data suggest that the antiemetic action of zacopride does not fully depend on intact vagal innervation and also acts via other pathways.

  13. Detecting body fat-A weighty problem BMI versus subcutaneous fat patterns in athletes and non-athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Kruschitz

    Full Text Available We aimed to describe the relationship between BMI and the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography within young athletes and non-athletic controls, to comparatively evaluate the diagnostic powers of subcutaneous adipose tissue thicknesses at different body sites, furthermore to explore appropriate cut-offs to discriminate between athletes and controls. Measurements were determined in 64 males and 42 females, who were subsequently separated into two even groups (athletes and non-athletes. The optical device LIPOMETER was applied at standardised body sites to measure the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue layers. To calculate the power of the different body sites and the BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. In men, the neck (optimal cut-off value 2.3 mm and trunk (optimal cut-off value 15.5 mm provided the strongest discrimination power: with 90.6% (58 of 64 of the subjects being correctly classified into athletes or non-athletes. Discrimination power of the BMI values was 64.1% (41 of 64 were correctly classified. In women, the upper back (optimal cut-off value 3.3 mm and arms (optimal cut-off value 15.9 mm provided the strongest discrimination power with 88.1% (37 of 42 being correctly classified. When using BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes only 52.4% (22 of 42 were correctly classified. These results suggest that compared to BMI levels, subcutaneous fat patterns are a more accurate way of discriminating between athletes and non-athletes. In particular the neck and the trunk compartment in men and the upper back and arms compartment in women, were the best sites to discriminate between young athletes and non-athletes on the basis of their fat patterns.

  14. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P Results Height, weight and BMI percentiles increased with age among both boys and girls, and both had approximately the same height and a lower weight and BMI as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P Conclusion Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed from the WHO and USCDC references. However, z score means relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Overweight and obesity were significantly higher while underweight and thinness/wasting were significantly lower relative to the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference and the IOTF cut-offs. New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed. Nevertheless, shifting to use of the 2007 WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics.

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cover gas spaces for primary coolant vessel, such as a reactor container, a pump vessel and an intermediate heat exchanger vessel are in communication with each other by an inverted U-shaped pressure conduit. A transmitter and a receiver are disposed to the pressure conduit at appropriate positions. If vibration frequencies (pressure vibration) from low frequency to high frequency are generated continuously from the transmitter to the inside of the communication pipe, a resonance phenomenon (air-column resonance oscillation) is caused by the inherent frequency or the like of the communication pipe. The frequency of the air-column resonance oscillation is changed by the inner diameter and the clogged state of the pipelines. Accordingly, by detecting the change of the air-column oscillation characteristics by the receiver, the clogged state of the flow channels in the pipelines can be detected even during the reactor operation. With such procedures, steams of coolants flowing entrained by the cover gases can be prevented from condensation and coagulation at a low temperature portion of the pipelines, otherwise it would lead clogging in the pipelines. (I.N.)

  16. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  17. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  18. Glycemic index and glycemic load of thirteen year old children whose waist circumference (WC ≥ 90 percentile dependent on BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the reasons for the accumulation of fat tissue (including visceral fat tissue in the body is an unbalanced diet in respect of the amount and the structure of carbohydrates and the value of the glycemic index (GI and the glycemic load (GL. The research describing the dependence between the BMI (Body Mass Index, WC (Waist Circumference, WHtR (Waist-to-Height Ratio, and GI and GL indexes in adults exists but only a limited number of works discuss children during the pubertal spurt. Therefore the objective of this research is the evaluation of the state of nutrition of 13-year-old children with waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile with various BMI, taking into consideration GL and GL of their meals. Material and methods.The state of nutrition (BMI, WC, WHtR of 871 thirteen-year-old children of both sexes was evaluated and 230 children with WC ≥ 90 percentile were selected (26.4% of the total number examined and divided into three groups regarding the BMI. In 71 children (30.9% of the selected group the method of nutrition, energy and nutritive value of menus, structure of consumption of food groups and GI and GL value were evaluated, on the basis of the analysis of their three day menus, which had been documented. Results.Significantly higher values of BMI and WC were ascertained in boys than in girls. No essential differences in values of WHtR index were ascertained between boys and girls. The analysis of children’s menus, in both sexes with a waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile showed, regardless of BMI value, a low realisation of recommended energetic value of the diet and low realisation of recommended supply of: dietary fibre, fat, mineral components (K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, vitamins (E, B1, PP and liquids with simultaneous occurrence of protein in general and animal protein, sodium and vitamins (A, B2, B6 supply. A significantly higher supply of the most of aforementioned ingredients was ascertained in the

  19. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent shocks exerted on a vent head due to pool-swell caused within a pressure suppression chamber (disposed in a torus configuration around the dry well) upon loss of coolant accident in BWR type reactors. Constitution: The following relationship is established between the volume V (m3) of a dry well and the ruptured opening area A (m2) at the boundary expected upon loss of coolant accident: V >= 30340 (m) x A Then, the volume of the dry well is made larger than the ruptured open area, that is, the steam flow rate of leaking coolants upon loss of coolant accident to decrease the pressure rise in the dry well at the initial state where loss of coolant accident is resulted. Accordingly, the pressure of non-compressive gases jetted out from the lower end of the downcomer to the pool water is decreased to suppress the pool-swell. (Ikeda, J.)

  20. Association Analysis of the Leptin and Ghrelin Receptor Gene Polymorphism in the Human with BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Lieskovská

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was identification of Leptin and Ghrelin receptor gene polymorphism in the population. Leptin is a product of obese (ob gene expression that plays a role in energy metabolism and body weight. The human leptin gene is located in the 17 chromosome. The restriction site is located at the position 2549 bp (C→A. Ghrelin, a peptide hormone predominantly produced by the stomach, was isolated as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of growth hormone (GH secretion and is the only circulatory hormone known to potently enhance feeding and weight gain and to regulate energy homeostasis following central and systemic administration. Therapeutic intervention with ghrelin in catabolic situations may induce a combination of enhanced food intake, increased gastric emptying and nutrient storage, coupled with an increase in GH thereby linking nutrient partitioning with growth and repair processes. The present study included 35 human samples. The average value of BMI was estimate on 24.45. The size of amplified PCR product is 242bp. Subsequently we used the specific restriction enzyme HhaI and length of fragments is 181+61 bp in the homozygote CC, 242+181+61 bp in the heterozygote AC and 242 bp in the homozygote AA. The restriction site is located at the position 171T/C. Examination of the polymorphism of the GHSR gene was accomplished used PCR-RFLP method. We used amplified the 593 bp product, which was subsequently digested with restriction enzyme LweI and length of fragmetnts is 593 bp in the homozygote TT, 593+567+26 bp in the heterozygote TC and 593+26 bp in the homozygote CC. We assume that this mutation has connection with human obesity level.

  1. Utilization of Different Bmy1 Intron III Alleles for Predicting ß-Amylase Activity and Thermostability in Wild and Cultivated Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymorphisms in intron III of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific beta-amylase (Bmy1) have been associated with beta-amylase activity and thermostability and are thought to have potential as a selective marker for breeding elite malting cultivars. The third intron of Bmy1 was sequenced ...

  2. Interviewer BMI effects on under- and over-reporting of restrained eating: Evidence from a national Dutch face-to-face survey and a postal follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinga, R.N.; Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Larsen, J.K.; Pelzer, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of interviewer BMI on self-reported restrained eating in a face-to-face survey and to examine under- and over-reporting using the face-to face study and a postal follow-up. Methods A sample of 1,212 Dutch adults was assigned to 98 interviewers with different BMI wh

  3. Waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and BMI as indicators of percentage fat mass and cardiometabolic risk factors in children aged 3-7 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Bocca, Gianni; L'abée, Carianne; Liem, Eryn T; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) is a better estimate of body fat percentage (BF %) and a better indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI or waist circumference (WC) in young children. Methods: WHtR, WC and BMI were measured by trained staff according to standardiz

  4. Application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN in Estimation of Body Mass Index (BMI Based on the Connection Between Environmental Factors and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hosein Hoseini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of people in modern societies is increasing the Body Mass Index (BMI level. BMI, in fact, can be considered as an indicator of overall health condition. Genetic aspects aside, the BMI level is affected by different factors, such as socio-economic, environmental, and physical activity level. This study investigated the effect of different factors on the BMI level of a sample population of 470 adults of three residential neighbourhoods in Shiraz, Iran. The Pearson correlation test, independent sample Ttest and One Way ANOVA were used to extract the variables which significantly influenced the BMI. The statistical analysis showed that despite the apparent association of BMI with physical activity level, it is influenced by several factors such as age, residence record, number of children, distance to bus or taxi stop, indoor or sport exercise. Then, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN was applied to predict the level of personal BMI. The results of this analysis showed that the generalized estimating ANN model was satisfactory in estimating the BMI based on the introduced pattern.

  5. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M. E.; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M.; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocke, Marga C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L.; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H.; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomar

  6. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI) Categories Based on Asian and Universal Standards and Language Spoken at Home among Asian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tiffany; McMahan, Shari; Mouttapa, Michele; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Beam, William

    2009-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization released lower Body Mass Index (BMI) cutoff points for Asian individuals to account for increased body fat percentage (BF%) and risk of obesity-related conditions at a lower body mass index. Purpose: This preliminary study: (1) explores the impact of utilizing Asian BMI standards (compared to universal…

  7. Adaptation to Elastic Loads and BMI Robot Controls During Rat Locomotion examined with Point-Process GLMs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo eSong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently little is known about how a mechanically coupled BMI system’s actions are integrated into ongoing body dynamics. We tested a locomotor task augmented with a BMI system driving a robot mechanically interacting with a rat under three conditions: control locomotion (BL, ‘simple elastic load’ (E and ‘BMI with elastic load’ (BMI/E. The effect of the BMI was to allow compensation of the elastic load as a function of the neural drive. Neurons recorded here were close to one another in cortex, all within a 200 micron diameter horizontal distance of one another. The interactions of these close assemblies of neurons may differ from those among neurons at longer distances in BMI tasks and thus are important to explore. A point process generalized linear model (GLM, was used to examine connectivity at two different binning timescales (1ms vs. 10ms. We used GLM models to fit non-Poisson neural dynamics solely using other neurons’ prior neural activity as covariates. Models at different timescales were compared based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS goodness-of-fit and parsimony. About 15% of cells with non-Poisson firing were well fitted with the neuron-to-neuron models alone. More such cells were fitted at the 1ms binning than 10ms. Positive connection parameters (‘excitation’ ~70% exceeded negative parameters (‘inhibition’ ~30%. Significant connectivity changes in the GLM determined networks of well-fitted neurons occurred between the conditions. However, a common core of connections comprising at least ~15% of connections persisted between any two of the three conditions. Significantly almost twice as many connections were in common between the two load conditions (~27%, compared to between either load condition and the baseline. This local point process GLM identified neural correlation structure and the changes seen across task conditions in the rats in this neural subset may be intrinsic to cortex or due to feedback and input

  8. BMI changes during childhood and adolescence as predictors of amount of adult subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in men: the GOOD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindblom, Jenny M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Hellqvist, Asa;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The amount of visceral adipose tissue is a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. It is unclear how BMI changes during childhood and adolescence predict adult fat distribution. We hypothesized that there are critical periods during development for the prediction of adult subcutaneous...... and visceral fat mass by BMI changes during childhood and adolescence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) Study (n = 612). Body composition was analyzed using dual...... unchanged BMI Z score but an unaffected amount of visceral adipose tissue. BMI changes during adolescence predict both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of the abdomen, whereas BMI changes during late childhood predict only the subcutaneous adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of visceral adipose...

  9. The E3 ubiquitin-ligase Bmi1/Ring1A controls the proteasomal degradation of Top2alpha cleavage complex - a potentially new drug target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Alchanati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The topoisomerases Top1, Top2alpha and Top2beta are important molecular targets for antitumor drugs, which specifically poison Top1 or Top2 isomers. While it was previously demonstrated that poisoned Top1 and Top2beta are subject to proteasomal degradation, this phenomena was not demonstrated for Top2alpha. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show here that Top2alpha is subject to drug induced proteasomal degradation as well, although at a lower rate than Top2beta. Using an siRNA screen we identified Bmi1 and Ring1A as subunits of an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in this process. We show that silencing of Bmi1 inhibits drug-induced Top2alpha degradation, increases the persistence of Top2alpha-DNA cleavage complex, and increases Top2 drug efficacy. The Bmi1/Ring1A ligase ubiquitinates Top2alpha in-vitro and cellular overexpression of Bmi1 increases drug induced Top2alpha ubiquitination. A small-molecular weight compound, identified in a screen for inhibitors of Bmi1/Ring1A ubiquitination activity, also prevents Top2alpha ubiquitination and drug-induced Top2alpha degradation. This ubiquitination inhibitor increases the efficacy of topoisomerase 2 poisons in a synergistic manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The discovery that poisoned Top2alpha is undergoing proteasomal degradation combined with the involvement of Bmi1/Ring1A, allowed us to identify a small molecule that inhibits the degradation process. The Bmi1/Ring1A inhibitor sensitizes cells to Top2 drugs, suggesting that this type of drug combination will have a beneficial therapeutic outcome. As Bmi1 is also a known oncogene, elevated in numerous types of cancer, the identified Bmi1/Ring1A ubiquitin ligase inhibitors can also be potentially used to directly target the oncogenic properties of Bmi1.

  10. Race/ethnic disparities in early childhood BMI, obesity and overweight in the United Kingdom and United States

    OpenAIRE

    Zilanawala, A.; Davis-Kean, P; Nazroo, J.; Sacker, A; Simonton, S; Kelly, Y

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Racial/ethnic patterning in the risk of obesity and overweight has been observed in early childhood; however, little research has compared these disparities between the United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US) using detailed ethnic classifications. We use comparable nationally representative cohort studies to examine racial/ethnic disparities in mean body mass index (BMI) and in the odds of obesity/overweight in the UK and US. The contribution of sociodemographic, cultural and fa...

  11. Association between Adolescents' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Change in BMI and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the association between physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) patterns during adolescents on the future increase in BMI and risk of diabetes during young adulthood. A total of 3,717 participants aged 11 to 21 at baseline who completed Waves I (1994–1995), II (1996), III (2001–2002), and IV (2008) surveys of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were analyzed. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns were assessed...

  12. A New Definition of BMI Scale by Relationship between Respiration and Unconscious Behavior during Sleep with Body Motion Wave

    OpenAIRE

    Jun'ya Wada; Tadashi Yajima; Takenori Imamatsu; Hiroaki Okawai

    2014-01-01

    Recently, health problems due to overwork, apparent suicide produced by the progress of the social stress and lifestyle diseases and lifestyle diseases like hyperpiesia or obesity have been reported. From this, it has become of interest to avoid these problems and to keep the health. However, the indicators for health control and physical condition haven't been defined. Body Mass Index (BMI) has traditionally been used as an indicator of health. But, there are many unclear points left in the ...

  13. Modifications in parent feeding practices and child diet during family-based behavioral treatment improve child zBMI

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Jodi Cahill; Kolko, Rachel P.; Stein, Richard I.; Welch, R. Robinson; Perri, Michael G.; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between modifications in parent feeding practices, child diet, and child weight status after treatment and to evaluate dietary mediators. Design and Methods Children classified as overweight or obese and 7-11 years old (N=170) completed a 16-session family-based behavioral treatment program (FBT). Anthropometrics (standardized body mass index (zBMI)), Child Feeding Questionnaire, and 24-hr dietary recalls were collected at baseline and post-FBT. Linear regres...

  14. Is a reduction in distance to nearest supermarket associated with BMI change among type 2 diabetes patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, YT; Laraia, BA; Mujahid, MS; Blanchard, SD; Warton, EM; Moffet, HH; Karter, AJ

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether residing within 2 miles of a new supermarket opening was longitudinally associated with a change in body mass index (BMI). We identified 12 new supermarkets that opened between 2009 and 2010 in 8 neighborhoods. Using the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry, we identified members with type 2 diabetes residing continuously in any of these neighborhoods 12 months prior to the first supermarket opening until 10 months following the opening of the last super...

  15. miR-200c Inhibits Melanoma Progression and Drug Resistance through Down-Regulation of Bmi-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujing; Tetzlaff, Michael T.; Cui, Rutao; Xu, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that play crucial roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer that is resistant or rapidly develops resistance to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents. The role of miRNAs in melanoma progression and drug resistance has not been well studied. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-200c is down-regulated in melanomas (primary and metastatic) compared with melanocytic nevi. Overexpression of miR-200c in melanoma cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation and migratory capacity as well as drug resistance. miR-200c overexpression resulted in significant down-regulation of BMI-1, ABCG2, ABCG5, and MDR1 expression and in a concomitant increase in E-cadherin levels. Knockdown of BMI-1 showed similar effects as miR-200c overexpression in melanoma cells. In addition, miR-200c overexpression significantly inhibited melanoma xenograft growth and metastasis in vivo, and this correlated with diminished expression of BMI-1 and reduced levels of E-cadherin in these tumors. The effects of miR-200c on melanoma cell proliferation and migratory capacity and on self-renewal were rescued by overexpression of Bmi-1, and the reversal of these phenotypes correlated with a reduction in E-cadherin expression and increased levels of ABCG2, ABCG5, and MDR1. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a key role for miR-200c in melanoma progression and drug resistance. These results suggest that miR-200c may represent a critical target for increasing melanoma sensitivity to clinical therapies. PMID:22982443

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica Strain BM-Y, Isolated from the Pancreas of a Zebra in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Li, Mu; Zhu, Lingwei; Hua, Fuyou; Ji, Xue; Sun, Yang; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Here, a complete genome sequence of Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica strain BM-Y is presented. The whole genome is 2.18-Mb and contains a blaVEB-1 gene cassette which endows it with resistance to ceftazidime, ampicillin, tetracycline, etc. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) type W. chitiniclastica strain has been found. PMID:27365357

  17. BMI at Age 8 Years Is Influenced by the Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Genes HHEX-IDE and CDKAL1

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Christiane; Bonifacio, Ezio; Grallert, Harald; Henneberger, Lydia; Illig, Thomas; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether HHEX-IDE and CDKAL1 genes, which are associated with birth weight and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, continue to influence growth during childhood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS BMI, weight, and height at age 8 years expressed as age- and sex-corrected standard deviation scores (SDS) against national reference data and single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of HHEX-IDE and CDKAL1 loci were analyzed in 646 prospectively followed children in the German BABYDI...

