WorldWideScience

Sample records for bmi large intergenerational

  1. Cycling to School Is Associated With Lower BMI and Lower Odds of Being Overweight or Obese in a Large Population-Based Study of Danish Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Grøntved, Anders; Bjørkelund Børrestad, Line Anita;

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have been inconclusive concerning the effect of active transport on BMI. Our objective was to investigate the association between travel mode and BMI in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents.......Previous studies have been inconclusive concerning the effect of active transport on BMI. Our objective was to investigate the association between travel mode and BMI in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents....

  2. INTERGENERATIONAL SOLIDARITY

    OpenAIRE

    BOČÁKOVÁ OĽGA

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses solidarity between generations. We refer to the ageing of population, which is a matter of intergenerational solidarity. Because the population is getting old, intergenerational solidarity and family are of great significance.

  3. Black-white differences in intergenerational economic mobility in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumder, Bhashkar

    2011-01-01

    Traditional measures of intergenerational mobility such as the intergenerational elasticity are not useful for inferences concerning group differences in mobility with respect to the pooled income distribution. This paper uses transition probabilities and measures of “directional rank mobility” that can identify interracial differences in intergenerational mobility. The study uses two data sources, including one that contains social security earnings for a large intergenerational sample. I fi...

  4. About BMI for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boy in the 95 th percentile for BMI - meaning that his BMI is greater than that of ... psychopathology in women: a three decade prospective study." International ... of life in relation to overweight and body fat distribution." American Journal ...

  5. Intergenerational earnings mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar; Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens

    This article gives various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility by applying different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components. The methodology enables us to investigate how sensitive results are to different delimitations and, thereby, to make more accurate international...

  6. Implicit and explicit anti-fat bias among a large sample of medical doctors by BMI, race/ethnicity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Janice A; Marini, Maddalena; Nosek, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Overweight patients report weight discrimination in health care settings and subsequent avoidance of routine preventive health care. The purpose of this study was to examine implicit and explicit attitudes about weight among a large group of medical doctors (MDs) to determine the pervasiveness of negative attitudes about weight among MDs. Test-takers voluntarily accessed a public Web site, known as Project Implicit®, and opted to complete the Weight Implicit Association Test (IAT) (N = 359,261). A sub-sample identified their highest level of education as MD (N = 2,284). Among the MDs, 55% were female, 78% reported their race as white, and 62% had a normal range BMI. This large sample of test-takers showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen's d = 1.0). MDs, on average, also showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen's d = 0.93). All test-takers and the MD sub-sample reported a strong preference for thin people rather than fat people or a strong explicit anti-fat bias. We conclude that strong implicit and explicit anti-fat bias is as pervasive among MDs as it is among the general public. An important area for future research is to investigate the association between providers' implicit and explicit attitudes about weight, patient reports of weight discrimination in health care, and quality of care delivered to overweight patients. PMID:23144885

  7. Intergenerational Mobility in Contemporary China: 1996-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Meng

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims at systematically investigating intergenerational class mobility in contemporary China between 1996 and 2006, a period of time that largely overlaps the third decade of the country’s reform era. The study seeks answers to the following questions: 1) to what extent Chinese are found in class positions that differ from their class origins; 2) whether the amount of intergenerational mobility increased during the decade in question; 3) whether China has become a more equal societ...

  8. Like Father, Like Son? A Note on the Intergenerational Transmission of IQ Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E.; Paul J. Devereux; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    More able parents tend to have more able children. While few would question the validity of this statement, there is little large-scale evidence on the intergenerational transmission of IQ scores. Using a larger and more comprehensive dataset than previous work, we are able to estimate the intergenerational correlation in IQ scores, examining not just average correlations but also how this relationship varies for different subpopulations. We find that there is substantial intergenerational tr...

  9. Like father, like son? A note on the intergenerational transmission of IQ scores

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J. Devereux

    2008-01-01

    More able parents tend to have more able children. While few would question the validity of this statement, there is little large-scale evidence on the intergenerational transmission of IQ scores. Using a larger and more comprehensive dataset than previous work, we are able to estimate the intergenerational correlation in IQ scores, examining not just average correlations but also how this relationship varies for different subpopulations. We find that there is substantial intergenerational...

  10. Essays on Intergenerational Transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Fahle, Sean Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The chapters of this dissertation examine transfers between generations across three distinct contexts: a potential role for informal care in U.S. long-term care policy (Chapter 1), the effect of caregiving on bequests (Chapter 2), and making inferences about intra-household allocations using data on intergenerational transfers (Chapter 3).The first chapter poses the question: how can government policy leverage family caregiving to make Medicaid financing of long-term care more sustainable wi...

  11. Bmi-1, stem cells and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Jiang; Jun Li; Libing Song

    2009-01-01

    Bmi-1,a polycomb gene family member,plays an important role in cell cycle regulation,cell immortalization,and cell senescence.Recently,numerous studies have demonstrated that Bmi-1 is involved in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells.However,the molecular mechanism underlying this biological process remains largely unclear.In the present review,we summarized the function of Bmi-1 as a tran-scriptional regulator of gene expression,with particular reference to stem cells.

  12. Forward and Backward Intergenerational Goods: A Theory of Intergenerational Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Rangel

    2000-01-01

    December 1999 This papers develops a theory of intergenerational exchange for generations that are either selfish or have non-dynastic altruism. The main building blocks of the theory are forward and backward intergenerational goods (FIGs and BIGs) and the relationship between them. A FIG is a transfer from present to future generations, like parental investments in education and the preservation of the environment. A BIG is a transfer from future to present generations, like pay-as-you-go so...

  13. Sustainability : Intergeneration Equity and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    Regarding intergenerational equity as prerequisite for sustainability, we derive an optimal investment rule for intergenerational equity from an optimization model allowing for capital accumulation and pollution. This rule provides a condition for intergenerational equity such that an economy maintains constant net value of investment the difference between the physical capital investment value and the environmental resource depletion(pollution) value. This rule is more generalized condition for intergenerational equity than the 'keep capital intact' rule suggested by Hartwick(1977) and Solow(1999), in a sense that this rule includes their condition as a special. Also, we expect this rule to offer an empirical measure of sustainability. In addition, we discuss a variety of recent environmental issues in practice, especially associated with the implications from the rule. (author). 13 refs.

  14. Multiple impacts of an intergenerational program in Japan: Evidence from the Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Masashi; Murayama, Yoh; Takahashi, Tomoya; Ohba, Hiromi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nonaka, Kumiko; Kuraoka, Masataka; Sakurai, Ryota; Nishi, Mariko; Sakuma, Naoko; Kobayashi, Erika; Shinkai, Shoji; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2016-03-01

    Compelling evidence supporting the benefits of social engagement in older adults has been increasingly discussed. However, knowledge regarding an intergenerational program is limited. Herein, we provide a targeted review of intergenerational programs by focusing on our novel interventional program, Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy. The Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy program is an intergenerational picture-book reading program launched in 2004. Participants were involved a 3-month intensive weekly training seminar comprising classes about book selection, reading techniques and basic knowledge of children's school life. Subsequently, they participated in group activities that involved playing a hand game, and reading picture books to children at kindergartens, elementary schools and public childcare centers, once every 1-2 weeks. The Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy program has shown improvement of physical and psychological functioning of older adults and healthy upbringing of children. Similarly, Experience Corps - designed to train and place volunteers in participating elementary schools for an academic year during which time they assist teachers - also showed positive effects for older adults' health status and the psychological/academic success of young children in the USA. Health promotion efforts for older adults must support social policy for the creation of meaningful service programs for older adults on a large social scale. As such, an intergenerational program based on the concept of social capital, defined as "features of social organization, such as trust, norms and networks, that can improve the efficacy of society by facilitating coordinated actions," is an effective and sustainable program for health promotion among older adults. PMID:27018288

  15. Designing meaningful intergenerational digital games

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, Eugène

    2014-01-01

    This paper will focus on intergenerational digital games between grandparents and their grandchildren, which could enhance not only their physical and social well-being but also social bonding between them. This is a topic which has been neglected in digital game research. Therefore, after having discussed the relevance of intergenerational relations the paper will present empirical studies in this field. Then, attention will be paid to (1) the motivation of younger and older adults to play d...

  16. Disentangling the associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition using the four‐component model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813

  17. Parental Motivation in Family Farm Intergenerational Transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Kelly Y.; Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Phillip N.; Hudson, Darren; Belasco, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    An intergenerational transfer model incorporating both altruism and exchange is presented for family farm transfers. A simulation study is conducted to test parental motivation in intergenerational transfers of family farm businesses. Results indicated that family farm intergenerational transfers are altruistically motivated.

  18. Implicit and Explicit Anti-Fat Bias among a Large Sample of Medical Doctors by BMI, Race/Ethnicity and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Sabin, Janice A.; Marini, Maddalena; Nosek, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight patients report weight discrimination in health care settings and subsequent avoidance of routine preventive health care. The purpose of this study was to examine implicit and explicit attitudes about weight among a large group of medical doctors (MDs) to determine the pervasiveness of negative attitudes about weight among MDs. Test-takers voluntarily accessed a public Web site, known as Project Implicit®, and opted to complete the Weight Implicit Association Test (IAT) (N = 359,26...

  19. Intergenerational Justice in Aging Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    I present the Intergenerational Justice Index (IJI) - a simple four-dimensional indicator developed with the Bertelsmann Stiftung in order to compare intergenerational justice in practice across 29 OECD member states. The unit of analysis is countries, and the IJI is a macro-level snapshot linked...... ecological footprint created by all generations alive today; (2) early-life starting conditions as measured by child poverty levels; and (3) the economic and fiscal burdens on the shoulders of currently young generations as measured by public debt levels per child. The fourth IJI dimension measures policy...

  20. Designing meaningful intergenerational digital games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Eugène

    2014-01-01

    This paper will focus on intergenerational digital games between grandparents and their grandchildren, which could enhance not only their physical and social well-being but also social bonding between them. This is a topic which has been neglected in digital game research. Therefore, after having di

  1. Intergenerational influences on child growth and undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Zongrone, Amanda

    2012-07-01

    Intergenerational effects on linear growth are well documented. Several generations are necessary in animal models to 'wash out' effects of undernutrition, consistent with the unfolding of the secular trend in height in Europe and North America. Birthweight is correlated across generations and short maternal stature, which reflects intrauterine and infant growth failure, is associated with low birthweight, child stunting, delivery complications and increased child mortality, even after adjusting for socio-economic status. A nutrition intervention in Guatemala reduced childhood stunting; it also improved growth of the next generation, but only in the offspring of girls. Possible mechanisms explaining intergenerational effects on linear growth are not mutually exclusive and include, among others, shared genetic characteristics, epigenetic effects, programming of metabolic changes, and the mechanics of a reduced space for the fetus to grow. There are also socio-cultural factors at play that are important such as the intergenerational transmission of poverty and the fear of birthing a large baby, which leads to 'eating down' during pregnancy. It is not clear whether there is an upper limit for impact on intrauterine and infant linear growth that programmes in developing countries could achieve that is set by early childhood malnutrition in the mother. Substantial improvements in linear growth can be achieved through adoption and migration, and in a few selected countries, following rapid economic and social development. It would seem, despite clear documentation of intergenerational effects, that nearly normal lengths can be achieved in children born to mothers who were malnourished in childhood when profound improvements in health, nutrition and the environment take place before conception. To achieve similar levels of impact through public health programmes alone in poor countries is highly unlikely. The reality in poor countries limits the scope, quality and

  2. Palo Verde Unit 3 BMI nozzle modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 61 BMI (Bottom Mount Instrumentation) nozzles of the unit 3 of the Palo Verde plant have been examined through ASME Code Case N722. The nozzle 3 was the only one with leakage noted. The ultrasound testing results are characteristic of PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking). The initiation likely occurred at a weld defect which was exposed to the primary water environment resulting in PWSCC. All other nozzles (60) showed no unacceptable indications. Concerning nozzle 3 one crack in J-groove weld connected large defect to primary water. An environmental model has been used to simulate and optimize the repair. The AREVA crew was on site 18 days after contract award and the job was completed in 12 days, 30 hours ahead of baseline schedule. This series of slides describes the examination of the BMI nozzles, the repair steps, and alternative design concepts

  3. Intergenerational Ethics under Resource Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Geir B. Asheim

    2005-01-01

    When evaluating long-term policies, economists usually suggest to maximize the sum of discounted utilities. On the one hand, discounted utilitarianism was given a solid axiomatic foundation by Koopmans (Econometrica 1960). On the other hand, this criterion has questionable implications when applied to economic models with resource constraints. This raises the question: What ethical conditions for intergenerational distribution should and can be imposed? I use my discussion of such conditions ...

  4. Intergenerational Analysis of Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sarah; McHardy, Jolian; Taylor, Karl

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationship between the social interaction of parents and their offspring from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. Our theoretical framework establishes possible explanations for the intergenerational transfer of social interaction whereby the social interaction of the parent may influence that of their offspring and vice versa. The empirical evidence, based on four data sets covering Great Britain and the U.S., is supportive of our theoretical priors. We find robust e...

  5. Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts KidsHealth > For Parents > Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts Print A A A Text ... same age. Now they have another tool: body mass index (BMI). BMI is a calculation that uses ...

  6. Welcoming Intergenerational Communication and Senior Citizen Volunteers in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudich, Dimana; Spudich, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on intergenerational communication and provides a practical approach for how teachers and administrators can implement intergenerational programs in their schools. A discussion of the social and cultural implications of intergenerational communication is offered, and a review of literature regarding intergenerational programs…

  7. Informal Institutions and Intergenerational Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Lilleør, Helene Bie

    This paper carries out a theoretical and empirical investigation of the role of informal institutions in facilitating intergenerational contracts governing investments in schooling and payments of pensions in the form of remittances. We show, using detailed household level data from rural Tanzania......, that informal institutions of social control, rooted in tribal affiliations, determine both the household's investment in schooling and the probability that it receives remittances from migrants. This is consistent with a framework in which households' expected returns in the form of remittances, which...... is determined partly by the prospects of social control over migrants, influence current investments in schooling....

  8. Stable intergenerational associations of childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups of chil....... CONCLUSIONS: Parent-child resemblance in childhood overweight showed small changes during the development of the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the obesogenic environment inducing the epidemic in Denmark influenced children irrespective of their familial predisposition.......OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups of...... their parents at ages 7 and 13 years. The available number of parent-child pairs ranged from 17,926 through 42,184. The odds ratios of childhood overweight (BMI z-score >90th percentile) were calculated using logistic regression by parental BMI groups (BMI > or ≤90th percentile) and child birth year...

  9. Causes and consequences of obesity: intergenerational transmission of bmi and its effect on cognive skills

    OpenAIRE

    Castelnovo,

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, obesity has become a real health plague in most of the developed and developing world, with serious economic and social consequences. Due to this reason, also the economists and social scientists recently focused their attention on this problem. The first chapter of this dissertation presents data that give an idea of the size of the obesity epidemics and surveys the medical, economic and social literature that deals with the causes and consequences of weight excess, b...

  10. Pension systems, intergenerational risk sharing and inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate intergenerational risk sharing in two-pillar pension systems with a pay-as-you-go pillar and a funded pillar. We consider shocks in productivity, depreciation of capital and inflation. The funded pension pillar can be either defined contribution or defined benefit, with benefits defined in real or nominal terms or indexed to wages. Optimal intergenerational risk sharing can be achieved only in the presence of a defined benefit pension system with appropriate restrictions on inv...

  11. The Political Economy of Intergenerational Risk Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Hollanders, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the political constraints of intergenerational risk sharing. The rst result is that the political process generally does not lead to ex ante optimal insurance. The second result is that in a second best political setting PAYG still contributes to intergenerational risk sharing. The third result is that aging in- creases the discrepancy between rst-best and second-best transfers. The source of the ine¢ ciency is that politicians redistribute to larger and easier swayed coho...

  12. Industrialization and Intergenerational Mobility in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, Ineke; Leeuwen, Marco H.D. van

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between industrialization and intergenerational mobility has been a topic of discussion for over forty years. In this article both total mobility and relative mobility chances are studied in the decades preceding industrialization and the decades during industrialization. A high-quality data set is used covering the male population of a region in the north of Sweden during the 19th century. Total intergenerational mobility increased during industrialization until, at the end ...

  13. Maintaining Intergenerational Solidarity in Mexican Transnational Families

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine A. Solheim; Jaime Ballard; Patricia D. Olson

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how Mexican transnational families maintain intergenerational relationships, using five of the dimensions of the intergenerational solidarity framework. Interview data from 13 adult migrant children who lived in the U.S. and their parents who lived in Mexico were analyzed. Structural solidarity was challenged by great distance between families. Families maintained associational solidarity by making contact frequently, though visiting was often restricted by lack of documen...

  14. Intergenerational and Socioeconomic Gradients of Child Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Costa-Fonta; Joan Gil

    2012-01-01

    Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to intergenerationally parental influences? How important is a parent’s socioeconomic status in accounting for the emergence of obesity among children? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of income and education effects, as well as less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are con...

  15. Motives of Intergeneration Support in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Gedvilaitė-Kordušienė

    2011-01-01

    This article fills the gap in the research on the motives of intergenerational support. Using qualitative data, it examines the question of intergenerational support between adult children and their parents. The theoretical premises for the study are derived from the theory of symbolic interactionism. The interviews with the dyads of support providers and receivers reveal a strong emphasis on the exchange. The exchange based on the logic of reciprocity is either latent or manifest. Other symb...

  16. Interpreting Trends in Intergenerational Income Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Nybom, Martin; Stuhler, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We examine how intergenerational income mobility responds to structural changes in a simple theoretical model of intergenerational transmission, deviating from the existing literature by explicitly analyzing the transition path between steady states. We find that mobility depends not only on current but also on past transmission mechanisms, such that changing policies, institutions or economic conditions may generate long-lasting trends. Variation in mobility levels across countries may thus ...

  17. Intergenerational and socioeconomic gradients of childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-i-Font, Joan; Gil, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to intergenerationally parental influences? How important is a parent’s socioeconomic status in accounting for the emergence of obesity among children? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of income and education effects, as well as less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are con...

  18. Intergenerational top income mobility in Sweden: Capitalist dynasties in the land of equal opportunity?

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Anders; Roine, Jesper; Waldenström, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on intergenerational mobility in the top of the income and earnings distribution. Using a large dataset of matched father-son pairs in Sweden, we find that intergenerational transmission is very strong in the top, more so for income than for earnings. In the extreme top (top 0.1 percent) income transmission is remarkable with an IG elasticity above 0.9. We also study potential transmission mechanisms and find that sons’ IQ, non-cognitive skills and education a...

  19. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. PMID:25596500

  20. Bmi1 Is Required for Hedgehog Pathway-Driven Medulloblastoma Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Evan Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh signaling underlies development of a subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in transgenic mice expressing an oncogenic Hh effector, SmoA1, driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter. Whereas 100% of SmoA1; Bmi1+/+ or SmoA1;Bmi1+/- mice examined between postnatal (P days 14 and 26 had typical medulloblastomas (N = 29, tumors were not detected in any of the SmoA1;Bmi1-/- animals examined (N = 6. Instead, small ectopic collections of cells were present in the region of greatest tumor load in SmoA1 animals, suggesting that medulloblastomas were initiated but failed to undergo expansion into frank tumors. Cells within these Bmi1-/- lesions expressed SmoA1 but were largely nonproliferative, in contrast to cells in Bmi1+/+ tumors (6.2% vs 81.9% PCNA-positive, respectively. Ectopic cells were negative for the progenitor marker nestin, strongly GFAP-positive, and highly apoptotic, relative to Bmi1+/+ tumor cells (29.6% vs 6.3% TUNEL-positive. The alterations in proliferation and apoptosis in SmoA1;Bmi1-/- ectopic cells are associated with reduced levels of Cyclin D1 and elevated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19Arf, two inversely regulated downstream targets of Bmi1. These data provide the first demonstration that Bmi1 is required for spontaneous de novo development of a solid tumor arising in the brain, suggest a crucial role for Bmi1-dependent, nestin-expressing progenitor cells in medulloblastoma expansion, and implicate Bmi1 as a key factor required for Hh pathway-driven tumorigenesis.

  1. The Intergenerational Transmission of Externalizing Behaviors in Adult Participants: The Mediating Role of Childhood Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Childhood abuse was investigated as a potential mediator of the intergenerational transmission of externalizing behaviors (EXT) in adulthood among a large general population sample drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey. Community participants (N = 5,424) underwent diagnostic and psychosocial interviews and reported on their own adult symptoms…

  2. ADRB3 Polymorphism Associated with BMI Gain in Japanese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiki Kuroda; Takahiko Katoh; Takenori Yamauchi; Shouhei Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3: rs4994) and BMI and serological and anthropometric data in healthy Japanese. Methods. Healthy Japanese recruited in a large-scale integrated manufacturing facility in Japan ( = 1 3 5 5 ; age: 37.25 ± 9.43; BMI: 22.86 ± 3.46) were eligible for analysis. The anthropometric data and serological data were measured during a comprehensive health check, a...

  3. Intergenerational and socioeconomic gradients of child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Gil, Joan

    2013-09-01

    Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to the intergenerational transmission of parental influences? Does this trend affect the influence of parent's socioeconomic status on obesity? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of both socio-economic status and less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are controlled for. We also estimate and decompose income related inequalities in child obesity. We take advantage of a uniquely constructed dataset from Spain that contains records form 13,358 individuals for a time period (years 2003-2006) in which a significant spike in the growth of child obesity was observed. Our results suggest robust evidence of both socioeconomic and intergenerational gradients. Results are suggestive of a high income effect in child obesity, alongside evidence that income inequalities have doubled in just three years with a pure income effect accounting for as much as 72-66% of these income inequality estimates, even when intergenerational transmission is accounted for. Although, intergenerational transmission does not appear to be gender specific, when accounted for, mother's labour market participation only explains obesity among boys but not among girls. Hence, it appears income and parental influences are the central determinants of obesity among children. PMID:23906118

  4. Intergenerational transfers and the social discount rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B.; Norgaard, R.B.

    1992-08-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between intergenerational asset transfers and the choice of the discount rate for use in cost-benefit analysis in a model of a competitive overlapping generations economy constrained by a socially managed exhaustible resource. Provided that there are no distortions in capital markets and that all agents hold perfect foresight, cost-benefit techniques will result in a Pareto efficient resource allocation if the discount rate is set equal to the market rate of interest. But since the path of the interest rate depends on the level of intergenerational transfers, cost-benefit techniques do not ensure a socially desirable distribution of welfare between generations; a social optimum will result only if intergenerational transfers are properly chosen and enforced. Decentralized private altruism may result in intergenerational transfers that both present and future individuals would agree are too small if members of the present generation attach positive weight to the general welfare of future generations, not simply their personal descendants. In a world where intergenerational transfers are non-optimal, second-best policy-making may imply a constrained optimum that is inefficient. Together, these findings suggest that cost-benefit analysis is at best a partial criterion to policy formulation that should be used only in conjunction with ethical principles that define the proper distribution of welfare between present and future generations.

  5. Maintaining Intergenerational Solidarity in Mexican Transnational Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Solheim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored how Mexican transnational families maintain intergenerational relationships, using five of the dimensions of the intergenerational solidarity framework. Interview data from 13 adult migrant children who lived in the U.S. and their parents who lived in Mexico were analyzed. Structural solidarity was challenged by great distance between families. Families maintained associational solidarity by making contact frequently, though visiting was often restricted by lack of documentation. Functional solidarity was expressed through financial support to parents. This involved remittances sent to parents. However, it should be noted that it was often migrants’ siblings in Mexico who managed these remittances. Affectual solidarity was expressed through statements of love and concern for one another. Normative solidarity and consensual solidarity reflected the value of familismo through financial support and the desire to live together. Several dimensions of intergenerational solidarity are interconnected. This study provides evidence for the relevance of the intergenerational solidarity framework in transnational families and suggests that geographic context is relevant when studying intergenerational relationships.

  6. Intergenerational transfers and the social discount rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the relationship between intergenerational asset transfers and the choice of the discount rate for use in cost-benefit analysis in a model of a competitive overlapping generations economy constrained by a socially managed exhaustible resource. Provided that there are no distortions in capital markets and that all agents hold perfect foresight, cost-benefit techniques will result in a Pareto efficient resource allocation if the discount rate is set equal to the market rate of interest. But since the path of the interest rate depends on the level of intergenerational transfers, cost-benefit techniques do not ensure a socially desirable distribution of welfare between generations; a social optimum will result only if intergenerational transfers are properly chosen and enforced. Decentralized private altruism may result in intergenerational transfers that both present and future individuals would agree are too small if members of the present generation attach positive weight to the general welfare of future generations, not simply their personal descendants. In a world where intergenerational transfers are non-optimal, second-best policy-making may imply a constrained optimum that is inefficient. Together, these findings suggest that cost-benefit analysis is at best a partial criterion to policy formulation that should be used only in conjunction with ethical principles that define the proper distribution of welfare between present and future generations

  7. African-American Parents' Knowledge and Perceptions About BMI Measurements, School-Based BMI Screening Programs, and BMI Report Cards: Results from a Qualitative Investigation and Implications for School-to-Parent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Dominique G; Bass, Sarah Bauerle

    2016-06-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) screenings can help parents make informed decisions about their child's health, but schools have questioned parents' understanding and attitudes about BMI measures and report cards. Although researchers have investigated minority parents' perceptions of their child's weight, no research has explored minority parents' knowledge and perceptions related to BMI measurements, school-based BMI screening programs, and BMI report cards. To address this gap, focus groups were conducted (n = 20) with female Black or African-American parents/guardians from a large urban school district. Participants were asked to share their perceptions before and after receiving education about BMI measurements and screening programs. Pre-education: Many participants had heard of BMI, thought it was similar to body fat, believed screenings were intended to track students' weights and monitor eating habits, and were concerned that screenings could cause their child embarrassment. Post-education: Most participants did not object to screenings, but said they would have without education about why and how BMI measurements are taken. They also voiced concerns about lack of prior notice, confidentiality, and the need for schools to serve healthier food. Some of these findings support those of other qualitative studies of parents' concerns about BMI screenings, but no previous studies have compared parents' perceptions of screening programs pre-/post-education. The results reinforce that schools' efforts to explain what BMI measurements are as well as why and how they are taken can increase parents' confidence in the schools and level of comfort with BMI screening programs and report cards. PMID:27271073

  8. The Relationship between Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Preschool Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Averett, Susan L.; Fletcher, Erin K.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity during pregnancy raises concerns over the intergenerational transmission of obesity and its potential to exacerbate the current obesity epidemic. The fetal origins hypothesis posits that the intrauterine environment might have lasting effects on children's outcomes. A large literature establishes that mother's pre-pregnancy obesity is correlated with obesity in her children. However, previous research is largely based on comparing individuals across famili...

  9. Legal aspects of intergenerational equity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the extent to which American law and legal institutions have addressed problems of intergenerational equities. Beginning with a definition of the issue, the paper goes on to address conservation law, public debt ceilings, property law, and eugenic laws. The research supports the conclusion that neither statutory law, the formal expression of public policy articulated by the legislature, nor common law, the case-by-case definition of private legal rights by the courts has developed a coherent set of legal principles for dealing with the difficult problems of intergenerational equity. 15 references

  10. Association of BMI and interpregnancy BMI change with birth outcomes in an Australian obstetric population: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Agarwal, Catherine R; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with increasing body mass index (BMI) and interpregnancy BMI changes in an Australian obstetric population. Methods A retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2013 was undertaken. BMI for 14 875 women was categorised as follows: underweight (≤18 kg/m2); normal weight (19–24 kg/m2); overweight (25–29 kg/m2); obese class I (30–34 kg/m2); obese class II (35–39 kg/m2) and obese class III (40+ kg/m2). BMI categories and maternal, neonatal and birthing outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Interpregnancy change in BMI and the risk of adverse outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy were also examined. Results Within this cohort, 751 (5.1%) women were underweight, 7431 (50.0%) had normal BMI, 3748 (25.1%) were overweight, 1598 (10.8%) were obese class I, 737 (5.0%) were obese class II and 592 (4.0%) were obese class III. In bivariate adjusted models, obese women were at an increased risk of caesarean section, gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and neonatal morbidities including macrosomia, large for gestational age (LGA), hypoglycaemia, low 5 min Apgar score and respiratory distress. Multiparous women who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher adjusted OR (AOR) (CI) of the following adverse outcomes in their subsequent pregnancy: low 5-min Apgar score 3.242 (1.557 to 7.118); gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) 3.258 (1.129 to 10.665) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 3.922 (1.243 to 14.760). These women were more likely to give birth vaginally 2.030 (1.417 to 2.913). Conversely, women whose parity changed from 0 to 1 and who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher AOR (CI) of caesarean section in their second pregnancy 1.806 (1.139 to 2.862). Conclusions Women who are overweight or obese have a significantly increased risk of various adverse outcomes. Interpregnancy weight gain, regardless

  11. INTERGENERATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS AND CHILD OBESITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Antwan

    2016-08-01

    This study used US National Longitudinal Study of Youth data to explore how exposure to different socioeconomic conditions (proxied by maternal education) before birth can shape child weight. Using endogenous selection regression models, the findings suggest that educational selectivity affects weight gain. Mothers whose mothers graduated from high school were more likely to complete high school, and mothers reared in an intact family had higher levels of education. However, mothers who had given birth as a teenager had the same educational outcomes as mothers who gave birth in their post-teenage years. Based on this intergenerational educational selectivity, caretaking (e.g. breast-feeding) was found to be associated with a lower child body mass index (BMI), while negative maternal characteristics (e.g. mothers with high BMIs) were associated with higher child BMIs. Thus, educational selectivity influences child health through values passed on to the child and the lifestyle in which the child is reared. Maternal education may be tied to parenting, which relates to child obesity risk. PMID:26314353

  12. Intergenerational family relations in Luxembourg: Family values and intergenerational solidarity in Portuguese immigrant and Luxembourgish families

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Isabelle; Ferring, Dieter; Michels, Tom

    2013-01-01

    According to the intergenerational solidarity model, family members who share similar values about family obligations should have a closer relationship and support each other more than families with a lower value consensus. The present study first describes similarities and differences between two family generations (mothers and daughters) with respect to their adherence to family values and, second, examines patterns of relations between intergenerational consensus on family values, affectua...

  13. Bridging the Years: An Intergenerational History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Rahima; Gardner, Diane; Doro, Paul; Arendt, Sandy

    2007-01-01

    While the intergenerational bonds remain strong for children with elder relatives living close by, increasingly children in the U.S. lack meaningful connections with older adults. Divorce and family mobility are two major causes, and some youth are affected by negative stereotypes of older people. Bringing seniors into classrooms or taking…

  14. Loss Aversion, Education, and Intergenerational Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Liam C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing empirical work looking at the effects of parental income on IQ, schooling, wealth, race, and personality is only able to explain about half of the observed intergenerational income elasticity. This paper provides a possible behavioral explanation for this elasticity in which heterogeneous agents in sequential generations choose their…

  15. Motives of Intergeneration Support in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gedvilaitė-Kordušienė

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article fills the gap in the research on the motives of intergenerational support. Using qualitative data, it examines the question of intergenerational support between adult children and their parents. The theoretical premises for the study are derived from the theory of symbolic interactionism. The interviews with the dyads of support providers and receivers reveal a strong emphasis on the exchange. The exchange based on the logic of reciprocity is either latent or manifest. Other symbolic meanings of the logic of reciprocity, i. e., exchange as an investment and a social debt, can also be noticed. The analysis of the motives demonstrates the reasons for the formation of the intergenerational attitudes: a role of demonstration effect and a strong role of primary and secondary socialization with certain internalized attitudes. Altruism is expressed by emphasizing emotions and affection. Several thematic segments are apparent in the interviews: altruism as an unquestioned phenomenon, altruism as a primordial quality and attachment as an object of reflection. The article suggests that the inclusion of an action level into intergenerational relationship studies helps to deepen the understanding of family relationships

  16. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    well as colonisation at societal levels. While the life course model of agency within structures focuses at the temporal transitions and ‘linked lives’, involving affective depth and complexity of close relationships, especially intergenerational ones between the adult children and their parents. A...

  17. Shaping intergenerational relationships the demonstration effect

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed; Wolff, François charles

    2000-01-01

    According to the demonstration effect theory, parents make intergenerational transfers to their elders in order to elicit a symmetric future behavior from their children. In this paper we show that upstream transfers are expected to increase with low returns from alternative financial assets and with the donor’s life expectancy. The latter effect creates a greater incentive for daughters to care for parents.

  18. Intergenerational transmission of child problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. van Meurs (Inge)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn the present thesis, the intergenerational transmission of child problem behavior will be investigated. In this introduction, we will explain why it is important to study transmission of problem behavior from parents to their offspring. In addition, we will describe the study design th

  19. Assessment of Intergenerational Communication and Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Robert D.; Strom, Paris S.

    2015-01-01

    The revolution in communication technology has resulted in more age-segregated conversation among adolescents. In a similar way, older adults have increased online conversations with their peers. This article explores some obstacles that prevent the intergenerational connections needed for mutual understanding and care. Several research emphases…

  20. Inter-Asian Variability in Intergenerational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hiroshi; McCann, Robert M.; Honeycutt, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared Japanese and Thai younger adults' intra- and intergenerational communication. Both groups linearly increased communicative respect and avoidance, beliefs about politeness, and deference norms as interlocutors got older (from young to middle-aged to older adult). Cross-culturally, the Thais reported more respectful communication…

  1. ADRB3 Polymorphism Associated with BMI Gain in Japanese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouhei Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3: rs4994 and BMI and serological and anthropometric data in healthy Japanese. Methods. Healthy Japanese recruited in a large-scale integrated manufacturing facility in Japan (=1355; age: 37.25 ± 9.43; BMI: 22.86 ± 3.46 were eligible for analysis. The anthropometric data and serological data were measured during a comprehensive health check, and a self-reporting questionnaire was used to assess lifestyle habits (current exercise, smoking status, alcohol intake, and working style and weight at age 20. Genotyping for the ADRB3 polymorphism was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Results. Among 1355 participants, the genotype frequencies of the Trp/Trp, Trp/Arg, and Arg/Arg variants were 920 (67.9%, 394 (29.1%, and 41 (3.05%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, a multiple linear regression model in men for the adjustment of age, drinking habits, smoking habits, exercise habits, working status and serological measurements statistically showed an overall weak significance between annual BMI gain from age 20 and age, LDL or ADRB3 polymorphism. Conclusions. The level of LDL, age, and ADRB3 polymorphism (Arg/Arg genotype were statistically associated with annual BMI gain in Japanese men.

  2. Neurodevelopmental problems and extremes in BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Kerekes, Nóra; Tajnia, Armin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Råstam, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) and body mass index (BMI). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children. Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1) to define ...

  3. Exams, Districts, and Intergenerational Mobility: Evidence from South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Suk Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how student assignment rules impact intergenerational mobility. High school admission had traditionally been exam based in South Korea. However, between 1974-80 the central government shifted several municipalities to a school district based admission system. I estimate the impact of this reform on intergenerational income elasticity. Results indicate that the shift increased intergenerational income elasticity from 0.21 to 0.32. I further find that selective sorting to re...

  4. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  5. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  6. The intergenerational Inequality of Health in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pan, Jay; Qin, Xuezheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the intergenerational health transmission in China using the 1991–2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data. Three decades of persistent economic growth in China has been accompanied by high income inequality, which may in turn be caused by the inequality of....... The Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition further indicates that 15% to 27% of the rural–urban inequality of child health is attributable to the endowed inequality from their parents' health. An important policy implication of our study is that the increasing inequality of income and opportunity in China can...... opportunity in education and health. In this paper, we find that there is a strong correlation of health status between parent and their offspring in both the urban and rural sectors, suggesting the existence of intergenerational health inequality in China. The correlation is robust to various model...

  7. The Intergenerational Inequality of Health in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pan, Jay; Qin, Xuezheng

    This paper estimates the intergenerational health transmission in China using the 1991-2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data. Three decades of persistent economic growth in China has been accompanied by high income inequality, which may in turn be caused by the inequality of...... inequality of income and opportunity in China can be ameliorated through the improvement of the current generation’s health status and living standards....... opportunity in education and health. In this paper, we find that there is a strong correlation of health status between parent and their offspring in both the urban and rural sectors, suggesting the existence of intergenerational health inequality in China. The correlation is persistent with different health...

  8. Development and Exclusion: Intergenerational Stickiness in India

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, Rajarshi; Ray, Jhilam

    2016-01-01

    The concept of development has matured from being indicative of aggregative progress to being sensitive to inequality and exclusion within the whole, giving rise to the coinage Inclusive Development. This notion speaks of bridging gap between ethnic/social groups within a nation in domains like livelihood, social status, political empowerment, cultural freedom, among others. This would depend on temporal movement of different groups and intergenerational mobility can act as a mechanism to ach...

  9. Essays on Educational Choice and Intergenerational Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Nybom, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of four self-contained essays. The first essay concerns educational choice and the returns to college in Sweden. I apply a recently introduced econometric framework that allows for self selection and treatment effect heterogeneity. I also examine the influence of cognitive and noncognitive ability on college choice and the returns to college. Essays two through four concern different aspects of intergenerational income mobility. In the second essay, we study the impact on...

  10. Intergenerational Correlation of Labour Market Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Hérault; Guyonne Kalb

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the correlation of labour market outcomes of parents and children and investigates whether education is an important factor in this correlation, allowing for its potential endogeneity. Based on the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) data, the multivariate analyses show that men's labour market outcomes are affected by their fathers' labour market outcomes. The results show no significant intergenerational correlation of labour market outcomes for ...

  11. Intergenerational care in the Danish welfare society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    I denne artikel undersøger vi generationsforholdet mellem yngre voksne og deres forældre i det danske velfærdssamfund. Vores fokus er på omsorgspraksis og på slægtledsforpligtelser (filial responsibility). Artiklen omfatter dybdeanalyser af omsorgspraksis og intergenerationelle normer (filial nor...... individuel livsorientering ikke udelukker intergenerationel solidaritet i den danske velfærdsstat. Keywords: intergenerational care, individualisation, communality/ interconnectedness, social network analysis, ideals, everyday practices, social psychology....

  12. Intergenerational Continuity and Discontinuity in Harsh Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2012-01-01

    The Family Transitions Project began in 1989 to see how rural families in Iowa were coping with the severe economic downturn in agriculture at that time. In this report we show that cohort members who were treated harshly by their parents tended to emulate these behaviors with their children. However, if they co-parented with a partner who demonstrated a warm and supportive parenting style, intergenerational continuity was disrupted.

