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Sample records for bmi large intergenerational

  1. The association between BMI and mortality using offspring BMI as an indicator of own BMI: large intergenerational mortality study

    OpenAIRE

    Davey Smith, George; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Fraser, Abigail; Tynelius, Per; Lawlor, Debbie A; Rasmussen, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To obtain valid estimates of the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality by using offspring BMI as an instrumental variable for own BMI. Design Cohort study based on record linkage, with 50 years of follow-up for mortality. Associations of offspring BMI with all cause and cause specific maternal and paternal mortality were estimated as hazard ratios per standard deviation of offspring BMI. Setting A large intergenerational prospective population based database cover...

  2. INTERGENERATIONAL SOLIDARITY

    OpenAIRE

    BOČÁKOVÁ OĽGA

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses solidarity between generations. We refer to the ageing of population, which is a matter of intergenerational solidarity. Because the population is getting old, intergenerational solidarity and family are of great significance.

  3. Candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility show enriched association within a large genome-wide association study for BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Zhao, Jing Hua; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Dudbridge, Frank; Loos, Ruth J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Before the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), hundreds of candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility had been identified through a variety of approaches. We examined whether those obesity candidate genes are enriched for associations with body mass index (BMI) compared with non-candidate genes by using data from a large-scale GWAS. A thorough literature search identified 547 candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility based on evidence from animal studies, Mendelian syndromes, linkage studies, genetic association studies and expression studies. Genomic regions were defined to include the genes ±10 kb of flanking sequence around candidate and non-candidate genes. We used summary statistics publicly available from the discovery stage of the genome-wide meta-analysis for BMI performed by the genetic investigation of anthropometric traits consortium in 123 564 individuals. Hypergeometric, rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment analysis tests were used to test for the enrichment of association in candidate compared with non-candidate genes. The hypergeometric test of enrichment was not significant at the 5% P-value quantile (P = 0.35), but was nominally significant at the 25% quantile (P = 0.015). The rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment tests were nominally significant for the full set of genes and borderline significant for the subset without SNPs at P < 10−7. Taken together, the observed evidence for enrichment suggests that the candidate gene approach retains some value. However, the degree of enrichment is small despite the extensive number of candidate genes and the large sample size. Studies that focus on candidate genes have only slightly increased chances of detecting associations, and are likely to miss many true effects in non-candidate genes, at least for obesity-related traits. PMID:22791748

  4. Intergenerational Top Income Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate intergenerational top earnings and top income mobility in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the population. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income...... measure— for the rich top 0.1% fathers and sons the elasticity is 0.466. Compared with Sweden, however, the intergenerational top income persistence is about half the size in Denmark....

  5. Measuring Intergenerational Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have defined intergenerational obligations in diverse ways, and they have used many labels and ways of measuring intergenerational obligations. Using vignettes, we compared responses to questions about what family members should do when another family member needed assistance ("normative obligations") with responses to questions about…

  6. Intergenerational earnings mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar; Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This article gives various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility by applying different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components. The methodology enables us to investigate how sensitive results are to different delimitations and, thereby, to make more accurate international...

  7. Intergenerational redistribution in representative democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, M.E.A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis deals with political decision making on intergenerational redistributive policies via public debt, public pensions and public investment. Members of different generations have different preferences on these redistributive policies. The resulting intergenerational conflict is resolved in

  8. Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I investigate the strength of intergenerational transmission of volunteering for non-profit associations in The Netherlands. Data from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population 2000 reveal that there are significant relations between current volunteering and parental volunteering in

  9. Adult intergenerational relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Treas, J.; Scott, J.; Richards, M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of research on the relationships between parents and their adult, grown-up children. Interest in intergenerational ties has increased again as a result of the aging of Western societies. The chapter discusses the following topics in the literature: (i) the degree to wh

  10. Intergenerational Learning in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropes, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of intergenerational learning as a way for organizations to deal with an ageing worker population in a positive and constructive way. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a thematic synthesis of qualitative literature and considers all types of sources including quantitative…

  11. About BMI for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs About Adult BMI ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español ( ...

  12. Thinking Intergenerationally about Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Thomson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on The Making of Modern Motherhoods study, which explores how a contemporary generation of women are creating motherhood, and how intergenerational dynamics of mother daughter relationships can provide insight into the interplay of historical, biographical and generational processes. The study combines an intergeneration and longtitudinal research design, building 12 case studies from an initial interview sample of 62 expectant first time mothers. The paper begins with a review of the conceptual tools employed within the study in order to make sense of rich empirical data, including memory, generation, co-existence and configuration. These themes are then realised through a detailed case history of the Calder family – tracing the impact of the arrival of a new generation. This thick description enables us to see beyond the individual towards the historically contingent configuration that is a ‘family’. By counter posing the horizontal dimensions of the generation against the vertical dimension of historical process and intergenerational change it is possible to capture a sense of how people live, creating change in order to establish continuity. The paper concludes by exploring the contingency of formations of mothering and their connectedness over time, through reflections on the interplay of historical, generational and biographical temporalities.

  13. Intergenerational family solidarity: value differences between immigrant groups and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J; Schuengel, Carlo

    2009-06-01

    Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second generation immigrants in values regarding intergenerational solidarity were examined among family members in the Netherlands with an immigration background from Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, and The Dutch Antilles. Using a multilevel analytic approach, effects of family and individual characteristics on values regarding intergenerational solidarity were tested, considering the perspectives of two generations. It was found that immigrants with Moroccan and Turkish backgrounds scored higher on values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity than immigrants stemming from Suriname and The Antilles. First generation immigrants placed higher values on family solidarity compared to second generation immigrants. Additionally, religious denomination was a significant predictor of higher values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity. Immigration and acculturation may create great strains in migrant families. Policies to support the fabric of intergenerational solidarity should consider ethnic and religious background and immigration history.

  14. Sustainability : Intergeneration Equity and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    Regarding intergenerational equity as prerequisite for sustainability, we derive an optimal investment rule for intergenerational equity from an optimization model allowing for capital accumulation and pollution. This rule provides a condition for intergenerational equity such that an economy maintains constant net value of investment the difference between the physical capital investment value and the environmental resource depletion(pollution) value. This rule is more generalized condition for intergenerational equity than the 'keep capital intact' rule suggested by Hartwick(1977) and Solow(1999), in a sense that this rule includes their condition as a special. Also, we expect this rule to offer an empirical measure of sustainability. In addition, we discuss a variety of recent environmental issues in practice, especially associated with the implications from the rule. (author). 13 refs.

  15. Multiple impacts of an intergenerational program in Japan: Evidence from the Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Masashi; Murayama, Yoh; Takahashi, Tomoya; Ohba, Hiromi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nonaka, Kumiko; Kuraoka, Masataka; Sakurai, Ryota; Nishi, Mariko; Sakuma, Naoko; Kobayashi, Erika; Shinkai, Shoji; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2016-03-01

    Compelling evidence supporting the benefits of social engagement in older adults has been increasingly discussed. However, knowledge regarding an intergenerational program is limited. Herein, we provide a targeted review of intergenerational programs by focusing on our novel interventional program, Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy. The Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy program is an intergenerational picture-book reading program launched in 2004. Participants were involved a 3-month intensive weekly training seminar comprising classes about book selection, reading techniques and basic knowledge of children's school life. Subsequently, they participated in group activities that involved playing a hand game, and reading picture books to children at kindergartens, elementary schools and public childcare centers, once every 1-2 weeks. The Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy program has shown improvement of physical and psychological functioning of older adults and healthy upbringing of children. Similarly, Experience Corps - designed to train and place volunteers in participating elementary schools for an academic year during which time they assist teachers - also showed positive effects for older adults' health status and the psychological/academic success of young children in the USA. Health promotion efforts for older adults must support social policy for the creation of meaningful service programs for older adults on a large social scale. As such, an intergenerational program based on the concept of social capital, defined as "features of social organization, such as trust, norms and networks, that can improve the efficacy of society by facilitating coordinated actions," is an effective and sustainable program for health promotion among older adults.

  16. Designing meaningful intergenerational digital games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Eugène

    2014-01-01

    This paper will focus on intergenerational digital games between grandparents and their grandchildren, which could enhance not only their physical and social well-being but also social bonding between them. This is a topic which has been neglected in digital game research. Therefore, after having di

  17. Discounting in intergenerational investment appraisal - Survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Foltyn-Zarychta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Appraising projects with intergenerational effects is a complex task, incorporating the issue of bringing future impacts to present value. This is usually achieved by applying the discount factor. However, the choice of discount rate to intergenerational context faces multiple technical and moral problems. The paper analyses a theoretical rationale behind the concept of intergenerational discount rate and preliminary assessment of intergenerational discount rate level in Poland based on survey done in 2012 among Finance & Insurance Faculty students at University of Economics in Katowice showing the decline in the value of discount rates with time.

  18. Genetic Contributors to Intergenerational CAG Repeat Instability in Huntington’s Disease Knock-In Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, João Luís; Lee, Jong-Min; Afridi, Ali; Gillis, Tammy; Guide, Jolene R.; Dempsey, Stephani; Lager, Brenda; Alonso, Isabel; Wheeler, Vanessa C.; Pinto, Ricardo Mouro

    2017-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Longer repeat sizes are associated with increased disease penetrance and earlier ages of onset. Intergenerationally unstable transmissions are common in HD families, partly underlying the genetic anticipation seen in this disorder. HD CAG knock-in mouse models also exhibit a propensity for intergenerational repeat size changes. In this work, we examine intergenerational instability of the CAG repeat in over 20,000 transmissions in the largest HD knock-in mouse model breeding datasets reported to date. We confirmed previous observations that parental sex drives the relative ratio of expansions and contractions. The large datasets further allowed us to distinguish effects of paternal CAG repeat length on the magnitude and frequency of expansions and contractions, as well as the identification of large repeat size jumps in the knock-in models. Distinct degrees of intergenerational instability were observed between knock-in mice of six background strains, indicating the occurrence of trans-acting genetic modifiers. We also found that lines harboring a neomycin resistance cassette upstream of Htt showed reduced expansion frequency, indicative of a contributing role for sequences in cis, with the expanded repeat as modifiers of intergenerational instability. These results provide a basis for further understanding of the mechanisms underlying intergenerational repeat instability. PMID:27913616

  19. Intergenerational Justice in Aging Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    I present the Intergenerational Justice Index (IJI) - a simple four-dimensional indicator developed with the Bertelsmann Stiftung in order to compare intergenerational justice in practice across 29 OECD member states. The unit of analysis is countries, and the IJI is a macro-level snapshot linked......) the ecological footprint created by all generations alive today; (2) early-life starting conditions as measured by child poverty levels; and (3) the economic and fiscal burdens on the shoulders of currently young generations as measured by public debt levels per child. The fourth IJI dimension measures policy...... primarily to government activity rather than private behavior. Sustainability is the moral starting point: ‘enough and as good’ ought to be left by each generation to the next. Three of the IJI dimensions measure policy outcomes that leave legacy burdens towards younger and future generations: (1...

  20. Intergenerational Groups: Rediscovering our Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Anstadt

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergenerational groups are a community-based group concept designed to engage and mobilize often untapped resources of older adults in effective interaction with younger populations. These groups support an atmosphere of synergistic interaction. Members of each generation share reflections on interpersonal strengths and capacities and rediscover emotional and spiritual anchors and bonding. Illustrated here is Community Connections (CC, developed using the phase driven participatory culture-specific intervention model (PCSIM; Nastasi, Moore & Varjas, 2004 that included self selected local older adults, caregivers, and multicultural exchange students. The program was structured to offer mutual opportunities for activities built around exchanging cultural and life experiences. The goals were: 1 to reduce social isolation due to age, culture, or disability 2 for international students to practice English and learn about local cultural traditions, and 3 to build intergenerational ‘extended family’ relationships.

  1. Equity, Justice, Interdependence: Intergenerational Transfers and the Ageing Population

    OpenAIRE

    Rydell, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    The increase in the ratio of the elderly to the working age population as the demographic transition of low fertility and low mortality proceeds, has spurred a discussion concerning the equity of intergenerational transfers. The central question is if and how the state can afford the pensions and healthcare costs for growing older populations, and who should carry the burden. To a large extent, focus has been on public transfers while neglecting private transfers within families. There is als...

  2. Education and Intergenerational Mobility in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Irene Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    International research on the effects of educational regimes on intergenerational mobility suggests that Singapore's education system possesses characteristics that tend to decrease intergenerational mobility. These characteristics include ability-based and school-based streaming, privatization of basic and tertiary education, expansion of…

  3. Shared Heritage: An Intergenerational Child Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkeye Area Community Action Program, Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This report describes ways in which older persons may become involved in the field of home child care. It is intended to provide (1) detailed information on an intergenerational child care (IGCC) program; (2) general information relating to intergenerational contacts and home child care; and (3) "how-to" information for agencies planning…

  4. Intergenerational equity and dynamic duality principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Uzawa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of intergenerational equity concerning intertemporal paths of consumption and capital accumulation is introduced and the analysis of the dynamic processes of capital accumulation and changes in environmental quality that are intergenerationally equitable is developed. The analysis is based upon the dynamic duality principles, as originally developed by Koopmans and Uzawa, and later extended to the case involving environmental quality.

  5. The Political Economy of Intergenerational Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the political constraints of intergenerational risk sharing. The rst result is that the political process generally does not lead to ex ante optimal insurance. The second result is that in a second best political setting PAYG still contributes to intergenerational risk sharing. T

  6. Education and Intergenerational Mobility in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Irene Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    International research on the effects of educational regimes on intergenerational mobility suggests that Singapore's education system possesses characteristics that tend to decrease intergenerational mobility. These characteristics include ability-based and school-based streaming, privatization of basic and tertiary education, expansion of…

  7. Severe intergenerational reproductive conflict and the evolution of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Gillespie, Duncan O S; Lummaa, Virpi; Russell, Andrew F

    2012-11-01

    Human menopause is ubiquitous among women and is uninfluenced by modernity. In addition, it remains an evolutionary puzzle: studies have largely failed to account for diminishing selection on reproduction beyond 50 years. Using a 200-year dataset on pre-industrial Finns, we show that an important component is between-generation reproductive conflict among unrelated women. Simultaneous reproduction by successive generations of in-laws was associated with declines in offspring survivorship of up to 66%. An inclusive fitness model revealed that incorporation of the fitness consequences of simultaneous intergenerational reproduction between in-laws, with those of grandmothering and risks of dying in childbirth, were sufficient to generate selection against continued reproduction beyond 51 years. Decomposition of model estimates suggested that the former two were most influential in generating selection against continued reproduction. We propose that menopause evolved, in part, because of age-specific increases in opportunities for intergenerational cooperation and reproductive competition under ecological scarcity.

  8. Informal Institutions and Intergenerational Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Lilleør, Helene Bie

    , that informal institutions of social control, rooted in tribal affiliations, determine both the household's investment in schooling and the probability that it receives remittances from migrants. This is consistent with a framework in which households' expected returns in the form of remittances, which...... is determined partly by the prospects of social control over migrants, influence current investments in schooling.......This paper carries out a theoretical and empirical investigation of the role of informal institutions in facilitating intergenerational contracts governing investments in schooling and payments of pensions in the form of remittances. We show, using detailed household level data from rural Tanzania...

  9. Informal Institutions and Intergenerational Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Lilleør, Helene Bie

    This paper carries out a theoretical and empirical investigation of the role of informal institutions in facilitating intergenerational contracts governing investments in schooling and payments of pensions in the form of remittances. We show, using detailed household level data from rural Tanzania......, that informal institutions of social control, rooted in tribal affiliations, determine both the household's investment in schooling and the probability that it receives remittances from migrants. This is consistent with a framework in which households' expected returns in the form of remittances, which...

  10. Intergenerational Efforts to Develop a Healthy Environment for Everyone: Sustainability as a Human Rights Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Savage, Caroline E; Newsham, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    As climate change proceeds at an unprecedented rate, concern for the natural environment has increased. The world's population aging also continues to rise at an unprecedented rate, giving greater attention to the implications of an older population. The two trends are linked through the fact that changes to the environment affect older adults, and older adults affect the environment. Sustainability is, therefore, an intergenerational phenomenon, and protecting resources today leaves a positive legacy and enhances quality of life for future generations. Older adults have much to share with younger generations about behaviors that promote sustainable living, yet few sustainability efforts are intergenerational in nature. As large numbers of people currently subsist without secure access to basic needs, ensuring equitable resource consumption for all generations is urgent and aligns with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Through exploring linkages between aging and sustainability, we identify intergenerational strategies to protect the environment and promote human rights and quality of life for older adults.

  11. Cross-National Patterns of Intergenerational Continuities in Childbearing in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that the association between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children has become stronger over time in some societies. This article updates and broadens the geographic coverage to assess the magnitude of intergenerational continuities in childbearing in developed and middle-income societies using data for 46 populations from 28 developed countries drawn from a number of recent large-scale survey programs. Robust positive intergenerational fertility correlations are found across these countries into the most recent period, and although there is no indication that the strength of the relationship is declining, the increasing trend does not appear to be continuing. PMID:24215254

  12. Stable intergenerational associations of childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2015-01-01

    of children born to parents with and without childhood overweight. METHODS: The study population was from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2) ) of children. This study used BMI values from 7-year-old children born 1952-1989 and from......: Parent-child resemblance in childhood overweight showed small changes during the development of the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the obesogenic environment inducing the epidemic in Denmark influenced children irrespective of their familial predisposition.......OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups...

  13. Intergenerational transfers and the social discount rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B.; Norgaard, R.B.

    1992-08-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between intergenerational asset transfers and the choice of the discount rate for use in cost-benefit analysis in a model of a competitive overlapping generations economy constrained by a socially managed exhaustible resource. Provided that there are no distortions in capital markets and that all agents hold perfect foresight, cost-benefit techniques will result in a Pareto efficient resource allocation if the discount rate is set equal to the market rate of interest. But since the path of the interest rate depends on the level of intergenerational transfers, cost-benefit techniques do not ensure a socially desirable distribution of welfare between generations; a social optimum will result only if intergenerational transfers are properly chosen and enforced. Decentralized private altruism may result in intergenerational transfers that both present and future individuals would agree are too small if members of the present generation attach positive weight to the general welfare of future generations, not simply their personal descendants. In a world where intergenerational transfers are non-optimal, second-best policy-making may imply a constrained optimum that is inefficient. Together, these findings suggest that cost-benefit analysis is at best a partial criterion to policy formulation that should be used only in conjunction with ethical principles that define the proper distribution of welfare between present and future generations.

  14. Modelling the relationship between body fat and the BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, T C; Gallagher, D; Wang, J; Heshka, S

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing concerns about the levels of obesity being reached throughout the world, this paper analyses the relationship between the most common index of obesity, the BMI, and levels of body fat. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The statistical relationship, in terms of functional form, between body fat and BMI is analysed using a large data set which can be categorized by race, sex and age. RESULTS: Irrespective of race, body fat and BMI are linearly related for males, with age entering logarithmically and with a positive effect on body fat. Caucasian males have higher body fat irrespective of age, but African American males' body fat increases with age faster than that of Asians and Hispanics. Age is not a significant predictor of body fat for females, where the relationship between body fat and BMI is nonlinear except for Asians. Caucasian females have higher predicted body fat than other races, except at low BMIs, where Asian females are predicted to have the highest body fat. DISCUSSION: Using BMIs to make predictions about body fat should be done with caution, as such predictions will depend upon race, sex and age and can be relatively imprecise. The results are of practical importance for informing the current debate on whether standard BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity should apply to all sex and racial groups given that these BMI values are shown to correspond to different levels of adiposity in different groups.

  15. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    in Denmark, the paper challenges the myths about intergenerational care. The concept of intersectionality emphasises that the older adults are simultaneously positioned within the social categories such as gender, ethnicity and social class, along with directing attention to processes of exclusion as well...

  16. Effects of Intergenerational Interaction on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Carmen Requena; Gonzalez, Marta Zubiaur

    2008-01-01

    The world population pyramid has changed shape. However, this does not mean that societies have changed their negative concept of old age. Our study proposes an intergenerational service-learning program with 179 university students and 101 slightly depressed elderly people. The results show that the elderly people who interacted improved in…

  17. Primary School Teachers' Views on Intergenerational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Soner; Kazak, Ender

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the views of primary school teachers on intergenerational learning (IGL). The study group consists of eight primary schools in the central district of Düzce during the 2013-2014 academic year and 13 teachers who teach in these schools. Participants were selected among teachers working in Düzce's city…

  18. Intergenerational Relationship Quality, Gender, and Grandparent Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, intergenerational study (N = 181) considered how parent (G1, Generation 1) and child (G2, Generation 2) relationship quality during adolescence and adulthood is associated with G1's level of involvement with their 3- to 4-year-old grandchildren (G3, Generation 3). Path model analyses indicated different patterns of results for…

  19. Motives of Intergeneration Support in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gedvilaitė-Kordušienė

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article fills the gap in the research on the motives of intergenerational support. Using qualitative data, it examines the question of intergenerational support between adult children and their parents. The theoretical premises for the study are derived from the theory of symbolic interactionism. The interviews with the dyads of support providers and receivers reveal a strong emphasis on the exchange. The exchange based on the logic of reciprocity is either latent or manifest. Other symbolic meanings of the logic of reciprocity, i. e., exchange as an investment and a social debt, can also be noticed. The analysis of the motives demonstrates the reasons for the formation of the intergenerational attitudes: a role of demonstration effect and a strong role of primary and secondary socialization with certain internalized attitudes. Altruism is expressed by emphasizing emotions and affection. Several thematic segments are apparent in the interviews: altruism as an unquestioned phenomenon, altruism as a primordial quality and attachment as an object of reflection. The article suggests that the inclusion of an action level into intergenerational relationship studies helps to deepen the understanding of family relationships

  20. 4-H Intergenerations Project. A Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnich, Brenda S.

    This project was conducted as an experiment in the implementation of the guidelines set up by the agents' manual of the Texas study, SKILLS (Seniors and Kids Involved in Learning Life's Skills). Objectives of the intergenerational program included the following: (1) to further the work started by the SKILLS study, (2) to offer a variety of…

  1. Intergenerational Practice: Contributing to a Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sacha; Sousa, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The ageing of the European population is creating a new demographic mix, increasing the relevance of intergenerational practice (IGP). To date, however, this field lacks an appropriate conceptual framework. This study aims to contribute to such a framework through an integrative review of peer-reviewed papers reporting on IGPs. Fifteen papers were…

  2. Pension systems, intergenerational risk sharing and inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate intergenerational risk sharing in two-pillar pension systems with a pay-as-you-go pillar and a funded pillar. We consider shocks in productivity, depreciation of capital and inflation. The funded pension pillar can be either defined contribution or defined benefit, with benefits defin

  3. Bmi1 Is Required for Hedgehog Pathway-Driven Medulloblastoma Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Evan Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh signaling underlies development of a subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in transgenic mice expressing an oncogenic Hh effector, SmoA1, driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter. Whereas 100% of SmoA1; Bmi1+/+ or SmoA1;Bmi1+/- mice examined between postnatal (P days 14 and 26 had typical medulloblastomas (N = 29, tumors were not detected in any of the SmoA1;Bmi1-/- animals examined (N = 6. Instead, small ectopic collections of cells were present in the region of greatest tumor load in SmoA1 animals, suggesting that medulloblastomas were initiated but failed to undergo expansion into frank tumors. Cells within these Bmi1-/- lesions expressed SmoA1 but were largely nonproliferative, in contrast to cells in Bmi1+/+ tumors (6.2% vs 81.9% PCNA-positive, respectively. Ectopic cells were negative for the progenitor marker nestin, strongly GFAP-positive, and highly apoptotic, relative to Bmi1+/+ tumor cells (29.6% vs 6.3% TUNEL-positive. The alterations in proliferation and apoptosis in SmoA1;Bmi1-/- ectopic cells are associated with reduced levels of Cyclin D1 and elevated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19Arf, two inversely regulated downstream targets of Bmi1. These data provide the first demonstration that Bmi1 is required for spontaneous de novo development of a solid tumor arising in the brain, suggest a crucial role for Bmi1-dependent, nestin-expressing progenitor cells in medulloblastoma expansion, and implicate Bmi1 as a key factor required for Hh pathway-driven tumorigenesis.

  4. Sex-differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K; Willemsen, G; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2003-01-01

    to be mainly due to environmental changes, i.e., sedentary lifestyles and high caloric diets, consistent evidence from twin studies demonstrates high heritability and the importance of genetic differences for normal variation in BMI. We analysed self-reported data on BMI from approximately 37,000 complete twin...

  5. BMI, a performance parameter for speed improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Sedeaud

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996-2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r = 0.71 and BMI (r = 0.71 in world-class runners and moderately with height (r = 0.39. Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. « Lighter and smaller is better » in endurance events but « heavier and taller is better » for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distance-specific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique. BMI is a relevant indicator, which allows for a clear differentiation of athletes' capacities between each discipline and level of performance in the fields of human possibilities.

  6. BMI, a performance parameter for speed improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Marck, Adrien; Dor, Frédéric; Schipman, Julien; Dorsey, Maya; Haida, Amal; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI) as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996-2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r = 0.71) and BMI (r = 0.71) in world-class runners and moderately with height (r = 0.39). Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. « Lighter and smaller is better » in endurance events but « heavier and taller is better » for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distance-specific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique. BMI is a relevant indicator, which allows for a clear differentiation of athletes' capacities between each discipline and level of performance in the fields of human possibilities.

  7. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L

    2013-01-01

    with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men...... concentration did not differ significantly across BMI categories. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI categories and risk of oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Compared with men of normal weight, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for oligozoospermia or azoospermia was 1.15 (0...

  8. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  9. Nursing pedagogy and the intergenerational discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Vicki; Myrick, Florence

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the effects of intergenerational diversity on pedagogical practice in nursing education and highlights the need for nurse educators to engage in a critical discourse regarding the adequacy of current pedagogy in fostering an ethos that can optimize the teaching-learning process and promote ongoing learning for the future. It is evident that further research is needed to promote awareness and understanding of the expectations of today's students and to reform nursing pedagogy to accommodate the current generation of learners in colleges and universities. In this article, the context of intergenerational diversity is explored, the importance of evidenced-based practice is reinforced, and current nursing pedagogy is examined, with the intention to stimulate a philosophical discourse among nurse educators regarding fundamental values and beliefs about pedagogical practice.

  10. Designing a Mixed Reality Intergenerational Entertainment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Eng Tat; Merritt, Tim; Cheok, Adrian David

    This chapter presents steps for designing an intergenerational mixed reality entertainment system, which focuses on physical and social interactions using a mixed reality floor system. The main design goals include the following: facilitating interactions between users with varied levels of skill in utilizing technology, utilizing the familiar physical motions from other activities to make an intuitive physical interface, and encouraging social interactions among families and friends. Detailed implementation of these steps is presented in the design of our intergenerational entertainment system, Age Invaders. Our design process is based on user-centered design. The results of the study help to focus the refinements of the existing platform from a usability standpoint and also aid in the development of new physical entertainment and interactive applications. This study provides insights into user issues including how users interact in a complex mixed reality experience.

  11. Intergenerational Continuity and Discontinuity in Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The Family Transitions Project began in 1989 to see how rural families in Iowa were coping with the severe economic downturn in agriculture at that time. In this report we show that cohort members who were treated harshly by their parents tended to emulate these behaviors with their children. However, if they co-parented with a partner who demonstrated a warm and supportive parenting style, intergenerational continuity was disrupted. PMID:22754400

  12. An Intergenerational Model of Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A. Pollak

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes an intergenerational model of domestic violence (IMDV) in which behavioral strategies or scripts are transmitted from parents to children. The model rests upon three key assumptions: * The probability that a husband will be violent depends on whether he grew up in a violent home. * The probability that a wife will remain with a violent husband depends on whether she grew up in a violent home. * Individuals who grew up in violent homes tend to marry individuals...

  13. Intergenerational Transfers and the Demonstration Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Cox; Oded Stark

    1996-01-01

    How can parents secure old-age support in the form of care, attention or financial transfers from their children? We explore the enforcement of implicit intergenerational agreements from a fresh angle by studying the possibility that the child's conduct is conditioned by the parents' example. Parents can take advantage of this learning potential by making transfers to their own parents when children are present to observe such transfers. Parents who desire old-age support have an incentive to...

  14. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using three key measures: body mass index (BMI) waist circumference, and risk factors for diseases and conditions associated with obesity. Waist Circumference Determine your waist circumference by placing a measuring ...

  15. Bmi-1 absence causes premature brain degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangliang Cao

    Full Text Available Bmi-1, a polycomb transcriptional repressor, is implicated in cell cycle regulation and cell senescence. Its absence results in generalized astrogliosis and epilepsy during the postnatal development, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of four-week-old Bmi-1 null mice. The mice showed various hallmarks of neurodegeneration including synaptic loss, axonal demyelination, reactive gliosis and brain mitochondrial damage. Moreover, astroglial glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase decreased in the Bmi-1 null hippocampus, which might contribute to the sporadic epileptic-like seizures in these mice. These results indicate that Bmi-1 is required for maintaining endogenous antioxidant defenses in the brain, and its absence subsequently causes premature brain degeneration.

  16. Intergenerational risk decision making: a practical example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadak, A C

    2000-12-01

    There is no such thing as intergenerational decision making, at least not yet. In fact, there is no such thing as intragenerational decision making in the context of maximizing overall social good given resource limitations, there are just decisions being made in an ad hoc fashion. Even if one assumes that there is such a thing as intragenerational decision making, no uniform standard or guidance exists to make societal decisions for the common good. Risks to society are judged unevenly within the same agency and across agencies. Decisions are made in isolation and not weighed in the societal context of what is intra or intergenerationally important. The National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) has set forth a framework for intergenerational decision making that provides a consistent and fair basis for making tough decisions in order to address difficult issues such as the long-term disposal of nuclear wastes. NAPA recognizes that there is an intergenerational obligation that must encompass broader questions than the narrow issue of waste disposal since resources are finite and needs are great. The fundamental principles are based on sustainability with the overarching objective that "no generation should needlessly, now or in the future, deprive its successors of the opportunity to enjoy a quality of life equivalent to its own." Coupled with this objective are four supporting principles of trusteeship, sustainability, chain of obligation, and precaution. The NAPA process also recognizes that no decision can be final and that a "rolling future" view is better than making decisions for "all time." It attempts to balance the needs of the present with those of the future in an open and transparent process that is aimed at producing a decision, not just endless analysis. The U.S. Congress and president should develop a rational standard by which to judge laws that involve intra and intergenerational issues relative to the overall societal good. Present

  17. Intergenerational justice: how reasonable man discounts climate damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Moral philosophers and economists have evaluated the intergenerational problem of climate change by applying the whole gamut of theories on distributive justice. In this article, however, it is argued that intergenerational justice cannot imply the application of moral ideal theories to future gener

  18. Genetic Influences on Growth Traits of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Fagnani, Corrado; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the interplay between genetic factors influencing baseline level and changes in BMI in adulthood.Methods and Procedures:A longitudinal twin study of the cohort of Finnish twins (N = 10,556 twin individuals) aged 20-46 years at baseline was conducted and followed up 15 years....... Data on weight and height were obtained from mailed surveys in 1975, 1981, and 1990.Results:Latent growth models revealed a substantial genetic influence on BMI level at baseline in males and females (heritability (h(2)) 80% (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.80) for males and h(2) = 82% (0.81, 0.......84) for females) and a moderate-to-high influence on rate of change in BMI (h(2) = 58% (0.50, 0.69) for males and h(2) = 64% (0.58, 0.69) for females). Only very weak evidence for genetic pleiotropy was observed; the genetic correlation between baseline and rate of change in BMI was very modest (-0.070 (-0.13, -0...

  19. BMI in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrowolska-Zarzycka Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a disease of multicasual etiology. The risk factors include obesity, among other issues. Hence, it is extremely important to determine the effect of body weight on the severity of OSA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the body weight expressed as body mass index (BMI, on the value of upper airways diameter and on the AHI (Apnea-Hypopnea Index value. The study was comprised of 41 patients diagnosed with OSA by way of polysomnography. Each patient was first examine via a lateral cephalometric image of the skull, which served to measure the upper and lower diameter of the upper airways. BMI was also calculated for each patient. Statistical analysis was carried out in accordance with Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Our work demonstrated a negative correlation between BMI and the diameter of the upper airways, and a positive correlation between BMI and AHI value. We thus put forward that the increase in body weight in patients with OSA can contribute to the severity of the disease, regardless of the fact that it may not lead to a reduction of the lumen of the upper airways.

  20. Genetic analysis of hybrid seed formation ability of Brassica rapa in intergeneric crossings with Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosaki, K; Michiba, K; Bang, S W; Kitashiba, H; Kaneko, Y; Nishio, T

    2013-03-01

    A hybridization barrier leads to the inability of seed formation after intergeneric crossings between Brassica rapa and Raphanus sativus. Most B. rapa lines cannot set intergeneric hybrid seeds because of embryo breakdown, but a B. rapa line obtained from turnip cultivar 'Shogoin-kabu' is able to produce a large number of hybrid seeds as a maternal parent by crossings with R. sativus. In 'Shogoin-kabu' crossed with R. sativus, developments of embryos and endosperms were slower than those in intraspecific crossings, but some of them grew to mature seeds without embryo breakdown. Intergeneric hybrid seeds were obtained in a 'Shogoin-kabu' line at a rate of 0.13 per pollinated flower, while no hybrid seeds were obtained in a line developed from Chinese cabbage cultivar 'Chiifu'. F(1) hybrid plants between the lines of 'Shogoin-kabu' and 'Chiifu' set a larger number of hybrid seeds per flower, 0.68, than both the parental lines. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for hybrid seed formation were analyzed after intergeneric crossings using two different F(2) populations derived from the F(1) hybrids, and three QTLs with significant logarithm of odds scores were detected. Among them, two QTLs, i.e., one in linkage group A10 and the other in linkage group A01, were detected in both the F(2) populations. These two QTLs had contrary effects on the number of hybrid seeds. Epistatic interaction between these two QTLs was revealed. Possible candidate genes controlling hybrid seed formation ability in QTL regions were inferred using the published B. rapa genome sequences.

  1. Study on Imbalance of Rural Intergenerational Relations during the Transition Period%转型期农村代际关系失衡问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓

    2012-01-01

    Rural intergenerational relations are deeply impacted, and the power of intergenerational relations passed down, the authority of seniors in all aspects deprived ,and the responsibility of the middle generation however unfulfilled well, and the intergenerational relations developed rationally. With the traditional policies and laws abolished, the moral forces sapped and the village public opinions disappeared. The power maintaining stability of the traditional intergenerational relations has been destroyed to a large extent and the balance of intergenerational relations has also been struck. In order to reestablished the stable and harmonious intergenerational relations, we need looking for ways actively to promote and perfect the system of rural social security, and construct quickly the family - scale taking care of the rural senior person, and guide actively to reconstruct the family intergenerational standards of behavior Keeping abreast with time.%社会变革和社会转型使农村代际关系出现权力下移,老年人权威全面丧失,中间一代责任缺失明显,代际关系朝理性化方向发展。传统法律政策的废除、道德力量的削弱以及村庄舆论的解体,是代际关系失衡的主要原因。重新建立稳定和谐的的代际关系,应逐步推进完善农村社会保障体系建设,加快农村社区养老建设,构建适应新时代要求的家庭代际伦理。

  2. Changing BMI Categories and Healthcare Expenditures Among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, Tricia Lee; Rust, George S.; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2011-01-01

    To examine the association between changes in BMI categories and health-care expenditures among elderly Medicare beneficiaries using longitudinal data of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) 2000–2005. Changes in BMI were (i) Stayed Normal: individuals with a normal BMI at baseline and follow-up; (ii) Stayed Overweight individuals with overweight BMI at baseline and follow-up; (iii) Stayed Obese individuals with obese BMI at baseline and follow-up; (iv) Normal-Overweight: individual...

  3. Longevity, Growth and Intergenerational Equity - The Deterministic Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Gestsson, Marias Halldór

    . We develop an overlapping generations model in continuous time which encompasses different generations with different mortality rates and thus longevity. Allowing for both trend increases in longevity and productivity, we address the issue of intergenerational equity under a utilitarian criterion...

  4. An inconvenienced youth? Ageism and its potential intergenerational roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2012-09-01

    Age is the only social category identifying subgroups that everyone may eventually join. Despite this and despite the well-known growth of the older population, age-based prejudice remains an understudied topic in social psychology. This article systematically reviews the literature on ageism, highlighting extant research on its consequences and theoretical perspectives on its causes. We then identify a crucial gap in the literature, potential intergenerational tensions, speculating how a growing-older population-and society's efforts to accommodate it-might stoke intergenerational fires, particularly among the younger generation. Presenting both sides of this incipient issue, we review relevant empirical work that introduces reasons for both optimism and pessimism concerning intergenerational relations within an aging society. We conclude by suggesting future avenues for ageism research, emphasizing the importance of understanding forthcoming intergenerational dynamics for the benefit of the field and broader society.

  5. The Intergenerational Transmission of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Erik; Vlachos, Jonas; Öckert, Björn

    2011-01-01

    We study the intergenerational transmission of cognitive and non-cognitive abilities between fathers and sons using population-wide enlistment data. Measurement error bias in fathers’ ability measures is corrected for using two sets of instruments. Results suggest that previous estimates of intergenerational ability correlations are biased downwards; once corrected for, the non-cognitive correlation is close to that of cognitive ability. We also predict mothers’ abilities and find the mother-...

  6. The Intergenerational Transmission of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Erik; Vlachos, Jonas; Öckert, Björn

    2011-01-01

    We study the intergenerational transmission of cognitive and non-cognitive abilities between fathers and sons using population-wide enlistment data. Measurement error bias in fathers’ ability measures is corrected for using two sets of instruments. Results suggest that previous estimates of intergenerational ability correlations are biased downwards; once corrected for, the non-cognitive correlation is close to that of cognitive ability. We also predict mothers’ abilities and find the mother-...

  7. The intergenerational transmission of cognitive and non-cognitive abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Erik; Öckert, Björn; Vlachos, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    We study the intergenerational transmission of cognitive and non-cognitive abilities between parents and sons, using population-wide enlistment data. Conscripts are evaluated at the same age and with comparable methods across cohorts, and we correct for measurement error bias in fathers’ ability measures by using their brothers’ abilities as instruments. This strategy also enables us to predict mothers’ abilities. Results indicate that previous estimates of intergenerational ability correlati...

  8. Intergenerational transmission of abilities and self selection of Mexican immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Building on Borjas (1993) I develop an intergenerational model of self-selection of migration and education that allows for a complex selection mechanism. In particular, it allows for the possibility that agents are selected differently depending on the schooling level they choose. As in Mayer (2005) I assume that agents are endowed with two abilities, manual and intellectual, and use the intergenerational structure of the model to infer potential earnings of a person for different levels of ...

  9. Renormalization in general theories with inter-generation mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Sirlin, Alberto [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2011-11-15

    We derive general and explicit expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of fermions in parity-nonconserving theories with inter-generation mixing. The mass eigenvalues, the corresponding mass counterterms, and the effect of inter-generation mixing on their determination are discussed. Invoking the Aoki-Hioki-Kawabe-Konuma-Muta renormalization conditions and employing a number of very useful relations from Matrix Algebra, we show explicitly that the renormalized dressed propagators satisfy important physical properties. (orig.)

  10. Intergenerational perspectives on ageing, economics and globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Evidence shows population ageing to be historically a product of economic development, closely associated with high living standards and national affluence. Nonetheless, fears that an aged population leads to economic stagnation and public bankruptcy are widespread. In justification for cuts to public programs and the transfer of costs and risks from the state to individuals and families, the projections of social expenditures, in particular those based on ageing, are frequently identified as overgenerous and unsustainable in many G20 countries such as Australia and New Zealand. Claims based on intergenerational research methodologies and frameworks, a relatively new and innovative approach to using data projections, have proven to be important in these policy debates. This paper explores the application of these new technologies to understanding the impact of ageing on the economy in the globalised world of the 21st century.

  11. The intergenerational transmission of relationship violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Marilyn J; Bartholomew, Kim; Henderson, Antonia J; Trinke, Shanna J

    2003-09-01

    This study explored the intergenerational transmission of violence in a community sample. A telephone survey of 1,249 adults in the City of Vancouver assessed family-of-origin violence (father to mother, mother to father, father to self, and mother to self), as well as physical and psychological abuse in intimate relationships. All forms of family-of-origin violence were predictive of all forms of relationship abuse, consistent with a general social learning model of relationship violence. There was no evidence of gender-specific or role-specific patterns of transmission. For example, father-to-mother violence was not specifically predictive of men's perpetration and women's victimization in adult relationships. Nor was parent-to-self violence more predictive of victimization than perpetration. The methodological and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Intergenerational transmission of ‘religious capital’. Evidence from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines intergenerational transmission of ‘religious capital’ from parents to their offspring within an economic framework. The analytical tool is a ‘production function of religiosity’ where parental religious inputs serve as factors of production. The database used is based on a large-scale survey that was conducted in 1998 in Spain. In addition to information on the religious affiliation of the respondent and his parents, it has detailed data on two dimensions of the individual’s religious performance: church attendance and prayer. it also includes information on the mother’s and father’s church attendance when the respondent was a child, as well as the respondent’s participation in mass services at the age of 12. Socioeconomic background data are also available. The core findings are: (i parental religious inputs significantly affect individuals’ religiosity; (ii interestingly, the route of intergenerational transmission is from mother to daughter and from father to son; and (iii current mass participation of respondents is more affected by parental- than by own childhood mass attendance.

    En este estudio se examina la transmisión inter-generacional de capital religioso de padres a hijos, bajo un esquema de producción de ‘religiosidad’ donde los inputs parentales sirven como factores de producción. la base de datos utilizada está basada en una encuesta realizada en España en 1998. Se dispone de información sobre la afiliación religiosa del individuo y sus padres, la asistencia a misa y la oración del individuo (actualmente y la asistencia a la iglesia de la madre y el padre y del propio individuo cuando este era niño (a los 12 años. Encontramos que los inputs religiosos parentales afectan de manera significativa a la religiosidad individual, pero la vía de transmisión inter-generacional es de madre a hija y de padre a hijo. Sorprendentemente, la participación actual en actividades

  13. Reference percentiles for FEV1 and BMI in European children and adults with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boëlle Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical course of Cystic Fibrosis (CF is usually measured using the percent predicted FEV1 and BMI Z-score referenced against a healthy population, since achieving normality is the ultimate goal of CF care. Referencing against age and sex matched CF peers may provide valuable information for patients and for comparison between CF centers or populations. Here, we used a large database of European CF patients to compute CF specific reference equations for FEV1 and BMI, derived CF-specific percentile charts and compared these European data to their nearest international equivalents. Methods 34859 FEV1 and 40947 BMI observations were used to compute European CF specific percentiles. Quantile regression was applied to raw measurements as a function of sex, age and height. Results were compared with the North American equivalent for FEV1 and with the WHO 2007 normative values for BMI. Results FEV1 and BMI percentiles illustrated the large variability between CF patients receiving the best current care. The European CF specific percentiles for FEV1 were significantly different from those in the USA from an earlier era, with higher lung function in Europe. The CF specific percentiles for BMI declined relative to the WHO standard in older children. Lung function and BMI were similar in the two largest contributing European Countries (France and Germany. Conclusion The CF specific percentile approach applied to FEV1 and BMI allows referencing patients with respect to their peers. These data allow peer to peer and population comparisons in CF patients.