  18. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F.; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nøhr, Ellen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. Methods We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mo...

  19. The Bmi-1 polycomb protein antagonizes the (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-dependent suppression of skin cancer cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Adhikary, Gautam; Eckert, Richard L

    2010-03-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators of gene expression that enhance cell survival. This regulation is achieved via action of two multiprotein PcG complexes--PRC2 (EED) and PRC1 [B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1)]. These complexes modulate gene expression by increasing histone methylation and reducing acetylation--leading to a closed chromatin conformation. Activity of these proteins is associated with increased cell proliferation and survival. We show increased expression of key PcG proteins in immortalized keratinocytes and skin cancer cell lines. We examine the role of two key PcG proteins, Bmi-1 and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), and the impact of the active agent in green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on the function of these regulators. EGCG treatment of SCC-13 cells reduces Bmi-1 and Ezh2 level and this is associated with reduced cell survival. The reduction in survival is associated with a global reduction in histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, a hallmark of PRC2 complex action. This change in PcG protein expression is associated with reduced expression of key proteins that enhance progression through the cell cycle [cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1] and increased expression of proteins that inhibit cell cycle progression (p21 and p27). Apoptosis is also enhanced, as evidenced by increased caspase 9, 8 and 3 cleavage and increased poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase cleavage. EGCG treatment also increases Bax and suppresses Bcl-xL expression. Vector-mediated enhanced Bmi-1 expression reverses these EGCG-dependent changes. These findings suggest that green tea polyphenols reduce skin tumor cell survival by influencing PcG-mediated epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:20015867

  20. The Bmi-1 polycomb protein antagonizes the (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-dependent suppression of skin cancer cell survival

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Adhikary, Gautam; Eckert, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators of gene expression that enhance cell survival. This regulation is achieved via action of two multiprotein PcG complexes—PRC2 (EED) and PRC1 [B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1)]. These complexes modulate gene expression by increasing histone methylation and reducing acetylation—leading to a closed chromatin conformation. Activity of these proteins is associated with increased cell proliferation an...

  1. In vivo analysis of thoracic mechanical response variability under belt loading: Specific behavior and relationship to age, gender and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    POULARD, David; BERMOND, François; Bruyere-Garnier, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic injuries are a major cause of mortality in frontal collisions, especially for elderly female and obese people. Car occupant individual characteristics like age, gender and Body Mass Index (BMI) are known to influence human vulnerability tolerance in crashes. The objective of the this study was to perform in vivo test experiments to quantify the influence of subject characteristics in terms of age, gender and anthropometry and on thorax mechanical response variability under belt loadi...

  2. Bmi1 promotes prostate tumorigenesis via inhibiting p16INK4A and p14ARF expression

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Catherine; He, Lizhi; Kapoor, Anil; Gillis, Aubrey; Rybak, Adrian P.; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Tang, Damu

    2008-01-01

    Bmi1 promotes prostate tumorigenesis via inhibiting p16INK4A and p14ARF expression correspondence: Corresponding authors. Anil Kapoor is to be contacted at Tel.: +1 (905) 522 1155, ext. 33218; fax: +1 (905) 521 6195. Damu Tang, T3310, St. Joseph?s Hospital, 50 Charlton Ave East, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 4A6. Tel.: +1 (905) 522 1155, ext. 35168; fax: +1 (905) 521 6181. (Kapoor, Anil) correspondence: Corresponding authors. Anil Ka...

  3. Family and Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Inequalities in Childhood Trajectories of BMI and Overweight: Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Pauline; Mensah, Fane; Nicholson, Jan; Wake, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Socioeconomic inequalities in longitudinal patterning of childhood overweight could cause marked differentials in total burden by adulthood. This study aims to determine timing and strength of the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and children's body mass index (BMI) in the pre- and primary school years, and to examine socioeconomic differences in overweight trajectories across childhood.Methods:Participants were 4949 children from the Longitudinal Study of...

  4. Survey of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of reasearch reactors based on the IAEA Nuclear Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) was done. This database includes information on 273 operating research reactors ranging in power from zero to several hundred MW. From these 273 operating research reactors 205 reactors have a power level below 5 MW, the remaining 68 reactors range from 5 MW up to several 100 MW thermal power. The major reactor types with common design are: Siemens Unterrichtsreaktors, 1.2 Argonaut reactors, Slowpoke reactors, the miniature neutron source reactors, TRIGA reactors, material testing reactors and high flux reactors. Technical data such as: power, fuel material, fuel type, enrichment, maximum neutron flux density and experimental facilities for each reactor type as well as a description of their utilization in physics and chemistry, medicine and biology, academic research and teaching, training purposes (students and physicists, operating personnel), industrial application (neutron radiography, silicon neutron transmutation doping facilities) are provided. The geographically distribution of these reactors is also shown. As conclusions the author discussed the advantages (low capital cost, low operating cost, low burn up, simple to operate, safe, less restrictive containment and sitting requirements, versatility) and disadvantages (lower sensitivity for NAA, limited radioisotope production, limited use of neutron beams, limited access to the core, licensing) of low power research reactors. 24 figs., refs. 15, Tab. 1 (nevyjel)

  5. Department of reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risoe during 1979 are described. The work is presented in five chapters: Reactor Engineering, Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Heat Transfer and Hydraulics, The DR 1 Reactor, and Non-Nuclear Activities. A list of the staff and of publications is included. (author)

  6. RB reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical fluctuations of reactivity represent reactor noise. Analysis of reactor noise enables determining a series of reactor kinetic parameters. Fluctuations of power was measured by ionization chamber placed next to the tank of the RB reactor. The signal was digitized by an analog-digital converter. After calculation of the mean power, 3000 data obtained by sampling were analysed

  7. Automated IMT estimation and BMI correlation using a low-quality carotid ultrasound image database from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Filippo; Gupta, Vipin; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Meiburger, Kristen M; Saba, Luca; Acharya, U Rajendra; Ledda, Giuseppe; Radha Krishna, K V; Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Kinra, Sanjay; Nicolaides, Andrew; Ebrahim, Shah; Suri, Jasjit S

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents AtheroEdgeLowRes (AELR), an extention of AtheroEdge™ from AtheroPoint™, and a solution to carotid ultrasound IMT measurement in low-resolution and overall low quality images. The images were collected using a low-end ultrasound machine during a screening study in India. We aim to demonstrate the accuracy and reproducibility of the AELR system by benchmarking it against an expert Reader's manual tracing and to show the correlation between the automatically measured intima media thickness (IMT) and the subjects' cardiovascular risk factors (i.e. body mass index--BMI). We introduced an innovative penalty function (PF) to our dual-snake segmentation technique, necessary due to the low image resolution. We processed 512 images from 256 patients, and correlated the AELR IMT values with the patients' age and BMI. AELR processed all 512 images, and the IMT measurement error was 0.011±0.099 mm with the PF correction and 0.173±0.127 mm without. AELR IMT values correlated with the Reader's values (r = 0.883) and also correlated with the subject's BMI and age. The AELR system showed accuracy and reproducibility levels that make it suitable to be used in large epidemiological and screening studies in emerging countries. PMID:24110444

  8. Using maleic anhydride functionalized graphene oxide for improving the interfacial properties of carbon fiber/BMI composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maleic anhydride functionalized graphene oxide (MAH-GO was synthesized and then introduced into carbon fiber (CF reinforced bismaleimide (BMI composites, with the aim of improving the interfacial adhesion strength between CF and BMI resin. Various characterization techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA demonstrated that the maleic anhydride has been successfully grafted onto the GO surfaces. The study showed that the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS and flexural properties of CF/BMI composites were all improved by the incorporation of GO and MAH-GO, and the MAH-GO showed the substantially improved effect due to the strong interaction between the MAH-GO and the resin matrix. The maximum increment of the ILSS, flexural strength and flexural modulus of composites were 24.4, 28.7 and 49.7%, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM photographs of the fracture surfaces revealed that the interfacial bonding between CF and resin matrix was significantly strengthened by the addition of MAH-GO. The results suggest that this feasible method may be an ideal substitute for the traditional method in the interfacial modification of composites.

  9. Augmenting BMI and waist-height ratio for establishing more efficient obesity percentiles among school-going children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjikkaran Seeja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Questions: 1. Are all the existing methods for estimating the obesity and overweight in school going children in India equally efficient? 2. How to derive more efficient obesity percentiles to determine obesity and overweight status in school-going children aged 7-12 years old? Objectives: 1. To investigate and analyze the prevalence rate of obesity and overweight children in India, using the established standards. 2. To compare the efficiency among the tools with the expected levels in the Indian population. 3. To establish and demonstrate the higher efficiency of the proposed percentile chart. Study Design: A cross-sectional study using a completely randomized design. Settings: Government, private-aided, unaided, and central schools in the Thrissur district of Kerala. Participants: A total of 1500 boys and 1500 girls aged 7-12 years old. Results: BMI percentiles, waist circumference percentiles, and waist to height ratio are the ruling methodologies in establishing the obese and overweight relations in school-going children. Each one suffers from the disadvantage of not considering either one or more of the obesity contributing factors in human growth dynamics, the major being waist circumference and weight. A new methodology for mitigating this defect through considering BMI and waist circumference simultaneously for establishing still efficient percentiles to arrive at obesity and overweight status is detailed here. Age-wise centiles for obesity and overweight status separately for boys and girls aged 7-12 years old were established. Comparative efficiency of this methodology over BMI had shown that this could mitigate the inability of BMI to consider waist circumference. Also, this had the advantage of considering body weight in obesity analysis, which is the major handicap in waist to height ratio. An analysis using a population of 1500 boys and 1500 girls has yielded 3.6% obese and 6.2% overweight samples, which is well within

  10. BMI as a mediator of the relationship between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in children: a mediation analysis.

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    Ana Díez-Fernández

    Full Text Available Muscular fitness levels have been associated with cardiometabolic risk in children, although whether body weight acts as a confounder or as an intermediate variable in this relationship remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors is mediated by body mass index (BMI.Cross-sectional study using a sample of 1158 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the province of Cuenca, Spain. We measured anthropometrics and biochemical variables and we calculated a muscular fitness index as the sum of z-scores of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing long jump, and we estimated a previously validated cardiometabolic risk index (CMRI. Linear regression models were fitted for mediation analysis to assess whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk was mediated by BMI.Children with normal weight (NW had a better cardiometabolic risk profile than their overweight (OW or obese (OB peers after controlling for muscular fitness. Marginal estimated mean ± SE values for NW, OW and OB categories of CMRI were -0.75 ± 0.06 0.05 ± 0.09 >-1.16 ± 0.13 for lower, middle and upper quartiles of muscular fitness in boys and 1.01 ± 0.16 > 0.10 ± 0.09 > -1.02 ± 0.15 in girls, both p < 0.001, but differences disappeared when controlling for BMI. BMI acted as a full mediator between muscular fitness and most cardiometabolic risk factors (Sobel test z = -11.44 for boys; z = -11.83 for girls; p < 0.001 in CMRI mediation model and as a partial mediator in the case of waist circumference (Sobel test z=-14.86 for boys; z=-14.51 for girls; p<0.001.BMI mediates the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in schoolchildren. Overall, good muscular fitness is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, but particularly when accompanied by normal weight.

  11. Expression of BMI-1 and Mel-18 in breast tissue - a diagnostic marker in patients with breast cancer

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    Vollan Hilde S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycomb Group (PcG proteins are epigenetic silencers involved in maintaining cellular identity, and their deregulation can result in cancer. Expression of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 has been studied in tumor tissue, but not in adjacent non-cancerous breast epithelium. Our study compares the expression of the two genes in normal breast epithelium of cancer patients and relates it to the level of expression in the corresponding tumors as well as in breast epithelium of healthy women. Methods A total of 79 tumors, of which 71 malignant tumors of the breast, 6 fibroadenomas, and 2 DCIS were studied and compared to the reduction mammoplastic specimens of 11 healthy women. In addition there was available adjacent cancer free tissue for 23 of the malignant tumors. The tissue samples were stored in RNAlater, RNA was isolated to create expression microarray profile. These two genes were then studied more closely first on mRNA transcription level by microarrays (Agilent 44 K and quantitative RT-PCR (TaqMan and then on protein expression level using immunohistochemistry. Results Bmi-1 mRNA is significantly up-regulated in adjacent normal breast tissue in breast cancer patients compared to normal breast tissue from noncancerous patients. Conversely, mRNA transcription level of Mel-18 is lower in normal breast from patients operated for breast cancer compared to breast tissue from mammoplasty. When protein expression of these two genes was evaluated, we observed that most of the epithelial cells were positive for Bmi-1 in both groups of tissue samples, although the expression intensity was stronger in normal tissue from cancer patients compared to mammoplasty tissue samples. Protein expression of Mel-18 showed inversely stronger intensity in tissue samples from mammoplasty compared to normal breast tissue from patients operated for breast cancer. Conclusion Bmi-1 mRNA level is consistently increased and Mel-18 mRNA level is consistently decreased

  12. Research Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published in English and in French, this large report first proposes an overview of the use and history of research nuclear reactors. It discusses their definition, and presents the various types of research reactors which can be either related to nuclear power (critical mock-ups, material test reactors, safety test reactors, training reactors, prototypes), or to research (basic research, industry, health), or to specific particle physics phenomena (neutron diffraction, isotope production, neutron activation, neutron radiography, semiconductor doping). It reports the history of the French research reactors by distinguishing the first atomic pile (ZOE), and the activities and achievements during the fifties, the sixties and the seventies. It also addresses the development of instrumentation for research reactors (neutron, thermal, mechanical and fission gas release measurements). The other parts of the report concern the validation of neutronics calculations for different reactors (the EOLE water critical mock-up, the MASURCA air critical mock-up dedicated to fast neutron reactor study, the MINERVE water critical mock-up, the CALIBAN pulsed research reactor), the testing of materials under irradiation (OSIRIS reactor, laboratories associated with research reactors, the Jules Horowitz reactor and its experimental programs and related devices, irradiation of materials with ion beams), the investigation of accident situations (on the CABRI, Phebus, Silene and Jules Horowitz reactors). The last part proposes a worldwide overview of research reactors

  13. Comparison of sizing effect of T700 grade carbon fiber on interfacial properties of fiber/BMI and fiber/epoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Carbon fiber sizings can react itself and with resin at high temperature. ► Sizings improve IFSS of carbon fiber/epoxy, but reduce that of BMI matrix. ► IFSS of carbon fiber/epoxy is larger than corresponding carbon fiber/BMI. ► Partially desized carbon fiber shows the effect of polymeric sizing component. ► The results are helpful for optimizing sizing agent of carbon fiber composites. - Abstract: This paper aims to study impact of sizing agents on interfacial properties of two T700 grade high strength carbon fibers with bismaleimide (BMI) and epoxy (EP) resin matrix. The fiber surface roughness and chemical properties are analyzed for sized, desized, and partially desized carbon fibers, using atom force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. FTIR analysis indicates that the sizing agents are chemically reactive, and they can react with BMI and EP at high temperatures. The micro-droplet tests exhibit that the desized carbon fibers have lower interfacial strengths with EP than the sized fibers, however, for BMI matrix, opposite trend is revealed. This is consistent with the chemical reactions of the sizing agents with the EP and BMI resins, in which sufficient reactions are observed for the sizing/EP mixture, while only partial reactions are probed for the sizing/BMI mixture. Interestingly, un-extracted epoxy type sizing particles are observed on partially desized carbon fiber surface, which significantly improves the interfacial adhesion with EP matrix.

  14. Impact of BMI and Gender on Outcomes in DLBCL Patients Treated with R-CHOP: A Pooled Study from the LYSA

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    Clémentine Sarkozy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (aaIPI score is currently used to predict patient outcomes and to choose the best therapeutic treatment. Body mass index (BMI and gender are occasionally sited as prognostic factors; however, their value has never been studied in a large series of patients included in prospective clinical trials in the rituximab era. To assess the impact of BMI and gender on OS and PFS independently of the aaIPI score, we pooled 985 patients that were prospectively included in GELA studies and uniformly treated with R-CHOP. Univariate analysis indicated that high aaIPI and male gender were associated with a worse PFS, whereas high (>25 or low (<18.5 BMI scores were not. High aaIPI score was the only factor predictive for OS. In a multivariate analysis, including aaIPI score, gender, BMI, and interaction between BMI and gender, aaIPI remained the strongest predictive factor, and BMI < 18.5 was significantly associated with a worse OS but not PFS. In conclusion, in the rituximab era, the aaIPI score remains the major predictor of outcome in DLBCL patients; however, male gender and low BMI seem to impact outcome.