  13. Peer effects in adolescent BMI: evidence from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Toni; Gil, Joan

    2013-05-01

    This paper extends the recent literature on the influence of peers on adolescent weight on three new fronts. First, based on a survey of secondary school students in Spain in which peers are formed by nominated classmate friends, we find a more powerful positive and significant causal effect of friends' mean BMI on adolescent BMI than previous US-based research. These results are in line with international data, which show that peer group contact tends to vary across countries. Our findings cover a large set of controls, fixed effects, the testing of correlated unobservables, contextual influences and instrumental variables. Second, social interactions are identified through the property of intransitivity in network relationships. Finally, we report evidence of a strong, positive effect of peer pressure on several subgroups of adolescents in an attempt to study their vulnerability to social influences. PMID:22473688

  14. School Failure and Intergenerational “Human Capital” Transmission in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas Lopes, Margarida; Medeiros, João

    2004-01-01

    School Failure and Intergenerational Human Capital Transmission… ABSTRACT A new education reform is about to be passed into Law, in Portugal, the extension of compulsory education until the 12th grade being one of the main goals. Given huge value school failure indicators (e.g., illiteracy rates, drop-outs, retention rates) still exhibit for Portuguese education system, we keep large doubts on the effectiveness of such an aim. Moreover, education outcomes inertia between generations appears t...

  15. Do birth order and family size matter for intergenerational income mobility? Evidence from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Lena

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies of intergenerational income mobility have not considered potential birth-order or family-size effects in the estimated income elasticity. This paper uses a large sample of individuals born between 1962 and 1964; income elasticities with respect to the father’s income are estimated for individuals in different birth-order positions for a given family size. This paper presents results based on labor income and total income for sons and daughters separately. The elasticity tends...

  16. Do birth order and family size matter for intergenerational income mobility?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Lena U.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies of intergenerational income mobility have not considered potential birth- order or family-size effects in the estimated income elasticity. This paper uses a large sample of individuals born between 1962 and 1964; income elasticities with respect to parents? incomes are estimated for individuals with different birth-order positions and family sizes. Results based on labor income and total income for sons and daughters are reported separately. The elasticity...

  17. Intergenerational Family Predictors of the Black-White Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Varner, Fatima; Greene, Nereira; Richman, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined intergenerational family predictors of the Black-White achievement gap among 4,406 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. An intergenerational model of the process by which family factors contribute to the achievement gap was also tested. The results showed that the ethnic gaps in socioeconomic status…

  18. Genetic Influences on Growth Traits of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Fagnani, Corrado; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the interplay between genetic factors influencing baseline level and changes in BMI in adulthood.Methods and Procedures:A longitudinal twin study of the cohort of Finnish twins (N = 10,556 twin individuals) aged 20-46 years at baseline was conducted and followed up 15 years....... Data on weight and height were obtained from mailed surveys in 1975, 1981, and 1990.Results:Latent growth models revealed a substantial genetic influence on BMI level at baseline in males and females (heritability (h(2)) 80% (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.80) for males and h(2) = 82% (0.81, 0.84) for...... females) and a moderate-to-high influence on rate of change in BMI (h(2) = 58% (0.50, 0.69) for males and h(2) = 64% (0.58, 0.69) for females). Only very weak evidence for genetic pleiotropy was observed; the genetic correlation between baseline and rate of change in BMI was very modest (-0.070 (-0.13, -0...

  19. Analysis list: BMI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BMI1 Blood,Digestive tract,Neural,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.5.tsv http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Digestive_tract.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Neural.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscie

  20. Comparison between BMI and Inverted BMI in Evaluating Metabolic Risk and Body Composition in Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Saki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare BMI and inverted BMI in evaluating body measurement, resting blood pressure, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA parameters of fat mass and metabolic risk factors in Iranian children Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on 477 children aged 9-18 yearsin the South of Iran. Weight, height, resting blood pressure, waist and hip circumference and pubertal stage of all participants was measured with standard methods. DEXA was used to determine body composition index. Blood samples were checked for serum lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar (FBS. Metabolic risk score (MRS was calculated by the summation of the Z-scores for TC, TG/HDL, LDL, systolic blood pressure, and waist circumference minus HDL Z-score. Results: BMI did not have a normal distribution in our participants but iBMI had a normal distribution. IBMI had more significant correlation with waist to hip ratio and systolic blood pressure (r2=0.053 and r2=0.182 than BMI (r2=0.041 and r2=0.101. MRS had a positive correlation with BMI (P

  1. Sex-differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K; Willemsen, G; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2003-01-01

    pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...... explained by additive genetic variance in all countries. Sex differences in the variance components were consistently significant. Results from analyses of opposite sex pairs also showed evidence of sex-specific genetic effects suggesting there may be some differences between men and women in the genetic...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....

  2. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with...... meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men......) obtained from the Infertility Center of Bondy, France. Abstracts of relevant articles were examined and studies that could be included in this review were retrieved. Authors of relevant studies for the meta-analysis were contacted by email and asked to provide standardized data. RESULTS A total of 21...

  3. Inspection and repair technology for BMI penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, United States (US) nuclear power plant inspections of the reactor vessel bottom-mounted-instrument (BMI) penetrations have been limited to visual verification via a combination of walk-downs and pressure tests. However in France, more than 18 ultrasonic examination (UT) and weld-surface visual test (VT) campaigns had been performed to inspect the BMI penetration nozzles and welds since 1992 with no observed failures through 2002. In April 2003, South Texas Project Unit 1 discovered apparent leakage from two nozzles during a bare-metal examination. Based on the French inspection experience, Framatome-ANP was selected for inspection and repair services to address the leaking nozzles. Inspection activities included ultrasonic examination of the tube, enhanced visual test and eddy current testing (ECT) of the J-groove weld, bobbin ECT and profile measurement of the tube inside, helium leak test, phased-array UT, borescope VT, and boat-sample removal with destructive metallurgical analysis. Repair activities included sealing the top portion of the penetration, cutting out the old nozzles, and welding in new nozzles. This presentation discusses BMI inspection and repair technology focused particularly on the South Texas Project experience. (authors)

  4. Association between Bmi1 and clinicopathological status of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ting He; Xiu-Feng Cao; Lv Ji; Bin Zhu; Jin Lv; Dong-Dong Wang; Pei-Hua Lu; Heng-Guan Cui

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinicopathological roles of Bmi1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining for Bmi1 were performed in cancerous and adjacent noncancerous paraffin-embedded esophageal specimens. RESULTS: The Bmi1 expression level was unaffected by gender and age. The level of Bmi1 mRNA in ESCC was significantly higher than that in the adjacent noncancerous tissues (2.181 ± 2.158 vs 0.931 ± 0.894, P = 0.0152), and its over-expression was aggressively associated with lymph node metastasis (3.580 ± 2.487 vs 1.703 ± 0.758, P = 0.0003), poorer cell differentiation ( P = 0.0000) and advanced pathological stage (3.827 ± 2.673 vs 1.590 ± 0.735, P = 0.0001). The patients were divided into high-expression and low-expression groups based on the median expression level of Bmi1 mRNA, and a shorter overall survival time in the former group was observed. Immunohistochemistry for Bmi1 oncoprotein showed diffusely positive, focally positive and negative expression in 44, 16 and 10 of 70 ESCC cases, respectively, compared with three, two and five of 10 adjacent non-cancerous cases ( P = 0.027). The positive rate of the oncoprotein in samples of histological grade Ⅲ was higher than that of grade Ⅱ ( P = 0.031), but its expression had no relation to the lymph node metastasis and pathological staging. In 70 ESCC samples, Bmi1 showed high intense expression in the cytoplasm and less or even no expression in the nucleus. CONCLUSION: Bmi1 was over-expressed in ESCC. Increased Bmi1 mRNA expression was significantly associated with ESCC progression, and the oncoprotein was largely distributed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells.

  5. Intergenerational Transmission in a Bidirectional Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan De Mol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to the study of parent-child relationships view intergenerational transmission as a top-down phenomenon in which parents transfer their values, beliefs, and practices to their children. Furthermore, the focus of these unidirectional approaches regarding children's internalisation processes is on continuity or the transmission of similar values, beliefs, and practices from parents to children. Analogous unidirectional perspectives have also influenced the domain of family therapy. In this paper a cognitive-bidirectional and dialectical model of dynamics in parent-child relationships is discussed in which the focus is on continual creation of novel meanings and not just reproduction of old ones in the bidirectional transmission processes between parents and children. Parents and children are addressed as full and equally agents in their interdependent relationship, while these relational dynamics are embedded within culture. This cultural context complicates bidirectional transmission influences in the parent-child relationship as both parents and children are influenced by many other contexts. Further, current research in the domain of parent-child relationships and current concepts of intergenerational transmission in family therapy are reviewed from a bidirectional cognitive-dialectical perspective.

  6. How can intergenerational learning with ICT help to strengthen intergenerational solidarity?

    OpenAIRE

    Patrício, Maria Raquel; Osório, António

    2012-01-01

    The participation of older adults in the Information and Knowledge Society implies the need to strengthen the improvement of their skills, particularly in the context of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). We believe that if younger generations are involved in this process of learning supported by ICT, in an intergenerational perspective of development, the inclusion of older people in society will be reinforced and will promote active ageing, also fighting loneliness social exclu...

  7. miR-203 inhibits melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities by targeting the polycomb group gene BMI1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiao [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Sun, Yong [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an 223300 (China); Han, Siqi [Department of Medical Oncology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhu, Wei [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Zhang, Haiping, E-mail: zhanghaiping_2000@163.com [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Lian, Shi, E-mail: lianshi_2020@163.com [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • First reported deregulation of miR-203 and up-regulation of BMI1 in metastatic melanoma. • miR-203 decreased BMI1 expression by directly binding to 3′UTR. • Further found miR-203 overexpression suppressed cell invasion and stemness. • Re-expression of BMI1 rescued miR-203-mediated suppression. • miR-203-BMI1 axis may be potential therapeutic targets of melanoma metastasis. - Abstract: Metastasis is the major problem in malignant melanoma, posing a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. The investigation of the underlying mechanism driving this progress remains a large unmet need. In this study, we revealed a miR-203-BMI1 axis that regulated melanoma metastasis. We found significantly deregulation of miR-203 and up-regulation of BMI1 in melanoma, particularly in metastatic melanoma. An inverse correlation between the levels of miR-203 and BMI1 was further observed in melanoma tissues and cell lines. We also identified BMI1 as a downstream target gene of miR-203, which bound to the 3′UTR of BMI1. Overexpression of miR-203 was associated with decreased BMI1 expression and impaired cell invasion and tumor sphere formation activities. Re-expression of BMI1 markedly rescued miR-203-mediated suppression of these events. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-203 regulated melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities in part by targeting BMI1, providing new insights into potential mechanisms of melanoma metastasis.

  8. miR-203 inhibits melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities by targeting the polycomb group gene BMI1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First reported deregulation of miR-203 and up-regulation of BMI1 in metastatic melanoma. • miR-203 decreased BMI1 expression by directly binding to 3′UTR. • Further found miR-203 overexpression suppressed cell invasion and stemness. • Re-expression of BMI1 rescued miR-203-mediated suppression. • miR-203-BMI1 axis may be potential therapeutic targets of melanoma metastasis. - Abstract: Metastasis is the major problem in malignant melanoma, posing a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. The investigation of the underlying mechanism driving this progress remains a large unmet need. In this study, we revealed a miR-203-BMI1 axis that regulated melanoma metastasis. We found significantly deregulation of miR-203 and up-regulation of BMI1 in melanoma, particularly in metastatic melanoma. An inverse correlation between the levels of miR-203 and BMI1 was further observed in melanoma tissues and cell lines. We also identified BMI1 as a downstream target gene of miR-203, which bound to the 3′UTR of BMI1. Overexpression of miR-203 was associated with decreased BMI1 expression and impaired cell invasion and tumor sphere formation activities. Re-expression of BMI1 markedly rescued miR-203-mediated suppression of these events. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-203 regulated melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities in part by targeting BMI1, providing new insights into potential mechanisms of melanoma metastasis

  9. Breeding cooperation: cultural evolution in an intergenerational public goods experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicken Hillis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of cooperative norms among individuals across generations plays a key role in our ability to successfully manage social-ecological systems in changing environments. Here, we use an intergenerational public goods experiment combining both cooperative advice and in-game communication in order to examine the transmission of cooperative norms across generations of experimental participants. We show that cooperative intergenerational advice has a positive impact on both (i contributions by individuals in a subsequent generation and (ii the cooperative content of communication among individuals in a subsequent generation. The impact of cooperative intergenerational advice is most pronounced at the beginning of the subsequent generation. The impact of in-game communication, on the other hand, is relatively consistent over the course of the experiment. Sessions combining advice and communication have the highest levels of cooperation overall. Our findings highlight the potential contributions of intergenerational experiments to research in social-ecological systems more generally.

  10. Initiating New Paths to Library Service: Intergenerational Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Joan Lowery; Wood, Joan M.

    1996-01-01

    Presents two speeches from a library service preconference program. An author discusses her historical fiction for young adults and a Public Service Coordinator at Pekin (Illinois) Public Library focuses on interagency cooperation and her library's first intergenerational program. (AEF)

  11. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C;

    2006-01-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle.......A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle....

  12. BMI in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolska-Zarzycka Magdalena; Dunin-Wilczynska Izabella; Mitura Iwona; Szymanska Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease of multicasual etiology. The risk factors include obesity, among other issues. Hence, it is extremely important to determine the effect of body weight on the severity of OSA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the body weight expressed as body mass index (BMI), on the value of upper airways diameter and on the AHI (Apnea-Hypopnea Index) value. The study was comprised of 41 patients diagnosed with OSA by way of polysomnography. Each...

  13. Intergenerational Justice for Children: Restructuring Adoption, Reproduction & Child Welfare Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article takes seriously the idea of intergenerational justice for children, and takes as starting premises that child interests count as equivalent to adult, and that we owe justice not just to existing children but also to the next generation. It argues that intergenerational justice demands a major restructuring of policies throughout the world governing adoption, reproduction, and child welfare. We now encourage the reproduction of more children than we can care for, provide limited...

  14. Intergenerational transmission of parenting: findings from a UK longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Vaishnavee; Domoney, Jill; Aumayer, Katie; Sethna, Vaheshta; Iles, Jane; Hubbard, Isabelle; Giannakakis, Andreas; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Ramchandani, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The quality of parenting is associated with a wide range of child and adult outcomes, and there is evidence to suggest that some aspects of parenting show patterns of intergenerational transmission. This study aimed to determine whether such intergenerational transmission occurs in mothers and fathers in a UK birth cohort. Methods: The study sample consisted of 146 mothers and 146 fathers who were recruited from maternity wards in England and followed up for 24 months [‘Generation...

  15. Towards intergeneric hybridization between Alstroemeria L. and Bomarea Mirb.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashihara, Yukiko; Shinoda, Koichi; Araki, Hajime; Hoshino, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    There are many interspecific hybrids of Alstroemeria. In this study, the possibility of intergeneric hybridization between Alstroemeria and Bomarea Mirb. was examined through the development of pollination procedures and ovule culture based on the histological observation of embryo and endosperm development after intergeneric pollination. Three methods of pollination (stigmatic, cut-style, and non-style) were combined with four different pollen types (fresh, frozen, non-germinated, and pre-ge...

  16. Growth, Industrialization, and the Intergenerational Correlation of Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    David I. Levine; Jellema, Jon R.

    2005-01-01

    The shift from feudalism to industrial capitalism was generally accompanied by an increase in social mobility. We ask whether such an increase has occurred in a developing nation currently undergoing rapid industrialization, Indonesia. It has, at least as measured by a declining intergenerational correlation of education. To highlight the effects of economic growth on intergenerational mobility, we contrast Indonesia’s experience with that of Bangladesh, where industrialization has proceede...

  17. The effects of intergenerational programmes on children and young people

    OpenAIRE

    Park, A-La

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools can provide a powerful environment for shared learning among similar age groups as well as different generations. This study aims to explore the literature on the effectiveness and economic aspects of intergenerational interventions among children and young people in terms of academic performance and psychosocial outcomes. Methods: A literature review was conducted to assess current research regarding intergenerational activities and outcomes among young peo...

  18. The Decline in Intergenerational Mobility in Post-Socialist Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Hertz; Mieke Meurs; Sibel Selcuk

    2007-01-01

    Economists studying developing and transition economies have recently drawn attention to the problem of intergenerational immobility, or the high rate of transmission of inequality from parent to child (World Bank 2005). One readily estimable measure of this intergenerational persistence of economic status is the degree of association between the educational attainment of parents and children. This paper documents that the strength of this association has doubled in Bulgaria since the end of ...

  19. BSE Rap: intergenerational ties to save lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, J L

    1993-09-01

    This article presents an innovative public-education strategy that was created to promote breast health awareness and early breast cancer detection among minority and low-income adolescent females. Given the importance of teaching breast self-examination (BSE), program development focused on creation of the BSE Rap, a lively music-video presentation. Increasing adolescents' knowledge and awareness of BSE is viewed as a springboard for disseminating information to their mothers and grandmothers. Funding was obtained for production of a video and a breast health diary, which are the program's key components. Marketing strategies included contacts with community organizations and healthcare professionals. Program evaluations reveal that the BSE Rap serves as a positive motivator for participants to discuss BSE and mammography with their mothers and grandmothers. The BSE Rap offers oncology nurses the opportunity to save lives using a unique and creative tool that focuses on intergenerational ties. PMID:8415152

  20. Intergenerational perspectives on ageing, economics and globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Evidence shows population ageing to be historically a product of economic development, closely associated with high living standards and national affluence. Nonetheless, fears that an aged population leads to economic stagnation and public bankruptcy are widespread. In justification for cuts to public programs and the transfer of costs and risks from the state to individuals and families, the projections of social expenditures, in particular those based on ageing, are frequently identified as overgenerous and unsustainable in many G20 countries such as Australia and New Zealand. Claims based on intergenerational research methodologies and frameworks, a relatively new and innovative approach to using data projections, have proven to be important in these policy debates. This paper explores the application of these new technologies to understanding the impact of ageing on the economy in the globalised world of the 21st century. PMID:25471743

  1. Differential expression of two ß-amylase genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in developing and mature barley grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific (Bmy1) and ubiquitous (Bmy2) ß-amylase were studied during the late maturation phase of seed development in four genotypes. Sequencing of Bmy2 from genomic DNA revealed six polymorphisms in the introns and two synonymous SNPs in the coding region. Acc...

  2. Mendelian Randomisation Study of Childhood BMI and Early Menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah S. Mumby; Elks, Cathy E; Shengxu Li; Sharp, Stephen J.; Kay-Tee Khaw; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ken K Ong

    2011-01-01

    To infer the causal association between childhood BMI and age at menarche, we performed a mendelian randomisation analysis using twelve established “BMI-increasing” genetic variants as an instrumental variable (IV) for higher BMI. In 8,156 women of European descent from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, height was measured at age 39–77 years; age at menarche was self-recalled, as was body weight at age 20 years, and BMI at 20 was calculated as a proxy for childhood BMI. DNA was genotyped for twelve BM...

  3. A Journey in Understanding Intergenerational Care--To Amsterdam with Aloha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Describes intergenerational studies as means of linking young and old persons to promote mutually beneficial interaction. Reviews development of an intergenerational program in Hawaii and describes its current operation in three child care centers. (DLH)

  4. Bmi-1, stem cells and prostate carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Moscatelli; E Lynette Wilson

    2011-01-01

    @@ Malignant transformation is likely to arise in a subset of organ-specific primitive cells that are subverted to acquire the properties of uncontrolled self-renewal.1,2 It is therefore likely that stem cells and tumor-initiating cells share many properties and that an understanding of the biology of normal stem cells and the identification of the pathways and molecules that regulate their self-renewal may result in our ability to design inhibitors that control the growth of tumor cells.In an interesting recent paper, Lukacs et al.3 show that the polycomb group transcriptional repressor, Bmi-1, regulates the self-renewal of normal prostate stem cells and also contributes to the initiation of prostate cancer.

  5. Family Communication and Multigenerational Learning in an Intergenerational Land Transfer Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Michael; Hagen Jokela, Becky; Sagor, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing intergenerational differences sets the stage for sharing and learning across the generations. An intergenerational land transfer education class was designed to engage families around the issue of parcelization and development of forested lands. A post-class survey of the Intergenerational Land Transfer class was used to evaluate…

  6. Bmi1 overexpression in the cerebellar granule cell lineage of mice affects cell proliferation and survival without initiating medulloblastoma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourinaz Behesti

    2013-01-01

    BMI1 is a potent inducer of neural stem cell self-renewal and neural progenitor cell proliferation during development and in adult tissue homeostasis. It is overexpressed in numerous human cancers – including medulloblastomas, in which its functional role is unclear. We generated transgenic mouse lines with targeted overexpression of Bmi1 in the cerebellar granule cell lineage, a cell type that has been shown to act as a cell of origin for medulloblastomas. Overexpression of Bmi1 in granule cell progenitors (GCPs led to a decrease in cerebellar size due to decreased GCP proliferation and repression of the expression of cyclin genes, whereas Bmi1 overexpression in postmitotic granule cells improved cell survival in response to stress by altering the expression of genes in the mitochondrial cell death pathway and of Myc and Lef-1. Although no medulloblastomas developed in ageing cohorts of transgenic mice, crosses with Trp53−/− mice resulted in a low incidence of medulloblastoma formation. Furthermore, analysis of a large collection of primary human medulloblastomas revealed that tumours with a BMI1high TP53low molecular profile are significantly enriched in Group 4 human medulloblastomas. Our data suggest that different levels and timing of Bmi1 overexpression yield distinct cellular outcomes within the same cellular lineage. Importantly, Bmi1 overexpression at the GCP stage does not induce tumour formation, suggesting that BMI1 overexpression in GCP-derived human medulloblastomas probably occurs during later stages of oncogenesis and might serve to enhance tumour cell survival.

  7. Body Mass Index (BMI Trajectories from Birth to 11.5 Years: Relation to Early Life Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy M. Simpson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that the pattern of change over time, or trajectory, of body mass index (BMI varies among children. However, the factors that underlie the heterogeneity in these trajectories remain largely unexplored. Our aim was to use a growth mixture model to empirically identify classes of BMI trajectories (from birth to 11.5 years and examine the effects of breastfeeding, introduction of solids, as well as food and nutrient intake at 18 months on these BMI trajectories. We identified three BMI growth trajectories between birth and age 11.5 years, separately in boys and girls. Breastfeeding duration less than six months and the early introduction of solids did not adversely influence BMI trajectories in our sample but high intakes of meat, particularly high fat varieties, and high intakes of carbohydrate at age around 18 months were associated with a high BMI trajectory in boys. It is not clear whether these dietary factors confer a direct risk of higher BMI in childhood or are markers for other dietary patterns that are present early and/or develop through childhood and contribute to higher BMI.

  8. Knowledge Management for Knowledge Society and Intergenerational Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Goriup

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of globalization on contemporary post-modern society in the light of an aging population requires methods and techniques of education that are appropriate for young people and reflect (or accommodate intergenerational learning. The purpose of this paper is to analyse, through empirical research and study of literature, the context of the elderly who are too often marginalized and to show the impact of the knowledge of society based on the use of modern information and communication technologies, on intergenerational learning. The authors analyse some of the consequences of the demographic changes and highlight the role and importance of intergenerational learning and collaboration for sustainability, especially in the Slovenian ageing society. We identify the role and importance of intergenerational learning for coexistence of generations. In the analysis of the empirical data of the conducted research, we conclude that the effectiveness of the knowledge society is influenced by both: the globalization processes and the intergenerational integration, as well as (and in particular the cultural capital of younger generations and, last, but not least, the willingness of all generations to participate in the transmission and acquisition of knowledge.

  9. Is there an association between food portion size and BMI among British adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Cade, Janet E

    2014-09-14

    The prevalence of obesity has increased simultaneously with the increase in the consumption of large food portion sizes (FPS). Studies investigating this association among adolescents are limited; fewer have addressed energy-dense foods as a potential risk factor. In the present study, the association between the portion size of the most energy-dense foods and BMI was investigated. A representative sample of 636 British adolescents (11-18 years) was used from the 2008-2011 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey. FPS were estimated for the most energy-dense foods (those containing above 10·5 kJ/g (2·5 kcal/g)). Regression models with BMI as the outcome variable were adjusted for age, sex and misreporting energy intake (EI). A positive association was observed between total EI and BMI. For each 418 kJ (100 kcal) increase in EI, BMI increased by 0·19 kg/m2 (95 % CI 0·10, 0·28; Pbreakfast cereals, cream and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated)) were found to be positively associated with a higher BMI among all adolescents after adjusting for misreporting. When eliminating the effect of under-reporting, larger portion sizes of a number of high-energy-dense foods (biscuits, cheese, cream and cakes) were found to be positively associated with BMI among normal reporters. The portion sizes of only high-fibre breakfast cereals and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated) were found to be positively associated with BMI among under-reporters. These findings emphasise the importance of considering under-reporting when analysing adolescents' dietary intake data. Also, there is a need to address adolescents' awareness of portion sizes of energy-dense foods to improve their food choice and future health outcomes. PMID:24998364

  10. The Validity of Administrative BMI Data in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmund C; Son, Min-Sun; Mossad, David; Toossi, Nader; Johanson, Norman A; Gonzalez, Mark H; Meller, Menachem M

    2015-10-01

    Identifying BMI via administrative data is a useful way to evaluate outcomes in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) for varying degrees of obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concordance between BMI coding in administrative claims data and actual clinical BMI measurements in the medical record for patients undergoing TJA. Clinical BMI value was shown to be a significant determinant of whether ICD-9 codes were used to report the patient's obesity status (P<0.01). Although a higher clinical BMI strongly increased the likelihood of having either of the ICD-9 diagnosis codes used to identify obesity status, only the accuracy of the V85 code increased with increasing levels of BMI. PMID:26088396

  11. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence.Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011.Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence.Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.

  12. Intergenerational relations in the sociological theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ondrejkovič

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of relations between the generations is one of the important factors of the dynamics of social development. Intergenerational relationships are affected by the characteristics of youth, the process of individualization, the loss of traditional certainties, "tribalism" and "nomadism", insecurity and violence. Permanently generating new tensions and insecurity, as well as fear and anxiety associated with finding new certainties, are often connected with escape from reality. The issues of globalization and ambivalence, including the opposites, are becoming the central living paradigm of the young generation. The ambivalence stems from the growth of the possibilities of social action, on one hand, and the incoming threats and risks arising from the need to manage and overcome the ever more complex and difficult life tasks, without any support in previous forms of socialization, on the other. Teachers, psychologists and social workers should be properly educated with fresh knowledge on the younger generation and the new situation that can be characterized as a megatrend.

  13. Environmental quality, the macroeconomy, and intergenerational distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studies the dynamic allocation effects and intergenerational welfare consequences of environmental taxes. To this end, environmental externalities are introduced in a Blanchard-Yaari overlapping generations model of a small open economy. A rise in environmental taxes - taking into account pre-existing distortionary taxes and endogenous labor supply - is shown to yield an efficiency gain if agents care enough for the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations because agents are heterogeneous in their capital ownership. An accompanying debt policy can be designed - prescribing debt accumulation at impact and debt redemption in the new steady state - to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With lump-sum recycling of environmental tax revenue, aggregate employment is unaffected in the short run, but falls in the long run. Furthermore, it raises environmental quality more in the long run than in the short run. Recycling revenue through a cut in labor taxes, however, is shown to yield a rise in employment in the short run, which disappears during transition. In the new steady state, environmental quality is higher at the expense of a lower level of employment. (author)

  14. Intergenerational Transmission of Stress in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Mallory E; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that offspring are affected by parental trauma or stress exposure, first noted anecdotally, is now supported empirically by data from Holocaust survivor offspring cohorts and other populations. These findings have been extended to less extreme forms of stress, where differential physical, behavioral, and cognitive outcomes are observed in affected offspring. Parental stress-mediated effects in offspring could be explained by genetics or social learning theory. Alternatively, biological variations stemming from stress exposure in parents could more directly have an impact on offspring, a concept we refer to here as 'intergenerational transmission', via changes to gametes and the gestational uterine environment. We further extend this definition to include the transmission of stress to offspring via early postnatal care, as animal studies demonstrate the importance of early maternal care of pups in affecting offsprings' long-term behavioral changes. Here, we review clinical observations in offspring, noting that offspring of stress- or trauma-exposed parents may be at greater risk for physical, behavioral, and cognitive problems, as well as psychopathology. Furthermore, we review findings concerning offspring biological correlates of parental stress, in particular, offspring neuroendocrine, epigenetic, and neuroanatomical changes, in an attempt to determine the extent of parental stress effects. Although understanding the etiology of effects in offspring is currently impeded by methodological constraints, and limitations in our knowledge, we summarize current information and conclude by presenting hypotheses that have been prompted by recent studies in the field. PMID:26279078

  15. Learning in a family from intergenerational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Pevná

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on intergenerational learning in the family. The researchquestion is: What do children, parents and grandparents learn from one another andhow they see it? To find answers to this research question, we have organized a questionnairesurvey among participants of courses (programmes of non-formal learning attendedby adults of different generations. The questions focused on basic characteristicsof respondents and their families, on their evaluation of communication in the family,leisure time sharing, family atmosphere, relations and directionality and reciprocity oflearning. Answers by three groups of respondents (children, parents and grandparentswere compared and interpreted on the basis of characteristics and attitudes of therespondents and their families. One might expect that research in intergenerationallearning in the family may bring a new outlook of the family which might providea kind of counterpart to the processes of family weakening which have been pointedout so often. If family members learn from one another while not insisting on relationsof dominance, if they pass their knowledge and experience in both directions, theyenrich one another and strengthen the cohesion of the family as such.

  16. Longevity, Growth and Intergenerational Equity - The Deterministic Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Gestsson, Marias Halldór

    Challenges raised by ageing (increasing longevity) have prompted policy debates featuring policy proposals justified by reference to some notion of intergenerational equity. However, very different policies ranging from pre-savings to indexation of retirement ages have been justified in this way....... We develop an overlapping generations model in continuous time which encompasses different generations with different mortality rates and thus longevity. Allowing for both trend increases in longevity and productivity, we address the issue of intergenerational equity under a utilitarian criterion...... when future generations are better off in terms of both material and non-material well being. Increases in productivity and longevity are shown to have very different implications for intergenerational distribution....

  17. Intergenerational redistribution and risk sharing with changing longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2014-01-01

    Trend increases in longevity are a global phenomenon challenging the fiscal sustainability of current welfare arrangements. Policy proposals abound and often build on implicit assertions concerning intergenerational equity. This paper offers a simple but manageable OLG model with endogenous...... retirement and cohort-specific longevity to address intergenerational redistribution and risk sharing. While it is well known that a utilitarian planner strives for consumption smoothing, it is shown that healthy ageing calls for work smoothing in the sense that retirement ages increase with longevity. Hence......, cohorts with higher longevity should contribute to their larger consumption needs via later retirement, although it is shown that the planner still front-loads some financing (pre-saving). Stochastic longevity raises the issue of intergenerational risk sharing, which implies that cohorts turning out to...

  18. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to BMI Screening in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses advocates for body mass index (BMI) screening. Little research describes school nurse practice of BMI screening. In this descriptive study, 25 Ohio school nurses participated in three focus groups. An adapted "Healthy People 2010" Determinants of Health Model guided the research questions. School nurses…

  19. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  20. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and sedentariness (Sed in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years. Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002 and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002. Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04, while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13, biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07, media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08 and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03 and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04 diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25, playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20 and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08 were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  1. Intergenerational Ties in Context: Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feinian; Liu, Guangya; Mair, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Guided by theories and empirical research on intergenerational relationships, we examine the phenomenon of grandparents caring for grandchildren in contemporary China. Using a longitudinal dataset (China Health and Nutrition Survey), we document a high level of structural and functional solidarity in grandparent-grandchildren relationships.…

  2. Young and Old Together: A Resource Directory of Intergenerational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Intended to help various segments of the community, including parents, senior citizens, local representatives of business and industry, retired teachers, and college students in the quest for quality schooling for all children, this directory contains information on intergenerational programs located throughout the state of California. Program…

  3. Gender and Migration Background in Intergenerational Educational Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneebaum, Alyssa; Rumplmaier, Bernhard; Altzinger, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    We employ 2011 European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey data for Austria to perform uni- and multivariate econometric analyses to study the role of gender and migration background (MB) in intergenerational educational mobility. We find that there is more persistence in the educational attainment of girls relative to their…

  4. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Styles of Irish Immigrant Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Helen G.

    2010-01-01

    The research on child developmental outcomes underscores the importance of exploring parenting styles and identifying their multifactorial and intergenerational influences. This descriptive study examined the individual parenting styles of a sample of 82 Irish immigrant mothers and investigated the factors that influenced their individual…

  5. Examining the Requirements for an Intergenerational Learning Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Teppo; Ypsilanti, Antonia; Ropes, Don; Vivas, Ana B.; Viitala, Matti; Ijäs, Tuula

    2014-01-01

    Intergenerational learning (IGL) has been identified as a viable way to help organizations deal with the problems an ageing worker population brings with it. Information and communications technology (ICT) in its many forms can be utilized to support IGL. This paper investigates the requirements for a game that would help raise stakeholder…

  6. Intergenerational Transmission of Language Capital and Economic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Teresa; Dustmann, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the intergenerational transmission of language capital among immigrants, and the effect of language deficiencies on the economic performance of second-generation immigrants. Using a long panel that oversamples immigrants, we can follow their children after they have left the parental home. Our results show a sizeable…

  7. Intergenerational programs for persons with dementia: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Bethany; Larkin, Hannah; Moorhouse, Aynsley; Oomen, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Participation in intergenerational programs can have a positive impact on quality of life and well-being across age groups. We sought to examine the characteristics, goals, and outcomes of intergenerational programs for persons with dementia and children or youth. Six hundred and seventy-nine unique abstracts were identified through a search of 7 medical databases, 16 social science databases, 2 gray literature databases, and other sources. Twenty-seven articles met criteria for review. Articles must have gathered information on program design, goals, outcomes, or participants' perceptions. Overall, 3 themes emerged: program design, outcomes for child or youth participants, and outcomes for persons with dementia. Music, arts-based, and narrative programs were most common. Outcomes include effects on perceptions of aging and dementia, behavior, mood, engagement and sense of self. The use of qualitative and quantitative data, as well as descriptive articles, provided a richer picture of the relational features of intergenerational programs to emerge. The type of program had less of an impact on positive outcomes than if the activity was meaningful for participants and supported shared opportunities for relationship building and growth. The relationship-based skill set and scope of social work practitioners provides opportunity for the development, facilitation, and evaluation of intergenerational programs. The difficulties of establishing best practices due to methodological challenges and implications for further research are presented. PMID:25748444

  8. The Intergenerational Reproduction of Cultural Capital: A Threefold Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaykamp, Gerbert; van Eijck, Koen

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies on cultural capital have never fully operationalized the concept using indicators of all three states distinguished by Bourdieu, i.e., institutionalized, embodied and objectified cultural capital. We provide such a threefold measurement for both respondents and their parents in our analysis of the intergenerational transmission…

  9. Aging Electorates, Intergenerational Fairness and Pro-Elderly Policy Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the state of the art in comparative politics and political sociology on the interplay between population aging and public policies in OECD democracies. It discusses findings from the Intergenerational Justice Index (IJI) - a simple four-dimensional indicator developed with th...

  10. Longevity, Growth and Intergenerational Equity: The Deterministic Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Gestsson, Marias Halldór

    2016-01-01

    Challenges raised by aging (increasing longevity) have prompted policy debates featuring policy proposals justified by reference to some notion of intergenerational equity. However, very different policies ranging from presavings to indexation of retirement ages have been justified in this way. We...

  11. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP): An Intergenerational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Sol R.; Hochstadt, Neil J.

    1993-01-01

    Presents new information about Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP), factitious disorder in which caretaker may induce or exaggerate medical illness in his or her child that may lead to illness and even death. Provides psychosocial history of caregiver using intergenerational model. Presents case of MSBP involving three siblings and information…

  12. Like Godfather, Like Son: Exploring the Intergenerational Nature of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarsson, Randi; Lindquist, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Sons (daughters) with criminal fathers have 2.06 (2.66) times higher odds of having a criminal conviction than those with noncriminal fathers. One additional paternal sentence increases sons' (daughters') convictions by 32 (53) percent. Compared to traditional labor market measures, the intergenerational transmission of crime is lower than that…

  13. Recent Developments in Intergenerational Mobility. NBER Working Paper No. 15889

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Economists and social scientists have long been interested in intergenerational mobility, and documenting the persistence between parents and children's outcomes has been an active area of research. However, since Gary Solon's 1999 Chapter in the Handbook of Labor Economics, the literature has taken an interesting turn. In addition to focusing on…

  14. Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

  15. Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attainment: The Role of Household Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    High intergenerational persistence of educational attainment is an indicator of educational inequality and a barrier to equal opportunities in the labor market and beyond. This study uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to generate a sample of two cohorts of children ('84 and '94 cohorts), and it examines whether intergenerational…

  16. Orchestrating Literacies: Print Literacy Learning Opportunities within Multimodal Intergenerational Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Lori L.; Heydon, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory case study considered the opportunities for print literacy learning within multimodal ensembles that featured art, singing and digital media within the context of an intergenerational programme that brought together 13 kindergarten children (4 and 5 years) with seven elder companions. Study questions concerned how reading and…

  17. Intergenerational Energy Balance Interventions: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark; Studts, Christina R.; Bardach, Shoshana H.; Bersamin, Andrea; Schoenberg, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Many nations have witnessed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and overweight across their population. Recognizing the influence of the household environment on energy balance has led many researchers to suggest that intergenerational interventions hold promise for addressing this epidemic. Yet few comprehensive reviews of…

  18. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between parenting styles. Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) emerge as equilibrium outcomes, and are ...

  19. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  20. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  1. Development of Future Generations: Oriented Virtual Negotiation Support System for Intergenerational Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Weihua; Zhong Xiaohong; Xue Pengli

    2008-01-01

    Intergenerational conflict coordination is the fundamental requirement and core of sustainable development. In this paper, through the analysis of the future generations-oriented management mechanisms for intergenerational conflict, the idea of mechanisms and institution building for the coordination and management of intergenerational conflict is put forward. Furthermore, the future generations-oriented virtual negotiation support system (NSS) for intergenerational conflict is developed, built on the analysis of the process simulation of intergenerational wealth transfer, intergenerational equilibrium allocation of resources, and strategies for the mitigation and avoidance of intergenerational conflict, through the application of advanced IT technology. The virtual NSS for intergenerational conflict is helpful to the practical application of the sustainable development theory; on the other hand, it can be applied directly to the intergenerational equilibrium allocation of resources, national economic accounting, formulation of sustainable development strategies and other urgent national economic and social development issues. Finally, the sustainable development theory can be enriched and extended. Therefore, the development of the future generations-oriented virtual NSS for intergenerational conflict has certain theoretical and practical effects on the theory of sustainable development.