  14. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C

    2006-01-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle.......A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle....

  15. Trends in BMI of urban Australian adults, 1980-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Helen L; Wolfe, Rory; Haby, Michelle M;

    2010-01-01

    of 7.4 kg/m2 at the higher end for women aged 55-64 years. While the prevalence of obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg/m2) doubled, the prevalence of obesity class III (BMI >or= 40 kg/m2) increased fourfold. CONCLUSIONS: BMI in urban Australian adults has increased and its distribution has become increasingly...

  16. Knowledge Management for Knowledge Society and Intergenerational Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Goriup

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of globalization on contemporary post-modern society in the light of an aging population requires methods and techniques of education that are appropriate for young people and reflect (or accommodate intergenerational learning. The purpose of this paper is to analyse, through empirical research and study of literature, the context of the elderly who are too often marginalized and to show the impact of the knowledge of society based on the use of modern information and communication technologies, on intergenerational learning. The authors analyse some of the consequences of the demographic changes and highlight the role and importance of intergenerational learning and collaboration for sustainability, especially in the Slovenian ageing society. We identify the role and importance of intergenerational learning for coexistence of generations. In the analysis of the empirical data of the conducted research, we conclude that the effectiveness of the knowledge society is influenced by both: the globalization processes and the intergenerational integration, as well as (and in particular the cultural capital of younger generations and, last, but not least, the willingness of all generations to participate in the transmission and acquisition of knowledge.

  17. miR-203 inhibits melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities by targeting the polycomb group gene BMI1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiao [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Sun, Yong [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an 223300 (China); Han, Siqi [Department of Medical Oncology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhu, Wei [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Zhang, Haiping, E-mail: zhanghaiping_2000@163.com [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Lian, Shi, E-mail: lianshi_2020@163.com [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • First reported deregulation of miR-203 and up-regulation of BMI1 in metastatic melanoma. • miR-203 decreased BMI1 expression by directly binding to 3′UTR. • Further found miR-203 overexpression suppressed cell invasion and stemness. • Re-expression of BMI1 rescued miR-203-mediated suppression. • miR-203-BMI1 axis may be potential therapeutic targets of melanoma metastasis. - Abstract: Metastasis is the major problem in malignant melanoma, posing a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. The investigation of the underlying mechanism driving this progress remains a large unmet need. In this study, we revealed a miR-203-BMI1 axis that regulated melanoma metastasis. We found significantly deregulation of miR-203 and up-regulation of BMI1 in melanoma, particularly in metastatic melanoma. An inverse correlation between the levels of miR-203 and BMI1 was further observed in melanoma tissues and cell lines. We also identified BMI1 as a downstream target gene of miR-203, which bound to the 3′UTR of BMI1. Overexpression of miR-203 was associated with decreased BMI1 expression and impaired cell invasion and tumor sphere formation activities. Re-expression of BMI1 markedly rescued miR-203-mediated suppression of these events. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-203 regulated melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities in part by targeting BMI1, providing new insights into potential mechanisms of melanoma metastasis.

  18. Environmental quality, the macroeconomy, and intergenerational distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E. [Department of Economics and Netspar, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Kooiman, Jan Peter [OMD Task Force, ABN-AMRO Bank, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-01-15

    The paper studies the dynamic allocation effects and intergenerational welfare consequences of environmental taxes. To this end, environmental externalities are introduced in a Blanchard-Yaari overlapping generations model of a small open economy. A rise in environmental taxes - taking into account pre-existing distortionary taxes and endogenous labor supply - is shown to yield an efficiency gain if agents care enough for the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations because agents are heterogeneous in their capital ownership. An accompanying debt policy can be designed - prescribing debt accumulation at impact and debt redemption in the new steady state - to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With lump-sum recycling of environmental tax revenue, aggregate employment is unaffected in the short run, but falls in the long run. Furthermore, it raises environmental quality more in the long run than in the short run. Recycling revenue through a cut in labor taxes, however, is shown to yield a rise in employment in the short run, which disappears during transition. In the new steady state, environmental quality is higher at the expense of a lower level of employment. (author)

  19. Active Ageing: Intergenerational Relationships and Social Generativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giovanna; Boccacin, Lucia; Bramanti, Donatella; Meda, Stefania G

    2014-01-01

    This contribution is a reflection on the concept of active ageing from the perspective of relational sociology. At the same time, it offers practical implications and outlines possible future courses of action, in the face of demographic and relational scenarios rapidly changing, and the challenges that each day people of all generations are called to cope with. Active ageing is quite a recent concept and indicates an attitude towards ageing that enhances the quality of life as people become older. The goal of active ageing is to enable people to realise their potential for physical, social and mental well-being and to participate in social life also in the last stage of the life cycle. In this phase, the presence of a network of support, security and care adequate to the possible onset of problems and criticalities is crucial. Relational sociology frames the phenomenon of an ageing population in a dense network of social relations, primarily at the level of family and community. For this reason, as supported by the most recent sociological literature and evidence from studies conducted in Italy and abroad (cf. SHARE), it is extremely important to investigate the link between active ageing, intergenerational orientation (solidarity and exchanges) and practices of prosociality (i.e. engagement in third-sector activities and volunteering in later life).

  20. Intergenerational relations in the sociological theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ondrejkovič

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of relations between the generations is one of the important factors of the dynamics of social development. Intergenerational relationships are affected by the characteristics of youth, the process of individualization, the loss of traditional certainties, "tribalism" and "nomadism", insecurity and violence. Permanently generating new tensions and insecurity, as well as fear and anxiety associated with finding new certainties, are often connected with escape from reality. The issues of globalization and ambivalence, including the opposites, are becoming the central living paradigm of the young generation. The ambivalence stems from the growth of the possibilities of social action, on one hand, and the incoming threats and risks arising from the need to manage and overcome the ever more complex and difficult life tasks, without any support in previous forms of socialization, on the other. Teachers, psychologists and social workers should be properly educated with fresh knowledge on the younger generation and the new situation that can be characterized as a megatrend.

  1. Inter-generational transmission of incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, I; Cormier, B M

    1982-04-01

    The majority of reported incest cases involve sexual relations between one generation and another, the most common being father-daughter incest. The increased availability of clinical data on incest has revealed an aspect of the problem that has received little attention in clinical literature. Incest can involve three generations in a family rather than two. It is possible for incest to be "transmitted" from one generation to the next through several patterns. In some cases, the mother in a family of father-daughter incest has herself been a victim of incest with her own father. With a history of unresolved incest with their own fathers, these women are unable to prevent an incest relationship between their husbands and daughters. Another pattern involves situations where the father in the father-daughter incest relationship has been the victim of father-son incest in his youth. The psychodynamics of these patterns of intergenerational transmission of incest are described, with clinical examples from the authors' work, as well as from the literature.

  2. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence.Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011.Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence.Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.

  3. Substitution among exhaustible resources and intergenerational equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwick, J.M.

    1978-06-01

    Hartwick (American Econ. Rev., 66 (Dec. 1977)) showed that implicit in R.M. Solow's model of intergenerational equity and exhaustible resources (Rev. Econ. Studies (Symposium, 1974) 29-46) was the savings-investment rule: society should invest in reproducible capital precisely the current returns from the use of flows of exhaustible resources in order to maintain per capita consumption constant. Population was assumed to remain constant. Solow and Hartwick assumed that there was only one exhaustible resource. Beckmann (American Econ. Rev., 65, 695-99 (Sept 1975)) investigated optimal growth in models with many exhaustible resources. In this paper the case of many exhaustible resources is considered and results are derived on substitution among resources and on the nature of paths of development. One of Beckmann's results on substitution is analyzed. The approach is first to analyze efficient paths under the assumption of general savings functions and then to analyze efficient paths under the assumption of the special savings function referred to above. Results indicate the Solow's existence theorem remains valid for the case of many exhaustible resources and some light is shed on the existence of paths for production functions not of the Cobb-Douglas form. 12 references.

  4. Analysis list: BMI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BMI1 Blood,Digestive tract,Neural,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI...1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.5.tsv http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI...1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Diges...tive_tract.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Neural.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscie

  5. Intergenerational redistribution and risk sharing with changing longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2014-01-01

    retirement and cohort-specific longevity to address intergenerational redistribution and risk sharing. While it is well known that a utilitarian planner strives for consumption smoothing, it is shown that healthy ageing calls for work smoothing in the sense that retirement ages increase with longevity. Hence......, cohorts with higher longevity should contribute to their larger consumption needs via later retirement, although it is shown that the planner still front-loads some financing (pre-saving). Stochastic longevity raises the issue of intergenerational risk sharing, which implies that cohorts turning out...

  6. Using BMI to Determine Cardiovascular Risk in Childhood: How Do the BMI Cutoffs Fare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Mayer, Michelle L.; Flower, Kori; Perrin, Eliana M.; Weinberger, Morris

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although adverse health outcomes are increased among children with BMI above the 85th (overweight) and 95th (obese) percentiles, previous studies have not clearly defined the BMI percentile at which adverse health outcomes begin to increase. We examined whether the existing BMI percentile cutoffs are optimal for defining increased risk for dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, and hypertension. METHODS This was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2006. Studied were 8216 children aged 6 to 17 years, representative of the US population. BMI was calculated by using measured height and weight and converted to percentiles for age in months and gender. Outcome measures (dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, and hypertension) were based on laboratory and physical examination results; these were analyzed as both continuous and categorical outcomes. RESULTS Significant increases for total cholesterol values and prevalence of abnormal cholesterol begin at the 80th percentile. Significant increases in glycohemoglobin values and prevalence of abnormal values begin at the 99th percentile. Consistent significant increases in the prevalence of high or borderline systolic blood pressure begin at the 90th percentile. CONCLUSIONS Intervening for overweight children and their health requires clinical interventions that target the right children. On the basis of our data, a judicious approach to screening could include consideration of lipid screening for children beginning at the 80th percentile but for dysglycemia at the 99th percentile. Current definitions of overweight and obese may be more useful for general recognition of potential health problems and discussions with parents and children about the need to address childhood obesity. WHAT'S KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT: Previous research has shown that cardiovascular risk factors are related to the currently used definitions of obesity in children but has not specified the BMI percentiles

  7. Bmi1 overexpression in the cerebellar granule cell lineage of mice affects cell proliferation and survival without initiating medulloblastoma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourinaz Behesti

    2013-01-01

    BMI1 is a potent inducer of neural stem cell self-renewal and neural progenitor cell proliferation during development and in adult tissue homeostasis. It is overexpressed in numerous human cancers – including medulloblastomas, in which its functional role is unclear. We generated transgenic mouse lines with targeted overexpression of Bmi1 in the cerebellar granule cell lineage, a cell type that has been shown to act as a cell of origin for medulloblastomas. Overexpression of Bmi1 in granule cell progenitors (GCPs led to a decrease in cerebellar size due to decreased GCP proliferation and repression of the expression of cyclin genes, whereas Bmi1 overexpression in postmitotic granule cells improved cell survival in response to stress by altering the expression of genes in the mitochondrial cell death pathway and of Myc and Lef-1. Although no medulloblastomas developed in ageing cohorts of transgenic mice, crosses with Trp53−/− mice resulted in a low incidence of medulloblastoma formation. Furthermore, analysis of a large collection of primary human medulloblastomas revealed that tumours with a BMI1high TP53low molecular profile are significantly enriched in Group 4 human medulloblastomas. Our data suggest that different levels and timing of Bmi1 overexpression yield distinct cellular outcomes within the same cellular lineage. Importantly, Bmi1 overexpression at the GCP stage does not induce tumour formation, suggesting that BMI1 overexpression in GCP-derived human medulloblastomas probably occurs during later stages of oncogenesis and might serve to enhance tumour cell survival.

  8. Body Mass Index (BMI Trajectories from Birth to 11.5 Years: Relation to Early Life Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy M. Simpson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that the pattern of change over time, or trajectory, of body mass index (BMI varies among children. However, the factors that underlie the heterogeneity in these trajectories remain largely unexplored. Our aim was to use a growth mixture model to empirically identify classes of BMI trajectories (from birth to 11.5 years and examine the effects of breastfeeding, introduction of solids, as well as food and nutrient intake at 18 months on these BMI trajectories. We identified three BMI growth trajectories between birth and age 11.5 years, separately in boys and girls. Breastfeeding duration less than six months and the early introduction of solids did not adversely influence BMI trajectories in our sample but high intakes of meat, particularly high fat varieties, and high intakes of carbohydrate at age around 18 months were associated with a high BMI trajectory in boys. It is not clear whether these dietary factors confer a direct risk of higher BMI in childhood or are markers for other dietary patterns that are present early and/or develop through childhood and contribute to higher BMI.

  9. Effect of BMI on knee joint torques in ergometer rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity biomechanics during rowing in 10 normal weight (BMI 18-25), 10 overweight (BMI 25-30 kg·m⁻²), and 10 obese (BMI > 30 kg·m⁻²) participants. The results showed that BMI affects joint kinematics and primarily knee joint kinetics. The data revealed that high BMI leads to unfavorable knee joint torques, implying increased loads of the medial compartment in the knee joint that could be avoided by allowing more variable foot positioning on future designs of rowing ergometers.

  10. Comparison of dyslipidemia among the normal-BMI and high-BMI group of people of rural Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetharaman Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity are considered major epidemic health problems in both developed and underdeveloped countries, as many studies showed a remarkable rise. One of the causes of dyslipidemia is obesity. Body mass index (BMI correlates reasonably well with laboratory-based measures of adiposity for population studies, and is extremely practical in most clinical settings. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the lipid profile of patients with normal BMI and high BMI. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 400 subjects attended the medical outpatient department (OPD of a private medical college hospital at Salem from March 2010 to August 2011. The subjects were divided into two groups (200 in each group: (1 high BMI (BMI 25 and above and (2 normal BMI (BMI less than 25. The laboratory parameters; cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride (TG were determined directly by using an automated chemistry analyzer. Statistical Analysis: The Student′s t-test was used for comparison between categorical variables, i.e. lipid profile, high-BMI and normal-BMI subjects at P ≤0.05. Results: The total cholesterol, LDL and very LDL cholesterol and the TGs are found to be relatively high among the subjects with high BMI when compared with normal BMI persons, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05. Conclusion: By analyzing the results of the study conducted, it was concluded that there was an increased risk of dyslipidemia among the high-BMI group compared with the normal-BMI people. Hence, a community-based education in this regard is of utmost importance.

  11. Intergenerational Community Schools: A New Practice for a New Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Peter J.; Bendezu, Eve; FallCreek, Stephanie; Whitehouse, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A proposed intergenerational learning community is a model for a charter school focused on literacy, artistic studies, technology, environment, and personal wellness. Instructional design includes nongraded, multiage, heterogeneous groupings with flexible looping to support individualized learning. Mentoring and apprenticeships will be featured.…

  12. Intercultural Transmission and Intergenerational Transmission in Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauck, Bernhard

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of intergenerational transmission processes on the intercultural contact and ethnic identification of second generation adolescents from five migrant groups in Germany, distinguishing four possible outcomes of intercultural contact (integration, assimilation, segregation, and marginalization). Data from interviews with same-sex…

  13. Intergenerational Practice: Outcomes and Effectiveness. LGA Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kerry; Springate, Iain; Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This research looked at five intergenerational projects focusing on football, arts, knife crime, living history and personal and social education. Two projects ran in schools, one in a health centre, one in a youth drop-in centre and one at a football club. Each project had its own aims, but in addition to these, the projects aimed to improve…

  14. Elder care and intergenerational relationships in rural Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keasberry, I.N.

    2001-01-01

    In Indonesia, as in most other societies, intergenerational relationships are considered most important for elder care. Children are expected to take care of their elderly parents. However, processes of social change such as industrialisation, urbanisation and migration can have a negative impact on

  15. Tradition and Story: Intergenerational Ties of Past to Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kathleen

    This 32-item annotated bibliography details picture books, realistic fiction, poetry, and biographies (most of which were published in 1994) that deal with intergenerational relationships. Each entry in the bibliography indicates the literary genre and recommended age level of the book. The bibliography begins with a brief introductory section…

  16. Mothers, Fathers and Daughters: Intergenerational Transmission of Education in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouli, Joan; Demoussis, Michael; Giannakopoulos, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the role of intergenerational mobility in the educational attainments of Greek women. We use data from the most recent Greek Household Budget Survey and the last three Greek censuses (1981, 1991 and 2001). For analytical and estimation purposes we utilize mobility indicators, regression analysis, decomposition techniques and…

  17. Aging Electorates, Intergenerational Fairness and Pro-Elderly Policy Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the state of the art in comparative politics and political sociology on the interplay between population aging and public policies in OECD democracies. It discusses findings from the Intergenerational Justice Index (IJI) - a simple four-dimensional indicator developed with th...

  18. Mapping Intergenerational Tension in Multicultural Coming-of-Age Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Dan

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author offers the theme of intergenerational tension as an approach to bring students from varied cultural backgrounds together into a shared conversation, one that resonates with their personal experiences and that potentially can lead them to more critical reflection on such issues as race, national identity, and social…

  19. Intergenerational programs for persons with dementia: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Bethany; Larkin, Hannah; Moorhouse, Aynsley; Oomen, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Participation in intergenerational programs can have a positive impact on quality of life and well-being across age groups. We sought to examine the characteristics, goals, and outcomes of intergenerational programs for persons with dementia and children or youth. Six hundred and seventy-nine unique abstracts were identified through a search of 7 medical databases, 16 social science databases, 2 gray literature databases, and other sources. Twenty-seven articles met criteria for review. Articles must have gathered information on program design, goals, outcomes, or participants' perceptions. Overall, 3 themes emerged: program design, outcomes for child or youth participants, and outcomes for persons with dementia. Music, arts-based, and narrative programs were most common. Outcomes include effects on perceptions of aging and dementia, behavior, mood, engagement and sense of self. The use of qualitative and quantitative data, as well as descriptive articles, provided a richer picture of the relational features of intergenerational programs to emerge. The type of program had less of an impact on positive outcomes than if the activity was meaningful for participants and supported shared opportunities for relationship building and growth. The relationship-based skill set and scope of social work practitioners provides opportunity for the development, facilitation, and evaluation of intergenerational programs. The difficulties of establishing best practices due to methodological challenges and implications for further research are presented.

  20. Intergenerational Learning between Children and Grandparents in East London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Charmian; Ruby, Mahera; Jessel, John; Gregory, Eve; Arju, Tahera

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the learning exchange between three- to six-year-old children and their grandparents, in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families living in east London. The following concepts from sociocultural theory are applied to this new area of intergenerational learning:…

  1. Recent Developments in Intergenerational Mobility. NBER Working Paper No. 15889

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Economists and social scientists have long been interested in intergenerational mobility, and documenting the persistence between parents and children's outcomes has been an active area of research. However, since Gary Solon's 1999 Chapter in the Handbook of Labor Economics, the literature has taken an interesting turn. In addition to focusing on…

  2. Gender and Migration Background in Intergenerational Educational Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneebaum, Alyssa; Rumplmaier, Bernhard; Altzinger, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    We employ 2011 European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey data for Austria to perform uni- and multivariate econometric analyses to study the role of gender and migration background (MB) in intergenerational educational mobility. We find that there is more persistence in the educational attainment of girls relative to their…

  3. Intergenerational Contact and Mediators Impact Ambivalence towards Future Selves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, Shannon E.; Savla, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational contact can promote positive attitudes towards elders. However, contact with older adults often fosters multiple stereotypes, which may contribute to ambivalence about aging and poorer health in late life. Online survey data from 457 young adults (M age = 19.4 years; 74% female) were used to explore the relationship between…

  4. Intergenerational Neighborhood Networks: A Basis for Aiding the Frail Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pynoos, Jon; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes LINC (Living Independently through Neighborhood Cooperation), which formed intergenerational helping networks in which the elderly served as donors as well as service recipients. The project's evaluation indicated that frail older persons received services, acted as volunteers, developed friendships, and increased life satisfaction. (JAC)

  5. Intergenerational Programming: The Impact on Children and Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Karen B.

    This paper describes intergenerational (IG) programming and its benefits for children and elders, focusing on the preschool IG program at the Champaign County (Illinois) Nursing Home Child Care Center. The paper begins with a definition of IG programming and describes theories of adult development that may provide insight into how each age group…

  6. Does intergenerational social mobility affect antagonistic attitudes towards ethnic minorities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Graaf, N.D. de; Quillian, L.

    2009-01-01

    Up till now, no study satisfactorily addressed the effect of social mobility on antagonistic attitudes toward ethnic minorities. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of educational and class intergenerational mobility on ethnic stereotypes, ethnic threat, and opposition to ethnic intermar

  7. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  8. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  9. Interdisciplinary Teams, Mentorship and Intergenerational Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Donna M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of an intergenerational service-learning (IS-L) project with a mentorship component for graduate students at Western Michigan University's Gerontology Program. Two classes of students, one graduate and one undergraduate, taking introductory gerontology courses were brought together to complete IS-L projects…

  10. Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

  11. Longevity, Growth and Intergenerational Equity: The Deterministic Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Gestsson, Marias Halldór

    2016-01-01

    Challenges raised by aging (increasing longevity) have prompted policy debates featuring policy proposals justified by reference to some notion of intergenerational equity. However, very different policies ranging from presavings to indexation of retirement ages have been justified in this way. We...

  12. Like Godfather, Like Son: Exploring the Intergenerational Nature of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarsson, Randi; Lindquist, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Sons (daughters) with criminal fathers have 2.06 (2.66) times higher odds of having a criminal conviction than those with noncriminal fathers. One additional paternal sentence increases sons' (daughters') convictions by 32 (53) percent. Compared to traditional labor market measures, the intergenerational transmission of crime is lower than that…

  13. Intergenerational risk-sharing through funded pensions and public debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, D.H.J.; Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Ponds, E.H.M.; Romp, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the benefits of intergenerational risk-sharing through both private funded pensions and via the public debt. We use a multi-period overlapping generation model with a pay-as-you-go pension pillar, a funded pension pillar and a government. Shocks are smoothed via the public debt and variat

  14. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Styles of Irish Immigrant Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Helen G.

    2010-01-01

    The research on child developmental outcomes underscores the importance of exploring parenting styles and identifying their multifactorial and intergenerational influences. This descriptive study examined the individual parenting styles of a sample of 82 Irish immigrant mothers and investigated the factors that influenced their individual…

  15. Intergenerational Coresidence among Small Farmers in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWey, Leah K.; Cebulko, Kara B.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines intergenerational coresidence among rural farm families near Santarem, Para, Brazil using survey data collected by the authors on 896 children whose parents live in 175 households on 150 farms. Married adult children, daughters, and the best educated are more likely to live off their parents' rural property (vs. on the…

  16. Intergenerational and Urban-Rural Health Habits in Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Cao, Haijun; Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore intergenerational health habits and compare differences between urban and rural families. Methods: A total of 2500 families with children ages 6-18 in China were surveyed regarding their health habits. Results: Urban families reported significantly greater food variety and more time exercising (for fathers and children) than…

  17. Development of Future Generations: Oriented Virtual Negotiation Support System for Intergenerational Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Weihua; Zhong Xiaohong; Xue Pengli

    2008-01-01

    Intergenerational conflict coordination is the fundamental requirement and core of sustainable development. In this paper, through the analysis of the future generations-oriented management mechanisms for intergenerational conflict, the idea of mechanisms and institution building for the coordination and management of intergenerational conflict is put forward. Furthermore, the future generations-oriented virtual negotiation support system (NSS) for intergenerational conflict is developed, built on the analysis of the process simulation of intergenerational wealth transfer, intergenerational equilibrium allocation of resources, and strategies for the mitigation and avoidance of intergenerational conflict, through the application of advanced IT technology. The virtual NSS for intergenerational conflict is helpful to the practical application of the sustainable development theory; on the other hand, it can be applied directly to the intergenerational equilibrium allocation of resources, national economic accounting, formulation of sustainable development strategies and other urgent national economic and social development issues. Finally, the sustainable development theory can be enriched and extended. Therefore, the development of the future generations-oriented virtual NSS for intergenerational conflict has certain theoretical and practical effects on the theory of sustainable development.

  18. Beta cell function and BMI in ethnically diverse children with newly diagnosed autoimmune type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of our study was to examine the relationship between BMI and beta-cell function at diagnosis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a large group of ethnically diverse children. Cross-sectional analysis of 524 children (60.8% White, 19.5% Hispanic, 14.5% African-American, 5.2% other n...

  19. Preceptorship in the intergenerational context: an integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Vicki; Myrick, Florence; Yonge, Olive

    2011-01-01

    Preceptorship is a teaching/learning method used in many undergraduate nursing programs whereby learners are individually assigned to expert practitioners in the clinical setting. The current reality in today's workplace setting encompasses four generations (Veterans, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials) working together and often these generations do not share the same work ethic or expectations. Given this generational diversity, increased knowledge and awareness of the intergenerational context of the preceptorship experience is both an important and timely topic for nursing education. The purpose of this paper is to discuss an integrative review of the literature using the methodology of Whittemore and Knafl (2005). The computerized databases of CINAHL, PubMed, ProQuest Education, ERIC, and EMBASE were used to generate relevant literature. The sample consisted of 98 articles; 18 being research and 80 theoretical. Given the large sample size, the authors focus on summarizing the research literature in this paper. This review calls attention to the need for further research into generational diversity and its influence on the preceptorship experience. It also highlights the limited research that currently exists on the topic of the intergenerational nursing workforce. Implications for nursing education and clinical practice are also discussed.

  20. Comparison of dyslipidemia among the normal-BMI and high-BMI group of people of rural Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Seetharaman Ranganathan; Tuman US Krishnan; Shankar Radhakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are considered major epidemic health problems in both developed and underdeveloped countries, as many studies showed a remarkable rise. One of the causes of dyslipidemia is obesity. Body mass index (BMI) correlates reasonably well with laboratory-based measures of adiposity for population studies, and is extremely practical in most clinical settings. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the lipid profile of patients with normal BMI and high BMI. Material...

  1. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  2. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    , and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared...

  3. Microbiota conservation and BMI signatures in adult monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Sebastian; Derom, Catherine; Jonkers, Daisy M; Vlietinck, Robert; Saris, Wim H; Kleerebezem, Michiel; de Vos, Willem M; Zoetendal, Erwin G

    2013-04-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota acts like a virtual organ and is suggested to be of great importance in human energy balance and weight control. This study included 40 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs to investigate the influence of the human genotype on GI microbiota structure as well as microbial signatures for differences in body mass index (BMI). Phylogenetic microarraying based on 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that MZ twins have more similar microbiotas compared with unrelated subjects (Ptwins. Half of the twin pairs were selected on discordance in terms of BMI, which revealed an inverse correlation between Clostridium cluster IV diversity and BMI. Furthermore, relatives of Eubacterium ventriosum and Roseburia intestinalis were positively correlated to BMI differences, and relatives of Oscillospira guillermondii were negatively correlated to BMI differences. Lower BMI was associated with a more abundant network of primary fiber degraders, while a network of butyrate producers was more prominent in subjects with higher BMI. Combined with higher butyrate and valerate contents in the fecal matter of higher BMI subjects, the difference in microbial networks suggests a shift in fermentation patterns at the end of the colon, which could affect human energy homeostasis.

  4. BMI AND LENGTH OF HOSPITAL STAY IN LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder disease is one of the most common causes of hospital admission in middle-aged women in developed countries. Body Mass Index (BMI is a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. A high BMI can be an indicator of high body fatness. Postoperative length of stay (POLOS was defined as the time from operative end to discharge from the hospital. Although increased Body Mass Index (BMI is well recognized as a risk factor for gallstones and subsequent cholecystectomy, there is little information on what direct impact underweight, overweight and obesity have on the length of hospital stay for gallbladder disease. Aim of this study was to find out effect of BMI on length of hospital stay .This retrospective study of 55 patients was conducted over 3months in the department of general surgery, Father Muller Medical College Hospital (FMMCH Mangalore, India, and BMI appeared to contribute to a decreased POLOS.

  5. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and sedentariness (Sed in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years. Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002 and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002. Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04, while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13, biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07, media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08 and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03 and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04 diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25, playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20 and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08 were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  6. Money Marries Money - Intergenerational Top Household Income Mobility in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin David; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes intergenerational earnings and income mobility among top-income households in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the populations, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their spouses’ incomes. At the....... At the top of the income distribution we find a correlation of 0.763 between father and mother’s pooled income and that of their son and daughter-in-law’s pooled income, which indicates that money marries money.......This paper describes intergenerational earnings and income mobility among top-income households in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the populations, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their spouses’ incomes...

  7. Enhancing chemotherapy response with Bmi-1 silencing in ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enfeng Wang

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly ovarian cancer is a vexing, incurable disease for patients with recurrent cancer and therapeutic options are limited. Although the polycomb group gene, Bmi-1 that regulates the self-renewal of normal stem and progenitor cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human malignancies, yet a role for Bmi-1 in influencing chemotherapy response has not been addressed before. Here we demonstrate that silencing Bmi-1 reduces intracellular GSH levels and thereby sensitizes chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin. By exacerbating ROS production in response to cisplatin, Bmi-1 silencing activates the DNA damage response pathway, caspases and cleaves PARP resulting in the induction apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. In an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of chemoresistant ovarian cancer, knockdown of Bmi-1 by nanoliposomal delivery significantly inhibits tumor growth. While cisplatin monotherapy was inactive, combination of Bmi-1 silencing along with cisplatin almost completely abrogated ovarian tumor growth. Collectively these findings establish Bmi-1 as an important new target for therapy in chemoresistant ovarian cancer.

  8. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Deary, Ian J; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-19

    Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight, and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI were substantial among the well-educated, suggesting importance of familial environmental influences common to high education and lower BMI. Family influence was particularly important in linking high education and lower levels of obesity.

  9. The intergenerational transmission of cognitive and non-cognitive abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Erik; Öckert, Björn; Vlachos, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    We study the intergenerational transmission of cognitive and non-cognitive abilities between parents and sons using population-wide enlistment data. Conscripts are evaluated at the same age and with comparable methods across cohorts, and we correct for measurement error bias in fathers' ability measures by using their brothers' abilities as instruments. The uncle instrument is supported by a host of validity tests. This strategy also enables us to predict mothers' abilities. Our results sugge...

  10. The intergenerational transmission of cognitive and non-cognitive abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Erik; Öckert, Björn; Vlachos, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    We study the intergenerational transmission of cognitive and non-cognitive abilities between parents and sons using population-wide enlistment data. Conscripts are eva-luated at the same age and with comparable methods across cohorts, and we correct for measurement error bias in fathers’ ability measures by using their brothers’ abilities as instruments. The “uncle instrument” is supported by a host of validity tests. This strat-egy also enables us to predict mothers’ abilities. Our results s...

  11. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents’ reduced neural activation when rating their parents’ emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents’ past aggression and adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic r...

  12. Intergenerational Transmission of Abilities and Self Selection of Mexican Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an intergenerational model of self-selection of migration and education that is capable of explaining the evolution of earnings and education across three different generations of immigrants. By structurally estimating the model it is possible to quantify the human capital level of Mexicans in light of the self-sacrifice made by the first generation of Mexican immigrants. The results suggest that there is a significant one time loss of human capital faced by immigrants upo...

  13. Intergenerational Transmission of Abilities and Self Selection of Mexican Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an intergenerational self selection model of migration and education that is capable of explaining the evolution of earnings and education across three generations of immigrants. By structurally estimating the model it is possible to quantify the human capital level of Mexicans in light of the self-sacrifice made by the first generation of Mexican immigrants. The results suggest that there is a significant one time loss of human capital faced by immigrants upon migration t...

  14. An intergenerational program for persons with dementia using Montessori methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, C J; Judge, K S; Bye, C A; Fox, K M; Bowden, J; Bell, M; Valencic, K; Mattern, J M

    1997-10-01

    An intergenerational program bringing together older adults with dementia and preschool children in one-on-one interactions is described. Montessori activities, which have strong ties to physical and occupational therapy, as well as to theories of developmental and cognitive psychology, are used as the context for these interactions. Our experience indicates that older adults with dementia can still serve as effective mentors and teachers to children in an appropriately structured setting.

  15. Intergenerational justice of what: welfare, resources or capabilities?

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An important aspect of intergenerational justice concerns the specification of a 'currency of advantage' that can be used to evaluate distributive outcomes across time. Environmental theorists have introduced several innovative currencies of justice in recent years, such as ecological space and critical natural capital. However they have often downplayed the application of established currencies (such as welfare, resources or capabilities) to issues of futurity. After exploring the merits of ...

  16. Immigration Background and the Intergenerational Correlation in Education

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the degree of intergenerational education mobility among immigrant and native-born youth in Australia. We find that young Australians from non-English-speaking background (NESB) immigrant families have an educational advantage over their English-speaking background (ESB) immigrant and Australian-born peers. Moreover, while highly-educated Australian-born mothers and fathers transfer separate and roughly equal educational advantages to their children, outcomes for ESB (NESB...

  17. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing children’s preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  18. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Zilibotti; Matthias Doepke

    2014-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissi...

  19. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing children’s preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  20. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  1. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  2. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  3. A Longitudinal Intergenerational Analysis of Executive Functions During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Wang, Zhe; Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of executive function (EF) in both clinical and educational contexts, the etiology of individual differences in early childhood EF remains poorly understood. This study provides the first longitudinal intergenerational analysis of mother-child EF associations during early childhood. A group of children and their mothers (n = 62) completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Mother and child EF were modestly correlated by 24 months of age and this association was stable through 48...

  4. Contribution of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization to sunflower breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Christov M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation was directed to sunflower improvement using hybrid forms resulted from wide hybridization. The aim was to create new B/A and R lines from interspecific and intergeneric hybrids resistant to diseases, parasite broomrape, herbicides, other stress factors and with high combining ability in highly productive oil-type sunflower hybrids with varied fatty acid contents. The confectionary hybrids should have a high kernel protein content and amin...

  5. Intergenerational learning among primary and lower secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Polat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify on which topics intergenerational learning takes place among primary and lower secondary school teachers of different generations. If intergenerational learning is present among colleagues, the content of this learning will be specified. For this purpose, in 2013-2014 school year, in the district of İzmit in the province of Kocaeli two primary and two lower secondary schools where different generations work together were, therefore, selected and 39 teachers of three different generations in these schools were interviewed. Semi-structured interview technique was used during these face-to- face interviews. Data of the study, which was designed using phenomenological pattern, was analyzed with descriptive analysis method. The results indicated that younger teachers learn about topics such as classroom management and handling problems with parents from the experiences of their older colleagues. On the other hand, older teachers learn about the new teaching methods and techniques, teaching materials and the use of technical equipments from their younger colleagues. It was clearly seen that intergenerational learning proceed more functionally at schools where collaboration and knowledge-sharing are important values; where there aren’t any prejudices against age and where there are individuals who are open for development.

  6. Intergenerational Justice: How Reasonable Man Discounts Climate Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D. Davidson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Moral philosophers and economists have evaluated the intergenerational problem of climate change by applying the whole gamut of theories on distributive justice. In this article, however, it is argued that intergenerational justice cannot imply the application of moral ideal theories to future generations. The formal principle of equality simply requires us to treat like cases as like. If intergenerational justice is to have any meaning, it would require future generations to receive the same treatment under the law and the same treatment from the authorities, as far as cases are like. In the context of climate change, the reasonable man standard from tort law is of particular relevance. There is no justification to handle pollution across generational boundaries according to norms which differ from the (international laws for handling pollution across national borders. It is argued that this implies, for example, that a zero social rate of time preference should be used in cost-benefit analysis of climate policy: climate damage experienced by future generations should be discounted neither for their higher expected wealth, nor purely for their being remote.

  7. Differences in Family Policies and the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The intergenerational transmission of the risk of divorce is a well-known long-term effect of divorce that has been found in many Western societies. Less known is what effect different family policies and divorce laws have on the intergenerational transmission of divorce. In this paper, the division of Germany into two separate states from 1949 until 1990, with the consequent development of two very different family policies, is regarded as a natural experiment that enables us to investigate the effect of family policy on the mechanisms underlying the social inheritance of divorce. Data from respondents from the former East and West Germany participating in the German Life History Study are analyzed using multivariate event-history methods. The results indicate that the strength of the intergenerational divorce transmission, when adjusted for differences in divorce level, was lower in the East than in the West. Differences in religion, marriage age and timing of first birth, which are partial indicators of family policy, could explain this effect. Furthermore, we did find a tendency towards a reduction in the dynamics of divorce transmission over time, both in East Germany and in West Germany.

  8. Guia de ideas para la Planificacion y Aplicacion de Proyectos Intergeneracionales (Guide of Ideas for Planning and Implementing Intergenerational Projects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Teresa Almeida; Marreel, Iris; Hatton-Yeo, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This version of "Guide of Ideas for Planning and Implementing Intergenerational Projects," written in Spanish, is for all professionals that are or wish to be enrolled in the development of intergenerational activities. This "Guide" is the main product of the Project MATES--Mainstreaming Intergenerational Solidarity,…

  9. Childhood BMI growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate;

    2017-01-01

    cancer and its sub-types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6 to 14 years and born 1930-89 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age-specific z-scores. Using linear spline multilevel models......Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer, however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial......, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain...

  10. Marriage, BMI, and wages: a double selection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Obesity rates have been rising over the past decade. As more people become obese, the social stigma of obesity may be reduced. Marriage has typically been used as a positive signal to employers. If obese individuals possess other characteristics that are valued in the labour market they may no longer face a wage penalty for their physical appearance. This paper investigates the relationship between marital status, body mass index (BMI), and wages by estimating a double selection model that controls for selection into the labour and marriage markets using waves 14 and 16 (2004 and 2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. Results suggest that unobserved characteristics related to marriage and labour market participation are causing an upward bias on the BMI coefficients. The BMI coefficient is positive and significant for married men only in the double selection model. The findings provide evidence that unobserved characteristics related to success in the marriage and labour market may influence the relationship between BMI and wages.

  11. [BMI of the children attending elementary schools in Tuzla Canton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusupović, Fatima; Juricić, Mojca; Rudić, Aida; Hazihalilović, Jasminka; Kasumović, Merima; Kalesic, Mirela

    2005-01-01

    BMI is frequently used in different studies as indicator of nutritional status. When BMI exceeds the limit values then it represents the risk factor leading to different diseases; therefore it is important to calculate BMI for young persons. In cases when BMI differs from the recommended value it is necessary to apply different measures in order to prevent diseases. The aim of this paper was to assess the present status and on the basis of the result obtained to assess the need for eventual preventive activities leading to healthy life stytes. This study was performed on a sample of 1544 school boys and girls aged eight, ten and fourteen attending first, third and seventh class of elementary school. The study covered four municipalities of Tuzla Canton: Tuzla, Lukavac, Gradanica and Kladanj, and both urban and rural areas. We used the method of anthropometric measurement (IBP International Biological Program) of body mass and body height, followed by calculation of BMI and statistical evaluation. This study found that the average BMI of girls and boys is increasinglongitudinally with the age, with significant change between 10 years and 14 years, without significant gen der difference. Boys aged eight have BMI 15.76, len years 16.52 and are similar to the BMI of girls aged eight 15.44 and ten years 16.59. Fourteen-year-old girls have BMI which is 19.54, higher than the BMI of boys at the same age which is 18.75. Having in mind the range of BMI percentile values for normal nutritional status (from 5 to 85) the values for eight years old boys ranged from 14.1 to 19.4, for ten-year-old boys from 13.4 to 19.2, and for fourteen-year-old boys from 13.6 to 19.5. The values for girls showed the following results; for eight-year-old girls the value ranged from 13.9 to 20.6; for ten-year-old girls t'rom 13.5 to 20.5 and fourteen-year-old girls from 13.7 to 19.6. In the sample there was 6.6% underweight children, and 15.2% overweight children, but the portion of overweight

  12. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  13. BMI and waist circumference; cross-sectional and prospective associations with blood pressure and cholesterol in 12-year-olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga B M Bekkers

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Childhood and adolescent overweight, defined by body mass index (BMI are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Abdominal adiposity may be more important in associations with cardiovascular diseases but waist circumference (WC has been rarely studied in children. We studied associations between BMI and WC and blood pressure (BP and cholesterol in 12-year-old children and prospectively changes in BMI or WC status between age 8 and 12 years and BP and cholesterol at age 12. STUDY DESIGN: Weight, height, WC, BP and cholesterol concentrations were measured in 1432 children at age 12 years. Linear regression was used to study the associations between high BMI and large WC (>90(th percentile and BP and cholesterol. RESULTS: Systolic BP was 4.9 mmHg higher (95% (CI 2.5, 7.2 in girls and 4.2 mmHg (95%CI 1.9, 6.5 in boys with a high BMI. Large WC was also associated with higher systolic BP in girls (3.7 mmHg (95%CI 1.3, 6.1 and boys (3.5 mmHg (95%CI 1.2, 5.8. Diastolic BP and cholesterol concentrations were significantly positively (HDL cholesterol negatively associated with high BMI and large WC, too. Normal weight children with a history of overweight did not have higher blood pressure levels or adverse cholesterol concentrations than children that were normal weight at both ages. CONCLUSION: A high BMI and large WC were associated with higher BP levels and adverse cholesterol concentrations. WC should be taken into account when examining cardiovascular risk factors in children.

  14. Intergenerational Transmission Effects on Relationship Satisfaction: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keitaro; Busby, Dean M.