  15. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of Bmi1 modulates its oncogenic potential, E3 ligase activity, and DNA damage repair activity in mouse prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacerddine, Karim; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Ginjala, Vasudeva; Westerman, Bart; Mattiroli, Francesca; Song, Ji-Ying; van der Poel, Henk; Ponz, Olga Balagué; Pritchard, Colin; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; Zevenhoven, John; Tanger, Ellen; Sixma, Titia K; Ganesan, Shridar; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2012-05-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major lethal malignancy in men, but the molecular events and their interplay underlying prostate carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Epigenetic events and the upregulation of polycomb group silencing proteins including Bmi1 have been described to occur during PCa progression. Here, we found that conditional overexpression of Bmi1 in mice induced prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and elicited invasive adenocarcinoma when combined with PTEN haploinsufficiency. In addition, Bmi1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway were coactivated in a substantial fraction of human high-grade tumors. We found that Akt mediated Bmi1 phosphorylation, enhancing its oncogenic potential in an Ink4a/Arf-independent manner. This process also modulated the DNA damage response and affected genomic stability. Together, our findings demonstrate the etiological role of Bmi1 in PCa, unravel an oncogenic collaboration between Bmi1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway, and provide mechanistic insights into the modulation of Bmi1 function by phosphorylation during prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:22505453

  16. Variation in dietary intake and physical activity pattern as predictors of change in body mass index (BMI Z-score among Brazilian adolescents*

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    Carla C. Enes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether changes in dietary intake and physical activity pattern are associated with the annual body mass index (BMI z-score change among adolescents. Methods: The study was conducted in public schools in the city of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a probabilistic sample of 431 adolescents participating in wave I (2004 (hereafter, baseline and 299 in wave II (2005 (hereafter, follow-up. BMI, usual food intake, physical activity, screen time, sexual maturation and demographic variables were assessed twice. The association between annual change in food intake, physical activity, screen time, and annual BMI z-score changes were assessed by multiple regression. Results: The study showed a positive variation in BMI z-score over one-year. Among variables related to physical activity pattern only playing videogame and using computer increased over the year. The intake of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages increased over one year, while the others variables showed a reduction. An increased consumption of fatty foods (β = 0.04, p = 0.04 and sweetened natural fruit juices (β = 0.05, p = 0.03 was positively associated with the rise in BMI z-score. Conclusions: Unhealthy dietary habits can predict the BMI z-score gain more than the physical activity pattern. The intake of fatty foods and sweetened fruit juices is associated with the BMI z-score over one year.

  17. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of Bmi1 modulates its oncogenic potential, E3 ligase activity, and DNA damage repair activity in mouse prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacerddine, Karim; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Ginjala, Vasudeva; Westerman, Bart; Mattiroli, Francesca; Song, Ji-Ying; van der Poel, Henk; Ponz, Olga Balagué; Pritchard, Colin; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; Zevenhoven, John; Tanger, Ellen; Sixma, Titia K.; Ganesan, Shridar; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major lethal malignancy in men, but the molecular events and their interplay underlying prostate carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Epigenetic events and the upregulation of polycomb group silencing proteins including Bmi1 have been described to occur during PCa progression. Here, we found that conditional overexpression of Bmi1 in mice induced prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and elicited invasive adenocarcinoma when combined with PTEN haploinsufficiency. In addition, Bmi1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway were coactivated in a substantial fraction of human high-grade tumors. We found that Akt mediated Bmi1 phosphorylation, enhancing its oncogenic potential in an Ink4a/Arf-independent manner. This process also modulated the DNA damage response and affected genomic stability. Together, our findings demonstrate the etiological role of Bmi1 in PCa, unravel an oncogenic collaboration between Bmi1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway, and provide mechanistic insights into the modulation of Bmi1 function by phosphorylation during prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:22505453

  18. Application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN in Estimation of Body Mass Index (BMI Based on the Connection Between Environmental Factors and Physical Activity

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    Seyed Hosein Hoseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of people in modern societies is increasing the Body Mass Index (BMI level.BMI, in fact, can be considered as an indicator of overall health condition. Genetic aspects aside, the BMIlevel is affected by different factors, such as socio-economic, environmental, and physical activity level.This study investigated the effect of different factors on the BMI level of a sample population of 470 adultsof three residential neighbourhoods in Shiraz, Iran. The Pearson correlation test, independent sample Ttest and One Way ANOVA were used to extract the variables which significantly influenced the BMI. Thestatistical analysis showed that despite the apparent association of BMI with physical activity level, it isinfluenced by several factors such as age, residence record, number of children, distance to bus or taxistop, indoor or sport exercise. Then, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN was applied to predict the level ofpersonal BMI. The results of this analysis showed that the generalized estimating ANN model wassatisfactory in estimating the BMI based on the introduced pattern

  19. Reactor Physics Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    University courses in nuclear reactor physics at the universities consist of a theoretical description of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors. In order to demonstrate the basic concepts in reactor physics, training exercises in nuclear reactor installations are also desirable. Since the number of reactor facilities is however strongly decreasing in Europe, it becomes difficult to offer to students a means for demonstrating the basic concepts in reactor physics by performing training exercises in nuclear installations. Universities do not generally possess the capabilities for performing training exercises. Therefore, SCK-CEN offers universities the possibility to perform (on a commercial basis) training exercises at its infrastructure consisting of two research reactors (BR1 and VENUS). Besides the organisation of training exercises in the framework of university courses, SCK-CEN also organizes theoretical courses in reactor physics for the education and training of nuclear reactor operators. It is indeed a very important subject to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. In this framework, an understanding of the fundamental principles of nuclear reactor physics is also necessary for reactor operators. Therefore, the organisation of a basic Nuclear reactor physics course at the level of reactor operators in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The objectives this activity are: (1) to provide training and education activities in reactor physics for university students and (2) to organise courses in nuclear reactor physics for reactor operators

  20. Evaluation of proposed German safety criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsell, A.W.

    1980-05-01

    This work reviews proposed safety criteria prepared by the German Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) for future licensing of gas-cooled high-temperature reactor (HTR) concepts in the Federal Republic of Germany. Comparison is made with US General Design Criteria (GDCs) in 10CFR50 Appendix A and with German light water reactor (LWR) criteria. Implications for the HTR design relative to the US design and safety approach are indicated. Both inherent characteristics and design features of the steam cycle, gas turbine, and process heat concepts are taken into account as well as generic design options such as a pebble bed or prismatic core.

  1. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

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    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  2. p38 MAPK-Mediated Bmi-1 down-regulation and defective proliferation in ATM-deficient neural stem cells can be restored by Akt activation.

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    Jeesun Kim

    Full Text Available A-T (ataxia telangiectasia is a genetic disease caused by a mutation in the Atm (A-T mutated gene that leads to neurodegeneration. Despite an increase in the numbers of studies in this area in recent years, the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in human A-T are still poorly understood. Previous studies demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ of Atm(-/- mouse brains show defective self-renewal and proliferation, which is accompanied by activation of chronic p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and a lower level of the polycomb protein Bmi-1. However, the mechanism underlying Bmi-1 down-regulation and its relevance to defective proliferation in Atm(-/- NSCs remained unclear. Here, we show that over-expression of Bmi-1 increases self-renewal and proliferation of Atm(-/- NSCs to normal, indicating that defective proliferation in Atm(-/- NSCs is a consequence of down-regulation of Bmi-1. We also demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation renders Bmi-1 resistant to the proteasomal degradation, leading to its stabilization and accumulation in the nucleus. However, inhibition of the Akt-dependent Bmi-1 stabilizing process by p38 MAPK signaling reduces the levels of Bmi-1. Treatment of the Atm(-/- NSCs with a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 extended Bmi-1 posttranscriptional turnover and H2A ubiquitination in Atm(-/- NSCs. Our observations demonstrate the molecular basis underlying the impairment of self-renewal and proliferation in Atm(-/- NSCs through the p38 MAPK-Akt-Bmi-1-p21 signaling pathway.

  3. Introduction of Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces development, status, supply and demand and resource of nuclear reactor. It deals with basic knowledge of nuclear reactor, which are reactor system, heat recovery in reactor core, structural feature in reactor, materials of structure in reactor, shielding of gamma ray, shielding of reactor, safety and environmental problem of nuclear power plant, nuclear fuel and economical efficiency of nuclear energy.

  4. Safeguarding research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is organized in four sections, including the introduction. The second section contains a discussion of the characteristics and attributes of research reactors important to safeguards. In this section, research reactors are described according to their power level, if greater than 25 thermal megawatts, or according to each fuel type. This descriptive discussion includes both reactor and reactor fuel information of a generic nature, according to the following categories. 1. Research reactors with more than 25 megawatts thermal power, 2. Plate fuelled reactors, 3. Assembly fuelled reactors. 4. Research reactors fuelled with individual rods. 5. Disk fuelled reactors, and 6. Research reactors fuelled with aqueous homogeneous fuel. The third section consists of a brief discussion of general IAEA safeguards as they apply to research reactors. This section is based on IAEA safeguards implementation documents and technical reports that are used to establish Agency-State agreements and facility attachments. The fourth and last section describes inspection activities at research reactors necessary to meet Agency objectives. The scope of the activities extends to both pre and post inspection as well as the on-site inspection and includes the examination of records and reports relative to reactor operation and to receipts, shipments and certain internal transfers, periodic verification of fresh fuel, spent fuel and core fuel, activities related to containment and surveillance, and other selected activities, depending on the reactor

  5. Research nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the divergence of the first nuclear reactor in 1942, about 600 research or test reactors have been built throughout the world. Today 255 research reactors are operating in 57 countries and about 70% are over 25 years old. Whereas there are very few reactor types for power plants because of rationalization and standardisation, there is a great diversity of research reactors. We can divide them into 2 groups: heavy water cooled reactors and light water moderated reactors. Heavy water cooled reactors are dedicated to the production of high flux of thermal neutrons which are extracted from the core by means of neutronic channels. Light water moderated reactors involved pool reactors and slightly pressurized closed reactors, they are polyvalent but their main purposes are material testing, technological irradiations, radionuclide production and neutron radiography. At the moment 8 research reactors are being built in Canada, Germany, Iran, Japan, Kazakhstan, Morocco, Russia and Slovakia and 8 others are planned in 7 countries (France, Indonesia, Nigeria, Russia, Slovakia, Thailand and Tunisia. Different research reactors are described: Phebus, Masurca, Phenix and Petten HFR. The general principles of nuclear safety applied to test reactors are presented. (A.C.)

  6. Nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent seismic vibrations of external buildings from transmitting to the side walls of a reactor container in a tank type FBR reactor building. Constitution: The reactor building is structured such that the base mat for a reactor container chamber and a reactor container is separated from the base mat for the walls of building, and gas-tight material such as silicon rubber is filled in the gap therebetween. With such a constitution, even if the crane-supporting wall vibrates violently upon occurrence of earthqualkes, the seismic vibrations do not transmit toward the reactor container chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Reactor Physics Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies

  8. The effect of skipping meals and daily activities of university students regarding the body mass index (BMI

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    Selen Ozakar Akca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: If we assume that the group of 18-24 years old young people are university students, their proper eating habits present social importance for their own health. With this present study it was aimed to determine the effect of eating habits and daily activity situations of university students regarding obesity. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional type study has been carried out in the Health College of the Hitit University. No sample selection was performed, the sample consisted of students visiting the school during the study dates (10- 21.03.2014 and participated voluntarily (n=197 in the study. Questionnaires were used as data collection tool. The data was evaluated with appropriate statistical methods. P < 0.05 has been accepted as statistically significant. Results: 73.1% of the students, participating in the study were female and 26,9% male. The overweight and obesity frequency rate of female students (16% was lower in comparison to male students (17%, whereas the students' BMI average was 22.595+/-3.57. 13.7% of participating students were thin and 8.5% obese. It was seen that 68% of participants in the study skip meals and 28.9% eat 1-2 meals per day. Additionally it was determined that students' skipping meal status is according to the BMI classification statistically significant (p<0.05 Apart from this it was stated that 90.7% of students are doing and #8804;2 hours/week sports. Conclusions: If we assume that one out of every three student is overweight/obese and that the majority do not have a proper nutrition and sport habit, it reveals the importance of BMI screenings and trainings regarding eating habits in school [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 394-400

  9. The Obesogenic Quality of the Home Environment: Associations with Diet, Physical Activity, TV Viewing, and BMI in Preschool Children.

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    Stephanie Schrempft

    Full Text Available The home environment is thought to play a key role in early weight trajectories, although direct evidence is limited. There is general agreement that multiple factors exert small individual effects on weight-related outcomes, so use of composite measures could demonstrate stronger effects. This study therefore examined whether composite measures reflecting the 'obesogenic' home environment are associated with diet, physical activity, TV viewing, and BMI in preschool children.Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 1096 completed a telephone interview (Home Environment Interview; HEI when their children were 4 years old. Diet, physical activity, and TV viewing were reported at interview. Child height and weight measurements were taken by the parents (using standard scales and height charts and reported at interview. Responses to the HEI were standardized and summed to create four composite scores representing the food (sum of 21 variables, activity (sum of 6 variables, media (sum of 5 variables, and overall (food composite/21 + activity composite/6 + media composite/5 home environments. These were categorized into 'obesogenic risk' tertiles.Children in 'higher-risk' food environments consumed less fruit (OR; 95% CI = 0.39; 0.27-0.57 and vegetables (0.47; 0.34-0.64, and more energy-dense snacks (3.48; 2.16-5.62 and sweetened drinks (3.49; 2.10-5.81 than children in 'lower-risk' food environments. Children in 'higher-risk' activity environments were less physically active (0.43; 0.32-0.59 than children in 'lower-risk' activity environments. Children in 'higher-risk' media environments watched more TV (3.51; 2.48-4.96 than children in 'lower-risk' media environments. Neither the individual nor the overall composite measures were associated with BMI.Composite measures of the obesogenic home environment were associated as expected with diet, physical activity, and TV viewing. Associations with BMI were not apparent at this age.

  10. Longer Weekly Sleep Duration Predicts Greater 3-Month BMI Reduction among Obese Adolescents Attending a Clinical Multidisciplinary Weight Management Program

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    Bethany J. Sallinen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine whether baseline levels of self-reported sleep and sleep problems among obese adolescents referred to an outpatient multidisciplinary family-based weight management program predict reduction in BMI 3 months later. Methods: A retrospective medical chart review was conducted for 83 obese adolescents. The following baseline variables were extracted: self-reported sleep duration (weekdays and weekends, and presence of snoring, daytime fatigue, suspected sleep apnea, and physician-diagnosed sleep apnea. Anthropometric data at baseline and 3 months were also collected. Results: On average, adolescents reported significantly less sleeping on weeknights (7.7 ± 1.3 h compared to weekend nights (10.0 ± 1.8 h, t(82 = 10.5, p = 0.0001. Reduction in BMI after 3 months of treatment was predicted by more weekly sleep at baseline (R2 = 0.113, F(1, 80 = 10.2, p = 0.002. Adolescents who reduced their BMI by ≥1 kg/m2 reported greater weekly sleep at baseline compared to adolescents who experienced 2 reduction (60.7 ± 7.5 h vs. 56.4 ± 8.6 h; F(1, 80 = 5.7, p = 0.02. Conclusion: Findings from this study, though correlational, raise the possibility that increased duration of sleep may be associated with weight loss among obese adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Evidence-based behavioral techniques to improve sleep hygiene and increase sleep duration should be explored in pediatric weight management settings.

  11. Renal cortical volume measured using automatic contouring software for computed tomography and its relationship with BMI, age and renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between renal cortical volume, measured by an automatic contouring software, with body mass index (BMI), age and renal function. Materials and methods: The study was performed in accordance to the institutional guidelines at our hospital. Sixty-four patients (34 men, 30 women), aged 19 to 79 years had their CT scans for diagnosis or follow-up of hepatocellular carcinoma retrospectively examined by a computer workstation using a software that automatically contours the renal cortex and the renal parenchyma. Body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated based on data collected. Statistical analysis was done using the Student t-test, multiple regression analysis, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The ICC for total renal and renal cortical volumes were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. Renal volume measurements yielded a mean cortical volume of 105.8 cm3 ± 28.4 SD, mean total volume of 153 cm3 ± 39 SD and mean medullary volume of 47.8 cm3 ± 19.5 SD. The correlation between body weight/height/BMI and both total renal and cortical volumes presented r = 0.6, 0.6 and 0.4, respectively, p < 0.05, while the correlation between renal cortex and age was r = -0.3, p < 0.05. eGFR showed correlation with renal cortical volume r = 0.6, p < 0.05. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that renal cortical volume had a moderate positive relationship with BMI, moderate negative relationship with age, and a strong positive relationship with the renal function, and provided a new method to routinely produce volumetric assessment of the kidney.