  2. Variability of Seed Traits in Interspecific and Intergeneric Combinations between Different Genotypes of Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica MIHALTE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on aesthetic consideration of cacti plants and germination capacity of the pollen grains (more than 30%, 19 genotypes of cacti (including Aylostera narvaecensis, A. buiningiana, Rebutia kupperiana var. spiniflorum, R. donaldiana have been used in cyclic cross-pollination pattern. Fruits and seeds obtained from 24 interspecific and intergeneric combinations were analyzed by studying their main traits. The highest weight was registered for fruit belonging to R. pseudodeminuta var. schumaniana x R. senilis (23.3 mg and A. buiningiana x A. vallegardensis (20.4 mg. Coefficient of variability for fruit weight had large amplitude, between 12.3% (A. spinosissima x A. albiflora and 98.4% (A. favistyla x A. archibuinigiana. The fruits belonging to A. muscula x A. vallegardensis were registered with the highest value of number of seeds/fruit (93.2. In the cross between genera, the greatest value of fruits weights mean was registered on R. senilis x A. archibuinigiana (29.2 mg and R. cajasensis x A. muscula (23.1 mg. Peculiarities of the fruits and seeds resulted from intergeneric combinations presented closer connections than interspecific ones. The phenotypic traits of fruits and seeds did not influence the seeds germination, but germination was clearly influenced by compatibility between genitors.

  3. Preceptorship in the intergenerational context: an integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Vicki; Myrick, Florence; Yonge, Olive

    2011-01-01

    Preceptorship is a teaching/learning method used in many undergraduate nursing programs whereby learners are individually assigned to expert practitioners in the clinical setting. The current reality in today's workplace setting encompasses four generations (Veterans, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials) working together and often these generations do not share the same work ethic or expectations. Given this generational diversity, increased knowledge and awareness of the intergenerational context of the preceptorship experience is both an important and timely topic for nursing education. The purpose of this paper is to discuss an integrative review of the literature using the methodology of Whittemore and Knafl (2005). The computerized databases of CINAHL, PubMed, ProQuest Education, ERIC, and EMBASE were used to generate relevant literature. The sample consisted of 98 articles; 18 being research and 80 theoretical. Given the large sample size, the authors focus on summarizing the research literature in this paper. This review calls attention to the need for further research into generational diversity and its influence on the preceptorship experience. It also highlights the limited research that currently exists on the topic of the intergenerational nursing workforce. Implications for nursing education and clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:20537771

  4. The impact of BMI on subgroups of uterine cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lindemann, K; Vatten, L J; Ellstrøm-Engh, M; A. Eskild

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity increases the risk of uterine cancer, but results by histological type have differed. Methods: We followed 36 755 women for 17.8 years for uterine cancers. Results and conclusion: Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with uterine cancers as a whole, particularly for endometrioid adenocarcinomas, for which the relative risk for very obese women (BMI: ⩾40 kg m−2) compared with lean (BMI: 20–24 kg m−2) women, was 11.1 (95% confidence interval: 5.2–23.8)....

  5. Social class and BMI among Canadian adults: a focus on occupational prestige.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; Godley, Jenny

    2009-02-01

    The objective was to examine BMI of working-age Canadian adults in relation to occupational prestige, adjusting for other aspects of social class including household income and respondent's education. We analyzed data from 49,252 adults (age 25-64) from Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional self-report survey conducted in 2003. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the relation between BMI and occupational prestige, adjusting for other sociodemographic variables. For women, higher ranking occupations showed lower average BMI relative to the lowest ranking occupations, but this effect was largely eliminated when adjusting for education. For men, occupation effects endured in adjusted models and we detected some evidence of a pattern whereby men in occupations characterized by management/supervisory responsibilities were heavier than those in the lowest ranking occupations (i.e., elemental sales and service). Results are interpreted in light of the symbolic value of body size in western culture, which differs for men and women. Men in positions of management/supervision may benefit from the physical dominance conveyed by a larger body size, and thus occupational prestige rankings may help us to understand the gender differences in the patterning of BMI by different indicators of social class. PMID:19039314

  6. Education Modifies Genetic and Environmental Influences on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel;

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight......, and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and...... nonshared environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this...

  7. Intergenerational economic mobility in the U.S., 1940 to 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Aaronson; Bhashkar Mazumder

    2005-01-01

    We use two sample instrumental variables to estimate intergenerational economic mobility from 1940 to 2000. We find intergenerational mobility increased from 1940 to 1980 but declined sharply thereafter, a pattern similar to cross-sectional inequality trends. However, the returns to education account for only some of these patterns. The time- series may help to reconcile previous findings in the intergenerational mobility literature. Our estimates imply a somewhat different pattern for the in...

  8. Fiscal Deficits, Asset Prices and Intergenerational Distribution in an Open Unionized Economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Steigum, Erling, Jr

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on intergenerational welfare effects of fiscal deficits in an OLG model with wage bargaining and equilibrium unemployment. Changes in wage and profit tax rates alter the intergenerational distribution by affecting capital accumulation as well as the price of a fixed asset. The welfare effect on the first old generation crucially depends on the tax instruments applied. The intergenerational welfare effects of postponing labor taxes are qualitatively similar to the effects in...

  9. Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children

    OpenAIRE

    Vítor P. Lopes; Stodden, David F.; Bianchi, Mafalda M.; Maia, José A. R.; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the association between motor coordination (MC) and body mass index (BMI) across childhood and early adolescence. Design: This study is cross-sectional. Methods: Data were collected in 7175 children (boys n = 3616, girls n = 3559), ages 6–14 years. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight [body mass (kg)/height (m2)]. Motor coordination was evaluated using Kiphard-Schilling’s body coordination test (KTK). Spearman’s rank correlation was used to study ...

  10. A STUDY ON BRAIN – MACHINE INTERFACE (BMI)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Muqeeth*,

    2015-01-01

    A brain – machine interface (BMI), sometimes called a mind - machine interface (MMI), or sometimes called a direct neural interface (DNI), synthetic telepathy interface (STI) or a brain – machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often directed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or se nsory - motor functions. The field of BCI research and developmen...

  11. Satraplatin: BMS 182751, BMY 45594, JM 216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Satraplatin [BMS 182751, BMY 45594, JM 216] belongs to a series of orally-active platinum compounds with anticancer activity. It was jointly originated by Bristol-Myers Squibb, Johnson Matthey and the Institute of Cancer Research in the UK; however, Johnson Matthey has since ceased involvement with drug development. Subsequently, the agent has been licensed to and is under development with GPC Biotech, Pharmion and Spectrum Pharmaceuticals. Clinical trials are underway to evaluate satraplatin among patients with different tumour types, including prostate, breast, cervical and lung cancers. The compound is under regulatory review with the US FDA for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. NeoTherapeutics (now Spectrum Pharmaceuticals) granted GPC Biotech an exclusive worldwide licence to develop and market satraplatin in October 2002. Under the terms of the agreement, GPC Biotech is fully funding development costs and commercialisation requirements for the drug. The deal also involves GPC Biotech paying a signing fee, milestone and royalty payments. Spectrum is a member of a joint development committee headed by GPC Biotech to govern development of satraplatin. Previously in October 2001, NeoOncoRx (Spectrum Pharmaceuticals) gained the rights to develop and market the compound worldwide. In December 2005, GPC Biotech and Pharmion Corporation entered into a co-development and license agreement for satraplatin. Under the agreement terms, Pharmion has exclusive commercialisation rights for Europe, Turkey, the Middle East, Australia and New Zealand, while GPC Biotech retains rights to North America and all other territories. Pharmion made an upfront payment of $US37.1 million to GPC Biotech, which included reimbursement for past clinical development costs plus funding for ongoing and certain clinical development activities to be jointly conducted by the companies. In addition, both parties will pursue a joint development plan for satraplatin in a variety of

  12. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  13. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Börnhorst

    Full Text Available Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences.The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008 and follow-up examination (2009/2010 supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences.Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers' smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found.Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association

  14. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Siani, Alfonso; Russo, Paola; Kourides, Yannis; Sion, Isabelle; Molnár, Denés; Moreno, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Howe, Laura; Lissner, Lauren; Mehlig, Kirsten; Regber, Susann; Bammann, Karin; Foraita, Ronja

    2016-01-01

    Background Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences. Methods The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden) participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008) and follow-up examination (2009/2010) supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences. Results Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries) with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG) was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers’ smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found. Conclusion Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed

  15. Adolescent BMI Trajectory and Risk of Diabetes versus Coronary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Afek, Arnon; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Ayalon, Nir; Gordon, Barak; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Shamis, Ari; Vinker, Shlomo; Rudich, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association of body-mass index (BMI) from adolescence to adulthood with obesity-related diseases in young adults has not been completely delineated. METHODS We conducted a prospective study in which we followed 37,674 apparently healthy young men for incident angiography-proven coronary heart disease and diabetes through the Staff Periodic Examination Center of the Israeli Army Medical Corps. The height and weight of participants were measured at regular intervals, with the first measurements taken when they were 17 years of age. RESULTS During approximately 650,000 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up, 17.4 years), we documented 1173 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and 327 of coronary heart disease. In multivariate models adjusted for age, family history, blood pressure, lifestyle factors, and biomarkers in blood, elevated adolescent BMI (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters; mean range for the first through last deciles, 17.3 to 27.6) was a significant predictor of both diabetes (hazard ratio for the highest vs. the lowest decile, 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 3.58) and angiography-proven coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.77 to 10.62). Further adjustment for BMI at adulthood completely ablated the association of adolescent BMI with diabetes (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.37) but not the association with coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 6.85; 95% CI, 3.30 to 14.21). After adjustment of the BMI values as continuous variables in multivariate models, only elevated BMI in adulthood was significantly associated with diabetes (β = 1.115, P = 0.003; P = 0.89 for interaction). In contrast, elevated BMI in both adolescence (β = 1.355, P = 0.004) and adulthood (β = 1.207, P = 0.03) were independently associated with angiography-proven coronary heart disease (P = 0.048 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS An elevated BMI in adolescence — one that is well within the range

  16. Preceptorship and Affirmation in the Intergenerational World of Nursing Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Foley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that while preceptorship offers a reality-oriented learning environment and facilitates competence of students, there are inherent rewards and stressors associated with the experience. Students and preceptors can be from different generations, and as such, they may often come to the learning space with differing values and expectations. The nature of the preceptorship experience in this intergenerational context was explored in a recent phenomenological study with seven preceptors and seven nursing students in an undergraduate nursing program in Eastern Canada. Overall the experience was found to be inclusive of three main themes: being affirmed, being challenged, and being on a pedagogical journey. In this paper we explore the first of these themes, being affirmed. Highlighting the positive aspects of the preceptorship experience in the intergenerational context is necessary to promote a culture of openness and respect for generational differences within clinical nursing practice settings and to improving the overall quality of the educational experience.

  17. Breaking the Intergenerational Cycle of Disadvantage: The Three Generation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Johnson, Sara B; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Health disparities in the United States related to socioeconomic status are persistent and pervasive. This review highlights how social disadvantage, particularly low socioeconomic status and the health burden it brings, is passed from 1 generation to the next. First, we review current frameworks for understanding the intergenerational transmission of health disparities and provide 4 illustrative examples relevant to child health, development, and well-being. Second, the leading strategy to break the cycle of poverty in young families in the United States, the 2-generation approach, is reviewed. Finally, we propose a new 3-generation approach that must combine with the 2-generation approach to interrupt the intergenerational cycle of disadvantage and eliminate health disparities. PMID:27244844

  18. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman O Oloritun

    Full Text Available Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and R(2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001 of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as

  19. Emotion Dysregulation in the Intergenerational Transmission of Romantic Relationship Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Owen, Lee D.

    2009-01-01

    The role of emotion dysregulation in the intergenerational transmission of romantic relationship conflict was examined using multimethod and multiagent prospective longitudinal data across 21 years for 190 men and their mothers and fathers. As predicted, an individual’s emotion dysregulation was a key mediator in the transmission of relationship conflict, along with poor parenting skills. Parents’ emotion dysregulation was directly related to their son’s emotion dysregulation, which was in tu...

  20. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

    OpenAIRE

    BOUCHER, Alexandre; Guimond. Éric; Robitaille, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    AbstractThis article deals with the contribution of intergenerational ethnic mobility tothe demographic reproduction of the Aboriginal groups in Canada: the NorthAmerican Indians, the Métis and the Inuit. To this effect, it attempts to see ifchildren in husband/wife census families keep the identity of their parents. Asexpected, children from endogamous couples generally keep their parents’identity. However, for most children from exogamous couples formed by anAboriginal person and a non-Abor...

  1. tRNA fragments: novel players in intergenerational inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapp, Katharina; Miska, Eric A

    2016-04-01

    Non-genetic inheritance is an evocative topic; in the past few years, the debate around potential inheritance of life-time experiences independent of social factors in mammals has become highly prominent due to increasing evidence for phenotypes in the offspring after paternal environmental exposures. Strikingly, two independent studies published in Science newly implicate a special class of RNA, transfer RNA fragments, in the intergenerational effects of paternal dietary intervention. PMID:26902286

  2. Intergenerational learning practices:digital leaders in schools

    OpenAIRE

    Passey, Don

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the management and outcomes of a specific model of intergenerational learning, concerned with student digital leader support in a number of secondary schools in England. A local educational partnership set up a student digital leader project late in 2011, which aimed to develop a range of skills and outcomes for both the digital leaders themselves and for a potentially wider variety of personnel within the schools. Five schools were involved in the project. The student dig...

  3. The Intergenerational Family Relationships of Grandparents and GLBQ Grandchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Scherrer, Kristin S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the intergenerational family relationships of grandparents and GLBQ grandchildren. Reviewing empirical research on GLBQ family of origin relationships that include materials on grandparent-GLBQ grandchild relationships, this paper examines, 1) disclosure patterns with grandparents, 2) social expectations that exist about “coming out” to grandparents, 3) social expectations of GLBQ grandchildren when “coming out” to grandparents, 4) the mediating role of parents and other ...

  4. The Role of social institutions in inter-generational mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Brian; Esping-Andersen, G??sta, 1947-; Whelan, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine the role of institutions in shaping inter-generational mobility behavior. Research has traditionally emphasized the role of educational systems but cummulative evidence suggests that variations in their design offer only a very limited explanation for observed mobility differences. We examine the impact of welfare states and, in particular, how early childhood and family policies may influence the impact of economic and cultural characteristics of origin families on c...

  5. An intergenerational program for persons with dementia using Montessori methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, C J; Judge, K S; Bye, C A; Fox, K M; Bowden, J; Bell, M; Valencic, K; Mattern, J M

    1997-10-01

    An intergenerational program bringing together older adults with dementia and preschool children in one-on-one interactions is described. Montessori activities, which have strong ties to physical and occupational therapy, as well as to theories of developmental and cognitive psychology, are used as the context for these interactions. Our experience indicates that older adults with dementia can still serve as effective mentors and teachers to children in an appropriately structured setting. PMID:9343920

  6. Inter-generational Contact From a Network Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Marcum, Christopher Steven; Koehly, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Pathways for resource—or other—exchanges within families have long been known to be dependent on the structure of relations between generations (Silverstein, 2011; Fuller-Thomson et al., 1997; Agree et al., 2005; Treas and Marcum, 2011). Much life course research has theorized models of inter-generational exchange— including, the ‘sandwich generation’ (Miller, 1981) and the ‘skipped generation’ pathways (Chalfie, 1994)—but there is little work relating these theories to relevant network mecha...

  7. The Impact of Demographic Change on Intergenerational Transfers via Bequests

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Zagheni; Brittney Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transfers in the form of bequests have important implications for the intergenerational transmission of inequality. Demographic change has relevant consequences for the timing and size of bequests. For example, longer life implies that people receive bequests when they are older. Conversely, increasing generational length reduces the average age at which people are given bequests. Objective: We analyze the consequences of demographic change in the United States on timing over t...

  8. Intergenerational Transmission of Gender Attitudes: Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Diva Dhar; Tarun Jain; Seema Jayachandran

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the intergenerational transmission of gender attitudes in India, a setting where discrimination against women and girls is severe. We use survey data on gender attitudes (specifically, views about the appropriate roles and rights of women and girls) collected from adolescents attending 314 schools in the state of Haryana, and their parents. We find that when a parent holds a more discriminatory attitude, his or her child is about 15 to 20 percentage points more likely to h...

  9. Trust of Second Generation Immigrants: Intergenerational Transmission or Cultural Assimilation?

    OpenAIRE

    Moschion, Julie; Tabasso, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the respective influence of intergenerational transmission and the environment in shaping individual trust. Focusing on second generation immigrants in Australia and the United States, we exploit the variation in the home and in the host country to separate the effect of the cultural background from that of the social and economic conditions on individual trust. Our results indicate that trust in the home country contributes to the trust of second generation immigrants in b...

  10. Knowledge Management for Knowledge Society and Intergenerational Education

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Goriup; Vilma Alina Šoba

    2015-01-01

    The impact of globalization on contemporary post-modern society in the light of an aging population requires methods and techniques of education that are appropriate for young people and reflect (or accommodate) intergenerational learning. The purpose of this paper is to analyse, through empirical research and study of literature, the context of the elderly who are too often marginalized and to show the impact of the knowledge of society based on the use of modern information and communicatio...

  11. Intergenerational Mobility and the Timing of Parental Income

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Pedro; Garcia, Italo Lopez; Salvanes, Kjell G.; Tominey, Emma

    2015-01-01

    We extend the standard intergenerational mobility literature by modelling individual outcomes as a function of the whole history of parental income, using data from Norway. We find that, conditional on permanent income, education is maximized when income is balanced between the early childhood and middle childhood years. In addition, there is an advantage to having income occur in late adolescence rather than in early childhood. These result are consistent with a model of parental investments...

  12. Intergenerational mobility of socio-economic status in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Björklund; Markus Jäntti

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews three strands of literature on socio-economic intergenerational mobility. The first is a mostly recent and rapidly growing economics literature that measures mobility in labour earnings and income. This approach is compared with two classical sociological approaches that measure the mobility in class and status. The United States seems to rank quite high in terms of class and status mobility, but low in terms of earnings and income mobility. This seemingly contradictory res...

  13. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  14. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  15. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  16. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Zilibotti; Matthias Doepke

    2014-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissi...

  17. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing children’s preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  18. Intergenerational interaction in health promotion: a qualitative study in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Elza Maria de Souza

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In 1994 a pilot intergenerational project was started in the city of Taguatinga, Brazil, to promote the well-being of both elderly and adolescent populations using reminiscence processes as a means of interaction. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the project from the participants' viewpoint and to improve the contribution of those age groups in building up social capital. METHODS: From November 1999 to April 2000 a qualitative study using focus groups technique was conducted...

  19. Ageing and intergenerational family ties in Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfol, N M; Rizk, A; Sibai, A M

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the dominant issues in intergenerational ties in Arab countries with a view to highlighting patterns, trends and challenges as well as policy implications. The data were drawn from a review of scholarly work and published literature in Arab countries and from a regional mapping of ageing policies and programmes in 2012. Social and health ageing policies in the region have been set with the premise that the family represents the core safety net for older Arabs. Yet demographic, sociocultural and economic transitions, as well as political conflict in the Arab world, are bringing profound changes to familial structures. This review feeds into efforts to promote health and social reforms that approach intergenerational solidarity from several fronts: providing equitable old-age income security, fostering cross-generational interactions, embracing caregivers and home-based care, promoting age-responsive actions in emergencies and conflicts, and prioritizing context- and country-specific research on the levels, types and trends in intergenerational and familial support. PMID:26857721

  20. Differences in Family Policies and the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The intergenerational transmission of the risk of divorce is a well-known long-term effect of divorce that has been found in many Western societies. Less known is what effect different family policies and divorce laws have on the intergenerational transmission of divorce. In this paper, the division of Germany into two separate states from 1949 until 1990, with the consequent development of two very different family policies, is regarded as a natural experiment that enables us to investigate the effect of family policy on the mechanisms underlying the social inheritance of divorce. Data from respondents from the former East and West Germany participating in the German Life History Study are analyzed using multivariate event-history methods. The results indicate that the strength of the intergenerational divorce transmission, when adjusted for differences in divorce level, was lower in the East than in the West. Differences in religion, marriage age and timing of first birth, which are partial indicators of family policy, could explain this effect. Furthermore, we did find a tendency towards a reduction in the dynamics of divorce transmission over time, both in East Germany and in West Germany.

  1. Genetic mechanisms in the intergenerational transmission of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Owen

    2014-05-01

    This paper uses a sample of adoptees to study the genetic mechanisms underlying intergenerational associations in chronic health conditions. I begin by estimating baseline intergenerational models with a sample of approximately 125,000 parent-child pairs, and find that children with a parent who has a specific chronic health condition are at least 100% more likely to have the same condition themselves. To assess the role of genetic mechanisms in generating these strong correlations, I estimate models using a sample of approximately 2400 adoptees, and find that genetic transmission accounts for only 20-30% of the baseline associations. As falsification tests, I repeat this exercise using health measures with externally established levels of genetic determination (height and chicken pox), and the results suggest that comparisons of biological and adopted children are a valid method of isolating genetic effects in this sample. Finally, to corroborate these adoptee-based estimates, I examine health correlations among monozygotic twins, which provide an upper bound estimate of genetic influences, and find a similarly modest role for genetic transmission. I conclude that intergenerational health transmission is an important hindrance to overall socioeconomic mobility, but that the majority of transmission occurs through environmental factors or gene-environment interactions, leaving scope for interventions to effectively mitigate health persistence. PMID:24674912

  2. Intergenerational interaction in health promotion: a qualitative study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Elza Maria de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In 1994 a pilot intergenerational project was started in the city of Taguatinga, Brazil, to promote the well-being of both elderly and adolescent populations using reminiscence processes as a means of interaction. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the project from the participants' viewpoint and to improve the contribution of those age groups in building up social capital. METHODS: From November 1999 to April 2000 a qualitative study using focus groups technique was conducted. Using a discussion guide, 9 groups of students, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, and 3 groups of elderly aged 60 years and over were interviewed to collect data regarding their interaction before and after an intergenerational program. RESULTS: The main findings suggested a change in attitude of young people toward old age and elderly people. Participating elderly people reported improvement in their health status. For both age groups the findings suggested a better understanding between generations. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that reminiscence intergenerational activity contributes to building up mutual trust and reciprocity. These results seem to indicate this is an alternative for investing in social capital and improving participants' well-being. However, further work is needed to support these findings.

  3. Intergenerational interaction in health promotion: a qualitative study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Maria de Souza

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In 1994 a pilot intergenerational project was started in the city of Taguatinga, Brazil, to promote the well-being of both elderly and adolescent populations using reminiscence processes as a means of interaction. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the project from the participants' viewpoint and to improve the contribution of those age groups in building up social capital. METHODS: From November 1999 to April 2000 a qualitative study using focus groups technique was conducted. Using a discussion guide, 9 groups of students, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, and 3 groups of elderly aged 60 years and over were interviewed to collect data regarding their interaction before and after an intergenerational program. RESULTS: The main findings suggested a change in attitude of young people toward old age and elderly people. Participating elderly people reported improvement in their health status. For both age groups the findings suggested a better understanding between generations. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that reminiscence intergenerational activity contributes to building up mutual trust and reciprocity. These results seem to indicate this is an alternative for investing in social capital and improving participants' well-being. However, further work is needed to support these findings.

  4. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  5. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred James; Braun, Wiebke; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-01-01

    BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA). However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis) does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC) integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity) and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient). FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone. PMID:27286962

  6. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred James Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA. However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient. FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone.

  7. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L; Gaylis, Jaclyn B

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was conducted at San Diego State University. Data were analysed by using t tests, χ(2) tests and regression analysis in SPSS. NMs exhibited a lower BMI than OMs (P food choices. NMs exercised longer than OMs in the habits and superior food choices among young adult females. More regular meal patterns, healthier snack choice and adherence to dietary guidelines may contribute to the lower BMI values observed among NMs compared with OMs. PMID:27066257

  8. The Relation of Weight Suppression and BMI to Bulimic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Juarascio, Adrienne; Lowe, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective High levels of weight suppression have been associated with greater binge eating and weight gain as well as poorer treatment outcome in bulimia nervosa. This study examined the relationship between weight suppression and bulimia nervosa symptoms and explored how weight suppression might interact with body mass index (BMI) in accounting for level of symptomatology at presentation for treatment. Method Participants were 64 women with threshold or sub-threshold bulimia nervosa. A clinical interview assessed binge eating and purging. Results Weight suppression and the interaction between BMI and weight suppression predicted frequency of binge eating such that participants with low BMI and high weight suppression engaged in the most binge eating. High levels of weight suppression also predicted more frequent purging. Discussion Additional research is warranted to examine mediators of these relationships. PMID:21997424

  9. Trends in BMI of urban Australian adults, 1980-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Helen L; Wolfe, Rory; Haby, Michelle M;

    2010-01-01

    . Survey participants were aged 25-64 years and resident in Australian capital cities. BMI was calculated as weight divided by height squared (kg/m2), where weight and height were measured using standard procedures. RESULTS: Mean BMI was higher in 2000 than 1980 in all sex and age groups. The age......-adjusted increase was 1.4 kg/m2 in men and 2.1 kg/m2 in women. The BMI distribution shifted rightwards for all sex and age groups and became increasingly right-skewed. The change between 1980 and 2000 ranged from a decrease of 0.04 kg/m2 at the lower end of the distribution for men aged 25-34 years to an increase...

  10. Intergenerational Learning (Between Generation X & Y) in Learning Families: A Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. Y. Cherri

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine intergenerational learning behaviour within ten Hong Kong families between Generation X parents and their Generation Y children. It tries to investigate intergenerational knowledge exchange, identify the characteristics of learning behaviour and culture in their "learning families". A narrative…

  11. Transnational Intergenerationalities: Cultural Learning in Polish Migrant Families and Its Implications for Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Daniela; Pietka-Nykaza, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we examine the impact of family migration on intergenerational learning, especially in relation to the transmission of cultural values and practices. Drawing on data collected through in-depth case studies with migrant Polish children and their parents, we explore the influence of intergenerationality on children's…

  12. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting: Closing Comments for the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Belsky, Jay; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2009-01-01

    The 5 studies in this special section both confirm prior findings regarding the intergenerational transmission of parenting and provide important new evidence regarding the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting and the developmental mediators that seem involved in that transmission. Consistent with earlier research, the findings…

  13. Education as Catalyst for Intergenerational Refugee Family Communication about War and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nancy J.; Suyemoto, Karen L.; Kiang, Peter Nien-chu

    2009-01-01

    This article describes influences on intergenerational communication within refugee families about sociocultural trauma and explores how education may positively affect this communication process. Drawing on qualitative research and grounded theory through a larger study concerning intergenerational effects of and communication about trauma in…

  14. Potential for Applying Intergenerational Practice to Protected Area Management in Mountainous Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Mitrofanenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One way of preserving the natural and cultural diversity of mountain areas and supporting their sustainable development is the establishment of protected areas. The scientific literature acknowledges the importance of participation by local stakeholders and of considering social cohesion in protected area management. Intergenerational practice has been shown to enhance participation and improve social cohesion; however, its potential role in natural resource management has not been considered by the research community. This paper explores the potential for integrating intergenerational practice into protected area management in mountainous regions, guided by 3 research questions: What challenges of protected area management could benefit from intergenerational practice? How can intergenerational practice help to address these challenges? And how could intergenerational practice be more strongly integrated into current protected area management? The paper focuses on selected management challenges, mostly related to the development function of protected areas, and suggests intergenerational practice solution pathways for each challenge, derived from qualitative content analysis of the literature, interviews with protected area and regional development experts, and participation in the project Big Foot: Crossing Generations, Crossing Mountains, which tested intergenerational learning approaches in 3 rural municipalities—one each in Bulgaria, Greece, and Italy. Recommendations are proposed for integrating intergenerational practice into protected area management policy and practice at the global, regional, and local levels.

  15. Changes in Intergenerational Eating Patterns and the Impact on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, Nicky

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine intergenerational eating patterns within two sets of families, those with an obese child and those with a normal weight child, and to assess the impact of intergenerational influences on children's eating. A qualitative study design was used, incorporating focus groups and semi-structured interviews.…

  16. The Role of Family Income in the Intergenerational Association of AFDC Receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Molly A.

    2003-01-01

    Daughters from low-income families not receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) are compared to daughters from low-income families receiving assistance to better account for family in intergenerational association of AFDC. Although this research cannot establish a causal role, intergenerational transition of financial resources…

  17. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansmann Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs, quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS. We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. Results GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. Conclusion GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  18. Religion, Race/Ethnicity, and Norms of Intergenerational Assistance among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G. Ellison

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data on adults ages 55 and over from the second wave of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH-2, this study models the main and interactive effects of religious involvement and race/ethnicity on four items of attitudes towards intergenerational assistance. Results indicate that African Americans and Hispanics tend to express stronger support for intergenerational assistance than non-Hispanic Whites. Conservative Protestants, Mormons, and Catholics are more likely than others to believe that adult children should offer co-residence to their aging parents. In addition, theological conservatism is positively associated with support for each type of intergenerational aid, and the net effect of theological conservatism is stronger for African Americans than for non-Hispanic Whites. However, religious attendance is statistically unrelated to norms of intergenerational assistance. It is concluded that religious factors are important in shaping norms of intergenerational support, particularly within minority communities.

  19. Impact of BMI and Gender on Outcomes in DLBCL Patients Treated with R-CHOP: A Pooled Study from the LYSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Sarkozy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (aaIPI score is currently used to predict patient outcomes and to choose the best therapeutic treatment. Body mass index (BMI and gender are occasionally sited as prognostic factors; however, their value has never been studied in a large series of patients included in prospective clinical trials in the rituximab era. To assess the impact of BMI and gender on OS and PFS independently of the aaIPI score, we pooled 985 patients that were prospectively included in GELA studies and uniformly treated with R-CHOP. Univariate analysis indicated that high aaIPI and male gender were associated with a worse PFS, whereas high (>25 or low (<18.5 BMI scores were not. High aaIPI score was the only factor predictive for OS. In a multivariate analysis, including aaIPI score, gender, BMI, and interaction between BMI and gender, aaIPI remained the strongest predictive factor, and BMI < 18.5 was significantly associated with a worse OS but not PFS. In conclusion, in the rituximab era, the aaIPI score remains the major predictor of outcome in DLBCL patients; however, male gender and low BMI seem to impact outcome.

  20. Social ideological influences on reported food consumption and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worsley Anthony

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between ideological beliefs, perceptions of the importance of health behaviours, health attitudes, food consumption, and Body Mass Index (BMI. A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975. Methods A survey was conducted among shoppers aged between 40 and 70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested with this empirical data (n = 410 for younger (n = 151 and older (n = 259 age groups using structural equation modelling. Results The findings generally support the study hypotheses. For both groups, egalitarianism had a direct and positive influence on perceptions of the importance of health behaviours. Materialism and masculinity impacted negatively on health attitudes, which positively influenced importance of health behaviours. Perceptions of importance of health behaviours impacted positively on the consumption of healthy foods such as vegetables and fruits, but negatively on consumption of unhealthy foods including sweets and fats. However, BMI was significantly influenced by the consumption of unhealthy foods (e.g., sugar and fats only for the younger age group. Hence, the associations between beliefs, attitudes, consumption behaviours, and BMI outcomes differed between younger and older age populations. Conclusion Social ideological beliefs appear to influence health attitudes and thereafter, the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods and BMI via different pathways.

  1. Longitudinal association between marital disruption and child BMI and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7,299 observations for 2,333 children, aged 5-14, over the 1986-2006 period, from a US representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before-after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop. Despite having a larger sample than the previous studies, the results provide no evidence that, on average, children's BMI and BMI percentile scores (measured with continuous outcomes) are affected before the disruption, after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption, relative to a baseline period a few years before the disruption. However, children experiencing a family disruption do have an increased risk of obesity (having a BMI percentile score of 95 or higher) in the two years leading up to the disruption as well as after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption. PMID:22484366

  2. BMI and depressive symptoms: the role of media pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders. PMID:24183138

  3. Effect of BMI on Knee Joint Torques in Ergometer Rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity bi

  4. Bmi-1 Regulates Extensive Erythroid Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Ram Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs, responsible for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide exchange, are essential for our well-being. Alternative RBC sources are needed to meet the increased demand for RBC transfusions projected to occur as our population ages. We previously have discovered that erythroblasts derived from the early mouse embryo can self-renew extensively ex vivo for many months. To better understand the mechanisms regulating extensive erythroid self-renewal, global gene expression data sets from self-renewing and differentiating erythroblasts were analyzed and revealed the differential expression of Bmi-1. Bmi-1 overexpression conferred extensive self-renewal capacity upon adult bone-marrow-derived self-renewing erythroblasts, which normally have limited proliferative potential. Importantly, Bmi-1 transduction did not interfere with the ability of extensively self-renewing erythroblasts (ESREs to terminally mature either in vitro or in vivo. Bmi-1-induced ESREs can serve to generate in vitro models of erythroid-intrinsic disorders and ultimately may serve as a source of cultured RBCs for transfusion therapy.

  5. Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kishore Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33±13.12 years from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02±1.47 kg/m2 was compared with obese group (29.31±3.95 kg/m2, <0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92±4.28 kg was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1 kg, <0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

  6. Different expression of EZH2, BMI1 and Ki67 in low and high grade neuroendocrine tumors of the lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondgaard, Anna-Louise Reinert Ørsum; Poulsen, Thomas Tuxen; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard;

    2012-01-01

    Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) and B lymphoma Mo-MLV Insertion region 1 polycomb ring finger (BMI1) are involved in malignant transformation of many human carcinomas. Still, in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (NELT) their expression pattern is largely unknown. This study evaluated their exp...

  7. Mental disorders in motherhood according to prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy-related weight changes-A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown an association between prepregnancy BMI and postpartum depression, but little is known about this association beyond one year postpartum and the influence of postpartum weight retention (PPWR). METHODS: We used data from 70355 mothers from the Danish Nation...... behind the associations are largely unknown. CONCLUSIONS: Low prepregnancy body weight and postpartum weight gain or loss are associated with occurrence of depression and anxiety disorders.......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown an association between prepregnancy BMI and postpartum depression, but little is known about this association beyond one year postpartum and the influence of postpartum weight retention (PPWR). METHODS: We used data from 70355 mothers from the Danish National...... Birth Cohort to estimate the associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and PPWR, respectively, and incident depression/anxiety disorders until six years postpartum. Outcome was depression or anxiety diagnosed clinically or filling a prescription for an antidepressant. Cox regression was used to...

  8. Family Events and Timing of Intergenerational Transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Leopold; Thorsten Schneider

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates how family events in adult children's lives influence the timing of their parents' financial transfers. We draw on retrospective data collected by the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) and use event history models to study the effects of marriage, divorce, and childbirth on receiving large gifts from parents. We find increased chances of receiving gifts of houses or land at marriage and in the following years, at childbirth, but not at divorce. Large gifts of...

  9. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  10. Genetic Analysis of Low BMI Phenotype in the Utah Population Database

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, William R.; Johnson, Craig; McKee, Patrick; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    The low body mass index (BMI) phenotype of less than 18.5 has been linked to medical and psychological morbidity as well as increased mortality risk. Although genetic factors have been shown to influence BMI across the entire BMI, the contribution of genetic factors to the low BMI phenotype is unclear. We hypothesized genetic factors would contribute to risk of a low BMI phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a genealogy data analysis using height and weight measurements from driver...

  11. The Correlation Between Self-Reported and Measured Height, Weight, and BMI in Reproductive Age Women

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Lauren W.; Allshouse, Amanda A.; Lesh, Jennifer; Polotsky, Alex J.; Santoro, Nanette

    2013-01-01

    This prospective, cross-sectional study of 60 women compares self- reported height, weight, and BMI with measured values. Self-reported BMI (29.0 ± 8.37kg/m2) was slightly lower than measured BMI (29.1 ± 8.38kg/m2) (p=0.4). Eighty percent of participants reported a BMI in the same category in which their BMI was measured. Pearson's correlation coefficient for height (0.96, p

  12. Money Marries Money - Intergenerational Top Household Income Mobility in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin David; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes intergenerational earnings and income mobility among top-income households in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the populations, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their spouses’ incomes. At the...... top of the income distribution we find a correlation of 0.763 between father and mother’s pooled income and that of their son and daughter-in-law’s pooled income, which indicates that money marries money....

  13. Intergenerational representations of schistosomiasis in endemic area, Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Maria Modena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.

  14. The benefits of intergenerational Programmes from the perspective of the professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gutiérrez Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of intergenerational programmes has shown that the relationship between individuals of different generation has a very positive impact on those directly involved in it. Intergenerational programmes have shown to be effective, for example, increasing the elderly’s psychological, physical, and social wellbeing, and changing young people’s perceptions about the elderly. The present study examines the impact of intergenerational programmes on those directly involved in them– children, adolescents, and elderly – as well as those that participate in the intergenerational relationship indirectly – family, professionals, and society – from the perspective of the professionals who work on the programmes. A qualitative design based on data collected through semi-structured interviews to 25 professionals who coordinated intergenerational programmes in Spain was used. The content analysis of the information provided by the professionals evidenced four dialectical dimensions on this study: impact on participants, impact on families, impact on professionals, and intergenerational connection. Finally, some conclusions on the importance of inquiring about the impact of these programmes on all those involved in intergenerational relationships are provided.

  15. Intergenerational Mobility in Sweden: a Regional Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Heidrich, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    I employ high quality register data and present new facts about income mobility in Sweden. The focus of the paper is regional mobility using a novel estimation approach based on a multilevel model. The maximum likelihood estimates are substantially more precise than those obtained by running separate OLS regressions. I find small regional differences in income mobility when measured in relative terms. Regional differences are large when adopting an absolute measure and focusing on upward mobi...

  16. Achieving business model innovation in large corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Winterhalter, Stephan; Weiblen, Tobias; Wecht, Christoph; Gassmann, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that business model innovation (BMI) has attracted intense scholarly attention, there is a paucity of insights concerning the organizational implementation of BMI efforts in large corporations. This paper investigates how business model innovation is managed in the complex environment of the chemical industry and derives consequences for the establishment of a systematic BMI process in large corporations. Based on a multiple case study design, we identify three different type...

  17. Family size and intergenerational social mobility during the fertility transition: Evidence of resource dilution from the city of Antwerp in nineteenth century Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van Bavel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued in sociology, economics, and evolutionary anthropology that family size limitation enhances the intergenerational upward mobility chances in modernized societies. If parents have a large flock, family resources get diluted and intergenerational mobility is bound to head downwards. Yet, the empirical record supporting this resource dilution hypothesis is limited. This article investigates the empirical association between family size limitation and intergenerational mobility in an urban, late nineteenth century population in Western Europe. It uses life course data from the Belgian city of Antwerp between 1846 and 1920. Findings are consistent with the resource dilution hypothesis: after controlling for confounding factors, people with many children were more likely to end up in the lower classes. Yet, family size limitation was effective as a defensive rather than an offensive strategy: it prevented the next generation from going down rather than helping them to climb up the social ladder. Also, family size appears to have been particularly relevant for the middle classes. Implications for demographic transition theory are discussed.