    2012-01-01

    Although intergenerational transmission processes have been studied on various aspects of family life, cross-cultural comparisons have rarely been made. In the present study, the authors examine how intergenerational transmission processes on relationship satisfaction differ between individuals with different gender and cultural identities. A…

  15. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting: Closing Comments for the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Belsky, Jay; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2009-01-01

    The 5 studies in this special section both confirm prior findings regarding the intergenerational transmission of parenting and provide important new evidence regarding the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting and the developmental mediators that seem involved in that transmission. Consistent with earlier research, the findings…

  16. Potential for Applying Intergenerational Practice to Protected Area Management in Mountainous Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Mitrofanenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One way of preserving the natural and cultural diversity of mountain areas and supporting their sustainable development is the establishment of protected areas. The scientific literature acknowledges the importance of participation by local stakeholders and of considering social cohesion in protected area management. Intergenerational practice has been shown to enhance participation and improve social cohesion; however, its potential role in natural resource management has not been considered by the research community. This paper explores the potential for integrating intergenerational practice into protected area management in mountainous regions, guided by 3 research questions: What challenges of protected area management could benefit from intergenerational practice? How can intergenerational practice help to address these challenges? And how could intergenerational practice be more strongly integrated into current protected area management? The paper focuses on selected management challenges, mostly related to the development function of protected areas, and suggests intergenerational practice solution pathways for each challenge, derived from qualitative content analysis of the literature, interviews with protected area and regional development experts, and participation in the project Big Foot: Crossing Generations, Crossing Mountains, which tested intergenerational learning approaches in 3 rural municipalities—one each in Bulgaria, Greece, and Italy. Recommendations are proposed for integrating intergenerational practice into protected area management policy and practice at the global, regional, and local levels.

  17. Intergenerational Cultural Conflicts in Norms of Parental Warmth among Chinese American Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunxia; Chao, Ruth K.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational cultural conflict experienced by Chinese adolescents from immigrant families, and its consequences for their adjustment. Intergenerational cultural conflict is assessed as the mismatch between adolescents' ideals and perceptions of parental warmth. The extent and consequences of such mismatches for these…

  18. Education as Catalyst for Intergenerational Refugee Family Communication about War and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nancy J.; Suyemoto, Karen L.; Kiang, Peter Nien-chu

    2009-01-01

    This article describes influences on intergenerational communication within refugee families about sociocultural trauma and explores how education may positively affect this communication process. Drawing on qualitative research and grounded theory through a larger study concerning intergenerational effects of and communication about trauma in…

  19. Transnational Intergenerationalities: Cultural Learning in Polish Migrant Families and Its Implications for Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Daniela; Pietka-Nykaza, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we examine the impact of family migration on intergenerational learning, especially in relation to the transmission of cultural values and practices. Drawing on data collected through in-depth case studies with migrant Polish children and their parents, we explore the influence of intergenerationality on children's…

  20. Intergenerational Conflicts among Latinos in Early Adulthood: Separating Values Conflicts with Parents from Acculturation Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jessica; Basanez, Tatiana; Farahmand, Anahita

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of Latino and non-Latino college students sought to examine the ways in which perceived intergenerational conflicts with parents are related to acculturation, family dynamics, and psychosocial functioning. Participants reported the extent to which they experienced two types of intergenerational conflicts with parents:…

  1. Intergenerational Learning (Between Generation X & Y) in Learning Families: A Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. Y. Cherri

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine intergenerational learning behaviour within ten Hong Kong families between Generation X parents and their Generation Y children. It tries to investigate intergenerational knowledge exchange, identify the characteristics of learning behaviour and culture in their "learning families". A narrative…

  2. Demographic and social trends affecting intergenerational relations in the MENA region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Messkoub (Mahmood)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on poverty in the MENA region and whether it can be alleviated by intergenerational support within and across households. Intergenerational relations are mediated through several institutions. The most prominent of these are households, state, civil society and market.

  3. Religion, Race/Ethnicity, and Norms of Intergenerational Assistance among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G. Ellison

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data on adults ages 55 and over from the second wave of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH-2, this study models the main and interactive effects of religious involvement and race/ethnicity on four items of attitudes towards intergenerational assistance. Results indicate that African Americans and Hispanics tend to express stronger support for intergenerational assistance than non-Hispanic Whites. Conservative Protestants, Mormons, and Catholics are more likely than others to believe that adult children should offer co-residence to their aging parents. In addition, theological conservatism is positively associated with support for each type of intergenerational aid, and the net effect of theological conservatism is stronger for African Americans than for non-Hispanic Whites. However, religious attendance is statistically unrelated to norms of intergenerational assistance. It is concluded that religious factors are important in shaping norms of intergenerational support, particularly within minority communities.

  4. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

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    Rahman O Oloritun

    Full Text Available Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and R(2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001 of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as

  5. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study.

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    Claudia Börnhorst

    Full Text Available Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences.The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008 and follow-up examination (2009/2010 supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences.Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers' smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found.Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association

  6. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients

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    Manfred James Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA. However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient. FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone.

  7. Social ideological influences on food consumption, physical activity and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W C; Worsley, A; Cunningham, E G

    2009-12-01

    We investigated relationships between ideological beliefs (i.e., diaphanous body image and environmental concerns), food attitudes, evening meal patterns, physical activity, and Body Mass Index (BMI). A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. A survey was conducted among shoppers aged 40-70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested among female baby boomers (n=547) for younger (n=245) and older (n=302) age groups using structural equation modeling. Findings showed that diaphanous body image had a direct and positive influence on negative food attitudes, which is likely to lead to higher BMI for both age groups. Body image beliefs were positively related to physical activity only for women aged 56-70 years. In contrast, among women aged 40-55 years, strong pro-environmental concerns suggested less consumption of both healthy (e.g., fruit and vegetables) and unhealthy (e.g., sugar and fats) foods. Moreover, strong pro-animal concerns resulted in higher BMI for the younger women. As expected, increased physical activity negatively influenced BMI. Importantly, the associations between ideological beliefs, attitudes, evening meal patterns, and BMI differed between younger and older female baby boomers.

  8. Intergenerational representations of schistosomiasis in endemic area, Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais

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    Celina Maria Modena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.

  9. From Compassionate Ageism to Intergenerational Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binstock, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    During the 50 years in which "The Gerontologist" has been publishing, the politics of aging in the United States has undergone distinct changes. The political behavior of older individuals has remained largely the same even though different birth cohorts have succeeded each other in populating the ranks of older people. But the politics…

  10. The benefits of intergenerational Programmes from the perspective of the professionals

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    Marta Gutiérrez Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of intergenerational programmes has shown that the relationship between individuals of different generation has a very positive impact on those directly involved in it. Intergenerational programmes have shown to be effective, for example, increasing the elderly’s psychological, physical, and social wellbeing, and changing young people’s perceptions about the elderly. The present study examines the impact of intergenerational programmes on those directly involved in them– children, adolescents, and elderly – as well as those that participate in the intergenerational relationship indirectly – family, professionals, and society – from the perspective of the professionals who work on the programmes. A qualitative design based on data collected through semi-structured interviews to 25 professionals who coordinated intergenerational programmes in Spain was used. The content analysis of the information provided by the professionals evidenced four dialectical dimensions on this study: impact on participants, impact on families, impact on professionals, and intergenerational connection. Finally, some conclusions on the importance of inquiring about the impact of these programmes on all those involved in intergenerational relationships are provided.

  11. Preparation of the Heat Resistant Adhesive of NBR Modified BMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A Kind of homogeneous resin, which can be used as thermal resistant adhesive and matrix for composite,was prepared by bis(4-maleimidophenyl)methane (BMI), 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane(DDM), aniline(An), phenol type epoxy resin (F-51) and nitrile -butadiene rubber (NBR) through solution copolymerization. The reaction from prepolymerization to curing of the resin system was studied. And the factors such as raw material ratio and curing temperature, which affect thermal resistance and adhesives of cured product,were also analyzed. SEM and IR spectra were utilized to discuss the mechanisms of toughness and reaction of modified BMI.

  12. Linked lives: the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P; Freeman-Gallant, Adrienne; Lizotte, Alan J; Krohn, Marvin D; Smith, Carolyn A

    2003-04-01

    There is a strong assumption of intergenerational continuity in behavior patterns, including antisocial behavior. Using a 3-generation, prospective study design, we examine the level of behavioral continuity between Generation 2 (G2) and Generation 3 (G3), and the role of economic disadvantage and parenting behaviors as mediating links. We estimate separate models for G2 fathers and G2 mothers. Data are drawn from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 during G2's early adolescence (n = 1,000), which has collected prospective data on G2, their parents (G1), and now their G3 children. Results show that intergenerational continuity in antisocial behavior is evident, albeit somewhat modest. Parenting styles and financial stress do play a mediating role, although their effects vary by G2's gender. In general, adolescent delinquency plays a larger role in linking the generations for G2 fathers, whereas parenting behaviors and financial stress play a larger role for G2 mothers.

  13. Like Father, Like Son? Intergenerational Educational Mobility in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mehtabul; Bhatt, Vipul

    2015-12-01

    Using the nationally representative India Human Development Survey (IHDS), we create a unique son-father matched data set that is representative of the entire adult male population (aged 20-65) in India. We use these data to document the evolution of intergenerational transmission of educational attainment in India over time, among different castes and states for the birth cohorts of 1940-1985. We find that educational persistence, as measured by the regression coefficient of father's education as a predictor of son's education, has declined over time. This implies that increases in average educational attainment are driven primarily by increases among children of less-educated fathers. However, we do not find such a declining trend in the correlation between educational attainment of sons and fathers, which is another commonly used measure of persistence. To understand the source of such a discrepancy between the two measures of educational persistence, we decompose the intergenerational correlation and find that although persistence has declined at the lower end of the fathers' educational distribution, it has increased at the top end of that distribution.

  14. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-05-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents' reduced neural activation when rating their parents' emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents' past aggression and adolescents' subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents' aggressive marital and parent-child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents' aggression and youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

  15. No trend in the intergenerational transmission of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jui-Chung Allen; Wu, Lawrence L

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies on trends in the intergenerational transmission of divorce have produced mixed findings, with two studies (McLanahan and Bumpass 1988; Teachman 2002) reporting no trend in divorce transmission and one study (Wolfinger 1999) finding that divorce transmission has weakened substantially. Using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model, we analyze data from the National Survey of Families and Households and find no evidence for any trend in divorce transmission. To reconcile apparent differences in results, we note that the General Social Survey data used by Wolfinger lack information on marital duration, permitting analysis only for whether respondents have divorced by interview. As a result, an apparent decline in divorce transmission could be due to inadequate adjustments for the longer exposures to risk by earlier marriage cohorts, yielding a higher probability of divorce by interview for earlier cohorts relative to more recent cohorts even if divorce risks are identical across all marriage cohorts. We confirm this possibility by using a series of discrete-time hazard logistic regressions to investigate the sensitivity of estimates of trends in divorce transmission to different adjustments for exposure to risk. We conclude that there has been no trend in the intergenerational transmission of divorce.

  16. BMI and depressive symptoms: the role of media pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders.

  17. Social ideological influences on reported food consumption and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worsley Anthony

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between ideological beliefs, perceptions of the importance of health behaviours, health attitudes, food consumption, and Body Mass Index (BMI. A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975. Methods A survey was conducted among shoppers aged between 40 and 70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested with this empirical data (n = 410 for younger (n = 151 and older (n = 259 age groups using structural equation modelling. Results The findings generally support the study hypotheses. For both groups, egalitarianism had a direct and positive influence on perceptions of the importance of health behaviours. Materialism and masculinity impacted negatively on health attitudes, which positively influenced importance of health behaviours. Perceptions of importance of health behaviours impacted positively on the consumption of healthy foods such as vegetables and fruits, but negatively on consumption of unhealthy foods including sweets and fats. However, BMI was significantly influenced by the consumption of unhealthy foods (e.g., sugar and fats only for the younger age group. Hence, the associations between beliefs, attitudes, consumption behaviours, and BMI outcomes differed between younger and older age populations. Conclusion Social ideological beliefs appear to influence health attitudes and thereafter, the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods and BMI via different pathways.

  18. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forthun, Ingeborg; Wilcox, Allen J; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    the national CP registries. Associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and CP in offspring were investigated by using log-binomial regression models. RESULTS: The 2 cohorts had 390 eligible cases of CP (2.1 per 1000 live-born children). Compared with mothers in the lower normal weight group, mothers...

  19. Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females

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    K. B. Kishore Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33±13.12 years from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02±1.47 kg/m2 was compared with obese group (29.31±3.95 kg/m2, <0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92±4.28 kg was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1 kg, <0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

  20. Bmi-1 Regulates Extensive Erythroid Self-Renewal

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    Ah Ram Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs, responsible for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide exchange, are essential for our well-being. Alternative RBC sources are needed to meet the increased demand for RBC transfusions projected to occur as our population ages. We previously have discovered that erythroblasts derived from the early mouse embryo can self-renew extensively ex vivo for many months. To better understand the mechanisms regulating extensive erythroid self-renewal, global gene expression data sets from self-renewing and differentiating erythroblasts were analyzed and revealed the differential expression of Bmi-1. Bmi-1 overexpression conferred extensive self-renewal capacity upon adult bone-marrow-derived self-renewing erythroblasts, which normally have limited proliferative potential. Importantly, Bmi-1 transduction did not interfere with the ability of extensively self-renewing erythroblasts (ESREs to terminally mature either in vitro or in vivo. Bmi-1-induced ESREs can serve to generate in vitro models of erythroid-intrinsic disorders and ultimately may serve as a source of cultured RBCs for transfusion therapy.

  1. Effect of BMI on Knee Joint Torques in Ergometer Rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity bi

  2. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  3. Can self-reported BMI be used as a valid measure among novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Martin Serup; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, Sten

    SC-330) while their height was measured with a tape measure. Based on these data BMI were calculated based on the equation: BMI = mass (kg) / (height (m))2. Paired t-test was used to compare mean difference between self-reported BMI and measured BMI. Bland Altman limits of agreement were used...

  4. Educational Systems, Intergenerational Mobility and Social Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Chusseau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that the very characteristics of educational systems generate social segmentation. A stylised educational framework is constructed in which everyone receives a compulsory basic education and can subsequently choose between direct working, vocational studies and university. There is a selection for entering the university which consists of a minimum human capital level at the end of basic education. In the model, an individual's human capital depends (i on her/his parents' human capital, (ii on her/his schooling time, and (iii on public expenditure for education. There are three education functions corresponding to each type of study (basic, vocational, university. Divergences in total educational expenditure, in its distribution between the three studies and in the selection severity, combined with the initial distribution of human capital across individuals, can result in very different social segmentations and generate under education traps (situations in which certain dynasties remain unskilled from generation to generation at the steady state. We finally implement a series of simulations that illustrate these findings in the cases of egalitarian and elitist educational systems. Assuming the same initial distribution of human capital between individuals, we find that the first system results in two-segment stratification, quasi income equality and no under education trap whereas the elitist system generates three segments, significant inequality and a large under education trap

  5. Radiation-Associated Toxicities in Obese Women with Endometrial Cancer: More Than Just BMI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita V. Dandapani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study characterizes the impact of obesity on postoperative radiation-associated toxicities in women with endometrial cancer (EC. Material and Methods. A retrospective study identified 96 women with EC referred to a large urban institution’s radiation oncology practice for postoperative whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT and/or intracavitary vaginal brachytherapy (ICBT. Demographic and clinicopathologic data were obtained. Toxicities were graded according to RTOG Acute Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria. Follow-up period ranged from 1 month to 11 years (median 2 years. Data were analyzed by χ2, logistic regression, and recursive partitioning analyses. Results. 68 EC patients who received WPRT and/or ICBT were analyzed. Median age was 52 years (29–73. The majority were Hispanic (71%. Median BMI at diagnosis was 34.5 kg/m2 (20.5–56.6 kg/m2. BMI was independently associated with radiation-related cutaneous (p=0.022 and gynecologic-related (p=0.027 toxicities. Younger women also reported more gynecologic-related toxicities (p=0.039. Adjuvant radiation technique was associated with increased gastrointestinal- and genitourinary-related toxicities but not gynecologic-related toxicity. Conclusions. Increasing BMI was associated with increased frequency of gynecologic and cutaneous radiation-associated toxicities. Additional studies to critically evaluate the radiation treatment dosing and treatment fields in obese EC patients are warranted to identify strategies to mitigate the radiation-associated toxicities in these women.

  6. Haploid Barley from the Intergeneric Cross Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, Roland; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke;

    1984-01-01

    The intergeneric hybrid Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis was fairly easily obtained. During each growing season the intermediate, perennial hybrid yielded haploid tillers of H. vulgare. Late in one season few, hybrid tillers headed. The morphology, cytology and enzymatic patterns...

  7. Intergenerational patterns of family violence related to alcohol abuse: a genogram-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silveira Tondowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze intergenerational patterns of alcohol related violence (ARV. An intentional sample comprising 42 family members was selected according to a set of criteria, including history of ARV. A genogram based on anonymous semi-structured taped interviews was created. The Content Analysis pointed to different patterns of repetition of intergenerational ARV. The most recurrent ones were those of lineal consanguinity (father/son and through marriage. We observed similarities over the generations of each family as regards the pattern of alcohol consumption; the type of violence; the family reaction and the family life cycle in which ARV was intensified. Our results confirm the intergenerational reproduction of ARV. In conclusion, it is important to create intervention strategies to prevent intergenerational repetition of this association of behaviors.

  8. Reconsidering the Use of Nonlinearites in Intergenerational Earnings Mobility as a Test for Credit Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Nathan D.

    2004-01-01

    The intergenerational earnings regression in Canada suggest that credit limits educational choice. Nonlinearities in earnings regressions cannot be used as evidence of binding credit constraints, and concave regressions do not follow from credit constraints.

  9. High-Resolution Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping Identifies Susceptibility Loci for BMI in the Chinese Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dong Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Li, Shuxia;

    2012-01-01

    The genetic loci affecting the commonly used BMI have been intensively investigated using linkage approaches in multiple populations. This study aims at performing the first genome-wide linkage scan on BMI in the Chinese population in mainland China with hypothesis that heterogeneity in genetic...... linkage could exist in different ethnic populations. BMI was measured from 126 dizygotic twins in Qingdao municipality who were genotyped using high-resolution Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP arrays containing about 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Nonparametric linkage analysis...... was performed with Merlin software package for linkage analysis using variance components approach for quantitative trait loci mapping. We identified a strong linkage peak at the end of chromosome 7 (7q36 at 186 cM) with a lod score of 4.06 which overlaps with that reported by a large multicenter study...

  10. Exploring empathy in intergenerational relationships form the perspective of a group of older people / Anri Wheeler

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Anri

    2014-01-01

    Intergenerational relationships refer to relationships between people in alternate generational groups. The increasing numbers of older people all over the world highlight the need for studies on psychological processes that enhance well-being through intergenerational relationships. People from different generations are co-dependent for care and support. Older people constitute a diverse group: some may experience a depletion of energy, physical, financial and emotional resources, while othe...

  11. "The Case Against Intergenerational Accounting: The Accounting Campaign Against Social Security and Medicare"

    OpenAIRE

    James K. Galbraith; Wray , L. Randall; Mosler, Warren

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) has proposed subjecting the entire federal budget to "intergenerational accounting"--which purports to calculate the debt burden our generation will leave for future generations--and is soliciting comments on the recommendations of its two "exposure drafts." The authors of this brief find that intergenerational accounting is a deeply flawed and unsound concept that should play no role in federal government budgeting, and that arguments b...

  12. Family cohesion as a longevity factor of business with intergenerational transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Roca, Fco. Javier; López-Manjón, Jesús D.; Gutiérrez-Hidalgo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to a line of research in Business History that aims to determine the factors of family business longevity in the long term with the study of individual cases. The literature has identified family cohesion as one of the essential factors for survival. Cohesion may be reinforced or broken at the time of the intergenerational transfer. This study finds that a critical response on the part of the business family to the difficulties associated with intergenerational transf...

  13. Intergenerational patterns of family violence related to alcohol abuse: a genogram-based study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze intergenerational patterns of alcohol related violence (ARV). An intentional sample comprising 42 family members was selected according to a set of criteria, including history of ARV. A genogram based on anonymous semi-structured taped interviews was created. The Content Analysis pointed to different patterns of repetition of intergenerational ARV. The most recurrent ones were those of lineal consanguinity (father/son) and through marriage. We observ...

  14. Inter-generational effect of parental time and its policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Why do parents with more human capital spend more time teaching and taking care of their children, in spite of the higher opportunity cost? How does this aect inter-generational mobility and wage inequality? Does this have any implications on the policy that provides public schooling through income taxation? We develop and estimate a theoretical model to answer these questions, in the light that parental time investment is a powerful means of transmitting human capital inter-generationally.

  15. Intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in cognitive ability: the first offspring of the British 1946 birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive development in childhood is a key factor affecting adult life chances, including educational and occupational success. Intergenerational continuity in cognitive ability is often observed. Thus the persistence of poor cognitive outcomes across generations may lead to a ‘cycle of disadvantage’ that is difficult to break. In this thesis, intergenerational associations in cognitive ability between parents and first-born offspring were examined longitudinally. 1,690 member...

  16. Dynamics of intergenerational family relationships from the viewpoint of elderly residents in the city of Jequié (Bahia), Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Doane Martins; Vilela, Alba Benemérita Alves; Nery, Adriana Alves; Duarte, Ana Cristina Santos; Alves, Marta dos Reis; Meira, Saulo Sacramento

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to describe the dynamics of intergenerational family relationships from the viewpoint of the elderly. It is a study of qualitative approach, developed with 32 elderly people registered in the coverage area of a Family Health Program in a city in the state of Bahia. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews during the first half of 2013, through home visits. We applied to thematic content analysis, and four categories emerged: harmonic intergenerational family relationships; conflicting intergenerational family relationships; family relationships permeated by intergenerational carefor the elderly; intergenerational relationships permeated by elderly caring for their grandchildren. The categories enabled an understanding of the dynamics of intergenerational family relationships from the viewpoint of elderly, unveiling family relationships guided in the care, support, family unity and even conflicts.

  17. Intergenerational solidarity: the paradox of reciprocity imbalance in ageing welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Peter

    2016-12-01

    In this article a new theoretical framework is applied to a research field that is somewhat fragmented, namely that of intergenerational solidarity in ageing welfare states. Inspired by utilitarian considerations many scholars tend to problematize the lack of reciprocity characterizing intergenerational exchanges. As some generations are longer old and more numerous they may receive excessive state-administered support of the younger generations, especially in a democratic setting. However, in reality there is limited empirical evidence of intergenerational conflict and theoretical explanations of this paradox are rare. An integrated and dynamical approach that incorporates Durkheim's solidarity theory, Honneth's intersubjective recognition theory, and the current work on reciprocal exchange is necessary in order to understand the survival of intergenerational solidarity in ageing welfare states. According to this model reciprocal recognition leading to the empathization of exchanges is the driving force of intergenerational solidarity in a prefigurative and democratized culture where the status of the young has risen dramatically. Hence, we come to the paradoxical conclusion that attempts to preserve intergenerational solidarity by openly denouncing excessive transfers and trying to bypass them institutionally sometimes might be counterproductive because they may erode their empathic underpinnings.

  18. Intergenerational Educational Rank Mobility in 20th Century United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of educational mobility in the United States report widespread persistence in the association between parental and offspring schooling over most of the 20th century. Despite this apparent persistency, many other studies report substantial improvements in the educational...... in the overall schooling distribution both over time and among population groups defined by race and gender.METHODS & DATA: To analyze educational rank mobility, I use quantile transition matrices known from studies on intergenerational income mobility. However, because schooling distributions are quite lumpy...... for individuals born 1903 through 1980.RESULTS: My analyses yield two key results. First, I find widespread equalization among groups in upward mobility: Among those born before Second World War, Whites are significantly more likely than are Blacks to be upwardly mobile out of the lower quartile of the schooling...

  19. Women’s Access to Education in Nepal: Intergenerational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Mishra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes intergenerational changes in women’s access to education in Nepal. It links up the changes with changing socio-economic processes and suggests that women’s access to education is increasing by generation. And by linking up Anthony Giddens’s Structuration Theory (1984 with the finding, the paper shows the interplay of both structure and agency in bringing changes in women’s access to education. This paper also shows the rural urban differences in access to education and links up between marriage and education. The paper begins with the brief introduction of Nepal and Nepali women, goes on to theoretical arguments on structure and agency debate, and then describes methodology and characteristics of 39 women interviewees and discusses changes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8478 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 6, 2012 49-60

  20. The Adjectives of Solidarity. Trajectories of Research on Intergenerational Solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Persano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents an analysis of most of the approaches to the theme of solidarity between generations. For several decades the time of generations has met the history of ideas. Today, at the intersection of conceptual history and general sociology, and of the analysis of cultural processes and social history, a political reflection is taking place about the "political generation" as a paradigm unavoidably characterized by a kind of semantic vagueness. The same reflection is also confronted with the relationship of complicity or conflict between generations characterized by the growing weight acquired by the issue of intergenerational solidarity. This, in turn, is reflected both in the space of life relationships between old, adults and young people, and, in terms of history, among the living, the dead and the unborn. The so-called "non-contemporaneity of contemporary" is imposing its logic, but it requires new forms of understanding and representation of today's global dynamics.

  1. Cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the sexual intergeneric hybrids between the cultivated Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus, both complete separation and partial separation of the parental genomes were found to occur during mitosis and meiosis under genetic control. The cytogenetics of these hybrids was species-specific for Brassica parents. The different chromosome behavior of hybrids with three Brassica diploids ( B. campestris , B. nigra and B. oleracea ) might contribute to the different cytogenetics of hybrids with three tetraploids ( B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata). Owing to the parental genome separation, Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with various chromosome constitutions were identifiable in the progenies of these hybrids, which were valuable for the study of the structure and evolution of Brassica genome and for the breeding of Brassica crops.

  2. Intergenerational equity and the investing of rents from exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwick, J.M.

    1977-12-01

    The present generation's ethical dilemma over shortchanging future generations by overconsuming exhaustible resources could be relieved by a program of converting the capital from these resources into machines and living off the current flow of machines and labor. If the stock of machines is assumed not to depreciate, then the stock of productive capital and resources is not depleted. Cobb-Douglas technology is used to determine what will happen to consumption if only the rents from exhaustible resources are invested in reproducible capital goods. An important feature of Cobb-Douglas technology is that input in the form of minerals from an exhaustible resource is needed to get a positive output of the single produced commodity. Results of the model indicate that a savings investment rule will not provide for the maintenance of per capita consumption constant over time. Further studies have explored the effects of depreciations and intergenerational equity. 7 references.

  3. To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-06-01

    AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

  4. DOES PRESENTING PATIENT'S BMI INCREASE DOCUMENTATION OF OBESITY?

    OpenAIRE

    Norm Clothier, MD, M. Kim Marvel, PhD, Courtney S. Cruickshank, MS

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the associated health consequences, obesity is infrequently documented as a problem in medical charts. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a simple intervention (routine listing of the BMI on the medical chart) will increase physician documentation of obesity in the medical record. Methods: Participants were resident physicians in a family medicine residency program. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. For expe...

  5. Does Presenting Patients BMI Increase Documentation of Obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Clothier, Norm; Marvel, M. Kim; Cruickshank, Courtney S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the associated health consequences, obesity is infrequently docu-mented as a problem in medical charts. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a simple intervention (routine listing of the BMI on the medical chart) will increase physician documenta-tion of obesity in the medical record. Methods: Participants were resident physicians in a family medicine residency program. Partici-pants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. For ...

  6. Intergeneration social support affects the subjective well-being of the elderly: Mediator roles of self-esteem and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qian

    2016-06-01

    The mental health of the elderly is an important issue in the area of health psychology. This study investigated the effect of intergeneration social support on the subjective well-being of 429 elderly participants. Results suggested that intergeneration social support, self-esteem, and loneliness were significantly correlated to subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-esteem and loneliness partially mediated the effect of intergeneration social support on subjective well-being. These findings provided insights into the effect of intergeneration social support on the subjective well-being of the elderly.

  7. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L; Gaylis, Jaclyn B

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was conducted at San Diego State University. Data were analysed by using t tests, χ(2) tests and regression analysis in SPSS. NMs exhibited a lower BMI than OMs (P NMs had a BMI in the range of overweight or obese; however, prevalence was three times higher for OMs, being 9·2 %. A healthier meal option was the most influential factor in NMs' meal choices whereas convenience and weight control were influential factors in OMs' meal choices. Most NMs read nutrition labels and reported that this affects their food choices. NMs exercised longer than OMs in the NMs only (P NMs compared with OMs.

  8. Somatic Changes of University Students in BMI and WHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cepková Alena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with the assessment of somatic changes of the students at the Slovak University of Technology (STU, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FME, specifically expressed by Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR during the years 2007 and 2013. In total 2228 men were involved in the study and measured upon their entry at the university. It was found out that the values of BMI belonged to the category of average range measured for adults (from 22.96 kg.m-2 to 24.60 kg.m-2 and indicates standard values. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01 were discovered between the years 2011 (23.70 kg.m-2 and 2012 (24.60 kg.m-2, 2012 (24.60 kg.m-2 and 2013 (22.96 kg.m-2. In 2012 participants achieved in average the highest values (BMI = 24.60 kg.m-2, which borders with a moderate overweight. In the contrary, in 2013 the students achieved the lowest values of BMI (22.96 kg.m-2. A slight increase of average BMI values may be observed from the first test in 2007 until 2012. The predominance of standard weight was measured at 71% of the total number of monitored students and the predominance of overweight was measured at 22% of students from the total number of university students. The observation of WHR numbers makes us conclude that during our seven year study no significant differences were discovered in the first five years. The values were stable and from the mean point of view, they do not indicate the risk of development of diseases relating to overweight and obesity. In 2012 and 2013 a slight decrease of WHR values was detected < 0.85. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05 were discovered between the years 2010 (0.854 and 2011 (0.864, and also between 2011 (0.864 and 2012 (0.843. The lowest mean value of WHR was measured when performing the last test in the year 2013 (0.823. There was a statistically significant difference at p<0.05 within the years 2012 and 2013. The highest mean value was discovered in 2011 (0

  9. Early embryo and larval development of inviable intergeneric hybrids derived from Crassostrea angulata and Saccostrea cucullata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiaqi; Wang, Zhaoping; Zhang, Yuehuan; Yan, Xiwu; Li, Qiongzhen; Yu, Ruihai

    2016-06-01

    To detect the intergeneric hybridization between the oyster Crassostrea angulata and Saccostrea cucullata coexisting along the southern coast of China, reciprocal crosses were conducted between the two species. Barriers for sperm recognizing, binding, penetrating the egg, and forming the pronucleus were detected by fluorescence staining. From the results, although fertilization success was observed in hybrid crosses, the overall fertilization rate was lower than that of intraspecific crosses. A large number of hybrid larvae died at 6-8 d after hatching, and those survived could not complete metamorphosis. C. angulata ♀× S. cucullata ♂ larvae had a growth rate similar to that of the maternal species, whereas S. cucullata ♀ × C. angulata ♂ larvae grew the slowest among all crosses. Molecular genetics analysis revealed that hybrid progeny were amphimixis hybrids. This study demonstrated that hybrid embryos generated by crossing C. angulata and S. cucullata could develop normally to the larval state, but could not complete metamorphosis and then develop to the spat stage. Thus, there is a post-reproductive isolation between C. angulata and S. cucullata.

  10. Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-09-01

    A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety.

  11. Decreasing initial telomere length in humans intergenerationally understates age-associated telomere shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holohan, Brody; De Meyer, Tim; Batten, Kimberly; Mangino, Massimo; Hunt, Steven C; Bekaert, Sofie; De Buyzere, Marc L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-08-01

    Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father's age at birth of his offspring (FAB), could explain the discrepancy in shortening rate measurements. We evaluated whether changes occur in initial telomere length over multiple generations in three large datasets and identified paternal birth year (PBY) as a variable that reconciles the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional measurements. We also clarify the association between FAB and offspring telomere length, demonstrating that this effect is substantially larger than reported in the past. These results indicate the presence of a downward secular trend in telomere length at birth over generational time with potential public health implications.

  12. The Design and Development of BMI Calc Android Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ali, Iliana; Samsudin, Nooraida

    2016-11-01

    Body mass index is a familiar term for those who are weight conscious. It is the term that let user know about the overall body composition in terms of fat.The available body mass index calculators whether online or on Play Store do not provide Malaysian meal suggestions. Hence, this paper proposes an application for body mass index calculator together with Malaysian meal suggestion. The objectives of the study are to design and develop BMI Calc android application for the purpose of calculating body mass index while embedding meal suggestion module. The design and methodology involve in the process are also presented.

  13. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  14. Individual Variation and Family-Community Ties: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis of the Intergenerational Closure in the Lives of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, H. Harrington; Crosnoe, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Intergenerational closure refers to parents' knowing the parents of their adolescents' friends. This study treated intergenerational closure - as reported by the parents of adolescent twins - as the dependent variable in a behavioral genetic analysis. The sample consisted of identical and fraternal twin pairs in the National Longitudinal Study of…

  15. Mamakind or Papakind? [Mom's Child or Dad's Child]: Parent-Specific Patterns in Early Adolescents' Intergenerational Academic Value Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniewosz, Burkhard; Noack, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the intergenerational transmission of the valuing of math within family. We tested if there are groups of students showing differential intergenerational transmission patterns. Based on a two-wave longitudinal sample of 1198 German fifth graders, their mothers (N = 874), and fathers (N = 733), structural equation…

  16. Fluoxetine treatment reverses the intergenerational impact of maternal separation on fear and anxiety behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Cao, Jun; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Early life stress increases risks of fear and anxiety related disorders in adulthood, which may be alleviated by fluoxetine treatment. However, the intergenerational impacts of maternal separation (MS) on fear and anxiety behaviors from father to their offspring are little known. And the potential effects of fluoxetine treatment on the intergenerational transmission have not been well tested. Here, we investigated whether fluoxetine can reverse the intergenerational effects of MS on fear and anxiety behaviors. The first generation (F1) male rats were exposed to MS 3 h daily from postnatal day 2-14 and then treated with fluoxetine for four weeks during adulthood before fear conditioning. We found that maternal separation significantly impaired contextual fear extinction in F1 adult male rats but not in their second generation (F2). Although no obvious effects of MS on anxiety were observed in F1 male rats, the F2 offspring displayed a phenotype of low anxiety-like behaviors despite they were reared in normal condition. Fluoxetine treatment in F1 males not only reversed the impairment of fear extinction in F1 males but also the low anxiety-like behaviors in their F2 offspring. These findings highlight the intergenerational impacts of early life stress on fear and anxiety behaviors, and provide a new sight of the intergenerational effect of fluoxetine therapy for early life stress related mental problems.

  17. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches.

  18. The decline in BMI among Japanese women after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka

    2015-07-01

    The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II.

  19. File list: Oth.Neu.10.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Neural SRX109477,SRX109480,SRX1094...82,SRX109479 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  20. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  1. File list: Oth.Neu.05.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Neural SRX109477,SRX109480,SRX1094...82,SRX109479 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.ALL.10.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. Associations between Three School-Based Measures of Health: Is BMI Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emily H.; Houser, Robert F.; Au, Lauren E.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) notification programs are often used to raise parental awareness of childhood overweight and obesity, but how BMI results are associated with physical fitness and diet is less clear. This study examined the relationship between BMI, fitness, and diet quality in a diverse sample of urban schoolchildren…

  4. File list: Oth.ALL.20.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Oth.Neu.20.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Oth.Kid.50.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: Oth.Kid.20.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. Reprogramming fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells with Bmi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jai-Hee Moon; June Seok Heo; Jun Sung Kim; Eun Kyoung Jun; Jung Han Lee; Aeree Kim; Jonggun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by the transcription factors Oct4,Sox2,and Klf4 in combination with c-Myc.Recently,Sox2 plus Oct4 was shown to reprogram fibroblasts and Oct4 alone was able to reprogram mouse and human neural stem cells (NSCs) into iPS cells.Here,we report that Bmi1 leads to the transdifferentiation of mouse fibroblasts into NSC-like cells,and,in combination with Oct4,can replace Sox2,Klf4 and c-Myc during the reprogramming of fibroblasts into iPS cells.Furthermore,activation of sonic hedgehog signaling (by Shh,purmorphamine,or oxysterol) compensates for the effects of Bmil,and,in combination with Oct4,reprograms mouse embryonic and adult fibroblasts into iPS cells.One- and two-factor iPS cells are similar to mouse embryonic stem cells in their global gene expression profile,epigenetic status,and in vitro and in vivo differentiation into all three germ layers,as well as teratoma formation and germline transmission in vivo.These data support that converting fibroblasts with Bmi1 or activation of the sonic hedgehog pathway to an intermediate cell type that expresses Sox2,KIf4,and N-Myc allows iPS generation via the addition of Oct4.

  13. Comparison of intraspecific, interspecific and intergeneric chloroplast diversity in Cycads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guo-Feng; Hinsinger, Damien Daniel; Strijk, Joeri Sergej

    2016-01-01

    Cycads are among the most threatened plant species. Increasing the availability of genomic information by adding whole chloroplast data is a fundamental step in supporting phylogenetic studies and conservation efforts. Here, we assemble a dataset encompassing three taxonomic levels in cycads, including ten genera, three species in the genus Cycas and two individuals of C. debaoensis. Repeated sequences, SSRs and variations of the chloroplast were analyzed at the intraspecific, interspecific and intergeneric scale, and using our sequence data, we reconstruct a phylogenomic tree for cycads. The chloroplast was 162,094 bp in length, with 133 genes annotated, including 87 protein-coding, 37 tRNA and 8 rRNA genes. We found 7 repeated sequences and 39 SSRs. Seven loci showed promising levels of variations for application in DNA-barcoding. The chloroplast phylogeny confirmed the division of Cycadales in two suborders, each of them being monophyletic, revealing a contradiction with the current family circumscription and its evolution. Finally, 10 intraspecific SNPs were found. Our results showed that despite the extremely restricted distribution range of C. debaoensis, using complete chloroplast data is useful not only in intraspecific studies, but also to improve our understanding of cycad evolution and in defining conservation strategies for this emblematic group. PMID:27558458

  14. The intergenerational multiple deficit model and the case of dyslexia

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    Elsje evan Bergen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Which children go on to develop dyslexia? Since dyslexia has a multifactorial aetiology, this question can be restated as: What are the factors that put children at high risk for developing dyslexia? It is argued that a useful theoretical framework to address this question is Pennington’s (2006 multiple deficit model (MDM. This model replaces models that attribute dyslexia to a single underlying cause. Subsequently, the generalist genes hypothesis for learning (disabilities (Plomin & Kovas, 2005 is described and integrated with the MDM. Finally, findings are presented from a longitudinal study with children at family risk for dyslexia. Such studies can contribute to testing and specifying the MDM. In this study, risk factors at both the child and family level were investigated. This led to the proposed intergenerational MDM, in which both parents confer liability via intertwined genetic and environmental pathways. Future scientific directions are discussed to investigate parent-offspring resemblance and transmission patterns, which will shed new light on disorder aetiology.

  15. The impact of demographic change on intergenerational transfers via bequests

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    Emilio Zagheni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfers in the form of bequests have important implications for the intergenerational transmission of inequality. Demographic change has relevant consequences for the timing and size of bequests. For example, longer life implies that people receive bequests when they are older. Conversely, increasing generational length reduces the average age at which people are given bequests. Objective: We analyze the consequences of demographic change in the United States on timing over the life course when individuals receive an inheritance and on the size of bequests. Methods: We evaluate trends in life expectancy at the mean age at childbearing as a proxy for timing at receipt of bequests. We complement formal demographic analysis with empirical estimates from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID inheritance data for 1987-2010. Results: We find that the long-term trend of increasing age at receipt of bequests might have stalled, mainly because of changes in the timing of fertility. In the long term the upward trend in age at which people receive bequests may resume, as the expected linear gains in life expectancy will more than counteract recent increases in the mean age at childbearing. Conclusions: We showed that demographic change affects the size of bequests and the timing over the life course when people receive them. As the need for economic resources varies over the life cycle, changes in the timing at receipt of bequests may have a differential impact on wealth inequality and affect patterns of multigenerational transfers of resources.

  16. Intergenerational redistribution in a small open economy with endogenous fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmar, M

    1997-08-01

    The literature comparing fully funded (FF) and pay-as-you-go (PAYG) financed public pension systems in small, open economies stresses the importance of the Aaron condition as an empirical measure to decide which system can be expected to lead to a higher long-run welfare. A country with a PAYG system has a higher level of utility than a country with a FF system if the growth rate of total wage income exceeds the interest rate. Endogenizing population growth makes one determinant of the growth rate of wage incomes endogenous. The author demonstrates why the Aaron condition ceases to be a good indicator in this case. For PAYG-financed pension systems, claims can be calculated according to individual contributions or the number of children in a family. Analysis determined that for both structural determinants there is no interior solution of the problem of intergenerational utility maximization. Pure systems are therefore always welfare maximizing. Moreover, children-related pension claims induce a fiscal externality which tends to be positive. The determination of the optimal contribution rate shows that the Aaron condition is generally a misleading indicator for the comparison of FF and PAYG-financed pension systems.

  17. Intergenerational continuity of cell shape dynamics in Caulobacter crescentus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Charles S.; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Crosson, Sean; Dinner, Aaron R.; Scherer, Norbert F.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the intergenerational shape dynamics of single Caulobacter crescentus cells using a novel combination of imaging techniques and theoretical modeling. We determine the dynamics of cell pole-to-pole lengths, cross-sectional widths, and medial curvatures from high accuracy measurements of cell contours. Moreover, these shape parameters are determined for over 250 cells across approximately 10000 total generations, which affords high statistical precision. Our data and model show that constriction is initiated early in the cell cycle and that its dynamics are controlled by the time scale of exponential longitudinal growth. Based on our extensive and detailed growth and contour data, we develop a minimal mechanical model that quantitatively accounts for the cell shape dynamics and suggests that the asymmetric location of the division plane reflects the distinct mechanical properties of the stalked and swarmer poles. Furthermore, we find that the asymmetry in the division plane location is inherited from the previous generation. We interpret these results in terms of the current molecular understanding of shape, growth, and division of C. crescentus.

  18. Intergenerational continuity in parenting behavior: mediating pathways and child effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppl, Tricia K; Conger, Rand D; Scaramella, Laura V; Ontai, Lenna L

    2009-09-01

    This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined mechanisms proposed to explain continuities in parenting behavior across 2 generations (G1, G2). Data came from 187 G2 adults, their mothers (G1), and their children (G3). Prospective information regarding G2 was collected both during adolescence and early adulthood. G1 data were collected during G2's adolescence, and G3 data were generated during the preschool years. Assessments included both observational and self-report measures. The results indicated a direct relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, and between G1 and G2 positive parenting. As predicted, specific mediators accounted for intergenerational continuity in particular types of parenting behavior. G2 externalizing behavior mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, whereas G2 academic attainment mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 positive parenting. In addition, the hypothesized mediating pathways remained statistically significant after taking into account possible G2 effects on G1 parenting and G3 effects on G2 parenting.