  12. Renal cortical volume measured using automatic contouring software for computed tomography and its relationship with BMI, age and renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Natalia Sayuri, E-mail: nataliamuto@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Kamishima, Tamotsu, E-mail: ktamotamo2@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Harris, Ardene A., E-mail: ardene_b@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Kato, Fumi, E-mail: fumikato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Onodera, Yuya, E-mail: yuyaonodera@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Terae, Satoshi, E-mail: saterae@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki, E-mail: shirato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between renal cortical volume, measured by an automatic contouring software, with body mass index (BMI), age and renal function. Materials and methods: The study was performed in accordance to the institutional guidelines at our hospital. Sixty-four patients (34 men, 30 women), aged 19 to 79 years had their CT scans for diagnosis or follow-up of hepatocellular carcinoma retrospectively examined by a computer workstation using a software that automatically contours the renal cortex and the renal parenchyma. Body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated based on data collected. Statistical analysis was done using the Student t-test, multiple regression analysis, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The ICC for total renal and renal cortical volumes were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. Renal volume measurements yielded a mean cortical volume of 105.8 cm{sup 3} {+-} 28.4 SD, mean total volume of 153 cm{sup 3} {+-} 39 SD and mean medullary volume of 47.8 cm{sup 3} {+-} 19.5 SD. The correlation between body weight/height/BMI and both total renal and cortical volumes presented r = 0.6, 0.6 and 0.4, respectively, p < 0.05, while the correlation between renal cortex and age was r = -0.3, p < 0.05. eGFR showed correlation with renal cortical volume r = 0.6, p < 0.05. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that renal cortical volume had a moderate positive relationship with BMI, moderate negative relationship with age, and a strong positive relationship with the renal function, and provided a new method to routinely produce volumetric assessment of the kidney.

  13. Testing the thrifty gene hypothesis: the Gly482Ser variant in PPARGC1A is associated with BMI in Tongans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macartney-Coxson Donia P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thrifty gene hypothesis posits that, in populations that experienced periods of feast and famine, natural selection favoured individuals carrying thrifty alleles that promote the storage of fat and energy. Polynesians likely experienced long periods of cold stress and starvation during their settlement of the Pacific and today have high rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM, possibly due to past positive selection for thrifty alleles. Alternatively, T2DM risk alleles may simply have drifted to high frequency in Polynesians. To identify thrifty alleles in Polynesians, we previously examined evidence of positive selection on T2DM-associated SNPs and identified a T2DM risk allele at unusually high frequency in Polynesians. We suggested that the risk allele of the Gly482Ser variant in the PPARGC1A gene was driven to high frequency in Polynesians by positive selection and therefore possibly represented a thrifty allele in the Pacific. Methods Here we examine whether PPARGC1A is a thrifty gene in Pacific populations by testing for an association between Gly482Ser genotypes and BMI in two Pacific populations (Maori and Tongans and by evaluating the frequency of the risk allele of the Gly482Ser variant in a sample of worldwide populations. Results We find that the Gly482Ser variant is associated with BMI in Tongans but not in Maori. In a sample of 58 populations worldwide, we also show that the 482Ser risk allele reaches its highest frequency in the Pacific. Conclusion The association between Gly482Ser genotypes and BMI in Tongans together with the worldwide frequency distribution of the Gly482Ser risk allele suggests that PPARGC1A remains a candidate thrifty gene in Pacific populations.

  14. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bohn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body fat (BF percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Methods: Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. Results: A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p Conclusion: BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents.

  15. BMI > or = 50 kg/m2 is associated with a younger age of onset of overweight and a high prevalence of adverse metabolic profiles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2010-07-01

    To study the demographic and clinical parameters of three different categories of obesity, with particular focus on a cohort of individuals with BMI > or = 50 kg\\/m2, the fastest growing category of obesity.

  16. Childhood maltreatment and BMI trajectories to mid-adult life: follow-up to age 50 y in a British birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Power

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment including abuse and neglect has been associated with adult obesity, but evidence on life-course development of obesity or BMI gain is unclear. We aim to establish whether childhood maltreatments are related to obesity or BMI at different life-stages 7 y-50 y and to identify possible explanations for associations.Childhood physical, psychological and sexual abuse, neglect and BMI at seven ages were recorded in the 1958 birth cohort (n~15,000. Associations of child maltreatments with BMI at separate ages were tested using linear regression or logistic regression for obesity, and with rate of child-to-adult BMI gain using multilevel models. We adjusted for potential covariates.Abuse was reported in ~12% of the population. Abuse was not associated with elevated childhood BMI, but adult associations were observed: i.e. the abused had faster child-adult BMI gain than the non-abused; associations were independent of adult covariates. For physical abuse in both genders there was a positive linear association of ~0.006/y zBMI gain with age after adjustment for all covariates. Similarly, there was a linear association of physical abuse with obesity risk: e.g. among females from a low OR(adjusted of 0.34 (0.16,0.71 at 7 y to 1.67 (1.25,2.24 at 50 y. In females faster zBMI gains with age of ~0.0034/y were observed for sexual abuse and increases in obesity risk were faster: from a low OR(adjusted of 0.23 (0.06,0.84 at 7 y to 1.34 (0.86,2.10 at 50 y. Psychological abuse and neglect associations were less consistent.Childhood maltreatment associations with BMI or obesity varied across life: physical and, in females, sexual abuse were associated with faster lifetime BMI gains, which may have detrimental long-term health consequences.

  17. Design and Optimization of an EEG-Based Brain Machine Interface (BMI) to an Upper-Limb Exoskeleton for Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Nikunj A; Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Abibullaev, Berdakh; Artz, Edward J; Yozbatiran, Nuray; Blank, Amy A; French, James; Karmonik, Christof; Grossman, Robert G; O'Malley, Marcia K; Francisco, Gerard E; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting motor intent from brain activity of chronic stroke patients using an asynchronous electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain machine interface (BMI). Intent was inferred from movement related cortical potentials (MRCPs) measured over an optimized set of EEG electrodes. Successful intent detection triggered the motion of an upper-limb exoskeleton (MAHI Exo-II), to guide movement and to encourage active user participation by providing instantaneous sensory feedback. Several BMI design features were optimized to increase system performance in the presence of single-trial variability of MRCPs in the injured brain: (1) an adaptive time window was used for extracting features during BMI calibration; (2) training data from two consecutive days were pooled for BMI calibration to increase robustness to handle the day-to-day variations typical of EEG, and (3) BMI predictions were gated by residual electromyography (EMG) activity from the impaired arm, to reduce the number of false positives. This patient-specific BMI calibration approach can accommodate a broad spectrum of stroke patients with diverse motor capabilities. Following BMI optimization on day 3, testing of the closed-loop BMI-MAHI exoskeleton, on 4th and 5th days of the study, showed consistent BMI performance with overall mean true positive rate (TPR) = 62.7 ± 21.4% on day 4 and 67.1 ± 14.6% on day 5. The overall false positive rate (FPR) across subjects was 27.74 ± 37.46% on day 4 and 27.5 ± 35.64% on day 5; however for two subjects who had residual motor function and could benefit from the EMG-gated BMI, the mean FPR was quite low (< 10%). On average, motor intent was detected -367 ± 328 ms before movement onset during closed-loop operation. These findings provide evidence that closed-loop EEG-based BMI for stroke patients can be designed and optimized to perform well across multiple days without system recalibration. PMID:27065787

  18. Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemont, Sébastien; Reymond, Alexandre; Zufferey, Flore; Kooy, R. Frank; Blaumeiser, Bettina; Aa, van der, N.G.F.M.; et al

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Both obesity and being underweight have been associated with increased mortality1, 2. Underweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18.5 kg per m2 in adults and ≤ −2 standard deviations from the mean in children, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions including failure to thrive3, 4, 5, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa6, 7. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported8, 9. We pr...

  19. Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemont, Sébastien; Reymond, Alexandre; Zufferey, Flore; Harewood, Louise; Walters, Robin,; Kutalik, Zoltán; Martinet, Danielle; Shen, Yiping; Valsesia, Armand; Beckmann, Noam,; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Belfiore, Marco; Bouquillon, Sonia; Campion, Dominique; de Leeuw, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    International audience Both obesity and being underweight have been associated with increased mortality. Underweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18.5 kg per m(2) in adults and ≤ -2 standard deviations from the mean in children, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions including failure to thrive, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported. We pre...

  20. Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemont, Sébastien; Reymond, Alexandre; Zufferey, Flore; Harewood, Louise; Walters, Robin G.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Martinet, Danielle; Shen, Yiping; Valsesia, Armand; Beckmann, Noam D.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Belfiore, Marco; Bouquillon, Sonia; Campion, Dominique; de Leeuw, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Both underweight and obesity have been associated with increased mortality1,2. Underweight, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18,5 kg/m2 in adults 3 and ≤ −2 standard deviations (SD) in children4,5, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions such as failure to thrive (FTT) 6–8, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa9,10. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported 11, 12. We previously demonstrated t...

  1. Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemont, Sébastien; Reymond, Alexandre; Zufferey, Flore; Harewood, Louise; Walters, Robin G.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Martinet, Danielle; Shen, Yiping; Valsesia, Armand; Beckmann, Noam D.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Männik, Katrin; Platt, Orah S; Jonveaux, Philippe; Sanlaville, Damien

    2011-01-01

    To access publisher full text version of this article. Please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field. Both obesity and being underweight have been associated with increased mortality. Underweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18.5 kg per m(2) in adults and ≤ -2 standard deviations from the mean in children, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions including failure to thrive, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa. In contrast to obes...

  2. No interactions between previously associated 2-hour glucose gene variants and physical activity or BMI on 2-hour glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Robert A; Chu, Audrey Y; Grarup, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Gene-lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact...... to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were...

  3. Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemont, Sébastien; Reymond, Alexandre; Zufferey, Flore; Harewood, Louise; Walters, Robin; Kutalik, Zoltán; Martinet, Danielle; Shen, Yiping; Valsesia, Armand; Beckmann, Noam,; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Belfiore, Marco; Bouquillon, Sonia; Campion, Dominique; Leeuw, Nicole de

    2011-01-01

    Both obesity and being underweight have been associated with increased mortality. Underweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18.5 kg per m(2) in adults and ≤ -2 standard deviations from the mean in children, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions including failure to thrive, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported. We previously showed that hemizy...

  4. Impact of HSD11B1 polymorphisms on BMI and components of the metabolic syndrome in patients receiving psychotropic treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Quteineh, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic treatments represents a major health issue. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes tissue regeneration of active cortisol from cortisone. Elevated enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD1 may lead to the development of MetS. Methods We investigated the association between seven HSD11B1 gene (encoding 11β-HSD1) polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in a psychiatric sample treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs (n=478). The polymorphisms that survived Bonferroni correction were analyzed in two independent psychiatric samples (n R1 =168, n R2 =188) and in several large population-based samples (n 1 =5338; n 2 =123 865; n 3 >100 000). Results HSD11B1 rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers were found to be associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure compared with the reference genotype (P corrected <0.05). These associations were exclusively detected in women (n=257) with more than 3.1 kg/m 2, 7.5 cm, and 4.2 mmHg lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, in rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers compared with noncarriers (P corrected <0.05). Conversely, carriers of the rs846906-T allele had significantly higher waist circumference and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol exclusively in men (P corrected =0.028). The rs846906-T allele was also associated with a higher risk of MetS at 3 months of follow-up (odds ratio: 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-7.17, P corrected =0.014). No association was observed between HSD11B1 polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in the population-based samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that HSD11B1 polymorphisms may contribute toward the development of MetS in psychiatric patients treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, but do not

  5. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Hassan S; Follis, Jack L; Smith, Caren E; Tanaka, Toshiko; Cade, Brian E; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Hruby, Adela; Jacques, Paul F; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Richardson, Kris; Saxena, Richa; Scheer, Frank AJL; Kovanen, Leena; Bartz, Traci M; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Jonsson, Anna; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Mikkilä, Vera; Partonen, Timo; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Lahti, Jari; Hernandez, Dena G; Toft, Ulla; Johnson, W Craig; Kanoni, Stavroula; Raitakari, Olli T; Perola, Markus; Psaty, Bruce M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Grarup, Niels; Highland, Heather M; Rallidis, Loukianos; Kähönen, Mika; Havulinna, Aki S; Siscovick, David S; Räikkönen, Katri; Jørgensen, Torben; Rotter, Jerome I; Deloukas, Panos; Viikari, Jorma SA; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Linneberg, Allan; Seppälä, Ilkka; Hansen, Torben; Salomaa, Veikko; Gharib, Sina A; Eriksson, Johan G; Bandinelli, Stefania; Pedersen, Oluf; Rich, Stephen S; Dedoussis, George; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Short sleep duration has been associated with greater risks of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Also, common genetic variants in the human Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) show associations with ghrelin and total energy intake. Objectives: We examined associations between habitual sleep duration, body mass index (BMI), and macronutrient intake and assessed whether CLOCK variants modify these associations. Design: We conducted inverse-variance weighted, fixed-effect meta-analyses of results of adjusted associations of sleep duration and BMI and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy as well as interactions with CLOCK variants from 9 cohort studies including up to 14,906 participants of European descent from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Results: We observed a significant association between sleep duration and lower BMI (β ± SE = 0.16 ± 0.04, P < 0.0001) in the overall sample; however, associations between sleep duration and relative macronutrient intake were evident in age- and sex-stratified analyses only. We observed a significant association between sleep duration and lower saturated fatty acid intake in younger (aged 20–64 y) adults (men: 0.11 ± 0.06%, P = 0.03; women: 0.10 ± 0.05%, P = 0.04) and with lower carbohydrate (−0.31 ± 0.12%, P < 0.01), higher total fat (0.18 ± 0.09%, P = 0.05), and higher PUFA (0.05 ± 0.02%, P = 0.02) intakes in older (aged 65–80 y) women. In addition, the following 2 nominally significant interactions were observed: between sleep duration and rs12649507 on PUFA intake and between sleep duration and rs6858749 on protein intake. Conclusions: Our results indicate that longer habitual sleep duration is associated with lower BMI and age- and sex-specific favorable dietary behaviors. Differences in the relative intake of specific macronutrients associated with short sleep duration could, at least in part, explain

  6. Relations of self-regulation and self-efficacy for exercise and eating and BMI change: A field investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Annesi James J; Gorjala Srinivasa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study aimed to assess relations of self-regulatory skill use with self-efficacy for exercise and appropriate eating, and the resulting change in weight associated with participation in a nutrition and exercise treatment supported by cognitive-behavioral methods. Methods Adults with severe obesity (N = 95; mean BMI = 40.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2) participated in a 6-month exercise and nutrition treatment emphasizing self-regulatory skills. Changes in self-regulatory skills usage, ...

  7. ATLANTIC-DIP: raised maternal body mass index (BMI) adversely affects maternal and foetal outcomes in glucose tolerant women classified using International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dennedy, MC

    2011-09-15

    Background and aims: Raised maternal body mass index (BMI), in association with hyperglycaemia is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Whether BMI has an independent effect on adverse pregnancy outcome is not clear. We aimed to investigate the effects of raised maternal BMI on pregnancy outcome in glucose tolerant women, classified using the IADPSG criteria.\\r\

  8. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  9. Undergraduate reactor control experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sequence of reactor and related experiments has been a central element of a senior-level laboratory course at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) for more than 20 yr. A new experiment has been developed where the students program and operate a computer controller that manipulates the speed of a secondary control rod to regulate TRIGA reactor power. Elementary feedback control theory is introduced to explain the experiment, which emphasizes the nonlinear aspect of reactor control where power level changes are equivalent to a change in control loop gain. Digital control of nuclear reactors has become more visible at Penn State with the replacement of the original analog-based TRIGA reactor control console with a modern computer-based digital control console. Several TRIGA reactor dynamics experiments, which comprise half of the three-credit laboratory course, lead to the control experiment finale: (a) digital simulation, (b) control rod calibration, (c) reactor pulsing, (d) reactivity oscillator, and (e) reactor noise

  10. Process heat reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consumption of heat, for industrial and domestic needs, takes up half of the national energy supply; direct utilization of the heat produced by nuclear reactors could therefore contribute to reduce the deficit in the energetic results. The restraints proper to heat consumption (dispersal and variety of consumers, irregular demand) involve the development of the heat transport system structures and adequate nuclear reactors. With this in view, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and Technicatome are developing the CAS reactor series, pressurized water reactors (PWR), (CAS 3G reactor with a power of 420 MW.th.), and the Thermos reactor (100 MW.th.), directly conceived to produce heat at 1200C and whose technology derives from the experimental pool reactors type. In order to prove the value of the Thermos design, an experimental reactor should soon be constructed in the Saclay nuclear research centre

  11. Reactor System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMART NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) has been developed for duel purpose, electricity generation and energy supply for seawater desalination. The objective of this project IS to design the reactor system of SMART pilot plant(SMART-P) which will be built and operated for the integrated technology verification of SMART. SMART-P is an integral reactor in which primary components of reactor coolant system are enclosed in single pressure vessel without connecting pipes. The major components installed within a vessel includes a core, twelve steam generator cassettes, a low-temperature self pressurizer, twelve control rod drives, and two main coolant pumps. SMART-P reactor system design was categorized to the reactor coe design, fluid system design, reactor mechanical design, major component design and MMIS design. Reactor safety -analysis and performance analysis were performed for developed SMART=P reactor system. Also, the preparation of safety analysis report, and the technical support for licensing acquisition are performed

  12. Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 Requires a Full Complement of Bmi-1 for Its Proliferative Effects in the Murine Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Bradley R; Pang, Hilary Y M; Brubaker, Patricia L