  18. Intergenerational equity and long-term stewardship plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an untold number of contaminated sites throughout the world, stewardship will be inevitable. For many such sites, stewardship will be a reasonable approach because of the uncertainties associated with present and future site conditions and site contaminants, the limited performance of available technologies, the nonavailability of technologies, and the risk and cost associated with complete cleanup. Regardless of whether stewardship is a realistic approach to site situations or simply a convenient default, it could be required at most contaminated sites for multiple generations. Because the stewardship plan is required to protect the release of hazardous contaminants to the environment, some use restrictions will be put in place to provide that protection. These use restrictions will limit access to resources for as long as the protection is required. The intergenerational quality of long-term stewardship plans and their inherent limitations on resource use require that they be designed to achieve equity among the affected generations. Intergenerational equity, defined here as the fairness of access to resources across generations, could be achieved through a well-developed stewardship plan that provides future generations with the information they need to make wise decisions about resource use. Developing and implementing such a plan would take into account the failure mechanisms of the plan's components, feature short stewardship time blocks that would allow for periodic reassessments of the site and of the stewardship program's performance, and provide present and future generations with necessary site information

  19. Linked lives: the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P; Freeman-Gallant, Adrienne; Lizotte, Alan J; Krohn, Marvin D; Smith, Carolyn A

    2003-04-01

    There is a strong assumption of intergenerational continuity in behavior patterns, including antisocial behavior. Using a 3-generation, prospective study design, we examine the level of behavioral continuity between Generation 2 (G2) and Generation 3 (G3), and the role of economic disadvantage and parenting behaviors as mediating links. We estimate separate models for G2 fathers and G2 mothers. Data are drawn from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 during G2's early adolescence (n = 1,000), which has collected prospective data on G2, their parents (G1), and now their G3 children. Results show that intergenerational continuity in antisocial behavior is evident, albeit somewhat modest. Parenting styles and financial stress do play a mediating role, although their effects vary by G2's gender. In general, adolescent delinquency plays a larger role in linking the generations for G2 fathers, whereas parenting behaviors and financial stress play a larger role for G2 mothers. PMID:12735399

  20. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L.; Gaylis, Jaclyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was c...

  1. Socioeconomic status in relation to BMI in Macedonian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bojadzieva, Biljana; Nakeva, Natasa; Zafirova, Biljana; Matveeva, Niki; Chadikovska, Elizabeta; Jovevska, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status in Macedonian high school students in relation to their socioeconomic status (SES), education and employment of their parents. In this study 117 adolescent students (48 males and 69 females) at the age of 17 and 18 were included. We measured weight and height using standard procedures while BMI was calculated. The examinees completed the questionnaire including data for SES, parents’ education and employment. Male ...

  2. Like my father before me : intergenerational occupational status transfer during industrialization (Zeeland, 1811–1915).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdeman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    This article studies the influence of macro-level developments on intergenerational status transfer in the Dutch province of Zeeland between 1811 and 1915. Hypotheses on the effects of industrialization, educational expansion, mass communication, urbanization, geographical mobility, and mass transpo

  3. Educational Systems, Intergenerational Mobility and Social Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Chusseau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that the very characteristics of educational systems generate social segmentation. A stylised educational framework is constructed in which everyone receives a compulsory basic education and can subsequently choose between direct working, vocational studies and university. There is a selection for entering the university which consists of a minimum human capital level at the end of basic education. In the model, an individual's human capital depends (i on her/his parents' human capital, (ii on her/his schooling time, and (iii on public expenditure for education. There are three education functions corresponding to each type of study (basic, vocational, university. Divergences in total educational expenditure, in its distribution between the three studies and in the selection severity, combined with the initial distribution of human capital across individuals, can result in very different social segmentations and generate under education traps (situations in which certain dynasties remain unskilled from generation to generation at the steady state. We finally implement a series of simulations that illustrate these findings in the cases of egalitarian and elitist educational systems. Assuming the same initial distribution of human capital between individuals, we find that the first system results in two-segment stratification, quasi income equality and no under education trap whereas the elitist system generates three segments, significant inequality and a large under education trap

  4. Intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in cognitive ability: the first offspring of the British 1946 birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Byford, M

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive development in childhood is a key factor affecting adult life chances, including educational and occupational success. Intergenerational continuity in cognitive ability is often observed. Thus the persistence of poor cognitive outcomes across generations may lead to a ‘cycle of disadvantage’ that is difficult to break. In this thesis, intergenerational associations in cognitive ability between parents and first-born offspring were examined longitudinally. 1,690 member...

  5. The nature of transmission in intergenerational relations : older persons' perspectives / Louise Bolton

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Louise

    2014-01-01

    This is a secondary research study and is part of a broader project on the relational experiences between older persons and younger people. The focus of this study is on the nature of intergenerational transmission from the perspective of older persons. Intergenerational transmission is the process by which knowledge, resources and support are transferred between generations. In terms of the current study, a specific focus was not undertaken as it was the intention to determine what would ema...

  6. The role of parental cognitive aging in the intergenerational mobility of cognitive abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Valentina; Kopinska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies intergenerational transmission of cognitive abilities from parents to children. We create a measure of parental cognitive evolution across time, which combines cognitive tests scores obtained at the age of 16 with the ones at the age of 50. We are thus able to identify cognitive aging patterns and assess their impact in the intergenerational perspective. The British National Child Development Study (NCDS) allows us to investigate the effect of parental cognition on two dist...

  7. Intergenerational transfers and European families: does the number of siblings matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, T

    2013-01-01

    Background: Existing research on intergenerational transfers has focused on income and wealth as the predominant determinants of the provision of financial assistance to adult children (Albertini, Kohli, and Vogel 2006; Zissimopoulos and Smith 2010; Albertini and Radl 2012). Yet previous models of intergenerational transfers underestimated the effect of family size due to the effect of birth order and inappropriate research design. Objective: This paper aims to more accurately describe the re...

  8. Intergenerational transfers and European families: Does the number of siblings matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Emery

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Existing research on intergenerational transfers has focused on income and wealth as the predominant determinants of the provision of financial assistance to adult children (Albertini, Kohli, and Vogel 2006; Zissimopoulos and Smith 2010; Albertini and Radl 2012). Yet previous models of intergenerational transfers underestimated the effect of family size due to the effect of birth order and inappropriate research design. OBJECTIVE This paper aims to more accurately describe the rela...

  9. "The Case Against Intergenerational Accounting: The Accounting Campaign Against Social Security and Medicare"

    OpenAIRE

    James K. Galbraith; Wray , L. Randall; Mosler, Warren

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) has proposed subjecting the entire federal budget to "intergenerational accounting"--which purports to calculate the debt burden our generation will leave for future generations--and is soliciting comments on the recommendations of its two "exposure drafts." The authors of this brief find that intergenerational accounting is a deeply flawed and unsound concept that should play no role in federal government budgeting, and that arguments b...

  10. Intergenerational transmission of educational attainment in Germany: the last five decades

    OpenAIRE

    Heineck, Guido; Riphahn, Regina T.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades the German education system underwent numerous reforms in order to improve equality of opportunity, i.e. to guarantee all pupils equal access to higher education. At the same time internationally comparative evidence yields that Germany features particularly low intergenerational mobility with respect to educational attainment. This study investigates the development in intergenerational education mobility in Germany for the birth cohorts 1929 through 1978 and tests whet...

  11. Exploring empathy in intergenerational relationships form the perspective of a group of older people / Anri Wheeler

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Anri

    2014-01-01

    Intergenerational relationships refer to relationships between people in alternate generational groups. The increasing numbers of older people all over the world highlight the need for studies on psychological processes that enhance well-being through intergenerational relationships. People from different generations are co-dependent for care and support. Older people constitute a diverse group: some may experience a depletion of energy, physical, financial and emotional resources, while othe...

  12. Intergenerational Transmission of Education among Immigrant Mothers and their Daughters in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Niknami, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study uses extensive Swedish register data to analyze the intergenerational transmission of education between immigrant mothers and their daughters. The results show that the transmission is only slightly lower among daughters of immigrant mothers compared to native daughters. The educational relationship between mothers and daughters is further found to be nonlinear. For both groups, the intergenerational link is weaker among daughters of poorly educated mothers. Moreover, the average t...

  13. Family cohesion as a longevity factor of business with intergenerational transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Roca, Fco. Javier; López-Manjón, Jesús D.; Gutiérrez-Hidalgo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to a line of research in Business History that aims to determine the factors of family business longevity in the long term with the study of individual cases. The literature has identified family cohesion as one of the essential factors for survival. Cohesion may be reinforced or broken at the time of the intergenerational transfer. This study finds that a critical response on the part of the business family to the difficulties associated with intergenerational transf...

  14. Family Structure, Intergenerational Mobility, and the Reproduction of Poverty: Evidence for Increasing Polarization?

    OpenAIRE

    Musick, Kelly; Mare, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    A substantial body of research demonstrates links between poverty and family structure from one generation to the next, but leaves open key questions about the implications of these associations for aggregate-level change. To what extent does intergenerational inheritance affect trends in poverty and single parenthood over time? This paper examines how patterns of intergenerational inheritance play out in the population over the long run, using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys and ...

  15. Patterns of intergenerational mobility of the old and new middle classes

    OpenAIRE

    Güveli, Ayse; Luijkx, Ruud; Ganzeboom, Harry B.G.

    2013-01-01

    It has often been proposed that new cleavages have emerged within the middle class. In this paper, we examine the distinction between social and cultural specialists and technocrats, and investigate whether these new and old middle class fractions are differentiated by their patterns of intergenerational mobility. To what extent do these newly distinguished middle class fractions have specific external and internal intergenerational mobility patterns? And to what extent have mobility boundari...

  16. Parental background matters: Intergenerational mobility and assimilation of Italian immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bönke, Timm; Neidhöfer, Guido

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis of failed integration and low social mobility of immigrants. An intergenerational assimilation model is tested empirically on household survey data and validated against administrative data provided us by the Italian Embassy in Germany. Although we confirm substantial inequality of educational achievements between immigrants and natives, we find that the children of Italian immigrants exhibit high intergenerational mobility and no less opportunities than natives ...

  17. Domestication alone does not lead to inequality : intergenerational wealth transmission among horticulturalists.

    OpenAIRE

    Gurven, M.; Mulder, M. Borgerhoff; Hooper, Paul L.; Kaplan, H; Quinlan, R.; Sear, R; Schniter, E.; Rueden, C. von; Bowles, S.; Hertz, T; Bell, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present empirical measures of wealth inequality and its intergenerational transmission among four horticulturalist populations. Wealth is construed broadly as embodied somatic and neural capital, including body size, fertility and cultural knowledge, material capital such as land and household wealth, and relational capital in the form of coalitional support and field labor. Wealth inequality is moderate for most forms of wealth, and intergenerational wealth transmission is low for materia...

  18. Religion, Race/Ethnicity, and Norms of Intergenerational Assistance among Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Xiaohe Xu

    2015-01-01

    Using data on adults ages 55 and over from the second wave of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH-2), this study models the main and interactive effects of religious involvement and race/ethnicity on four items of attitudes towards intergenerational assistance. Results indicate that African Americans and Hispanics tend to express stronger support for intergenerational assistance than non-Hispanic Whites. Conservative Protestants, Mormons, and Catholics are more likely than ot...

  19. Moving Towards Estimating Sons' Lifetime Intergenerational Economic Mobility in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, P; Macmillan, L. A.; C. Vittori

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of intergenerational economic mobility that use point in time measures of income and earnings suffer from lifecycle and attenuation bias. They also suffer from sample selection issues and further bias driven by spells out of work. We consider these issues together for UK data, the National Child Development Study and British Cohort Study, for the first time. When all three biases are considered, our best estimate of lifetime intergenerational economic persistence in the UK is 0.43 f...

  20. Using Household Panel Data to Understand the Intergenerational Transmission of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Stephen P.; Siedler, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses how household panel surveys can be informative about the intergenerational transmission of poverty. We consider issues both of data and of the statistical methods that may be applied to those data. Although the data focus is on panel surveys from developed countries, we also briefly consider data availability in developing countries. We set out a list of survey data requirements for intergenerational analysis, and then discuss how the main household panel surveys in devel...

  1. Heterogenity in the Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attainment: Evidence from Switzerland on Natives and Second

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp C. Bauer; Riphahn, Regina T.

    2005-01-01

    This study applies rich data from the 2000 Swiss census to investigate the patterns of intergenerational education transmission for natives and second generation immigrants. The level of secondary schooling attained by youth aged 17 is related to their parents' educational outcomes using data on the entire Swiss population. Based on economic theories of child educational attainment we derive hypotheses regarding the patterns in intergenerational education transmission. The data yields substan...

  2. The Intergenerational Transmission of Income and Education: A Comparison of Japan and France

    OpenAIRE

    LEFRANC, Arnaud; OJIMA, Fumiaki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    The paper compares the extent of intergenerational earnings and educational correlation in Japan and France. It uses very similar repeated surveys that provide information on educational attainment and family background, conducted in Japan and France. To insure comparability, similar sample restrictions and specifications are imposed. For Japan, we use waves 1965, 1975, 1985, 1995 and 2005. For France, we use waves 1965, 1970, 1977, 1985, 1993 and 2003. Intergenerational elasticity in years o...

  3. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  4. An evaluative study of the benefits of participating in intergenerational playgroups in aged care for older people

    OpenAIRE

    Skropeta, C Margaret; Colvin, Alf; Sladen, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Background Intergenerational playgroups in aged care are limited and little is known about the perceptions of individuals who have participated in such programs. Most research is focused on intergenerational programs that involved two generations of people – young people and older people or young people and people with dementia reported the significant outcomes for each group of participants. In this study a number of generations participated in the intergenerational playgroup intervention th...

  5. Associations of the pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational BMI gain with pregnancy outcomes in Chinese women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Dongmei; Li, Feifei; Zhang, Ya; Xu, Xianming

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight change in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy likely have an effect on pregnancy outcome. However, limited clinical evidence is available to support the correlation. Aims: To investigate the relationship of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational BMI gains and their effect on pregnancy outcome among Chinese women with GDM. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 1418 pregnant patients with GDM who receive...

  6. Structural characterization of APPJ treated Bismaleimide coatings and heat treated Titania-BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Shrinidhi, S.; Suman, S; Shah, A.; PRABHAKAR. P; Kumar, A. Chaurasia A.; Chauhan, K. G.; Bhattacharyya, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) are thermosetting polymers mainly used in aerospace applications having properties of dimensional stability, low shrinkage, chemical resistance, fire resistance, good mechanical properties and high resistance against various solvents, acids, and water. BMI is commercially available as Homide 250. BMI coating has also been used for the corrosion protection. Metallization (AL) of BMI using vacuum evaporation was done which serves the purpose of prevention of space charge accu...

  7. Cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the sexual intergeneric hybrids between the cultivated Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus, both complete separation and partial separation of the parental genomes were found to occur during mitosis and meiosis under genetic control. The cytogenetics of these hybrids was species-specific for Brassica parents. The different chromosome behavior of hybrids with three Brassica diploids ( B. campestris , B. nigra and B. oleracea ) might contribute to the different cytogenetics of hybrids with three tetraploids ( B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata). Owing to the parental genome separation, Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with various chromosome constitutions were identifiable in the progenies of these hybrids, which were valuable for the study of the structure and evolution of Brassica genome and for the breeding of Brassica crops.

  8. Modelling BMI trajectories in children for genetic association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Warrington

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The timing of associations between common genetic variants and changes in growth patterns over childhood may provide insight into the development of obesity in later life. To address this question, it is important to define appropriate statistical models to allow for the detection of genetic effects influencing longitudinal childhood growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: Children from The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine; n=1,506 Study were genotyped at 17 genetic loci shown to be associated with childhood obesity (FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, GNPDA2, KCTD15, NEGR1, BDNF, ETV5, SEC16B, LYPLAL1, TFAP2B, MTCH2, BCDIN3D, NRXN3, SH2B1, MRSA and an obesity-risk-allele-score was calculated as the total number of 'risk alleles' possessed by each individual. To determine the statistical method that fits these data and has the ability to detect genetic differences in BMI growth profile, four methods were investigated: linear mixed effects model, linear mixed effects model with skew-t random errors, semi-parametric linear mixed models and a non-linear mixed effects model. Of the four methods, the semi-parametric linear mixed model method was the most efficient for modelling childhood growth to detect modest genetic effects in this cohort. Using this method, three of the 17 loci were significantly associated with BMI intercept or trajectory in females and four in males. Additionally, the obesity-risk-allele score was associated with increased average BMI (female: β=0.0049, P=0.0181; male: β=0.0071, P=0.0001 and rate of growth (female: β=0.0012, P=0.0006; male: β=0.0008, P=0.0068 throughout childhood. CONCLUSIONS: Using statistical models appropriate to detect genetic variants, variations in adult obesity genes were associated with childhood growth. There were also differences between males and females. This study provides evidence of genetic effects that may identify individuals early in life that are more likely to rapidly increase their BMI

  9. The decline in BMI among Japanese women after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka

    2015-07-01

    The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II. PMID:26057102

  10. BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p children and adolescents aged 7–18 years, which can be adopted in future researches. Large longitudinal study is still needed to reveal the childhood growth pattern and validate the inconsistence between different percentile studies

  11. Bmi1 Is Required for Hedgehog Pathway-Driven Medulloblastoma Expansion12

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Lowell Evan; Westerman, Bart A.; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Wang, Aiqin; Ferris, Jennifer; Liu, Jianhong; Blom, Marleen; Ellison, David W.; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.

    2008-01-01

    Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh) signaling underlies development of a subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in transgenic mice expressing an oncogenic Hh effector, SmoA1, driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Whereas 100% of SmoA1; Bmi1+/+ or SmoA1;Bmi1+/- mice examined between postnatal (P) ...

  12. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Reproductive Health of Daughters in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariansdatter, Saga Elise; Ernst, Andreas; Toft, Gunnar;

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 1988......-significantly lower dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS), estradiol, and free estrogen index (FEI), compared to the middle BMI tertile. This was supported by a sub-analysis using the WHO classification (underweight, BMI < 18.50; normal range, BMI 18.50-24.99; overweight/obese, BMI ≥ 25.00 kg/m2) as exposure groups...

  13. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukri Mohammed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI and waist circumference (W_C, together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. Methods 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P ≤ 0.001. W_C and BMI was positively correlated with sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P Conclusions A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  14. Impact of Masked Replacement of Sugar-Sweetened with Sugar-Free Beverages on Body Weight Increases with Initial BMI: Secondary Analysis of Data from an 18 Month Double-Blind Trial in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn B Katan

    gain differed by 0.90 kg between BMI groups (p = 0.09; 95% CI -1.95 to 0.14. In addition, we used a physiologically-based model of growth and energy balance to estimate the degree to which children had compensated for the covertly removed sugar kilocalories by increasing their intake of other foods. The model predicts that children with a lower BMI had compensated 65% (95% CI 28 to 102 of the covertly removed sugar kilocalories, whereas children with a higher BMI compensated only 13% (95% CI -37 to 63.The children with a BMI above the median might have a reduced tendency to compensate for changes in caloric intake. Differences in these subconscious compensatory mechanisms may be an important cause of differences in the tendency to gain weight. If further research bears this out, cutting down on the intake of sugar-sweetened drinks may benefit a large proportion of children, especially those who show a tendency to become overweight.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893529.

  15. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. Methods We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Results Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P P P P P > 0.5. In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P P P > 0.05. Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P P Conclusion Expression of Bmi-1 was greater in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues. The examination of Bmi-1 protein expression is potentially valuable in prognostic evaluation of bladder cancer.

  16. Construction of antisense Bmi-1 expression plasmid and its inhibitory effect on K562 cells proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiu-xiang; LIU Wei-hong; LIU Dan-dan; ZHAO Xin-yu; SU Ben-li

    2005-01-01

    Background Bmi-1 gene determines the proliferative capacity of normal and leukemia stem cells. Expression of Bmi-1 has been found in all types of myeloid leukemia cells in both humans and mice. This study aimed at assessing the effect of antisense Bmi-1 expression on K562 cells proliferation and p16 protein (p16) expression.Results K562 cells transfected with antisense Bmi-1 plasmid grew significantly slower than that of controls (the parental K562 and cells transfected with empty plasmid). The colony forming ability of antisense Bmi-1 plasmid transfected cells decreased significantly (P<0.01) compared with controls. The p16 expression of cells transfected with antisense Bmi-1 was upgraded more apparently than that of controls.Conclusion The antisense Bmi-1 gene can inhibit the growth of K562 cell and upgrade expression of p16 in K562 cells.

  17. Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents' BMI and educational level: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilato Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are responsible not only for the genetic structure of their children, but also for passing onto them their behaviours and attitudes toward life. The aim of this study was to analyse the connection between school-age children's obesity and that of their parents as well as between child obesity and parents' educational level, as a proxy indicator of the socio-economic status (SES of families in Tuscany. Methods The children sample was selected from "OKkio alla Salute 2010" (a cross sectional survey carried out by the Italian Institute of Health and consisted of 1,751 (922 males and 855 females 8-9 year-old school children. Weight and height were measured by ad hoc trained personnel, and Body Mass Index (BMI categories were calculated using Cole et al.'s cut-off. Parents' weight, height and educational level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The educational levels were classified as high, medium and low. Results The prevalence of obese children increased along the parents' BMI category: from 1.4% for underweight mothers to 30.3% for obese mothers and from 4% for under-normal-weight fathers to 23.9% for obese fathers (p Conclusion Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of the family, particularly the father's, seem to influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tuscan children.

  18. Mass Production of Intergeneric Chromosomal Translocations through Pollen Irradiation of Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa Amphiploid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Haynaldia villosa possesses a lot of important agronomic traits and has been a powerful gene resource for wheat improvement. However,only several wheat-H. Villosa translocation lines have been reported so far.In this study,we attempted to develop an efficient method for inducing wheat-H. Villosa chromosomal translocations.Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa amphiploid pollen treated with 1200 rad 60Co-γ-rays was pollinated to Triticum aestivum cv.'Chinese Spring'.Ninety-eight intergeneric translocated chromosomes between T. Durum and H.villosa were detected by genomic In situ hybridization in 44 of 61 M1 plants,indicating a translocation occurrence frequency of 72.1%;much higher than ever reported.There were 26,62 and 10 translocated chromosomes involving whole arm translocations,terminal translocations,and intercarlary translocations,respectively.Of the total 108 breakage-fusion events,79 involved interstitial regions and 29 involved centric regions.The ratio of small segment terminal translocations(W·W-V) was much higher than that of large segment terminal translocations (W-V·V).All of the M1 plants were self-sterile,and their backcross progeny was all obtained with Chinese Spring as pollen donors.Transmission analysis showed that most of the translocations were transmittable.This study provides a new strategy for rapid mass production of wheat-alien chromosomal translocations.especially terminal translocations that will be more significant for wheat improvement.

  19. Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-09-01

    A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety. PMID:26253552

  20. Dysregulation of Bmi1 promotes malignant transformation of hepatic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Wu, W R; Shi, X D; Xu, L B; Zhu, M S; Zeng, H; Liu, C

    2016-01-01

    Adult hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are involved in a wide range of human liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bmi1 has been reported to have vital roles in stem cell self-renewal and carcinogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that Bmi1 is upregulated in HCC with bile duct tumor thrombi, a subtype of HCC characterized by profuse expression of hepatic stem cell markers. However, the function of Bmi1 in HPCs has not yet been well elucidated. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of Bmi1 on the biological properties of rat HPCs. To accomplish this, Bmi1 was silenced or enhanced in two HPC cell lines (WB-F344 and OC3) by, respectively, using either small interfering RNA against Bmi1 or a forced Bmi1 expression retroviral vector. The biological functions of Bmi1 in HPCs were investigated through cell proliferation assays, colony-formation assays, cell cycle analysis and invasion assays, as well as through xenograft-formation assays. In this study, genetic depletion of Bmi1 repressed cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion in both assessed HPC cell lines relative to controls. Conversely, forced expression of Bmi1 in two HPCs cell lines promoted cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion in vitro. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) assay revealed a significant increase in the number of ALDH-positive cells following the forced expression of Bmi1 in HPCs. Most importantly, transplantation of forced Bmi1 expression HPCs into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors with histological features of poorly differentiated HCC. Taken together, our findings indicate that forced expression of Bmi1 promotes the malignant transformation of HPCs, suggesting Bmi1 might be a potential molecular target for the treatment of HCC. PMID:26926789

  1. Intergenerational Relationships in Cross-Cultural Comparison: How Social Networks Frame Intergenerational Relations between Mothers and Grandmothers in Japan, Korea, China, Indonesia, Israel, Germany, and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauck, Bernhard; Suckow, Jana

    2006-01-01

    The article explores the relevance of intergenerational relationships within the overall network of young mothers and grandmothers in seven societies: Japan, Korea, China, Indonesia, Turkey, Israel, and Germany. The empirical base is 2,945 named network members in 249 pairs of interviews of grandmothers and their daughters from a cross-cultural…

  2. Westernization, intuitive eating, and BMI: an exploration of Jordanian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Amanda L; Madanat, Hala N

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Arabic-version of the adapted Marin Bidimensional Acculturation Scale and investigate the relationship between Westernization, intuitive eating, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of Jordanian female adolescents. A total of 199 subjects between the ages of 11-18 were surveyed. Participants who scored higher on the Arabic domain exhibited higher Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) intrinsic subscale scores (r = 0.147, P = 0.048) suggesting that those who are more orientated toward Arabic culture may respond more naturally to physical hunger cues than their more Westernized counterparts. Reinforcing intuitive eating attitudes and behaviors and emphasizing body ideals resonant with the Arabic culture may propagate the continuation of intuitive eating in this population, potentially reducing the risk of obesity and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. PMID:23896036

  3. Individual Variation and Family-Community Ties: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis of the Intergenerational Closure in the Lives of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, H. Harrington; Crosnoe, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Intergenerational closure refers to parents' knowing the parents of their adolescents' friends. This study treated intergenerational closure - as reported by the parents of adolescent twins - as the dependent variable in a behavioral genetic analysis. The sample consisted of identical and fraternal twin pairs in the National Longitudinal Study of…

  4. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches. PMID:27056466

  5. Families and intergenerational relationships in aging societies: comparing the United States with German-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, V L; Martin, P

    2001-06-01

    Industrialized nations have experienced many demographic changes favoring older adults during the last few decades of the 20th century. This article is a comparative examination of current and future trends in intergenerational relationships and aging in two societies: the United States and German-speaking countries. While comparing similarities and significant differences between the cultures, we examine five issues related to these trends for families and intergenerational relationships in the 21st century: (1) consequences of population aging for family structures and relationships--the emergence of the beanpole family structure and the longer years of linked lives across generations; (2) the debate about the decline of the family; (3) intergenerational solidarity over the life course; (4) intergenerational conflict across the life course; (5) prospects for solidarity and conflict between generations in the 21st century. Similarities between cultures include the demographic realities of population aging, the shift from pyramids to beanpoles, more years of shared lives between and across generations, more non-traditional family forms, and intergenerational conflicts in families. Differences include diverse replacement fertility rates, alternative approaches to governmental supports for families and aging members, and possible differences in cultural values regarding individualism. PMID:11487963

  6. The Effects of Parental Divorce on the Intergenerational Transmission of Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve G.A. van de Weijer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study first examines the effects of parental divorce and paternal crime on offspring offending. Then, it tests whether parental divorce moderates the intergenerational transmission of crime. Diversity within the offending population is taken into account by examining whether effects are different for fathers who commit crimes at different points of the life-course and by distinguishing between violent and non-violent offending. A sample of 2374 individuals from three consecutive generations from 198 Dutch families was used. The results show that parental divorce increases offspring non-violent offending, but does not increase offspring violence after controlling for parental violence. Moreover, the intergenerational transmission of violence is moderated by parental divorce: empirical evidence for intergenerational transmission of violence is only found for children who did not experience parental divorce during their youth. This moderating effect of parental divorce is even stronger if the father committed violent crimes during the child’s youth. The moderating influence of parental divorce on the intergenerational transmission of non-violent crime is less clear, and the effects are overall stronger for violent crime than for non-violent crime. These results suggest that social learning mechanisms play an important role in the intergenerational transmission of violent crime, although genetic influences cannot be ruled out.

  7. Bmi1 is required for hepatic progenitor cell expansion and liver tumor development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Fan

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a polycomb group transcriptional repressor and it has been implicated in regulating self-renewal and proliferation of many types of stem or progenitor cells. In addition, Bmi1 has been shown to function as an oncogene in multiple tumor types. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of Bmi1 in regulating hepatic oval cells, the major type of bipotential progenitor cells in adult liver, as well as the role of Bmi1 during hepatocarcinogenesis using Bmi1 knockout mice. We found that loss of Bmi1 significantly restricted chemically induced oval cell expansion in the mouse liver. Concomitant deletion of Ink4a/Arf in Bmi1 deficient mice completely rescued the oval cell expansion phenotype. Furthermore, ablation of Bmi1 delayed hepatocarcinogenesis induced by AKT and Ras co-expression. This antineoplastic effect was accompanied by the loss of hepatic oval cell marker expression in the liver tumor samples. In summary, our data demonstrated that Bmi1 is required for hepatic oval cell expansion via deregulating the Ink4a/Arf locus in mice. Our study also provides the evidence, for the first time, that Bmi1 expression is required for liver cancer development in vivo, thus representing a promising target for innovative treatments against human liver cancer.

  8. Intergenerational equity and governance in sustainable development policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With ecological globalization, environmental degradation has become a phenomenon capable of accentuating not only the sources of spatial and temporal conflicts, but also inter-and intragenerational inequities. In this context, it seems important, first of all, to explain the ways in which the taking into account of inter-generational equity in our societies' decisions constitutes a new challenge posing unresolved questions for decision makers. Secondly, we see that the implementation of effective policies for sustainable development (that is, taking real account of the long-term and of equity concerns), requires the development of new perspectives and practices in science and of new ''governance'' institutions capable of responding to these new challenges. Thirdly, we show that these changes imply, for economic analysis and the advice that can be offered by economists, a shift from a substantive rationality perspective towards a procedural rationality. This latter encourages the development of new analysis and decision support tools based on a wider sharing of information and efforts at reconciling different perspectives in the assessment of risks and equity concerns. This new rationality will be expressed as a process of debate and dialogue taking place continuously in all phases of the policy process. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of intraspecific, interspecific and intergeneric chloroplast diversity in Cycads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guo-Feng; Hinsinger, Damien Daniel; Strijk, Joeri Sergej

    2016-01-01

    Cycads are among the most threatened plant species. Increasing the availability of genomic information by adding whole chloroplast data is a fundamental step in supporting phylogenetic studies and conservation efforts. Here, we assemble a dataset encompassing three taxonomic levels in cycads, including ten genera, three species in the genus Cycas and two individuals of C. debaoensis. Repeated sequences, SSRs and variations of the chloroplast were analyzed at the intraspecific, interspecific and intergeneric scale, and using our sequence data, we reconstruct a phylogenomic tree for cycads. The chloroplast was 162,094 bp in length, with 133 genes annotated, including 87 protein-coding, 37 tRNA and 8 rRNA genes. We found 7 repeated sequences and 39 SSRs. Seven loci showed promising levels of variations for application in DNA-barcoding. The chloroplast phylogeny confirmed the division of Cycadales in two suborders, each of them being monophyletic, revealing a contradiction with the current family circumscription and its evolution. Finally, 10 intraspecific SNPs were found. Our results showed that despite the extremely restricted distribution range of C. debaoensis, using complete chloroplast data is useful not only in intraspecific studies, but also to improve our understanding of cycad evolution and in defining conservation strategies for this emblematic group. PMID:27558458

  10. Constraint on slepton intergenerational mixing from big-bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find constraint on intergenerational mixing of slepton from big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Today, we know that there exist lepton flavor violation (LFV) from the observation of neutrino oscillation, though there do not exist LFV in the standard model of particle physics (SM). LFV in charged lepton sector (cLFV) have also been expected to exist. From theoretical point of view, the effects of long-lived stau on BBN have been investigated and it is known that the stau can solve the cosmological 7Li problem. However, in the study so far, tau flavor is exactly conserved and it contradict with the existence of cLFV. In this study, we generalize the flavor to be violated and call the stau as slepton. Even if the violation is tiny, it drastically changes the lifetime and the evolution of relic density of the slepton. Thus we analyze the effects of the long-lived slepton on BBN, and constrain the magnitude of the cLFV.

  11. The impact of demographic change on intergenerational transfers via bequests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Zagheni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfers in the form of bequests have important implications for the intergenerational transmission of inequality. Demographic change has relevant consequences for the timing and size of bequests. For example, longer life implies that people receive bequests when they are older. Conversely, increasing generational length reduces the average age at which people are given bequests. Objective: We analyze the consequences of demographic change in the United States on timing over the life course when individuals receive an inheritance and on the size of bequests. Methods: We evaluate trends in life expectancy at the mean age at childbearing as a proxy for timing at receipt of bequests. We complement formal demographic analysis with empirical estimates from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID inheritance data for 1987-2010. Results: We find that the long-term trend of increasing age at receipt of bequests might have stalled, mainly because of changes in the timing of fertility. In the long term the upward trend in age at which people receive bequests may resume, as the expected linear gains in life expectancy will more than counteract recent increases in the mean age at childbearing. Conclusions: We showed that demographic change affects the size of bequests and the timing over the life course when people receive them. As the need for economic resources varies over the life cycle, changes in the timing at receipt of bequests may have a differential impact on wealth inequality and affect patterns of multigenerational transfers of resources.

  12. Performative family: homosexuality, marriage and intergenerational dynamics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Susanne Yp; Luo, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Using in-depth interview data on nominal marriages - legal marriages between a gay man and a lesbian to give the appearance of heterosexuality - this paper develops the concept of performative family to explain the processes through which parents and their adult children negotiate and resolve disagreements in relation to marriage decisions in post-socialist China. We identify three mechanisms - network pressure, a revised discourse of filial piety and resource leverage - through which parents influence their gay offspring's decision to turn to nominal marriage. We also delineate six strategies, namely minimizing network participation, changing expectations, making partial concessions, drawing the line, delaying decisions and ending the marriage, by which gay people in nominal marriages attempt to meet parental expectations while simultaneously retaining a degree of autonomy. Through these interactions, we argue that Chinese parents and their gay adult children implicitly and explicitly collaborate to perform family, emphasizing the importance of formally meeting society's expectations about marriage rather than substantively yielding to its demands. We also argue that the performative family is a pragmatic response to the tension between the persistent centrality of family and marriage and the rising tide of individualism in post-socialist China. We believe that our findings highlight the specific predicament of homosexual people. They also shed light on the more general dynamics of intergenerational negotiation because there is evidence that the mechanisms used by parents to exert influence may well be similar between gay and non-gay people. PMID:27206789

  13. An age apart: the effects of intergenerational contact and stereotype threat on performance and intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Eller, Anja; Bryant, Jacqueline

    2006-12-01

    An experimental study examined the effect of intergenerational contact and stereotype threat on older people's cognitive performance, anxiety, intergroup bias, and identification. Participants completed a series of cognitive tasks under high or low stereotype threat (through comparison with younger people). In line with stereotype threat theory, threat resulted in worse performance. However, this did not occur if prior intergenerational contact had been more positive. This moderating effect of contact was mediated by test-related anxiety. In line with intergroup contact theory, more positive contact was associated with reduced prejudice and reduced ingroup identification. However this occurred in the high threat, but not low threat, condition. The findings suggest that positive intergenerational contact can reduce vulnerability to stereotype threat among older people. PMID:17201490

  14. Assessment of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and dental age

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Sharifi; Hosein Agha Aghili; Maryam Zangouei-Booshehri; Fatemeh Ezoddini-Ardakani

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the rela-tionship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and accelerated dental development. The dental developmental ages of 100 children aged between 8 and 12 years were determined using the Demirjian method and panoramic radiographs. BMI status was determined for each subject on the basis of the system developed by the International Obesity Task Force. There was a significant direct relationship between dental development and BMI (P < 0.01). Obese children h...

  15. BMI and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.;

    2006-01-01

    BMI differentiation and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people were analysed. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years. 21 food patterns were separated by the factor analysis. On the basis of the self-reported body mass and height, the BMI and percentages of...... overweight or obese people were calculated. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence for both sexes was unequivocally connected with eating rye. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence depended among women on consuming pork meat and alcoholic beverages. For men the...

  16. SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH BMI OF 25 OR MORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Body mass index [BMI] of 25 or greater is a significant health problem associated with a variety of disorders and in adults it has been found to be a risk factor for hearing loss. Higher BMI is independently associated with increased hearing loss. We investigated the hypothesis that young adults with a BMI of 25 or more are at increased risk of mild sensorineural hearing loss. AIMS AN D OBJECTIVES: To assess hearing acuity in individuals with high BMI (≥25 by audiometric assessment and compare it with the control group (BMI <25. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A comparative and cross sectional study among volunteers residing in Bengaluru. METHODS AND MATERIAL : Data collected from 2 groups containing 30 participants each, test group contained individual with a BMI of 25 or more and the control group consisted individuals with BMI of <25, in the age group of 18 - 35 yrs. Pure tone audiometry was carried out across various frequencies (0. 5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 kHz in both groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student t - test was used to compare hearing thresholds across various frequencies in both groups. RESULTS: Compared to control group, high BMI (≥25 was associated with increased pure tone hearing thresholds across lower frequencies (0. 5, 1, 2 kHz. The degree of hearing loss is mild (26 - 40dB . CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that young adults with a BMI of 25 or more are at increasing risk of mild sensorineural hearing loss.