  19. Intergenerational transmission of prejudice, sex role stereotyping, and intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Megan; Fishbein, Harold D; Ritchey, P Neal

    2004-01-01

    The attitudes of 111 ninth and eleventh graders and both of their biological parents were independently assessed for prejudice against people with HIV/ AIDS, homosexuals, Blacks, and fat people, as well as for male and female sex role stereotyping. This study corrected for two shortcomings in previous research: neglecting to assess both parents and assessing only a single domain of prejudice. We addressed the intergenerational transmission of prejudice and stereotyping using three competing models: same-sex, parent equivalent, and differential effects. Using multiple regressions in which parents' scores were entered separately, along with control variables, different maternal and paternal influences were detected. Mothers were the primary influence for prejudice regarding HIV/AIDS, fatness, and race, and fathers were the primary influence for male and female stereotyping and prejudice against homosexuals, supporting the differential effects model. We also established that prejudice and stereotyping in specific domains reflected a more general proclivity to be intolerant. In contrast to prejudice and stereotyping in specific domains, fathers and mothers about equally shaped the adolescents' intolerance, supporting the parent equivalent model.

  20. [Intergenerational connection of sexism: influence of family variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Aliri, Jone

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is three-fold: 1) to analyze the relations between parents' hostile sexism (HS), benevolent sexism (BS), and ambivalent sexism (AS) and that of their sons-daughters; 2) to study the relation between the mothers' and the fathers' sexism; and 3) to appraise whether the family socio-economic level-cultural is related to sexism. The sample included 2,867 participants, 1,455 adolescents (768 girls, 687 boys) and their parents (764 mothers, 648 fathers). The results revealed positive correlations between the mothers' sexism (HS-BS-AS) and the BS of their sons, and with the HS, BS, and AS of their daughters. Positive correlations were found between the fathers' sexism (BS-AS) and their sons' sexism (HS-BS-AS-Neosexism); however, no relation was found with their daughters' sexism. The intergenerational connection of sexism in the family was confirmed: from mothers to sons and daughters and from fathers to sons. The mother emerged as a very influential figure, although a higher connection was confirmed between the mothers' and the daughters' sexism and between the fathers' and the sons' sexism. Positive correlations were also found between both parents' sexism, and negative correlations between the socio-economic-cultural level of the family and sexism in the parents and in the adolescents.

  1. Performative family: homosexuality, marriage and intergenerational dynamics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Susanne Yp; Luo, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Using in-depth interview data on nominal marriages - legal marriages between a gay man and a lesbian to give the appearance of heterosexuality - this paper develops the concept of performative family to explain the processes through which parents and their adult children negotiate and resolve disagreements in relation to marriage decisions in post-socialist China. We identify three mechanisms - network pressure, a revised discourse of filial piety and resource leverage - through which parents influence their gay offspring's decision to turn to nominal marriage. We also delineate six strategies, namely minimizing network participation, changing expectations, making partial concessions, drawing the line, delaying decisions and ending the marriage, by which gay people in nominal marriages attempt to meet parental expectations while simultaneously retaining a degree of autonomy. Through these interactions, we argue that Chinese parents and their gay adult children implicitly and explicitly collaborate to perform family, emphasizing the importance of formally meeting society's expectations about marriage rather than substantively yielding to its demands. We also argue that the performative family is a pragmatic response to the tension between the persistent centrality of family and marriage and the rising tide of individualism in post-socialist China. We believe that our findings highlight the specific predicament of homosexual people. They also shed light on the more general dynamics of intergenerational negotiation because there is evidence that the mechanisms used by parents to exert influence may well be similar between gay and non-gay people.

  2. The inter-generic fungicidal activity of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Marcelo; Flores, Oriana; Carrasco, Mario; Rozas, Juan Manuel; Oviedo, Vicente; Barahona, Salvador; Cifuentes, Víctor

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the existence of intra-specific and inter-generic fungicidal activity in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous and Phaffia rhodozyma strains isolated from different regions of the earth was examined. Assays were performed under several culture conditions, showing that all the analyzed X. dendrorhous and P. rhodozyma strains have killing activity against Kloeckera apiculata, Rhodotorula sloffiae, and R. minuta. This activity was greater in rich media at a pH from 4.6 to 5.0. Extracellular protein extracts with fungicidal activity were obtained from cultures of all strains, and their characterization suggested that a protein of 33 kDa is the antifungal factor. According to peptide mass fingerprinting and an analysis of the results with the MASCOT search engine, this protein was identified as an aspartic protease. Additionally, extrachromosomal double-stranded DNA elements (dsDNAs) were observed in all X. dendrorhous and P. rhodozyma strains. Although there is a high variability, two dsDNAs of 5.4 and 6.8 kb are present in all strains.

  3. Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents' BMI and educational level: a cross sectional survey

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    Pilato Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are responsible not only for the genetic structure of their children, but also for passing onto them their behaviours and attitudes toward life. The aim of this study was to analyse the connection between school-age children's obesity and that of their parents as well as between child obesity and parents' educational level, as a proxy indicator of the socio-economic status (SES of families in Tuscany. Methods The children sample was selected from "OKkio alla Salute 2010" (a cross sectional survey carried out by the Italian Institute of Health and consisted of 1,751 (922 males and 855 females 8-9 year-old school children. Weight and height were measured by ad hoc trained personnel, and Body Mass Index (BMI categories were calculated using Cole et al.'s cut-off. Parents' weight, height and educational level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The educational levels were classified as high, medium and low. Results The prevalence of obese children increased along the parents' BMI category: from 1.4% for underweight mothers to 30.3% for obese mothers and from 4% for under-normal-weight fathers to 23.9% for obese fathers (p Conclusion Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of the family, particularly the father's, seem to influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tuscan children.

  4. Affection and Conflict in Intergenerational Relationships of Women in Sixteen Areas in Asia, Africa, Europe, and America

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    Bernhard Nauck

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag liegt nur in englischer Sprache vor.Studies of intergenerational solidarity in affluent societies suggest that relationships between generations consist simultaneously of both emotional closeness and conflicts. This analysis extends the standard model of intergenerational relationships, which until now has been applied only to countries with bilineal kinship systems, to culturally and economically diverse areas with varying kinship systems. Latent class analysis was applied to measure affection and conflict in the ongoing relationships of young and middle-aged women with their mothers (7,522 relationship pairs and fathers (5,338 relationship pairs. The empirical analysis was based on standardised oral interviews with mothers from areas in China, Indonesia, North and South India, South Africa, Palestine, Israel, Turkey, Russia, Estonia, Poland, East and West Germany, France, Jamaica, and the United States (n = 8,756. The best fitting model of relationship differences consisted of four latent classes: „amicable“ (45 percent, “detached“ (28 percent, “ambivalent” (22 percent, and “disharmonious“ (5 percent. Based on a cross-culturally largely invariant measurement model, results revealed significantly different distributions for fathers and mothers and across areas. Multinomial three-level regression analysis was used to analyse the complex cross-level interdependence of area effects, individual characteristics, and the respective relationship on class membership. In patrilineal societies, relationships of women with their biological parents are more likely to be ambivalent, less likely to be detached, and very likely to become disharmonious in case of spatial proximity. In affluent societies, the relationships are less likely to be disharmonious and most likely to be harmonious. Whereas the frequency of contact decreases the likelihood of detached or disharmonious relationships in affluent societies

  5. A Study on Mediation by Offspring BMI in the Association between Maternal Obesity and Child Respiratory Outcomes in the Amsterdam Born and Their Development Study Cohort.

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    Margreet W Harskamp-van Ginkel

    Full Text Available A causal relationship between maternal obesity and offspring asthma is hypothesized to begin during early development, but no underlying mechanism for the found association is identified. We quantitatively examined mediation by offspring body mass index (BMI in the association of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI on risk of asthma and wheezing during the first 7-8 years of life in a large Amsterdam born birth cohort.For 3185 mother-child pairs, mothers reported maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring outcomes "ever being diagnosed with asthma" and "wheezing in the past 12 months" on questionnaires. We measured offspring height and weight at age 5-6 years. We performed a multivariate log linear regression comparing outcomes in offspring of mothers with different BMI categories. For each category we quantified and tested mediation by offspring BMI and also investigated interaction by parental asthma.At the age of 7-8 years, 8% of the offspring ever had asthma and 7% had current wheezing. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with higher risks of asthma (adjusted RR 2.32 (95% CI: 1.49-3.61 and wheezing (adjusted RR 2.16 (95% CI: 1.28-3.64. Offspring BMI was a mediator in the association between maternal BMI and offspring wheezing, but not for asthma. There was no interaction by parental asthma.Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with higher risks of offspring asthma and wheezing. The association between maternal obesity and offspring wheezing was both direct and indirect (mediated through the child's own BMI.

  6. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

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    Shoukri Mohammed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI and waist circumference (W_C, together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. Methods 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P ≤ 0.001. W_C and BMI was positively correlated with sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P Conclusions A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  7. Nuclear BMI-1 expression in laryngeal carcinoma correlates with lymph node pathological status

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    Allegra Eugenia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main cause of treatment failure and death in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. The current clinical staging criteria fail to differentiate patients with occult metastasis from patients without metastasis. Identifying molecular markers of the disease might improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and development of laryngeal carcinoma and may help improve clinical staging and treatment. Methods Sixty-four previously untreated patients who underwent surgical excision of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with neck dissection were included in this study. The expression of B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1 was examined immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissue specimens. Results Nuclear expression of BMI-1 (nBMI-1 was detected in 32 of the 64 tumors (50%, cytoplasmic expression of BMI-1 (cBMI-1 was detected in 22 (34.4%, and 10 tumors (15.6% showed no BMI-1 immunoreactivity. High nBMI-1 expression levels (≥10 were detected in 28 of the 32 (87.5% nBMI-1-positive patients. Multivariate analysis including age at diagnosis, grade, tumor location, TNM status, and nBMI-1 expression showed that a high nBMI-1 expression level was an independent prognostic factor for lymph node metastasis. Conclusion The expression of BMI-1 in patients with laryngeal carcinoma seems to correlate with lymph node metastasis.

  8. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

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    Xu Li-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. Methods We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Results Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P P P P P > 0.5. In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P P P > 0.05. Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P P Conclusion Expression of Bmi-1 was greater in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues. The examination of Bmi-1 protein expression is potentially valuable in prognostic evaluation of bladder cancer.

  9. Estimating Intergenerational Persistence of Lifetime Earnings with Life Course Matching: Evidence from PSID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouskova, Elena; Chiteji, Ngina; Stafford, Frank

    2010-06-01

    Why do estimates of the intergenerational persistence in earnings vary so much for the United States? Recent research suggests that life-cycle bias may be a major factor (Haider and Solon 2006; Grawe 2006). In this paper we estimate the intergenerational correlation in lifetime earnings by using sons' and fathers' earnings at similar ages in order to account for lifecycle bias. Our estimate based on earnings measured at 35-44 for both fathers and sons is similar to that for the age range 45-54.

  10. Conflicting effects of BMI and waist circumference on iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, Solomon Simon Ramphai; Alberts, Marianne; Modjadji, Sewela Elizabeth Perpetua

    2015-10-01

    The association between obesity and iron status has a long history and is still receiving attention. However comparative analysis of the association between general obesity (BMI) and visceral obesity (waist circumference) with iron status has not been extensively researched. The aim of the present study is thus to determine if body mass index and waist circumference have the same correlation with iron status. One thousand one hundred and thirty people (225 men and 905 women) aged 30 years and above participated in this study. Anthropometric parameters, haemoglobin, iron and total iron binding capacity concentrations were measured using standard methods. Percentage transferrin saturation was calculated and ferritin concentrations were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Obese or overweight women had significantly lower iron and transferrin saturation concentration when compared to non-obese women. In contrast, women with high waist circumference had comparable plasma iron and transferrin saturation to women with normal waist circumference. Partial correlation analysis and linear regression analysis showed that BMI is negatively and significantly associated with plasma iron, transferrin saturation, Hb and ferritin concentration, whilst waist circumference is positively but insignificantly associated with plasma iron, transferrin saturation, Hb and ferritin concentration. Binary regression analysis showed that obese or overweight people are more likely to have iron deficiency, whilst those with raised waist circumference are more likely to have iron overload. Multivariate analysis showed that body mass index is negatively and significantly associated with low iron status, while waist circumference is positively and insignificantly associated with iron status. This is supported by a comparison of plasma iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin concentrations in participants with high body mass index and normal waist circumference and participants with

  11. Excessive adiposity at low BMI levels among women in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saijuddin; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Schulze, Kerry; Ali, Hasmot; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Labrique, Alain; Klemm, Rolf; Wu, Lee; Rashid, Mahbubur; West, Keith P

    2016-01-01

    Asian populations have a higher percentage body fat (%BF) and are at higher risk for CVD and related complications at a given BMI compared with those of European descent. We explored whether %BF was disproportionately elevated in rural Bangladeshi women with low BMI. Height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfolds and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured in 1555 women at 3 months postpartum. %BF was assessed by skinfolds and by BIA. BMI was calculated in adults and BMI Z-scores were calculated for females BMI and BMI Z-score cut-offs that optimally classified women as having moderately excessive adipose tissue (defined as >30 % body fat). Linear regressions estimated the association between BMI and BMI Z-score (among adolescents) and %BF. Mean BMI was 19·2 (sd 2·2) kg/m(2), and mean %BF was calculated as 23·7 (sd 4·8) % by skinfolds and 23·3 (sd 4·9) % by BIA. ROC analyses indicated that a BMI value of approximately 21 kg/m(2) optimised sensitivity (83·6 %) and specificity (84·2 %) for classifying subjects with >30 % body fat according to BIA among adults. This BMI level is substantially lower than the WHO recommended standard cut-off point of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The equivalent cut-off among adolescents was a BMI Z-score of -0·36, with a sensitivity of 81·3 % and specificity of 80·9 %. These findings suggest that Bangladeshi women exhibit excess adipose tissue at substantially lower BMI compared with non-South Asian populations. This is important for the identification and prevention of obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  12. Body adiposity index (BAI) correlates with BMI and body fat pre- and post-bariatric surgery but is not an adequate substitute for BMI in severely obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C D; Atalayer, D; Flancbaum, L; Geliebter, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height 1.5-18]), has been proposed as a more accurate alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI and their correlations with measures of body fat, waist circumference (WC), and indirect indices of fat pre- and post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Sixteen clinically severe obese (CSO) non-diabetic women (age = 33.9± 7.9 SD; BMI = 46.5±9.5 kg/m(2)) were assessed pre-surgery, and at 2 (n=9) and 5 mo (n=8) post-surgery. Body fat percentage (% fat) was estimated with bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). WC, an indicator of central fat, and both plasma leptin (ng/ml) and insulin (mU/l) concentrations were measured as indirect body fat indices. Pre- and post-surgery values were analyzed with Pearson correlations and linear regressions. RESULTS: BAI and BMI correlated significantly with each other pre-surgery and at each time point post surgery. BAI and BMI also correlated significantly with % fat from BIA and ADP; however, only BMI correlated significantly with % fat from DXA pre- and post-RYGB. BMI was the single best predictor of WC and leptin at 2 and 5 mo post-surgery and had significant longitudinal changes correlating with % fat from BIA and DXA as well as with leptin. DISCUSSION: Both BAI and BMI were good surrogates of % fat as estimated from BIA and ADP, but only BMI was a good surrogate of % fat from DXA in CSO women. Thus, BAI may not be a better alternative to BMI.

  13. Impact of Masked Replacement of Sugar-Sweetened with Sugar-Free Beverages on Body Weight Increases with Initial BMI: Secondary Analysis of Data from an 18 Month Double-Blind Trial in Children.

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    Martijn B Katan

    gain differed by 0.90 kg between BMI groups (p = 0.09; 95% CI -1.95 to 0.14. In addition, we used a physiologically-based model of growth and energy balance to estimate the degree to which children had compensated for the covertly removed sugar kilocalories by increasing their intake of other foods. The model predicts that children with a lower BMI had compensated 65% (95% CI 28 to 102 of the covertly removed sugar kilocalories, whereas children with a higher BMI compensated only 13% (95% CI -37 to 63.The children with a BMI above the median might have a reduced tendency to compensate for changes in caloric intake. Differences in these subconscious compensatory mechanisms may be an important cause of differences in the tendency to gain weight. If further research bears this out, cutting down on the intake of sugar-sweetened drinks may benefit a large proportion of children, especially those who show a tendency to become overweight.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893529.

  14. Plant protoplast fusion and growth of intergeneric hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, K N; Constabel, F; Michayluk, M R; Gamborg, O L

    1974-01-01

    Interspecific and intergeneric fusions of plant protoplasts were induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1540 or 4000. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation (or rate of fusion) was much higher when PEG was eluted with a high pH-high Ca(2+) solution or a salt solution than when it was eluted with a protoplast culture medium. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was also affected by the types of enzymes used for wall degradation, duration of enzyme incubation and molality of the PEG solutions.The maximum frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was 23% for V. hajastana Grossh.-soybean (Glycine max L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-soybean, 35% for pea (Pisum sativum L.)-soybean, 20% for pea-V. hajastana, 14% for corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean and 10% for V. villosa Roth-V. hajastana.40% of the barley-soybean, corn-soybean and pea-soybean heterokaryocytes divided at least once. Some divided many times and formed clusters of up to 100 cells in 2 weeks. The heterokaryocytes of soybean-V. hajastana, V. villosa-V. hajastana also divided. Of the PEG-treated protoplasts of N. langsdorffii and N. glauca 13.5% developed into tumor-like calli. The morphology of these calli was very much like that of the tumors produced on amphidiploid plants of N. langsdorffii x glauca.Nuclear staining indicated that heterokaryocytes of V. hajastana-soybean, pea-soybean, corn-soybean and barley-soybean could undergo mitosis. Nuclear divisions in a heterokaryocyte were usually synchronized or almost synchronized. Nuclear fusion and true hybrid formation usually occurred during the first mitotic division after protoplast fusion. A hybrid of barley-soybean in third cell division was observed. The frequency of heterokaryocytes which underwent nuclear fusion has not been determined. Multipole formation and chimeral cell colonies were also observed.

  15. "Culture" and the intergenerational transmission of poverty: the prevention paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jens; Mayer, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Many U.S. policymakers support changing the "culture" of poor parents to encourage marriage, work, and religion as a means to end the intergenerational transmission of poverty. In this article Jens Ludwig and Susan Mayer review and evaluate research on how parental work, marriage, and religion affect children's socioeconomic status as adults, as well as on the likelihood that changing these indicators of parental behavior will reduce poverty in the next generation. They conclude that even if policymakers were able to ensure that all children had married, working, and religious parents, the result would be a far smaller reduction in poverty among the children's generation than many people believe. The explanation for this "poverty-prevention paradox," say Ludwig and Mayer, is that the poverty rate in the children's generation depends not only on how many poor children grow up to be poor adults, but also on how many nonpoor children grow up to be poor adults. Reducing the chances that poor children become poor adults will dramatically lower future poverty rates only if most poor adults begin life as poor children. But most poor adults grow up as nonpoor children in the type of "pro-social" households that policymakers are pushing to attain. Moreover, little good evidence supports the idea that such parental behaviors as marriage, work, and religious adherence have strong causal effects on children's long-term economic success. The authors argue that encouraging positive social behaviors in the parents of poor children is a worthwhile goal in its own right. But they stress that policymakers should recognize the limits of this strategy for reducing poverty among future generations. There may be no substitute for a system of social insurance and income transfers for those children who do wind up poor as adults.

  16. Ethics of intergenerational (father-to-son) sperm donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenoord, Annelien L; Lock, Matthias T W T; Broekmans, Frank J M

    2012-05-01

    In the ever changing field of reproductive medicine, clinics are regularly confronted with requests for novel variants of medically assisted reproduction. Particularly third-party (assisted) reproduction, which requires the involvement of an oocyte or sperm donor, is ethically and psychologically complex due to the parties involved, but nevertheless widely accepted. A particular type of third party reproduction concerns intrafamilial medically assisted reproduction (IMAR), where the donor is a family member of the recipients. In IMAR, some of the ethical and psychological issues associated with third party reproduction are intensified. The precise impact and consequences, however, remain speculative due to the lack of information regarding IMAR. Both the ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law and the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority have recently highlighted the lack of information and the need for debate. In order to contribute to the discussion and knowledge on IMAR, we present a couple that recently visited our academic clinic with a request for a very particular variant of IMAR: first degree, intergenerational father-to-son sperm donation. As our academic hospital did not have experience with this variant of IMAR, our interdisciplinary Ethics Committee for Reproductive Medicine extensively discussed the request, resulting in an advisory report on the ethics of IMAR in general and father-to-son sperm donation in particular. Here, we will first present the andrological and social background of the couple and subsequently discuss the ethical considerations that led to the approval of their request. We will conclude the paper with recommendations for a morally sound practice of IMAR.

  17. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towfiqua Mahfuza Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective: We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods: We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results: One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8 times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0 times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0 times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3 times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions: This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.

  18. Problems of Inter-generational Education and Countermeasures%隔代教育存在的问题及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高原

    2015-01-01

    近年来,隔代教育已经逐渐成为城市家庭与农村家庭的一种普遍现象。然而隔代教育存在的问题也是不容忽视的,主要表现为祖辈与父辈对幼儿的教育要求不一致,祖辈对幼儿过于溺爱,祖辈的教育观念与教育方式方法落后于时代等。深入分析隔代教育问题的产生主要归结于社会因素与家庭因素。为改善隔代教育的现状,祖辈应更新教育观念,改变其教育的方式方法,提高个人的文化素养,与父辈在教育方面达成一致的教育要求等,从而为幼儿提供优质的家庭教育。%In recent years, inter-generational education has gradually become an urban households and rural household's wid-espread phenomenon. However, inter-generational problems of education can not be ignored, mainly for the grandparents and par-ents of young children's educational requirements are inconsistent, overly doting grandparents to children, education and the concept of ancestral ways and means of education, such as behind the times. In-depth analyze that inter-generational educational issues occur largely due to social factors and family factors. To improve the status of inter-generational education, grandparents should update the concepts of education, change their ways and means of education, improve the individual's literacy, education and the parents agreed requirements in education, in order to provide quality early childhood family education.

  19. BMI and WHR Are Reflected in Female Facial Shape and Texture: A Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christine; Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3–10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception. PMID:28052103

  20. Down-regulation of Bmi-1 by RNA interference in Jurkat cells%RNAi抑制Bmi-1基因表达对Jurkat细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangen Zheng; Qibin Jing; Yaqiong Zheng; Yinjuan Ding; Qianchuan Huang; Guoqiang Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of down-regulation Bmi-1 by RNA interference (RNAi) in T Lymphocytic leukemia Jurkat cells. Methods: Two complementary oligonucleotide strands were synthesized based on the siRNA sequence targeting Bmi-1 gene. After annealing, siRNA strands were recombined into the pRNATU6.2 vector, and then DNA sequencing was carried out following transformation and amplification. The recombinant was transfected into Jurkat cells with liposomes. Positive colonies were obtained through G418 selection. The mRNA and protein expressions of Bmi-1 were detected by RT-PCR and Western-blot, respectively. Effects of Bmi-1 silence on cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell aging of Jurkat cells were detected by MTT assay, flow cytometry, colony formation assay and SA-β-Gal staining, respectively. Results: The siRNA recombinant targeting Bmi-1 gene was successfully constructed. All three siRNA recombinants could significantly inhibit the expression of Bmi-1. The siRNA targeting 825nt-843nt (GACCAGACCACTACT GAAT) has the strongest inhibitory effect on Bmi-1 expression, with almost complete inhibition on Bmi-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Compared with the non-transfection group and the empty vector group, growth velocity and colony formation ability were significantly decreased, while the proportion of cells in G1 phase and the percentage of senile cells were significantly increased in highly transfected group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Down-regulation Bmi-1 by RNA interference (RNAi) could significantly inhibit the growth of Jurkat cells in vitro.

  1. The Grandparent-Grandchild Relationship: Implications for Models of Intergenerational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karen; Harwood, Jake; Hummert, Mary Lee

    2005-01-01

    We report two studies which examine the age stereotypes in interactions model of intergenerational communication. We investigate whether stereotyping processes mediate the effects of various predictors on communication outcomes. Support emerges for the mediating role of stereotyping. The studies also examine relational factors finding support for…

  2. Using Film and Intergenerational Colearning to Enhance Knowledge and Attitudes toward Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Roseanna

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two evidence-based methods used collaboratively, intergenerational colearning and use of films/documentaries in an educational context, enhanced knowledge levels and attitudes toward older adults in nursing, social work, and other allied profession students. Students participated in a gerontology film festival where…

  3. Intergenerational Beliefs of Mothers and Grandmothers regarding Early Childhood Stimulation in (Rural) Jammu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neeru; Sapru, Ruchira; Mahajan, Ruchi

    2009-01-01

    The present research was conducted to study the intergenerational differences in parental beliefs of the Lobana community in the rural district of Jammu in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. The sample comprised 30 mothers and 30 grandmothers, selected from the R.S. Pura tehsil of the Jammu district. Data was collected using a modified parental…

  4. Improving the Attitudes of 4th Graders toward Older People through a Multidimensional Intergenerational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynott, Patricia P.; Merola, Pamela R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an intergenerational program on children's attitudes toward older people. Four 4th grade classes, one each during the years 2002 through 2005, participated in the study. The elders and school children engaged in meaningful activities over a 5 month period, including the performance of a play…

  5. Intergenerational Learning at a Nature Center: Families Using Prior Experiences and Participation Frameworks to Understand Raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; McClain, Lucy Richardson

    2014-01-01

    Using a sociocultural framework to approach intergenerational learning, this inquiry examines learning processes used by families during visits to one nature center. Data were collected from videotaped observations of families participating in an environmental education program and a follow-up task to draw the habitat of raptors. Based on a…

  6. Intergenerational Occupational Mobility in Rural Economy: Evidence from Nepal and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on intergenerational occupational mobility from agriculture to the nonfarm sector using survey data from Nepal and Vietnam. In the absence of credible instruments, the degree of selection on observables is used as a guide to the degree of selection on unobservables, a la Altonji et al. (2005) to address the unobserved…

  7. Bringing Different Generations Together in Music-Making: An Intergenerational Music Project in East London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria; Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan; McQueen, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a music project that took place as part of a bigger project, entitled the Music for Life Project that explored the social and emotional benefits of music participation for people over fifty. The intergenerational project was led by two music leaders from the Guildhall School of Music & Drama. The participants involved were…

  8. Computer and Video Games in Family Life: The Digital Divide as a Resource in Intergenerational Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsand, Pal Andre

    2007-01-01

    In this ethnographic study of family life, intergenerational video and computer game activities were videotaped and analysed. Both children and adults invoked the notion of a digital divide, i.e. a generation gap between those who master and do not master digital technology. It is argued that the digital divide was exploited by the children to…

  9. Intergenerational income mobility – top incomes and assortative mating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Bonke, Jens; Munk, Martin D.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates intergenerational income mobility among top-income people in Denmark focusing on the impact of assortative mating. Earnings and capital income are the variables of interest included in the analyzes testing the hypothesis that both wealth and social heritage are transferred...

  10. [Disembedding and remoralization. Old age security and intergenerational relations in globalized welfare capitalism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisering, L

    2002-08-01

    The article reconstructs the changes in provision for old age since the 19th century with regard to the ensuing change in intergenerational relationships. The first finding is a broadening of the arenas of provision for old age, a historical cumulation of family (which is still relevant), welfare state and, increasingly, private provision in financial markets, adding up to a 'welfare mix' in old age. This implies a complexification of intergenerational relationships. The second finding is an ambivalent qualitative change: on the one hand relationships between generations become more anonymous and disembedded from primary social relationships; on the other hand they are politicized (they become a public issue) and remoralized. This ambivalence applies to bureaucratic provision for old age in the welfare state, i.e., to social insurance. The main thesis is that--contrary to neoliberal belief--private old-age security in global financial markets cannot be seen as individualistic and moral-free but constitutes an anonymous exchange relationship between generations on financial markets that also raises issues of intergenerational justice. We can expect that these abstract relationships between generations will be politicized and remoralized as a consequence. Welfare state and financial markets offer solutions to problems of previous forms of provision for old age but they also produce new problems of intergenerational relationships.

  11. Where is the exit? Intergenerational ambivalence and relationship quality in high contact ties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalen, R.I.A. van; Dykstra, P.A.; Komter, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    We challenge the common idea that solidarity has positive, whereas conflict has negative implications, by investigating intergenerational ambivalence – defined as the co-occurrence of solidarity and conflict – and relationship quality. We use representative data on non-coresident adult children and

  12. Where is the exit?: intergenerational ambivalence and relationship quality in high contact ties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, R.I.A.; Dykstra, P.A.; Komter, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    We challenge the common idea that solidarity has positive, whereas conflict has negative implications, by investigating intergenerational ambivalence – defined as the co-occurrence of solidarity and conflict – and relationship quality. We use representative data on non-coresident adult children and

  13. Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment in Father-Child Dyads: The Case of Single Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Annie; Miljkovitch, Raphaele

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have repeatedly found that intergenerational transmission of attachment is more robust in mother-child dyads than it is in father-child dyads. They have proposed several explanations for the inconsistent father-child findings, including the use of the strange situation procedure, the young age of the children, and the fact that fathers…

  14. The Tie That Blinds: Understanding Intergenerational Conflict within a Moral Development Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Paula Helen

    1998-01-01

    Adult children and their parents can learn ways of relating to each other so that the dignity of each is maintained. Carol Gilligan's moral-development framework is used to assess adult child and parent moral-reasoning level and its impact on intergenerational conflict. (Author/EMK)

  15. The Intergenerational Transmission of Environmental Concern: The Influence of Parents and Communication Patterns within the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the intergenerational transmission of environmental concern and the explanatory power of communication patterns within the family. Using representative data from the Parent-Child Socialization Study in Belgium (PCSS, 2012), this article focuses on the relative influence of the mother and the father, and gender-specific…

  16. Family media matters: unraveling the intergenerational transmission of reading and television tastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Notten; G. Kraaykamp; R.P. Konig

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors scrutinize the intergenerational transmission of book reading and television viewing behaviors. They examine long-term effects of parents' social status, parental media example, and media guidance activities during one's childhood on adult media tastes. Data are employed f

  17. Intergenerational photovoice projects: optimizing this mechanism for influencing health promotion policies and strengthening relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolyn M; Aguilera-Guzman, Rosa Maria; Lindgren, Sandi; Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Raniolo, Blanca; Genis, Therese; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Clausen, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Intergenerational photovoice groups are promising for promoting health through the topic that is explored and through group dynamics that can foster healthy relationships and communication. To investigate the potential benefits of intergenerational photovoice projects, photovoice groups were conducted in urban Minnesota, United States, and in rural Morelos, Mexico, between 2009 and 2012 with Mexican-origin adults and their adolescent relatives. Seven photovoice groups of adult-adolescent dyads met for eight sessions and developed exhibits highlighting their views on health and migration and made policy recommendations, using messages conveyed through their words and photographs. Informal process evaluation and focus groups were used to elicit feedback about photovoice project participation. Photovoice project themes were descriptively analyzed. Focus group evaluation data were thematically summarized, and facilitator reflections were descriptively summarized to identify factors associated with intergenerational photovoice groups. Seventy-five participants were recruited. Photovoice themes represented effects of migration on health, family, and well-being. The following two evaluative themes were identified: (a) participant sentiments about the benefits of photovoice participation and (b) facilitator observations of intergenerational photovoice group benefits and challenges. Participants described opportunities to learn new things and barriers to healthy relationships that the project was eliminating by providing them with time to work together. Used in health promotion, photovoice is a valuable tool that contributes to understanding the complex underlying factors influencing behaviors and health.

  18. Intergenerational Closure and Academic Achievement in High School: A New Evaluation of Coleman's Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Stephen L.; Todd, Jennifer J.

    2009-01-01

    This article reexamines the conjecture of James S. Coleman that intergenerational social closure promotes student achievement in high schools, analyzing the best national data on academic achievement and social networks: the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Education Longitudinal Study. The results show that within the Catholic school sector, schools…

  19. The Effect of Education Policy on Crime: An Intergenerational Perspective. NBER Working Paper No. 18145

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghir, Costas; Palme, Marten; Schnabel, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of human capital and the extent to which policy interventions can affect it is an issue of importance. Policies are often evaluated on either short term outcomes or just in terms of their effect on individuals directly targeted. If such policies shift outcomes across generations their benefits may be much larger…

  20. Inter-generational ties, financial transfers and home-ownership support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Clara H.; Smits, Annika W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Home-ownership is transmitted between generations. Parental gifts form one of the mechanisms through which the intergenerational transmission of home-ownership takes place. Using the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study, we investigated the influence of parental and children's resources and other charact

  1. The Intergenerational Congruence of Mothers' and Preschoolers' Narrative Affective Content and Narrative Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Grey, Izabela; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2013-01-01

    Intergenerational congruence of mothers' and preschoolers' narratives about the mother-child relationship was examined in a sample of 198 Hispanic (59.1%), Black (19.2%), and White (21.7%) mothers and their preschool child. Mothers' narratives were obtained with the Five Minute Speech Sample and were coded for negative and positive affective…

  2. Intergenerational studies on the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intergenerational impacts of engineered nanomaterials in plants are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiology, phenology, yield and nutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum) exposed to nanoceria (nCeO2). Seeds from parental plan...

  3. Young Adulthood to Old Age: Looking at Intergenerational Possibilities from a Human Development Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ReVille, Shari

    1989-01-01

    The potential interface between human development theories and intergenerational programing is explored. Erik Erikson's division of adult development into young, middle, and later adulthood, and Butler and Lewis'"characteristics of older people," are considered. Older people can offer help and encouragement to youth while themselves…

  4. Intergenerational Music Making: A Phenomenological Study of Three Older Australians Making Music with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three older Australians' active engagement in music making with children was examined in this phenomenological study. Intergenerational music engagement was explored, focusing on the perspectives of the older Australians engaged in these musical interactions and, in particular, perceived benefits in being part of these musical interactions. Data…

  5. Engaging Post-Secondary Students and Older Adults in an Intergenerational Digital Storytelling Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Jennifer; Danbrook, Claire; Sieppert, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    A five day Digital Storytelling course was offered to Social Work students, integrating a three day workshop with older adult storytellers who shared stories related to the theme stories of home. A course evaluation was conducted exploring the Digital Storytelling experience and learning in an intergenerational setting. Findings from surveys…

  6. Intergenerational risk sharing and endogenous labour supply within funded pension schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bonenkamp; E. Westerhout

    2014-01-01

    Funded defined-benefit pensions add to welfare on account of providing intergenerational risk sharing, but lower it on account of inducing labour supply distortions. We show that a properly designed funded defined-benefit pension scheme involves a welfare improvement even if contributions are distor

  7. Contact with Parents in Japan: Effects on Opinions toward Gender and Intergenerational Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindfuss, Ronald R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Used data from national survey to examine extent to which contact with husband's and wife's parents affects opinions held by Japanese adults on gender roles, intergenerational relations, and socialization goals. Effect of living with parents was clear and expected. For those not residing with parents, frequency of contact had at best minimal…

  8. A Further Look at the Intergenerational Transmission of Violence: Witnessing Interparental Violence in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S.; Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2010-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission (IGT) of violence has been a main theoretical consideration to explain the link between interparental aggression in the family of origin and intimate partner violence (IPV) in subsequent intimate relationships. Studies have examined this theoretical link based on self reports of interparental violence witnessed…

  9. Funded pensions and intergenerational and international risk sharing in general equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.; Romp, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    We explore intergenerational and international risk sharing in a general equilibrium multiple-country model with two-tier pensions systems. The exact design of the pension system is key for the way in which risks are shared over generations. The laissez-faire market solution fails to provide an opti

  10. To Recycle or Not to Recycle? An Intergenerational Approach to Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taebi, B.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    AbstractThis paper approaches the choice between the open and closed nuclear fuel cycles as a matter of intergenerational justice, by revealing the value conflicts in the production of nuclear energy. The closed fuel cycle improve sustainability in terms of the supply certainty of uranium and involv

  11. Using Intergenerational Oral History Service-Learning Projects to Teach Human Behavior Concepts: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Natalie; Diepstra, Stephene A.

    2006-01-01

    An intergenerational oral history project paired 63 students enrolled in human behavior in the social environment (HBSC) courses in a bachelor of social work (BSW) programs with older adults. The goal of the project was to provide contextual application of HBSE theories and concepts by engaging students in semester-long intentional interaction…

  12. Towards a Model of Human Resource Solutions for Achieving Intergenerational Interaction in Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, David; By, Rune Todnem; Hutchings, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Achieving intergenerational interaction and avoiding conflict is becoming increasingly difficult in a workplace populated by three generations--Baby Boomers, Generation X-ers and Generation Y-ers. This paper presents a model and proposes HR solutions towards achieving co-operative generational interaction. Design/methodology/approach:…

  13. Intergenerational Panels at Centennial Events: Stimulating Discussion about Continuity and Change in the 4-H Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Matthew S.; Weikert, Ben; Scholl, Jan; Rushton, Mya

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an intergenerational strategy for organizations planning centennial celebratory events. The methods and findings from the 4-H through the Generations session conducted at the joint 4-H Leadership Conference and 4-H Leaders Forum to celebrate the Pennsylvania 4-H Centennial are reported. Youth and adult participants shared…

  14. Intergenerational Practice: Mentoring and Social Capital for Twenty-First Century Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming-Potvin, Wendy Marie; MacCallum, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Aiming to elucidate the relationship between social capital and intergenerational practice within mentoring, this article presents data from a case study of the School Volunteer Program in Western Australia. Drawing on situated learning theory and the concept of community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998; Wenger, McDermott, &…

  15. Unresolved trauma in mothers: Intergenerational effects and the role of reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mother's unresolved trauma may interfere with her ability to sensitively respond to her infant, thus affecting the development of attachment in her own child, and potentially contributing to the intergenerational transmission of trauma. One novel construct within the Dynamic Maturational Model of ...

  16. Social mobility and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle-income country: Association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Joanna M N; Clarke, Philippa; Tate, Denise; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Santos, Itamar S; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Chor, Dora

    2016-11-01

    Over the past half century Brazil has undergone a process of dramatic industrialization and urbanization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. The association of social mobility with subclinical CVD has been rarely explored, particularly in developing societies. We investigated the association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical or asymptomatic atherosclerosis, in a large Brazilian sample (ELSA-Brasil). We used baseline data (2008-2010) for 7343 participants from ELSA-Brasil. Intra-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation. Inter-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class of the head of the household when the participant started working and participants' current occupation. Social mobility groups were classified as: stable high (reference), upward, downward and stable low. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between type of social mobility and IMT. Compared to those who experienced stable high occupational status across generations, downward inter-generational mobility was associated with greater IMT. Additionally, those who declined the most in occupational status had the highest values of IMT, even after adjustments for lifestyle and cardiovascular factors. For intra-generational mobility, stable low versus stable high social mobility was independently associated with higher IMT. Subclinical atherosclerosis is patterned by socioeconomic status both within and across generations, demonstrating an association even before symptoms of CVD appear. The health consequences of downward inter-generational social mobility were not fully explained by lifestyle and cardiovascular factors, whereas being consistently exposed to low occupational

  17. Development of automated nondestructive inspection system for BMI nozzles in nuclear vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon Soo; Lee, Won Kun; Han, Won Jin; Lee, Sun Ho; Seong, Un Hak [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    BMI nozzles in bottom head of the nuclear vessel are one of major components in nuclear power plants. The BMI nozzles have high possibility to generate PWSCC(primary water stress corrosion crack) according to recent foreign case although operation temperature is lower then the upper head of the nuclear vessel. Thus, nondestructive inspection of the BMI nozzles is required. But, inspection of BMI nozzles is not easy since the BMI nozzles placed in high radiated area and inside the nozzles filled with boric acid. Thus, in this study, a TOFD transducer for inspection of BMI and automated scanner system with water were developed. Also, validation of performance of the developed transducer and system are performed using specimens with artificial defects.

  18. Nativity, US Length of Residence, and BMI Among Diverse Asian American Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p born ethnic groups significantly higher than BMI for immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups.

  19. Intergenerational Transmission of Self-Regulation: A Multidisciplinary Review and Integrative Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J.; Burt, Nicole M.; Edwards, Erin S.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2014-01-01

    This review examines mechanisms contributing to the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. To provide an integrated account of how self-regulation is transmitted across generations, we draw from over 75 years of accumulated evidence, spanning case studies to experimental approaches, in literatures covering developmental, social, and clinical psychology, and criminology, physiology, genetics, and human and animal neuroscience (among others). First, we present a taxonomy of what self-regulation is and then examine how it develops – overviews that guide the main foci of the review. Next, studies supporting an association between parent and child self-regulation are reviewed. Subsequently, literature that considers potential social mechanisms of transmission, specifically parenting behavior, inter-parental (i.e., marital) relationship behaviors, and broader rearing influences (e.g., household chaos) are considered. Finally, literature providing evidence that prenatal programming may be the starting point of the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation is covered, along with key findings from the behavioral and molecular genetics literatures. To integrate these literatures, we introduce the Self-Regulation Intergenerational Transmission Model, a framework that brings together prenatal, social, and neurobiological mechanisms (spanning endocrine, neural, and genetic levels, including gene-environment interplay and epigenetic processes) to explain the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. This model also incorporates potential transactional processes between generations (e.g., children’s self-regulation and parent-child interaction dynamics that may affect parents’ self-regulation) that further influence intergenerational processes. In pointing the way forward, we note key future directions and ways to address limitations in existing work throughout the review and in closing. We also conclude by noting several implications for

  20. Self-Reported and Measured BMI in Ireland: Should We Adjust the Obesity Thresholds?

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David

    2013-01-01

    Using the nationally representative Slan dataset of 2007 we analyse the relationship between self-reported and measured BMI. We find that self-reported BMI significantly underestimates obesity rates and suggest that the traditional threshold of 30 should be adjusted downwards. We outline a number of approaches to choose the optimal threshold and results suggest that the new obesity threshold for self-reported BMI could be as low as 26.

  1. Does body mass index (BMI) influence the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score in axial spondyloarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336

  2. Association of eating behaviors and BMI among elementary school students from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Munguía-Lizárraga; Montserrat Bacardí-Gascón; Ana Armendáriz-Anguiano; Arturo Jiménez-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE) with body max index (BMI) among elementary schools children in Mexico. 5th and 6th grade students were recruited from two schools. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obese children were classified according to the World Health Organizations (WHO) BMI z-score. The TFEQ -R18 questionnaire was applied to as...