    2016-07-01

    The intestinal hormone, glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), stimulates growth, survival, and function of the intestinal epithelium through increased crypt cell proliferation, and a long-acting analog has recently been approved to enhance intestinal capacity in patients with short bowel syndrome. The goal of the present study was to determine whether GLP-2-induced crypt cell proliferation requires a full complement of B-cell lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 homolog (Bmi-1), using the Bmi-1(eGFP/+) mouse model in comparison with age- and sex-matched Bmi-1(+/+) littermates. Bmi-1 is a member of the polycomb-repressive complex family that promotes stem cell proliferation and self-renewal and is expressed by both stem cells and transit-amplifying (TA) cells in the crypt. The acute (6 h) and chronic (11 d) proliferative responses to long-acting human (Gly(2))GLP-2 in the crypt TA zone, but not in the active or reserve stem cell zones, were both impaired by Bmi-1 haploinsufficiency. Similarly, GLP-2-induced crypt regeneration after 10-Gy irradiation was reduced in the Bmi-1(eGFP/+) animals. Despite these findings, chronic GLP-2 treatment enhanced overall intestinal growth in the Bmi-1(eGFP/+) mice, as demonstrated by increases in small intestinal weight per body weight and in the length of the crypt-villus axis, in association with decreased apoptosis and an adaptive increase in crypt epithelial cell migration rate. The results of these studies therefore demonstrate that a full complement of Bmi-1 is required for the intestinal proliferative effects of GLP-2 in both the physiological and pathological setting, and mediates, at least in part, the proliferation kinetics of cells in the TA zone. PMID:27187177

  13. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (2)Verification of BMI Classification Reference for Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To verify Working Group for Obesity in China (WGOC) recommended body mass index (BMI) classification reference for overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents using the data of 2002 China Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey. Methods Pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abnormality of each risk factor for MetS were defined using the criteria for US adolescents. Definition of hyper-TC, LDL, and dyslipidemia in adults was applied as well. The average level and abnormality rate of the metabolic indicators were described by BMI percentiles and compared with general linear model analysis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to summarize the potential of BMI to discriminate between thepresence and absence of the abnormality of these indicators. Results There was neither significantly increasing nor significantly decreasing trend of biochemical parameter levels in low BMI percentile range (<65th). Slight increasing trend from the 75th and a significant increase were found when BMI≥85th percentile. In general, the prevalence of the examined risk factors varied slightly when BMI percentile<75th, and substantial increases were consistently seen when BMI percentile≥75th. As an indicator of hyper-TG, hypertension and MetS, the sensitivity and specificity were equal at the point of BMI<75th percentile, and the Youden's index of risk factors also reached peak point before 75th percentile except for MetS. When the BMI percentile was used as the screening indicator of MetS, Youden's index reached peak point at 85th percentile, just the point in the ROC graph that was nearest to the upper left corner. Conclusion The BMI classification reference for overweight and obesity recommended by WGOC is rational to predict and prevent health risks in Chinese children and adolescents. Lower screening cut-off points, such as 83th percentile or 80th percentile, should not be excluded when they are considered as overweight criteria in

  14. The role of BMI across the life course in the relationship between age at menarche and diabetes, in a British Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, M.B.; Kuh, D.; HARDY, R.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Previous research showing an inverse association between age of menarche and adult diabetes relied on recalled age at menarche and did not adjust for BMI across the life course. We investigated the relationship between age at menarche and diabetes, and whether childhood, adolescent or adult BMI attenuates this relationship. Methods We used data from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a British birth cohort study of men and women born in 1946, with con...

  15. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of Bmi1 modulates its oncogenic potential, E3 ligase activity, and DNA damage repair activity in mouse prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nacerddine, Karim; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Ginjala, Vasudeva; Westerman, Bart; Mattiroli, Francesca; Song, Ji-Ying; Poel, Henk van der; Ponz, Olga Balagué; Pritchard, Colin; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; Zevenhoven, John; Tanger, Ellen; Sixma, Titia K; Ganesan, Shridar; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major lethal malignancy in men, but the molecular events and their interplay underlying prostate carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Epigenetic events and the upregulation of polycomb group silencing proteins including Bmi1 have been described to occur during PCa progression. Here, we found that conditional overexpression of Bmi1 in mice induced prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and elicited invasive adenocarcinoma when combined with PTEN haploinsufficiency....

  16. The Impact of State-Level Nutrition-Education Program Funding on BMI: Evidence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry Anne McGeary

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is insufficient evidence regarding which policies will improve nutrition, reduce BMI, the probability of obesity and the probability of overweight nationwide. This preliminary study investigates the impact of a nutrition-education policy relative to price policy as a means to improve nutrition and reduce BMI. Model estimations are created with pooled cross-sectional data from the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC), Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), American...

  17. Variation in dietary intake and physical activity pattern as predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) Z-score among Brazilian adolescents*

    OpenAIRE

    Carla C. Enes; Betzabeth Slater

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether changes in dietary intake and physical activity pattern are associated with the annual body mass index (BMI) z-score change among adolescents. Methods: The study was conducted in public schools in the city of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a probabilistic sample of 431 adolescents participating in wave I (2004) (hereafter, baseline) and 299 in wave II (2005) (hereafter, follow-up). BMI, usual food intake, physical activity, screen time, sexual maturation and ...

  18. Three-year change in diet quality and associated changes in BMI among schoolchildren living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah,; Cameron, Adrian; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen; Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    Findings from research assessing the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. We aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds; and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. This study utilized data from a subsample (n=216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study, a longitudi...

  19. Three-year change in diet quality and associated changes in BMI among schoolchildren living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J; Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie

    2014-07-28

    Findings from research that has assessed the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores (zBMI) in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. The present study utilised data from a subsample (n 216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, a longitudinal cohort study with data collected in 2007-8 (T1) and 2010-11 (T2) in socio-economically disadvantaged women and children (5-12 years at T1). Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and diet quality index (DQI) scores derived at both time points. The objective measures of weight, height and physical activity (accelerometers) were included. The other variables were reported in the questionnaires. We examined the association between change in DQI and change in zBMI, using linear regression analyses adjusted for physical activity, screen sedentary behaviour and maternal education level both in the whole sample and in the sample stratified by overweight status at baseline. After accounting for potential covariates, change in diet quality was found to be inversely associated with change in zBMI only in children who were overweight at baseline (P= 0.035), thus supporting the hypothesis that improvement in diet quality is associated with a concurrent improvement in zBMI among already overweight children, but not among those with a normal BMI status. The identification of modifiable behaviours such as diet quality that affect zBMI longitudinally is valuable to inform future weight gain prevention interventions in vulnerable groups. PMID:24775601

  20. Explore the influence of BMI in the optimal time of weaning from sequential mechanical ventilation for severity chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Li-dong, Sun; Chang-sheng, Guo; Zi-yu, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of body mass index (BMI) in the optimal time of weaning from sequential invasive-noninvasive mechanical ventilation (MV) by treating severity chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Methods 94 patients with severity COPD were divided into the control group (BMI21). These two groups were treated by similar symptomatic therapies such as mechanical ventilation, antibacterial, antispasmodic, relieving asthma, antitussive, expectorant, correcti...

  1. Comparison of body mass index (BMI) with the CUN-BAE body adiposity estimator in the prediction of hypertension and type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Vicente; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Castilla, Jesús; GODOY, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Soldevila, Nuria; Antonio J. Molina; Fernandez-Villa, Tania; ASTRAY, Jenaro; Castro, Ady; González-Candelas, Fernando; Mayoral, José María; Quintana, José María; Domínguez, Angela; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a world-wide epidemic whose prevalence is underestimated by BMI measurements, but CUN-BAE (Clínica Universidad de Navarra - Body Adiposity Estimator) estimates the percentage of body fat (BF) while incorporating information on sex and age, thus giving a better match. Our aim is to compare the BMI and CUN-BAE in determining the population attributable fraction (AFp) for obesity as a cause of chronic diseases. Methods We calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient betwe...

  2. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 11, Reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume includes the following chapters describing: Organisation of reactor operation (including operational safety, fuel management, and regulatory rules for RA reactor operation); Control and maintenance of reactor components (reactor core, nuclear fuel, heavy water and cover gas systems, mechanical structures, electric power supply system, reactor instrumentation); Quality assurance and Training of the reactor personnel

  3. The Chernobylsk reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction, the safety philosophy, the major reactor physical parameters of RBMK-1000 type reactor units and the detailed description of the Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident, its causes and conclusions, the efforts to reduce the consequences on the reactor site and in the surroundings are discussed based on different types of Soviet documents including the report presented to the IAEA by the Soviet Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. (V.N.)

  4. Zero energy reactor 'RB'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1958 the zero energy reactor RB was built with the purpose of enabling critical experiments with various reactor systems to be carried out. The first core assembly built in this reactor consists of heavy water as moderator and natural uranium metal as fuel. In order to be able to obtain very accurate results when measuring the main characteristics of the assembly the reactor was built as a completely bare system. (author)

  5. High solids fermentation reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  6. Fossil nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurette, M.

    1976-01-01

    The discussion of fossil nuclear reactors (the Oklo phenomenon) covers the earth science background, neutron-induced isotopes and reactor operating conditions, radiation-damage studies, and reactor modeling. In conclusion possible future studies are suggested and the significance of the data obtained in past studies is summarized. (JSR)

  7. Fusion reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of fusion reactor systems studies, the objectives of these studies are outlined and some recent conceptual reactor designs are described. The need for further studies in greater depth is indicated so that progress towards a commercial fusion reactor may be consolidated. (U.K.)

  8. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a self-powered long detector having a sensitivity over the entire length of a reactor core as an entire control rod withdrawal range of a BWR type reactor, and a reactor power measuring device using a gamma ray thermometer which scarcely causes sensitivity degradation. That is, a hollow protection pipe is disposed passing through the reactor core from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel. The self-powered long detectors and the gamma ray thermometers are inserted and installed in the protection pipe. An average reactor power in an axial direction of the reactor relative to a certain position in the horizontal cross section of the reactor core is determined based on the power of the self-powered long detector over the entire length of the reactor core. Since the response of the self-powered detector relative to a local power change is rapid, the output is used as an input signal to a safety protection device of the reactor core. Further, a gamma ray thermometer secured in the reactor and having scarce sensitivity degradation is used instead of an incore travelling neutron monitor used for relative calibration of an existent neutron monitor secured in the reactor. (I.S.)

  9. IMPACT OF NUTRITIONAL COUNSELLING ON BODY MASS INDEX (BMI AND NUTRIENT INTAKE OF THE NON - COMMUNICABLE DISEASE PATIENTS (NCD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Good health is an important discussion of the quality of life. Health problem is a major concern in all over the world but especially in developing countries. Non-communicable diseases ( NCDs contribute the ill health. Diabetes, coronary heart disease, various forms of cancer, gastro intestinal disorder and various diseases of bones and joints are diet related NCDs. Nutritional counselling is one of the effective tools of changing the food habits of people. The data for this study is taken from the out patients services of Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism and Cardiology of Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-5. Total 250 samples were included in the study. Age group 40 – 60 years were considered as study samples who attended the Endocrinology and Cardiology departments. Purposive sampling method was used in the study. Questionnaire cum interview method was adopted in the study. Anthropametric measurements were taken by using standard techniques. 24 hours diet recall method was also used in this study. Evaluation of councelling was done on basis of changes in BMI and nutrient intake. Result shows the positive impact of nutritional counselling in BMI and nutrient intake of NCD patients.

  10. BMI is not related to altruism, fairness, trust or reciprocity: Experimental evidence from the field and the lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Espín, Antonio M; Lenkei, Balint

    2016-03-15

    Over the past few decades obesity has become one of the largest public policy concerns among the adult population in the developed world. Obesity and overweight are hypothesized to affect individuals' sociability through a number of channels, including discrimination and low self-esteem. However, whether these effects translate into differential behavioural patterns in social interactions remains unknown. In two large-scale economic experiments, we explore the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and social behaviour, using three paradigmatic economic games: the dictator, ultimatum, and trust games. Our first experiment employs a representative sample of a Spanish city's population (N=753), while the second employs a sample of university students from the same city (N=618). Measures of altruism, fairness/equality, trust and reciprocity are obtained from participants' experimental decisions. Using a variety of regression specifications and control variables, our results suggest that BMI does not exert an effect on any of these social preferences. Some implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26780149

  11. Evaluation of seawater exposure on mechanical properties and failure behavior of E-Glass/BMI composite for marine use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yian; Wang, Zhiying; Seah, Leong Keey; Chai, Gin Boay

    2015-03-01

    Since composite material is playing an increasingly important role in the marine and offshore drilling industry, it is essential to have a good understanding on degradation of the material in the seawater environment. This study investigates the influence of seawater exposure on the mechanical and failure behavior of E-Glass/BMI composite. The water diffusion behavior in the composite has been studied through immersing the specimens in seawater under different conditions. The diffusion rate accelerates with increase of temperature, and the material shows irreversible damage due to seawater absorption at the temperature of 80°C. It is also found that external stress would significantly increase the water absorption. The water uptake in the specimen at 50°C showed a two stage behavior dominated by Fickian law and polymeric relaxation respectively, and saturation was not achieved in 8 months. After diffusion, the Tg of the material is considerably lowered due to plasticization effect. However the effect was found to be reversible after drying the specimen. Based on the testing results of tensile, flexure and fatigue properties of the composites, it is concluded that seawater exposure especially at elevated temperature leads to significant degradation on mechanical properties of the composite. However, the flexural strength of BMI composite with seawater absorption becomes less susceptible to temperature change. It is also found that the seawater absorption doesn't show significant effect on the stiffness of the material.

  12. The Association of Religious Affiliation and Body Mass Index (BMI): An Analysis from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Obesity and obesity-related morbidity and mortality are an ongoing concern in developed countries. Religion is associated with reduced premature mortality and morbidity. However, the association between religion and obesity is unclear and unexplored in the general English population. This cross-sectional study uses Health Survey for England 2012 data to investigate the association of religious affiliation and BMI. A representative sample of 7,414 adults (16 years or older) was included. Waist-to-hip ratio was measured in a smaller sample and was explored as a secondary outcome. Interviews were administered, questionnaires self-completed, and height and weight measured. Sequential linear regression models were used to adjust for health behaviours. Religious affiliation was associated with a 0.91 kg/m(2) higher BMI. Some of this was explained demographically, but it was not accounted for by smoking status, alcohol consumption or physical activity level. Evidence of this association was strongest among those affiliated to a Christian religion. A significantly higher WHR was also seen in Christian and Sikh men. English prospective studies measuring intrinsic religiosity and dietary energy are needed. Religious communities may need greater healthy weight promotion or benefit from tailored interventions built on their beliefs. PMID:25408535

  13. Effect of temperature and cyclic hygrothermal aging on the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber/bismaleimide (BMI) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Voids and debonding lead to a higher absorption rate and lower moisture content. → The changes in three absorption behaviors can be explained by an Arrhenius method. → ILSS reduction induced by hygrothermal aging has a plateau. → Dry specimens and wet specimens have different failure patterns owing to the moisture. → High test temperature and aging induce the rapid drop of mechanical properties. -- Abstract: In this research, hygrothermal aging behaviors of carbon fiber/bismaleimide (BMI) composite materials were investigated. Water diffusivity was measured through 3 wet-dry cycles for BMI resin reinforced with unidirectional carbon fiber CCF300/QY9511 composite. The changes of the diffusion coefficient and saturation level of water absorption during the 3 cycles were determined. Electron microscopy revealed that micro-cracks near the weak interface together with the de-bonding provided routes for water uptake. The interlaminar property of composite was characterized by interlaminar shear strength (ILSS). ILSS reduction of CCF300/QY9511 from hygrothermal aging could come to a plateau during the first 14 days. The different damage morphologies between dry specimens and wet specimens were characterized by electron microscopy. ILSS under different test temperatures was also studied with an Arrhenius method, and the result of the Arrhenius method confirmed that routes, such as micro-cracks and de-bonding, for water uptake were also instrumental in speeding up the drying.