  17. Overexpression of Bmi1 in Lymphocytes Stimulates Skeletogenesis by Improving the Osteogenic Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xichao; Dai, Xiuliang; Wu, Xuan; Ji, Ji; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Yang, Xiangjiao; Miao, Dengshun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes can stimulate skeletogenesis by improving the osteogenic microenvironment, we examined the skeletal phenotype of EμBmi1 transgenic mice with overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes. The size of the skeleton, trabecular bone volume and osteoblast number, indices of proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were increased significantly, ROS levels were reduced and antioxidative capacity was enhanced in EμBmi1 mice compared to WT mice. In PTHrP1–84 knockin (PthrpKI/KI) mice, the expression levels of Bmi1 are reduced and potentially can mediate the premature osteoporosis observed. We therefore generated a PthrpKI/KI mice overexpressing Bmi1 in lymphocytes and compared them with PthrpKI/KI and WT littermates. Overexpression of Bmi1 in PthrpKI/KI mice resulted in a longer lifespan, increased body weight and improvement in skeletal growth and parameters of osteoblastic bone formation with reduced ROS levels and DNA damage response parameters. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes can stimulate osteogenesis in vivo and partially rescue defects in skeletal growth and osteogenesis in PthrpKI/KI mice. These studies therefore indicate that overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes can stimulate skeletogenesis by inhibiting oxidative stress and improving the osteogenic microenvironment. PMID:27373231

  18. Intergenerational transfers and European families: Does the number of siblings matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Emery

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Existing research on intergenerational transfers has focused on income and wealth as the predominant determinants of the provision of financial assistance to adult children (Albertini, Kohli, and Vogel 2006; Zissimopoulos and Smith 2010; Albertini and Radl 2012. Yet previous models of intergenerational transfers underestimated the effect of family size due to the effect of birth order and inappropriate research design. OBJECTIVE This paper aims to more accurately describe the relationship between family size and intergenerational financial transfers in Europe. In developing a more appropriate theoretical and empirical understanding of intergenerational behaviour by borrowing findings from other areas of family studies, this paper explores the issues involved in the complex analysis of cross generational issues such as sampling, diverse and complex family forms, and unobserved family- and individual-level heterogeneity. METHODS Using multilevel methods to nest individual children in their extended families, this paper analyses data from the Survey for Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, and concludes that family size and birth order are essential for understanding intergenerational transfers. Logit and Tobit models are used to predict transfer occurrence and amount, and therefore avoid bias estimates found with OLS in existing research. RESULTS The analysis suggests that an only child is more than four times as likely to receive financial assistance as someone in a four-child family. This means that the maximum effect of family size is more than twice that of parental income. A separate and independent effect of birth order is also identified, which suggests that the oldest in a four-child family is twice as likely to receive financial assistance as their youngest sibling. CONCLUSIONS The policy implications of this finding are significant in the context of an ageing society and demographic change, suggesting a shift in focus from

  19. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV1 at 12 years of age; the PIAMA birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, Marga B; Alet H Wijga; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and large WC, with forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at age 12. Methods Height, weight, WC and FVC and FEV1 were measured during a medical examination in 1288 12-year-olds part...

  20. Automated IMT estimation and BMI correlation using a low-quality carotid ultrasound image database from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Filippo; Gupta, Vipin; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Meiburger, Kristen M; Saba, Luca; Acharya, U Rajendra; Ledda, Giuseppe; Radha Krishna, K V; Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Kinra, Sanjay; Nicolaides, Andrew; Ebrahim, Shah; Suri, Jasjit S

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents AtheroEdgeLowRes (AELR), an extention of AtheroEdge™ from AtheroPoint™, and a solution to carotid ultrasound IMT measurement in low-resolution and overall low quality images. The images were collected using a low-end ultrasound machine during a screening study in India. We aim to demonstrate the accuracy and reproducibility of the AELR system by benchmarking it against an expert Reader's manual tracing and to show the correlation between the automatically measured intima media thickness (IMT) and the subjects' cardiovascular risk factors (i.e. body mass index--BMI). We introduced an innovative penalty function (PF) to our dual-snake segmentation technique, necessary due to the low image resolution. We processed 512 images from 256 patients, and correlated the AELR IMT values with the patients' age and BMI. AELR processed all 512 images, and the IMT measurement error was 0.011±0.099 mm with the PF correction and 0.173±0.127 mm without. AELR IMT values correlated with the Reader's values (r = 0.883) and also correlated with the subject's BMI and age. The AELR system showed accuracy and reproducibility levels that make it suitable to be used in large epidemiological and screening studies in emerging countries. PMID:24110444

  1. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis-BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Ojo, Diane; Wei, Fengxiang; Wong, Nicholas; Gu, Yan; Tang, Damu

    2015-01-01

    BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase. Through mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119Ub), BMI1 represses multiple gene loci; among these, the INK4A/ARF locus has been most thoroughly investigated. The locus encodes the p16INK4A and p14/p19ARF tumor suppressors that function in the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Its repression contributes to BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. BMI1 also possesses other oncogenic functions, specifically its regulative role in DNA damage response (DDR). In this process, BMI1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and γH2AX, thereby facilitating the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) through stimulating homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Additionally, BMI1 compromises DSB-induced checkpoint activation independent of its-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We review the emerging role of BMI1 in DDR regulation and discuss its impact on BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. PMID:26633535

  2. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis—BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozeng Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1, and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase. Through mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119Ub, BMI1 represses multiple gene loci; among these, the INK4A/ARF locus has been most thoroughly investigated. The locus encodes the p16INK4A and p14/p19ARF tumor suppressors that function in the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Its repression contributes to BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. BMI1 also possesses other oncogenic functions, specifically its regulative role in DNA damage response (DDR. In this process, BMI1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and γH2AX, thereby facilitating the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs through stimulating homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Additionally, BMI1 compromises DSB-induced checkpoint activation independent of its-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We review the emerging role of BMI1 in DDR regulation and discuss its impact on BMI1-derived tumorigenesis.

  3. Combined introduction of Bmi-1 and hTERT immortalizes human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells with low risk of transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatrai, Peter, E-mail: peter.tatrai@biomembrane.hu [Institute of Enzymology, Research Center for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Karolina ut 29, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Szepesi, Aron, E-mail: aron.szepesi@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Matula, Zsolt, E-mail: matula.zsolt@gmail.com [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Szigeti, Anna, E-mail: anna.szigeti@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Buchan, Gyoengyi, E-mail: buchan@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Madi, Andras, E-mail: madi@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Stem Cell, Apoptosis and Genomics Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Uher, Ferenc, E-mail: uher@biomembrane.hu [Stem Cell Laboratory, Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service, Dioszegi ut 64, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We immortalized human adipose stromal cells (ASCs) with hTERT, Bmi-1, and SV40T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT-only ASCs are prone to transformation, while Bmi-only ASCs become senescent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SV40T introduced along with hTERT abrogates proliferation control and multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT combined with Bmi-1 yields stable phenotype up to 140 population doublings. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are increasingly being studied for their usefulness in regenerative medicine. However, limited life span and donor-dependent variation of primary cells such as ASCs present major hurdles to controlled and reproducible experiments. We therefore aimed to establish immortalized ASC cell lines that provide steady supply of homogeneous cells for in vitro work while retain essential features of primary cells. To this end, combinations of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), murine Bmi-1, and SV40 large T antigen (SV40T) were introduced by lentiviral transduction into ASCs. The resulting cell lines ASC{sup hTERT}, ASC{sup Bmi-1}, ASC{sup Bmi-1+hTERT} and ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} were tested for transgene expression, telomerase activity, surface immunomarkers, proliferation, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, karyotype, tumorigenicity, and cellular senescence. All cell lines have maintained expression of characteristic surface immunomarkers, and none was tumorigenic. However, ASC{sup Bmi-1} had limited replicative potential, while the rapidly proliferating ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} acquired chromosomal aberrations, departed from MSC phenotype, and lost differentiation capacity. ASC{sup hTERT} and ASC{sup hTERT+Bmi-1}, on the other hand, preserved all essential MSC features and did not senesce after 100 population doublings. Notably, a subpopulation of ASC{sup hTERT} also acquired aberrant karyotype and showed signs of transformation after long-term culture

  4. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucher, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis article deals with the contribution of intergenerational ethnic mobility tothe demographic reproduction of the Aboriginal groups in Canada: the NorthAmerican Indians, the Métis and the Inuit. To this effect, it attempts to see ifchildren in husband/wife census families keep the identity of their parents. Asexpected, children from endogamous couples generally keep their parents’identity. However, for most children from exogamous couples formed by anAboriginal person and a non-Aboriginal person, the Aboriginal identity prevailsover the non-Aboriginal identity. If Aboriginal identities were “not attractive”identities when declaring the ethnic affiliation of children in situations ofexogamous unions, then the size of the Aboriginal population in Canada wouldbe significantly smaller.RésuméCet article examine en quoi la mobilité ethnique intergénérationnelle contribueà la reproduction démographique des groupes autochtones du Canada; c'est-àdire: Les Amérindiens, les Métis et les Inuits. Pour ce faire, l’article tented’examiner si les enfants de familles de recensement époux et épouse gardentl'identité de leurs parents. Tel que prévu, les enfants issus de couples endogènesont tendance à garder l'identité de leurs parents. Cependant, pour la plupart desenfants issus de couples exogènes se composant d’une personne autochtone etd’une personne non-autochtone, l’identité autochtone l’emporte sur l’identiténon-autochtone. Si l'identité autochtone n'était pas une identité qui semble"attrayante" au moment de la déclaration de l’affiliation ethnique des enfantsdans le cas d’unions exogènes, la population autochtones du Canada serait bienmoindre.

  5. The effect of a music therapy intergenerational program on children and older adults' intergenerational interactions, cross-age attitudes, and older adults' psychosocial well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Melita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of participation in a music-based intergenerational music program on cross-age interactions and cross-age attitudes of elementary-age children and older adults, and older adults' psychosocial well-being. Twenty-one children in the 4th grade volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 12) or control (n = 9) group. Twenty-six older adults from a retirement living facility also volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 14) or control (n = 12) group. Ten 30-min music sessions occurred in which participants engaged in singing, structured conversation, moving to music, and instrument playing interventions. Data analysis of cross-age interactions revealed that the interventions "structured conversation" and "moving to music" were more effective in eliciting interaction behaviors than the interventions "singing" and "instrument playing." Standardized measures revealed that children's attitudes towards older adults improved, though not significantly so, after participation in the intergenerational program. Results of biweekly post-session questionnaires revealed a decrease in negative descriptions of older adults and an increase in positive descriptions of older adults--suggesting a more positive view towards aging. Results revealed that older adults' attitudes towards children improved significantly after their participation in the intergenerational program. While standardized measures revealed that older adults did not perceive a significant improvement in their psychosocial well-being, their bi-weekly post-session questionnaires showed they perceived increased feelings of usefulness and other personal benefits from the intergenerational interactions. Suggestions for future research, the utility of varied measurement instruments, and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:22506301

  6. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Faughnan, Patrick D.; Batterson, Lawrence M.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Engineers today are presented with the opportunity to design and build the next generation of space vehicles out of the lightest, strongest, and most durable materials available. Composites offer excellent structural characteristics and outstanding reliability in many forms that will be utilized in future aerospace applications including the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program and the Orion space capsule. NASA's Composites for Exploration (CoEx) project researches the various methods of manufacturing composite materials of different fiber characteristics while using proven infusion methods of different resin compositions. Development and testing on these different material combinations will provide engineers the opportunity to produce optimal material compounds for multidisciplinary applications. Through the CoEx project, engineers pursue the opportunity to research and develop repair patch procedures for damaged spacecraft. Working in conjunction with Raptor Resins Inc., NASA engineers are utilizing high flow liquid infusion molding practices to manufacture high-temperature composite parts comprised of intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) carbon fiber material. IM7 is a continuous, high-tensile strength composite with outstanding structural qualities such as high shear strength, tensile strength and modulus as well as excellent corrosion, creep, and fatigue resistance. IM7 carbon fiber, combined with existing thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems, can provide improvements in material strength reinforcement and deformation-resistant properties for high-temperature applications. Void analysis of the different layups of the IM7 material discovered the largest total void composition within the [ +45 , 90 , 90 , -45 ] composite panel. Tensile and compressional testing proved the highest mechanical strength was found in the [0 4] layup. This paper further investigates the infusion procedure of a low-cost/high-performance BMI resin into an IM7 carbon fiber material and the

  7. AGE AND GENDER SPECIFIC BMI PERCENTILES ARE LIMITED FOR TRACKING THE CHILDHOOD OBESITY EPIDEMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To evaluate pediatric nutrition and physical activity interventions a reliable and feasible way of tracking change in body status is needed. Historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used in adults. BMI percentiles or Z scores, which are theoretically age and gender adjusted, have been...

  8. Body-Image Perceptions: Reliability of a BMI-Based Silhouette Matching Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Ellenberg, Deborah; Crossan, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the reliability of a BMI-based Silhouette Matching Test (BMI-SMT). Methods: The perceptions of ideal and current body images of 215 ninth through twelfth graders' were assessed at 5 different schools within a mid-Atlantic state public school system. Results: Findings provided quantifiable data and discriminating measurements…

  9. Correlation of Bmi-1 expression and telomerase activity in human ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, F. B.; Sui, L. H.; Xin, T.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the correlation between the oncoprotein Bmi-1 and telomerase activity in ovarian cancer. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is used to detect the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Bmi-1 protein in 47 ovarian epithelial cancer cases, and immunohistochemistry i

  10. Loss of Bmi1 causes anomalies in retinal development and degeneration of cone photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabino, Andrea; Plamondon, Vicky; Abdouh, Mohamed; Chatoo, Wassim; Flamier, Anthony; Hanna, Roy; Zhou, Shufeng; Motoyama, Noboru; Hébert, Marc; Lavoie, Joëlle; Bernier, Gilbert

    2016-05-01

    Retinal development occurs through the sequential but overlapping generation of six types of neuronal cells and one glial cell type. Of these, rod and cone photoreceptors represent the functional unit of light detection and phototransduction and are frequently affected in retinal degenerative diseases. During mouse development, the Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is expressed in immature retinal progenitors and differentiated retinal neurons, including cones. We show here that Bmi1 is required to prevent post natal degeneration of cone photoreceptors and bipolar neurons and that inactivation of Chk2 or p53 could improve but not overcome cone degeneration in Bmi1(-/-) mice. The retinal phenotype of Bmi1(-/-) mice was also characterized by loss of heterochromatin, activation of tandem repeats, oxidative stress and Rip3-associated necroptosis. In the human retina, BMI1 was preferentially expressed in cones at heterochromatic foci. BMI1 inactivation in human embryonic stem cells was compatible with retinal induction but impaired cone terminal differentiation. Despite this developmental arrest, BMI1-deficient cones recapitulated several anomalies observed in Bmi1(-/-) photoreceptors, such as loss of heterochromatin, activation of tandem repeats and induction of p53, revealing partly conserved biological functions between mouse and man. PMID:26965367

  11. Validation of Bmi1 as a Therapeutic Target of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibo Qi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb group family of proteins, and it drives the carcinogenesis of various cancers and governs the self-renewal of multiple types of stem cells. Our previous studies have revealed that Bmi1 acts as an oncogene in hepatic carcinogenesis in an INK4a/ARF locus independent manner. However, whether Bmi1 can be used as a potential target for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment has not been fully confirmed yet. Here, we show that perturbation of Bmi1 expression by using short hairpin RNA can inhibit the tumorigenicity and tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, Bmi1 knockdown can block the tumor growth, both in the initiating stages and the fast growing stages. Cellular biology analysis revealed that Bmi1 knockdown induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our findings verify Bmi1 as a qualified treatment target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and support Bmi1 targeting treatment with chemotherapeutic agents.

  12. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    -groups, P ≤ 0.041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late...

  13. The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: The mediating role of parental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Shandley, K; Oldenhof, E; Youssef, G J; Thomas, S A; Frydenberg, E; Jackson, A C

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling and the potential mediating role of parental psychopathology (problem drinking, drug use problems, and mental health issues). The study comprised 3953 participants (1938 males, 2015 females) recruited from a large-scale Australian community telephone survey of adults retrospectively reporting on parental problem gambling and psychopathology during their childhood. Overall, 4.0% [95%CI 3.0, 5.0] (n=157) of participants reported paternal problem gambling and 1.7% [95%CI 1.0, 2.0] (n=68) reported maternal problem gambling. Compared to their peers, participants reporting paternal problem gambling were 5.1 times more likely to be moderate risk gamblers and 10.7 times more likely to be problem gamblers. Participants reporting maternal problem gambling were 1.7 times more likely to be moderate risk gamblers and 10.6 times more likely to be problem gamblers. The results revealed that the relationships between paternal-and-participant and maternal-and-participant problem gambling were significant, but that only the relationship between paternal-and-participant problem gambling remained statistically significant after controlling for maternal problem gambling and sociodemographic factors. Paternal problem drinking and maternal drug use problems partially mediated the relationship between paternal-and-participant problem gambling, and fully mediated the relationship between maternal-and-participant problem gambling. In contrast, parental mental health issues failed to significantly mediate the transmission of gambling problems by either parent. When parental problem gambling was the mediator, there was full mediation of the effect between parental psychopathology and offspring problem gambling for fathers but not mothers. Overall, the study highlights the vulnerability of children from problem gambling households and suggests that it would be of value to target prevention and intervention

  14. Intergenerational Music Making: A Phenomenological Study of Three Older Australians Making Music with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three older Australians' active engagement in music making with children was examined in this phenomenological study. Intergenerational music engagement was explored, focusing on the perspectives of the older Australians engaged in these musical interactions and, in particular, perceived benefits in being part of these musical interactions. Data…

  15. Intergenerational Learning at a Nature Center: Families Using Prior Experiences and Participation Frameworks to Understand Raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; McClain, Lucy Richardson

    2014-01-01

    Using a sociocultural framework to approach intergenerational learning, this inquiry examines learning processes used by families during visits to one nature center. Data were collected from videotaped observations of families participating in an environmental education program and a follow-up task to draw the habitat of raptors. Based on a…

  16. Intergenerational Beliefs of Mothers and Grandmothers regarding Early Childhood Stimulation in (Rural) Jammu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neeru; Sapru, Ruchira; Mahajan, Ruchi

    2009-01-01

    The present research was conducted to study the intergenerational differences in parental beliefs of the Lobana community in the rural district of Jammu in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. The sample comprised 30 mothers and 30 grandmothers, selected from the R.S. Pura tehsil of the Jammu district. Data was collected using a modified parental…

  17. Intergenerational Correlations in Educational Attainment: Birth Order and Family Size Effects Using Canadian Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…

  18. A Further Look at the Intergenerational Transmission of Violence: Witnessing Interparental Violence in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S.; Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2010-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission (IGT) of violence has been a main theoretical consideration to explain the link between interparental aggression in the family of origin and intimate partner violence (IPV) in subsequent intimate relationships. Studies have examined this theoretical link based on self reports of interparental violence witnessed…

  19. Life Course and Intergenerational Continuity of Intimate Partner Aggression and Physical Injury: A 20-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kelly E; Menard, Scott; Simmons, Sara B; Bouffard, Leana A; Orsi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine continuity of intimate partner aggression (IPA), which is defined as repeated annual involvement in IPA, across respondents' life course and into the next generation, where it may emerge among adult children. A national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,401 individuals and their adult children is analyzed. Annual data on IPA severity and physical injury were collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study across a 20-year period from 1984 to 2004. Three hypotheses and biological sex differences are tested and effect sizes are estimated. First, findings reveal evidence for life course continuity (IPA is a strong predictor of subsequent IPA), but the overall trend decreases over time. Second, intergenerational continuity is documented (parents' IPA predicts adult children's IPA), but the effect is stronger for female than for male adult children. Third, results from combined and separate, more restrictive, measures of victimization and perpetration are nearly identical except in the intergenerational analyses. Fourth, evidence for continuity is not found when assessing physical injury alone. Together, these findings imply that some but not all forms of IPA are common, continuous, and intergenerational. Life course continuity appears stronger than intergenerational continuity. PMID:27076093

  20. Intergenerational Occupational Mobility in Rural Economy: Evidence from Nepal and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on intergenerational occupational mobility from agriculture to the nonfarm sector using survey data from Nepal and Vietnam. In the absence of credible instruments, the degree of selection on observables is used as a guide to the degree of selection on unobservables, a la Altonji et al. (2005) to address the unobserved…

  1. Intergenerational Support to Aging Parents: The Role of Norms and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Merril; Gans, Daphna; Yang, Frances M.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation examines how norms of filial responsibility influence adult children to provide social support to their aging parents. Relying on intergenerational solidarity and social capital theories, the authors hypothesize that filial responsibility as a latent resource is more strongly converted into support when (a) the parent…

  2. Intergenerational studies on the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intergenerational impacts of engineered nanomaterials in plants are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiology, phenology, yield and nutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum) exposed to nanoceria (nCeO2). Seeds from parental plan...

  3. Long-Term Influences of Intergenerational Ambivalence on Midlife Parents' Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt, K. Jill; Blieszner, Rosemary; Savla, Jyoti

    2011-01-01

    We investigated changes in midlife parents' intergenerational ambivalence toward a focal child and its influence on their psychological well-being over 14 years, as the focal child moved from adolescence into young adulthood. We estimated growth curve models using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,510…

  4. Everyday Memory Function of Older Adults: The Impact of Intergenerational School Volunteer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sally; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Participants in an intergenerational school volunteer program (26 adults over 60) completed memory instruments at 3 time periods. The effect of program participating on actual and perceived memory function varied with age and educational level. Dramatic positive mood changes were noted for those over 70 and those who were college educated. (SK)

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Religious Beliefs and Practices and the Reduction of Adolescent Delinquency in Urban Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Rosati, Michael J.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A.; Todd, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational transmission of family religion as measured by parent's and adolescent's beliefs and practices in Buddhism, and its relation to delinquent behaviors among early adolescents in Thailand. The data set is from the Thai Family Matters Project 2007, a representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens in…

  6. Intergenerational Transfers to Adult Children in Europe: Do Social Policies Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Martina; Deindl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of social policies in intergenerational transfers from old to young people is especially important in times of population aging. This paper focuses on the influences of social expenditures and social services on financial support and on practical help from older parents to their adult children based on the first two waves…

  7. Intergenerational Transmission of Neighbourhood Poverty in Sweden: An Innovative Analysis of Individual Neighbourhood Histories (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ham, M.; Hedman, L.; Manley, D.J.; Coulter, R.; Östh, J.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which socioeconomic (dis)advantage is transmitted between generations is receiving increasing attention from academics and policymakers. However, few studies have investigated whether there is a spatial dimension to this intergenerational transmission of (dis)advantage. Drawing upon th

  8. Intergenerational transmission of neighbourhood poverty in Sweden: An innovative analysis of individual neighbourhood histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ham, M.; Hedman, L.; Manley, D.; Coulter, R.; Östh, J.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which socioeconomic (dis)advantage is transmitted between generations is receiving increasing attention from academics and policymakers. However, few studies have investigated whether there is a spatial dimension to this intergenerational transmission of (dis)advantage. Drawing upon th

  9. To Recycle or Not to Recycle? An Intergenerational Approach to Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taebi, B.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    AbstractThis paper approaches the choice between the open and closed nuclear fuel cycles as a matter of intergenerational justice, by revealing the value conflicts in the production of nuclear energy. The closed fuel cycle improve sustainability in terms of the supply certainty of uranium and involv

  10. Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment in Father-Child Dyads: The Case of Single Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Annie; Miljkovitch, Raphaele

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have repeatedly found that intergenerational transmission of attachment is more robust in mother-child dyads than it is in father-child dyads. They have proposed several explanations for the inconsistent father-child findings, including the use of the strange situation procedure, the young age of the children, and the fact that fathers…

  11. Precursors of Language Ability and Academic Performance: An Intergenerational, Longitudinal Study of At-Risk Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Lisa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    The current investigation examined whether inter-generational transfer of risk could be revealed through mothers' and preschool-aged children's expressive language, and whether continuity of risk persisted in these children's academic abilities, 3 years later. Participating families were drawn from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, a…

  12. Towards a Model of Human Resource Solutions for Achieving Intergenerational Interaction in Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, David; By, Rune Todnem; Hutchings, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Achieving intergenerational interaction and avoiding conflict is becoming increasingly difficult in a workplace populated by three generations--Baby Boomers, Generation X-ers and Generation Y-ers. This paper presents a model and proposes HR solutions towards achieving co-operative generational interaction. Design/methodology/approach:…

  13. Intergenerational Transmission and the School-to-work Transition for 2nd Generation Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina;

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the extent of intergenerational transmission through parental capital, ethnic capital and neighbourhood effects on several aspects of the school-to-work transition of 2nd generation immigrants and young ethnic Danes. The main findings are that parental capital has strong positive effects...

  14. Intergenerational transfers and European families: does the number of siblings matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emery, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Existing research on intergenerational transfers has focused on income and wealth as the predominant determinants of the provision of financial assistance to adult children (Albertini, Kohli, and Vogel 2006; Zissimopoulos and Smith 2010; Albertini and Radl 2012). Yet previous models of i

  15. Unresolved trauma in mothers: Intergenerational effects and the role of reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mother's unresolved trauma may interfere with her ability to sensitively respond to her infant, thus affecting the development of attachment in her own child, and potentially contributing to the intergenerational transmission of trauma. One novel construct within the Dynamic Maturational Model of ...

  16. Using Film and Intergenerational Colearning to Enhance Knowledge and Attitudes toward Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Roseanna

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two evidence-based methods used collaboratively, intergenerational colearning and use of films/documentaries in an educational context, enhanced knowledge levels and attitudes toward older adults in nursing, social work, and other allied profession students. Students participated in a gerontology film festival where…

  17. The Intergeneration Transmission of Attachment: How Do We Account for the "Transmission Gap?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verneuil, Ann Marie

    This doctoral research paper reviews the empirical literature examining intergenerational transmission of attachment styles. The relationship between adult caregivers' internal representations of attachment as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview and their infants' attachment status as measured by the Strange Situation procedure has been…

  18. How important is cultural background for the level of intergenerational mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnitzlein, Daniel D.

    Using results on brother correlations in permanent earnings for different groups of second generation immigrants based on administrative data from Denmark, this letter analyzes the role of cultural background in the determination of the level of intergenerational mobility. The results indicate that...

  19. Children and Adults Reading Interactively: The Social Benefits of an Exploratory Intergenerational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaki, Emi; Harmon, Mary Towle

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory Intergenerational Program (IGP) focused on reading to determine whether it affects mood and communication in older adults with mild dementia and neurocognitive deficits, and if it influences school-aged children's perceptions of older adults over time. Six older adults with cognitive-communication deficits and 12 school-aged…

  20. Rawlsian Intergenerational Justice as a Markov-Perfect Equilibrium in a Resource Technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Asheim, Geir B.

    1988-01-01

    The Rawlsian maximin criterion is combined with nonpaternalistic altruistic preferences in a nonrenewable resource technology. The maximin program is shown to be time-inconsistent for a subset of initial conditions. A solution to this intergenerational conflict is found, under a given assumption, as a generically unique subgame-perfect equilibrium. Copyright 1988 by The Review of Economic Studies Limited.

  1. Mediating Mechanisms for the Intergenerational Transmission of Constructive Parenting: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeng-yin; Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on a prospective longitudinal panel data set that was collected at three developmental stages--early adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood--this study investigates marital satisfaction and educational attainment as mediating mechanisms as well as gender's moderating effect for the intergenerational transmission of constructive…

  2. Intergenerational Transmission of Multiple Problem Behaviors: Prospective Relationships between Mothers and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison; Battista, Deena; Sembower, Mark; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2009-01-01

    Much of the research examining intergenerational continuity of problems from mother to offspring has focused on homotypic continuity (e.g., depression), despite the fact that different types of mental health problems tend to cluster in both adults and children. It remains unclear whether mothers with multiple mental health problems compared to…

  3. Songs in Our Hearts: The Affordances and Constraints of an Intergenerational Multimodal Arts Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydon, Rachel; O'Neill, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines the affordances and constraints of an intergenerational multimodal arts curriculum that was designed to expand communication and identity options for children and elder participants. The authors drew on actor-network theory to conceptualize curriculum as a network effect and refer to literature on multimodal…

  4. Intimate Partnership Formation & Intergenerational Relationships Among Ethnic Minority Youth in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2006-01-01

    family with theories about modernisation/individualisation and discrimination effects. The dominating tendencies in the inter-generational relationships between young people and their parents on the subject of the young people's intimate partnership formation are analysed and discussed. The ethic...

  5. The Grandparent-Grandchild Relationship: Implications for Models of Intergenerational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karen; Harwood, Jake; Hummert, Mary Lee

    2005-01-01

    We report two studies which examine the age stereotypes in interactions model of intergenerational communication. We investigate whether stereotyping processes mediate the effects of various predictors on communication outcomes. Support emerges for the mediating role of stereotyping. The studies also examine relational factors finding support for…

  6. Family media matters: unraveling the intergenerational transmission of reading and television tastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Notten; G. Kraaykamp; R.P. Konig

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors scrutinize the intergenerational transmission of book reading and television viewing behaviors. They examine long-term effects of parents' social status, parental media example, and media guidance activities during one's childhood on adult media tastes. Data are employed f

  7. The Intergenerational Continuity of Observed Early Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovan, Nikki M.; Chung, Alissa L.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the results from a prospective, longitudinal study of cross-generational parenting quality in a lower socioeconomic status sample of moderate ethnic diversity (N = 61). The study extends previous research on intergenerational continuity of parenting in several significant ways: (a) Assessments in both generations were based on…

  8. Redistributive Taxation vs. Education Subsidies: Fostering Equality and Social Mobility in an Intergenerational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Redistributive taxation and education subsidies are common policies intended to foster education attendance of poor children. However, this paper shows that in an intergenerational framework, these policies can raise social mobility only for some investment situations but not in general. I also study the impact of both policies on the aggregate…

  9. Engaging Post-Secondary Students and Older Adults in an Intergenerational Digital Storytelling Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Jennifer; Danbrook, Claire; Sieppert, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    A five day Digital Storytelling course was offered to Social Work students, integrating a three day workshop with older adult storytellers who shared stories related to the theme stories of home. A course evaluation was conducted exploring the Digital Storytelling experience and learning in an intergenerational setting. Findings from surveys…

  10. STUDY OF EFFECT OF BMI AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to evaluate any association between BMI, WC and Blood pressure and any tendency to develop prehypertension. The study comprises of 100 medical students of NRI medical college, Sangivalasa near Visakhapatnam. It was carried out ongirl students with age of 17 ye ars. Their BMI, WC and Blood pressure were determined. The examination included measurement of weight, height of the student to determine BMI, measurement of waist circumference, and measurement of blood pressure by sphygmomanometer. In the present study t he results are consistent with early clinical studies reporting that there is elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing BMI and waist circumference and there is tendency to develop prehypertension in students with higher BMI. Modificat ion of life style factors should be emphasized.

  11. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  12. Are associations between electronic media use and BMI different across levels of physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Haug, Ellen; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of electronic media has been found to be a risk factor for higher BMI and for being overweight. Physical activity has been found to be associated with lower BMI and lower risk for being overweight. Little is known about whether the associations between physical activity and...... girls who did not comply with physical activity guidelines. Among physically active adolescents, EM was found to be significantly associated with BMI or odds for overweight among girls, but not among boys. CONCLUSION: While the usage of EM appear to be inconsequential for BMI and the risk of overweight...... among physically active boys, we find evidence indicating that EM use is associated with BMI and risk for overweight among girls, including those who report complying with MVPA guidelines....

  13. Nativity, US Length of Residence, and BMI Among Diverse Asian American Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups. PMID:25192818

  14. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  15. Overexpression of AtBMI1C, a polycomb group protein gene, accelerates flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Polycomb group protein (PcG-mediated gene silencing is emerging as an essential developmental regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic organisms. PcGs inactivate or maintain the silenced state of their target chromatin by forming complexes, including Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1 and 2 (PRC2. Three PRC2 complexes have been identified and characterized in Arabidopsis; of these, the EMF and VRN complexes suppress flowering by catalyzing the trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 of FLOWER LOCUS T (FT and FLOWER LOCUS C (FLC. However, little is known about the role of PRC1 in regulating the floral transition, although AtRING1A, AtRING1B, AtBMI1A, and AtBMI1B are believed to regulate shoot apical meristem and embryonic development as components of PRC1. Moreover, among the five RING finger PcGs in the Arabidopsis genome, four have been characterized. Here, we report that the fifth, AtBMI1C, is a novel, ubiquitously expressed nuclear PcG protein and part of PRC1, which is evolutionarily conserved with Psc and BMI1. Overexpression of AtBMI1C caused increased H2A monoubiquitination and flowering defects in Arabidopsis. Both the suppression of FLC and activation of FT were observed in AtBMI1C-overexpressing lines, resulting in early flowering. No change in the H3K27me3 level in FLC chromatin was detected in an AtBMI1C-overexpressing line. Our results suggest that AtBMI1C participates in flowering time control by regulating the expression of FLC; moreover, the repression of FLC by AtBMI1C is not due to the activity of PRC2. Instead, it is likely the result of PRC1 activity, into which AtBMI1C is integrated.

  16. Measuring intergenerational financial support: Analysis of two cross-national surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Emery

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last decade has seen considerable research into intergenerational financial transfers in Europe. This research has produced significant insights into the nature, causes, and consequences of such transfers, as well as evidence of cross-national variation. Yet the findings of this research field are almost exclusively based on data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE. The dependency on SHARE data and this specific methodological approach may limit the inferences made by researchers examining intergenerational transfers in Europe. Objective: This paper aims to explore whether instruments designed to measure intergenerational financial transfers are sensitive to various methodological parameters. Specifically, whether the prompts, reference period, and respondent identity affect the number and size of transfers that are reported. Methods: To achieve this we compare data from SHARE and the Generations and Gender Programme (GGP using Propensity Score Matching to identify which survey reports the most transfers and whether these differences are stable across sub-groups. We also utilise specific features of SHARE and the GGP to examine whether variations in the reference period or asking the transfer giver or receiver affects the level of behaviour reported. Results: The results show that the instruments are highly sensitive to changes in wording, the reference period, and the identity of the respondent. This suggests that existing findings in the literature may be sensitive to the specific methodology used by SHARE. Conclusions: Whilst SHARE is an excellent data source, we would encourage studies of intergenerational transfers to validate their findings with multiple data sources. Contribution: The analysis shows the important role played by survey instruments in shaping research findings with regard to intergenerational relations

  17. Adolescent BMI at Northern Israel: From Trends, to Associated Variables and Comorbidities, and to Medical Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machluf, Yossy; Fink, Daniel; Farkash, Rivka; Rotkopf, Ron; Pirogovsky, Avinoam; Tal, Orna; Shohat, Tamar; Weisz, Giora; Ringler, Erez; Dagan, David; Chaiter, Yoram

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of abnormal body mass index (BMI), mainly obesity, is becoming a significant public health problem. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide a comprehensive view of secular trends of BMI, and the associated socio-demographic variables and comorbidities among adolescents with abnormal BMI. Individuals of the study population were born mainly between 1970 and 1993, and were examined at 16 to 19 years of age during the years 1987 to 2010, at 1 conscription center in the northern district of Israel.The study population included 113,694 adolescents. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between BMI categories, socio-demographic variables, and medical conditions.A downward trend in the prevalence of normal BMI among both male and female adolescents was obtained, while trends of overweight and obesity (in both genders) and underweight (only among females) rose. Socio-demographic variables such as religion, education, family-related parameters, residential environment, country of birth, and origin were all associated with different risks for abnormal BMI. Obesity was associated with higher risk for hyperlipidemia, endocrine disorders (only in males), knee disorders, and hypertension type I + II (in both genders). Overweight was associated with knee disorders (only in females). Underweight, exclusively in males, was associated with increased risk for endocrine disorders, proteinuria, and cardiac disorders. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the intricate relations between gender, BMI, and medical signatures. It brought to light novel clusters of diseases that were abundant among populations having above-normal BMI or underweight males. Furthermore, above-normal BMI was associated with a lower rate of cardiac anomalies and scoliosis/kyphosis, whereas being underweight was associated with a lower risk for hypertension and flat foot.This study provides a reliable and in-depth view

  18. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI group. It is found that BMI does not have much influence on head injuries but it is influenced more by the height of the occupant. Results of logistic analysis suggest that

  19. MDR1 mediated chemoresistance: BMI1 and TIP60 in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee Mustafi, Soumyajit; Chakraborty, Prabir Kumar; Naz, Sarwat; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar; Street, Mark; Basak, Rumki; Yang, Da; Ding, Kai; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Bhattacharya, Resham

    2016-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced emergence of drug resistant cells is frequently observed and is exemplified by the expression of family of drug resistance proteins including, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). However, a concise mechanism for chemotherapy-induced MDR1 expression is unclear. Mechanistically, mutational selection, epigenetic alteration, activation of the Wnt pathway or impaired p53 function have been implicated. The present study describes that the surviving fraction of cisplatin resistant cells co- upregulate MDR1, BMI1 and acetyl transferase activity of TIP60. Using complementary gain and loss of function approaches, we demonstrate that the expression of MDR1 is positively regulated by BMI1, a stem-cell factor classically known as a transcriptional repressor. Our study establishes a functional interaction between TIP60 and BMI-1 resulting in upregulation of MDR1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays further establish that the proximal MDR1 promoter responds to cisplatin in a BMI1 dependent manner. BMI1 interacts with a cluster of E-box elements on the MDR1 promoter and recruits TIP60 resulting in acetylation of histone H2A and H3. Collectively, our data establish a hitherto unknown liaison among MDR1, BMI1 and TIP60 and provide mechanistic insights into cisplatin-induced MDR1 expression resulting in acquired cross-resistance against paclitaxel, doxorubicin and likely other drugs. In conclusion, our results advocate utilizing anti-BMI1 strategies to alleviate acquired resistance to chemotherapy. PMID:27295567

  20. Associations between Food Outlets around Schools and BMI among Primary Students in England: A Cross-Classified Multi-Level Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Williams

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy-makers are interested in the influence that food retailing around schools may have on child obesity risk. Most previous research comes from North America, uses data aggregated at the school-level and focuses on associations between fast food outlets and school obesity rates. This study examines associations between food retailing and BMI among a large sample of primary school students in Berkshire, England. By controlling for individual, school and home characteristics and stratifying results across the primary school years, we aimed to identify if the food environment around schools had an effect on BMI, independent of socio-economic variables.We measured the densities of fast food outlets and food stores found within schoolchildren's home and school environments using Geographic Information Systems (GIS and data from local councils. We linked these data to measures from the 2010/11 National Child Measurement Programme and used a cross-classified multi-level approach to examine associations between food retailing and BMI z-scores. Analyses were stratified among Reception (aged 4-5 and Year 6 (aged 10-11 students to measure associations across the primary school years.Our multilevel model had three levels to account for individual (n = 16,956, home neighbourhood (n = 664 and school (n = 268 factors. After controlling for confounders, there were no significant associations between retailing near schools and student BMI, but significant positive associations between fast food outlets in home neighbourhood and BMI z-scores. Year 6 students living in areas with the highest density of fast food outlets had an average BMI z-score that was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.20 higher than those living in areas with none.We found little evidence to suggest that food retailing around schools influences student BMI. There is some evidence to suggest that fast food outlet densities in a child's home neighbourhood may have an effect on BMI

  1. Self-employment and intergenerational transfers of physical and human capital: an empirical analysis of French data

    OpenAIRE

    Laferrere, Anne; McEntee, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Using The 1991 French Household Survey of Financial Assets, we examine the determinants of self-employment using data on intergenerational transfers of wealth, education, informal human capital and a range of demographic variables. We find evidence of the importance played by the family in the decision to enter self-employment. Intergenerational transfers of wealth, familial transfers of human capital and the structure of the family are determining factors in the decision to move from wage wo...