  3. Relationship between changes of body mass index (BMI) and cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Oh, Eung Seok; Lee, Ji Hee; Moon, Jung Soo; Oh, Ji Eun; Shin, Jong Wook; Lee, Kyung Jae; Baek, In Chul; Jeong, Seong-Hae; Song, Hee-Jung; Sohn, Eun Hee; Lee, Ae Young

    2012-01-01

    Decreased BMI has been reported that it may be associated with cognitive decline in the elderly. Weight loss is common in patients with PD. However, studies comparing cognitive changes according to BMI changes in PD have not been done yet. We performed this study to know a relationship between BMI changes and the rate of cognitive decline in PD. PD patients were recruited retrospectively. The patients (n=104) were divided into two groups according to BMI changes during initial 6 months of follow-up: decreased (n=52) vs. stable BMI groups (n=52). Cognitive functions were repeated until 36 months of follow-up using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and the modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) test. We calculated the rate of cognitive decline (K-MMSE and 3MS score changes/month) and compared it between the two groups. The decreased BMI group showed lower level of cognitive function than that of stable BMI group, especially at the 36th month of follow-up (p<0.05). In addition, the rate of cognitive decline was also significantly faster in the decreased BMI group, particularly at the 36th month of follow-up (p<0.05). This study suggests that decreased BMI during initial 6 months of follow-up in PD might be a useful indicator for future risk of dementia and let clinicians predict faster rate of cognitive decline in patients with PD.

  4. Intergenerational transmission of occupational status: The role of voluntary association membership as an emerging compensatory strategy of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, J.M.A. van; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we raised the question as to what extent members from higher status groups effectuated social resources, more specifically voluntary association membership, as a possible new compensatory strategy to guarantee a successful intergenerational transmission of their occupational status.

  5. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Faughnan, Patrick D.; Batterson, Lawrence M.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Engineers today are presented with the opportunity to design and build the next generation of space vehicles out of the lightest, strongest, and most durable materials available. Composites offer excellent structural characteristics and outstanding reliability in many forms that will be utilized in future aerospace applications including the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program and the Orion space capsule. NASA's Composites for Exploration (CoEx) project researches the various methods of manufacturing composite materials of different fiber characteristics while using proven infusion methods of different resin compositions. Development and testing on these different material combinations will provide engineers the opportunity to produce optimal material compounds for multidisciplinary applications. Through the CoEx project, engineers pursue the opportunity to research and develop repair patch procedures for damaged spacecraft. Working in conjunction with Raptor Resins Inc., NASA engineers are utilizing high flow liquid infusion molding practices to manufacture high-temperature composite parts comprised of intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) carbon fiber material. IM7 is a continuous, high-tensile strength composite with outstanding structural qualities such as high shear strength, tensile strength and modulus as well as excellent corrosion, creep, and fatigue resistance. IM7 carbon fiber, combined with existing thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems, can provide improvements in material strength reinforcement and deformation-resistant properties for high-temperature applications. Void analysis of the different layups of the IM7 material discovered the largest total void composition within the [ +45 , 90 , 90 , -45 ] composite panel. Tensile and compressional testing proved the highest mechanical strength was found in the [0 4] layup. This paper further investigates the infusion procedure of a low-cost/high-performance BMI resin into an IM7 carbon fiber material and the

  6. No Impact of Body Mass Index on Outcome in Stroke Patients Treated with IV Thrombolysis BMI and IV Thrombolysis Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Juliane; Michel, Patrik; Eskioglou, Elissavet; Kaegi, Georg; Stark, Robert; Fischer, Urs; Jung, Simon; Arnold, Marcel; Wertli, Maria; Held, Ulrike; Wegener, Susanne; Luft, Andreas; Sarikaya, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The impact of excess body weight on prognosis after stroke is controversial. Many studies report higher survival rates in obese patients (“obesity paradox”). Recently, obesity has been linked to worse outcomes after intravenous (IV) thrombolysis, but the number and sample size of these studies were small. Here, we aimed to assess the relationship between body weight and stroke outcome after IV thrombolysis in a large cohort study. Methods In a prospective observational multicenter study, we analyzed baseline and outcome data of 896 ischemic stroke patients who underwent IV thrombolysis. Patients were categorized according to body mass index (BMI) as underweight (35 kg/m2). Using uni- and multivariate modeling, we assessed the relationship of BMI with favorable outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale 0 or 1) and mortality 3 months after stroke as well as the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages (sICH). We also measured the incidence of patients that had an early neurological improvement of >40% on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) after 24 hours. Results Among 896 patients, 321 were normal weight (35.8%), 22 underweight (2.5%), 378 overweight (42.2%), 123 obese (13.7%) and 52 severely obese (5.8%). Three-month mortality was comparable in obese vs. non-obese patients (8.1% vs. 8.3%) and did not differ significantly among different BMI groups. This was also true for favorable clinical outcome, risk of sICH and early neurological improvement on NIHSS at 24 hours. These results remained unchanged after adjusting for potential confounding factors in the multivariate analyses. Conclusion BMI was not related to clinical outcomes in stroke patients treated with IVT. Our data suggest that the current weight-adapted dosage scheme of IV alteplase is appropriate for different body weight groups, and challenge the existence of the obesity paradox after stroke. PMID:27727305

  7. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis—BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozeng Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1, and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase. Through mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119Ub, BMI1 represses multiple gene loci; among these, the INK4A/ARF locus has been most thoroughly investigated. The locus encodes the p16INK4A and p14/p19ARF tumor suppressors that function in the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Its repression contributes to BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. BMI1 also possesses other oncogenic functions, specifically its regulative role in DNA damage response (DDR. In this process, BMI1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and γH2AX, thereby facilitating the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs through stimulating homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Additionally, BMI1 compromises DSB-induced checkpoint activation independent of its-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We review the emerging role of BMI1 in DDR regulation and discuss its impact on BMI1-derived tumorigenesis.

  8. The Apple Doesn't Fall Far from the Tree (or Does It?): Intergenerational Patterns of Antisocial Behavior-The American Society of Criminology 2008 Sutherland Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P

    2009-05-01

    There is a growing literature on intergenerational studies of antisocial behavior and a growing understanding of the unique contributions they are likely to make. At the same time, the field has yet to agree on core design features for intergenerational study. In this article I propose a set of defining design elements that all intergenerational studies should meet and I discuss the advantages of these studies for enhancing our understanding of the onset and course of delinquent careers. I then use data from the ongoing Rochester Intergenerational Study to illustrate these points and the potential yield of intergenerational studies. In particular, I examine intergenerational continuities in antisocial behavior and school disengagement, test the cycle of violence hypothesis to see if a history of maltreatment increases the likelihood of perpetration of maltreatment, and estimate a structural equation model to help identify mediating pathways that link parents and children with respect to antisocial behavior.

  9. The relationships between stressful life events during childhood and differentiation of self and intergenerational triangulation in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationships between stressful life events in childhood and differentiation of self and intergenerational triangulation in adulthood. The sample included 217 students (173 females and 44 males) from a college in northern Israel. Participants completed the Hebrew versions of Life Events Checklist (LEC), Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revised (DSI-R) and intergenerational triangulation (INTRI). The main findings were that levels of stressful life events during childhood and adolescence among both genders were positively correlated with the levels of fusion with others and intergenerational triangulation. The levels of positive life events were negatively related to levels of emotional reactivity, emotional cut-off and intergenerational triangulation. Levels of stressful life events in females were positively correlated with emotional reactivity. Intergenerational triangulation was correlated with emotional reactivity, emotional cut-off, fusion with others and I-position. Findings suggest that families that experience higher levels of stressful life events may be at risk for higher levels of intergenerational triangulation and lower levels of differentiation of self.

  10. Combined introduction of Bmi-1 and hTERT immortalizes human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells with low risk of transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatrai, Peter, E-mail: peter.tatrai@biomembrane.hu [Institute of Enzymology, Research Center for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Karolina ut 29, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Szepesi, Aron, E-mail: aron.szepesi@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Matula, Zsolt, E-mail: matula.zsolt@gmail.com [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Szigeti, Anna, E-mail: anna.szigeti@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Buchan, Gyoengyi, E-mail: buchan@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Madi, Andras, E-mail: madi@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Stem Cell, Apoptosis and Genomics Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Uher, Ferenc, E-mail: uher@biomembrane.hu [Stem Cell Laboratory, Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service, Dioszegi ut 64, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We immortalized human adipose stromal cells (ASCs) with hTERT, Bmi-1, and SV40T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT-only ASCs are prone to transformation, while Bmi-only ASCs become senescent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SV40T introduced along with hTERT abrogates proliferation control and multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT combined with Bmi-1 yields stable phenotype up to 140 population doublings. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are increasingly being studied for their usefulness in regenerative medicine. However, limited life span and donor-dependent variation of primary cells such as ASCs present major hurdles to controlled and reproducible experiments. We therefore aimed to establish immortalized ASC cell lines that provide steady supply of homogeneous cells for in vitro work while retain essential features of primary cells. To this end, combinations of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), murine Bmi-1, and SV40 large T antigen (SV40T) were introduced by lentiviral transduction into ASCs. The resulting cell lines ASC{sup hTERT}, ASC{sup Bmi-1}, ASC{sup Bmi-1+hTERT} and ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} were tested for transgene expression, telomerase activity, surface immunomarkers, proliferation, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, karyotype, tumorigenicity, and cellular senescence. All cell lines have maintained expression of characteristic surface immunomarkers, and none was tumorigenic. However, ASC{sup Bmi-1} had limited replicative potential, while the rapidly proliferating ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} acquired chromosomal aberrations, departed from MSC phenotype, and lost differentiation capacity. ASC{sup hTERT} and ASC{sup hTERT+Bmi-1}, on the other hand, preserved all essential MSC features and did not senesce after 100 population doublings. Notably, a subpopulation of ASC{sup hTERT} also acquired aberrant karyotype and showed signs of transformation after long-term culture

  11. [BMI changes in adolescents and adults women between pregnancy and pospartum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi T, María Cecilia; Alonso, Rafael; Atalah S, Eduardo

    2009-09-01

    Te aim of the study was to evaluate pregnancy nutritional consequences in adolescent pregnant women and to identify factors which increase risk of an adverse postpartum nutritional result. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 742 adolescent and 779 adult pregnant women in Guatemala, Dominican Republic and Uruguay, assessing demographic, social, obstetric, weight gain and BMI at first prenatal control, and 4 +/- 1 month postpartum. BMI in adults was classified according to WHO recommendations and NCHS/WHO in adolescents. We assessed changes of BMI between the beginning and postpartum time and a logistic model analysis was applied about the risk of having low BMI at postpartum time. At the beginning of pregnancy the prevalence of low weight was higher in adolescent group and the overweight and obesity higher in adults (p nutritional BMI, except for low weighted. Adolescents had a significant change in their BMI at postpartum time, showing a tendency to increase weight and a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (p nutritional status was not damaged after pregnancy. The strongest variable associated with postpartum low BMI was BMI which mothers begin pregnancy as equal of adult mothers.

  12. Bmi1 confers resistance to oxidative stress on hematopoietic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nakamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The polycomb-group (PcG proteins function as general regulators of stem cells. We previously reported that retrovirus-mediated overexpression of Bmi1, a gene encoding a core component of polycomb repressive complex (PRC 1, maintained self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs during long-term culture. However, the effects of overexpression of Bmi1 on HSCs in vivo remained to be precisely addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we generated a mouse line where Bmi1 can be conditionally overexpressed under the control of the endogenous Rosa26 promoter in a hematopoietic cell-specific fashion (Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FLBmi1. Although overexpression of Bmi1 did not significantly affect steady state hematopoiesis, it promoted expansion of functional HSCs during ex vivo culture and efficiently protected HSCs against loss of self-renewal capacity during serial transplantation. Overexpression of Bmi1 had no effect on DNA damage response triggered by ionizing radiation. In contrast, Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FLBmi1 HSCs under oxidative stress maintained a multipotent state and generally tolerated oxidative stress better than the control. Unexpectedly, overexpression of Bmi1 had no impact on the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of Bmi1 confers resistance to stresses, particularly oxidative stress, onto HSCs. This thereby enhances their regenerative capacity and suggests that Bmi1 is located downstream of ROS signaling and negatively regulated by it.

  13. BMI and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.;

    2006-01-01

    BMI differentiation and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people were analysed. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years. 21 food patterns were separated by the factor analysis. On the basis of the self-reported body mass and height, the BMI and percentages...

  14. Bmi-1, a polycomb Group Protein, Plays an Essential Role in tumorigenesis and Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libing SONG; Jun LI; Wenting LIAO; Yan FENG; Wanli LIU; Yixin ZENG; Musheng ZENG

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dysregulation of polycomb group protein Bmi-1 expression has been linked with an invasive phenotype of certain human cancers and poor prog-nosis of patients; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly under-stood. Here, we demonstrate that Bmi-1 expression is inversely correlated with E-cadherin expression in various cancers.

  15. Correlation of Bmi-1 expression and telomerase activity in human ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, F. B.; Sui, L. H.; Xin, T.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the correlation between the oncoprotein Bmi-1 and telomerase activity in ovarian cancer. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is used to detect the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Bmi-1 protein in 47 ovarian epithelial cancer cases, and immunohistochemistry i

  16. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage studies in BMI and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, Catherine L.; Chiodini, Benedetta D.; Sham, Pak; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Abkevich, Victor; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; de Andrade, Mariza; Arya, Rector; Berenson, Gerald S.; Blangero, John; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Chen, Wei; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Deng, Hong-Wen; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Feitosa, Mary F.; Froguel, Philippe; Hanson, Robert L.; Hebebrand, Johannes; Huezo-Dias, Patricia; Kissebah, Ahmed H.; Li, Weidong; Luke, Amy; Martin, Lisa J.; Nash, Matthew; Ohman, Muena; Palmer, Lyle J.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Price, R. Arlen; Redline, Susan; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Stern, Michael P.; Stone, Steven; Stringham, Heather; Turner, Stephen; Wijmenga, Cisca; Collier, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to provide an overall assessment of genetic linkage data of BMI and BMI-defined obesity using a nonparametric genome scan meta-analysis. Research Methods and Procedures: We identified 37 published studies containing data on over 31,000 individuals from more than >10,000

  17. Does pre-pregnancy BMI determine blood pressure during pregnancy? : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savitri, Ary I; Zuithoff, Peter; Browne, Joyce L; Amelia, Dwirani; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) determines blood pressure throughout pregnancy and to explore the role of gestational weight gain in this association. In addition, the effects of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on the occurrence of gestational hypertensio

  18. BMI1 attenuates etoposide-induced G2/M checkpoints via reducing ATM activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, F; Ojo, D; Lin, X; Wong, N; He, L; Yan, J; Xu, S; Major, P; Tang, D

    2015-06-04

    The BMI1 protein contributes to stem cell pluripotency and oncogenesis via multiple functions, including its newly identified role in DNA damage response (DDR). Although evidence clearly demonstrates that BMI1 facilitates the repair of double-stranded breaks via homologous recombination (HR), it remains unclear how BMI1 regulates checkpoint activation during DDR. We report here that BMI1 has a role in G2/M checkpoint activation in response to etoposide (ETOP) treatment. Ectopic expression of BMI1 in MCF7 breast cancer and DU145 prostate cancer cells significantly reduced ETOP-induced G2/M arrest. Conversely, knockdown of BMI1 in both lines enhanced the arrest. Consistent with ETOP-induced activation of the G2/M checkpoints via the ATM pathway, overexpression and knockdown of BMI1, respectively, reduced and enhanced ETOP-induced phosphorylation of ATM at serine 1981 (ATM pS1981). Furthermore, the phosphorylation of ATM targets, including γH2AX, threonine 68 (T68) on CHK2 (CHK2 pT68) and serine 15 (S15) on p53 were decreased in overexpression and increased in knockdown BMI1 cells in response to ETOP. In line with the requirement of NBS1 in ATM activation, we were able to show that BMI1 associates with NBS1 and that this interaction altered the binding of NBS1 with ATM. BMI1 consists of a ring finger (RF), helix-turn-helix-turn-helix-turn (HT), proline/serine (PS) domain and two nuclear localization signals (NLS). Although deletion of either RF or HT did not affect the association of BMI1 with NBS1, the individual deletions of PS and one NLS (KRMK) robustly reduced the interaction. Stable expression of these BMI1 mutants decreased ETOP-induced ATM pS1981 and CHK2 pT68, but not ETOP-elicited γH2AX in MCF7 cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of BMI1 in non-transformed breast epithelial MCF10A cells also compromised ETOP-initiated ATM pS1981 and γH2AX. Taken together, we provide compelling evidence that BMI1 decreases ETOP-induced G2/M checkpoint activation via

  19. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  20. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    .041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late matured pubertal children......OBJECTIVE: Early pubertal timing is consistently associated with increased BMI percentile-for-age in pubertal girls, while data in boys are more ambiguous. However, higher BMI percentile-for-age may be a result of the earlier puberty per se rather than vice versa. The aim was to evaluate markers...... of adiposity in relation to pubertal timing and reproductive hormone levels in healthy pubertal boys and girls. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study (The Copenhagen Puberty Study). Eight-hundred and two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents (486 girls) aged 8.5-16.5 years participated. BMI...

  1. STUDY OF EFFECT OF BMI AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to evaluate any association between BMI, WC and Blood pressure and any tendency to develop prehypertension. The study comprises of 100 medical students of NRI medical college, Sangivalasa near Visakhapatnam. It was carried out ongirl students with age of 17 ye ars. Their BMI, WC and Blood pressure were determined. The examination included measurement of weight, height of the student to determine BMI, measurement of waist circumference, and measurement of blood pressure by sphygmomanometer. In the present study t he results are consistent with early clinical studies reporting that there is elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing BMI and waist circumference and there is tendency to develop prehypertension in students with higher BMI. Modificat ion of life style factors should be emphasized.

  2. Overexpression of AtBMI1C, a polycomb group protein gene, accelerates flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Polycomb group protein (PcG-mediated gene silencing is emerging as an essential developmental regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic organisms. PcGs inactivate or maintain the silenced state of their target chromatin by forming complexes, including Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1 and 2 (PRC2. Three PRC2 complexes have been identified and characterized in Arabidopsis; of these, the EMF and VRN complexes suppress flowering by catalyzing the trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 of FLOWER LOCUS T (FT and FLOWER LOCUS C (FLC. However, little is known about the role of PRC1 in regulating the floral transition, although AtRING1A, AtRING1B, AtBMI1A, and AtBMI1B are believed to regulate shoot apical meristem and embryonic development as components of PRC1. Moreover, among the five RING finger PcGs in the Arabidopsis genome, four have been characterized. Here, we report that the fifth, AtBMI1C, is a novel, ubiquitously expressed nuclear PcG protein and part of PRC1, which is evolutionarily conserved with Psc and BMI1. Overexpression of AtBMI1C caused increased H2A monoubiquitination and flowering defects in Arabidopsis. Both the suppression of FLC and activation of FT were observed in AtBMI1C-overexpressing lines, resulting in early flowering. No change in the H3K27me3 level in FLC chromatin was detected in an AtBMI1C-overexpressing line. Our results suggest that AtBMI1C participates in flowering time control by regulating the expression of FLC; moreover, the repression of FLC by AtBMI1C is not due to the activity of PRC2. Instead, it is likely the result of PRC1 activity, into which AtBMI1C is integrated.

  3. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  4. Polycomb Repressor Complex 1 Member, BMI1 Contributes to Urothelial Tumorigenesis through p16-Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia E. De Faveri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Urothelial carcinoma (UC causes significant morbidity and remains the most expensive cancer to treat because of the need for repeated resections and lifelong monitoring for patients with non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. Novel therapeutics and stratification approaches are needed to improve the outlook for both NMIBC and muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We investigated the expression and effects of B Lymphoma Mo-MLV Insertion Region 1 (BMI1 in UC. BMI1 was found to be overexpressed in most UC cell lines and primary tumors by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In contrast to some previous reports, no association with tumor stage or grade was observed in two independent tumor panels. Furthermore, upregulation of BMI1 was detected in premalignant bladder lesions, suggesting a role early in tumorigenesis. BMI1 is not located within a common region of genomic amplification in UC. The CDKN2A locus (which encodes the p16 tumor suppressor gene is a transcriptional target of BMI1 in some cellular contexts. In UC cell lines and primary tissues, no correlation between BMI1 and p16 expression was observed. Retroviral-mediated overexpression of BMI1 immortalized normal human urothelial cells (NHUC in vitro and was associated with induction of telomerase activity, bypass of senescence, and repression of differentiation. The effects of BMI1 on gene expression were identified by expression microarray analysis of NHUC-BMI1. Metacore analysis of the gene expression profile implicated downstream effects of BMI1 on α4/β1 integrin-mediated adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling, and CREB1-mediated transcription.

  5. The intergenerational transmission of violence: examining the mediating roles of insecure attachment and destructive disagreement beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Wickrama, K A S; Futris, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has been recognized as a major problem on college campuses and is a source of concern for researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and the general population. Most research has focused on the intergenerational transmission of violence and identifying the intrapersonal mechanisms that enable violence in the family of origin to carry over to adult intimate relationships. This study expands the current literature by examining insecure attachment styles and destructive disagreement beliefs as mediators in the relationship between exposure to hostility or aggression in the family of origin and later experiences of dating aggression. Research questions were addressed with a sample of 1,136 college undergraduates (59% women). In all models, results of structural equation modeling indicated that an insecure attachment style and destructive disagreement beliefs mediated the intergenerational transmission of violence among both men and women. These findings have important implications for future research as well as relationship education programs and preventative interventions.

  6. A clinical study of the intergenerational transmission of eating disorders from mothers to daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Susan P; Kamens, Sarah R; Megyes, Matthew; Loewenthal, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers have long recognized the existence of eating disorders in very young children, including infants whose mothers have eating disorders. This paper combines reviews of the literature relevant to the study of eating disorders from the perspectives of both research and psychoanalytic theory in order to explore the psychodynamics of the intergenerational transmission of eating-disordered pathology from mother to child. A developmental pathway as well as several mechanisms that illuminate the pathogenesis of the intergenerational transmission of eating disorders are proposed and described. Clinical-observational data from a therapeutic play nursery for mothers with eating disorders and their children are presented, and this material is examined in relation to the proposed psychodynamic pathways of transmission.

  7. Marriage Squeeze and Intergenerational Support in Contemporary Rural China: Evidence from X County of Anhui Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Guo, Qiuju; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-01-01

    With China's gender imbalance and increasingly severe male marriage squeeze, patterns of intergenerational support in rural areas are likely to undergo significant change. Using data from a survey of four towns from X county in Anhui province carried out in 2008, this article analyzes the effects of sons' marital status on intergenerational support. Random-effect regression analysis shows that son's marital status has strong effects on financial support to and coresidence with parents. Compared with married sons, older unmarried sons (so-called forced bachelors) tend to provide less financial support to their parents and are more likely to live with their parents. Parents' support of sons, as well as the parents' own needs and sons' capabilities all affect the support provided by sons. These results show that both theories of exchange and altruism are simultaneously relevant in the context of the marriage squeeze of contemporary rural China.

  8. Intergenerational solidarity in family communication and childrearing among Russians living in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järva I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to ascertain the importance of intergenerational solidarity in communication within the family and childrearing among the Russians living in Estonia. Generations see the world differently enough. One of the reasons for that is individualistic worldview which characterizes not only the younger generation, but individualistic tendencies have percolated into other generationsas well. All generations admit the presence of a generation gap, but they disclaim presence of intergenerational conflict. At the same time respondents affirm that there is solidarity between generations in their families and it is based on love and respect. Solidarity between generations in families is revealed both on spiritual level (communicating, love, trust, mutual understanding, common interests as well as in real help given by generations to each other as far as homework, children's upbringing, and economical aid are concerned.

  9. Early experience affects the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-07-01

    Maternal abuse of offspring in macaque monkeys shares some similarities with child maltreatment in humans, including its transmission across generations. This study used a longitudinal design and a cross-fostering experiment to investigate whether abusive parenting in rhesus macaques is transmitted from mothers to daughters and whether transmission occurs through genetic or experiential factors. Nine of 16 females who were abused by their mothers in their first month of life, regardless of whether they were reared by their biological mothers or by foster mothers, exhibited abusive parenting with their firstborn offspring, whereas none of the females reared by nonabusive mothers did. These results suggest that the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys is the result of early experience and not genetic inheritance. The extent to which the effects of early experience on the intergenerational transmission of abusive parenting are mediated by social learning or experience-induced physiological alterations remains to be established.

  10. Leadership development in geriatric care through the Intergeneration Make a Difference Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Mary K; Brown, Sylvia T

    2006-01-01

    The Intergeneration Make a Difference Project (MADP) is designed to develop leadership skills in geriatric nursing for seniors in a baccalaureate nursing program. This service-learning project with octogenarians and older individuals is based on theoretical constructs of caring. Stories and journaling are of great importance in the project. Expected outcomes are cognitive, affective, personal, and interpersonal. Students are expected to engage in critical/reflective thinking and develop leadership skills, heightened respect for the elderly, and interest in lifelong learning and a service orientation to society. Empowered to influence their clients, students receive the reciprocal benefits of an intergenerational relationship that, it is hoped, will affect how they care for the elderly in the future.

  11. Climate change, children's rights, and the pursuit of intergenerational climate justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Elizabeth D

    2014-06-14

    Frequently forgotten in the global discussions and agreements on climate change are children and young people, who both disproportionately suffer the consequences of a rapidly changing climate, yet also offer innovative solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (climate change mitigation) and adapt to climate change. Existing evidence is presented of the disproportionately harmful impact of climate-induced changes in precipitation and extreme weather events on today's children, especially in the Global South. This paper examines the existing global climate change agreements under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change for evidence of attention to children and intergenerational climate justice, and suggests the almost universally ratified Convention on the Rights of the Child be leveraged to advance intergenerational climate justice.

  12. Does intergenerational contact reduce Ageism: When and How Contact Interventions Actually Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Christian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the past two decades have seen concrete attempts to reduce ethnic and racial prejudice, relatively little has been done to diminish age related prejudice.  In this paper, we review intergenerational contact interventions have been applied in a real world setting, the results are mixed. While contact interventions are not a panacea, they do constitute a main plank in efforts to redress ageism. We, therefore, examine the types of interventions that are effective, the processes underlying their enhanced impact, and clarifying when and how intergenerational contact can predict more positive attitudes towards the elderly.  Finally, we highlight ways in which findings might be applied to the development of more effective interventions aimed at combating a pervasive stereotype of aging, drawing out lessons for theory and implications for practice.

  13. A prescriptive intergenerational-tension ageism scale: succession, identity, and consumption (SIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2013-09-01

    We introduce a novel ageism scale, focusing on prescriptive beliefs concerning potential intergenerational tensions: active, envied resource succession, symbolic identity avoidance, and passive, shared-resource consumption (SIC). Four studies (2,010 total participants) were used to develop the scale. Exploratory factor analysis formed an initial 20-item, 3-factor solution (Study 1). The scale converges appropriately with other prejudice measures and diverges from other social control measures (Study 2). It diverges from antiyouth ageism (Study 3). The Study 4 experiment yielded both predictive and divergent validity apropos another ageism measure. Structural equation modeling confirmed model fit across all studies. Per an intergenerational-tension focus, younger people consistently scored the highest. As generational equity issues intensify, the scale provides a contemporary tool for current and future ageism research.

  14. Resource Scarcity and Prescriptive Attitudes Generate Subtle, Intergenerational Older-Worker Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2016-01-01

    Prior work describes specific, prescriptive resource tensions between generations, comprising active Succession, passive Consumption, and symbolic Identity (SCI; North & Fiske, 2013a, 2013b). The current paper focuses on how these domains potentially drive intergenerational exclusion in work-related networking and training spheres. Studies 1a–1c—each focusing on a different SCI domain—manipulated perceived resource availability between generations, then introduced a professional networking opportunity. Across studies, scarcity reduced the likelihood of young participants’ networking engagement with older workers who violated SCI resource expectations. Study 2 impelled participants to allocate scarce training resources among three similarly qualified but different-aged employees (younger, middle-aged, and older). Older workers received the lowest such investment, particularly among younger participants—an effect driven by Succession beliefs, per mediation analyses. Overall, the findings emphasize resource tensions in driving older workers’ subtle exclusion by younger generations; minimizing such tensions will be critical for aging, increasingly intergenerational workplaces. PMID:27499555

  15. Parental background matters: Intergenerational mobility and assimilation of Italian immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis of failed integration and low social mobility of immigrants. For this purpose, an intergenerational assimilation model is tested empirically on household survey data and validated against administrative data provided by the Italian Embassy in Germany. In line with previous studies, we confirm substantial inequality of educational achievements between immigrants and natives. However, we find that the children of Italian immigrants exhibit fairly high intergenerati...

  16. Healthy eating beliefs and intentions of mothers and their adult children: an intergenerational transmission perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sumodhee, Dayyanah; Payne, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This study examined possible intergenerational transmission of eating beliefs and intentions between 60 mothers and their adult children. Maternal restrictive feeding practices were correlated with mothers' own healthy eating attitudes and subjective norms and with their adult children's subjective norms. Mothers’ beliefs and intentions were correlated with their adult children’s. Adult children's intentions to eat healthily were predicted by their attitudes and PBC, and also by their mothers...

  17. Education and Intergenerational Mobility: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Purerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The existence of intergenerational spillovers to public investments in schooling is often assumed in policy discussions regarding economic development. However, few studies to date have forwarded convincing evidence that externalities exist for developing countries. In this paper, we address this issue using the arguably exogenous schooling consequences of a major hurricane strike on Puerto Rico in the 1950s. Using data from the US. Census of Population for Puerto Rico, we first find that ind...

  18. Education and Intergenerational Mobility: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The existence of intergenerational spillovers to public investments in schooling is often assumed in policy discussions regarding economic development. However, few studies to date have forwarded convincing evidence that externalities exist for developing countries. In this paper, we address this issue using the arguably exogenous schooling consequences of a major hurricane strike on Puerto Rico in the 1950s. Using data from the U.S. Census of Population for Puerto Rico, we first find that in...

  19. Intergenerational communication in the classroom: recommendations for successful teacher-student relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sandra E

    2009-01-01

    Intergenerational communication between teacher and student is especially important today, because of the gaps of time and understanding that exist among four active generations--Traditionalist, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials. Faculty have opportunities to be successful by learning the values, learning styles, past generational experiences, and current expectations of today's highly technologically competent students. Recommendations are offered for communication strategies in schools of nursing.

  20. Intermarriage and the intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and human capital for Mexican Americans

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Using microdata from the 2000 U.S. Census and from recent years of the Current Population Survey (CPS), we investigate whether selective intermarriage and endogenous ethnic identification interact to hide some of the intergenerational progress achieved by the Mexican-origin population in the United States. First, using Census data for U.S.-born youth ages 16-17 who have at least one Mexican parent, we estimate how the Mexican identification, high school dropout rates, and English proficiency ...

  1. Intergenerational communication of race-related trauma by Japanese American former internees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Donna K; Cheng, Wendy J Y

    2003-07-01

    The present study investigated the intergenerational communications between Japanese Americans who were unjustly ordered into U.S. concentration camps during World War II and their offspring born after the war. Survey data were collected from 450 2nd-generation (Nisei) Japanese American former internees to assess patterns of communication with their children about the internment. The study and its results are discussed in relation to racial socialization and the influence of ethnicity on reactions to traumatic stress.

  2. Saying and doing gender: intergenerational transmission of attitudes towards the sexual division of labour

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Lucinda; Polavieja, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of gender inequalities in the division of paid and unpaid work poses an important question for gender socialization research: what matters most for the intergenerational transmission of gender-role attitudes, parental own attitudes or parental behaviours? Recent explanations in cultural economics suggest that intentional attitudinal transmission is the main driver of cultural reproduction. In line with classical sex-role learning models, we contend, however, that what parents ...

  3. Social Networks and Parental Behavior in the Intergenerational Transmission of Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Patacchini, Eleonora; Zenou, Yves

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the intergenerational transmission of the strength of religion focusing on the interplay between family and peer effects. We develop a theoretical model suggesting that both peer quality and parental effort are of importance for the religious behavior of the children. We then bring the model to the data by using a very detailed dataset of adolescent friendship networks in the United States. We find that, for religious parents, the higher is the fraction of religious peers, the more...

  4. Design and evaluation of an intergenerational gaming platform for cognitive stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive stimulation therapies based on games are commonly used nowadays in care centers for people suffering from Alzheimer's or other cognitive diseases. Although users usually like the proposed games, they are not motivated enough to play willingly on a regular basis. This work presents a novel game platform for cognitive stimulation that introduces the factor of intergenerational interaction in order to increase user’s motivation towards playing. This work tries to involve patient’s rela...

  5. The implications of selective attrition for estimates of intergenerational elasticity of family income

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeni, Robert F.; Wiemers, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have estimated a high intergenerational correlation in economic status. Such studies do not typically attend to potential biases that may arise due to survey attrition. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics – the data source most commonly used in prior studies – we demonstrate that attrition is particularly high for low-income adult children with low-income parents and particularly low for high-income adult children with high-income parents. Because of this pattern of attr...

  6. Maternal-child dyads of functioning: the intergenerational impact of violence against women on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Judith; Symes, Lene; Binder, Brenda K; Maddoux, John; Paulson, Rene

    2014-11-01

    Violence against women is a global epidemic with potential consequences of injury, illness, and death. Children exposed to the violence may also be impacted with functional impairments. Little is known of the inter-generational impact of violence experienced by the mother from an intimate partner on functioning of her children. No dyad analysis was found in the literature. To examine the inter-generational impact of violence against women on the behavioral functioning of children, 300 mothers reporting intimate partner abuse and one randomly chosen child, age 18 months to 16 years of age; were evaluated for borderline and clinical diagnostic levels of problem behaviors. Linear, Logistic, and Ordinal regression models were applied. Mothers' problem behavior scores were significantly related to children's problem behavior scores (internalizing r = 0.611, externalizing r = 0.494, total problems r = 0.662, all ps violence against mothers and child behavioral function can support interventions that decrease the distress experienced by mothers and their children, interrupt intergenerational transmission of abusive behaviors, and promote better maternal child functioning.

  7. Disrupting intergenerational continuity in harsh parenting: Self-control and a supportive partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Conger, Rand D; Conger, Kathi J

    2016-12-22

    Harsh, abusive, and rejecting behavior by parents toward their children is associated with increased risk for many developmental problems for youth. Children raised by harsh parents are also more likely to treat their own children harshly. The present study addresses conditions that would break this intergenerational cycle of harsh parenting. Data come from a three-generation study of a cohort of 290 adolescents (Generation 2 [G2], 52% female) grown to adulthood and their parents (Generation 1 [G1]). During adolescence, observers rated G1 harsh parenting to G2. Several years later observers rated G2 harsh parenting toward their oldest child (Generation 3 [G3]). Several adaptive systems fundamental to human resilience attenuate intergenerational continuity in harshness. G2 parents were relatively less harsh to G3 children (notwithstanding a history of harshness from G1) when G2's romantic partner (a) communicated positively with G2 and (b) had a good relationship with G3, and (c) when G2 was high on self-control. Interventions that target all of these protective factors may not only break but also reverse the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment.

  8. Positive parenting, beliefs about parental efficacy, and active coping: three sources of intergenerational resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Conger, Rand D; Neppl, Tricia K

    2014-12-01

    Prior research involving parents (G1) and their adult children (G2) shows intergenerational continuity in positive parenting. Previous research, however, has not shown circumstances under which the typically modest effect size for intergenerational continuity is augmented or attenuated. Using a multigenerational data set involving 290 families, we evaluated 2 potential moderators of intergenerational continuity in positive parenting (i.e., beliefs about parenting efficacy and active coping strategies) drawn from prior theoretical work on predictors of parenting (Belsky, 1984). These personal resources of the second-generation (G2) parent interacted with G1 positive parenting to predict G2 parenting behavior. Beliefs about parental efficacy and active coping both compensated for low levels of G1 positive parenting by promoting G2 positive parenting when G1 parents were comparatively low on positive parenting. An alternative interpretation of this moderation is that G1 positive parenting compensated for low levels of these personal resources by promoting G2 positive parenting when G2 parents were comparatively low on parenting efficacy and effective coping. These findings indicate the different roles that these personal resources and a history of positive parenting appear to play in promoting a positive parenting environment for the next generation of children.

  9. The intergenerational transmission of trauma as a disruption of the dialogical self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Bruce Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This article is framed as a statement of conclusions derived from a doctoral research process I conducted. The research involved an exploration of the intergenerational transmission of trauma in the lives of mothers and their adult children. The impact of trauma on families can be seen in the various ways in which disruptions in the mother's emotional experience, and in her capacity to contain her child, influence the child's internal world (K. Lyons-Ruth & D. Jacobvitz, 1999 ; M. Main & E. Hesse, 1990). Working from a relational psychoanalytic and attachment theoretic conceptual framework, I consider the intergenerational transmission of trauma in terms of dissociation as the primary psychic defense that manifests in the inner and relational lives of survivors of trauma and their children. Dissociation is framed as a simultaneously intrapsychic and intersubjective process and is defined as a disruption of internal dialogue between conflicting self-states. I explore the disruption of dialogue with reference to G. Dimaggio's (2006) dominant and impoverished narrative trends, identifying these as primary indicators of an intergenerationally manifested dissociative and avoidant process.

  10. The intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk: mediators of vulnerability and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A; Karp, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The recurrence of social, behavioral, and health problems in successive generations of families is a prevalent theme in both the scientific and popular literatures. This review discusses recent conceptual models and findings from longitudinal studies concerning the intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk, including intergenerational continuity, and the processes whereby a generation of parents may place their offspring at elevated risk for social, behavioral, and health problems. Key findings include the mediational effects of parenting and environmental factors in the transfer of risk. In both girls and boys, childhood aggression and antisocial behavior appear to predict long-term trajectories that place offspring at risk. Sequelae of childhood aggression that may threaten the well-being of offspring include school failure, adolescent risk-taking behavior, early and single parenthood, and family poverty. These childhood and adolescent behavioral styles also predict harsh, aggressive, neglectful, and unstimulating parenting behavior toward offspring. Buffering factors within at-risk families include maternal educational attainment and constructive parenting practices (e.g., emotional warmth, consistent disciplinary practices, and cognitive scaffolding). These findings highlight the potential application and relevance of intergenerational studies for social, educational, and health policy.

  11. [Intergenerational social mobility and health in Brazil: analyzing the "Social Dimensions of Inequalilies Survey (PDSD)," 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Luisa Sorio; Laguardia, Josué; Campos, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Although most studies consider health to be the result of social and economic insertion of the individuals, health may be considered a determining factor of the social opportunities achieved, especially with respect to chances of social mobility. The scope of this article is to understand the magnitude of the concurrent associations that sociodemographic, health and quality of life conditions (SF-36) exercise on chances of intergenerational social mobility on a probability sample of Brazilian homes in 2008. Social mobility was determined by the transition between occupational groups, which were defined using the Ganzeboom scale. Sociodemographic, health and quality of life features were associated with upward social mobility through logistic regression. A high level of schooling was the main determinant of chances of intergenerational social mobility. Women and youngsters ascended more intergenerationally. A positive association was observed between self assessment of health, physical health scores and upward mobility. Social mobility has become established as a multideterminate event. Physical health and perceived health were capable of influencing social transitions.

  12. Analysis on Imbalance of Family Intergenerational Exchange in China Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In China rural area, intergenerational exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring is uneven. Parents pay much more than the return they’ll get when they’re old, which mainly relates to the utilities of children. In countryside, the utilities of children (especially sons manifest in following aspects: continuing the family line, emotional comfort, laborer and supporting for old age. To some extent, these factors influence the rural intergenerational injustice respectively and together. From the prospective of trend of social and economic development, the caring of the retired will be taken by social insurance system; the intergeneration exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring will no longer be a social issue, but in the vast rural areas, the influence of traditional culture family lineage is still powerful. The need of caring of the old becomes so weak that emotional effect becomes much more urgent. The weak status of the old generation bring the fathers’ generation in a weak social status, which seriously affect the living conditions of the old generations. Therefore, when focusing the caring issue in the country, besides that we should ensure the old be cared materially, what matters most is keep the balance between the exchanging two sides

  13. Oxytocin pathways in the intergenerational transmission of maternal early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, Philipp; Heim, Christine; Entringer, Sonja; Binder, Elisabeth; Wadhwa, Pathik; Buss, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Severe stress in early life, such as childhood abuse and neglect, constitutes a major risk factor in the etiology of psychiatric disorders and somatic diseases. Importantly, these long-term effects may impact the next generation. The intergenerational transmission of maternal early life stress (ELS) may occur via pre-and postnatal pathways, such as alterations in maternal-fetal-placental stress physiology, maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, as well as impaired mother-offspring interactions. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has gained considerable attention for its role in modulating all of these assumed transmission pathways. Moreover, central and peripheral OT signaling pathways are highly sensitive to environmental exposures and may be compromised by ELS with implications for these putative transmission mechanisms. Together, these data suggest that OT pathways play an important role in the intergenerational transmission of maternal ELS in humans. By integrating recent studies on gene-environment interactions and epigenetic modifications in OT pathway genes, the present review aims to develop a conceptual framework of intergenerational transmission of maternal ELS that emphasizes the role of OT.

  14. Intergenerational aspects of government policy under changing demographic and economic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskin, M J

    1987-07-01

    Changing demographic and economic conditions in the US require that attention be given to some of the intergenerational equity features of government policy. In particular, social insurance programs and public debt leave public liabilities to future generations. Taken in the aggregate, the effects of rapidly rising public debt and especially social insurance programs are transferring substantial amounts of resources from younger working generations to the expanding generation of retirees. The most crucial element in evaluating the desirability of intergenerational wealth distribution in the long run is the rate of economic growth. A society's monetary, fiscal, tax, and regulatory policies can be more or less conducive to the generation of capital formation, technical change, and economic growth. Policies that influence growth and interest rates will combine with the national deficit to determine how rapidly the debt grows or shrinks. Present accounting procedures are insufficient to provide quantitative answers to the question of what is the impact of a given program on the age-specific distributions of resources. It is important to reconsider the desirability and efficiency of intergenerational redistributions of wealth in the US. It is likely that current policies are not in line with the principles of efficiency, equity, target effectiveness, and cost effectiveness.