  14. Reduction of radiation exposure and improvement of image quality with BMI-adapted prospective cardiac computed tomography and iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the impact of body mass index (BMI)-adapted protocols and iterative reconstruction algorithms (iDose) on patient radiation exposure and image quality in patients undergoing prospective ECG-triggered 256-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Methods: Image quality and radiation exposure were systematically analyzed in 100 patients. 60 Patients underwent prospective ECG-triggered CCTA using a non-tailored protocol and served as a ‘control’ group (Group 1: 120 kV, 200 mA s). 40 Consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent prospective CCTA, using BMI-adapted tube voltage and standard (Group 2: 100/120 kV, 100–200 mA s) versus reduced tube current (Group 3: 100/120 kV, 75–150 mA s). Iterative reconstructions were provided with different iDose levels and were compared to filtered back projection (FBP) reconstructions. Image quality was assessed in consensus of 2 experienced observers and using a 5-grade scale (1 = best to 5 = worse), and signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR) were quantified. Results: CCTA was performed without adverse events in all patients (n = 100, heart rate of 47–87 bpm and BMI of 19–38 kg/m2). Patients examined using the non-tailored protocol in Group 1 had the highest radiation exposure (3.2 ± 0.4 mSv), followed by Group 2 (1.7 ± 0.7 mSv) and Group 3 (1.2 ± 0.6 mSv) (radiation savings of 47% and 63%, respectively, p < 0.001). Iterative reconstructions provided increased SNR and CNR, particularly when higher iDose level 5 was applied with Multi-Frequency reconstruction (iDose5 MFR) (14.1 ± 4.6 versus 21.2 ± 7.3 for SNR and 12.0 ± 4.2 versus 18.1 ± 6.6 for CNR, for FBP versus iDose5 MFR, respectively, p < 0.001). The combination of BMI adaptation with iterative reconstruction reduced radiation exposure and simultaneously improved image quality (subjective image quality of 1.4 ± 0.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.5 for Group 2 reconstructed using iDose5 MFR versus

  15. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  16. Nuclear reactor repairing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable free repairing of an arbitrary position in an LMFBR reactor. Constitution: A laser light emitted from a laser oscillator installed out of a nuclear reactor is guided into a portion to be repaired in the reactor by using a reflecting mirror, thereby welding or cutting it. The guidance of the laser out of the reactor into the reactor is performed by an extension tube depending into a through hole of a rotary plug, and the guidance of the laser light into a portion to be repaired is performed by the transmitting and condensing action of the reflecting mirror. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  18. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  19. Generation III+ Reactor Portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the power generation needs of utilities are unique and diverse, they are all faced with the double challenge of meeting growing electricity needs while curbing CO2 emissions. To answer these diverse needs and help tackle this challenge, AREVA has developed several reactor models which are briefly described in this document: The EPRTM Reactor: designed on the basis of the Konvoi (Germany) and N4 (France) reactors, the EPRTM reactor is an evolutionary model designed to achieve best-in-class safety and operational performance levels. The ATMEA1TM reactor: jointly designed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and AREVA through ATMEA, their common company. This reactor design benefits from the competencies and expertise of the two mother companies, which have commissioned close to 130 reactor units. The KERENATM reactor: Designed on the basis of the most recent German BWR reactors (Gundremmingen) the KERENATM reactor relies on proven technology while also including innovative, yet thoroughly tested, features. The optimal combination of active and passive safety systems for a boiling water reactor achieves a very low probability of severe accident

  20. Study on Properties of BCE/BMI/Nano-SiO2 Composite%BCE/BMI/Nano-SiO2复合材料的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芬; 孙爱娟

    2011-01-01

    BCE/BMI/nano-SiO2 composite was prepared by melt blending. The effect of nano-SiO2 content on thermal properties, mechanical properties and dynamic mechanical properties of the composite were studied. The dispersion of nano-SiO2 in matrix was analyzed by SEM, The results show that with the increase of nano-SiO2 content, both impact strength and flexural strength of the composite increase at first and then decrease, and impact strength, flexural strength and storage modulus are up to the maximum value with the addition of 2% nano-SiO2;the addition of nano-SiO2 improves the thermal properties of the composite; the dispersion of nano-SiO2 in matrix becomes worse with the increase of nano-SiO2 content.%采用熔融共混法制备了氰酸酯(BCE)/双马来酰亚胺预聚体(BMI)/纳米二氯化硅(nano-SiO2)复合材料,研究了nano-SiO2用量对复合材料耐热性能、静态力学性能和动态力学性能的影响.并利用扫描电镜分析了nano-SiO2在聚合物基体中的分散情况.结果表明:随着nano-SiO2用量的增加,BCE/BMI/nano-SiO2复合材料的冲击强度和弯曲强度均是先升后降,冲击强度、弯曲强度和储能模量均在nano-SiO2含量为2%时达到最大值;nano-SiO2的加入可以提高复合材料的耐热性,但随其用量的增加,nano-SiO2在基体中的分散性逐渐变差.

  1. The Maple reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MDS Nordion supplies the majority of the world's reactor-produced medical isotopes. These isotopes are currently produced in the NRU reactor at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Medical isotopes and related technology are relied upon around the world to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. The NRU reactor, which has played a key role in supplying medical isotopes to date, has been in operation for over 40 years. Replacing this aging reactor has been a priority for MDS Nordion to assure the global nuclear medicine community that Canada will continue to be a dependable supplier of medical isotopes. MDS Nordion contracted AECL to construct two MAPLE reactors dedicated to the production of medical isotopes. The MDS Nordion Medical Isotope Reactor (MMIR) project started in September 1996. This paper describes the MAPLE reactors that AECL has built at its CRL site, and will operate for MDS Nordion. (author)

  2. High temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of high temperature reactors, nuclear energy, in addition to producing electricity, has shown enormous potential for the production of alternate transport energy carrier such as hydrogen. High efficiency hydrogen production processes need process heat at temperatures around 1173-1223 K. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), is currently developing concepts of high temperature reactors capable of supplying process heat around 1273 K. These reactors would provide energy to facilitate combined production of hydrogen, electricity, and drinking water. Compact high temperature reactor is being developed as a technology demonstrator for associated technologies. Design has been also initiated for a 600 MWth innovative high temperature reactor. High temperature reactor development programme has opened new avenues for research in areas like advanced nuclear fuels, high temperature and corrosion resistant materials and protective coatings, heavy liquid metal coolant technologies, etc. The paper highlights design of these reactors and their material related requirements

  3. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  4. Reactor Safety: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Reactor Safety Division focuses on the development of expertise on materials behaviour under irradiation for fission and fusion oriented applications. Furthermore, as nuclear energy needs international public acceptance with respect to safety and efficient management of natural resources and wants to reduce the burden of nuclear waste, the Reactor Safety Division enhanced its efforts to develop the MYRRHA project. MYRRHA, an accelerator driven sub-critical system, might have the potential to cope in Europe with the above mentioned constraints on acceptability and might serve as a technological platform for GEN IV reactor development, in particular the Liquid Metal Fast Reactor.The Reactor Safety Division gathers three research entities that are internationally recognised: the Reactor Materials Research department, the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA department and the Instrumentation department.The objectives of Reactor Materials Research are: to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials and nuclear fuels used in present and future nuclear power industry; to perform research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material and fuel behaviour under or after irradiation; to contribute to the interpretation and modelling of the materials and fuels behaviour in order to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the Reactor Materials Research department concentrate on four distinct disciplines: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel embrittlement Stress corrosion cracking in reactor coolant environment, including Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking; Nuclear Fuel characterisation and development of new fuel types for commercial and test reactors. Development of materials for Fusion and advanced nuclear fission reactors. The safe operation of present nuclear power plants relies primarily on the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel

  5. Effects of age, gender, BMI, and anatomical site on skin thickness in children and adults with diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G B Derraik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of age, sex, body mass index (BMI, and anatomical site on skin thickness in children and adults with diabetes. METHODS: We studied 103 otherwise healthy children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes aged 5-19 years, and 140 adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes aged 20-85 years. The thicknesses of both the dermis and subcutis were assessed using ultrasound with a linear array transducer, on abdominal and thigh skin. RESULTS: There was an age-related thickening of both dermis (p<0.0001 and subcutis (p = 0.013 in children and adolescents. Girls displayed a substantial pubertal increase in subcutis of the thigh (+54%; p = 0.048 and abdomen (+68%; p = 0.009. Adults showed an age-related decrease in dermal (p = 0.021 and subcutis (p = 0.009 thicknesses. Pubertal girls had a thicker subcutis than pubertal boys in both thigh (16.7 vs 7.5 mm; p<0.0001 and abdomen (16.7 vs 8.8 mm; p<0.0001. Men had greater thigh dermal thickness than women (1.89 vs 1.65 mm; p = 0.003, while the subcutis was thicker in women in thigh (21.3 vs 17.9 mm; p = 0.012 and abdomen (17.7 vs 9.8 mm; p<0.0001. In boys, men, and women, both dermis and subcutis were thicker on the abdomen compared to thigh; in girls this was only so for dermal thickness. In both children and adults, the skin (dermis and subcutis became steadily thicker with increasing BMI (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Skin thickness is affected by age, pubertal status, gender, BMI, and anatomical site. Such differences may be important when considering appropriate sites for dermal/subcutaneous injections and other transdermal delivery systems.

  6. Cross-sectional analysis of BMI and some lifestyle variables in Flemish vegetarians compared with non-vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alewaeters, K; Clarys, P; Hebbelinck, M; Deriemaeker, P; Clarys, J P

    Epidemiological studies on vegetarians indicate that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are associated with certain health benefits, which may lower mortality and morbidity. A healthy lifestyle, such as regular physical activity and avoidance of harmful practices, such as smoking and heavy drinking, could also influence these positive health-related outcomes in vegetarians. This study reports BMI, smoking and drinking habits, engagement in physical activity, medication use and subjective health perception in a vegetarian population (women: n = 206, mean age 37.0 +/- 12.3 years; men: n = 120, mean age 42.3 +/- 15.9 years) as compared with a reference Belgian population (women: n = 4993, mean age 49.8 +/- 18.0 years; men: n = 4666, mean age 48.0 +/- 17.1 years). When considering the vegetarian group as a whole, the vegetarians had a lower mean BMI compared with the reference population (respectively 22.1 +/- 3.1 kg/m2 compared with 24.6 +/- 4.8 kg/m2 for women (p Vegetarians smoked less than subjects of the reference group (13.5% compared with 28.5% respectively; p vegetarian and 35.8 in the reference population; p = 0.159). During the weekend, more subjects of the reference population drank alcohol compared with the vegetarian subjects (70.2% vs. 58.6% respectively; p = 0.026). More vegetarians were involved in intensive physical activity (over 4 h per week) compared with the reference population (36.8% vs. 17.3% respectively; p vegetarians were involved in moderate physical activity (up to 4 h per week) compared with subjects of the reference group (28.2% and 51.0% respectively; p vegetarians 34.9 vs. reference subjects 31.8; p = 0.625). Use of prescribed medication was lower among the vegetarians (25.5% compared with 47.3% in the reference population; p vegetarian group and 28.2% in the reference group; p = 0.580). More vegetarian subjects perceived their health to be good to very good compared with the subjects of the reference population (90.4% vs. 77

  7. STUDY OF SERUM ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC INDIVIDUALS & ITS COR R ELATION WITH BMI AND WAIST HIP RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is not simply an inert storage depot for lipids but an important endocrine organ. It secretes many hormones called Adipocytokines which include Adiponectin , which increase insulin sensitivity , has an ti - inflammatory and anti atherogenic properties. OBJECTIVES: To study serum Adiponectin levels in type II DM individuals and compare the results with healthy controls and also to study the effect of BMI and WHR on serum Adiponectin levels. MATERIALS AND ME THOD: The study was carried out in seventy seven subjects who included 6 healthy male controls and 6 healthy female controls , 30 diabetic males and 35 diabetic female individuals. The healthy controls both male and female of age around 40 to 50 years (+5 years were selected with no history of diabetes or hypertension. The study group were selected of the same age as the control group from the Outpatient Department , Diabetology unit , of our Medical College. Individuals Height , Weight and Waist Hip Ratio we re measured and BMI was calculated with the formula - Weight in Kg/ Height in m². Estimation of serum Adiponectin with Human Adiponectin/Acrp 30 Immunoassay by Solid - phase ELISA which employs – Quantitative Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassay Technique. Plasma Gluc ose by GOD/POD method. RESULTS: The result shows that 1. Males have low levels of Adiponectin when compared to females which is not statistically significant and could be due to androgens like testosterone which inhibits the secretion of Adiponectin from a dipocytes. 2. Comparison of serum Adiponectin levels in type 2 DM subjects and healthy controls shows statistically significant decrease in Serum Adiponectin levels (P Value < 0.05 in type II DM subjects. 3. Negative correlation between serum Adiponectin and WHR and BMI but it is not statistically significant. CONCLUSION : Serum Adiponectin levels are decreased in Type II DM individuals. Adiponectin may be considered as one of the significant novel markers in

  8. Research reactors in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentine Nuclear Development started in early fifties. In 1957, it was decided to built the first a research reactor. RA-1 reactor (120 kw, today licensed to work at 40 kW) started operation in January 1958. Originally RA-1 was an Argonaut (American design) reactor. In early sixties, the RA-1 core was changed. Fuel rods (20% enrichment) was introduced instead the old Argonaut core design. For that reason, a critical facility named RA-0 was built. After that, the RA-3 project started, to build a multipurpose 5 MW nuclear reactor MTR pool type, to produce radioisotopes and research. For that reason and to define the characteristics of the RA-3 core, another critical facility was built, RA-2. Initially RA-3 was a 90 % enriched fuel reactor, and started operation in 1967. When Atucha I NPP project started, a German design Power Reactor, a small homogeneous reactor was donated by the German Government to Argentina (1969). This was RA-4 reactor (20% enrichment, 1W). In 1982, RA-6 pool reactor achieved criticality. This is a 500 kW reactor with 90% enriched MTR fuel elements. In 1990, RA-3 started to operate fueled by 20% enriched fuel. In 1997, the RA-8 (multipurpose critical facility located at Pilcaniyeu) started to operate. RA-3 reactor is the most important CNEA reactor for Argentine Research Reactors development. It is the first in a succession of Argentine MTR reactors built by CNEA (and INVAP SE ) in Argentina and other countries: RA-6 (500 kW, Bariloche-Argentina), RP-10 (10MW, Peru), NUR (500 kW, Algeria), MPR (22 MW, Egypt). The experience of Argentinian industry permits to compete with foreign developed countries as supplier of research reactors. Today, CNEA has six research reactors whose activities have a range from education and promotion of nuclear activity, to radioisotope production. For more than forty years, Argentine Research Reactors are working. The experience of Argentine is important, and argentine firms are able to compete in the design and

  9. Thai research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established in 1962, as a reactor center, by the virtue of the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, under operational policy and authority of the Thai Atomic Energy for Peace Commission (TAEPC); and under administration of Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy. It owns and operates the only Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1). The TRR-1/M1 is a mixed reactor system constituting of the old MTR type swimming pool, irradiation facilities and cooling system; and TRIGA Mark III core and control instrumentation. The general performance of TRR-1/M1 is summarized in Table I. The safe operation of TRR-1/M1 is regulated by Reactor Safety Committee (RSC), established under TAEPC, and Health Physics Group of OAEP. The RCS has responsibility and duty to review of and make recommendations on Reactor Standing Orders, Reactor Operation Procedures, Reactor Core Loading and Requests for Reactor Experiments. In addition,there also exist of Emergency Procedures which is administered by OAEP. The Reactor Operation Procedures constitute of reactor operating procedures, system operating procedures and reactor maintenance procedures. At the level of reactor routine operating procedures, there is a set of Specifications on Safety and Operation Limits and Code of Practice from which reactor shift supervisor and operators must follow in order to assure the safe operation of TRR-1/M1. Table II is the summary of such specifications. The OAEP is now upgrading certain major components of the TRR-1/M1 such as the cooling system, the ventilation system and monitoring equipment to ensure their adequately safe and reliable performance under normal and emergency conditions. Furthermore, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing assistance in areas of operation and maintenance and safety analysis. (author)

  10. Nuclear Reactor Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2001-02-01

    An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

  11. Combined introduction of Bmi-1 and hTERT immortalizes human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells with low risk of transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatrai, Peter, E-mail: peter.tatrai@biomembrane.hu [Institute of Enzymology, Research Center for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Karolina ut 29, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Szepesi, Aron, E-mail: aron.szepesi@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Matula, Zsolt, E-mail: matula.zsolt@gmail.com [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Szigeti, Anna, E-mail: anna.szigeti@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Buchan, Gyoengyi, E-mail: buchan@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Madi, Andras, E-mail: madi@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Stem Cell, Apoptosis and Genomics Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Uher, Ferenc, E-mail: uher@biomembrane.hu [Stem Cell Laboratory, Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service, Dioszegi ut 64, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We immortalized human adipose stromal cells (ASCs) with hTERT, Bmi-1, and SV40T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT-only ASCs are prone to transformation, while Bmi-only ASCs become senescent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SV40T introduced along with hTERT abrogates proliferation control and multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT combined with Bmi-1 yields stable phenotype up to 140 population doublings. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are increasingly being studied for their usefulness in regenerative medicine. However, limited life span and donor-dependent variation of primary cells such as ASCs present major hurdles to controlled and reproducible experiments. We therefore aimed to establish immortalized ASC cell lines that provide steady supply of homogeneous cells for in vitro work while retain essential features of primary cells. To this end, combinations of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), murine Bmi-1, and SV40 large T antigen (SV40T) were introduced by lentiviral transduction into ASCs. The resulting cell lines ASC{sup hTERT}, ASC{sup Bmi-1}, ASC{sup Bmi-1+hTERT} and ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} were tested for transgene expression, telomerase activity, surface immunomarkers, proliferation, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, karyotype, tumorigenicity, and cellular senescence. All cell lines have maintained expression of characteristic surface immunomarkers, and none was tumorigenic. However, ASC{sup Bmi-1} had limited replicative potential, while the rapidly proliferating ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} acquired chromosomal aberrations, departed from MSC phenotype, and lost differentiation capacity. ASC{sup hTERT} and ASC{sup hTERT+Bmi-1}, on the other hand, preserved all essential MSC features and did not senesce after 100 population doublings. Notably, a subpopulation of ASC{sup hTERT} also acquired aberrant karyotype and showed signs of transformation after long-term culture

  12. Image noise-based dose adaptation in dynamic volume CT of the heart: dose and image quality optimisation in comparison with BMI-based dose adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the image quality and radiation dose using image-noise (IN)-based determination of X-ray tube settings compared with a body mass index (BMI)-based protocol during CT coronary angiography (CTCA). Two hundred consecutive patients referred for CTCA to our institution were divided into two groups: BMI-based, 100 patients had CTCA with the X-ray tube current adjusted to the patient's BMI while maintaining a fixed tube potential of 120 kV; IN-based, 100 patients underwent imaging with the X-ray tube current and voltage adjusted to the IN measured within the mid-left ventricle on a pre-acquisition trans-axial image. Two independent cardiac radiologists performed blinded image quality assessment with quantification of the IN and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) from the mid-LV and qualitative assessment using a three-point score. Radiation dose (CTDI and DLP) was recorded from the console. Results showed: IN (HU): BMI-based, 30.1 ± 9.9; IN-based, 33.1 ± 6.7; 32 % variation reduction (P = 0.001); SNR: BMI-based, 18.6 ± 7.1; IN-based, 15.4 ± 3.7; 48 % variation reduction (P < 0.0001). Visual scores: BMI-based, 2.3 ± 0.6; IN-based, 2.2 ± 0.5 (P = 0.54). Radiation dose: CTDI (mGy), BMI-based, 22.68 ± 8.9; IN-based, 17.16 ± 7.6; 24.3 % reduction (P < 0.001); DLP (mGy.cm), BMI-based, 309.3 ± 127.5; IN-based, 230.6 ± 105.5; 25.4 % reduction (P < 0.001). Image-noise-based stratification of X-ray tube parameters for CTCA results in 32 % improvement in image quality and 25 % reduction in radiation dose compared with a BMI-based protocol. (orig.)