  2. The intergenerational relationships between senior citizens living in retirement homes and their families and friends in the town of Humpolec

    OpenAIRE

    VESELSKÁ, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The intergenerational relationships between senior citizens living in retirement homes and their families and friends in the town of Humpolec Aging and senior citizens are currently topical subjects. The population is aging and society should be prepared for this phenomenon. This shall bring about changes in various spheres and fields, such as health care and social services, and also in the relationships in and functioning of today{\\crq}s family. The thesis ``The intergenerational r...

  3. Risk factors of parents abused as children: a mediational analysis of the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise; Browne, Kevin; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study provides an exploration of factors implicated in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child (AP families) were compared in terms of risk factors to families where the parents had no childhood history of victimization (NAP families). The mediational properties of risk factors in the intergenerational cycle of maltreatment were then explored. METHODS: Infor...

  4. Promoting communication and fostering interaction between the generations: A study of the UK's first purpose-built intergenerational centre

    OpenAIRE

    Melville, Julie

    2013-01-01

    As many changes in society, such as increased geographic mobility and improved technological advances, have led to generations frequently becoming segregated from one another, the development of intergenerational shared sites (IGSS) presents a unique opportunity for exchange and interaction between the generations. This study ‘tells the story’ of the development of the UK’s first IGSS – a purpose-built intergenerational centre (the Centre).

  5. BMI and Health Status in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes Trial (BARI 2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng-Chia; Hlatky, Mark A.; Stone, Roslyn A.; Rana, Jamal S.; Escobedo, Jorge; Rogers, William J.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Brooks, Maria Mori

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The longitudinal association between obesity, weight variability and health status outcomes is important for patients with coronary disease and diabetes. METHODS The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial (BARI 2D) was a multi-center randomized clinical trial to evaluate the best treatment strategy for patients with both documented stable ischemic heart disease and type 2 diabetes. We examined BARI 2D participants for four years to study how BMI was associated with health status outcomes. Health status was evaluated by the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI), RAND Energy/fatigue, Health Distress, and Self-rated health. BMI was measured quarterly throughout follow-up years, and health status was assessed at each annual follow-up visit. Variation in BMI measures was separated into between-person and within-person change in longitudinal analysis. RESULTS Higher mean BMI over follow-up years (the between-person BMI) was associated with poorer health status outcomes. Decreasing BMI (the within-person BMI change) was associated with better Self-rated health. The relationships between BMI variability and DASI or Energy appeared to be curvilinear, and differed by baseline obesity status. Decreasing BMI was associated with better outcomes if patients were obese at baseline, but was associated with poorer DASI and Energy outcomes if patients were non-obese at baseline. CONCLUSIONS For patients with stable ischemic heart disease and diabetes, weight gain was associated with poorer health status outcomes, independent of obesity-related comobidities. Weight reduction is associated with better functional capacity and perceived energy for obese patients but not for non-obese patients at baseline. PMID:21742107

  6. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  7. A SHORT STUDY ON CHANGE IN BP WITH BMI IN OBESE AND NONOBESE YOUNG GIRL STUDENTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Divyashree N Uchil; NS Satish Kumar; Udaya Kumar Rao; Deepa; Pavana Krishnamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    Title: Short study on change in BP and BMI in obese and non obese young girl students. Introduction: High blood pressure (BP) is a major determinant of cardiovascular events in obesity. This study was undertaken to analyze the differences in certain well-defined cardiovascular parameters in obese and non-obese young girl students between age 17 to 21 with respect to their BMI. Aims and Objectives: To compare change in BP and BMI in obese and non obese young girls. Materials and methods: This ...

  8. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40...... analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not...

  9. Breast feeding duration, age at starting periods and high BMI risk and adiposity in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Caleyachetty, A.; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C H; Wills, A K

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1–4 to ?21 months) and age of start...

  10. Slow rates of habituation predict greater zBMI gains over 12 months in lean children

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Slow rates of habituation are related to greater energy intake, and cross-sectionally to body weight. The present study is designed to assess whether slow rates of habituation are prospectively related to zBMI change over a 12 month period in 66 lean 8–12 year-old children, and whether the rate of habituation is a stable behavioral phenotype. Results showed slower rates of habituation predicted greater zBMI change, controlling for child sex, age, initial zBMI, dietary awareness and minority s...

  11. Contribution of the BMI Level or the Body Fat Percentage Level to Bone-Mass

    OpenAIRE

    高畑,陽子; 穴井,孝信

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear which body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage level has the strongest effect on the bone mass in young women.We examined the data gathered from 233 adolescent girls in a junior high,high school,and university to ascertain the relationship between BMI or body fat percentage and bone mass. The transmission index (TI) of the calcaneus was measured using an ultrasound bone densitometer. The subjects were classified into 3 groups by BMI and body fat percentage se...

  12. Fat and lean BMI reference curves in children and adolescents and their utility in identifying excess adiposity compared with BMI and percentage body fat1234

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, David R.; Moore, Reneé H.; Leonard, Mary B.; Babette S. Zemel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) are widely used to assess adiposity. These indexes fail to account for independent contributions of fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) to body weight, which vary according to age, sex, pubertal status, and population ancestry in the pediatric population.

  13. Measures for reduction of severe accident consequences: Comprehensive evaluation of the results sponsored by the BMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of analytical studies were initial in the past by the Federal Ministry of Interior (BMI) of FRG, to investigate the potential of additional constructive measures for risk reduction. Those measures were proposed especially against uncontrolled overpressurization of the containment due to continuous gas/steam generation, penetration of the foundation of the reactor building by melt-concrete interaction, and failure of the containment due to violent hydrogen combustion. This report gives an overview about those studies and summarizes their results. Concerning uncontrolled overpressurization, only filtered venting may be a reasonable measure, while it seems to make not much sense, to look at measures against penetration of the foundation like 'core-catcher' in further detail. To prevent hydrogen combustion with severe consequences, several potential possibilities exist, but none of them can be considered as a safe measure. Additional analysis concerning hydrogen distribution and combustion in a multi-compartment containment are necessary. All studies mentioned in this report, deal with additional constructive measures to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents. Up to day in FRG, the potential of accident prevention and mitigation of its consequences by still or again operable and already existing systems of a plant have not been investigated in detail. As indicated by first results, the use of those systems in the frame of an appropriate accident management may have a large potential for risk reduction. (orig.)

  14. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Hedderson, Monique; Ehrlich, Samantha; Sridhar, Sneha; Darbinian, Jeanne; Moore, Susan; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and BMI category varies by racial/ethnic group. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a cohort of 123,040 women without recognized pregravid diabetes who delivered babies between 1995 and 2006 at Kaiser Permanente of Northern California, we examined racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of GDM by BMI category and the population-attributable risk (PAR) associated with overweight/obesity. RESULTS Among all r...

  15. Sociodemographic Status and Self-Reported BMI-related Morbidity in Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kayoung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study examined whether the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the morbidity of chronic diseases differs by marital status, education, and income level. Materials and Methods From a nationally representative sample of 5,526 adults from the third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005), data regarding measured height and weight to classify BMI category (< 23, 23-24.9, ≥ 25), self-reported sociodemographics (marital status, education, income, age, ...

  16. Toughness and Hot/Wet Properties of a Novel Modified BMI/Carbon Fiber Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The toughness and hot/wet properties of a novel modified bismaleimide (BMI) 5428/carbon fiber composite was investigated. Results indicate that the prepared BMI/T700 composite owns high toughness, excellent hot/wet properties and mechanical properties. The compression strength after impact (CAl) of 5428/T700 composite is 260 MPa, and the results of hot/wet test show that the long-term service temperature of 5428/T700 composite can maintain at 170°C.

  17. The Effects of Breastfeeding on Childhood BMI: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Gibson; Hernandez, M; Kelly, M; Campbell, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of breastfeeding on childhood body mass index (BMI). We use data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), a nationally representative UK cohort survey, containing detailed infant feeding information, which allow us to explore the effects of a range of breastfeeding variables on the mean BMI of children breastfed for different durations and for exclusive and partial breastfeeding. Using propensity score matching, we find statistically significant influences of...

  18. The prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and the association with BMI status

    OpenAIRE

    Veldwijk Jorien; Proper Karin I; Hoeven-Mulder Henriëtte B; Bemelmans Wanda JE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and exa...

  19. Bmi1 reprograms CML B-lymphoid progenitors to become B-ALL–initiating cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Amitava; Ficker, Ashley M.; Dunn, Susan K.; Madhu, Malav; Cancelas, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The characterization and targeting of Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)–initiating cells remains unresolved. Expression of the polycomb protein Bmi1 is up-regulated in patients with advanced stages of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We report that Bmi1 transforms and reprograms CML B-lymphoid progenitors into stem cell leukemia (Scl) promoter-driven, self-renewing, leukemia-initiating cells to result in B-lymphoid leukemia (B-ALL) in vivo. In vitro,...

  20. Changes of BMI Distribution in Chinese Adults from 1989 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-fei OUYANG; Hui-jun WANG; Chang SU; Wen-wen DU; Ji-guo ZHANG; Bing ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the changing trends of body mass index (BMI) distribution in Chinese adults from 1989 to 2011. MethodsThe data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected in 1989, 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 were used. A total of 14831 participants aged 18-45 years with 39497 observations were included in the final analysis. Lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method was applied to describe the changes of BMI distribution.ResultsFrom 1989 to 2011, the distribution curve of BMI showed shifts toward the right in both men and women. All percentile curves displayed an increasing trend and the change was much larger at higher percentile levels mainly among men. The median values of BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity exhibited increasing trends in both genders, especially in the period from 1997 to 2011. The quartile range of BMI increased from 3.4kg/m2 to 4.8kg/m2 for men and from 3.7kg/m2 to 4.4 kg/m2 for women. The prevalence of overweight and obesity appeared to be higher in three megacities than in nine provinces in both men and women. ConclusionAs indicated by the changes of the BMI distribution in Chinese adults, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased greatly during the past 23 years, especially in men. It is urgent to take strategies for obesity prevention and control immediately in China.

  1. BMI1 is downregulated by the natural compound curcumin, but not by bisdemethoxycurcumin and dimethoxycurcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyeni, Temitope A; Khatwani, Natasha; San, KayKay; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R

    2016-08-01

    The B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1) locus encodes a 37-kD protein that is a key regulatory component of the polycomb regulatory complex 1 (PRC1). When overexpressed in various cancer types, the BMI1 protein induces cell growth and promotes tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin, a major phytochemical in turmeric (Curcuma longa), inhibits the proliferation and survival of many types of cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo, and has been reported to reduce BMI1 expression in breast cancer cells. In this study, effects of curcumin and two analogs (bisdemethoxycurcumin and dimethoxycurcumin) on BMI1 expression were evaluated in DLD-1 colorectal cancer cells. Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is naturally occurring in turmeric, whereas dimethoxycurcumin (DMC) is a synthetic analog of curcumin. All three compounds reduced cell survival, but only the natural compound downregulated BMI1 protein expression; curcumin significantly reduced BMI1 levels more than bisdemethoxycurcumin and dimethoxycurcumin. In addition, curcumin and BDMC inhibit survival of the DLD-1 colorectal cancer cells by inducing apoptosis, whereas DMC inhibits survival by a mechanism other than apoptosis. PMID:27550987

  2. Higher BMI Is Associated with Reduced Cognitive Performance in Division I Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fedor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Poor cardiovascular fitness has been implicated as a possible mechanism for obesity-related cognitive decline, though no study has examined whether BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in persons with excellent fitness levels. The current study examined the relationship between BMI and cognitive function by the Immediate Post Concussion and Cognitive Test (ImPACT in Division I collegiate athletes. Methods: Participants had an average age of 20.14 ± 1.78 years, were 31.3% female, and 53.9% football players. BMI ranged from 19.04 to 41.14 and averaged 26.72 ± 4.62. Results: Regression analyses revealed that BMI incrementally predicted performance on visual memory (R2 change = 0.015, p = 0.026 beyond control variables. Follow-up partial correlation analyses revealed small but significant negative correlations between BMI and verbal memory (r = -0.17, visual memory (r = -0.16, and visual motor speed (r = -0.12. Conclusions: These results suggest that higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive function, even in a sample expected to have excellent levels of cardiovascular fitness. Further work is needed to better understand mechanisms for these associations.

  3. Female juvenile delinquency, motherhood, and the intergenerational transmission of aggression and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored the intergenerational transmission of aggression and antisocial behavior by examining mothers' juvenile delinquency, their pregnancies, and its impact on their children's aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of the first 181 biological mothers recruited as part of the Vancouver Longitudinal Study on the Psychosocial Development of Children (British Columbia, Canada). Results indicated that mothers who were juvenile delinquents were more likely to experience social adversity, to use substances during pregnancy and to offend in adulthood. Furthermore, mothers who reported juvenile delinquency had children who were more physically aggressive and had an earlier onset of physical aggression. This pattern of association held when controlling for sociodemographics, social adversities, prenatal substance exposure, and criminal involvement in adulthood. The study findings highlighted the importance of understanding the role and impact of female delinquency and motherhood on the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior. PMID:22392721

  4. Marriage Squeeze and Intergenerational Support in Contemporary Rural China: Evidence from X County of Anhui Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Guo, Qiuju; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-01-01

    With China's gender imbalance and increasingly severe male marriage squeeze, patterns of intergenerational support in rural areas are likely to undergo significant change. Using data from a survey of four towns from X county in Anhui province carried out in 2008, this article analyzes the effects of sons' marital status on intergenerational support. Random-effect regression analysis shows that son's marital status has strong effects on financial support to and coresidence with parents. Compared with married sons, older unmarried sons (so-called forced bachelors) tend to provide less financial support to their parents and are more likely to live with their parents. Parents' support of sons, as well as the parents' own needs and sons' capabilities all affect the support provided by sons. These results show that both theories of exchange and altruism are simultaneously relevant in the context of the marriage squeeze of contemporary rural China. PMID:26243325

  5. Intergenerational income mobility – top incomes and assortative mating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Bonke, Jens; Munk, Martin D.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates intergenerational income mobility among top-income people in Denmark focusing on the impact of assortative mating. Earnings and capital income are the variables of interest included in the analyzes testing the hypothesis that both wealth and social heritage are transferred...... from rich parents to their children. Using administrative registers allow us to look at small fractions of the populations, i.e. dynasties, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their eventual spouses’ incomes. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top, in...... particular, when including capital income in the total income. Also we find the marriage match has a stronger impact on the family-to-family income transfer in the top of the income distribution where the daughter marries a man more like her father than herself. The highest persistence, however, is between...

  6. Leadership development in geriatric care through the Intergeneration Make a Difference Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Mary K; Brown, Sylvia T

    2006-01-01

    The Intergeneration Make a Difference Project (MADP) is designed to develop leadership skills in geriatric nursing for seniors in a baccalaureate nursing program. This service-learning project with octogenarians and older individuals is based on theoretical constructs of caring. Stories and journaling are of great importance in the project. Expected outcomes are cognitive, affective, personal, and interpersonal. Students are expected to engage in critical/reflective thinking and develop leadership skills, heightened respect for the elderly, and interest in lifelong learning and a service orientation to society. Empowered to influence their clients, students receive the reciprocal benefits of an intergenerational relationship that, it is hoped, will affect how they care for the elderly in the future. PMID:16733972

  7. Intergenerational solidarity in family communication and childrearing among Russians living in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järva I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to ascertain the importance of intergenerational solidarity in communication within the family and childrearing among the Russians living in Estonia. Generations see the world differently enough. One of the reasons for that is individualistic worldview which characterizes not only the younger generation, but individualistic tendencies have percolated into other generationsas well. All generations admit the presence of a generation gap, but they disclaim presence of intergenerational conflict. At the same time respondents affirm that there is solidarity between generations in their families and it is based on love and respect. Solidarity between generations in families is revealed both on spiritual level (communicating, love, trust, mutual understanding, common interests as well as in real help given by generations to each other as far as homework, children's upbringing, and economical aid are concerned.

  8. Intergenerational mobility and interraical inequality:the return to family values

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates two questions. First, what is the relative importance of the components of childhood family environment—parental values versus parental class status—for young adult economic outcomes? Second, are interracial differences in labor market outcomes fully explained by differences in family environment? We find that both family values and family class status affect intergenerational mobility and inter-racial inequality. Consideration of racial differences in parental values ...

  9. The role of gender in the intergenerational transmission of family values between mothers, fathers and adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Isabelle; Michels, Tom; Ferring, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Referring to gender role models of socialization, the intergenerational transmission of values within families should generally be higher in same-gender compared to mixed dyads. However, empirical studies have not always supported this assumption. Recent research has suggested that different results might be expected depending on the specific value content. The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of the parent-child gender constellation on value similarities in families ...

  10. Intergenerational sharing of non-renewable resources: An experimental study using Rawls's Veil of Ignorance

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Stephan; Dron, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    [Introduction ...] The remainder of this paper is structured as follows: in section 2, we argue how a counterfactual “bargaining with future individuals” situation may be realized as an experimental setup. That way, we can test the behavior of real individuals in a setting which approximates Rawls’s Original Position in which people are ignorant to which generation they will belong. Section 3 first describes related intergenerational resource sharing experiments which all focus on the descrip...

  11. On the evolution of intergenerational division of labor, menopause and transfers among adults and offspring

    OpenAIRE

    C.Y. Cyrus Chu; Ronald D. Lee

    2013-01-01

    We explain how upward transfers from adult children to their elderly parents might evolve as an interrelated feature of a deepening intergenerational division of labor. Humans have a particularly long period of juvenile dependence requiring both food and care time provided mainly by younger and older adults. We suggest that the division of labor evolves to exploit comparative advantage between young and old adults in fertility, childcare and foraging. Eventually the evolving division of labor...

  12. The Intergenerational Transmission of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills During Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Silke

    2011-01-01

    This study examines cognitive and non-cognitive skills and their transmission from parents to children as one potential candidate to explain the intergenerational link of socio-economic status. Using representative data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, we contrast the impact of parental cognitive abilities (fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence) and personality traits (Big Five, locus of control) on their adolescent and young adult children's traits with the effects of pare...

  13. The Intergenerational Transmission of Cognitive and Non-cognitive Skills during Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Silke

    2012-01-01

    This study examines cognitive and non-cognitive skills and their transmission from parents to children as one potential candidate to explain the intergenerational link of socio-economic status. Using representative data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, we contrast the impact of parental cognitive abilities (fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence) and personality traits (Big Five, locus of control) on their adolescent and young adult children's traits with the effects of pare...

  14. Intergenerational transmission of values in different cultural contexts : a study in Germany and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Isabelle; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Wisnubrata, Lieke

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate cultural similarities and differences in the transmission of general and domain-specific value orientations (individualism/collectivism, and value of children) within German and Indonesian families. Supposing that both cultures differ with respect to developmental pathways of independence and interdependence, we asked if the extent of intergenerational transmission of values within families differs between Germany and Indonesia, and we studied possible ...

  15. Nonparametric analysis of intergenerational income mobility with application to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Debopam; Mazumder, Bhashkar

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of inferring the effects of covariates on intergenerational income mobility, i.e. on the relationship between the incomes of parents and future earnings of their children. We focus on two different measures of mobility- (i) traditional transition probability of movement across income quantiles over generations and (ii) a new direct measure of upward mobility, viz. the probability that an adult child's relative position exceeds that of the parents. We estimate t...

  16. Black–White Differences in Intergenerational Economic Mobility in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumder, Bhashkar

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, blacks have experienced substantially less upward mobility and substantially more downward mobility from one generation to the next than whites. These results are shown to be highly robust to a variety of measurement issues. The author examines rates of intergenerational mobility by race and asks whether such racial differences in the U.S. are likely to be eliminated and, if so, how long it might take.

  17. The impact of cohabitation without marriage on intergenerational contacts : a test of the diffusion theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nazio, Tiziana; Saraceno, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    "In the literature, cohabitation rather than marriage is presented as an indicator of weakening intergenerational ties, either as a cause or an effect. In this paper we compare the frequency of face to face and phone contacts between parents and their married and unmarried children living with a partner in two countries - Italy and the UK - where the incidence of cohabiting instead of, or before, marrying is very different. Our analysis of empirical evidence, based on an ordered category resp...

  18. The Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce: A Fifteen-Country Study with the Fertility and Family Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Diekmann; Kurt Schmidheiny

    2004-01-01

    Studies mainly from the United States provide evidence that children of divorced parents face a higher risk of divorce in their own marriages. We estimate and analyze the effects of divorce transmission using comparative individual data from the United Nations for 13 eastern and western European countries as well as for Canada and the United States. We find substantial and highly statistically significant transmission effects in all samples. This shows that the intergenerational transmission ...

  19. The Effects of Parental Divorce on the Intergenerational Transmission of Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Steve G.A. van de Weijer; Thornberry, Terence P.; Catrien C.J.H. Bijleveld; Blokland, Arjan A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study first examines the effects of parental divorce and paternal crime on offspring offending. Then, it tests whether parental divorce moderates the intergenerational transmission of crime. Diversity within the offending population is taken into account by examining whether effects are different for fathers who commit crimes at different points of the life-course and by distinguishing between violent and non-violent offending. A sample of 2374 individuals from three consecutive generat...

  20. To Recycle or Not to Recycle? An Intergenerational Approach to Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Taebi, B.; Kloosterman, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    AbstractThis paper approaches the choice between the open and closed nuclear fuel cycles as a matter of intergenerational justice, by revealing the value conflicts in the production of nuclear energy. The closed fuel cycle improve sustainability in terms of the supply certainty of uranium and involves less long-term radiological risks and proliferation concerns. However, it compromises short-term public health and safety and security, due to the separation of plutonium. The trade-offs in nucl...

  1. Intergenerational pathways leading to foster care placement of foster care alumni’s children

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Foster, Lovie J.; Beadnell, Blair; Pecora, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined a path model that postulated intergenerational relationships between biological parent psychosocial functioning and foster care alumni mental health, economic status, and social support; and from these to the likelihood of children of foster care alumni being placed in foster care. The sample included 742 adults who spent time in foster care as children with a private foster care agency and who reported having at least one biological child. A full pathway was found between...

  2. Class Origin, Family Culture, and Intergenerational Correlation of Education in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    SATO, Hiroshi; Shi, Li

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the intergenerational correlation of education in rural China. The focus is on the influence of family class origin (jiating chengfen), the political label hung on every family throughout the Maoist era. A nationally representative cross-sectional household survey for 2002 is used. It is shown that the effects of family class origin on family members' educational attainment varies across historical periods. Regarding the educational level of male heads of household with la...

  3. Intergenerational Transmission of Multiple Problem Behaviors: Prospective Relationships between Mothers and Daughters

    OpenAIRE

    Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison; Battista, Deena; Sembower, Mark; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2009-01-01

    Much of the research examining intergenerational continuity of problems from mother to offspring has focused on homotypic continuity (e.g., depression), despite the fact that different types of mental health problems tend to cluster in both adults and children. It remains unclear whether mothers with multiple mental health problems compared to mothers with fewer or no problems are more likely to have daughters with multiple mental health problems during middle childhood (ages 7 to 11). Six wa...

  4. Lesbian and Queer Generations in Vancouver: An Intergenerational Oral History Project

    OpenAIRE

    Boulay, Nadine Martine

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the possibilities of cross-generational oral history interviewing as a pedagogical tool for intergenerational conversation and broader historical understanding in queer communities. Through an analysis of the experiences of five younger queer women ages 19-30 who interviewed 15 older lesbians active in the lesbian feminist community in Vancouver during the 1970s and 80s, this research examines differences in identity formation and community building between these two ‘ge...

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Risk for Social Inhibition: the Interplay between Parental Responsiveness and Genetic Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ge, Xiaojia; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    To better understand mechanisms underlying the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety, we used a prospective adoption design to examine the roles of genetic influences (inferred from birth mothers’ social phobia) and rearing environment (adoptive mothers’ and fathers’ responsiveness) on the development of socially inhibited, anxious behaviors in children between 18 and 27 months of age. The sample consisted of 275 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive p...

  6. Older people's portrayal in the print media: implications for intergenerational relations

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Vera; Sedick, Samiera

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of older people in a residential care facility regarding how they are portrayed in the print media and the implications of such portrayal for intergenerational relations. Twenty-one older residents in a residential care facility participated voluntarily in the study (men = 9, women = 12; age range 60 to 85 years). Data were collected using exploratory interviews and focus groups followed by the thematic analysis of the data. The findings suggest that the ol...

  7. Intergenerational Conflicts and the Resource Policy Formation of a Short-Lived Government

    OpenAIRE

    Uk Hwang; Francesco Magris

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the political economy of resource management in an OLG framework with an intertemporal externality problem. The externality arises because a common resource used for production is depleted by production of "dirty" goods. An intergenerational conflict arises because the young generation cares about the level of current production of dirty goods. This is so because production of dirty goods affects the future availability of the resource. The old, on the other hand, has no su...

  8. Intergenerational Conflicts and the Resource Policy Formation of a Short-Lived Government

    OpenAIRE

    Uk Hwang; Francesco Magris

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the political economy of resource management in an OLG framework with an intertemporal externality problem. The externality arises because a common resource used for production is depleted by production of dirtygoods. An intergenerational conict arises because the young generation cares about the level of current production of dirty goods. This is so because production of dirty goods affects the future availability of the resource. The old, on the other hand, has no such a ...

  9. Living arrangements, intergenerational support types and older adult loneliness in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gierveld

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Previous research has shown that living arrangements (independent households of those living alone or as a couple, versus coresident households encompassing adult children are important determinants of older adults' loneliness. However, little is known about intergenerational support exchanges in these living arrangements and their associations with loneliness. OBJECTIVE Our aim is to contribute to the knowledge on associations between living arrangements and loneliness, by taking into account and differentiating intergenerational support types. METHODS Using data from the Generations and Gender Surveys of three countries in Eastern Europe and two countries in Western Europe, Latent Class Analyses was applied to develop intergenerational support types for (a co-residing respondents in Eastern Europe, (b respondents in independent households in Eastern Europe, and (c respondents in independent households in Western Europe, respectively. Six types resulted, distinguishing patterns of upward support, downward support and get-togethers. Subsequently, we used linear regression analyses to examine differences in loneliness by region, living arrangements and intergenerational support type. RESULTS Findings show higher levels of loneliness in Eastern than in Western Europe. Older adults living alone are most lonely, older adults living with a partner are least lonely. Coresidence provides protection, but not to the same degree as a partner. In both co-resident and independent households there is a greater likelihood of being involved in support given to adult children than in support received from adult children. In both East and West European countries, older adults who are primarily on the receiving side are most lonely. CONCLUSIONS A better explanation of older adult loneliness is obtained if the direction of supportive exchanges with adult children is considered than if only living arrangements are considered.

  10. Moving young lives : mobility, immobility and inter-generational tensions in urban Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, G.; Hampshire, K; Abane, A.; Robson, E.; Munthali, A; Mashiri, M.; Tanle, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores young people’s experiences and perceptions of mobility and mobility constraints in poorer urban areas of Ghana, Malawi and South Africa within the specific context of inter-generational relations. Drawing principally on qualitative research findings from a study involving both adult and child researchers, our aim is to chart the diversities and commonalities of urban young people’s mobility experiences in the everyday – how they use and experience the city – developing a c...

  11. A Multi-Country Study of Inter-Generational Educational Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Arnaud; Denny, Kevin; McMahon, Dorren

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses intergenerational educational mobility using survey data for twenty countries. We find that a number of interesting patterns emerge. Estimating a measure of mobility as movement and an index of mobility as equality of opportunity we find that while these two measures are positively correlated, the correlation is far from perfect. Examining the link with educational inequality we find evidence which suggests an inverse relationship between mobility and inequality consistent...

  12. How Should Benefits and Costs Be Discounted in an Intergenerational Context?

    OpenAIRE

    TOL, Richard S.J.; Kenneth J. Arrow; Cropper, Maureen L.; Christian Gollier; Ben Groom; Geoffrey M. Heal; Newell, Richard G.; Nordhaus, William D.; Robert S. Pindyck; Pizer, William A.; Portney, Paul R.; Thomas Sterner; Weitzman, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    In September 2011, the US Environmental Protection Agency asked 12 economists how the benefits and costs of regulations should be discounted for projects that affect future generations. This paper summarizes the views of the panel on three topics: the use of the Ramsey formula as an organizing principle for determining discount rates over long horizons, whether the discount rate should decline over time, and how intra- and intergenerational discounting practices can be made compatible. The pa...

  13. Parental background matters: Intergenerational mobility and assimilation of Italian immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bönke, Timm; Neidhöfer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis of failed integration and low social mobility of immigrants. For this purpose, an intergenerational assimilation model is tested empirically on household survey data and validated against administrative data provided by the Italian Embassy in Germany. In line with previous studies, we confirm substantial inequality of educational achievements between immigrants and natives. However, we find that the children of Italian immigrants exhibit fairly high intergenerati...

  14. On the Perception of Newcomers: Toward an Evolved Psychology of Intergenerational Coalitions

    OpenAIRE

    Cimino, Aldo; Delton, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    Human coalitions frequently persist through multiple, overlapping membership generations, requiring new members to cooperate and coordinate with veteran members. Does the mind contain psychological adaptations for interacting within these intergenerational coalitions? In this paper, we examine whether the mind spontaneously treats newcomers as a motivationally privileged category. Newcomers—though capable of benefiting coalitions—may also impose considerable costs (e.g., they may free ride on...

  15. Intergenerational knowledge transfer in the academic environment of knowledge-based economy

    OpenAIRE

    Viorel Lefter; Constantin Brătianu; Adriana Agapie; Simona Agoston; Ivona Orzea

    2011-01-01

    In the immediate future, intergenerational knowledge transfer is one of the knowledge-based economy’s main challenges since an inner motivational force powers knowledge transfer. Knowledge transfer from individuals to groups and organization must follow knowledge creation in order to transform individual into organizational knowledge, along the epistemological dimension of the Nonaka’s knowledge dynamics model. Moreover, the knowledge intensive organizations increase their fluxes of knowledge...

  16. Family media matters: Unraveling the intergenerational transmission of reading and television tastes

    OpenAIRE

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.; Konig, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors scrutinize the intergenerational transmission of book reading and television viewing behaviors. They examine long-term effects of parents’ social status, parental media example, and media guidance activities during one’s childhood on adult media tastes. Data are employed from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population. By estimating structural equation models, the authors gained more insight into how parental socialization efforts influence children’s book reading an...

  17. Short-term Migration and Intergenerational Persistence of Industry in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Tushar Kanti; Kar, Saibal

    2015-01-01

    One of the well-known barriers to development is persistence of disadvantage among communities. The lack of occupational and therefore upward social mobility continues to restrain households from achieving socially desirable outcomes. This paper studies the effect of short-term internal migration experience on the intergenerational persistence of industry upon a migrant's return to native place. We develop an occupational choice model of a return migrant to study the relationship between the ...

  18. Intergeneric hybrid between cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and Tithonia rotundifolia (Mill) Blake

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Valdes Humberto M.; Gomez-Martinez Martha; Martinez Octavio; Hernandez Godinez Fernando

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe an intergeneric hybrid between H. annuus (HA 89) and T. rotundifolia obtained by normal pollination of a male-sterile cultivated sunflower. The hybrid had a combination of morphological traits from both parents: it was unbranched and exhibited male-sterility. The plain did not produce viable achene's when pollinated with HA 89. UNA fingerprinting through the AFLP methodology exhibited 240 polymorphisms and confirmed the hybrid nature of the experimental ...

  19. A short-cycle sunflower line derived from intergeneric hybridization Helianthus x Verbesina

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (H. annuus) introgression line HA-VERB, selected for its considerable earliness of blooming. Is described In this paper. The line has been developed after intergeneric hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus L. and Verbesina encelioldes (Cav) B. & H. var. exauriculata Rob. & Greenm. Plants are polycephalic (multiple branched), with reduced plant height. The agronomic and morphological characteristics of the line HA-VERB are reported. The developmen...

  20. A Further Look at the Intergenerational Transmission of Violence: Witnessing Interparental Violence in Emerging Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Black, David S.; Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2009-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission (IGT) of violence has been a main theoretical consideration to explain the link between interparental aggression in the family of origin and intimate partner violence (IPV) in subsequent intimate relationships. Studies have examined this theoretical link based on self-reports of interparental violence witnessed during childhood and adolescence. However, no study has examined whether emerging adults who currently witness interparental violence are more likely...

  1. Intergenerational Communication Satisfaction and Age Boundaries in Bulgaria and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Howard; Hajek, Christopher; Stoitsova, Tolya; Choi, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines Bulgarian and American young adults’ perceptions of prior experiences of intergenerational communication. Irrespective of culture, as age of target increased from young adult to middle-aged and elderly adult, so did attributions of benevolence, norms of politeness and deference, and communicative respect and avoidance; conversely, attributions of personal vitality and communication satisfaction decreased linearly. However, American youth reported more of a tendency to avoi...

  2. Indonesia against the trend? Ageing and inter-generational wealth flows in two Indonesian communities

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Schröder-Butterfill; Philip Kreager

    2008-01-01

    Indonesian family systems do not conform to the prevailing image of Asian families, the predominant arrangements being nuclear and bilateral, with an important matrilineal minority. This paper considers the strength of family ties in two communities, focussing particularly on inter-generational flows of support to and from older members. Data are drawn from a longitudinal anthropological demography that combines ethnographic and panel survey methods. Several sources of variation in family ...

  3. Potential for Applying Intergenerational Practice to Protected Area Management in Mountainous Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Mitrofanenko; Andreas Muhar; Marianne Penker

    2015-01-01

    One way of preserving the natural and cultural diversity of mountain areas and supporting their sustainable development is the establishment of protected areas. The scientific literature acknowledges the importance of participation by local stakeholders and of considering social cohesion in protected area management. Intergenerational practice has been shown to enhance participation and improve social cohesion; however, its potential role in natural resource management has not been considered...

  4. Nature or Nurture in Higher Education? Inter-generational Implications of the Vietnam-Era Lottery

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Louis N.; Hoy, Michael; Milla, Joniada; Stengos, Thanasis

    2015-01-01

    It is evident that a strong positive correlation persists between the educational attainment of parents and that of their children in many, if not most, populations. This relationship may form an important part of the phenomenon of low social mobility as well as inefficiently low investment in human capital by youth who have parents with relatively low educational attainment. Is it a genetic inter-generational transmission of innate ability from parents to their children (i.e. nature) or is i...

  5. Linked lives: the role of the mother in the intergenerational transmission of aggression and antisocial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Tzoumakis, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    The current dissertation examines the role of the mother in the intergenerational transmission of aggression and antisocial behaviour. More specifically, the link between maternal juvenile delinquency, adult offending, and the development of children’s physical aggression in the early childhood period is investigated. This dissertation adopts a life-course framework to explore two particularly important life experiences that are especially relevant for many women: pregnancy and motherhood. Co...

  6. Marital Sorting, Household Labor Supply, and Intergenerational Earnings Mobility across Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn; Røed, Knut; Österbacka, Eva; Eriksson, Tor; Jäntti, Markus; Naylor, Robin

    2007-01-01

    We present comparable evidence on intergenerational earnings mobility for Denmark, Finland, Norway, the UK and the US, with a focus on the role of gender and marital status. We confirm that earnings mobility in the Nordic countries is typically greater than in the US and in the UK, but find that, in contrast to all other groups, for married women mobility is approximately uniform across countries when estimates are based on women's own earnings. Defining offspring outcomes in terms of family ...

  7. Promoting Parent–Child Sexual Health Dialogue with an Intergenerational Game: Parent and Youth Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    D'Cruz, Jina; Santa Maria, Diane; Dube, Sara; Markham, Christine; McLaughlin, Jeffrey; Wilkerson, Johnny M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Tortolero, Susan; Shegog, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Sexual health discussions between parents and their preadolescent youth can delay sexual debut and increase condom and contraceptive use. However, parents frequently report being uncomfortable talking with their youth about sex, often reporting a lack of self-efficacy and skills to inform and motivate responsible decision making by youth. Intergenerational games may support parent–youth sexual health communication. The purpose of this study was to explore parent and youth perspect...

  8. The intermediate effect of geographic proximity on intergenerational support: A comparison of France and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Heylen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The geographic proximity of parents and adult children is a key element of intergenerational solidarity. Many studies have identified geographical distance as an important determinant of intergenerational support: living nearby increases the amount of mutual support provided. It can, however, also be regarded as a dimension of intergenerational solidarity: the current degree of proximity is the result of past migration decisions made by both generations, in which present and future care demands potentially played a key role. OBJECTIVE We take this endogenous nature of geographical distance into account by examining theindirect effect of the determinants of the actual level of support through geographical distance. Both upward support (personal care provided to mother and downward support (help with childcare received from mother are considered. METHODS Path analyses are performed on data from the Generations and Gender Survey for France and Bulgaria using a general latent-variable modelling framework in multiple-group models. RESULTS In addition to strongly affecting the level of support provided and received, geographical distance itself is affected by several individual and family-related variables, which in turn have an indirect effect on the level of intergenerational support. The results suggest that proximity can be used as an adaptive strategy: e.g., working adult children in France receive more help with childcare because of their greater proximity to their mothers. Having a greater care need may have triggered this choice of residence. Similarly, single parents with no partner to rely on tend to live closer to their mothers, and therefore receive more help. CONCLUSIONS Geographic proximity can be considered a latent form of solidarity that functions as a mediator between background factors and manifest, functional solidarity.

  9. Increasing inter-generational social mobility: is educational expansion the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Patrick; Buscha, Franz

    2015-09-01

    Reforms which increase the stock of education in a society have long been held by policy-makers as key to improving rates of intergenerational social mobility. Yet, despite the intuitive plausibility of this idea, the empirical evidence in support of an effect of educational expansion on social fluidity is both indirect and weak. In this paper we use the raising of the minimum school leaving age from 15 to 16 years in England and Wales in 1972 to estimate the effect of educational participation and qualification attainment on rates of intergenerational social class mobility. Because, in expectation, children born immediately before and after the policy was implemented are statistically exchangeable, the difference in the amount of education they received may be treated as exogenously determined. The exogenous nature of the additional education gain means that differences in rates of social mobility between cohorts affected by the reform can be treated as having been caused by the additional education. The data for the analysis come from the ONS Longitudinal Study, which links individual records from successive decennial censuses between 1971 and 2001. Our findings show that, although the reform resulted in an increase in educational attainment in the population as a whole and a weakening of the association between attainment and class origin, there was no reliably discernible increase in the rate of intergenerational social mobility. PMID:26364576

  10. The intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk: mediators of vulnerability and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A; Karp, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The recurrence of social, behavioral, and health problems in successive generations of families is a prevalent theme in both the scientific and popular literatures. This review discusses recent conceptual models and findings from longitudinal studies concerning the intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk, including intergenerational continuity, and the processes whereby a generation of parents may place their offspring at elevated risk for social, behavioral, and health problems. Key findings include the mediational effects of parenting and environmental factors in the transfer of risk. In both girls and boys, childhood aggression and antisocial behavior appear to predict long-term trajectories that place offspring at risk. Sequelae of childhood aggression that may threaten the well-being of offspring include school failure, adolescent risk-taking behavior, early and single parenthood, and family poverty. These childhood and adolescent behavioral styles also predict harsh, aggressive, neglectful, and unstimulating parenting behavior toward offspring. Buffering factors within at-risk families include maternal educational attainment and constructive parenting practices (e.g., emotional warmth, consistent disciplinary practices, and cognitive scaffolding). These findings highlight the potential application and relevance of intergenerational studies for social, educational, and health policy. PMID:14744219

  11. Intergenerational Transmission of Education in India: Evidence from a Nationwide Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakoli Borkotoky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intergenerational transmission of education has been investigated extensively in social science research. The existing literature shows that none of the studies in India related the process of partner selection and differential fertility with the intergenerational transmission of education. Here, we examined the timing of marriage and childbearing along with the probability of partner selection, according to education of women and how these processes lead to heterogeneity in educational attainment of children. The educational attainment of children was estimated by fitting the estimated marriage probabilities and children ever born in the intergenerational transmission model. The results were replicated in different random samples to examine its validity. The study found that higher educated women marry late, have fewer children, and marry men with higher or equal education. Further, the results indicate that education of women is a more significant predictor than education of husband in reducing average number of children born to couples. The findings confirm that children attain higher education than their parents, and better educated mothers do not discriminate between their children to provide higher education. These findings reinforce the significance of government initiatives to provide incentives to families with higher educated girls to ensure better education of the next generation.