  15. Intergenerational Transmission of Education in India: Evidence from a Nationwide Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakoli Borkotoky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intergenerational transmission of education has been investigated extensively in social science research. The existing literature shows that none of the studies in India related the process of partner selection and differential fertility with the intergenerational transmission of education. Here, we examined the timing of marriage and childbearing along with the probability of partner selection, according to education of women and how these processes lead to heterogeneity in educational attainment of children. The educational attainment of children was estimated by fitting the estimated marriage probabilities and children ever born in the intergenerational transmission model. The results were replicated in different random samples to examine its validity. The study found that higher educated women marry late, have fewer children, and marry men with higher or equal education. Further, the results indicate that education of women is a more significant predictor than education of husband in reducing average number of children born to couples. The findings confirm that children attain higher education than their parents, and better educated mothers do not discriminate between their children to provide higher education. These findings reinforce the significance of government initiatives to provide incentives to families with higher educated girls to ensure better education of the next generation.

  16. Direct and extended intergenerational contact and young people's attitudes towards older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Lisbeth; Hutchison, Paul; Abrams, Dominic

    2016-09-01

    Research suggests that positive intergenerational contact can improve young people's attitudes towards older adults. However, today's age-segregated society may not provide ample opportunities for positive contact between younger and older adults to occur on a regular basis. In three studies, we investigated whether the positive attitudinal outcomes associated with direct contact might also stem from a more indirect form of intergenerational relationship: extended contact. In Study 1 (N = 70), extended contact was associated with more positive attitudes towards older adults even when controlling for direct intergenerational contact (contact frequency and contact quality). In Study 2 (N = 110), the positive effects of direct and extended contact on young people's age-related attitudes were mediated by reductions in intergroup anxiety and ageing anxiety. The mediational effects of intergroup anxiety were replicated in Study 3 (N = 95) and ingroup norms additionally emerged as a mediator of the positive effects of extended contact on young people's attitudes towards older adults. Discussion focuses on the implications for strategies aimed at tackling ageism.

  17. Greater perceived ability to form vivid mental images in individuals with high compared to low BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Shamah, Daniel; Small, Dana M

    2015-08-01

    Obese individuals report more frequent food cravings than their lean counterparts. Since mental imagery plays a role in eliciting and maintaining craving we hypothesized that one's ability to image may be associated with body mass index (BMI) and account, at least in part, for the association between BMI and craving. Twenty-five participants (BMI range: 17.7 kg/m(2)-34.2 kg/m(2)) completed three measures of perceived mental imagery ability (The Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, The Vividness of Olfactory Imagery Questionnaire, The Vividness of Food Imagery Questionnaire), and one measure of craving (Food-Craving Inventory). As predicted, correlation analyses revealed positive associations between BMI and perceived ability to image odors and foods, but not visual objects. Olfactory imagery was singled out as the best predictor of BMI in a hierarchical regression analysis. A second experiment with 57 participants (BMI range: 19.1 kg/m(2)-38.7 kg/m(2)) then confirmed the significant positive association between BMI and perceived ability to image odors. These results raise the possibility that imagery ability may play a role in the heightened food cue reactivity observed in obese individuals.

  18. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  19. p21/Cyclin E pathway modulates anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1 in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen; Zhou, Yuan; Tiwari, Agnes F Y; Su, Hang; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Dandan; Lau, Victoria Ming Yi; Hau, Pok Man; Yip, Yim Ling; Cheung, Annie L M; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Tsao, Sai Wah

    2015-03-15

    Apart from regulating stem cell self-renewal, embryonic development and proliferation, Bmi-1 has been recently reported to be critical in the maintenance of genome integrity. In searching for novel mechanisms underlying the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1, we observed, for the first time, that Bmi-1 positively regulates p21 expression. We extended the finding that Bmi-1 deficiency induced chromosome breaks in multiple cancer cell models. Interestingly, we further demonstrated that knockdown of cyclin E or ectopic overexpression of p21 rescued Bmi-1 deficiency-induced chromosome breaks. We therefore conclude that p21/cyclin E pathway is crucial in modulating the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1. As it is well established that the overexpression of cyclin E potently induces genome instability and p21 suppresses the function of cyclin E, the novel and important implication from our findings is that Bmi-1 plays an important role in limiting genomic instability in cylin E-overexpressing cancer cells by positive regulation of p21.

  20. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  1. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and BMI change among U.S. adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Falbe, Jennifer; Hu, Frank B.; Field, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Among adults, the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is inversely related to body mass index (BMI). Data are lacking on adherence to the MDP among youth in the United States and whether the MDP is related to weight change in that group. Objective To assess whether adherence to the MDP was associated with BMI change among adolescents. To examine temporality we studied the association between baseline and 2–3 year changes in adherence to the MDP with concurrent changes in BMI, as well as subsequent changes in BMI over a 7-year period. Methods We prospectively followed 6 002 females and 4 916 males in the Growing Up Today Study 2, aged 8–15 in 2004, living across the United States. Data were collected by questionnaire in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011. Dietary intake was assessed by the Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire. The KidMed Index was derived to measure the adherence to the MDP. We used generalized estimating equations with repeated measures within subjects to assess the association between MDP and BMI change. Results A two-point increment in the KidMed Index was independently associated with a lower gain in BMI (−0.04 kg/m2; p=0.001). A greater increase in adherence to the KidMed Index was independently related to a lower gain in BMI in both the concurrent (p-for-trend<0.001) and the subsequent period (p-for-trend=0.002). Conclusions Adherence to MDP was inversely associated with change in BMI among adolescents. 2-year improvement in adherence to MDP was independently associated with less steep gain in the BMI in both the concurrent and the subsequent period. PMID:27102053

  2. Are associations between electronic media use and BMI different across levels of physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Haug, Ellen; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    and electronic media use are additive or interactive in predicting BMI and risk for overweight among adolescents. METHODS: The data used in this study stem from the 2009/2010 survey of "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: A WHO Cross-National Survey. The sample consisted of 107184 13 and 15......BACKGROUND: The use of electronic media has been found to be a risk factor for higher BMI and for being overweight. Physical activity has been found to be associated with lower BMI and lower risk for being overweight. Little is known about whether the associations between physical activity...

  3. Increased genetic variance of BMI with a higher prevalence of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokholm, Benjamin; Silventoinen, Karri; Ängquist, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    There is no doubt that the dramatic worldwide increase in obesity prevalence is due to changes in environmental factors. However, twin studies suggest that genetic differences are responsible for the major part of the variation in body mass index (BMI) and other measures of body fatness within...... populations. Several recent studies suggest that the genetic effects on adiposity may be stronger when combined with presumed risk factors for obesity. We tested the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight and a higher BMI mean is associated with a larger genetic variation in BMI....

  4. Effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on asthma in childhood: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Granell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach.We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs. 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-values<0.001 and with childhood asthma (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.38-4.76 per unit score, p = 0.003. The estimated causal RR for the effect of BMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16-2.07 per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19-3.03 than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89-2.11 though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31. The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11-1.79 per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.11 per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects.Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  5. Associations between Food Outlets around Schools and BMI among Primary Students in England: A Cross-Classified Multi-Level Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Williams

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy-makers are interested in the influence that food retailing around schools may have on child obesity risk. Most previous research comes from North America, uses data aggregated at the school-level and focuses on associations between fast food outlets and school obesity rates. This study examines associations between food retailing and BMI among a large sample of primary school students in Berkshire, England. By controlling for individual, school and home characteristics and stratifying results across the primary school years, we aimed to identify if the food environment around schools had an effect on BMI, independent of socio-economic variables.We measured the densities of fast food outlets and food stores found within schoolchildren's home and school environments using Geographic Information Systems (GIS and data from local councils. We linked these data to measures from the 2010/11 National Child Measurement Programme and used a cross-classified multi-level approach to examine associations between food retailing and BMI z-scores. Analyses were stratified among Reception (aged 4-5 and Year 6 (aged 10-11 students to measure associations across the primary school years.Our multilevel model had three levels to account for individual (n = 16,956, home neighbourhood (n = 664 and school (n = 268 factors. After controlling for confounders, there were no significant associations between retailing near schools and student BMI, but significant positive associations between fast food outlets in home neighbourhood and BMI z-scores. Year 6 students living in areas with the highest density of fast food outlets had an average BMI z-score that was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.20 higher than those living in areas with none.We found little evidence to suggest that food retailing around schools influences student BMI. There is some evidence to suggest that fast food outlet densities in a child's home neighbourhood may have an effect on BMI

  6. Sickness Presenteeism Among Health Care Workers and the Effect of BMI, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kongstad, Malte Bue; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between sickness presenteeism and body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). METHODS: Female health care workers (n = 139) were analyzed cross-sectional as well...... as longitudinal after 3 and 12-month follow-up. Sickness presenteeism was assessed as a summed score using validated questions from three questionnaires: Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Quantity and Quality Method. CRF was assessed by a maximal cycling test and MVC from four...... muscle groups. RESULTS: Significant relationships were found between sickness presenteeism and BMI as well as MVC both cross-sectional and as changes over 3 months. Participants with BMI more than 30 kg/m had significantly higher sickness presenteeism than those with BMI less than 25 kg/m. CONCLUSIONS...

  7. Does BMI influence hospital stay and morbidity after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Jørgensen, Christoffer C.; Gromov, Kirill;

    2016-01-01

    patients only) was associated with a LOS of >4 days (p = 0.001), but not with re-admission. No such relationship existed for TKA. Interpretation - A fast-track setting resulted in similar length of hospital stay and re-admission rates regardless of BMI, except for very obese and morbidly obese THA patients.......Background and purpose - Body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range possibly affects the perioperative morbidity and mortality following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in traditional care programs. We determined perioperative morbidity and mortality....... Complete 90-day follow-up was achieved using national registries and review of medical records. Patients were grouped according to BMI as being underweight, of normal weight, overweight, obese, very obese, and morbidly obese. Results - Median length of stay (LOS) was 2 (IQR: 2-3) days in all BMI groups. 30...

  8. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did......,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data......Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40...

  9. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year......-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI...... and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ...

  10. Fat and lean BMI reference curves in children and adolescents and their utility in identifying excess adiposity compared with BMI and percentage body fat1234

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, David R.; Moore, Reneé H.; Leonard, Mary B.; Zemel, Babette S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) are widely used to assess adiposity. These indexes fail to account for independent contributions of fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) to body weight, which vary according to age, sex, pubertal status, and population ancestry in the pediatric population.

  11. Analisis Perilaku Dan Kepuasan Pelanggan BMI (Bank Muamalat Indonesia) Cabang Surabaya Dengan Menggunakan Analisis Regresi Logistik

    OpenAIRE

    Suparto

    2009-01-01

    Dalam penelitian ini, akan diteliti hubungan antara variabel identitas dan perilaku dan perilaku nasabah yang mempengaruhi tingkat kepuasannya terhadap pelayanan BMI (Bank Muamalat Indonesia). Dari analisis regresi logistik disimpulkan bahwa laki-laki cenderung merasa puas terhadap pelayanan BMI, sebesar 2,503 kali dibandingkan perempuan. Nasabah yang pegawai negeri/ABRI cenderung merasa puas 1,833 kali, yang wiraswasta/pengusaha sebesar 0,288 kali, dan pegawai swasta 0,480 kali bila dibandin...

  12. BMI and cardiovascular function in children and adolescents of Mauritius Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Chan, Jennifer L; Joonas, Noorjehan; Joganah, Shashee; Larhubarbe, Jose; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G

    2013-01-01

    Among countries which have undergone a rapid socio-economic and nutrition transition over the past few decades, the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius is among those with the greatest surge in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and CVD. The aim of the present study was to characterise the BMI and cardiovascular functions of children and adolescents of this at-risk population. Data were collected through measurements of anthropometry, resting heart rate and blood pressure in a nationally representative sample (n 2489) of children (5-10 years) and adolescents (11-18 years), and analysed according to sex and ethnic identity: South Asian Hindus and Muslims (both of Indian ancestry), Creole (of varying degrees of African ancestry) and Chinese (of mainland China ancestry). Based on standards of the WHO or International Obesity Task Force, one in six of these young individuals exhibit a high BMI-for-age. Analysis by ethnicity revealed that Creole males and females show higher BMI-for-age but also lower heart rate (P BMI. Additionally, Chinese males and females show higher systolic blood pressure (P BMI. None of these ethnic differences could be related to household income, diet type (vegetarian v. non-vegetarian) or to fruit consumption. This study in children and adolescents of this multi-ethnic at-risk population for CVD reveal ethnic differences in BMI-for-age as well as consistent BMI-independent ethnic differences in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. These findings underscore the need to establish the BMI-fat % relationship across the various ethnic groups and for more detailed investigations about their differences in lifestyle and dietary habits that might explain their differential cardiovascular functions prior to adulthood.

  13. Paternal body mass index (BMI is associated with offspring intrauterine growth in a gender dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Peng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental alternations leading to fetal programming of cardiovascular diseases in later life have been attributed to maternal factors. However, animal studies showed that paternal obesity may program cardio-metabolic diseases in the offspring. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that paternal BMI may be associated with fetal growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the relationship between paternal body mass index (BMI and birth weight, ultrasound parameters describing the newborn's body shape as well as parameters describing the newborns endocrine system such as cortisol, aldosterone, renin activity and fetal glycated serum protein in a birth cohort of 899 father/mother/child triplets. Since fetal programming is an offspring sex specific process, male and female offspring were analyzed separately. Multivariable regression analyses considering maternal BMI, paternal and maternal age, hypertension during pregnancy, maternal total glycated serum protein, parity and either gestational age (for birth weight or time of ultrasound investigation (for ultrasound parameters as confounding showed that paternal BMI is associated with growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI correlated with birth parameters of male offspring only: birth weight; biparietal diameter, head circumference; abdominal diameter, abdominal circumference; and pectoral diameter. Cortisol was likewise significantly correlated with paternal BMI in male newborns only. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal BMI affects growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI may thus represent a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases of male offspring in later life. It remains to be demonstrated whether this is linked to an offspring sex specific paternal programming of cortisol secretion.

  14. Therapeutic Role of Bmi-1 Inhibitors in Eliminating Prostate Tumor Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Bmi1 cells were plated in modified Boyden chambers and migratory capabilities were evaluated 96h later. For Chemosensitivity assay, 3000 cells were... modified Boyden chambers. We found that, upon C-209 treatment, PCa cells diminish their motility (Fig. 4f). In contrast, docetaxel–treated cell migratory...used. Nitrocellulose membranes were incubated with mouse monoclonal anti-Bmi-1 clone F6 against the N- terminal (1:1000) (Millipore), rabbit polyclonal

  15. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabet Forsum; Eva Flinke Carlsson; Hanna Henriksson; Pontus Henriksson; Marie Löf

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the rel...

  16. Toughness and Hot/Wet Properties of a Novel Modified BMI/Carbon Fiber Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The toughness and hot/wet properties of a novel modified bismaleimide (BMI) 5428/carbon fiber composite was investigated. Results indicate that the prepared BMI/T700 composite owns high toughness, excellent hot/wet properties and mechanical properties. The compression strength after impact (CAl) of 5428/T700 composite is 260 MPa, and the results of hot/wet test show that the long-term service temperature of 5428/T700 composite can maintain at 170°C.

  17. The Effect of Cyclic Hygrothermal Environment on Interlaminar Shear Strength (ilss) of CCF300/BMI Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Yun-Feng; Duan, Yue-Xin; Du, Shan-Yi

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effect of cyclic hygrothermal environment on the interfacial property of CCF300/BMI composites. The moisture weight and interlaminar shear strength of CCF300/BMI composites specimen of each stage during three absorption-desorption cyclical stages was investigated. The results showed the ILSS of composites after water absorption dramatically decreased, but it could make a comeback on the whole after removal of water.

  18. Self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Menna; Higgs, Suzanne; Lee, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Trait future time perspective measures the extent to which behaviour is dominated by a striving for future goals and rewards. Trait present time perspective measures orientation towards immediate pleasure. Previous research has explored the relationship between future and present time perspective and BMI with mixed findings. In addition, the psychological mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. Self-control is a likely candidate, as it has been related to both BMI and time perspective, but the relationship between all of these concepts has not been examined in a single study. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine if trait self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective (future and present) and BMI. Self-report time perspective (ZTPI), self-control (SCS) and height/weight data were collected using an online survey from a mixed student and community sample (N = 218) with wide ranging age (mean 29, SD 11, range 18-73 years) and BMI (mean 24, SD 4, range 15-43). The results of a structural equation model including both facets of time perspective suggested that the traits are related yet distinct measures that independently predict BMI through changes in self-control. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that self-control mediated the relationship between both future time perspective (95% CI, -0.10 to -0.02) and present time perspective (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.17), and BMI in opposite directions. Participants with higher future time perspective scores (higher present time perspective scores) had higher (lower) self-control, which predicted lower (higher) BMI. These results are consistent with previous research suggesting an important role for time perspective in health outcomes. Self-control likely mediates the relationship between temporal perspectives and BMI, suggesting that time perspective may be a target for individualised interventions.

  19. Therapeutic Role of Bmi-1 Inhibitors in Eliminating Prostate Tumor Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    identified BMI-1 as a member of the polycomb family of chromatin remodeling complexes that act as transcriptional repressors for epigenetic chromatin ...a combined immunophenotypic and time-of- adherence assay to identify human prostate TICs with increased BMI-1 expression. Our goal is to identify and...emerging. There is a dire need for therapies that are safe, efficacious, and cost- effective for treating CRPC, and can be used in early disease to

  20. Intergenerational educational mobility is associated with cardiovascular disease risk behaviours in a cohort of young Australian adults: The Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although educational disparity has been linked to single risk behaviours, it has not previously been studied as a predictor of overall lifestyle. We examined if current education, parental education or educational mobility between generations was associated with healthy lifestyles in young Australian adults. Methods In 2004-06, participant and parental education (high [bachelor degree or higher], intermediate [vocational training], low [secondary school only] were assessed. Educational mobility was defined as: stable high (participant and parent in high group, stable intermediate (participant and parent in intermediate group, stable low (participant and parent in low group, downwardly (lower group than parent and upwardly (higher group than parent mobile. We derived a lifestyle score from 10 healthy behaviours (BMI, non-smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity and six components of diet. Scores >4 indicated a high healthy lifestyle score. We estimated the likelihood of having a high healthy lifestyle score by education (participant and parent and educational mobility. Results Complete data were available for 1973 participants (53% female, age range 26 to 36 years. Those with lower education were less likely to have healthy lifestyles. Parental education was not associated with having a high healthy lifestyle score after adjustment for participant's education. Those who moved upward or downward were as likely to have a high healthy lifestyle score as those in the group they attained. Conclusions We found clear disparities in health behaviour by participant education and intergenerational educational mobility. People attaining a higher level of education than their parents appeared protected from developing an unhealthy lifestyle suggesting that population-wide improvements in education may be important for health.

  1. Changes of BMI Distribution in Chinese Adults from 1989 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-fei OUYANG; Hui-jun WANG; Chang SU; Wen-wen DU; Ji-guo ZHANG; Bing ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the changing trends of body mass index (BMI) distribution in Chinese adults from 1989 to 2011. MethodsThe data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected in 1989, 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 were used. A total of 14831 participants aged 18-45 years with 39497 observations were included in the final analysis. Lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method was applied to describe the changes of BMI distribution.ResultsFrom 1989 to 2011, the distribution curve of BMI showed shifts toward the right in both men and women. All percentile curves displayed an increasing trend and the change was much larger at higher percentile levels mainly among men. The median values of BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity exhibited increasing trends in both genders, especially in the period from 1997 to 2011. The quartile range of BMI increased from 3.4kg/m2 to 4.8kg/m2 for men and from 3.7kg/m2 to 4.4 kg/m2 for women. The prevalence of overweight and obesity appeared to be higher in three megacities than in nine provinces in both men and women. ConclusionAs indicated by the changes of the BMI distribution in Chinese adults, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased greatly during the past 23 years, especially in men. It is urgent to take strategies for obesity prevention and control immediately in China.

  2. The Prognostic Value of Polycomb Group Protein BMI1 in Stage II Colon Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Linnemann, Dorte; Christensen, Ib J.;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of B-cell-specific moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1) protein expression in primary tumors of stage II colon cancer patients. BMI1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a retrospective patient...... cohort consisting of 144 stage II colon cancer patients. BMI1 expression at the invasive front of the primary tumors correlated with mismatch repair status of the tumors. Furthermore, BMI1 expression at the luminal surface correlated with T-stage, tumor location, and the histological subtypes....... Likewise, there was no association between 5-year overall survival and BMI1 expression at the invasive front (HR: 1.12; 95% CI 0.80-1.56; p = 0.46) or at the luminal surface of the tumor (HR: 1.16; 95% CI 0.86-1.60; p = 0.33). In conclusion, BMI1 expression in primary tumors of stage II colon cancer...

  3. CTG trinucleotide repeat "big jumps": large expansions, small mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Gomes-Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trinucleotide repeat expansions are the genetic cause of numerous human diseases, including fragile X mental retardation, Huntington disease, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Disease severity and age of onset are critically linked to expansion size. Previous mouse models of repeat instability have not recreated large intergenerational expansions ("big jumps", observed when the repeat is transmitted from one generation to the next, and have never attained the very large tract lengths possible in humans. Here, we describe dramatic intergenerational CTG*CAG repeat expansions of several hundred repeats in a transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy type 1, resulting in increasingly severe phenotypic and molecular abnormalities. Homozygous mice carrying over 700 trinucleotide repeats on both alleles display severely reduced body size and splicing abnormalities, notably in the central nervous system. Our findings demonstrate that large intergenerational trinucleotide repeat expansions can be recreated in mice, and endorse the use of transgenic mouse models to refine our understanding of triplet repeat expansion and the resulting pathogenesis.

  4. Impact of HSD11B1 polymorphisms on BMI and components of the metabolic syndrome in patients receiving psychotropic treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Quteineh, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic treatments represents a major health issue. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes tissue regeneration of active cortisol from cortisone. Elevated enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD1 may lead to the development of MetS. Methods We investigated the association between seven HSD11B1 gene (encoding 11β-HSD1) polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in a psychiatric sample treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs (n=478). The polymorphisms that survived Bonferroni correction were analyzed in two independent psychiatric samples (n R1 =168, n R2 =188) and in several large population-based samples (n 1 =5338; n 2 =123 865; n 3 >100 000). Results HSD11B1 rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers were found to be associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure compared with the reference genotype (P corrected <0.05). These associations were exclusively detected in women (n=257) with more than 3.1 kg/m 2, 7.5 cm, and 4.2 mmHg lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, in rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers compared with noncarriers (P corrected <0.05). Conversely, carriers of the rs846906-T allele had significantly higher waist circumference and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol exclusively in men (P corrected =0.028). The rs846906-T allele was also associated with a higher risk of MetS at 3 months of follow-up (odds ratio: 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-7.17, P corrected =0.014). No association was observed between HSD11B1 polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in the population-based samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that HSD11B1 polymorphisms may contribute toward the development of MetS in psychiatric patients treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, but do not

  5. In the Name of the Son (and the Daughter): Intergenerational Mobility in the United States, 1850-1930

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a new perspective on intergenerational mobility in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. We devise an empirical strategy that allows to calculate intergenerational elasticities between fathers and children of both sexes. The key insight of our approach is that the information about socio-economic status conveyed by first names can be used to create a pseudo-link not only between fathers and sons, but also between fathers and daughters. The latter is ...

  6. Genetic and environmental influences on BMI from late childhood to adolescence are modified by parental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Pulkkinen, Lea; Silventoinen, Karri

    2012-03-01

    To investigate how parental education modifies genetic and environmental influences on variation in BMI during adolescence, self-reported BMI at 11-12, 14, and 17 years of age was collected from a population sample of 2,432 complete Finnish twin pairs born in 1983-1987. Based on parental report, twins were divided to those with high (both parents high school graduates), mixed level (one parent a graduate, the other not), and limited (neither parent a graduate) parental education. Genetic and environmental influences on variation in BMI in different education classes were modeled using twin analysis. Heritability of BMI among 11-12-year-olds with high parental education was 85-87% whereas it was 61-68% if parental education was limited or mixed level. Common environmental effect, i.e., effect of environmental factors shared by family members, was found (17-22%) if parental education was limited or mixed level but not if it was high. With increasing parental education, common environmental variance in BMI decreased at age 14 among boys (from 22 to 3%) and girls (from 17 to 10%); heritability increased among boys from 63 to 78%, but did not change among girls. The common environmental component disappeared and heritability of BMI was larger at the age of 17 in all parental education classes. To conclude, common environment did not affect variation of adolescent BMI in high-educated families but did so in families with limited parental education. This suggests that intervention and prevention campaigns could effectively target families identified by limited parental education.

  7. The association of plasma cysteine and gamma-glutamyltransferase with BMI and obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Elshorbagy, Amany K

    2009-07-01

    We recently reported a strong positive association of plasma total cysteine (tCys) with fat mass in over 5,000 subjects. As gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) enzyme increases cysteine availability by catalyzing glutathione breakdown and is positively associated with BMI and adiposity, we hypothesized that GGT might explain the association of tCys with adiposity. To study whether the associations of tCys and serum GGT with BMI and obesity were interrelated we conducted a cross-sectional study using data from 1,550 subjects recruited from nine European countries in the COMAC project. Multiple linear and logistic regression models and concentration-response curves were used. In age and sex-adjusted analyses, tCys showed strong positive associations with BMI (partial r = 0.19, P < 0.001), and obesity (odds ratio (OR) for 4th vs. 1st tCys quartile: 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.6-5.0, P < 0.001), both of which remained robust after adjustment for GGT and other metabolic and lifestyle confounders. Serum GGT was also a positive predictor of BMI (partial r = 0.17, P < 0.001) and obesity (OR for 4th vs. 1st GGT quartile: 4.8; 95% confidence interval: 2.5-9.2, P < 0.001), independent of tCys. However, the associations of GGT with BMI and obesity were weakened by adjustment for obesity-related factors such as serum lipids and blood pressure. These results indicate that tCys is a strong positive predictor of BMI and obesity, independent of GGT and other obesity-related factors. We also suggest that the association of serum GGT with BMI and obesity is unrelated to the role of GGT in cysteine turnover. The potential link between cysteine and fat metabolism should be further evaluated.

  8. Agreement of BMI-Based Equations and DXA in Determining Body-Fat Percentage in Adults With Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R; Nickerson, Brett S; Bicard, Sara C; Russell, Angela R; Bishop, Phillip A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate measurements of body-fat percentage (BF%) in 4 body-mass-index- (BMI) -based equations and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Ten male and 10 female adults with DS volunteered for this study. Four regression equations for estimating BF% based on BMI previously developed by Deurenberg et al. (DE(BMI-BF%)), Gallagher et al. (GA(BMI-BF%)), Womersley & Durnin (WO(BMI-BF%)), and Jackson et al. (JA(BMI-BF%)) were compared with DXA. There was no significant difference (p = .659) in mean BF% values between JA(BMI-BF%) (BF% = 40.80% ± 6.3%) and DXA (39.90% ± 11.1%), while DE(BMI-BF%) (34.40% ± 9.0%), WO(BMI-BF%) (35.10% ± 9.4%), and GA(BMI-BF%) (35.10% ± 9.4%) were significantly (p BMI-based BF% equations should not be used in individuals with DS.

  9. Intergenerational Transmission and the School-to-work Transition for 2nd Generation Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina;

    2001-01-01

    on the probability of completing a qualifying education and on the entry into the labour market, but it has a much smaller impact on the duration of the first employment spell and on the wage level. Growing up in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of immigrants is associated with negative labour market......We analyse the extent of intergenerational transmission through parental capital, ethnic capital and neighbourhood effects on several aspects of the school-to-work transition of 2nd generation immigrants and young ethnic Danes. The main findings are that parental capital has strong positive effects...... prospects both for young natives and 2nd generation immigrants....

  10. Intermarriage and the Intergenerational Transmission of Ethnic Identity and Human Capital for Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Brian; Trejo, Stephen J

    2011-04-01

    We investigate whether selective intermarriage and endogenous ethnic identification interact to hide some of the intergenerational progress achieved by the Mexican-origin population in the United States. In part, we do this by comparing an "objective" indicator of Mexican descent (based on the countries of birth of the respondent and his parents and grandparents) with the standard "subjective" measure of Mexican self-identification (based on the respondent's answer to the Hispanic origin question). For third-generation Mexican-American youth, we show that ethnic attrition is substantial and could produce significant downward bias in standard measures of attainment which rely on ethnic self-identification.

  11. Intergenerational Transmission and the School-to-work Transition for 2nd Generation Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the extent of intergenerational transmission through parental capital, ethnic capital and neighbourhood effects on several aspects of the school-to-work transition of 2nd generation immigrants and young ethnic Danes. The main findings are that parental capital has strong positive effects...... on the probability of completing a qualifying education and on the entry into the labour market, but it has a much smaller impact on the duration of the first employment spell and on the wage level. Growing up in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of immigrants is associated with negative labour market...

  12. Healthy eating beliefs and intentions of mothers and their adult children: An intergenerational transmission perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumodhee, Dayyanah; Payne, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the possible intergenerational transmission of eating beliefs and intentions between 60 mothers and their adult children. Maternal restrictive feeding practices were correlated with mothers' own healthy eating attitudes and subjective norms, and with their adult children's subjective norms. Mothers' beliefs and intentions were correlated with their adult children. Adult children's intentions to eat healthily were predicted by their attitudes and perceived behavioural control, and also by their mothers' intentions and perceived behavioural control. Mothers' own beliefs and intentions may be involved in shaping their children's beliefs and intentions into adulthood but their child feeding practices may have less of an influence.

  13. Intra- and inter-generic transfer of pathogenicity island-encoded virulence genes by cos phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, John; Carpena, Nuria; Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Ram, Geeta; Novick, Richard P; Penadés, José R

    2015-05-01

    Bacteriophage-mediated horizontal gene transfer is one of the primary driving forces of bacterial evolution. The pac-type phages are generally thought to facilitate most of the phage-mediated gene transfer between closely related bacteria, including that of mobile genetic elements-encoded virulence genes. In this study, we report that staphylococcal cos-type phages transferred the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island SaPIbov5 to non-aureus staphylococcal species and also to different genera. Our results describe the first intra- and intergeneric transfer of a pathogenicity island by a cos phage, and highlight a gene transfer mechanism that may have important implications for pathogen evolution.

  14. Effects of injected dose, BMI and scanner type on NECR and image noise in PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tingting; Chang, Guoping; Kohlmyer, Steve; Clark, John W; Rohren, Eric; Mawlawi, Osama R

    2011-08-21

    Noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and image noise are two different but related metrics that have been used to predict and assess image quality, respectively. The aim of this study is to investigate, using patient studies, the relationships between injected dose (ID), body mass index (BMI) and scanner type on NECR and image noise measurements in PET imaging. Two groups of 90 patients each were imaged on a GE DSTE and a DRX PET/CT scanner, respectively. The patients in each group were divided into nine subgroups according to three BMI (20-24.9, 25-29.9, 30-45 kg m(-2)) and three ID (296-444, 444-555, 555-740 MBq) ranges, resulting in ten patients/subgroup. All PET data were acquired in 3D mode and reconstructed using the VuePoint HD® fully 3D OSEM algorithm (2 iterations, 21(DRX) or 20 (DSTE) subsets). NECR and image noise measurements for bed positions covering the liver were calculated for each patient. NECR was calculated from the trues, randoms and scatter events recorded in the DICOM header of each patient study, while image noise was determined as the standard deviation of 50 non-neighboring voxels in the liver of each patient. A t-test compared the NECR and image noise for different scanners but with the same BMI and ID. An ANOVA test on the other hand was used to compare the results of patients with different BMI but the same ID and scanner type as well as different ID but the same BMI and scanner type. As expected the t-test showed a significant difference in NECR between the two scanners for all BMI and ID subgroups. However, contrary to what is expected no such findings were observed for image noise measurement. The ANOVA results showed a statistically significant difference in both NECR and image noise among the different BMI for each ID and scanner subgroup. However, there was no statistically significant difference in NECR and image noise across different ID for each BMI and scanner subgroup. Although the GE DRX PET/CT scanner has better count rate

  15. A Smart Modeling Framework for Integrating BMI-enabled Models as Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P.; Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Peckham, S. D.; Liu, R.; Marini, L.; Hsu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Serviced-oriented computing provides an opportunity to couple web service models using semantic web technology. Through this approach, models that are exposed as web services can be conserved in their own local environment, thus making it easy for modelers to maintain and update the models. In integrated modeling, the serviced-oriented loose-coupling approach requires (1) a set of models as web services, (2) the model metadata describing the external features of a model (e.g., variable name, unit, computational grid, etc.) and (3) a model integration framework. We present the architecture of coupling web service models that are self-describing by utilizing a smart modeling framework. We expose models that are encapsulated with CSDMS (Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System) Basic Model Interfaces (BMI) as web services. The BMI-enabled models are self-describing by uncovering models' metadata through BMI functions. After a BMI-enabled model is serviced, a client can initialize, execute and retrieve the meta-information of the model by calling its BMI functions over the web. Furthermore, a revised version of EMELI (Peckham, 2015), an Experimental Modeling Environment for Linking and Interoperability, is chosen as the framework for coupling BMI-enabled web service models. EMELI allows users to combine a set of component models into a complex model by standardizing model interface using BMI as well as providing a set of utilities smoothing the integration process (e.g., temporal interpolation). We modify the original EMELI so that the revised modeling framework is able to initialize, execute and find the dependencies of the BMI-enabled web service models. By using the revised EMELI, an example will be presented on integrating a set of topoflow model components that are BMI-enabled and exposed as web services. Reference: Peckham, S.D. (2014) EMELI 1.0: An experimental smart modeling framework for automatic coupling of self-describing models, Proceedings of HIC 2014

  16. Family Events and the Timing of Intergenerational Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Thomas; Schneider, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates how family events in adult children's lives influence the timing of their parents' financial transfers. We draw on retrospective data collected by the German Socio-Economic Panel Study and use event history models to study the effects of marriage, divorce and childbirth on the receipt of large gifts from parents. We find…

  17. Bmi1 regulates mitochondrial function and the DNA damage response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Cao, Liu; Chen, Jichun; Song, Shiwei; Lee, In Hye; Quijano, Celia; Liu, Hongjun; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Chen, Haoqian; Cao, Long-Yue; Ahn, Bong-Hyun; Kumar, Neil G; Rovira, Ilsa I; Xu, Xiao-Ling; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Motoyama, Noboru; Deng, Chu-Xia; Finkel, Toren

    2009-05-21

    Mice deficient in the Polycomb repressor Bmi1 develop numerous abnormalities including a severe defect in stem cell self-renewal, alterations in thymocyte maturation and a shortened lifespan. Previous work has implicated de-repression of the Ink4a/Arf (also known as Cdkn2a) locus as mediating many of the aspects of the Bmi1(-/-) phenotype. Here we demonstrate that cells derived from Bmi1(-/-) mice also have impaired mitochondrial function, a marked increase in the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and subsequent engagement of the DNA damage response pathway. Furthermore, many of the deficiencies normally observed in Bmi1(-/-) mice improve after either pharmacological treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or genetic disruption of the DNA damage response pathway by Chk2 (also known as Chek2) deletion. These results demonstrate that Bmi1 has an unexpected role in maintaining mitochondrial function and redox homeostasis and indicate that the Polycomb family of proteins can coordinately regulate cellular metabolism with stem and progenitor cell function.

  18. Does Maternal BMI Influence Treatment Effect in Women with Mild Gestational Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brian M.; Mele, Lisa; Landon, Mark B.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Ramin, Susan M.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Thorp, John M.; Catalano, Patrick; Harper, Margaret; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Peaceman, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether maternal body mass index (BMI) influences the beneficial effects of diabetes treatment in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Study Design Secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized treatment trial of women with GDM. Outcomes of interest were elevated umbilical cord c-peptide levels (>90th percentile 1.77 ng/mL), LGA birth weight (>90th percentile), and neonatal fat mass (g). Women were grouped into five BMI categories adapted from the WHO International Classification of normal, overweight, and obese adults. Outcomes were analyzed according to treatment group assignment. Results A total of 958 women were enrolled (485 treated and 473 controls). Maternal BMI at enrollment was not related to umbilical cord c-peptide levels. However, treatment of women in the overweight, Class I, and Class II obese categories was associated with a reduction in both LGA birth weight and neonatal fat mass. Neither measure of excess fetal growth was reduced with treatment in normal weight (BMI <25) or Class III (BMI ≥ 40) obese women. Conclusion There was a beneficial effect of treatment on fetal growth in women with mild GDM who were overweight or Class I and II obese. These effects were not apparent for normal weight and very obese women. PMID:24839145

  19. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Jingya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students’ physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China.

  20. Associations among parent acculturation, child BMI, and child fruit and vegetable consumption in a Hispanic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Monica I; Madanat, Hala; Crespo, Noe C; Lemus, Hector; Elder, John

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of parent acculturation with child fruit and vegetable consumption and obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI). Participants included 250 Mexican-American and other Hispanic families living within San Diego County. Height and weight measurements were collected to calculate the age- and sex-specific BMI for each child and parent, and parents completed self-administered surveys. Child BMI z-score was significantly related to parent BMI after controlling for parent acculturation and parent birth place (β = 0.05, p fruit consumption was significantly associated with parent acculturation (β = -0.02, p = 0.01) and parent BMI (β = 0.02, p = 0.04) after adjusting for the other variables in the model. Child vegetable consumption was not significantly related to parent acculturation. Findings suggest that parental weight status may be more predictive of child obesity than acculturation, and highlight the need to examine culturally relevant behavioral and psychosocial factors related to childhood obesity and dietary behaviors.

  1. Evaluation of an online platform for multiple sclerosis research: patient description, validation of severity scale, and exploration of BMI effects on disease course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Bove

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential of an online platform, PatientsLikeMe.com (PLM, for research in multiple sclerosis (MS. An investigation of the role of body mass index (BMI on MS disease course was conducted to illustrate the utility of the platform. METHODS: First, we compared the demographic characteristics of subjects from PLM and from a regional MS center. Second, we validated PLM's patient-reported outcome measure (MS Rating Scale, MSRS against standard physician-rated tools. Finally, we analyzed the relation of BMI to the MSRS measure. RESULTS: Compared with 4,039 MS Center patients, the 10,255 PLM members were younger, more educated, and less often male and white. Disease course was more often relapsing remitting, with younger symptom onset and shorter disease duration. Differences were significant because of large sample sizes but small in absolute terms. MSRS scores for 121 MS Center patients revealed acceptable agreement between patient-derived and physician-derived composite scores (weighted kappa = 0.46. The Walking domain showed the highest weighted kappa (0.73 and correlation (rs = 0.86 between patient and physician scores. Additionally, there were good correlations between the patient-reported MSRS composite and walking scores and physician-derived measures: Expanded Disability Status Scale (composite rs = 0.61, walking rs = 0.74, Timed 25 Foot Walk (composite rs = 0.70, walking rs = 0.69, and Ambulation Index (composite rs = 0.81, walking rs = 0.84. Finally, using PLM data, we found a modest correlation between BMI and cross-sectional MSRS (rho = 0.17 and no association between BMI and disease course. CONCLUSIONS: The PLM population is comparable to a clinic population, and its patient-reported MSRS is correlated with existing clinical instruments. Thus, this online platform may provide a venue for MS investigations with unique strengths (frequent data collection, large sample sizes. To illustrate its applicability, we

  2. Association of eating behaviors and BMI among elementary school students from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Lizárraga, Samuel; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Armendáriz-Anguiano, Ana; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE) with body max index (BMI) among elementary schools children in Mexico. 5th and 6th grade students were recruited from two schools. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obese children were classified according to the World Health Organization's (WHO) BMI z-score. The TFEQ-R18 questionnaire was applied to assess behavioral patterns. Gender differences of UE and EE were observed. Private school children had higher scores of CR and UE. Children with CR were three times more likely to have abdominal obesity (AO) and children with OW or O were more likely to have UE. Children attending the private school and those with AO had higher CR scores; private school children, those with overweight or obesity and with AO had higher UE scores.

  3. Change with age in regression construction of fat percentage for BMI in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage.

  4. Intergenerational continuity in parenting quality: the mediating role of social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Burt, Keith B; Obradović, Jelena; Herbers, Janette E; Masten, Ann S

    2009-09-01

    Prospective studies of intergenerational continuity in parenting quality remain scarce, with little attention given to the potential role of social competence as a mediator of continuity. This study examined social competence as a mediator in the pathway from 1st generation (G1) to 2nd generation (G2) parenting quality. A normative sample of children and their parents were assessed in childhood, and again 10 and 20 years later. Parenting quality of G1 parents was assessed at each time point with multiple informants, as was G2 social competence. G2 parenting was assessed at the 20-year follow-up for those who were parents. The mediational role of social competence in G1 to G2 parenting quality was tested via nested path analytic models, accounting for continuity and cross-domain relations. Social competence mediated the intergenerational relation of parenting quality; results were invariant across gender and ethnic minority status and were unchanged after controlling for age, IQ, socioeconomic status, rule-abiding conduct, and personality (i.e., constraint). The authors discuss results regarding developmental theories of close relationships and the potential for cascading benefits within and across generations from interventions to improve G1 parenting or G2 social competence.

  5. Collective familial decision-making in times of trouble: intergenerational solidarity in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGadney-Douglass, Brenda F; Douglass, Richard L

    2008-06-01

    In post-colonial populations the retention of the nuclear family concept of collectivism as the basis for decision-making is associated with familial and cultural survival. Collectivism within familial contexts provides intergenerational access to experience, information, resources, and sound decision making during times of conflict or dealing with the consequences of poverty. In contemporary Ghana inter-ethnic wars and conflict have marginalized minority groups, causing substantial internal displacement of people. Poverty and cultural issues have caused a persistently high level of child malnutrition and mortality in all areas of Ghana, including urban centers where appropriate food is in abundance. In each of these circumstances the senior women, particularly the grandmothers, have been found to be essential for child survival, protecting the family from dissolution, and ensuring intergenerational cultural transmission. This paper discusses the place of collective decision-making processes of older African women in two studies in Ghana that assessed the: (1) indigenous methods used for understanding and arresting violent ethnic conflict by internally displaced women who survived the 1994/95 Guinea Fowl War; and (2) parenting and grandparenting strategies from families who insured the survival of children suffering from kwashiorkor, a severe form of childhood malnutrition. In this paper, findings from qualitative interview data will include narratives and illustrative cases.