  13. Adjusting to motherhood. The importance of BMI in predicting maternal well-being, eating behaviour and feeding practice within a cross cultural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, Netalie; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard; Hetherington, Marion

    2014-10-01

    Maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative body image and restrained eating which are experienced differently across cultures. The present study aimed to: 1) examine if self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction changed from early pregnancy to 2-6 months after giving birth; 2) explore changes according to country (Israel vs. UK) and BMI; and 3) determine any relationship between these measurements and infant feeding. Participants completed questionnaires assessing self-esteem, body image and eating/feeding behaviours. Multilevel linear modelling was used to account for change and to assess the independent impact of BMI on outcomes. Seventy-three women and infants participated in the study in early pregnancy and again 16 (9) weeks following birth. Women gained 1.5 kg (range -12 + 23) and UK mothers reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction, but self-esteem and eating behaviours remained stable. BMI was the main predictor of self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction. Mothers' perceptions of infant's eating did not vary according to BMI or country; however, heavier mothers reported feeding their infants according to a schedule. The first months after giving birth are a key time to assess adjustment to motherhood but later assessments are necessary in order to track changes beyond the early period post-pregnancy. PMID:24933685

  14. Outcomes of intracorporeal lithotripsy of upper tract stones is not affected by BMI and skin-to-stone distance (SSD in obese and morbid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pompeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine if body mass index (BMI and stone skin distance (SSD affect stone free rate (SFR in obese and morbid obese patients who underwent flexible URS for proximal ureteral or renal stones < 20 mm. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of consecutive patients that underwent flexible URS. Inclusion criteria were: proximal ureteral stones and renal stones less than 20 mm in the preoperative computed tomography (CT. SFR were then compared according to SSD and BMI. Results A total of 153 patients were eligible for this analysis, 49 (32.02% with SSD < 10 cm and 104 (67.97% with SSD ≥ 10 cm. The mean stone size was 10.5 ± 6.4 mm. The overall SFR in our study was 82.4%. The SFR for the SSD < 10 and ≥ 10 were 79.6% and 83.7% respectively (p = 0.698 and for BMI < 30, ≥ 30 and < 40 and ≥ 40 were 82.9%, 81.7% and 90.9% respectively. Regression analysis showed no affect between BMI or SSD regarding SFR. Conclusion Ureteroscopy should be considered as a first-line of treatment for renal/proximal stones in obese and morbid obese patients. URS may be preferable to SWL in obese patients independently of the SSD, BMI or the location of proximal stones.

  15. Race or Resource? BMI, Race, and Other Social Factors as Risk Factors for Interlimb Differences among Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors with Lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine T. Dean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High BMI is a risk factor for upper body breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL onset. Black cancer survivors are more likely to have high BMI than White cancer survivors. While observational analyses suggest up to 2.2 times increased risk of BCRL onset for Black breast cancer survivors, no studies have explored race or other social factors that may affect BCRL severity, operationalized by interlimb volume difference (ILD. Materials and Methods. ILD was measured by perometry for 296 overweight (25 > BMI 6 months from treatment in the WISER Survivor trial. Multivariable linear regression examined associations between social and physical factors and ILD. Results. Neither Black race (−0.26, p=0.89 nor BMI (0.22, p=0.10 was associated with ILD. Attending college (−4.89, p=0.03 was the strongest factor associated with ILD, followed by having more lymph nodes removed (4.75, p=0.01, >25% BCRL care adherence (4.10, p=0.01, and years since treatment (0.55, p<0.001. Discussion. Neither race nor BMI was associated with ILD among overweight cancer survivors. Education, a proxy for resource level, was the strongest factor associated with greater ILD. Tailoring physical activity and weight loss interventions designed to address BCRL severity by resource rather than race should be considered.

  16. Race or Resource? BMI, Race, and Other Social Factors as Risk Factors for Interlimb Differences among Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors with Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anagha; Kim, Taehoon; Herling, Matthew; Brown, Justin C.; Zhang, Zi; Evangelisti, Margaret; Hackley, Renata; Kim, Jiyoung; Cheville, Andrea; Troxel, Andrea B.; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High BMI is a risk factor for upper body breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) onset. Black cancer survivors are more likely to have high BMI than White cancer survivors. While observational analyses suggest up to 2.2 times increased risk of BCRL onset for Black breast cancer survivors, no studies have explored race or other social factors that may affect BCRL severity, operationalized by interlimb volume difference (ILD). Materials and Methods. ILD was measured by perometry for 296 overweight (25 > BMI 6 months from treatment) in the WISER Survivor trial. Multivariable linear regression examined associations between social and physical factors and ILD. Results. Neither Black race (−0.26, p = 0.89) nor BMI (0.22, p = 0.10) was associated with ILD. Attending college (−4.89, p = 0.03) was the strongest factor associated with ILD, followed by having more lymph nodes removed (4.75, p = 0.01), >25% BCRL care adherence (4.10, p = 0.01), and years since treatment (0.55, p < 0.001). Discussion. Neither race nor BMI was associated with ILD among overweight cancer survivors. Education, a proxy for resource level, was the strongest factor associated with greater ILD. Tailoring physical activity and weight loss interventions designed to address BCRL severity by resource rather than race should be considered. PMID:27433356

  17. The Relationship Between Parent Perception of Child Weight, Parent Feeding Style, and Child BMI Among Low-Income, African American Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Jhazmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In February 2011, First Lady Michelle Obama revealed her plan to end the childhood obesity epidemic in America. With childhood obesity considered a health crisis, it is crucial to begin serious prevention efforts. Shaping healthy eating habits and the physical activity of children at the preschool age is a great step toward life-long prevention. The U.S. populations most affected by and at-risk for childhood obesity are African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Overweight and obesity rates are also particularly on the rise among preschool children. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight status, parent feeding style and child body mass index (BMI. A total of 82 primary caregivers of preschool-age children participated in the study. Participants were low-income and primarily African American. Primary caregivers completed surveys that included a demographic questionnaire, caregiver feeding style questionnaire and a parent perception measure. The children’s BMI information was gathered from Head Start’s nutrition coordinator. Results showed that 35% of children in the current sample had a BMI at or above the 85th percentile, which is considered overweight. Results suggest that parents perceive their child’s weight status to be at a healthier level than objective BMI estimates suggest. Parent feeding style was not significantly related to child BMI in the current study.

  18. BMI1 Is Recruited to DNA Breaks and Contributes to DNA Damage-Induced H2A Ubiquitination and Repair ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjala, Vasudeva; Nacerddine, Karim; Kulkarni, Atul; Oza, Jay; Hill, Sarah J.; Yao, Ming; Citterio, Elisabetta; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Ganesan, Shridar

    2011-01-01

    DNA damage activates signaling pathways that lead to modification of local chromatin and recruitment of DNA repair proteins. Multiple DNA repair proteins having ubiquitin ligase activity are recruited to sites of DNA damage, where they ubiquitinate histones and other substrates. This DNA damage-induced histone ubiquitination is thought to play a critical role in mediating the DNA damage response. We now report that the polycomb protein BMI1 is rapidly recruited to sites of DNA damage, where it persists for more than 8 h. The sustained localization of BMI1 to damage sites is dependent on intact ATM and ATR and requires H2AX phosphorylation and recruitment of RNF8. BMI1 is required for DNA damage-induced ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119. Loss of BMI1 leads to impaired repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination and the accumulation of cells in G2/M. These data support a crucial role for BMI1 in the cellular response to DNA damage. PMID:21383063

  19. Effect of changes in BMI and waist circumference on ambulatory blood pressure in obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Kristian Nebelin; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Ibsen, Hans;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight reduction has been accompanied with a reduction in clinic blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents; however, the effect on ambulatory BP (ABP) is uncertain. The objective was to investigate the impact of weight changes on ABP in obese children and adolescents. METHODS......: Sixty-one severely obese patients aged 10-18 years underwent lifestyle intervention at the Children's Obesity Clinic. Patients were examined with ABP monitoring at baseline and after 1 year of treatment (follow-up). To account for growth, BP and BMI were standardized into z scores, whereas waist.......05). No relationship was found between changes in these anthropometric obesity measures and changes in clinic BP. CONCLUSION: Changes in obesity measures were closely related to changes in ABP, but not to changes in clinic BP, in severe obese children and adolescents after 1 year of lifestyle intervention...

  20. Children's knowledge of packaged and fast food brands and their BMI. Why the relationship matters for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R; Polmear-Swendris, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Studies regarding the advancing challenges of obesity in many countries are beginning to converge on the importance of early food exposure and consumption patterns. Across two studies (Study 1, 34 boys, 35 girls; Study 2, 40 boys, 35 girls, ages 3-6), child knowledge of brands offering products high in sugar, salt and fat was shown to be a significant predictor of child BMI, even after controlling for their age and gender and when also considering the extent of their TV viewing. Additionally, two different collage measures of brand knowledge (utilized across the two studies) performed similarly, suggesting that this measure may be serving as a surrogate indicator of an overall pattern of product exposure and consumption. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:24972133

  1. Mechanical properties of polyethersulfone modified epoxy/3,3′-bis (maleimidophenyl)phenylphosphine oxide (BMI) intercrosslinked matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Rajasekaran; M Alagar

    2008-11-01

    Novel intercrosslinked networks of polyethersulfone modified epoxy-3,3′-bis(maleimidophenyl) phenylphosphine oxide matrix systems are developed. The polyethersulfone modification of epoxy resin is carried out by using tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) as a catalyst. The polyethersulfone modified epoxy systems are further modified with 4–12% 3,3′-bis(maleimidophenyl) phenylphosphine oxide and cured by using diaminodiphenylmethane. Tensile, flexural, impact properties and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) are carried out to assess the mechanical behaviour of the prepared neat resin castings. Mechanical studies indicate that the introduction of polyethersulfone into these epoxy resins improves the toughness without any reduction in the stress–strain values. But, the incorporation of bismaleimide (BMI) into the epoxy resin improves the stress–strain properties with a lowering of the toughness. The introduction of both polyethersulfone and bismaleimide into the epoxy resin influences the mechanical properties according to their content percentages.

  2. Reactor containment and reactor safety in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor safety systems of two reactors are studied aiming at the reactor containment integrity. The first is a BWR type reactor and is called Peachbottom 2, and the second is a PWR type reactor, and is called surry. (E.G.)

  3. The effect of body composition and BMI on 25(OH)D response in vitamin D-supplemented athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassity, Evan P; Redzic, Maja; Teager, Cassidy R; Thomas, D Travis

    2016-10-01

    Fat mass is inversely associated with vitamin D status, and athletes with the most adipose tissue may have the greatest risk for insufficient (25(OH)D 20-32 ng mL(-1)) or deficient (25(OH)D effects of fat and lean mass on 25(OH)D change in response to vitamin D supplementation have yet to be elucidated in athletes. In addition, vitamin D has a known role in bone health yet a link between short-term changes in 25(OH)D and bone turnover in indoor athletes have not yet been described. Thirty-two collegiate swimmers and divers (19 male, 13 female; 19 (1) years) participated in a 6-month randomized controlled trial and consumed either 4000 IU d(-1) of vitamin D3 (n = 19) or placebo (PLA; n = 13). Anthropometry and blood collection of 25(OH)D, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and N-terminal telopeptide (NTx) occurred at three time points. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured body composition analysis at baseline and endpoint. In the vitamin D group, BMI was negatively correlated with 6-month 25(OH)D change (R = -0.496; P = .03) and a stronger predictor of 25(OH)D change (P = .04) than ultraviolet B exposure and fat mass change. Athletes in the high bone turnover group showed significantly greater losses of 25(OH)D over 6-months compared to athletes in the low bone turnover group (P = .03). These results suggest athletes within the normal BMI category experience a diminished response to 4000 IU d(-1) of vitamin D3 supplementation, and periods of high bone turnover may be an additional risk factor for developing compromised vitamin D status in athletes. PMID:26698109

  4. Relationships between frequency of family meals, BMI and nutritional aspects of the home food environment among New Zealand adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaaf David

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has documented the positive effects of family meals on the dietary quality of adolescents. The objective of the current study is to examine associations between frequency of family meals and body mass index (BMI, other aspects of the home food environment, and related nutrition behaviors. Methods Data were collected during baseline measurements of the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities study. In total, 3245 ethnically diverse students completed a questionnaire about their nutrition behaviors and were weighed and measured for height. Results In total, 42% of adolescents ate a family meal on all of the previous five school nights. Frequency of family meals was modestly associated with BMI in bivariate analysis (p = 0.045, but lost significance when demographic characteristics were included in the model. Frequency of family meals was associated with many positive aspects of home food environment and positive nutrition behaviors, including parental support for healthy eating, limits on television use, having fruit available at home, consuming five fruits and vegetables a day, eating breakfast, and bringing lunch from home. Surprisingly, no relationships were observed between frequency of family meals and accessibility and consumption of many high fat/high sugar foods. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the positive effect of family meals may reflect an overall positive home food environment. Families who have meals together have more healthful foods available at home and support their child in eating healthfully. There were no relationships between family meals and high fat/high sugar foods; this suggest that while families may prioritize eating together, messages about limiting the availability and consumption of these snack foods are not getting through.

  5. The coupled effect of fiber volume fraction and void fraction on hydraulic fluid absorption of quartz/BMI laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdelbrink, Keith R.; Anderson, Jacob P.; Siddique, Zahed; Altan, M. Cengiz

    2016-03-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resin with quartz (AQ581) fiber reinforcement is a composite material frequently used in aerospace applications, such as engine cowlings and radomes. Various composite components used in aircrafts are exposed to different types of hydraulic fluids, which may lead to anomalous absorption behavior over the service life of the composite. Accurate predictive models for absorption of liquid penetrants are particularly important as the composite components are often exposed to long-term degradation due to absorbed moisture, hydraulic fluids, or similar liquid penetrants. Microstructural features such as fiber volume fraction and void fraction can have a significant effect on the absorption behavior of fiber-reinforced composites. In this paper, hydraulic fluid absorption characteristics of quartz/BMI laminates fabricated from prepregs preconditioned at different relative humidity and subsequently cured at different pressures are presented. The composite samples are immersed into hydraulic fluid at room temperature, and were not subjected to any prior degradation. To generate process-induced microvoids, prepregs were conditioned in an environmental chamber at 2% or 99% relative humidity at room temperature for a period of 24 hours prior to laminate fabrication. To alter the fiber volume fraction, the laminates were fabricated at cure pressures of 68.9 kPa (10 psi) or 482.6 kPa (70 psi) via a hot-press. The laminates are shown to have different levels of microvoids and fiber volume fractions, which were observed to affect the absorption dynamics considerably and exhibited clear non-Fickian behavior. A one-dimensional hindered diffusion model (HDM) was shown to be successful in predicting the hydraulic fluid absorption. Model prediction indicates that as the fabrication pressure increased from 68.9 kPa to 482.6 kPa, the maximum fluid content (M∞) decreased from 8.0% wt. to 1.0% wt. The degree of non-Fickian behavior, measured by hindrance coefficient (

  6. Influence of gender, BMI, and ethnicity on serum ALT levels of healthy students of a medical school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme found in Liver and indicates injury to Hepatocytes. It is influenced by various factors. The objectives of this study were to identify the correlates of ALT activity among healthy medical students of Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology, aged 18-22 years. This was to establish the mean ALT levels of the students and compare them with those in various parts of the world and observe various correlations that exist and factors that may influence ALT levels. Methods: This population included 143 volunteer students (93 men and 50 women) selected on the basis of negative answers to a detailed medical questionnaire including past medical history, drug and alcohol consumption, on the absence of clinical signs of liver disease, on the negativity of serological testing for Hepatitis B and C virus. Results: The mean ALT level of the entire population was 28.7 IU/L. A major sex-difference in ALT value was observed, the mean ALT value being higher in men than in women (32.1+- 21.7 vs. 22.6 +- 9.7 IU/L, p<0.004). According to WHO criteria for Asians, normal BMI was taken from 18.5-23.0 Kg/m/sup 2/. There was a positive significant correlation between serum ALT level and BMI (p<0.002). ALT level strongly correlates with body mass index and gender. There was no significant variation in ALT levels among Punjabis and Sindhis, Balochis, Pathans, and Kashmiris. Conclusion: We suggest the need of taking into account these parameters in a clinical interpretation of ALT level. (author)

  7. Improvement of C peptide zero BMI 24-34 diabetic patients after tailored one anastomosis gastric bypass (BAGUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garcia-Caballero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although bariatric surgery proved to be a very effective method in the treatment of patients in whose pancreas still produce insulin (type 2 diabetes, the accompanied metabolic syndrome and their diabetes complications, there is no information on the effect of this type of surgery in BMI24-34 patients when pancreas do not produce insulin at all (type 1, LADA and long term evolution type 2 diabetes among others. Patients and methods: We report preliminary data of a serie of 11 patients all with a C-peptide values below 0.0 ng/ml. They were followed for 6 to 60 months (mean 19 months after surgery. We studied the changes in glycemic control, evolution of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes complications after one anastomosis gastric bypass (BAGUA. Results: All values relative to glycemic control were improved HbA1c (from 8.9 ± 0.6 to 6.7 ± 0.2%, FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose [from 222.36 ± 16.87 to 94 ± 5 (mg/dl] as well as the daily insulin requirement of rapid (from 40.6 ± 12.8 to 0 (U/d and long-lasting insulin (from 41.27 ± 7.3 U/day to 15.2 ± 3.3 U/day. It resolved 100% of the metabolic syndrome diseases as well as severe hypoglycaemia episodes present before surgery and improved some serious complications from diabetes like retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, peripheral vasculopathy and cardiopathy. Conclusions: Tailored one anastomosis gastric bypass in BMI 24-34 C peptide zero diabetic patients eliminated the use of rapid insulin, reduced to only one injection per day long-lasting insulin and improved the glycemic control. After surgery disappear metabolic syndrome and severe hypoglycaemia episodes and improves significantly retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, peripheral vasculopathy and cardiopathy.