  12. Intergenerational aspects of government policy under changing demographic and economic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskin, M J

    1987-07-01

    Changing demographic and economic conditions in the US require that attention be given to some of the intergenerational equity features of government policy. In particular, social insurance programs and public debt leave public liabilities to future generations. Taken in the aggregate, the effects of rapidly rising public debt and especially social insurance programs are transferring substantial amounts of resources from younger working generations to the expanding generation of retirees. The most crucial element in evaluating the desirability of intergenerational wealth distribution in the long run is the rate of economic growth. A society's monetary, fiscal, tax, and regulatory policies can be more or less conducive to the generation of capital formation, technical change, and economic growth. Policies that influence growth and interest rates will combine with the national deficit to determine how rapidly the debt grows or shrinks. Present accounting procedures are insufficient to provide quantitative answers to the question of what is the impact of a given program on the age-specific distributions of resources. It is important to reconsider the desirability and efficiency of intergenerational redistributions of wealth in the US. It is likely that current policies are not in line with the principles of efficiency, equity, target effectiveness, and cost effectiveness. PMID:12314851

  13. Mitotic segregation in intergeneric hybrids of yeast to give novel genetic segregants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two strains of yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, have a filamentous growth form in addition to budding cells. Y. lipolytica produces lipases and is used in the production of citric acid while W. fibuligera produces amylases and is used in the production of rice wine. In the present report, we made a study of the following: (i) karyotypes of the two yeast strains to obtain a better understanding of their genetic relatedness, (ii) genetic crosses between the two strains to produce intergeneric hybrids, and (iii) pattern of genetic segregation of the intergeneric hybrids via the mitotic process. The results of our studies showed that the two yeast strains were genetically related and that putative intergeneric hybrids were obtained by a genetic crossing of the strains. The hybrids were relatively stable in mitosis as compared to their parent strains. However, in prolonged vegetative propagation, the hybrids gave rise to genetic segregants, most of which were of either of the two parent phenotypes. A number of the segregants had phenotypes which combined those of the parental types. Of considerable significance was that yet a few others were novel as they exhibited phenotypes not hitherto seen for both parent strains. (author). 9 refs, 5 tabs

  14. Impact of HSD11B1 polymorphisms on BMI and components of the metabolic syndrome in patients receiving psychotropic treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Quteineh, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic treatments represents a major health issue. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes tissue regeneration of active cortisol from cortisone. Elevated enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD1 may lead to the development of MetS. Methods We investigated the association between seven HSD11B1 gene (encoding 11β-HSD1) polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in a psychiatric sample treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs (n=478). The polymorphisms that survived Bonferroni correction were analyzed in two independent psychiatric samples (n R1 =168, n R2 =188) and in several large population-based samples (n 1 =5338; n 2 =123 865; n 3 >100 000). Results HSD11B1 rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers were found to be associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure compared with the reference genotype (P corrected <0.05). These associations were exclusively detected in women (n=257) with more than 3.1 kg/m 2, 7.5 cm, and 4.2 mmHg lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, in rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers compared with noncarriers (P corrected <0.05). Conversely, carriers of the rs846906-T allele had significantly higher waist circumference and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol exclusively in men (P corrected =0.028). The rs846906-T allele was also associated with a higher risk of MetS at 3 months of follow-up (odds ratio: 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-7.17, P corrected =0.014). No association was observed between HSD11B1 polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in the population-based samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that HSD11B1 polymorphisms may contribute toward the development of MetS in psychiatric patients treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, but do not

  15. Radiosensitization of esophageal carcinoma cells by the silencing of BMI-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Xiao; Sang, Mei-Xiang; Zhu, Shu-Chai; Liu, Zhi-Kun; Ma, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) has been widely used to treat cancer patients, particularly esophageal cancer patients. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site-1 (BMI-1) plays an important role in promoting the growth of cancer cells after exposure to irradiation. The present study aimed to characterize the effects of BMI-1 on the proliferation and invasion of cancer cells, as well as the mechanism involved in the regulation of the growth of esophageal cancer ECA109 and TE13 cells. The expression levels of the BMI-1 gene and protein in esophageal cancer ECA109 and TE13 cells were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting after transfection. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay was employed to detect the interaction of BMI-1 with r-H2AX and H2AK119ub. We used flow cytometry to analyze the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of transfected cells after irradiation or not, and examined cellular growth and invasion in vitro by MTS and Transwell assays. The results revealed that shRNA targeting the BMI-1 gene and protein downregulated BMI-1 expression after transfection for 24 h. The proliferation and invasion of tumor cells in the BMI-1‑shRNA group were suppressed after RT. In addition, the interaction of BMI-1, H2AK119ub and r-H2AX was increased after exposure to IR, followed by an increased apoptosis rate and decreased percentage of cells arrested at the G2/M phase after irradiation and silencing of BMI-1 by shRNA. Knockdown of BMI-1 expression decreased the phosphorylation of H2AX, upregulated p16, and induced the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer ECA109 and TE13 cells in vitro and significantly inhibited the growth and invasion of tumor cells. The mechanisms were found to be abrogation of cell cycle arrest at the G2/M stage and promotion of apoptosis. PMID:27108688

  16. Adaptation to elastic loads and BMI robot controls during rat locomotion examined with point-process GLMs

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Weiguo; Cajigas, Iahn; Emery N Brown; Giszter, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Currently little is known about how a mechanically coupled BMI system's actions are integrated into ongoing body dynamics. We tested a locomotor task augmented with a BMI system driving a robot mechanically interacting with a rat under three conditions: control locomotion (BL), “simple elastic load” (E) and “BMI with elastic load” (BMI/E). The effect of the BMI was to allow compensation of the elastic load as a function of the neural drive. Neurons recorded here were close to one another in c...

  17. Associations between Food Outlets around Schools and BMI among Primary Students in England: A Cross-Classified Multi-Level Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Julianne Williams; Peter Scarborough; Nick Townsend; Anne Matthews; Thomas Burgoine; Lorraine Mumtaz; Mike Rayner

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Researchers and policy-makers are interested in the influence that food retailing around schools may have on child obesity risk. Most previous research comes from North America, uses data aggregated at the school-level and focuses on associations between fast food outlets and school obesity rates. This study examines associations between food retailing and BMI among a large sample of primary school students in Berkshire, England. By controlling for individual, school and home cha...

  18. BMI is not related to altruism, fairness, trust or reciprocity: Experimental evidence from the field and the lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Espín, Antonio M; Lenkei, Balint

    2016-03-15

    Over the past few decades obesity has become one of the largest public policy concerns among the adult population in the developed world. Obesity and overweight are hypothesized to affect individuals' sociability through a number of channels, including discrimination and low self-esteem. However, whether these effects translate into differential behavioural patterns in social interactions remains unknown. In two large-scale economic experiments, we explore the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and social behaviour, using three paradigmatic economic games: the dictator, ultimatum, and trust games. Our first experiment employs a representative sample of a Spanish city's population (N=753), while the second employs a sample of university students from the same city (N=618). Measures of altruism, fairness/equality, trust and reciprocity are obtained from participants' experimental decisions. Using a variety of regression specifications and control variables, our results suggest that BMI does not exert an effect on any of these social preferences. Some implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26780149

  19. Changes in BMI over 6 years: the role of demographic and neighborhood characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, TR; Spence, JC; Blanchard, C; Cutumisu, N; Edwards, J; Nykiforuk, C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To undertake a 6-year longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the built environment (perceived and objectively measured) and change in body mass index (BMI). Specifically, this research examined whether change in BMI was predicted by objectively measured neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived neighborhood characteristics (for example, crime, traffic and interesting things to look at) in addition to other factors such as age, gender, education, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoking. Design Longitudinal study Subjects 500 adults who provided complete data in 2002 and 2008 and who did not move over the course of the study (47.8% female; age in 2002: 18–90 years). Measurements Telephone surveys in 2002 and 2008 measuring perceptions of their neighborhood environment and demographic factors. Objective measures of neighborhood characteristics were calculated using census data and geographical information systems in 2006. Results Age, neighborhood SES and perceived traffic were significantly related to increased BMI over the 6 years. Younger participants and those in lower SES neighborhoods were more likely to have increased BMI. Agreement with the statement that traffic made it difficult to walk also predicted increased BMI. Conclusion This study adds to the literature to show that BMI increased in low SES neighborhoods. Although more research is needed to fully understand how neighborhood SES contributes to obesity, it is without question that individuals in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods face more barriers to health than their wealthier counterparts. This study also calls into question the relationship between walkability and changes in BMI and emphasizes the necessity of longitudinal data rather than relying on cross-sectional research. PMID:20157324

  20. The association of plasma cysteine and gamma-glutamyltransferase with BMI and obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Elshorbagy, Amany K

    2009-07-01

    We recently reported a strong positive association of plasma total cysteine (tCys) with fat mass in over 5,000 subjects. As gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) enzyme increases cysteine availability by catalyzing glutathione breakdown and is positively associated with BMI and adiposity, we hypothesized that GGT might explain the association of tCys with adiposity. To study whether the associations of tCys and serum GGT with BMI and obesity were interrelated we conducted a cross-sectional study using data from 1,550 subjects recruited from nine European countries in the COMAC project. Multiple linear and logistic regression models and concentration-response curves were used. In age and sex-adjusted analyses, tCys showed strong positive associations with BMI (partial r = 0.19, P < 0.001), and obesity (odds ratio (OR) for 4th vs. 1st tCys quartile: 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.6-5.0, P < 0.001), both of which remained robust after adjustment for GGT and other metabolic and lifestyle confounders. Serum GGT was also a positive predictor of BMI (partial r = 0.17, P < 0.001) and obesity (OR for 4th vs. 1st GGT quartile: 4.8; 95% confidence interval: 2.5-9.2, P < 0.001), independent of tCys. However, the associations of GGT with BMI and obesity were weakened by adjustment for obesity-related factors such as serum lipids and blood pressure. These results indicate that tCys is a strong positive predictor of BMI and obesity, independent of GGT and other obesity-related factors. We also suggest that the association of serum GGT with BMI and obesity is unrelated to the role of GGT in cysteine turnover. The potential link between cysteine and fat metabolism should be further evaluated.

  1. The role of intergenerational influence in waste education programmes: The THAW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Children can be effective advocates in changing their parents' lifestyles. → We investigated the role of intergenerational influence in waste education programmes. → Waste Watch's Take Home Action on Waste project worked with 6705 children in 39 schools. → The results showed increased participation in recycling and declines in residual waste. → The study shows that recycling behaviour is positively impacted by intergenerational influence. - Abstract: Whilst the education of young people is often seen as a part of the solution to current environmental problems seeking urgent attention, it is often forgotten that their parents and other household members can also be educated/influenced via home-based educational activities. This paper explores the theory of intergenerational influence in relation to school based waste education. Waste Watch, a UK-based environmental charity ( (www.wastewatch.org.uk)), has pioneered a model that uses practical activities and whole school involvement to promote school based action on waste. This methodology has been adopted nationally. This paper outlines and evaluates how effective school based waste education is in promoting action at a household level. The paper outlines Waste Watch's 'Taking Home Action on Waste (THAW)' project carried out for two and half years in Rotherham, a town in South Yorkshire, England. The project worked with 6705 primary age children in 39 schools (44% of primary schools in the project area) to enable them to take the 'reduce, reuse and recycle message' home to their families and to engage these (i.e. families) in sustainable waste management practices. As well as substantial increases in students' knowledge and understanding of waste reduction, measurement of the impact of the project in areas around 12 carefully chosen sample schools showed evidence of increased participation in recycling and recycling tonnages as well as declining levels of residual waste. Following delivery of

  2. Intergenerational educational mobility is associated with cardiovascular disease risk behaviours in a cohort of young Australian adults: The Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although educational disparity has been linked to single risk behaviours, it has not previously been studied as a predictor of overall lifestyle. We examined if current education, parental education or educational mobility between generations was associated with healthy lifestyles in young Australian adults. Methods In 2004-06, participant and parental education (high [bachelor degree or higher], intermediate [vocational training], low [secondary school only] were assessed. Educational mobility was defined as: stable high (participant and parent in high group, stable intermediate (participant and parent in intermediate group, stable low (participant and parent in low group, downwardly (lower group than parent and upwardly (higher group than parent mobile. We derived a lifestyle score from 10 healthy behaviours (BMI, non-smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity and six components of diet. Scores >4 indicated a high healthy lifestyle score. We estimated the likelihood of having a high healthy lifestyle score by education (participant and parent and educational mobility. Results Complete data were available for 1973 participants (53% female, age range 26 to 36 years. Those with lower education were less likely to have healthy lifestyles. Parental education was not associated with having a high healthy lifestyle score after adjustment for participant's education. Those who moved upward or downward were as likely to have a high healthy lifestyle score as those in the group they attained. Conclusions We found clear disparities in health behaviour by participant education and intergenerational educational mobility. People attaining a higher level of education than their parents appeared protected from developing an unhealthy lifestyle suggesting that population-wide improvements in education may be important for health.

  3. A Smart Modeling Framework for Integrating BMI-enabled Models as Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P.; Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Peckham, S. D.; Liu, R.; Marini, L.; Hsu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Serviced-oriented computing provides an opportunity to couple web service models using semantic web technology. Through this approach, models that are exposed as web services can be conserved in their own local environment, thus making it easy for modelers to maintain and update the models. In integrated modeling, the serviced-oriented loose-coupling approach requires (1) a set of models as web services, (2) the model metadata describing the external features of a model (e.g., variable name, unit, computational grid, etc.) and (3) a model integration framework. We present the architecture of coupling web service models that are self-describing by utilizing a smart modeling framework. We expose models that are encapsulated with CSDMS (Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System) Basic Model Interfaces (BMI) as web services. The BMI-enabled models are self-describing by uncovering models' metadata through BMI functions. After a BMI-enabled model is serviced, a client can initialize, execute and retrieve the meta-information of the model by calling its BMI functions over the web. Furthermore, a revised version of EMELI (Peckham, 2015), an Experimental Modeling Environment for Linking and Interoperability, is chosen as the framework for coupling BMI-enabled web service models. EMELI allows users to combine a set of component models into a complex model by standardizing model interface using BMI as well as providing a set of utilities smoothing the integration process (e.g., temporal interpolation). We modify the original EMELI so that the revised modeling framework is able to initialize, execute and find the dependencies of the BMI-enabled web service models. By using the revised EMELI, an example will be presented on integrating a set of topoflow model components that are BMI-enabled and exposed as web services. Reference: Peckham, S.D. (2014) EMELI 1.0: An experimental smart modeling framework for automatic coupling of self-describing models, Proceedings of HIC 2014

  4. BMI Influences Prognosis Following Surgery and Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Lymph Node Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolins, Mara Z.; Kimmick, Gretchen G.; Case, L. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence and death. However, the association has not been consistent in the literature and may depend on several factors such as menopausal status, extent of disease, and receptor status. We performed a secondary analysis on what we believe is the largest prospective trial of adjuvant chemotherapy to assess the effect of BMI on prognosis in women with lymph node positive breast cancer. The study included 636 women with a median follow-up of over 13 years. Cox’s proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the effect of BMI on outcomes. Kaplan–Meier methods were used to estimate survival curves and log rank tests were used to assess differences in survival for BMI groups. We found that increased BMI was generally predictive of faster time to recurrence and decreased survival, but that the relationship was stronger for younger women, those with progesterone receptor negative disease and those with a greater number of lymph nodes that were positive. PMID:18540954

  5. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children's BMI or risk of overweight. PMID:22548089

  6. A Comparative Study of the Taste Choice of Adolescents in Terms of Gender and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Kucukkmurler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the attitudes and choices of taste of adolescents, the conditions that affect these choices, and its variations with respect to BMI and gender. METHODS: 385 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 14, in Ankara, Turkey, participated in the research. In order to determine taste choices and attitudes towards taste, a Likert-type questionnaire was applied. Independent Samples t-test and correlational analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Boys preferred sweet and bitter tastes more than girls, but girls preferred salty tastes more than boys (p<0.05. It was found that when the BMI of adolescents increases, their taste scores decrease significantly (p<0.05. As the BMI increases, the sum preferences of sweet, sour, umami and salty taste scores decrease. There is a positive relation between sour and bitter and umami and bitter with umami (p< 0.01 CONCLUSION: . It is fair to argue that as BMI increases tendencies towards tastes decrease and that boys preferred sweet and bitter tastes more than girls did whereas girls preferred salty tastes more than boys.The fact that the tendencies towards tastes decrease with increasing BMI, and that taste preferences vary with respect to gender may imply that physiological requirements drive taste preferences. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 451-458

  7. Association of BMI-1 and p16 as prognostic factors for head and neck carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Marie; Renkonen, Suvi; Haglund, Caj; Mattila, Petri S; Leivo, Ilmo; Hagström, Jaana; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions BMI-1 is an upstream repressor of tumor suppressor p16 and their inverse expression patterns have been linked with patient survival in OPSCC. In this material only p16 remained a relevant prognostic marker in OPSCC. Objectives HNSCC tumors carry variable phenotypes and clinical outcomes depending on their anatomical location. In OPSCC, expression of tumor suppressor p16 is used as a surrogate marker of HPV infection and has prognostic value. There are no good prognostic biomarkers for HNSCC tumors of other anatomical locations. Aim To study the expression patterns of p16 and BMI-1 in not only oropharyngeal but also oral, hypopharyngeal, and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and to clarify their putative connections with clinical parameters, survival, and each other. Method Hospital records on 130 patients (59 OPSCC, 18 OSCC, 20 HPSCC, and 33 LSCC) diagnosed between 1997-2008 at the Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, were reviewed. BMI-1 and p16 expressions were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results Sixty-eight per cent of OPSCC expressed p16 and expression correlated with lower age, lower T- and higher N-category, and with improved OS and DFS. BMI-1 expression was most prevalent in OPSCC and LSCC, but had no clinical correlations. No correlation between p16 and BMI-1 expression was found. PMID:27052966

  8. Gender and Stress Perception Based Differences in BMI, Hormonal Response and Appetite in Adult Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the gender based variations in stress perception induced changes in leptin, cortisol and serotonin (5-HT) trends, appetite and Body Mass Index (BMI). Study Design: An analytical comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Neurochemistry Laboratory, University of Karachi, from January to August 2013. Methodology: Appetite, BMI and serum leptin, cortisol, and 5-HT were measured in 100 men and women of aged 30 - 60 years, working in teaching institutes of Karachi, to evaluate gender based, stress perception induced variations. The samples were identified by stratified random technique. The chemical variables were estimated through ELISA. Results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and multivariate general linear model using SPSS version 17. Results: Mean stress perception, BMI and serum leptin levels were significantly more in women (p < 0.05). Serum cortisol and 5-HT were found significantly reduced in women (p < 0.05). BMI, serum cortisol and leptin were found to be increased with increasing level of stress perception (p < 0.05). VAS for hunger and desire to eat as the measure of appetite was significantly higher in men (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Stress perception attenuates the positive effect of cortisol and negative effects of leptin and 5-HT on appetite through changes in their circulatory levels. Women perceive more stress and exhibit significantly attenuated changes in hormonal levels and appetite which may be the contributing factor towards obesity. Increased BMI in women despite decreased appetite merits more studies. (author)

  9. Viewers vs. doers. The relationship between watching food television and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Latimer, Lara; Wansink, Brian

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine where nutritional gatekeepers obtain information about new foods, and whether information source is associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as whether any association varied according to how often the participant cooked from scratch. A national panel survey of 501 females aged 20-35 assessed how participants obtained information on new recipes, and asked a series of questions about their cooking habits, their weight and height. Linear regressions were run to determine associations between information source, cooking from scratch, and BMI. Obtaining information from cooking shows was positively correlated with BMI (p media (p media - versus other sources - appears to have a unique relationship with BMI. Furthermore, watching cooking shows may have a differential effect on BMI for those who are merely TV "viewers," versus those who are "doers." Promoting healthy foods on cooking shows may be one way to positively influence the weight status of "doers" as well as "viewers." PMID:25747286

  10. BMI modulates calorie-dependent dopamine changes in accumbens from glucose intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Jack Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Dopamine mediates the rewarding effects of food that can lead to overeating and obesity, which then trigger metabolic neuroadaptations that further perpetuate excessive food consumption. We tested the hypothesis that the dopamine response to calorie intake (independent of palatability in striatal brain regions is attenuated with increases in weight. METHOD: We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine changes triggered by calorie intake by contrasting the effects of an artificial sweetener (sucralose devoid of calories to that of glucose to assess their association with body mass index (BMI in nineteen healthy participants (BMI range 21-35. RESULTS: Neither the measured blood glucose concentrations prior to the sucralose and the glucose challenge days, nor the glucose concentrations following the glucose challenge vary as a function of BMI. In contrast the dopamine changes in ventral striatum (assessed as changes in non-displaceable binding potential of [11C]raclopride triggered by calorie intake (contrast glucose - sucralose were significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.68 indicating opposite responses in lean than in obese individuals. Specifically whereas in normal weight individuals (BMI <25 consumption of calories was associated with increases in dopamine in the ventral striatum in obese individuals it was associated with decreases in dopamine. CONCLUSION: These findings show reduced dopamine release in ventral striatum with calorie consumption in obese subjects, which might contribute to their excessive food intake to compensate for the deficit between the expected and the actual response to food consumption.

  11. Assessing the Influence of Sleep-Wake Variables on Body Mass Index (BMI in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has established an association between overweight/obesity and sleep duration, suggesting that short sleep duration and timing of sleeping may lead to overweight. Most of these studies considered sleep-length rather than any other aspects associated with the sleep and wake rhythm, e.g. chronotype, which is a measure of timing of sleeping (‘when to sleep’; based on the midpoint of sleep. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different factors of the sleep-wake cycle and of co-variates on the Body Mass Index in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Nine hundred and thirteen pupils (406 boys, 507 girls from Southwestern Germany participated in this study. Mean age was 13.7 ± 1.5 (SD years and range was between 11 – 16 years. We found that chronotype (β = .079 and social jetlag (β = .063 showed a significant influence on Body Mass Index (BMI, while sleep duration did not. Social jetlag is the absolute difference between mid-sleep time on workdays and free days. Further, screen time (in front of TV, computer, β = .13 was positively related with BMI. Self-efficacy on nutrition (β = -.11, a psychological variable important in health-behaviour models, showed an influence with high scores on self-efficacy related to lower BMI. A high BMI was correlated with low fast-food consumption (β = -.12 suggesting that adolescents with high BMI may exert some control over their eating.

  12. Bmi-1 promotes the aggressiveness of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognosis of human glioma is poor, and the highly invasive nature of the disease represents a major impediment to current therapeutic modalities. The oncoprotein B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 protein (Bmi-1) has been linked to the development and progression of glioma; however, the biological role of Bmi-1 in the invasion of glioma remains unclear. A172 and LN229 glioma cells were engineered to overexpress Bmi-1 via stable transfection or to be silenced for Bmi-1 expression using RNA interfering method. Migration and invasiveness of the engineered cells were assessed using wound healing assay, Transwell migration assay, Transwell matrix penetration assay and 3-D spheroid invasion assay. MMP-9 expression and activity were measured using real-time PCR, ELISA and the gelatin zymography methods. Expression of NF-kappaB target genes was quantified using real-time PCR. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity was assessed using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter system. Expression of Bmi-1 and MMP-9 in clinical specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical assay. Ectopic overexpression of Bmi-1 dramatically increased, whereas knockdown of endogenous Bmi-1 reduced, the invasiveness and migration of glioma cells. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and MMP-9 expression and activity were significantly increased in Bmi-1-overexpressing but reduced in Bmi-1-silenced cells. The reporter luciferase activity driven by MMP-9 promoter in Bmi-1-overexpressing cells was dependent on the presence of a functional NF-kappaB binding site, and blockade of NF-kappaB signaling inhibited the upregulation of MMP-9 in Bmi-1 overexpressing cells. Furthermore, expression of Bmi-1 correlated with NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as well as MMP-9 expression in clinical glioma samples. Bmi-1 may play an important role in the development of aggressive phenotype of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 pathway and therefore might represent a novel therapeutic

  13. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent of...... concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were...... associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  14. Infant BMI peak, breastfeeding, and body composition at age 3 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Ritz, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the increasing focus on obesity, growth patterns in infancy and early childhood have gained much attention. Although the adiposity rebound has been in focus because of a shown association with adult obesity, not much has been published about the infant peak in body mass index (BMI......). OBJECTIVE: This study links age and BMI at infant peak to duration of breastfeeding and body composition at 3 y of age. DESIGN: Frequent weight and height measurements for 311 Danish children in the SKOT (Complementary and Young Child Feeding - Impact on Short and Long Term Development and Health; in Danish...... questionnaires. Assessment of body composition at age 3 y was made based on bioelectrical impedance, weight, and height. RESULTS: A longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with an earlier peak in infant BMI (P = 0.0003) and a lower prepeak velocity (P

  15. Induction of neural stem cell-like cells (NSCLCs) from mouse astrocytes by Bmi1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Bmi1 was shown to control the proliferation and self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs). In this study, we demonstrated the induction of NSC-like cells (NSCLCs) from mouse astrocytes by Bmi1 under NSC culture conditions. These NSCLCs exhibited the morphology and growth properties of NSCs, and expressed NSC marker genes, including nestin, CD133, and Sox2. In vitro differentiation of NSCLCs resulted in differentiated cell populations containing astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes. Following treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (trichostatin A and valproic acid), the potential of NSCLCs for proliferation, dedifferentiation, and self-renewal was significantly inhibited. Our data indicate that multipotent NSCLCs can be generated directly from astrocytes by the addition of Bmi1

  16. Evaluation of Excessive Pregnancy Weight Gain Effect in Non-Diabetic Women with Normal Pre-Pregnancy BMI on Macrosomia of Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sekhavat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluation of excessive pregnancy weight gain effect in non-diabetic women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI on macrosomia of neonate. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, neonate weighs of all term pregnancy in non-diabetic women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI delivered from 2002 to 2004 in Shaheed Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd, were evaluated. Compared with mothers with normal pregnancy weight gain, the risk of macrosomia in offsprings was significantly elevated in women who had excess weight gain. The odds ratio (OR was 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2 - 5.1, P = 0.0001. Given the complications associated with delivering large babies, women may benefit from not gaining excess weight in pregnancy.

  17. Expression of polycomb protein BMI-1 maintains the plasticity of basal bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, Elizabeth; Heath, Meg; Mee, Maureen; Shaw, Dominick; Sharp, Tyson V; Sayers, Ian

    2016-08-01

    The airway epithelium is altered in respiratory disease and is thought to contribute to disease etiology. A caveat to disease research is that the technique of isolation of bronchial epithelial cells from patients is invasive and cells have a limited lifespan. The aim of this study was to extensively characterize the plasticity of primary human bronchial epithelial cells that have been engineered to delay cell senescence including the ability of these cells to differentiate. Cells were engineered to express BMI-1 or hTERT using viral vector systems. Cells were characterized at passage (p) early (p5), mid (p10), and late (p15) stage for: BMI-1, p16, and CK14 protein expression, viability and the ability to differentiate at air-liquid interface (ALI), using a range of techniques including immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), MUC5AC and beta tubulin (BTUB) staining. BMI-1-expressing cells maintained elevated levels of the BMI-1 protein and the epithelial marker CK14 and showed a suppression of p16. BMI-1-expressing cells had a viability advantage, differentiated at ALI, and had a normal karyotype. In contrast, hTERT-expressing cells had a reduced viability, showed limited differentiation, and had an abnormal karyotype. We therefore provide extensive characterization of the plasticity of BMI-1 expressing cells in the context of the ALI model. These cells retain properties of wild-type cells and may be useful to characterize respiratory disease mechanisms in vitro over sustained periods. PMID:27558999

  18. Breastfeeding duration, age of starting solids and high BMI risk and adiposity in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleyachetty, Amrit; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqui; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D; Wills, Andrew K

    2013-04-01

    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (four categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant-feeding practices, socio-economic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis that accounted for potential confounders demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breastfeeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breastfeeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) [adjusted β = -0.12 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.19 to -0.05 per category change in breastfeeding duration, P = 0.001], and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.53-5.56, P < 0.001). In our sample, findings suggest that longer breastfeeding duration and later introduction of solids has a small reduction on later high BMI risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population level. PMID:21978208

  19. BMI and cardiovascular function in children and adolescents of Mauritius Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Chan, Jennifer L; Joonas, Noorjehan; Joganah, Shashee; Larhubarbe, Jose; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G

    2013-01-01

    Among countries which have undergone a rapid socio-economic and nutrition transition over the past few decades, the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius is among those with the greatest surge in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and CVD. The aim of the present study was to characterise the BMI and cardiovascular functions of children and adolescents of this at-risk population. Data were collected through measurements of anthropometry, resting heart rate and blood pressure in a nationally representative sample (n 2489) of children (5-10 years) and adolescents (11-18 years), and analysed according to sex and ethnic identity: South Asian Hindus and Muslims (both of Indian ancestry), Creole (of varying degrees of African ancestry) and Chinese (of mainland China ancestry). Based on standards of the WHO or International Obesity Task Force, one in six of these young individuals exhibit a high BMI-for-age. Analysis by ethnicity revealed that Creole males and females show higher BMI-for-age but also lower heart rate (P vegetarian v. non-vegetarian) or to fruit consumption. This study in children and adolescents of this multi-ethnic at-risk population for CVD reveal ethnic differences in BMI-for-age as well as consistent BMI-independent ethnic differences in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. These findings underscore the need to establish the BMI-fat % relationship across the various ethnic groups and for more detailed investigations about their differences in lifestyle and dietary habits that might explain their differential cardiovascular functions prior to adulthood. PMID:25191579

  20. Change with age in regression construction of fat percentage for BMI in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage. PMID:21483178

  1. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrenˋs BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Drenowatz, Clemens; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA) and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male) and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Childre...

  2. Quality of life and BMI changes in youth participating in an integrated pediatric obesity treatment program

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Keeley J; Lazorick, Suzanne; Lamson, Angela L; Ivanescu, Andrada; Collier, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Changes in Quality of Life (QOL) measures over time with treatment of obesity have not previously been described for youth. We describe the changes from baseline through two follow up visits in youth QOL (assessed by the Pediatric Quality Life Inventory, PedsQL4.0), teen depression (assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ9A), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score. We also report caregiver proxy ratings of youth QOL. Methods A sample of 267 pairs of youth and caregiver par...

  3. The relationship between BMI and striatal dopamine transporter with 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the relationship between the BMI and the brain DAT, and the influence of BMI on the brain SPECT imaging with 99Tcm-TRODAT-1. Methods: MRI and 99Tcm-TRODAT-1SPECT imaging were performed in 31 healthy volunteers (16 males and 15 females), and then the three-dimensional reconstruction of SPECT images were completed. Based on the MRI images, right striatum (RST) and the left striatum (LST) were drawn as ROI on the 4 most clearly consecutive transverse slices.The cerebellum (CB) was taken as the background reference area and the corresponding uptake ratios of ST/CB, LST/CB and RST/CB were calculated. The Pearson correlation tests for radio-uptake ratios (ST/CB, LST/CB, RST/CB), BMI and age were performed, Then multiple linear regression analysis using ST/CB as dependent variable and BMI and age as independent variables was performed. SPSS 15.0 was used in data analysis. Results: The ST imaging was symmetrical. The radioactivity was higher in the ST front area than that of the back area. The average uptake ratios of ST/CB, LST/CB, RST/CB were 1.71±0.16,1.70±0.16 and 1.72±0.17 respectively, in which the three ratios of the female were 1.74±0.18, 1.71±0.19 and 1.76±0.19 respectively and those of the male were 1.68±0.14, 1.68±0.13 and 1.69±0.15 respectively. ST/CB, LST/CB and RST/CB were negatively correlated with patients' BMI (r = -0.53, -0.57, -0.47, all P<0.05). The ST/CB was negatively correlated with patients' age (r=-0.39, P=0.03). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the BMI was significant independent variable (β=-0.53, t= -3.36, P=0.002). Conclusions: The ST DAT level may decrease as patients' BMI and age increase. Females' DAT level is slightly higher than males'. For ST DAT imaging, age, gender and BMI should be all taken into consideration. (authors)

  4. Association Between BMI and QoL Improvement in AF Patients Following Catheter Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Martinek, MD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As quite a lot of data has been recently reported on the impact of body mass index (BMI on (1. the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF development, (2. peri-procedural risk in pulmonary vein isolation (PVI and (3. PVI outcome, as well as (4. quality of life (QoL after PVI, we would like to dedicate our review to these topics. We will try to give a general picture about the impact of obesity on AF and end our review commenting on new data specifically highlighting the association between BMI and QoL improvement in AF patients following catheter ablation.

  5. Does BMI influence hospital stay and morbidity after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Gromov, Kirill;

    2016-01-01

    patients who were operated with the fast-track methodology and compared the levels with those in patients with normal BMI. Patients and methods - This was a prospective observational study involving 13,730 procedures (7,194 THA and 6,536 TKA operations) performed in a standardized fast-track setting...... patients only) was associated with a LOS of >4 days (p = 0.001), but not with re-admission. No such relationship existed for TKA. Interpretation - A fast-track setting resulted in similar length of hospital stay and re-admission rates regardless of BMI, except for very obese and morbidly obese THA patients....

  6. Combined introduction of Bmi-1 and hTERT immortalizes human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells with low risk of transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We immortalized human adipose stromal cells (ASCs) with hTERT, Bmi-1, and SV40T. ► hTERT-only ASCs are prone to transformation, while Bmi-only ASCs become senescent. ► SV40T introduced along with hTERT abrogates proliferation control and multipotency. ► hTERT combined with Bmi-1 yields stable phenotype up to 140 population doublings. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are increasingly being studied for their usefulness in regenerative medicine. However, limited life span and donor-dependent variation of primary cells such as ASCs present major hurdles to controlled and reproducible experiments. We therefore aimed to establish immortalized ASC cell lines that provide steady supply of homogeneous cells for in vitro work while retain essential features of primary cells. To this end, combinations of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), murine Bmi-1, and SV40 large T antigen (SV40T) were introduced by lentiviral transduction into ASCs. The resulting cell lines ASChTERT, ASCBmi-1, ASCBmi-1+hTERT and ASCSV40T+hTERT were tested for transgene expression, telomerase activity, surface immunomarkers, proliferation, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, karyotype, tumorigenicity, and cellular senescence. All cell lines have maintained expression of characteristic surface immunomarkers, and none was tumorigenic. However, ASCBmi-1 had limited replicative potential, while the rapidly proliferating ASCSV40T+hTERT acquired chromosomal aberrations, departed from MSC phenotype, and lost differentiation capacity. ASChTERT and ASChTERT+Bmi-1, on the other hand, preserved all essential MSC features and did not senesce after 100 population doublings. Notably, a subpopulation of ASChTERT also acquired aberrant karyotype and showed signs of transformation after long-term culture. In conclusion, hTERT alone was sufficient to extend the life span of human ASC, but ASChTERT are prone to transformation during extensive subculturing

  7. Associations between severity of obesity in childhood and adolescence, obesity onset and parental BMI: a longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, V; Jacobsson, J A; Fredriksson, R.; Danielsson, P; Sobko, T; Schiöth, H B; Marcus, C

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between severity of obesity at age 7 and age 15, age at onset of obesity, and parental body mass index (BMI) in obese children and adolescents. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Subjects: Obese children (n=231) and their parents (n=462) from the Swedish National Childhood Obesity Centre. Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were applied with severity of obesity (BMI standard deviation score (BMI SDS)) and onset of obesity as dependent variables. Th...

  8. A Bmi1-miRNAs cross-talk modulates chemotherapy response to 5-fluorouracil in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yin

    Full Text Available The polycomb group transcriptional modifier Bmi1 is often upregulated in numerous cancers and is intensely involved in normal and cancer stem cells, and importantly is as a prognostic indicator for some cancers, but its role in breast cancer remains unclear. Here, we found Bmi1 overexpression in 5-Fu (5-fluorouracil-resistant MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/5-Fu derived from MCF-7 breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells compared to MCF-7 cells, was related with 5-Fu resistance and enrichment of CD44(+/CD24(- stem cell subpopulation. Bmi1 knockdown enhanced the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to 5-Fu and 5-Fu induced apoptosis via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and decreased the fraction of CD44(+/CD24(- subpopulation. In addition, our analysis showed inverse expression pattern between Bmi1 and miR-200c and miR-203 in selected breast cancer cell lines, and miR-200c and miR-203 directly repressed Bmi1 expression in protein level confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. MiR-200c and miR-203 overexpression in breast cancer cells downregulated Bmi1 expression accompanied with reversion of resistance to 5-Fu mediated by Bmi1. Inversely, Bmi1 overexpression inhibited miR-200c expression in MCF-7 cells, but not miR-203, however ectopic wild-type p53 expression reversed Bmi1 mediated miR-200c downregulation, suggesting the repressive effect of Bmi1 on miR-200c maybe depend on p53. Thus, our study suggests a cross-talk between Bmi1 and miR-200c mediated by p53, and Bmi1 interference would improve chemotherapy efficiency in breast cancer via susceptive apoptosis induction and cancer stem cell enrichment inhibition.

  9. Differential RNA expression of Bmy1 during seed development and the association with beta-amylase accumulation, activity, and total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four genotypes carrying different Bmy1 intron III alleles were analyzed for differences in Bmy1 RNA expression in developing seeds at 17, 19, and 21 days after anthesis (DAA). Ashqelon and PI 296897, wild barleys which carry the Bmy1.c and Bmy1.d intron III alleles, respectively, had 2.5 to 3- fold...