  6. Intergenerational Contacts Influence Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) and Subjective Well Being among Austrian Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Haslinger, Beatrix

    2015-09-01

    Over the last century population ageing is a well described phenomenon all over the world. The dramatic absolute and relative increase in the population component of the elderly and the very old has influenced not only population structure but also the relationships within families, in particular between older parents and their adult children. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of intergenerational contact frequency on health related quality of life among 62 men and 98 women ranging in age between 60 and 94 years. All participants of the study were healthy and lived independently in their private homes. Data concerning subjective well being and health related quality of life were collected by personal interviews based on structured questionnaires. Health related quality of life was tested by means of the WHOQOL-BREF. The main finding of this study is that the frequency of intergenerational contacts has a significant impact on health related quality of life. Contact frequency with grandchildren per month correlated significantly (pquality of life increased significantly (pquality of life during old age.

  7. IMPROVING WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY INTERSPECIFIC AND INTERGENERIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH POACEAE FAMILY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czaplicki A.Z.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The related species of the family Poaceae (Triticeae are the source of unprecedented new genes that allow the extension of genetic variation of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. These species have similar homoeologous chromosomes and rDNA sequences very similar to T. aestivum L. [1-3]. This allows the introgression of alien genes and their incorporation into the genomes A, B and D of wheat, where they can function permanently in the wheat genetic systems. Many of them have already been transferred to the varieties of T. aestivum L. [4].The experimental material consisted of 28 lines of winter wheat obtained using the interspecific and intergeneric hybridization of T. aestivum L. with alien species T. durum Desf., T. timopheevii Zhuk., Lolium perenne L. and Aegilops speltoides Taush. Among them, 15 lines were developed from the cross-combination with tetraploid species (AABB T. durum Desf., 4 lines from the combination with other tetraploid species of different genome composition (AAGG T. timopheevii Zhuk., 4 lines from cross with L. perenne L. and 5 lines were the double hybrids (three-generic derived with two related species, T. durum Desf. (AABB and Ae. speltoides Taush (BB.The anther culture method was used for obtaining DH lines from these interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. In in vitro culture 124 green plants were regenerated. The method of cluster analysis grouped hybrids in terms of comprehensive general similarity of the studied traits.

  8. Father-child transmission of school adjustment: a prospective intergenerational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Capaldi, Deborah; Kerr, David C R; Fisher, Philip A

    2013-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of school adjustment was explored in a sample of 213 children and their fathers. The fathers were participants in a longitudinal study that began when they were in the 4th grade, and their children have been assessed at the ages of 21 months and 3, 5, and 7 years. Two components of school adjustment were measured: academic achievement and peer relations. Results show that the fathers' academic achievement and peer relations were directly related to the same factors in their offspring even when the fathers' educational attainment, and both the fathers' and the children's general cognitive abilities were included in the models. When potential mechanisms of intergenerational transmission were examined, father's age at the birth of the child, income, and educational expectations for the child were links in the transmission of academic achievement from one generation to the next. For peer relations across generations, income, inconsistent parenting, and educational expectations were links in transmission. Implications of these findings are considered, including the possibility that interventions to improve school adjustment in one generation might have significant and long-reaching effects for the next.

  9. STUDIES ON THE MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING IN VITRO MICROPROPAGATION OF TWO INTERGENERIC HYBRIDS FRAGARIA × POTENTILLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Nicoleta Şuțan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the major factors affecting in vitro micropropagation of intergeneric hybrids Fragaria × Potentilla, respectively ‘Pink Panda’ and ‘Serenata’, basic culture media Murashige-Skoog (MS, Lee-Fossard (LF and Knop, were supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, kinetine (Kin, indole-3-acetic acid (AIA, indole-3-butyric acid (AIB and gibberellic acid (GA3, in different combination and concentration. In ornamental strawberry ‘Serenata’, which showed a genetic potential of shoot regeneration significantly higher compared with ‘Pink Panda’, a high multiplication rate associated with a high vigor of shoots was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BAP + 0.1 mg/l AIB + 0.1 mg/l GA3. The same combination of growth regulators, added in MS medium in higher concentrations, namely 1.0 mg/l BAP + 0.2 mg/l AIB + 0.1 mg/l GA3 led to the highest rate of multiplication in ‘Pink Panda’ intergeneric hybrid of Fragaria × Potentilla.

  10. Intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting: The association with child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Shinyoung; Neppl, Tricia K

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting across generations based on both the family stress model (FSM) and the family resilience framework. The study included 220 generation 1 (G1) parents, their target youth (generation 2: G2) who participated from adolescence through adulthood, and the target's child (generation 3: G3). Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Results indicated that G1 economic hardship negatively influenced both G1 positivity and G1 positive parenting. Similarly, G2 economic hardship was negatively related to both G2 positivity and G2 positive parenting, which in turn was associated with G3 positive behavior to G2. For both G1 and G2, parental positivity mediated the association between economic hardship and positive parenting. G2 economic hardship was indirectly related to G3 positive behavior through G2 parental positivity and positive parenting. An important finding is that the intergenerational continuity of economic hardship, positivity, and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 to G2. Results suggest that even in times of economic adversity, parental positivity and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 parents to their G2 youth during adulthood. Such continuity seems to influence the positive behavior of the G3 children.

  11. New Changes of Intergenerational Relations%代际关系的新变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈艳

    2015-01-01

    代际关系变迁是当下中国一个重要的社会、家庭研究议题。对于代的对象来说,广义的青年一代与老年一代的研究对象显得宽泛。聚焦“90后”大学生群体和“70后”的父母,探讨“90后”群体与“70后”父母的家庭代际关系新变化,认为当代代际关系呈现新的良性变化,代隔阂和代冲突呈现弥合的趋势。%Change of intergenerational relations is an important social, family issue in the present China.As for the“generation” ob-ject, the generalized research object of young generation and older generation is broad.The main focus of this paper is on the“post-90” college students and their“post-70” parents.It discusses on new changes of family intergenerational relationship of“post-90”groups and“post-70” parents.This article argues that contemporary generational difference is a manifestation of the differences be-tween the interpersonal, generation gap and conflict which gradually show the trend of healing.

  12. Effects of intergenerational Montessori-based activities programming on engagement of nursing home residents with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Lee

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Michelle M Lee1, Cameron J Camp2, Megan L Malone21Midwestern University, Department of Behavioral Medicine, Downers Grove, IL , USA; 2Myers Research Institute of Menorah Park Center for Senior Living, Beachwood, OH, USA Abstract: Fourteen nursing home residents on a dementia special care unit at a skilled nursing facility took part in one-to-one intergenerational programming (IGP with 15 preschool children from the facility’s on-site child care center. Montessori-based activities served as the interface for interactions between dyads. The amount of time residents demonstrated positive and negative forms of engagement during IGP and standard activities programming was assessed through direct observation using a tool developed for this purpose – the Myers Research Institute Engagement Scale (MRI-ES. These residents with dementia displayed the ability to successfully take part in IGP. Most successfully presented “lessons” to the children in their dyads, similar to the way that Montessori teachers present lessons to children, while persons with more severe cognitive impairment took part in IGP through other methods such as parallel play. Taking part in IGP was consistently related with higher levels of positive engagement and lower levels of negative forms of engagement in these residents with dementia than levels seen in standard activities programming on the unit. Implications of using this form of IGP, and directions for future research, are discussed.Keywords: Montessori-based activities, intergenerational programming, engagement, dementia

  13. Phosphate limitation induces the intergeneric inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Serratia marcescens isolated from paper machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Pei-An; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Graumann, Peter L; Tu, Jenn

    2013-06-01

    Phosphate is an essential nutrient for heterotrophic bacteria, affecting bacterioplankton in aquatic ecosystems and bacteria in biofilms. However, the influence of phosphate limitation on bacterial competition and biofilm development in multispecies populations has received limited attention in existing studies. To address this issue, we isolated 13 adhesive bacteria from paper machine aggregates. Intergeneric inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa WW5 by Serratia marcescens WW4 was identified under phosphate-limited conditions, but not in Luria-Bertani medium or M9 minimal medium. The viable numbers of the pure S. marcescens WW4 culture decreased over 3 days in the phosphate-limited medium; however, the mortality of S. marcescens WW4 was significantly reduced when it was co-cultured with P. aeruginosa WW5, which appeared to sustain the S. marcescens WW4 biofilm. In contrast, viable P. aeruginosa WW5 cells immediately declined in the phosphate-limited co-culture. To identify the genetic/inhibitory element(s) involved in this process, we inserted a mini-Tn5 mutant of S. marcescens WW4 that lacked inhibitory effect. The results showed that an endonuclease bacteriocin was involved in this intergeneric inhibition by S. marcescens WW4 under phosphate limitation. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of nutrient limitation in bacterial interactions and provides a strong candidate gene for future functional characterisation.

  14. Rising Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility: The Role of Public Investments in Human Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-06-01

    One consequence of the rise in inequality witnessed over the past 40 years is its potentially negative impact on intergenerational mobility if parents at the bottom of the income distribution invest significantly less in their children's human capital. I consider whether public investments in children can potentially offset the inequality of private investments. Specifically, examining changes in public spending in 25 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries over the period 2000-2009, I find that increases in spending on health are most strongly associated with reductions in the importance of family background and declines in inequality in the production of child human capital as measured by the Program for International Student Assessment test scores among 15-year-olds. Public spending on family support, housing, and education are also moderately related. In contrast, increased spending on the elderly is associated with increases in the importance of parental background and inequality of child test scores. These results suggest that public investments in child human capital have the potential to offset the potentially negative impact of increasing income inequality on intergenerational mobility and inequality of the next generation. Further research firmly establishing a causal relationship is needed.

  15. Intergenerational transmission of risk for social inhibition: the interplay between parental responsiveness and genetic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Scaramella, Laura V; Ge, Xiaojia; Reiss, David

    2013-02-01

    To better understand mechanisms underlying the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety, we used a prospective adoption design to examine the roles of genetic influences (inferred from birth mothers' social phobia) and rearing environment (adoptive mothers' and fathers' responsiveness) on the development of socially inhibited, anxious behaviors in children between 18 and 27 months of age. The sample consisted of 275 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Results indicated that children whose birth mothers met criteria for the diagnosis of social phobia showed elevated levels of observed behavioral inhibition in a social situation at 27 months of age if their adoptive mothers provided less emotionally and verbally responsive rearing environments at 18 months of age. Conversely, in the context of higher levels of maternal responsiveness, children of birth mothers with a history of social phobia did not show elevated levels of behavioral inhibition. These findings on maternal responsiveness were replicated in a model predicting parent reports of child social anxiety. The findings are discussed in terms of gene-environment interactions in the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety.

  16. Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: Do maltreatment type, perpetrator, and substantiation status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Kotake, Chie; Fauth, Rebecca; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2017-01-01

    A maternal history of childhood maltreatment is thought to be a potent risk factor for child abuse and neglect, yet the extent of continuity across generations is unclear, with studies reporting vastly different rates of intergenerational transmission. Disparate findings may be due to lack of attention to the nature of maltreatment experiences in each generation. We sought to expand the current literature by examining the role of maltreatment type, perpetrator identity, and substantiation status of reports to child protective services (CPS) on intergenerational maltreatment among adolescent mothers (n=417) and their children. We found that when mothers had at least one report of childhood maltreatment (substantiated or not), the odds that they maltreated their children increased by 72% (OR=2.52), compared to mothers who are not maltreated, but the odds were considerably lower when we limited analysis to substantiated reports. Both a maternal history of substantiated neglect and multiple type maltreatment (neglect and physical or sexual abuse) were associated with increased risk of child maltreatment, yet the likelihood of children experiencing multiple maltreatment perpetrated with their mothers identified as perpetrators increased over 300% when mothers had a childhood history of multiple maltreatment.

  17. Generation X, intergenerational justice and the renewal of the traditioning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory L. Seibel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The church has the task of transmitting its faith tradition from one generation to the next. In the transition to postmodernity, many established congregations have proven to be ineffective at this traditioning process in relation to Generation X (Gen X, the first postmodern generation. The reasons for the ineffectiveness are complex. This article focuses on two key factors that contribute to the problem: the reduction of the church’s tradition to its particular expression within the culture of modernity and the marginalisation experienced by Gen Xers within many established churches. The latter has prevented them from becoming effective bearers of the church’s tradition. If this trend is to be reversed, churches should succeed in renewing their traditions in a way that is meaningful in a postmodern context. The challenge will be to overcome the dynamics of reductionism and marginalisation. In developing the argument, the jubilee themes of ‘return’ and ‘release’ are applied to the intergenerational dynamics of established congregations. The article concludes that local congregations should embrace a renewed commitment to intergenerational justice, which will encourage equity between the generations.

  18. Intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and life satisfaction of Roma minority adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists.

  19. Fedmerelatererede sundhedsomkostninger vurderet ud fra måling af enten BMI eller taljeomkreds--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Olsen, Kim Rose; Søgaard, Jes

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of many diseases and mortality. The risk is related to body fat distribution such that abdominal obesity is associated with a greater risk than gluteo-femoral obesity. Individual cumulative health service costs were estimated in relation to waist...... circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). The analyses show that the combination of BMI and WC does not improve the identification of high-risk individuals compared with the use of WC alone. The health service costs increase by 1.24% in women and 2.08% in men pr. cm increase in WC above the normal range...

  20. Infant BMI peak, breastfeeding, and body composition at age 3 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Ritz, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the increasing focus on obesity, growth patterns in infancy and early childhood have gained much attention. Although the adiposity rebound has been in focus because of a shown association with adult obesity, not much has been published about the infant peak in body mass index (BMI......). OBJECTIVE: This study links age and BMI at infant peak to duration of breastfeeding and body composition at 3 y of age. DESIGN: Frequent weight and height measurements for 311 Danish children in the SKOT (Complementary and Young Child Feeding - Impact on Short and Long Term Development and Health; in Danish...

  1. Recursive inter-generational utility in global climate risk modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Ha-Duong [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement (CIRED-CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Treich, N. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA-LEERNA), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2003-07-01

    This paper distinguishes relative risk aversion and resistance to inter-temporal substitution in climate risk modeling. Stochastic recursive preferences are introduced in a stylized numeric climate-economy model using preliminary IPCC 1998 scenarios. It shows that higher risk aversion increases the optimal carbon tax. Higher resistance to inter-temporal substitution alone has the same effect as increasing the discount rate, provided that the risk is not too large. We discuss implications of these findings for the debate upon discounting and sustainability under uncertainty. (author)

  2. Weaving Intergenerational Engagement into ESL Instruction: Case Study of a University-Based Program in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alan; Kaplan, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to address the practical question of whether there is educational value to embedding second-language (L2) learning experiences in intergenerational contexts. In particular, a case study was conducted of a novel, university-based ESL program in Hong Kong in which a group of older adult volunteers with a high level of English…

  3. The Intergenerational Transmission of the Value of Children in Contemporary Chinese Families: Taiwan and Mainland China Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chun Yi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag liegt nur in englischer Sprache vor.While fertility has been drastically declining in East Asia, mechanisms accounting for the current trend vary. One noticeable mechanism documented is that the changing value of children affects couples’ fertility decisions which in turn affect their subsequent fertility behaviour. This study will examine the intergenerational transmission of the value of children (VOC among grandmothers, mothers and teenagers in two Chinese societies: Taiwan and Mainland China. We assume that cultural homogeneity interacts with political and social heterogeneity and may result in different values regarding having or not having children. Data are taken from two corresponding VOC surveys from Taiwan (2005-2007 and from Mainland China (2002-2003. We first compare the value of children for Taiwan and Mainland China with special attention to cultural aspects. Two identified factor solutions are generated for both positive (traditional and emotional and negative (emotional/psychological and familial/social VOC. Analyses show that intergenerational transmission of the VOC among three generations is more likely to occur for a positive VOC in the Chinese Mainland sample. We suspect that actual fertility experience results in greater resemblance on the VOC between grandmothers and mothers in both research settings. Among selected structural mechanisms, only rural-urban background has an effect on patterns of intergenerational transmission. The paper ends with a discussion on the importance of culture in explaining the intergenerational transmission of the VOC in Chinese societies.

  4. Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults after Divorce and Remarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.; Rothrauff, Tanja C.

    2006-01-01

    We examined beliefs about intergenerational responsibilities to assist older kin with a national sample of 362 Latinos, 492 African Americans, 121 Asian Americans, and 2,122 White European Americans using multiple-segment factorial vignettes. More similarities than differences existed between ethnic groups, but Asian Americans and African…

  5. Intergenerational transmission of social anxiety: the role of paternal and maternal fear of negative child evaluation and parenting behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. de Vente; M. Majdandžić; C. Colonnesi; S.M. Bögels

    2011-01-01

    Parents' fear of negative child evaluation (FNCE) by others has been proposed as a mechanism explaining the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety. Parents' FNCE may result in child social anxiety through various learning processes, including those associated with parenting. To test these

  6. Intergenerational Transmission of Chronic Illness Self-Care: Results from the Caring for Hypertension in African American Families Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Shenk, Dena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: African Americans often experience early onset of hypertension that can result in generations of adults managing high blood pressure concurrently. Using a model based on the Theory of Interdependence, this study examined whether intergenerational transmission of hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy would affect…

  7. Utility of the Living (Well Through) Intergenerational Fitness and Exercise Program as a County-Delivered Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowle, Ashleigh J.; Francis, Sarah L.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Franke, Warren D.

    2016-01-01

    Rural-residing older adults are not participating in regular physical activity. Extension is in an excellent position to fill this programming void through transdisciplinary programming such as the Living (well through) Intergenerational Fitness and Exercise (LIFE) program. Qualitative evaluation was conducted to assess the LIFE program's utility…

  8. Development of plants resistant to Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by intergeneric hybridization between Carica papaya and Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Kawano, Shinji; Yasuda, Keiji; Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V. cundinamarcensis. Flow cytometry and PCR of 28 plants confirmed they were intergeneric hybrids. To evaluate virus resistance, mechanical inoculation of PLDMV was carried out. The test showed that 41 of 134 intergeneric hybrid plants showed no symptoms and were resistant. The remaining 93 hybrids showed necrotic lesions on the younger leaves than the inoculated leaves. In most of the 93 hybrids, the necrotic lesions enclosed the virus and prevented further spread. These results suggest that the intergeneric hybrids will be valuable material for PLDMV-resistant papaya breeding.

  9. Return Migration, Investment in Children, and Intergenerational Mobility: Comparing Sons of Foreign- and Native-Born Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies parental investment in education and intergenerational earnings mobility for father-son pairs with native- and foreign-born fathers. We illustrate within a simple model that for immigrants, investment in their children is related to their return migration probability. In our empirical analysis, we include a measure for return…

  10. Measurement Error in Family Background Variables : The Bias in the Intergenerational Transmission of Status, Cultural Consumption, Party Preferences and Religiosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Jannes de

    2006-01-01

    Research on the intergenerational transmission of status, cultural consumption, party preference, and religiosity is usually performed by asking respondents questions referring to these characteristics of their parents when the respondents were growing up. It is unlikely that the answers are correct

  11. Exploring the Literacy Practices of Refugee Families Enrolled in a Book Distribution Program and an Intergenerational Family Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunita; Sylvia, Monica R.; Ridzi, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study presents findings of the literacy practices of Burmese refugee families and their interaction with a book distribution program paired with an intergenerational family literacy program. The project was organized at the level of Bronfenbrenner's exosystem (in "Ecology of human development". Cambridge, Harvard…

  12. Effectiveness of an intergenerational approach for enhancing knowledge and improving attitudes toward the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Tsen

    One area in which many environmental education programs are deficient is in reaching and involving the adult population. For senior adults in particular, the disconnect from environmental centers and other settings represents a missed opportunity for strengthening relationships, utilizing community resources and promoting civic engagement. In this sense, "intergenerational programming" could serve as an effective strategy for broadening the public's awareness and participation in environmental activities. Although the concept of involving older adults and young people in joint environmental education experiences is compelling on several fronts, there is no body of evidence to draw upon; nor is there a blueprint to guide efforts to translate this general goal into practice. This research was therefore designed to: (1) assess the effectiveness of an intergeneration outdoor education program in enhancing participants' environmental knowledge and positive attitudes, (2) explore other program impacts on the participants and the environmental centers, and (3) learn about environmental educators' experiences and opinions in regard to utilizing senior adults in their programs. This study was conducted in two phases in order to address the research purposes: (1) a nonequivalent-control-group quasi-experimental research incorporated with the Outdoor School program at the Shaver's Creek Environmental Center, and (2) a statewide mail-in survey with environmental educators in Pennsylvania. According to the quantitative data, both intergenerational groups obtained higher mean scores for environmental attitudes than the monogenerational groups, although the difference in scores was not statistically significant than one of the two monogenerational groups. The qualitative data showed that senior adults have certain characteristics that allowed them to make a substantial contribution toward enriching children's awareness and appreciation of the natural environment. Although the

  13. Familial risk for alcohol dependence and developmental changes in BMI: the moderating influence of addiction and obesity genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichenstein, Sarah D; Jones, Bobby L; O’Brien, Jessica W; Zezza, Nicholas; Stiffer, Scott; Holmes, Brian; Hill, Shirley Y

    2014-01-01

    Aim Familial loading for alcohol dependence (AD) and variation in genes reported to be associated with AD or BMI were tested in a longitudinal study. Materials & methods Growth curve analyses of BMI data collected at approximately yearly intervals and obesity status (BMI > 30) were examined. Results High-risk males were found to have higher BMI than low-risk males, beginning at age 15 years (2.0 kg / m2 difference; p = 0.046), persisting through age 19 years (3.3 kg/m2 difference; p = 0.005). CHRM2 genotypic variance predicted longitudinal BMI and obesity status. Interactions with risk status and sex were also observed for DRD2 and FTO gene variation. Conclusion Variation at loci implicated in addiction may be influential in determining susceptibility to increased BMI in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25155933

  14. Television, sleep, outdoor play and BMI in young children : the GECKO Drenthe cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Koller, Marjory; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the interplay between screen time, sleep duration, outdoor play, having a television in the bedroom and the number of televisions at home and their association with body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. All participants, 3-4 years of age (n = 759), were part of

  15. Maternal prepregnancy waist circumference and BMI in relation to gestational weight gain and breastfeeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Nøhr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    , affects GWG and breastfeeding behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how maternal prepregnancy fat distribution, described by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), is associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior. DESIGN: We analyzed 1371 live births to 1024 women after enrollment...

  16. Longitudinal associations between BMI, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk in US youth: Monitoring implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined whether change in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC)is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between cardiovascular disease specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by ...

  17. Potential role of Shh-Gli1-BMI1 signaling pathway nexus in glioma chemoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, M H; Farheen, S; Mariyath, M P M; Castresana, J S

    2016-11-01

    Chemoresistance is a common hurdle for the proper treatment of gliomas. The role of Shh-Gli1 signaling in glioma progression has been reported. However, its role in glioma chemoresistance has not been well studied yet. In this work, we found that Shh-Gli1 signaling regulates the expression of one stem cell marker, BMI1 (B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus), in glioma. Interestingly, we also demonstrated high expression of MRP1 (multi-drug resistance protein 1) in glioma. MRP1 expression was decreased by BMI1 siRNA and Shh-Gli1 cell signaling specific inhibitor GANT61 in our experiments. GANT61 very efficiently inhibited cell colony growth in glioma cell lines, compared to temozolomide. Moreover, a synergic effect of GANT61 and temozolomide drastically decreased the LD50 of temozolomide in the cell colony experiments. Therefore, our results suggest that there is a potential nexus of Shh-Gli1-BMI1 cell signaling to regulate MRP1 and to promote chemoresistance in glioma. Henceforth, our study opens the possibility of facing new targets, Gli1 and BMI1, for the effective treatment of glioma suppression of chemoresistance with adjuvant therapy of GANT61 and temozolomide.

  18. The Role of Polycomb Group Gene Bmi-1 in the Development of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    cultured in appropriate media and were kept in a humidified atmosphere of 95% air and 5% CO2 in an incubator at 37 oC. Plasmids and siRNA: The pbabe-Bmi-1...15;62(16):4736-45. 25. Rodriguez- Puebla ML, Robles AI, Conti CJ. ras activity and cyclin D1 expression: an essential mechanism of mouse skin

  19. BMI predicts emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility in adolescents with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rico, Elena; Río-Valle, Jacqueline S; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Campoy, Cristina; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is increasingly viewed as a brain-related dysfunction, whereby reward-driven urges for pleasurable foods "hijack" response selection systems, such that behavioral control progressively shifts from impulsivity to compulsivity. In this study, we aimed to examine the link between personality factors (sensitivity to reward (SR) and punishment (SP), BMI, and outcome measures of impulsivity vs. flexibility in--otherwise healthy--excessive weight adolescents. Sixty-three adolescents (aged 12-17) classified as obese (n = 26), overweight (n = 16), or normal weight (n = 21) participated in the study. We used psychometric assessments of the SR and SP motivational systems, impulsivity (using the UPPS-P scale), and neurocognitive measures with discriminant validity to dissociate inhibition vs. flexibility deficits (using the process-approach version of the Stroop test). We tested the relative contribution of age, SR/SP, and BMI on estimates of impulsivity and inhibition vs. switching performance using multistep hierarchical regression models. BMI significantly predicted elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity (positive and negative urgency) and inferior flexibility performance in adolescents with excess weight--exceeding the predictive capacity of SR and SP. SR was the main predictor of elevations in sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. These findings demonstrate that increases in BMI are specifically associated with elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility, supporting a dimensional path in which adolescents with excess weight increase their proneness to overindulge when under strong affective states, and their difficulties to switch or reverse habitual behavioral patterns.

  20. The role of BMI change on smoking abstinence in a sample of HIV-infected smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchberg, Meredith K; Gritz, Ellen R; Kypriotakis, George; Arduino, Roberto C; Vidrine, Damon J

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is approximately 40%, significantly higher than that of the general population. Identifying predictors of successful smoking cessation for PLWHA is necessary to alleviate the morbidity and mortality associated with smoking in this population. Weight gain has been associated with smoking relapse in the general population, but has not been studied among PLWHA. Data from 474 PLWHA enrolled in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial were analyzed to examine the effect of BMI change, from baseline to 3-month follow-up, on smoking outcomes using multiple logistic regression. The odds of 7-day smoking abstinence at 3-month follow-up were 4.22 (95% CI = 1.65, 10.82) times higher for participants classified as BMI decrease and 4.22 (95% CI = 1.62, 11.01) times higher for participants classified as BMI increase as compared to participants with a minimal increase or decrease in BMI. In this sample, both weight gain and loss following smoking cessation were significantly associated with abstinence at 3-month follow-up among HIV-infected smokers. Further research and a better understanding of predictors of abstinence will encourage more tailored interventions, with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  1. Therapeutic Role of Bmi-1 Inhibitors in Eliminating Prostate Tumor Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    chromatin remodeling complexes that act as transcriptional repressors for epigenetic chromatin modification. BMI-1 encodes a zinc finger protein...Acad Sci USA 2000;97(15):8346–8351. 34. Vazquez-Martin A, Oliveras-Ferraros C, Del Barco S, Martin- Castillo B, Menendez JA. The anti- diabetic drug

  2. Therapeutic Roles of Bmi-1 Inhibitors in Eliminating Prostate Tumor Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    transcriptional repressors for epigenetic chromatin modification. BMI-1 encodes a zinc finger protein that forms a key rate- limiting regulatory...Castillo B, Menendez JA. The anti- diabetic drug metformin suppresses self-renewal and proliferation of trastuzumab-resis- tant tumor-initiating breast

  3. Joint Effects of Physical Activity and BMI on Risk of Hypertension in Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is debate as to whether physical activity counteracts the adverse effect of weight on health outcomes. We investigated how physical activity modifies the effect of body mass index (BMI on hypertension risk. Methods. BMI, physical activity, and hypertension were measured at baseline and at three-year interval for 14 years (from 1996 to 2010, in 10,339 participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Generalised estimating equation models for binary repeated measures were performed to determine the individual and joint effects of BMI and physical activity on incident hypertension. Results. At baseline (mean age 47.6±1.5 SD, 57% were healthy weight, 28% overweight, and 14% obese. Increasing BMI and decreasing physical activity were associated with increased risk of hypertension. Physical activity attenuated the positive association between weight and risk of hypertension, especially for obese women. Compared to healthy weight high active women, risk of hypertension in obese high active women was 3.4 times greater (OR 3.43, 95% CI 2.68, 4.39 and in obese inactive women 4.9 times greater (OR 4.91, 95% CI 3.92, 6.13. Conclusions. Both physical activity and maintenance of a healthy body weight are associated with lower risk of hypertension. Physical activity reduced but did not remove the effect of obesity on hypertension risk.

  4. The role of culture in the context of school-based BMI screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Beech, Bettina M

    2009-09-01

    The high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a significant public health concern in the United States. Minority populations are disproportionately affected, and the impact of obesity on minority children is especially alarming. In this article we discuss school-based BMI reporting, which is intended to increase parental awareness of their children's weight status. This information could potentially lead parents of overweight and obese children to carefully examine and possibly change their children's diet and activity patterns. However, any program related to child weight status must consider culturally defined aspects of body size and shape. In other words, the cultural context in which information on child BMI is presented to and received by parents must be considered. In this article we review parental perceptions of child weight. Multiple studies have shown that parents of overweight or obese children often fail to correctly perceive their children as overweight. Possible reasons for, and implications of, this misperception of child weight status among minority parents are then explored within a cultural framework. The PEN-3 model is used to examine influences on health behaviors and could help inform the development of a culturally sensitive BMI-notification program for minority parents. Reporting materials congruent with the social and cultural values and practices of the target audience are likely to maximize program effectiveness. A culturally based BMI-notification program should be conceptualized as a small step in a comprehensive plan to reduce childhood obesity and improve the current and future health of minority children.

  5. Bidirectional associations between mothers' and fathers' parenting consistency and child bmi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline); R. Giallo (Rebecca); E.M. Westrupp (Elizabeth); M. Wake (Melissa); J.M. Nicholson (Jan )

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Research suggests that general parenting dimensions and styles are associated with children's BMI, but directionality in this relationship remains unknown. Moreover, there has been little attention to the influences of both mothers' and fathers' parenting. We aimed to examine

  6. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  7. Assessing the Alcohol-BMI Relationship in a US National Sample of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.; Holton, M. Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to assess the body mass index (BMI)-alcohol relationship among a US national sample of college students. Design: Secondary data analysis using the Fall 2011 National College Health Assessment (NCHA). Setting: A total of 44 US higher education institutions. Methods: Participants included a national sample of college…

  8. Usual energy intake mediated the relationship between food reinforcement and BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is correlated with overweight status and energy consumed, as those who find food more reinforcing are heavier and consume more energy. One hypothesis relating these variables is that food reinforcement is related to BMI through usual energy intake. ...

  9. BMI in relation to sperm count : an updated systematic review and collaborative meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sermondade, N.; Faure, C.; Fezeu, L.; Shayeb, A. G.; Bonde, J. P.; Jensen, T. K.; Van Wely, M.; Cao, J.; Martini, A. C.; Eskandar, M.; Chavarro, J. E.; Koloszar, S.; Twigt, J. M.; Ramlau-Hansen, C. H.; Borges, E.; Lotti, F.; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. M.; Zorn, B.; Polotsky, A. J.; La Vignera, S.; Eskenazi, B.; Tremellen, K.; Magnusdottir, E. V.; Fejes, I.; Hercberg, S.; Levy, R.; Czernichow, S.

    2013-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with meta-analysis

  10. A BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit: asynchronous control by SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi eSakurada

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brain-machine interface (BMI is an interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines. Recent invasive BMI technologies have succeeded in the asynchronous control of robot arms for a useful series of actions, such as reaching and grasping. In this study, we developed non-invasive BMI technologies aiming to make such useful movements using the subject's own hands by preparing a BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit (BOTAS. We prepared a pre-recorded series of useful actionsa grasping-a-ball movement and a carrying-the-ball movementand added asynchronous control using steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP signals. A SSVEP signal was used to trigger the grasping-a-ball movement and another SSVEP signal was used to trigger the carrying-the-ball movement. A support vector machine was used to classify EEG signals recorded from the visual cortex (Oz in real time. Untrained, able-bodied participants (n = 12 operated the system successfully. Classification accuracy and time required for SSVEP detection were approximately 88% and 3 s, respectively. We further recruited three patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries; they also succeeded in operating the system without training. These data suggest that our BOTAS system is potentially useful in terms of rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities.

  11. Biomarker of whole grain wheat intake associated lower BMI in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids in the bran fraction of some whole grains (wheat, rye and barley). Plasma AR reflect recent intake of these whole grains. We examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR (measured by LCMS/ MS), whole wheat intake, and body mass index (BMI) in ...

  12. Asthma, Smoking and BMI in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, L.; Naqvi, H.; Russ, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent research evidence from the general population has shown that tobacco smoking and raised body mass index (BMI) are associated with worse asthma outcomes. There are indications that asthma morbidity and mortality may be higher among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) than the general population, but the reason for this is…

  13. Adult BMI Change and Risk of Colon Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyla Blake-Gumbs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We recently reported an association of adult BMI change with colon cancer risk. Here, we sought to further explore this association with respect to postmenopausal HRT use in a larger study population. Methods. We included 1,457 postmenopausal women participating in an ongoing population-based case-control study of colon cancer. Results. We confirmed a previously reported association of adulthood weight gain and increased risk of colon cancer: compared to those with 10 kg/m2 BMI changes since their 20s had OR estimates of 1.54 (95% CI = 1.09–2.19 and 1.45 (95% CI = 0.90–2.33, respectively (P for trend = 0.05. Stratified analyses showed that this association was limited to HRT nonusers: ORs were 1.77 (95% CI = 1.02–3.05 and 2.21 (95% CI = 1.09–4.45, respectively (P for trend = 0.03, for BMI changes occurring between the 20s decade and time of recruitment among non-users. Similar associations were observed for BMI changes since the 30s decade. There was no association among HRT users. Conclusion. Our results suggest early adulthood weight gain increases colon cancer risk in postmenopausal women who do not use HRT.

  14. Parents’ Readiness to Change Affects BMI Reduction Outcomes in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen P. Jakubowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supports the importance of parental involvement for youth’s ability to manage weight. This study utilized the stages of change (SOC model to assess readiness to change weight control behaviors as well as the predictive value of SOC in determining BMI outcomes in forty adolescent-parent dyads (mean adolescent age = 15 ± 1.84 (13–20, BMI = 37 ± 8.60; 70% white participating in a weight management intervention for adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adolescents and parents completed a questionnaire assessing their SOC for the following four weight control domains: increasing dietary portion control, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, decreasing dietary fat, and increasing usual physical activity. Linear regression analyses indicated that adolescent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was not predictive of adolescent change in BMI from baseline to treatment completion. However, parent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was predictive of adolescent change in BMI, (t(24 = 2.15, p=0.043. Findings support future research which carefully assesses adolescent and parent SOC and potentially develops interventions targeting adolescent and parental readiness to adopt healthy lifestyle goals.

  15. Guangzhou Chemical Industry%Modification of Carbon Fiber/BMI Composites by Using Functionalized Graphene Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婷婷; 岳远志; 王雪; 辛姝颖; 李伟

    2016-01-01

    The graphene oxide ( GO) was functionalized by the silane couplingagentγ-methacryloxypropyltrimethox-ysilane (KH570). The effect of silane functionalized GO on the interfacial properties of the carbon fiber/BMI composites was investigated. The results indicated that the KH570 molecules were successfully grafted onto the GO surfaces. The interfacial adhesive properties of carbon fiber/BMI composites were improved. The maximum increment of the interlaminar shear strength of the carbon fiber/BMI composite was 26. 6% when the content of KH570-GO was 0. 1%.%选用γ-甲基丙烯酰氧基丙基三甲氧基硅烷(KH570)对氧化石墨烯(GO)进行表面功能化修饰,考察了硅烷功能化氧化石墨烯( KH570-GO)对碳纤维/双马来酰亚胺( BMI)复合材料层间剪切强度的影响。实验结果表明, KH570硅烷分子成功地接枝到GO表面,碳纤维/BMI复合材料的界面黏结性能得到改善,当KH570-GO含量的为0.1wt%时,复合材料的层间剪切强度提高了26.6%。

  16. Bmi1 limits dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure by inhibiting cardiac senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Valdes, I; Hidalgo, I; Bujarrabal, A; Lara-Pezzi, E; Padron-Barthe, L; Garcia-Pavia, P; Gómez-del Arco, P; Gomez, P; Redondo, J M; Ruiz-Cabello, J M; Jimenez-Borreguero, L J; Enriquez, J A; de la Pompa, J L; Hidalgo, A; Gonzalez, S

    2015-03-09

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most frequent cause of heart failure and the leading indication for heart transplantation. Here we show that epigenetic regulator and central transcriptional instructor in adult stem cells, Bmi1, protects against DCM by repressing cardiac senescence. Cardiac-specific Bmi1 deletion induces the development of DCM, which progresses to lung congestion and heart failure. In contrast, Bmi1 overexpression in the heart protects from hypertrophic stimuli. Transcriptome analysis of mouse and human DCM samples indicates that p16(INK4a) derepression, accompanied by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), is linked to severely impaired ventricular dimensions and contractility. Genetic reduction of p16(INK4a) levels reverses the pathology of Bmi1-deficient hearts. In parabiosis assays, the paracrine senescence response underlying the DCM phenotype does not transmit to healthy mice. As senescence is implicated in tissue repair and the loss of regenerative potential in aging tissues, these findings suggest a source for cardiac rejuvenation.

  17. Community BMI Surveillance Using an Existing Immunization Registry in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratigan, Amanda R; Lindsay, Suzanne; Lemus, Hector; Chambers, Christina D; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Cronan, Terry A; Browner, Deirdre K; Wooten, Wilma J

    2016-11-11

    This study examines the demographic representativeness of the County of San Diego Body Mass Index (BMI) Surveillance System to determine if the BMI estimates being obtained from this convenience sample of individuals who visited their healthcare provider for outpatient services can be generalized to the general population of San Diego. Height and weight were transmitted from electronic health records systems to the San Diego Immunization Registry (SDIR). Age, gender, and race/ethnicity of this sample are compared to general population estimates by sub-regional area (SRA) (n = 41) to account for regional demographic differences. A < 10% difference (calculated as the ratio of the differences between the frequencies of a sub-group in this sample and general population estimates obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau) was used to determine representativeness. In 2011, the sample consisted of 352,924 residents aged 2-100 years. The younger age groups (2-11, 12-17 years) and the oldest age group (≥65 years) were representative in 90, 75, and 85% of SRAs, respectively. Furthermore, at least one of the five racial/ethnic groups was represented in 71% of SRAs. This BMI Surveillance System was found to demographically represent some SRAs well, suggesting that this registry-based surveillance system may be useful in estimating and monitoring neighborhood-level BMI data.

  18. BMI Development of Normal Weight and Overweight Children in the PIAMA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, Saskia M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; van der Beek, Eline M.; Gehring, Ulrike; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with overweight later in life. However, results from studies exploring other critical periods for the development of overweight are inconsistent. Objective: The objective was to investigate BMI developme

  19. School environment factors were associated with BMI among adolescents in Xi'an City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibley Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School environment influences students' behaviours. The purpose of this research was to identify school environment factors associated with BMI. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1792 school-aged adolescents from 30 schools in six districts in Xi'an City in 2004. Height and weight were taken from students by trained field staff. School environment characteristics such as physical factors (school facilities, school shops and fast food outlets in school area, school curricula and policies were collected from school doctors using school environment questionnaire. School environment factors were identified in linear mixed effect models with BMI as outcome and adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Results After adjusted for socio-demographic factors, BMI was associated with the availability of soft drinks at school shops, the availability and the number of western food outlet in the school vicinity. School curricula such as sports-meeting and health education session were also associated with BMI. Conclusions Urgent actions are needed to address the obesogenic elements of school environments. Community and school policy makers should make efforts for students to avoid exposure to fast food outlet in school area and soft drinks at school shops, and to improve school curricula to promote healthy behaviours.

  20. Should Schools Send BMI Report Cards to Parents? A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Alexander; Boros, Piroska; Ingvalson, Kent; Fontana, Fabio E.; Matvienko, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    A body mass index (BMI) report card is a tool to inform parents about their child's weight status. Body mass index notifications could curb childhood obesity by prompting parents to encourage their children to be more physically active and make better dietary choices, but they could also lower children's self-esteem and increase weight-related…

  1. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Reproductive Health of Daughters in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariansdatter, Saga Elise; Ernst, Andreas; Toft, Gunnar;

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 198...

  2. Changes in weight and BMI following the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, L; Bar-Niv, M; Lebenthal, Y; Tenenbaum, A; Shalitin, S; Lazar, L; Cohen, A; Phillip, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study weight and body mass index (BMI) before, at, and after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to identify factors associated with weight gain. Studied retrospectively were 209 children 18 years with T1D followed for 6 years. Data collected included clinical and laboratory data before diagnosis, at diagnosis, and during 6 years of follow-up. Anthropometric parameters of patients were compared along follow-up and with those of their parents and siblings. Mean BMI-standard deviation score (SDS) was below average at diagnosis (-0.66 ± 1.27), had increased to 0.37 ± 0.93 at 3 months, and decreased to a nadir at 6 months in females and 12 months in males; between 1 and 3 years, there was a slight increase and between 3 and 6 years a further increase only in the females. BMI-SDS at 6 years was significantly higher than pre-diabetes BMI-SDS (0.35 ± 0.83 vs. -0.04 ± 1.23, p 1). Patients' BMI-SDS at 6 years was similar to that of their parents and siblings, was higher in the females (0.53 ± 0.74 vs. 0.27 ± 0.82, p = 0.02) and in those keeping diabetes a secret (0.66 ± 0.82 vs. 0.33 ± 0.78, p = 0.027), and was not associated with age or pubertal stage at diagnosis, ethnicity, or metabolic control. A longer duration of insulin pump therapy was associated with a lower BMI-SDS (r = -0.2375, p < 0.025). BMI-SDS increased during the 6 years following diagnosis of T1D in pediatric patients, especially in the females, but remained in the normal range and was similar to that of other family members.