  8. TRIGA reactor main systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This module describes the main systems of low power (<2 MW) and higher power (≥2 MW) TRIGA reactors. The most significant difference between the two is that forced reactor cooling and an emergency core cooling system are generally required for the higher power TRIGA reactors. However, those TRIGA reactors that are designed to be operated above 3 MW also use a TRIGA fuel that is specifically designed for those higher power outputs (3 to 14 MW). Typical values are given for the respective systems although each TRIGA facility will have unique characteristics that may only be determined by the experienced facility operators. Due to the inherent wide scope of these research reactor facilities construction and missions, this training module covers those systems found at most operating TRIGA reactor facilities but may also discuss non-standard equipment that was found to be operationally useful although not necessarily required. (author)

  9. Evaluation of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of research reactors with highly enriched (93%) uranium fuel at JAERI, JRR-2 and JMTR is described. JRR-2 is a heterogeneous type of reactor, using heavy water as moderator and coolant. It uses both MTR type and cylindrical type of fuel elements. The maximum thermal power and the thermal neutron flux are 10 MW and 2x1014 n/cm2 see respectively. The reactor has been used for various experiments such as solid state physics, material irradiation, reactor fuel irradiation and radioisotope production. The JMTR is a multi-purpose tank type material testing reactor, and light water moderator and coolant, operated at 50 MW. The evaluation of lower enriched fuel and its consequences for both reactors is considered more especially

  10. Multipurpose research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international symposium on the utilization of multipurpose research reactors and related international co-operation was organized by the IAEA to provide for information exchange on current uses of research reactors and international co-operative projects. The symposium was attended by about 140 participants from 36 countries and two international organizations. There were 49 oral presentations of papers and 24 poster presentations. The presentations were divided into 7 sessions devoted to the following topics: neutron beam research and applications of neutron scattering (6 papers and 1 poster), reactor engineering (6 papers and 5 posters), irradiation testing of fuel and material for fission and fusion reactors (6 papers and 10 posters), research reactor utilization programmes (13 papers and 4 posters), neutron capture therapy (4 papers), neutron activation analysis (3 papers and 4 posters), application of small reactors in research and training (11 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. The nuclear soliton reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic reactor physics of a completely novel nuclear fission reactor design - the soliton-reactor - is presented on the basis of a simple model. In such a reactor, the neutrons in the critical region convert either fertile material in the adjacent layers into fissile material or reduce the poisoning of fissile material in such a manner that successively new critical regions emerge. The result is an autocatalytically driven burn-up wave which propagates throughout the reactor. Thereby, the relevant characteristic spatial distributions (neutron flux, specific power density and the associated particle densities) are solitons - wave phenomena resulting from non-linear partial differential equations which do not change their shape during propagation. A qualitativley new kind of harnessing nuclear fission energy may become possible with fuel residence times comparable with the useful lifetime of the reactor system. In the long run, fast breeder systems which exploit the natural uranium and thorium resources, without any reprocessing capacity are imaginable. (orig.)

  12. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  13. Fusion reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work covers four separate areas: (1) development of technology for processing liquid lithium from blankets, (2) investigation of hydrogen isotope permeation in candidate structural metals and alloys for near-term fusion reactors, (3) analytical studies encompassing fusion reactor thermal hydraulics, tritium facility design, and fusion reactor safety, and (4) studies involving dosimetry and damage analysis. Recent accomplishments in each of these areas are summarized

  14. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  16. PFBR reactor protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design philosophy adopted for Prototype Fast breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a classical one and has the following features: triplicated sensors for measuring important safety parameters; two independent reactor protection Logic Systems based on solid state devices; reactivity control achieved by control rods; gas equipped modules at the core blanket interface providing negative reactivity. Design verification of these features showed that safety of the reactor can be achieved by a traditional approach since the inherent features of LMFBR make this easy

  17. Reactor BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported

  18. TRIGA reactor characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This module describes the general design, characteristics and parameters of TRIGA reactors and fuels. It is recommended that most of this information should be incorporated into any reactor operator training program and, in many cases, the facility Safety Analysis Report. It is oriented to teach the basics of the physics and mechanical design of the TRIGA fuel as well as its unique operational characteristics and the differences between TRIGA fuels and others more traditional reactor fuels. (nevyjel)

  19. Reactor Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on reactor safety is to develop expertise in probabilistic and deterministic reactor safety analysis. The research programme consists of four main activities, in particular the development of software for reliability analysis of large systems and participation in the international PHEBUS-FP programme for severe accidents, the development of an expert system for the aid to diagnosis; the development and application of a probabilistic reactor dynamics method. Main achievements in 1999 are reported

  20. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1984 are described. The work of the Department is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and Fusion Reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, reactor physics experiment and analysis, fusion neutronics, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, safeguards technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  1. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1981 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  2. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1979 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committees on Reactor Physics and on Decomissioning of Nuclear Facilities. (author)

  3. New reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost

  4. Reactor construction steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic functions of light water reactor components are shown on the example of a pressurized water reactor and the requirements resulting therefrom for steel, the basic structural material, are derived. A detailed analysis of three main groups of reactor steels is presented and the applications are indicated of low-alloyed steels, high-alloyed austenitic steels, and steels with a high content of Ni and of alloying additions for steam generator pipes. An outline is given of prospective fast breeder reactor steels. (J.K.)

  5. Commercialization of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative analysis has been performed of capital and fuel cycle costs for fast BN-type and pressurized light water VVER-type reactors. As a result of materials demand and components costs comparison of NPPs with VVER-1000 and BN-600 reactors, respectively, conclusion was made, that under equal conditions of the comparison, NPP with fast reactor had surpassed the specific capital cost of NPP with VVER by about 30 - 40 %. Ways were determined for further decrease of this difference, as well as for the fuel cycle cost reduction, because at present it is higher than that of VVER-type reactors. (author)

  6. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  7. Natural convection type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a natural convection type nuclear reactor, a reactor core is disposed such that the top of the reactor core is always situated in a flooded position even if pipelines connected to the pressure vessel are ruptured and the level at the inside of the reactor vessel is reduced due to flashing. Further, a lower dry well situated below the pressure vessel is disposed such that it is in communication with a through hole to a pressure suppression chamber situated therearound and the reactor core is situated at the level lower than that of the through hole. If pipelines connected to the pressure vessel are ruptured to cause loss of water, although the water level is lowered after the end of the flashing, the reactor core is always flooded till the operation of a pressure accummulation water injection system to prevent the top of the reactor core even from temporary exposure. Further, injected water is discharged to the outside of the pressure vessel, transferred to the lower dry well, and flows through the through hole to the pressure control chamber and cools the surface of the reactor pressure vessel from the outside. Accordingly, the reactor core is cooled to surely and efficiently remove the after-heat. (N.H.)

  8. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors IAEA safety

  9. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a control device which can conduct scram and avoid lowering of the power of a nuclear power plant upon occurrence of earthquakes. Namely, the device of the present invention comprises, in addition to an existent power control device, (1) an earthquake detector for detecting occurrence and annihilation of earthquakes and (2) a reactor control device for outputting control rod operation signals and reactor core flow rate control signals depending on the earthquake detection signals from the detector, and reactor and plant information. With such a constitution, although the reactor is vibrated by earthquakes, the detector detects slight oscillations of the reactor by initial fine vibration waves as premonitory symptoms of serious earthquakes. The earthquake occurrence signals are outputted to the reactor control device. The reactor control device, receiving the signals, changes the position of control rods by way of control rod driving mechanisms to make the axial power distribution in the reactor core to a top peak type. As a result, even if the void amount in the reactor core is reduced by the subsequent actual earthquakes, since the void amount is moved, effects on the increase of neutron fluxes by the actual earthquakes is small. (I.S.)

  10. Nuclear reactor internals arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor internals arrangement is disclosed which facilitates reactor refueling. A reactor vessel and a nuclear core is utilized in conjunction with an upper core support arrangement having means for storing withdrawn control rods therein. The upper core support is mounted to the underside of the reactor vessel closure head so that upon withdrawal of the control rods into the upper core support, the closure head, the upper core support and the control rods are removed as a single unit thereby directly exposing the core for purposes of refueling

  11. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed

  12. BMI, weight stability and mortality among adults without clinical co-morbidities: a 22-year mortality follow-up in the finnish twin cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korkeila, Maarit; Rissanen, Aila; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    then followed over 22 years (1982-2003). Additionally, death discordant twin pairs were studied to assess whether body weight differences are associated with mortality independent of childhood factors and genetic background. Deaths and cause of death were ascertained from national registries......AIM AND METHOD: Cause-specific mortality was studied in relation to body mass index (BMI) and weight stability (defined as less than 1 BMI unit change during a 6-year period) in 15,424 initially healthy twin subjects from the Finnish Twin Cohort, first examined in 1975, re-examined in 1981, and....... Associations with mortality were estimated by Cox proportional hazards model for all individuals and conditional logistic regression analysis for pairwise analyses. RESULTS: Mortality increased with increasing BMI for all causes and coronary heart disease (CHD) in men, and there were no associations for all...

  13. Danske skolebørns BMI målt i perioden 1986/1987-1996/1997 sammenlignet med danske målinger fra 1971/1972

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tove Anne-Grete; Rasmussen, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    2002-01-01

    schoolchildren in 1971/1972. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The school health officers in 23 municipalities representing a "mini-Denmark" collected from the school health records 3-4 routine measurements of height and weight in children attending school in 1986/1987-1996/1997. From these measurements, the children's BMIs...... were calculated and BMI centiles were constructed. The data covered a total of 11,167 measurements of 3371 children. RESULTS: The children in our study had higher BMI values than had children in 1971/1972, both on average and for the highest centiles. The average BMI values were significantly higher...... overweight and obese 14-16-year-olds according to internationally based cut-off points had increased from 5.1% to 1.5% for boys and from 6.2% to 15.6% for girls since 1971/72. This trend calls for preventive efforts. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Oct-21...

  14. Assessing the Value of BMI and Aerobic Capacity as Surrogate Markers for the Severity of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Who Are Obese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra; Asrar ul Haq, Muhammad; Jerums, George; Hanson, Erik; Hayes, Alan; Allen, Jason D; Sbaraglia, Melissa; Selig, Steve; Wong, Chiew; Hare, David L; Levinger, Itamar

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is one of the earliest signs for abnormal cardiac function in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). It is important to explore the risk factors that will assist in identifying the severity of the LVDD in this population. We examined the influences of fitness and fatness on the level of left ventricular (LV) impairment in patients with T2DM. Twenty-five patients (age: 64.0 ± 2.5 years, body mass index [BMI] = 36.0 ± 1.5 kg/m2, mean ± standard error of measurement) with T2DM and preserved systolic function, but impaired diastolic function, mitral valve (MV) E/e′, participated in the study. LV function was assessed using a stress echocardiograph, aerobic power was assessed with a sign- and symptom-limited graded exercise test, and the fatness level was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and BMI. Patients in the higher 50% of BMI had higher lateral and septal MV E/e′ (∼34% and ∼25%, respectively, both P 0.05). In addition, a higher BMI correlated with a higher lateral (r = 0.62, P < 0.001) and septal (r = 0.56, P < 0.01) E/e′. There was no such relationship for VO2peak. BMI and VO2peak were not correlated with LV systolic function (ejection fraction). In individuals with T2DM and diastolic dysfunction, a higher BMI was associated with worsening diastolic function independent of their aerobic capacity. The data provide a simple and practical approach for clinicians to assist in the early identification and diagnostics of functional changes in the heart diastolic function in this population. PMID:27199576

  15. Assessing the Value of BMI and Aerobic Capacity as Surrogate Markers for the Severity of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Who Are Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra; Asrar Ul Haq, Muhammad; Jerums, George; Hanson, Erik; Hayes, Alan; Allen, Jason D; Sbaraglia, Melissa; Selig, Steve; Wong, Chiew; Hare, David L; Levinger, Itamar

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is one of the earliest signs for abnormal cardiac function in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). It is important to explore the risk factors that will assist in identifying the severity of the LVDD in this population. We examined the influences of fitness and fatness on the level of left ventricular (LV) impairment in patients with T2DM. Twenty-five patients (age: 64.0 ± 2.5 years, body mass index [BMI] = 36.0 ± 1.5 kg/m(2), mean ± standard error of measurement) with T2DM and preserved systolic function, but impaired diastolic function, mitral valve (MV) E/e', participated in the study. LV function was assessed using a stress echocardiograph, aerobic power was assessed with a sign- and symptom-limited graded exercise test, and the fatness level was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and BMI. Patients in the higher 50% of BMI had higher lateral and septal MV E/e' (∼34% and ∼25%, respectively, both P 0.05). In addition, a higher BMI correlated with a higher lateral (r = 0.62, P < 0.001) and septal (r = 0.56, P < 0.01) E/e'. There was no such relationship for VO2peak. BMI and VO2peak were not correlated with LV systolic function (ejection fraction). In individuals with T2DM and diastolic dysfunction, a higher BMI was associated with worsening diastolic function independent of their aerobic capacity. The data provide a simple and practical approach for clinicians to assist in the early identification and diagnostics of functional changes in the heart diastolic function in this population. PMID:27199576

  16. Diabetes surgery in type 2 BMI 24-29 vs IMC 30-34 diabetic patients: is there differences among restrictive, malabsorptive and gastric bypass procedures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garciacaballero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a public health problem with a prevalence of 345 million people worldwide that it may double by the year 2030 and have a high costs and mortality. Gastrointestinal surgery is accepted as a form of treatment that was already suggested for obese in 1987 by Pories, confirmed for obese patients by the meta-analysis of Buchwald and the direct comparison of gastric bypass with medical treatment in the study of Schauer that demonstrate a 4 fold greater resolution rate of DM with surgery. Improvement occurs immediately after surgery, before the patients lose weight in with BMI > 35; but there is doubt if the existent evidence is enough to extrapolate these results to patients with BMI < 35 and especially with BMI < 30, in spite that four reviews in patients with this BMI and DM2 demonstrated the same results when stomach, duodenum and part of jejunum is bypassed as happen gastric bypass (better results with this of one anastomosis than of two anastomosis, Rouxen-Y BPD. For patients with a BMI between 30 and 35 restrictive techniques: LAGB and SGL are good but not better than the mixed: RYGB, BAGUA, or SG-DJB with remission from 60 to 100%, minor in the derivative: BPD and above on the IID with a 81% of remission. There are no differences in the metabolic control in comparison to the obese, It is progressively better with DJB, SDS, IID and BAGUA especially in patients who do not require insulin, have less time with disease, have normal C peptide levels, and not so much relation with the initial BMI that is only important to decide the degree of restriction. Although several mechanisms has been suggesed for explaining these results such as caloric intake, hormonal changes, bypass of the anterior or early stimulation of posterior intestine, fundectomy, intestinal gluconeogenesis and others, new ones will appear in the near future.

  17. Catalogue of questions concerning the documentation of quality assurance during the production and the operation of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalogue of questions concerning the documentation of quality assurance during the production and the operation of reactor pressure vessels was made by order of the BMI (Bundesministerium des Innern). It includes questions relating to the fields of design, planning, manufacturing, in-service inspection, and neutron irradiation surveillance. With varying degrees of particularization, the answers to these questions supply information for a presentation of this issue specifically modelled to the problems of reactor pressure vessels. The catalogue of questions may be applied in an integral manner or limited to special fields. In its present form, the catalogue of questions shall be presented to the subcommittee for reactor pressure vessels of the Reactor Safety Commission with the request to take notice and comment upon it. (orig./HP)

  18. The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)

  19. Interviewer BMI effects on under- and over-reporting of restrained eating: evidence from a national Dutch face-to-face survey and a postal follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Eisinga, Rob; Te Grotenhuis, Manfred; Junilla K Larsen; Pelzer, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of interviewer BMI on self-reported restrained eating in a face-to-face survey and to examine under- and over-reporting using the face-to face study and a postal follow-up. Methods A sample of 1,212 Dutch adults was assigned to 98 interviewers with different BMI who administered an eating questionnaire. To further evaluate misreporting a mail follow-up was conducted among 504 participants. Data were analyzed using two-level hierarchical models. Results Inter...

  20. Nuclear-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 regulates BMI1 expression and determines proliferative capacity of high-grade gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Claudia R.; Markert, Tahireh; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Griguer, Corinne E.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 (COX4) is a key regulatory subunit of mammalian cytochrome c oxidase, and recent studies have demonstrated that COX4 isoform 1 (COX4-1) could have a role in glioma chemoresistance. The Polycomb complex protein BMI1 is a stem cell regulatory gene implicated in the pathogenesis of many aggressive cancers, including glioma. This study sought to determine if COX4 regulates BMI1 and modulates tumor cell proliferation. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas dat...