  10. Intensive expression of Bmi-1 is a new independent predictor of poor outcome in patients with ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that the B-cell specific moloney leukemia virus insertion site 1 (Bmi-1) gene plays an oncogenic role in several types of human cancer, but the status of Bmi-1 amplification and expression in ovarian cancer and its clinical/prognostic significance are unclear. The methods of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization were utilized to examine protein expression and amplification of Bmi-1 in 30 normal ovaries, 30 ovarian cystadenomas, 40 borderline ovarian tumors and 179 ovarian carcinomas. Intensive expression of Bmi-1 was detected in none of the normal ovaries, 3% cystadenomas, 10% borderline tumors, and 37% ovarian carcinomas, respectively. Amplification of Bmi-1 was detected in 8% of ovarian carcinomas. In ovarian carcinomas, significant positive associations were found between intensive expression of Bmi-1 and the tumors ascending histological grade, later pT/pN/pM and FIGO stages (P < 0.05). In univariate survival analysis of the ovarian carcinoma cohorts, a significant association of intensive expression of Bmi-1 with shortened patient survival (mean 49.3 months versus 100.3 months, p < 0.001) was demonstrated. Importantly, Bmi-1 expression provided significant independent prognostic parameters in multivariate analysis (p = 0.005). These findings provide evidence that intensive expression of Bmi-1 might be important in the acquisition of an invasive and/or aggressive phenotype of ovarian carcinoma, and serve as a independent biomarker for shortened survival time of patients

  11. The Intergenerational Cycle of Obesity and Its Implications for Nursing Care of Childbearing Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Molly C; MacKenzie, Meredith A

    2016-01-01

    Despite intensive focus and interventions at societal and individual levels, more than a third of people in the United States are overweight or obese, and childhood/adolescent obesity rates have dramatically increased during the past three decades. Biomedical research has shown a clear link between the prenatal environment and lifetime adiposity. Children born to overweight and obese women with impaired glucose metabolism show cardiometabolic consequences throughout their life spans that, in turn, affect their children's adiposity. Awareness of this intergenerational cycle of obesity can prompt nurses to intervene in the preconception, prenatal, and postnatal phases. PMID:27287355

  12. Intergeneric somatic hybrid plantlets between Dianthus barbatus and Gypsophila paniculata obtained by electrofusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M; Hoshino, Y; Mii, M

    1996-02-01

    Hypocotyl-derived protoplasts of Dianthus barbatus that had been pretreated with iodoacetamide were fused electrically with cell suspension culture-derived protoplasts of Gypsophila paniculata that could divide to form callus but could not regenerate shoots under the culture conditions used in this study. Electrofusion-derived calli which produced shoots were selected as putative somatic hybrids, and plantlets were subsequently regenerated from 2 of these selected calli. These plantlets, which in vitro produced flowers precociously, were identified as intergeneric somatic hybrids by nuclear ribosomal DNA analysis. Normal plants have not been established up to the present. PMID:24166164

  13. Gene expression in rat models for inter-generational transmission of islet dysfunction and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby C.Y. Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paternal high fat diet (HFD consumption triggers unique gene signatures, consistent with premature aging and chronic degenerative disorders, in both white adipose tissue (RpWAT and pancreatic islets of daughters. In addition to published data in Nature, 2010, 467, 963–966 (GSE: 19877, islet and FASEB J 2014, 28, 1830–1841 (GSE: 33551, RpWAT, we describe here additional details on systems-based approaches and analysis to develop our observations. Our data provides a resource for exploring the complex molecular mechanisms that underlie intergenerational transmission of obesity.

  14. Intergenerational Transmission and the School-to-work Transition for 2nd Generation Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina;

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the extent of intergenerational transmission through parental capital, ethnic capital and neighbourhood effects on several aspects of the school-to-work transition of 2nd generation immigrants and young ethnic Danes. The main findings are that parental capital has strong positive effects...... on the probability of completing a qualifying education and on the entry into the labour market, but it has a much smaller impact on the duration of the first employment spell and on the wage level. Growing up in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of immigrants is associated with negative...... labour market prospects both for young natives and 2nd generation immigrants....

  15. Explaining Intergenerational Income Persistence: Non-cognitive Skills, Ability and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Jo Blanden; Paul Gregg; Lindsey Macmillan

    2006-01-01

    The recent literature on intergenerational mobility in the UK has been focused on measuring the level and change in the relationship between parental income and children’s earnings as adults among recent cohorts. This paper is the first to analyse in detail the factors that generate these links. The paper seeks to account for the level of income persistence in the 1970 BCS cohort and also to explore the decline in mobility in the UK between the 1958 NCDS cohort and the 1970 cohort. The mediat...

  16. Enhancement of intergeneric hybridization between common wheat and leymus angustus by means of pollen irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedure for enhancing intergeneric hybridization between common wheat T. aestivum and L. angustus by means of pollen irradiation was established through studying on wheat genotypes, irradiation doses, periods of pollination and immature embryo rescue method. The procedure includes selecting suitable wheat genotype J-11 as female parent, irradiating L. angustus pollen with appropriate doses (5-9 Gy) of gamma rays, pollinating during optimal period (1 day after emasculation or 2-3 days before pollen shedding) and rescuing immature hybrid embryos using embryo-callus culture method

  17. Intergenerational earnings mobility in France: Is France more mobile than the U.S.?

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud LEFRANC, Alain TRANNOY -; Trannoy, Alain

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the extent and evolution of intergenerational earnings mobility in France. We use data from five waves of the French Education-Training-Employment (FQP) surveys covering the period 1964 to 1993. Our estimation procedure follows Björklund and Jäntti (1997)'s two-sample instrumental variable method. On our samples, the elasticity of son's (respectively daughter's) long-run income with respect to father's long run income is around .4 (resp. .3) with no significant change over...

  18. Intergenerational earnings mobility in France : Is France more mobile than the US ?

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud Lefranc; Alain Trannoy

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the extent and evolution of intergenerational earnings mobility in France. We use data from five waves of the French Education-Training-Employment (FQP) surveys covering the period 1964 to 1993. Our estimation procedure follows Björklund and Jäntti (1997)’s two-sample instrumental variable method. On our samples, the elasticity of son’s (respectively daughter’s) long-run income with respect to father’s long run income is around.4 (resp.3) with no significant change over th...

  19. Is There a Child Labor Trap? Inter-Generational Persistence of Child Labor in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, Patrick M.; Andre Portela Souza

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines inter-generational persistence in child labor by developing a dynamic model and exploring its implications empirically in Brazil. We begin by building a simple overlapping generations model of the household child labor decision. We assume that this decision is made by the head of the household, where parents decide to send their child to work only if by doing so the child�s contribution to the present consumption of the family outweighs the future consumption benefit the...

  20. Analysis of a BWR MKI utilizing advanced BMI-2104 computational techniques to calculate source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of incorporating code modifications to more realistically represent accident phenomenology were examined with specific focus on the BWR MKI AE γ-sequence. Results indicate that the source terms are only a fraction of those reported in BMI-2104 and that core/concrete interaction is not a significant source term contributor for the BWR MKI containments. (author)

  1. School environment factors were associated with BMI among adolescents in Xi'an City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibley Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School environment influences students' behaviours. The purpose of this research was to identify school environment factors associated with BMI. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1792 school-aged adolescents from 30 schools in six districts in Xi'an City in 2004. Height and weight were taken from students by trained field staff. School environment characteristics such as physical factors (school facilities, school shops and fast food outlets in school area, school curricula and policies were collected from school doctors using school environment questionnaire. School environment factors were identified in linear mixed effect models with BMI as outcome and adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Results After adjusted for socio-demographic factors, BMI was associated with the availability of soft drinks at school shops, the availability and the number of western food outlet in the school vicinity. School curricula such as sports-meeting and health education session were also associated with BMI. Conclusions Urgent actions are needed to address the obesogenic elements of school environments. Community and school policy makers should make efforts for students to avoid exposure to fast food outlet in school area and soft drinks at school shops, and to improve school curricula to promote healthy behaviours.

  2. Sociodemographic correlates of BMI categories among female University students of Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Zaidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Youth is considered a crucial period for launching positive health and social behaviours. It is a life stage when young people are experiencing rapid emotional, physical and intellectual changes, and when they begin the transition from childhood to adolescence to independent adulthood. The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide urged the authors to study the sociodemographic factors that might work as causal factors for obesity among young Saudi female university students. The study aimed at unveiling the causes of obesity among this group and to find out the association of normal and overweight with socio-demographic variables.Material and Method: A total of 500 female students were participated in this study from February to Novembers 2015. Weight and height were measured to determine the Body mass Index (BMI, the socio-demographic variables were examined by using sociodemographic form. Data was gathered from female students (N=500 enrolled in bachelors program during the period of November 2014-October 2015.Results: The findings of the BMI measurements had shown that there is 54% of the university students were in the normal weight whose BMI is 24 or below and 35% were showing a BMI that is over 24 and were in the range of overweight or obesity.Conclusion: This study concluded that there is an urgent need for guidance of university students regarding a healthy lifestyle and for fostering physical activity and nutrition programs on the campus to reduce and to keep the healthy weight.

  3. Longterm Changes in BMI Growth Charts Pattern for Czech Children and Adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vignerová, J.; Paulová, M.; Brabec, Marek; Bláha, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, Suppl 1 (2008), S188-S188. ISSN 0307-0565. [European Congress on Obesity . 14.05.2008-17.05.2008, Geneva] R&D Projects: GA MZd NR7857 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : growth charts * growth curves * BMI Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  4. The role of BMI change on smoking abstinence in a sample of HIV-infected smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchberg, Meredith K; Gritz, Ellen R; Kypriotakis, George; Arduino, Roberto C; Vidrine, Damon J

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is approximately 40%, significantly higher than that of the general population. Identifying predictors of successful smoking cessation for PLWHA is necessary to alleviate the morbidity and mortality associated with smoking in this population. Weight gain has been associated with smoking relapse in the general population, but has not been studied among PLWHA. Data from 474 PLWHA enrolled in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial were analyzed to examine the effect of BMI change, from baseline to 3-month follow-up, on smoking outcomes using multiple logistic regression. The odds of 7-day smoking abstinence at 3-month follow-up were 4.22 (95% CI = 1.65, 10.82) times higher for participants classified as BMI decrease and 4.22 (95% CI = 1.62, 11.01) times higher for participants classified as BMI increase as compared to participants with a minimal increase or decrease in BMI. In this sample, both weight gain and loss following smoking cessation were significantly associated with abstinence at 3-month follow-up among HIV-infected smokers. Further research and a better understanding of predictors of abstinence will encourage more tailored interventions, with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26666313

  5. BMI, Income, and Social Capital in a Native Amazonian Society: Interaction between Relative and Community Variables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Godoy, R.; Reyes-García, V.; Leonard, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2007), s. 459-474. ISSN 1042-0533 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : BMI * economic factors * social capital * interaction models * separation of hierarchical effects * random effects models Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.805, year: 2007

  6. Sickness Presenteeism Among Health Care Workers and the Effect of BMI, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kongstad, Malte Bue; Sjøgaard, Gisela;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between sickness presenteeism and body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). METHODS: Female health care workers (n = 139) were analyzed cross-sectional as well as ...

  7. A variant in FTO shows association with melanoma risk not due to BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Mark M; Law, Matthew H; Stacey, Simon N; Han, Jiali; Fang, Shenying; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Harland, Mark; MacGregor, Stuart; Taylor, John C; Aben, Katja K; Akslen, Lars A; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Azizi, Esther; Bakker, Bert; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Bergman, Wilma; Scarrà, Giovanna Bianchi; Brown, Kevin M; Calista, Donato; Chaudru, Valerié; Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Cust, Anne E; Demenais, Florence; de Waal, Anne C; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Elder, David E; Friedman, Eitan; Galan, Pilar; Ghiorzo, Paola; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Goldstein, Alisa M; Gruis, Nelleke A; Hansson, Johan; Helsing, Per; Hočevar, Marko; Höiom, Veronica; Hopper, John L; Ingvar, Christian; Janssen, Marjolein; Jenkins, Mark A; Kanetsky, Peter A; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Lang, Julie; Lathrop, G Mark; Leachman, Sancy; Lee, Jeffrey E; Lubiński, Jan; Mackie, Rona M; Mann, Graham J; Mayordomo, Jose I; Molven, Anders; Mulder, Suzanne; Nagore, Eduardo; Novaković, Srdjan; Okamoto, Ichiro; Olafsson, Jon H; Olsson, Håkan; Pehamberger, Hubert; Peris, Ketty; Grasa, Maria Pilar; Planelles, Dolores; Puig, Susana; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Randerson-Moor, Juliette; Requena, Celia; Rivoltini, Licia; Rodolfo, Monica; Santinami, Mario; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Snowden, Helen; Song, Fengju; Sulem, Patrick; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Tuominen, Rainer; Van Belle, Patricia; van der Stoep, Nienke; van Rossum, Michelle M; Wei, Qingyi; Wendt, Judith; Zelenika, Diana; Zhang, Mingfeng; Landi, Maria Teresa; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Bishop, D Timothy; Amos, Christopher I; Hayward, Nicholas K; Stefansson, Kari; Bishop, Julia A Newton; Barrett, Jennifer H

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of an association study of melanoma based on the genome-wide imputation of the genotypes of 1,353 cases and 3,566 controls of European origin conducted by the GenoMEL consortium. This revealed a novel association between several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 8 of the FTO gene, including rs16953002, which replicated using 12,313 cases and 55,667 controls of European ancestry from Europe, the USA and Australia (combined p=3.6×10−12, per-allele OR for A=1.16). As well as identifying a novel melanoma susceptibility locus, this is the first study to identify and replicate an association with SNPs in FTO not related to body mass index (BMI). These SNPs are not in intron 1 (the BMI-related region) and show no association with BMI. This suggests FTO’s function may be broader than the existing paradigm that FTO variants influence multiple traits only through their associations with BMI and obesity. PMID:23455637

  8. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Elementary School Students’ BMI Values Based on the System Dynamics Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Tian-Syung Lan; Kai-Ling Chen; Pin-Chang Chen; Chao-Tai Ku; Pei-Hsuan Chiu; Meng-Hsiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students’ BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student’s personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and im...

  9. Asthma, Smoking and BMI in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, L.; Naqvi, H.; Russ, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent research evidence from the general population has shown that tobacco smoking and raised body mass index (BMI) are associated with worse asthma outcomes. There are indications that asthma morbidity and mortality may be higher among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) than the general population, but the reason for this is…

  10. BMI in relation to sperm count : an updated systematic review and collaborative meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sermondade, N.; Faure, C.; Fezeu, L.; Shayeb, A. G.; Bonde, J. P.; Jensen, T. K.; Van Wely, M.; Cao, J.; Martini, A. C.; Eskandar, M.; Chavarro, J. E.; Koloszar, S.; Twigt, J. M.; Ramlau-Hansen, C. H.; Borges, E.; Lotti, F.; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. M.; Zorn, B.; Polotsky, A. J.; La Vignera, S.; Eskenazi, B.; Tremellen, K.; Magnusdottir, E. V.; Fejes, I.; Hercberg, S.; Levy, R.; Czernichow, S.

    2013-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with meta-analysis

  11. A BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit: asynchronous control by SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KenjiKansaku

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brain-machine interface (BMI is an interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines. Recent invasive BMI technologies have succeeded in the asynchronous control of robot arms for a useful series of actions, such as reaching and grasping. In this study, we developed non-invasive BMI technologies aiming to make such useful movements using the subject's own hands by preparing a BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit (BOTAS. We prepared a pre-recorded series of useful actionsa grasping-a-ball movement and a carrying-the-ball movementand added asynchronous control using steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP signals. A SSVEP signal was used to trigger the grasping-a-ball movement and another SSVEP signal was used to trigger the carrying-the-ball movement. A support vector machine was used to classify EEG signals recorded from the visual cortex (Oz in real time. Untrained, able-bodied participants (n = 12 operated the system successfully. Classification accuracy and time required for SSVEP detection were approximately 88% and 3 s, respectively. We further recruited three patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries; they also succeeded in operating the system without training. These data suggest that our BOTAS system is potentially useful in terms of rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities.

  12. Fridel-Crafts acylation using bismuth triflate in [BMI][PF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Duus, Fritz; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2012-01-01

    Bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate was found to be a good catalyst for the Friedel–Craftsacylation. Bismuthtriflate immobilized in an ionic liquid was the most efficient catalytic system. Bismuthtriflate in [BMI][PF6] catalyzes this reaction under microwave irradiation allowing the rapid synthesis...

  13. Should Schools Send BMI Report Cards to Parents? A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Alexander; Boros, Piroska; Ingvalson, Kent; Fontana, Fabio E.; Matvienko, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    A body mass index (BMI) report card is a tool to inform parents about their child's weight status. Body mass index notifications could curb childhood obesity by prompting parents to encourage their children to be more physically active and make better dietary choices, but they could also lower children's self-esteem and increase weight-related…

  14. Rise in Extracellular Fluid Volume During High Sodium Depends on BMI in Healthy Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Folkert W.; Krikken, Jan A.; Muntinga, Jaap H. J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Navis, Gerjan J.

    2009-01-01

    A high sodium (HS) intake is associated to increased cardiovascular and renal risk, especially in overweight subjects. We hypothesized that abnormal sodium and fluid handling is involved, independent of hypertension or insulin resistance. Therefore, we studied the relation between BMI and sodium-ind

  15. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  16. A SHORT STUDY ON CHANGE IN BP WITH BMI IN OBESE AND NONOBESE YOUNG GIRL STUDENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyashree N Uchil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Title: Short study on change in BP and BMI in obese and non obese young girl students. Introduction: High blood pressure (BP is a major determinant of cardiovascular events in obesity. This study was undertaken to analyze the differences in certain well-defined cardiovascular parameters in obese and non-obese young girl students between age 17 to 21 with respect to their BMI. Aims and Objectives: To compare change in BP and BMI in obese and non obese young girls. Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 50 girl students of our medical college. The parameters studied were change in BP and BMI. They were divided in to 2 groups, obese and non obese. Their baseline BP, SBP after moderate exercise and their body mass index were noted. The values obtained were analyzed by unpaired t test and p value <0.05 considered as significant. Results: The mean and std dev of SBP after moderate exercise in obese and non obese young girls were 143.64±18.4184 and 132.08±12.6948 respectively and their p value is 0.0129. The mean and std dev of BMI in obese and non obese young girls were 25.7048±0.0578 and 20.8316±0.5185 respectively and their p value is 0.0001. The mean and std dev of change in BP in obese and non obese young girls were 32.6±18.5539 and 22.24±12.2925 respectively and their p value is 0.0242. Conclusion: There is a significant rise in SBP in obese girls with moderate exercise limiting their physical abilities.

  17. BMY 30047: A novel topically active retinoid with low local and systemic toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, X.; Quigley, J.; Tramposch, K.M.; Carroll, F.I.; Lewin, A.H.; Kiss, I. (Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Buffalo, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In the treatment of various dermatological disorders, topically applied retinoids have potential therapeutic use with the advantage of improved localized activity and lower toxicity over systemically administered retinoids. However, most retinoids cause a significant degree of local irritation. In the present study, the ability to produce local activity with low local irritation potential was evaluated with a novel retinoic acid derivative. BMY 30047 (11-cis, 13-cis-12-hydroxymethylretinoic acid delta-lactone) is one of a series of retinoic acid derivatives in which the carboxyl function of the polar end was modified with the aim of achieving reduced local irritation and systemic toxicity while retaining the local therapeutic effect. BMY 30047 was evaluated and compared with all-trans retinoic acid for topical retinoid activity in several preclinical assay systems, including the utricle reduction assay in rhino mice, 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate ester-stimulated ornithine decarboxylase induction in hairless mice and the UV light-induced photodamaged skin model in hairless mice. BMY 30047 was assessed for retinoid-type side effects by evaluating the skin irritation potential in rabbits after repeated topical application, and hypervitaminosis A-inducing potential in mice after i.p. injection. BMY 30047 demonstrated significant topical retinoid activity in several in vivo models with less skin irritation potential relative to the most used clinical concentrations of all-trans retinoic acid. BMY 30047 also showed very little systemic activity and did not produce any evidence of hypervitaminosis A syndrome at systemic doses 20 times greater than the no-effect dose of all-trans retinoic acid.

  18. A Pilot Study on BMI, Serum Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Allergic Male Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Lokaj-Berisha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dramatic increase in the prevalence of high body mass index (BMI increases the prevalence of allergic diseases, both in adults and children and obesity is associated with hypogonadism in adult males. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the effect of high body mass index on plasma concentrations of testosterone and estradiol in young pubertal and adult males with allergic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Morning fasting blood samples were obtained form 51 allergic patients and 6 healthy volunteer males between the ages 11-57 years (Mean 26.9, DS ± 11.9 years. Total testosterone, estradiol, FSH and LH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. All participants were subjected to skin prick tests with test kit G aeroallergens, and BMI was calculated according to the body weight divided by the square of height (kg/m2. RESULTS: Low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol were associated with high BMI only in patients with asthma/rhinitis, but not in asthma patients. Allergic dermatitis/urticaria group along with healthy controls were overweight but within normal ranges for total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. Patients with allergic rhinitis were within normal ranges for BMI, total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. CONCLUSION: High BMI is not always associated with low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol in our patients with allergic diseases, but low levels of testosterone are present in patients with asthma and asthma/rhinitis although not among patients with rhinitis only. Our results should be confirmed in a larger group of participants.

  19. In a safety net population HPV4 vaccine adherence worsens as BMI increases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Harper

    Full Text Available Obesity adversely inhibits antibody response to vaccination. Three doses of HPV4 may or may not provide adequate long term protection against HPV 16/18 in obese females. The aim of this study was to determine whether adherence to HPV4 vaccination in a safety net population was reduced with increasing body mass index (BMI.We designed a historical prospective study evaluating the number and dates of HPV4 dosing that occurred from July 1, 2006 through October 1, 2009 by the demographic characteristics of the 10-26 year old recipient females. The defined dosing intervals were adapted from the literature and obesity categories were defined by the WHO.1240 females with BMI measurements received at least one dose of HPV4; 38% were obese (class I, II and III and 25% were overweight. Females with normal BMI received on-time triplet dosing significantly more often than did the obese class II and III females (30% vs. 18%, p<0.001. Obese class II/III females have a significant 45% less chance of completing the on-time triplet HPV4 series than normal women (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.83. Pregnancy history has a significant influence on BMI and HPV4 dosing compliance in this safety net population where 71% had been gravid. Hispanic females were less likely to complete HPV4 dosing regardless of BMI (aOR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.95.Obesity, as well as gravidity and Hispanic race, are risk factors for lack of HPV4 vaccine adherence among young females in a safety net population.

  20. A Pilot Study on BMI, Serum Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Allergic Male Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Berisha, Naser; Gashi-Hoxha, Sanije

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dramatic increase in the prevalence of high body mass index (BMI) increases the prevalence of allergic diseases, both in adults and children and obesity is associated with hypogonadism in adult males. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the effect of high body mass index on plasma concentrations of testosterone and estradiol in young pubertal and adult males with allergic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Morning fasting blood samples were obtained form 51 allergic patients and 6 healthy volunteer males between the ages 11-57 years (Mean 26.9, DS ± 11.9 years). Total testosterone, estradiol, FSH and LH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. All participants were subjected to skin prick tests with test kit G aeroallergens, and BMI was calculated according to the body weight divided by the square of height (kg/m2). RESULTS: Low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol were associated with high BMI only in patients with asthma/rhinitis, but not in asthma patients. Allergic dermatitis/urticaria group along with healthy controls were overweight but within normal ranges for total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. Patients with allergic rhinitis were within normal ranges for BMI, total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. CONCLUSION: High BMI is not always associated with low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol in our patients with allergic diseases, but low levels of testosterone are present in patients with asthma and asthma/rhinitis although not among patients with rhinitis only. Our results should be confirmed in a larger group of participants.

  1. Family Events and the Timing of Intergenerational Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Thomas; Schneider, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates how family events in adult children's lives influence the timing of their parents' financial transfers. We draw on retrospective data collected by the German Socio-Economic Panel Study and use event history models to study the effects of marriage, divorce and childbirth on the receipt of large gifts from parents. We find…

  2. Life-Cycle and Intergenerational Effects of Child Care Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Marc K Chan; Liu, Kai

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the importance of various mechanisms by which child care policies can affect life-cycle patterns of employment and fertility among women, as well as long-run cognitive outcomes among children. A structural life-cycle model of employment, fertility, and child care use is estimated using Norwegian administrative data. The estimation exploits a large-scale child care reform, which provided generous cash transfers to mothers who did not use formal child care facilities. Combining w...

  3. The Intergenerational Transmission of Education: Evidence from Taiwanese Adoptions

    OpenAIRE

    Hammitt, James K.; Liu, Jin-Tan; Tsou, Meng-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the causal effect of parental schooling on children’s schooling using a large sample of adoptees from Taiwan. Using birth-parents’ education to help control for selective placement of children with adoptive parents, we find that adoptees raised with more highly educated parents have higher educational attainment, measured by years of schooling and probability of university graduation. We also find evidence that adoptive father’s schooling is more important for sons’ and ad...

  4. Pension funds, sovereign-wealth funds and intergenerational justice

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander W. Cappelen; Urheim, Runa

    2012-01-01

    Pension funds and sovereign-wealth funds own a large and increasing fraction of the shares in publicly traded companies in the OECD area. These funds typically have a very long time horizon on their investments, as well as highly diversified portfolios. These features imply that the interests of these funds on important issues are aligned with the interest of future generations because the longterm return on a highly diversified portfolio will depend on the degree to which the develo...

  5. Pension funds, sovereign-wealth funds and intergenerational justice

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander W. Cappelen; Urheim, Runa

    2012-01-01

    Pension funds and sovereign-wealth funds own a large and increasing fraction of the shares in publicly traded companies in the OECD area. These funds typically have a very long time horizon on their investments, as well as highly diversified portfolios. These features imply that the interests of these funds on important issues are aligned with the interest of future generations because the longterm return on a highly diversified portfolio will depend on the degree to which the development of ...

  6. [Poor dad, poor child? An investigation of intergenerational income mobility in the 1982 Birth Cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Bertoldi, Andréa D; Carraro, André; Ribeiro, Felipe Garcia; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Barros, Fernando Celso; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2015-06-01

    Brazil is one of the countries with the lowest intergenerational income mobility. This article aimed to analyze intergenerational income mobility in the 1982 Birth Cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. Two methods were used, intergenerational income elasticity and quantile regressions, in order to measure heterogeneity in income mobility as a function of different levels of parents' past income. The results show relatively high income mobility for Brazilian standards. The main explanation is that the data cover the children's income at a younger age (about 23 years). Quantile regressions show higher social mobility in the intermediary social stratum. The results reinforce the notion of two opposite "traps", poverty and wealth. PMID:26200370

  7. Risk Factors of Parents Abused as Children: A Mediational Analysis of the Intergenerational Continuity of Child Maltreatment (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Louise; Browne, Kevin; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study provides an exploration of factors implicated in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child (AP families) were compared in terms of risk factors to families where the parents had no childhood history of…

  8. Attributions and Behaviours of Parents Abused as Children: A Mediational Analysis of the Intergenerational Continuity of Child Maltreatment (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Louise; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Browne, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study extends previous research (Dixon, Browne, & Hamilton-Giachritsis, 2004) by exploring the mediational properties of parenting styles and their relation to risk factors in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child…

  9. The Intergenerational Transmission of the Value of Children in Contemporary Chinese Families: Taiwan and Mainland China Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chun Yi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag liegt nur in englischer Sprache vor.While fertility has been drastically declining in East Asia, mechanisms accounting for the current trend vary. One noticeable mechanism documented is that the changing value of children affects couples’ fertility decisions which in turn affect their subsequent fertility behaviour. This study will examine the intergenerational transmission of the value of children (VOC among grandmothers, mothers and teenagers in two Chinese societies: Taiwan and Mainland China. We assume that cultural homogeneity interacts with political and social heterogeneity and may result in different values regarding having or not having children. Data are taken from two corresponding VOC surveys from Taiwan (2005-2007 and from Mainland China (2002-2003. We first compare the value of children for Taiwan and Mainland China with special attention to cultural aspects. Two identified factor solutions are generated for both positive (traditional and emotional and negative (emotional/psychological and familial/social VOC. Analyses show that intergenerational transmission of the VOC among three generations is more likely to occur for a positive VOC in the Chinese Mainland sample. We suspect that actual fertility experience results in greater resemblance on the VOC between grandmothers and mothers in both research settings. Among selected structural mechanisms, only rural-urban background has an effect on patterns of intergenerational transmission. The paper ends with a discussion on the importance of culture in explaining the intergenerational transmission of the VOC in Chinese societies.

  10. The Impact of Birth Order on Intergenerational Transmission of Attitudes from Parents to Adolescent Sons: The Israeli Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    2004-01-01

    This study deals with birth order and its impact on intergenerational transmission of parental attitudes to adolescent sons in Israeli society. The sample included 294 participants (including 98 mothers, 98 fathers, and 98 sons). The attitudes chosen were key issues of concern in Israeli society: gender role attitudes, ethnic stereotypes, and…

  11. Generation X, intergenerational justice and the renewal of the traditioning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory L. Seibel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The church has the task of transmitting its faith tradition from one generation to the next. In the transition to postmodernity, many established congregations have proven to be ineffective at this traditioning process in relation to Generation X (Gen X, the first postmodern generation. The reasons for the ineffectiveness are complex. This article focuses on two key factors that contribute to the problem: the reduction of the church’s tradition to its particular expression within the culture of modernity and the marginalisation experienced by Gen Xers within many established churches. The latter has prevented them from becoming effective bearers of the church’s tradition. If this trend is to be reversed, churches should succeed in renewing their traditions in a way that is meaningful in a postmodern context. The challenge will be to overcome the dynamics of reductionism and marginalisation. In developing the argument, the jubilee themes of ‘return’ and ‘release’ are applied to the intergenerational dynamics of established congregations. The article concludes that local congregations should embrace a renewed commitment to intergenerational justice, which will encourage equity between the generations.

  12. Feminized Intergenerational Mobility Without Assimilation? Post-1965 U.S. Immigrants and the Gender Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie; Nawyn, Stephanie J; Benetsky, Megan J

    2015-10-01

    Women in the United States have made significant socioeconomic advances over the last generation. The second generation of post-1965 immigrants came of age during this "gender revolution." However, assimilation theories focus mainly on racial/ethnic trajectories. Do gendered trajectories between and within groups better capture mobility patterns? Using the 1980 decennial census and the 2003-2007 Current Population Survey (CPS), we observe the socioeconomic status of Latino and Asian immigrant parents and their second-generation children 25 years later. We compare the educational, occupational, and earnings attainment of second-generation daughters and sons with that of their immigrant mothers and fathers. We simultaneously compare those socioeconomic trajectories with a U.S.-born white, non-Latino reference group. We find that second-generation women experience greater status attainment than both their mothers and their male counterparts, but the earnings of second-generation women lag behind those of men. However, because white mainstream women experienced similar intergenerational mobility, many gaps between the second generation and the mainstream remain. These patterns remain even after we control for parenthood status. With feminized intergenerational mobility occurring similarly across race, the racial/ethnic gaps observed in 1980 narrow but persist into the next generation for many outcomes. Both gender and race shape mobility trajectories, so ignoring either leads to an incomplete picture of assimilation. PMID:26358700

  13. Intergenerational effects of war trauma among Palestinian families mediated via psychological maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; Diab, Marwan

    2013-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intergenerational effects of parents' war trauma on offspring's attachment and mental health are mediated by psychological maltreatment. Two hundred and forty children and their parents were sampled from a war-prone area, Gaza, Palestine. The parents reported the number and type of traumatic experiences of war they had had during their lifetime before the child's birth and during a current war when the child was 10-12 years old. The children reported their war traumas, experiences of psychological maltreatment, attachment security, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS), depression, and aggression. The direct and indirect intergenerational effects of war trauma were tested in structural equation models. The hypotheses were confirmed for father's past war exposure, and disconfirmed for mother's war exposure. The father's past war trauma had a negative association with attachment security and positive association with the child's mental health problems mediated by increased psychological maltreatment. In contrast, the mother's past war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression via decreased psychological maltreatment. The mother's current war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression and aggression via decreased psychological maltreatment. Among fathers, past war exposure should be considered as a risk factor for psychological maltreatment of children and the associated attachment insecurity and mental health problems. Among mothers, war exposure as such could be given less clinical attention than PTSS in the prevention of psychological maltreatment of children. PMID:23768956

  14. Family Disruption and Intergenerational Reproduction: Comparing the Influences of Married Parents, Divorced Parents, and Stepparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2015-06-01

    The transmission of individual characteristics and behaviors across generations has frequently been studied in the social sciences. For a growing number of children, however, the biological father was present in the household for only part of the time; and for many children, stepfathers were present. What are the implications of these changes for the process of intergenerational transmission? To answer this question, this article compares intergenerational transmission among married, divorced, and stepparents. Two forms of reproduction are studied: educational attainment and church attendance. For education, divorced fathers were as influential as married fathers, whereas stepfathers were less influential. For church attendance, married fathers were most influential, divorced fathers were least influential, and stepfathers were in between. Divorced mothers, in contrast, appeared to be more influential than married mothers. These findings lend negative support for the social capital hypothesis and positive support for notions of value socialization. The strong role of the divorced father for educational transmission is consistent with genetic processes and hypotheses about early advantages. PMID:26012844

  15. Intergenerational Contacts Influence Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) and Subjective Well Being among Austrian Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Haslinger, Beatrix

    2015-09-01

    Over the last century population ageing is a well described phenomenon all over the world. The dramatic absolute and relative increase in the population component of the elderly and the very old has influenced not only population structure but also the relationships within families, in particular between older parents and their adult children. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of intergenerational contact frequency on health related quality of life among 62 men and 98 women ranging in age between 60 and 94 years. All participants of the study were healthy and lived independently in their private homes. Data concerning subjective well being and health related quality of life were collected by personal interviews based on structured questionnaires. Health related quality of life was tested by means of the WHOQOL-BREF. The main finding of this study is that the frequency of intergenerational contacts has a significant impact on health related quality of life. Contact frequency with grandchildren per month correlated significantly (pquality of life increased significantly (pquality of life during old age. PMID:26898049

  16. Development of an Intergeneric Conjugal Transfer System for Xinaomycins-Producing Streptomyces noursei Xinao-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hui Sun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To introduce DNA into Streptomyces noursei xinao-4, which produces xinaomycins, we explored an intergeneric conjugal transfer system. High efficiency of conjugation (8 × 10−3 exconjugants per recipient was obtained when spores of S. noursei xinao-4 were heat-shocked at 50 °C for 10 min, mixed with Escherichia coli ET12567 (pUZ8002/pSET152 in the ratio of 1:100, plated on 2CMY medium containing 40 mmol/L MgCl2, and incubated at 30 °C for 22 h. With this protocol, the plasmids pKC1139 and pSET152 were successfully transferred from E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002 with different frequencies. Among all parameters, the ratio of donor to recipient cell number had the strongest effect on the transformation efficiency. In order to validate the above intergeneric conjugal transfer system, a glycosyltransferase gene was cloned and efficiently knocked out in S. noursei xinao-4 using pSG5-based plasmid pKC1139.

  17. Measuring quantitative autism traits in families: informant effect or intergenerational transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Marche, Wouter; Noens, Ilse; Kuppens, Sofie; Spilt, Jantine L; Boets, Bart; Steyaert, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a high degree of heritability, but there is still much debate about specific causal genes and pathways. To gain insight into patterns of transmission, research has focused on the relatedness of quantitative autism traits (QAT) between family members, mostly using questionnaires. Yet, different kinds of bias may influence research results. In this paper, we focus on possible informant effects and, taking these into account, on possible intergenerational transmission of QAT. This study used multiple informant data retrieved via the Social Responsiveness Scale from 170 families with at least one member with ASD. Using intraclass correlations (ICCs) and mixed model analyses, we investigated inter-informant agreement and differences between parent and teacher reports on children and between self- and other-reports on adults. Using structural equation modelling (SEM), we investigated the relatedness of QAT between family members in ASD families. Parent-teacher agreement about social responsiveness was poor, especially for children with ASD, though agreement between parents was moderate to strong for affected and unaffected children. Agreement between self- and other-report in adult men was good, but only moderate in women. Agreement did not differ between adults with and without ASD. While accounting for informant effects, our SEM results corroborated the assortative mating theory and the intergenerational transmission of QAT from both fathers and mothers to their offspring. PMID:25086652

  18. Intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and life satisfaction of Roma minority adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists. PMID:26547146

  19. The effect of initial density and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate on classical biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models of biological control have a long history of theoretical development that have focused on the interaction of a parasitoid and its host. The host-parasitoid systems have identified several important and general factors affecting the long-term dynamics of interacting populations. However, much less is known about how the initial densities of host-parasitoid populations affect the biological control as well as the stability of host-parasitoid systems. To do this, the classical Nicholson-Bailey model with host self-regulation and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate is used to uncover the effect of initial densities on the successful biological control. The results indicate that the simplest Nicholson-Bailey model has various coexistence with a wide range of parameters, including boundary attractors where the parasitoid population is absent and interior attractors where host-parasitoid coexists. The final stable states of host-parasitoid populations depend on their initial densities as well as their ratios, and those results are confirmed by basins of attraction of initial densities. The results also indicate that the parasitoid intergenerational survival rate increases the stability of the host-parasitoid systems. Therefore, the present research can help us to further understand the dynamical behavior of host-parasitoid interactions, to improve the classical biological control and to make management decisions

  20. IMPROVING WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY INTERSPECIFIC AND INTERGENERIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH POACEAE FAMILY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czaplicki A.Z.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The related species of the family Poaceae (Triticeae are the source of unprecedented new genes that allow the extension of genetic variation of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. These species have similar homoeologous chromosomes and rDNA sequences very similar to T. aestivum L. [1-3]. This allows the introgression of alien genes and their incorporation into the genomes A, B and D of wheat, where they can function permanently in the wheat genetic systems. Many of them have already been transferred to the varieties of T. aestivum L. [4].The experimental material consisted of 28 lines of winter wheat obtained using the interspecific and intergeneric hybridization of T. aestivum L. with alien species T. durum Desf., T. timopheevii Zhuk., Lolium perenne L. and Aegilops speltoides Taush. Among them, 15 lines were developed from the cross-combination with tetraploid species (AABB T. durum Desf., 4 lines from the combination with other tetraploid species of different genome composition (AAGG T. timopheevii Zhuk., 4 lines from cross with L. perenne L. and 5 lines were the double hybrids (three-generic derived with two related species, T. durum Desf. (AABB and Ae. speltoides Taush (BB.The anther culture method was used for obtaining DH lines from these interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. In in vitro culture 124 green plants were regenerated. The method of cluster analysis grouped hybrids in terms of comprehensive general similarity of the studied traits.