  3. Drift in ocean currents impacts intergenerational microbial exposure to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblin, Martina A; van Sebille, Erik

    2016-05-17

    Microbes are the foundation of marine ecosystems [Falkowski PG, Fenchel T, Delong EF (2008) Science 320(5879):1034-1039]. Until now, the analytical framework for understanding the implications of ocean warming on microbes has not considered thermal exposure during transport in dynamic seascapes, implying that our current view of change for these critical organisms may be inaccurate. Here we show that upper-ocean microbes experience along-trajectory temperature variability up to 10 °C greater than seasonal fluctuations estimated in a static frame, and that this variability depends strongly on location. These findings demonstrate that drift in ocean currents can increase the thermal exposure of microbes and suggests that microbial populations with broad thermal tolerance will survive transport to distant regions of the ocean and invade new habitats. Our findings also suggest that advection has the capacity to influence microbial community assemblies, such that regions with strong currents and large thermal fluctuations select for communities with greatest plasticity and evolvability, and communities with narrow thermal performance are found where ocean currents are weak or along-trajectory temperature variation is low. Given that fluctuating environments select for individual plasticity in microbial lineages, and that physiological plasticity of ancestors can predict the magnitude of evolutionary responses of subsequent generations to environmental change [Schaum CE, Collins S (2014) Proc Biol Soc 281(1793):20141486], our findings suggest that microbial populations in the sub-Antarctic (∼40°S), North Pacific, and North Atlantic will have the most capacity to adapt to contemporary ocean warming.

  4. Drift in ocean currents impacts intergenerational microbial exposure to temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblin, Martina A.; van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are the foundation of marine ecosystems [Falkowski PG, Fenchel T, Delong EF (2008) Science 320(5879):1034–1039]. Until now, the analytical framework for understanding the implications of ocean warming on microbes has not considered thermal exposure during transport in dynamic seascapes, implying that our current view of change for these critical organisms may be inaccurate. Here we show that upper-ocean microbes experience along-trajectory temperature variability up to 10 °C greater than seasonal fluctuations estimated in a static frame, and that this variability depends strongly on location. These findings demonstrate that drift in ocean currents can increase the thermal exposure of microbes and suggests that microbial populations with broad thermal tolerance will survive transport to distant regions of the ocean and invade new habitats. Our findings also suggest that advection has the capacity to influence microbial community assemblies, such that regions with strong currents and large thermal fluctuations select for communities with greatest plasticity and evolvability, and communities with narrow thermal performance are found where ocean currents are weak or along-trajectory temperature variation is low. Given that fluctuating environments select for individual plasticity in microbial lineages, and that physiological plasticity of ancestors can predict the magnitude of evolutionary responses of subsequent generations to environmental change [Schaum CE, Collins S (2014) Proc Biol Soc 281(1793):20141486], our findings suggest that microbial populations in the sub-Antarctic (∼40°S), North Pacific, and North Atlantic will have the most capacity to adapt to contemporary ocean warming. PMID:27140608

  5. The Analysis of Pricing Power of Preponderant Metal Mineral Resources under the Perspective of Intergenerational Equity and Social Preferences: An Analytical Framework Based on Cournot Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirui Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium with Cournot equilibrium solving the technological problem of intergenerational equity and strategic value compensation confirmation, achieving the effective combination between sustainable development concept and value evaluation, thinking and expanding the theoretical framework for the lack of pricing power of mineral resources. The conclusion of the theoretical model and the numerical simulation shows that intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium enhance international trade market power of preponderant metal mineral resources owing to the production of intergenerational equity compensation value and strategic value. However, the impact exerted on Cournot market power by social preferences is inconsistent: that is, changes of altruistic Cournot equilibrium and reciprocal inequity Cournot equilibrium are consistent, while inequity aversion Cournot equilibrium has the characteristic of loss aversion, namely, under the consideration of inequity aversion Cournot competition, Counot-Nash equilibrium transforms monotonically with sympathy and jealousy of inequity aversion.

  6. Are serious video games something more than a game? A review on the effectiveness of serious games to facilitate intergenerational learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ypsilanti, Antonia; Vivas, Ana B.; Räisänen, Teppo; Viitala, Matti; Ijäs, Tuula; Ropes, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Aging diversity in organizations creates potential challenges, particularly for knowledge management, skills update and skills obsolescence. Intergenerational learning (IGL) involves knowledge building, innovation and knowledge transfer between generations within an organization (Ropes 2011). Seriou

  7. The mediating role of dichotomous thinking and emotional eating in the relationship between depression and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Evangelia E; Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita

    2017-01-17

    Obesity and depression have important health implications. Although there is knowledge about the moderators of the depression-obesity association, our understanding of the potential behavioral and cognitive mediators that may explain the relationship between depression and obesity, is scarcely researched. The aim of this study is to investigate the mediating role of emotional eating and dichotomous thinking in the depression-obesity relationship. Data on 205 individuals from a community-based study conducted at Maastricht University, Netherlands were used. Self-reported data on depression, emotional eating and dichotomous thinking were collected and BMI scores were calculated in a cross-sectional research design. Correlations between variables were calculated. The primary analysis tested the hypothesis that depression has an effect on BMI through dichotomous thinking and emotional eating. A two-mediator model was used to predict the direct and indirect effects of emotional eating and dichotomous thinking on the depression-BMI relationship. Depression was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.21, p=0.005), emotional eating (r=0.38, pthinking (r=0.49, pthinking and emotional eating were positively correlated with BMI (r=0.35, pthinking (Z=2.54, p=0.01, 95% confidence intervals=0.01-0.17) and emotional eating (Z=3.92 pthinking might be useful in guiding assessment and treatment protocols for weight management. The present study adds to the existing literature on the role of dysfunctional cognitions and emotions on eating behavior, and particularly to the factors that may impede people's ability to control their eating.

  8. BMI as a Predictor for Potential Difficult Tracheal Intubation in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A Uribe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Difficult tracheal intubation is a common source of mortality and morbidity insurgical and critical care settings. The incidence reported of difficult tracheal intubation is 0.1 to 13%and reaches 14% in the obese population. The objective of our retrospective study was to investigateand compare the utility of BMI as indicator of difficult tracheal intubation in males and females.Material and methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwentabdominal surgeries with ASA I to V under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation. Thefollowing information was obtained from medical records for analysis: gender, age, height, weight,BMI, length of patient stay in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU, past medical history of sleepapnea, Mallampati score, and the ASA classification assigned by the anesthesia care providerperforming the endotracheal intubation.Results: Of 4303 adult patients, 1970 (45.8% men and 2333 (54.2% women, were enrolled in thestudy. Within this group, a total of 1673 (38.9% patients were morbidly obese. The average age of thestudy group was 51.4 ± 15.8 and the average BMI was 29.7 ± 8.2 kg/m². The overall incidence of theencountered difficult intubations was 5.23%, or 225 subjects. Thus, our results indicate that BMI is areliable predictor of difficult tracheal intubation predominantly in the male population; another strongpredictor, with a positive linear correlation, being the Mallampati score.Conclusions: In conclusion, our data shows that BMI is a reliable indicator of potential difficult trachealintubation only in male surgical patients.

  9. Acculturation determines BMI percentile and noncore food intake in Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, James F; Cloutier, Michelle M; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Hernandez, Dominica B; Grant, Autherene; Beaulieu, Annamarie; Gorin, Amy A

    2014-03-01

    Hispanic children in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. The role of acculturation in obesity is unclear. This study examined the relation between child obesity, dietary intake, and maternal acculturation in Hispanic children. We hypothesized that children of more acculturated mothers would consume more unhealthy foods and would have higher body mass index (BMI) percentiles. A total of 209 Hispanic mothers of children aged 2-4 y (50% female, 35.3 ± 8.7 mo, BMI percentile: 73.1 ± 27.8, 30% obese, 19% overweight) were recruited for an obesity prevention/reversal study. The associations between baseline maternal acculturation [Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (Brief ARSMA-II)], child BMI percentile, and child diet were examined. Factor analysis of the Brief ARSMA-II in Puerto Rican mothers resulted in 2 new factors, which were named the Hispanic Orientation Score (4 items, loadings: 0.64-0.81) and U.S. Mainland Orientation Score (6 items, loadings: -0.61-0.92). In the total sample, children who consumed more noncore foods were more likely to be overweight or obese (P acculturation to the United States consumed more noncore foods (P acculturation served fewer noncore foods (P acculturation to the United States served more noncore foods (P acculturation and child BMI percentile in this subgroup. These mothers, however, served fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P acculturation, noncore food consumption, and child BMI percentile in Puerto Rican and non-Puerto Rican Hispanic children.

  10. In a safety net population HPV4 vaccine adherence worsens as BMI increases.

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    Diane M Harper

    Full Text Available Obesity adversely inhibits antibody response to vaccination. Three doses of HPV4 may or may not provide adequate long term protection against HPV 16/18 in obese females. The aim of this study was to determine whether adherence to HPV4 vaccination in a safety net population was reduced with increasing body mass index (BMI.We designed a historical prospective study evaluating the number and dates of HPV4 dosing that occurred from July 1, 2006 through October 1, 2009 by the demographic characteristics of the 10-26 year old recipient females. The defined dosing intervals were adapted from the literature and obesity categories were defined by the WHO.1240 females with BMI measurements received at least one dose of HPV4; 38% were obese (class I, II and III and 25% were overweight. Females with normal BMI received on-time triplet dosing significantly more often than did the obese class II and III females (30% vs. 18%, p<0.001. Obese class II/III females have a significant 45% less chance of completing the on-time triplet HPV4 series than normal women (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.83. Pregnancy history has a significant influence on BMI and HPV4 dosing compliance in this safety net population where 71% had been gravid. Hispanic females were less likely to complete HPV4 dosing regardless of BMI (aOR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.95.Obesity, as well as gravidity and Hispanic race, are risk factors for lack of HPV4 vaccine adherence among young females in a safety net population.

  11. The role of intergenerational influence in waste education programmes: the THAW project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, P; Doran, C; Williams, I D; Kus, M

    2011-12-01

    Whilst the education of young people is often seen as a part of the solution to current environmental problems seeking urgent attention, it is often forgotten that their parents and other household members can also be educated/influenced via home-based educational activities. This paper explores the theory of intergenerational influence in relation to school based waste education. Waste Watch, a UK-based environmental charity (www.wastewatch.org.uk), has pioneered a model that uses practical activities and whole school involvement to promote school based action on waste. This methodology has been adopted nationally. This paper outlines and evaluates how effective school based waste education is in promoting action at a household level. The paper outlines Waste Watch's 'Taking Home Action on Waste (THAW)' project carried out for two and half years in Rotherham, a town in South Yorkshire, England. The project worked with 6705 primary age children in 39 schools (44% of primary schools in the project area) to enable them to take the "reduce, reuse and recycle message" home to their families and to engage these (i.e. families) in sustainable waste management practices. As well as substantial increases in students' knowledge and understanding of waste reduction, measurement of the impact of the project in areas around 12 carefully chosen sample schools showed evidence of increased participation in recycling and recycling tonnages as well as declining levels of residual waste. Following delivery of the project in these areas, an average increase of 8.6% was recorded in recycling set out rates which led to a 4.3% increase in paper recycling tonnages and an 8.7% increase in tonnages of cans, glass and textiles collected for recycling. Correspondingly, there was a 4.5% fall in tonnages of residual waste. Waste Watch's THAW project was the first serious attempt to measure the intergenerational influence of an education programme on behaviour at home (i.e. other than schools

  12. Bmi-1 promotes invasion and metastasis, and its elevated expression is correlated with an advanced stage of breast cancer

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    Kung Hsiang-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 (Bmi-1 acts as an oncogene in various tumors, and its overexpression correlates with a poor outcome in several human cancers. Ectopic expression of Bmi-1 can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and enhance the motility and invasiveness of human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs, whereas silencing endogenous Bmi-1 expression can reverse EMT and reduce the metastatic potential of nasopharyngeal cancer cells (NPCs. Mouse xenograft studies indicate that coexpression of Bmi-1 and H-Ras in breast cancer cells can induce an aggressive and metastatic phenotype with an unusual occurrence of brain metastasis; although, Bmi-1 overexpression did not result in oncogenic transformation of MCF-10A cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of Bmi-1-mediated progression and the metastasis of breast cancer are not fully elucidated at this time. Results Bmi-1 expression is more pronouncedly increased in primary cancer tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High Bmi-1 expression is correlated with advanced clinicopathologic classifications (T, N, and M and clinical stages. Furthermore, a high level of Bmi-1 indicates an unfavorable overall survival and serves as a high risk marker for breast cancer. In addition, inverse transcriptional expression levels of Bmi-1 and E-cadherin are detected between the primary cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Higher Bmi-1 levels are found in the cancer tissue, whereas the paired adjacent non-cancer tissue shows higher E-cadherin levels. Overexpression of Bmi-1 increases the motility and invasive properties of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells, which is concurrent with the increased expression of mesenchymal markers, the decreased expression of epithelial markers, the stabilization of Snail and the dysregulation of the Akt/GSK3β pathway. Consistent with these

  13. Body adiposity and type 2 diabetes: increased risk with a high body fat percentage even having a normal BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Silva, Camilo; Galofré, Juan C; Escalada, Javier; Santos, Silvia; Gil, María J; Valentí, Victor; Rotellar, Fernando; Ramírez, Beatriz; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor for the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. BMI is widely used as a surrogate measure of obesity, but underestimates the prevalence of obesity, defined as an excess of body fat. We assessed the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (both considered together as prediabetes) or type 2 diabetes in relation to the criteria used for the diagnosis of obesity using BMI as compared to body fat percentage (BF%). We performed a cross-sectional study including 4,828 (587 lean, 1,320 overweight, and 2,921 obese classified according to BMI) white subjects (66% females), aged 18-80 years. BMI, BF% determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and conventional blood markers of glucose metabolism and lipid profile were measured. We found a higher than expected number of subjects with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes in the obese category according to BF% when the sample was globally analyzed (P BMI-classified subjects (P BMI) women with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes as compared to those with normoglycemia (NG) (35.5 ± 7.0 vs. 30.3 ± 7.7%, P BMI. Similarly, increased BF% was found in lean BMI-classified men with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes (25.2 ± 9.0 vs. 19.9 ± 8.0%, P = 0.008), exhibiting no differences in BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, assessing BF% may help to diagnose disturbed glucose tolerance beyond information provided by BMI and waist circumference in particular in male subjects with BMI <25 kg/m(2) and over the age of 40.

  14. Intergenerational Solidarity and Satisfaction With Life: Mediation Effects With Emerging Adults

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    Susana Coimbra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing dependency of emerging adults (EA on their family of origin and their lower future expectations challenge intergenerational family support exchanges and may affect their impact on satisfaction with life. This study aims to examine the mediation effect of familism, filial maturity, and relationship satisfaction between different directions of support (received, given and anticipated between both and satisfaction with life. Data was collected through the administration of self-report questionnaires to a convenience sample of 243 EA (18-30 years old of both genders, students and workers, of different socioeconomic statuses. Results corroborate the mediation effect of the study variables and suggest that the magnitude of this impact depends on the direction of the support: partial mediations are observed for the received support, whereas total mediations are observed for the given support.

  15. On the Perception of Newcomers: Toward an Evolved Psychology of Intergenerational Coalitions.

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    Cimino, Aldo; Delton, Andrew W

    2010-06-01

    Human coalitions frequently persist through multiple, overlapping membership generations, requiring new members to cooperate and coordinate with veteran members. Does the mind contain psychological adaptations for interacting within these intergenerational coalitions? In this paper, we examine whether the mind spontaneously treats newcomers as a motivationally privileged category. Newcomers-though capable of benefiting coalitions-may also impose considerable costs (e.g., they may free ride on other members, they may be poor at completing group tasks). In three experiments we show (1) that the mind categorizes coalition members by tenure, including newcomers; (2) that tenure categorization persists in the presence of orthogonal and salient social dimensions; and (3) that newcomers elicit a pattern of impressions consistent with their probable ancestral costs. These results provide preliminary evidence for a specialized component of human coalitional psychology: an evolved concept of newcomer.

  16. Coming Up for Air: Exploring an Intergenerational Perspective on Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Steven; Roose, Rudi; Verschelden, Griet

    2016-07-01

    From the late 1980s until now, scholars, educators and social workers have criticised the diminution of interest in the structural level of social problems. In this lament, former social work is beguiled, while critiques are targeted at the new generation of social workers. These critiques forewarn of important issues and problems, but at the same time they portray social work in a devolutionary way. It is argued that this one-sided debate conceals frictions between different generations of social workers. In reference to the work of Karl Mannheim, an intergenerational perspective is proposed that goes beyond nostalgic relishing of the past and calls on social work to actively engage with past remembrance and present evolutions.

  17. Regeneration of intergeneric somatic hybrids by protoplast fusion between Onobrychis viciaefolia and Medicago sativa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子勤; 贾敬芬

    1997-01-01

    Protoplast fusion was induced between sainfoin and alfalfa by an improved polyethyleneglycol (PEG) method. The intergeneric somatic calluses were selected based on complementation of hydroxyproline-resistance of sainfoin and hormone autonomy growth of alfalfa transformation cell line. 17 somatic hybrid plantlets were regenerat-ed. PEG could induce the tight agglutination of protoplasts. During diluting and washing process, cyclization of the linked membrane and formation of vesicle-like structures were observed, resulting in protoplast fusion. 5%-10% glycerol supplemented in the fusion inducing solution markedly increased the frequency of heterogeneous fusion. Better fusion results were obtained when mixed protoplast suspension was dripped in petri dishes in which PEG solution was previously placed. Chromosome number of regenerated hybrid buds varied from 30 to 60. The genome of hybrids in-cluded the small chromosome from sainfoin and two chromosomes with two clear constrictions from alfalfa. The hybrid

  18. Intergenerational differences in perceptions of heritage tourism among the Maasai of Tanzania.

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    Kalavar, Jyotsna M; Buzinde, Christine N; Melubo, Kokel; Simon, Josephine

    2014-03-01

    Besides wildlife tourism in the African savannah, cultural heritage tourism (sometimes known only as heritage tourism) is a big draw in Tanzania. In order to attract cultural tourism dollars, Maasai communities have established cultural bomas, typically pseudo Maasai villages where they display cultural performances and crafts before tourists. Such cultural contact has resulted in the growing influence of globalization that challenges traditional ways. The economic, social and environmental impact of heritage tourism on intergenerational relationships and community well-being has not been examined among the Maasai people. In this study, focus groups were conducted with different age-groups of Maasai people residing in Esilalei and Oltukai villages. Results suggest that for the Maasai, heritage tourism appears to be a double-edged sword. While tourism results in some trickled down economic benefits for the Maasai community, economic change appears to have created a social distance between generations.

  19. Significance of stigma receptivity in intergeneric cross-pollination of Salix × Populus

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    Elżbieta Zenkteler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollen–stigma interaction plays an important role in reproductive process and has been continuously studied in many interspecific and intergeneric crossing experiments. The aim of this study was to investigate stigma receptivity (SR of willow in order to determine the most suitable period for its pollination with poplar pollen and improve the effectiveness of Salix × Populus crosses. Tissue samples were examined histologically using light, epifluorescent, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Willow SR was determined by stigma morphological traits, test of pollen germination rate, Peroxtesmo test of peroxidase and esterase activity on stigma surface as well as papilla ultrastructure at anthesis. We have ascertained that the SR duration in willow is short, lasting from 1 to 2 DA. The poplar pollen germination rate on willow stigmas on 1 DA ranged from 26.3 to 11.2%.

  20. Exploring intergenerational relations in a multi-cultural context: the example of filial responsibility in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillcoat-Nallétamby, Sarah

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore attitudes towards filial responsibility amongst dyads of parents and young adult children using qualitative data from Mauritius, and to draw on the intergenerational solidarity-conflict and ambivalence frameworks to see whether they provide relevant interpretive tools for understanding these attitudes in a multi-cultural society. The study shows that although both generations agree that younger kin should support parents in later life, their motives vary: parents' attitudes reflect norms of obligation, children those of reciprocity; parents want autonomy and independence, but are ambivalent about expectations of future support. Both generations think providing support will be mediated by past parent-child relationships, socialization experiences, gender expectations and cultural tradition. The study suggests that attitudes towards filial responsibility are influenced by a broad set of mechanisms, which can be equated with concepts of structure, function, association, consensus and norm, as well as conflict and ambivalence.

  1. (Transnational intergenerational care contract. Attitudes and practises of transnational families towards elderly care

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    Łukasz Krzyżowski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article I am focused on the functioning of the transnational intergenerational care system. This is dynamic,as it is bound up with the life cycle of the transnational family, and on the one hand, denotes practices associatedwith any assistance parents provide to their migrant children and on the other – in the event of elderly peoplebeing faced with health and basic living problems – with the phenomenon of migrants caring for their parentsin old age. The transnational system of care also incorporates the involvement (or lack of involvement, as faras this triggers consequences that are of relevance here of relatively immobile people, for example the siblingsof migrants who provide (or not, as the case may be domestic support for their elderly parents. In this articleI adopt the thesis that migrants who function in different care regimes change not only their own but also theirparents’ attitudes towards elderly care.

  2. The embryo rescue derived intergeneric hybrid between chrysanthemum and Ajania przewalskii shows enhanced cold tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanming; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Cheng, Xi; Zhang, Fei

    2011-12-01

    Five intergeneric hybrids between the chrysanthemum cultivar 'Zhongshanjingui' (as female) and Ajania przewalskii (as male) were obtained with the help of embryo culture. While 'Zhongshanjingui' bears a standard anemone type flower and A. przewalskii a non-anemone type one, the inflorescence type of the hybrids varied. The diameter of the hybrids' flowers was intermediate between those of the parents. The chromosome number of the hybrids was 2n = 45, of which GISH analysis was able to establish that 27 were inherited from 'Zhongshanjingui' and the other 18 from A. przewalskii. A combination of various assays was used to show that the cold tolerance of the hybrids was equivalent to that of the highly tolerant A. przewalskii parent. Enhanced cold tolerance was correlated with an increase in free proline and a decrease in malondialdehyde content.

  3. Identification of Intergeneric Hybrid Plants Between Oryza sativa and O. minuta via GISH and RAPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shun-wu; CHEN Bao-tang; TAO Ai-lin; ZHANG Duan-pin

    2003-01-01

    To transfer desirable resistance traits from O. minuta to O. sativa, intergeneric hybrid plants between O. sativa (AA, 2n=2X=24) and O. minuta (BBCC, 2n=4X=48) were produced by embryo rescue after sexual cross. Morphological observation and chromosome counts indicated their hybrid status (ABC, 2n =3X=36). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was further applied to confirm the parentage of the chromosomes of F1 hybrids. Chromosomes of O. minuta and O. sativa were distinguishable in the hybrids in different fluorescence colors. GISH indicated that A and BC chromosomes were not randomly assembled in a cell.RAPD profiles unequivocally revealed their hybrids with double parent patterns. The results of blast tests showed that the hybrids had obtained disease resistance from O. minuta, and had a level of susceptibility between the parents.

  4. The Hormonal Fingerprints and BMI: Implications for Risk Factors in Dental Caries and Malocclusion

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    Priyanka, Goguladinne Naga Deepthi; Radhakrishna, Ambati Naga; Ramakrishna, Juvva; Jyothi, Velagapudi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The hormonal fingerprint is the ratio between 2nd and 4th digit lengths. It was evidenced in the medical scenario that it can be used as an indirect marker in many diseases like Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and metabolic syndromes. As far as dentistry is concerned very few studies in the literature have been done to evaluate the influence of hormonal fingerprint on oral health, thus provoking us to formulate new method for predicting dental caries and malocclusion and its association with Body Mass Index (BMI). Aim The purpose of this retrospective study was to highlight the role of new biological marker–Hormonal fingerprints in the early detection of malocclusion, caries, the influence of BMI on malocclusion and caries. We also attempted to study the correlation of BMI with hormonal fingerprints. Materials and Methods A total of 300 children were randomly selected from both sexes of age group 10-15 years. The hormonal fingerprint was made by measuring the length ratio of the index and ring finger with the help of digital Vernier caliper. Anthropometric measures (weight in kilograms and height in metres) for the calculation of BMI were recorded. Caries assessment was done using standard mouth mirrors and Community Periodontal Index probes. DMFT index was followed for assessment of caries according to the WHO assessment form, 1997. Occlusal characteristics of the children evaluated were molar relation, anterior and posterior cross bite, open bite, deep bite, lower anterior crowding. All the factors were recorded by two investigators. Results The results of the study showed that majority of the children among study population were having 2D:4D <1. The rate of occurrence of malocclusion was increasing with increase in the value of 2D:4D ratio with a statistically significant p-value of <0.001. Higher BMI values were associated with normal occlusal conditions (p= 0.041) and lower 2D:4D ratio (p= 0.037). High caries experience was noticed in children with

  5. The relation between BMI with exercise test in individuals with cardiac ischemic pains

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    Ravanbakhsh Esmaeili1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 19 Nov, 2008; Accepted 28 Jan, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Prevalence of over weight and obesity is increasing in the world. Those over weight are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases than other individual's. Studies indicate that body fat distribution has a determining role in the identification of risk factors. Also, the relation between BMI, cardiac ischemic pains and exercise test condition in such patients, is in need further investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between BMI with exercise tolerance test in patients with cardiac ischemic pains, who were referred to the Cardiac Center of Mazandaran Province, in Sari Township.Materials and methods: In this case control study considering the BMI in ischemic patients, 65 were selected as case and 65 persons as control using Tread mill and according to Bruce Protocol, results and tolerance test time was recorded. Independent T test was used for comparison of quantitative indexes mean, while x2 test using SPSS soft ware was used for comparison of the ratio of persons with the qualitative features.Results: Data indicated mean weight of 57.1 kg and height of 1.64m in the case group. Also, 58.5% had history of hyperlipidemia (Cholesterol higher than 200mg/dl and 78.8% with history of blood sugar (higher than 120mg/dl (P<0.001. Even 63.6% had hypertension of 140/9o mm Hg. Our findings showed that BMI in the case and control groups were (26.95±3.94 and (25.95±3.49 respectively. Moreover, a significant relationship between high BMI with cardiac ischemic pains and exercise tolerance test (P<0.001 were demonstrated.Conclusion: Cardiac ischemic pains in individuals with high BMI is common. Exercise tolerance test as one of the non invasive and less expensive procedures, can be an indicator of cardiac ischemic disease.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(68: 64-69 (Persian

  6. COMPARISION OF BODY MASS INDEX (BMI WITH HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (HDL LEVELS IN OBESE PEOPLE

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    Anitha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized nations. Serum lipid concentrations are related to cardiovascular disease risk and one notable association is a statistically significant inverse correlation between HDL-cholesterol concentrations and the probability of developing coronary artery disease. A major related cardiovascular disease risk factor is obesity. Excess body weight is closely linked to low serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The general assumption now is that excessive body weight is associated with enlarged adipose tissue deposits, visceral adipose tissue in particular, which in turn are accompanied by elevated serum triacylglycerol concentrations. A well-studied inverse association exists between serum triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and this may explain the observed low serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations in obesity. This study is done to confirm the above fact. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects for the study were 100 males in the age group of 21 to 40 years. The subjects taken as obese were 50 and those taken as controls were 50. Obesity was taken into account according to the Body Mass Index. RESULTS: Paired T test is done. Results show that 34/50 subjects with BMI 40mg/dl. 40/50 obese patients with BMI >25kg/m2 show HDL levels of <40mg/dl. Significant P value is seen. The study shows that BMI is inversely related to HDL cholesterol levels. DISCUSSION: High HDL cholesterol, above 60 mg/dl is associated with low risk of coronary heart disease. HDL cholesterol below 40 mg/dL is considered too low and appears to be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Low HDL cholesterol is one of the most common phenotypes seen in persons with premature heart disease. Obesity is associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels. A negative correlation exists between HDL cholesterol and body-mass index (BMI, meaning that HDL

  7. Effect of BMI and urinary pH on urolithiasis and its composition

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    Qazi Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common urological disease predominantly affecting males. The lifetime risk of urolithiasis varies from 1% to 5% in Asia, 5% to 9% in Europe, 10% to 15% in the USA and 20% to 25% in the middle-east; lowest prevalence is reported from Greenland and Japan. Such differences have been explained on the basis of race, diet and climate factors. Furthermore, changing socio-economic conditions have generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of lithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical as well as the physical composition of the calculi. The aim of our study was to determine the association between body mass index (BMI and urine pH in patients with urolithiasis and the influence of body size, as reflected by the BMI, on the composition. The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, on urolithiatic patients. The data included patient′s age, sex, BMI, urine pH, serum calcium, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and stone composition. Data from 100 patients, 70 men (70% and 30 women (30%, were analyzed, with 28 patients having normal weight, 38 patients being overweight and 34 patients being obese. The mean age of the patients was 36.58 ± 9.91 years in group I, 40.47 ± 14.48 years in group II and 37.85 ± 12.46 years in group III (P > 0.05. The stone composition was calcium oxalate (CaOx in 66 patients, calcium phosphate (CaP in 60 patients, uric acid (UA in 38 patients, combined calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in 28 patients and three stones in 10 patients. The urinary pH levels (mean ± SD were 7.78 ± 1.49 in group I, 7.15 ± 1.11 in group II and 6.29 ± 1.14 in group III patients (P = 0.0001. Urine pH showed a stepwise decrease with increasing BMI (inverse correlation. Urine pH is inversely related to BMI among patients with urolithiasis, as is the occurrence of urate, calcium oxalate and calcium

  8. Effect of BMI and urinary pH on urolithiasis and its composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Qazi; Masood, Imran; Bhaskar, Neeru; Kaur, Harnam; Singh, Jasbir; Pandey, Rajesh; Sodhi, K S; Prasad, Suvarna; Ishaq, Sheikh; Mahajan, Ruhi

    2013-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common urological disease predominantly affecting males. The lifetime risk of urolithiasis varies from 1% to 5% in Asia, 5% to 9% in Europe, 10% to 15% in the USA and 20% to 25% in the middle-east; lowest prevalence is reported from Greenland and Japan. Such differences have been explained on the basis of race, diet and climate factors. Furthermore, changing socio-economic conditions have generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of lithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical as well as the physical composition of the calculi. The aim of our study was to determine the association between body mass index (BMI) and urine pH in patients with urolithiasis and the influence of body size, as reflected by the BMI, on the composition. The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, on urolithiatic patients. The data included patient's age, sex, BMI, urine pH, serum calcium, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and stone composition. Data from 100 patients, 70 men (70%) and 30 women (30%), were analyzed, with 28 patients having normal weight, 38 patients being overweight and 34 patients being obese. The mean age of the patients was 36.58 ± 9.91 years in group I, 40.47 ± 14.48 years in group II and 37.85 ± 12.46 years in group III (P > 0.05). The stone composition was calcium oxalate (CaOx) in 66 patients, calcium phosphate (CaP) in 60 patients, uric acid (UA) in 38 patients, combined calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in 28 patients and three stones in 10 patients. The urinary pH levels (mean ± SD) were 7.78 ± 1.49 in group I, 7.15 ± 1.11 in group II and 6.29 ± 1.14 in group III patients (P = 0.0001). Urine pH showed a stepwise decrease with increasing BMI (inverse correlation). Urine pH is inversely related to BMI among patients with urolithiasis, as is the occurrence of urate, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate

  9. Intergenerational money and time transfers by gender in Spain: Who are the actual dependants?

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    Elisenda Rentería

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The analysis of intergenerational transfers can shed light on the interaction between population age structure and welfare. Nevertheless, a thorough examination of this issue requires consideration of both monetary (market and time (non-market transfers. Objective: We analyse market and non-market production, consumption, and transfers by age and gender for Spain from 2009−2010 using National (Time Transfer Accounts (NTA and NTTA methodology. Methods: Using National Accounts, microdata from different surveys, and the Time Use Survey, we estimate age and sex-specific profiles of monetary and time production and consumption for Spain. Consequently, a surplus or deficit and the resulting transfers are obtained. Results: We observe higher labour income for men with respect to women throughout the age profile. Nevertheless, women spend more hours in total (market and non-market activities than men. This division drives an asymmetry in private transfers. While men are net donors of money to other age groups during their working life, women are net donors of time to other household members (mainly children and their partners over their lives. Conclusions: The inclusion of the non-market economy in the analysis of intergenerational transfers is crucial to observe real inequalities between genders throughout the life cycle. This challenges the 'economic dependency' of women based on a market economy. The results suggest that the public sector in Spain should reinforce policies that take into account women's contribution to the welfare of other population groups, and call for policies that reconcile professional and family obligations.

  10. Trauma, mental health, and intergenerational associations in Kosovar Families 11 years after the war

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    Matthis Schick

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is a considerable amount of literature addressing consequences of trauma in veterans and holocaust survivors, war and postwar civilian populations, particularly children, are still understudied. Evidence regarding intergenerational effects of trauma in families is inconsistent. Objective: To shed light on intergenerational aspects of trauma-related mental health problems among families 11 years after the Kosovo war. Method: In a cross-sectional study, a paired sample of 51 randomly selected triplets (school-aged child, mother, father, N=153 of Kosovar families was investigated with regard to trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (UCLA Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, anxiety (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, and depressive symptoms (Depressionsinventar für Kinder und Jugendliche [DIKJ; depression inventory for children and adolescents], Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Results: Considerable trauma exposure and high prevalence rates of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found in both parents and children. While strong correlations were found between children's depressive symptoms and paternal posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, maternal symptoms did not correlate with their children's. In multiple regression analyses, only posttraumatic stress symptoms of fathers were significantly related with children's depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Eleven years after the Kosovo war, the presence of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in civilian adults and their children is still substantial. As symptoms of parents and children are associated, mental health problems of close ones should be actively screened and accounted for in comprehensive treatment plans, using a systemic approach. Future research should include longitudinal studies conducting multivariate analyses with larger sample sizes in order to investigate

  11. Unresolved Trauma in Mothers: Intergenerational Effects and the Role of Reorganization

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    Udita eIyengar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A mother’s unresolved trauma may interfere with her ability to sensitively respond to her infant, thus affecting the development of attachment in her own child, and potentially contributing to the intergenerational transmission of trauma. One novel construct within the Dynamic Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation (DMM coding of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI is reorganization, a process whereby speakers are actively changing their understanding of past and present experiences and moving toward attachment security. We conducted a study of mothers with unresolved trauma, exploring their own attachment classification, attachment outcomes of their children, and the potential effects of reorganization on child attachment. Forty-seven first-time mothers participated in the AAI during pregnancy, and returned with their child at 11 months to assess child attachment using the Strange Situation Procedure. Mothers with and without unresolved trauma were compared. We found that mothers with unresolved trauma had insecure attachment themselves and were more likely to have infants with insecure attachment. However, the one exception was that all of the mothers with unresolved trauma who were reorganizing towards secure attachment had infants with secure attachment. These preliminary findings suggest that mothers who are reorganizing may be able to more sensitively respond to their child’s cues, contributing to the development of secure attachment. While our results need to be replicated in a larger cohort, this study is the first to explore the construct of reorganization and its potential relationship with child attachment. If confirmed in future studies, it may provide clinical insight into the intergenerational transmission of insecure attachment within the context of unresolved trauma.

  12. Genome differentiation in Magonoliaceae as revealed from meiotic pairing in interspecific and intergeneric hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-Zhou ZHANG; Ya-Ling WANG; Zi-Can HE; Erland EJDER

    2011-01-01

    The cross compatibility within and between Yulania Spach and Michelia L.(Magnoliaceae) is relatively good and various such hybrids,obtained by conventional artificial hybridization,are available.The aim of the present study was to determine the extent of genome differentiation between the species involved in these crosses through the observation of chromosome pairing during meiosis in pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the hybrids.Chromosome pairing behavior was studied in five species (2n =38) and two interspecific hybrids of Michelia,eight species (2n =38,76 and 114) and 10 interspecific hybrids of Yulania,and three intergeneric hybrids between Michelia and Yulania.The results showed that chromosome pairing was normal with bivalent formation in diploid parental species and in interspecific hybrids.In addition to bivalents,multivalents were encountered in polyploid parental species and polyploid interspecific hybrids.In the intergeneric hybrids between a tetraploid Yulania and two diploid Michelia,19 chromosomes,most likely originating from Michelia,were unable to synapse from zygotene to metaphase I.Meiotic chromosome pairing indicated a high degree of homology between species within Michelia and Yulania and less homology between the genomes of these two genera.The differentiation of morphological characters and the distinctness of natural distribution also support the conclusion that these two genera are likely independent monophyletic groups.This suggests that the two genera were split at early evolution of Magnoliaceae and the overlapping characteristics in external morphology and internal structures of the two genera may be the result of parallel evolution or ancient common ancestry.

  13. Bmi-1 extends the life span of normal human oral keratinocytes by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Reuben H., E-mail: rkim@dentistry.ucla.edu [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lieberman, Mark B.; Lee, Rachel [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shin, Ki-Hyuk [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju-Eun [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Park, No-Hee [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kang, Mo K., E-mail: mkang@dentistry.ucla.edu [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that Bmi-1 extended the in vitro life span of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We now report that the prolonged life span of NHOK by Bmi-1 is, in part, due to inhibition of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. Serial subculture of NHOK resulted in replicative senescence and terminal differentiation and activation of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. This was accompanied with enhanced intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 levels, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and increased expression of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. An ectopic expression of Bmi-1 in NHOK (HOK/Bmi-1) decreased the level of intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 induced dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, and diminished the level of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. Moreover, Bmi-1 expression led to the inhibition of TGF-{beta}-responsive promoter activity in a dose-specific manner. Knockdown of Bmi-1 in rapidly proliferating HOK/Bmi-1 and cancer cells increased the level of phosphorylated Smad2/3, p15{sup INK4B}, and p57{sup KIP2}. In addition, an exposure of senescent NHOK to TGF-{beta} receptor I kinase inhibitor or anti-TGF-{beta} antibody resulted in enhanced replicative potential of cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 suppresses senescence of cells by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in NHOK.

  14. Longitudinal Changes in BMI in Older Adults Are Associated with Meat Consumption Differentially, by Type of Meat Consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Hughes, L.A.E.; Ambergen, T.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Goldbohm, A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the role of meat consumption in body weight modulation are contradictory. Prospective studies on an association between meat consumption and BMI change are limited. We assessed the association between meat consumption and change in BMI over time in 3902 men and women aged 55-69

  15. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2010-01-01

    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  16. Regulation of the New Arabidopsis Imprinted Gene AtBMI1C Requires the Interplay of Different Epigenetic Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabian Bratzel; ChaoYang; Alexandra Ancelova; Gema López-Torrejón; Marcus Koch; Juan Carlos del Pozo; Myriam Calonje

    2012-01-01

    Recently,it has been shown that plants contain homologs to the animal Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1)components BMI1 and RING1A/B.In Arabidopsis,there are three BMI1-like genes,two of which,AtBMI1A and B,are required during post-embryonic plant growth to repress embryonic traits and allow cell differentiation.However,little is known about the third BMI1-like gene,AtBMI1C.In this work,we show that AtBMI1C is only expressed during endosperm and stamen development.AtBMI1C is an imprinted gene expressed from the maternal allele in the endosperm but biallelically expressed in stamen.We found that the characteristic expression pattern of AtBMI1C is the result of a complex epigenetic regulation that involves CG DNA methylation,RNA-directed non-CG DNA methylation (RdDM),and PcG activity.Our results show the orchestrated interplay of different epigenetic mechanisms in regulating gene expression throughout development,shedding light on the current hypotheses for the origin and mechanism of imprinting in plant endosperm.

  17. Pathological eating behaviors, BMI, and facet-level traits: the roles of conscientiousness, neuroticism, and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined the bivariate and multivariate associations of personality with Body Mass Index (BMI) and several eating behavior inventories, focusing on facets of Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, and Impulsivity. Simultaneous multiple regressions showed that the facets Traditionalism, Urgency, and low Vulnerability were significant predictors of BMI. A factor analysis of the eating behavior scales revealed two dimensions: (a) Food and Body Preoccupation and (b) Cued Eating; Neuroticism, low Conscientiousness, and Perfectionism were significant predictors of both eating behavior factors. In addition, the Depression facet predicted Food and Body Preoccupation, and low Temperance predicted Cued Eating. Implications are discussed for the structure of eating pathology and the specificity of facet traits to eating behaviors and obesity.

  18. Mental disorders in motherhood according to prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy-related weight changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene;

    2015-01-01

    Birth Cohort to estimate the associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and PPWR, respectively, and incident depression/anxiety disorders until six years postpartum. Outcome was depression or anxiety diagnosed clinically or filling a prescription for an antidepressant. Cox regression was used...... to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Follow-up started at the day of delivery. For the analysis regarding PPWR, follow-up started six months postpartum. RESULTS: Underweight, overweight and obesity were associated with depression and/or anxiety disorders when compared to normal......-weight, though the associations were attenuated after adjustments (HR 1.24 [95% CI 1.06-1.45], 1.05 [95% CI 0.96-1.15] and 1.07 [95% CI 0.95-1.21] for underweight, overweight and obese, respectively). Compared to mothers who had returned to their prepregnancy BMI, risk of depression/anxiety disorders...

  19. Blood Pressure Variation Throughout Pregnancy According to Early Gestational BMI: A Brazilian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rebelo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes progressive adaptations throughout pregnancy, causing blood pressure fluctuations. However, no consensus has been established on its normal variation in uncomplicated pregnancies. Objective: To describe the variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP levels during pregnancy according to early pregnancy body mass index (BMI. Methods: SBP and DBP were measured during the first, second and third trimesters and at 30-45 days postpartum in a prospective cohort of 189 women aged 20-40 years. BMI (kg/m2 was measured up to the 13th gestational week and classified as normal-weight (<25.0 or excessive weight (≥25.0. Longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were used for statistical analysis. Results: A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed from the first to the second trimester (βSBP=-0.394; 95%CI: -0.600- -0.188 and βDBP=-0.617; 95%CI: -0.780- -0.454, as was an increase in SBP and DBP up to 30-45 postpartum days (βSBP=0.010; 95%CI: 0.006-0.014 and βDBP=0.015; 95%CI: 0.012-0.018. Women with excessive weight at early pregnancy showed higher mean SBP in all gestational trimesters, and higher mean DBP in the first and third trimesters. Excessive early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with prospective changes in SBP (βSBP=7.055; 95%CI: 4.499-9.610 and in DBP (βDBP=3.201; 95%CI: 1.136-5.266. Conclusion: SBP and DBP decreased from the first to the second trimester and then increased up to the postpartum period. Women with excessive early pregnancy BMI had higher SBP and DBP than their normal-weight counterparts throughout pregnancy, but not in the postpartum period.

  20. Dietary patterns associated with body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle in Mexican adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Pliego, Laura Elisa; Camarillo-Romero, Eneida del Socorro; Montenegro-Morales, Laura Patricia; Garduño-García, José de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Background The objetive in this study is to determine the relationship between dietary patterns, BMI, type 2 diabetes mellitus family history (T2DMFH) and some lifestyle variables such as smoking and skipping breakfast in a Mexican adolescent population. Methods Cross-sectional, observational, analytical study.Subjetcts: 14-16 years old male and female adolescents (n 373). A previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used and dietary patterns were derived using principal comp...