WorldWideScience

Sample records for bmi control commands

  1. Classification of BMI control commands from rat's neural signals using extreme learning machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hyung-Cheul

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recently developed machine learning algorithm referred to as Extreme Learning Machine (ELM was used to classify machine control commands out of time series of spike trains of ensembles of CA1 hippocampus neurons (n = 34 of a rat, which was performing a target-to-goal task on a two-dimensional space through a brain-machine interface system. Performance of ELM was analyzed in terms of training time and classification accuracy. The results showed that some processes such as class code prefix, redundancy code suffix and smoothing effect of the classifiers' outputs could improve the accuracy of classification of robot control commands for a brain-machine interface system.

  2. Classification of BMI control commands from rat's neural signals using extreme learning machine

    OpenAIRE

    Shin Hyung-Cheul; Kim Jinkwon; Lee Hyunjoo; Lee Youngbum; Lee Myoungho

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A recently developed machine learning algorithm referred to as Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) was used to classify machine control commands out of time series of spike trains of ensembles of CA1 hippocampus neurons (n = 34) of a rat, which was performing a target-to-goal task on a two-dimensional space through a brain-machine interface system. Performance of ELM was analyzed in terms of training time and classification accuracy. The results showed that some processes such as class co...

  3. Detonation command and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2015-11-10

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  4. Detonation command and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2016-05-31

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link there between. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  5. The ergonomics of command and control

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Baber, C

    2006-01-01

    Since its inception, just after the Second World War, ergonomics research has paid special attention to the issues surrounding human control of systems. Command and Control environments continue to represent a challenging domain for Ergonomics research. We take a broad view of Command and Control research, to include C2 (Command and Control), C3 (Command, Control and Communication), and C4 (Command, Control, Communication and Computers) as well as human supervisory control paradigms. This spe...

  6. Command and Control in Disaster Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Surjeet Chaudhury

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Like war, the disasters are also much unstructured in scope. The national disaster system may employ detailed Command and Control (C2 which is poorly equipped to deal with uncertainty, complexity and variability. The first response to uncertainty is to try to minimize it by creating a powerful, highly efficient command and control apparatus (Command Structure able to process huge amounts of information and intended to reduce nearly all unknowns. Detailed command and control emphasizes vertical, linear information flow: in general, information flows up the chain of command and orders flow down. Discipline and coordination are imposed from above. The proposed C2 model accepts the turbulence and uncertainty of disaster. Rather than increase the level of certainty that C2 seeks, this approach of command and control reduces the degree of uncertainty that we need. This C2 for disaster management decentralizes decision-making authority and grants subordinates significant freedom of action which increases tempo and improves the ability to deal with fluid and disorderly situations.

  7. Communication for command and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, D J

    1983-01-01

    Communication for Command and Control Systems provides a thorough exposition of the basic theoretical and practical features involved in the design of communication networks for command and control systems. This book focuses primarily on the practical side of computer-controlled communication. This text concentrates on the communication sides of the subject by surveying the means of transferring data between the various processing points and by appraising their potential advantages and possible defects in implementation. In this respect, this book should prove useful for the practicing enginee

  8. Social Networking for Botnet Command and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Singh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A botnet is a group of compromised computers—often a large group—under the command and control of a malicious botmaster. Botnets can be used for a wide variety of malicious attacks, including spamming, distributed denial of service, and identity theft. Botnets are generally recognized as a serious threat on the Internet. This paper discusses SocialNetworkingBot, a botnet we have developed that uses Twitter for command and control. In SocialNetworkingBot, the botmaster tweets commands that are acted on by the individual bots. We discuss the functionality and implementation of SocialNetworkingBot, as well as a small-scale experiment that we have conducted. The botnet presented here is intended to serve as a proof of concept and a platform to facilitate further research.

  9. Domain specific software architectures: Command and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christine; Hatch, William; Ruegsegger, Theodore; Balzer, Bob; Feather, Martin; Goldman, Neil; Wile, Dave

    1992-01-01

    GTE is the Command and Control contractor for the Domain Specific Software Architectures program. The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate an architecture-driven, component-based capability for the automated generation of command and control (C2) applications. Such a capability will significantly reduce the cost of C2 applications development and will lead to improved system quality and reliability through the use of proven architectures and components. A major focus of GTE's approach is the automated generation of application components in particular subdomains. Our initial work in this area has concentrated in the message handling subdomain; we have defined and prototyped an approach that can automate one of the most software-intensive parts of C2 systems development. This paper provides an overview of the GTE team's DSSA approach and then presents our work on automated support for message processing.

  10. Development of a generic activities model of command and control

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Baber, C; Walker, GH; Houghton, RJ; McMaster, R.; Stewart, R; Harris, D.; Jenkins, DP; Young, MS; Salmon, PM

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on five different models of command and control. Four different models are reviewed: a process model, a contextual control model, a decision ladder model and a functional model. Further to this, command and control activities are analysed in three distinct domains: armed forces, emergency services and civilian services. From this analysis, taxonomies of command and control activities are developed that give rise to an activities model of command and control. This model w...

  11. Use of modern control theory in military command and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Timothy E.

    2001-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of modern control theoretic approaches in military command and control. The military enterprise is a highly dynamic and nonlinear environment. The desire on the part of military commanders to operate at faster operational tempos while still maintaining a stable and robust system, naturally leads to the consideration of a control theoretic approach to providing decision aids. I will present a brief history of the science of command and control of military forces and discuss how modern control theory might be applied to air operations.

  12. 14 CFR 417.303 - Command control system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... failure of the primary transmitter. The switch must be automatic and provide all the same command control... system antennas. A command control system antenna or antenna system must satisfy all of the following: (1... termination system antennas on the launch vehicle; and (6) Any steerable antenna must allow for control of...

  13. Control of automated system with voice commands

    OpenAIRE

    Švara, Denis

    2012-01-01

    In smart houses contemporary achievements in the fields of automation, communications, security and artificial intelligence, increase comfort and improve the quality of user's lifes. For the purpose of this thesis we developed a system for managing a smart house with voice commands via smart phone. We focused at voice commands most. We want move from communication with fingers - touches, to a more natural, human relationship - speech. We developed the entire chain of communication, by which t...

  14. Coalition command and control: a Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Robert; Demers, David; Gouin, Denis; McCann, Carol; Nourry, Gerard; Pigeau, Ross; Smith, Donald L.; Vezina, Guy; Walker, Robert S.

    1998-08-01

    Canada has been, and remains, committed to participating in coalition operations to promote peace and stability in the post-Cold War world. However, coalition operations challenge traditional command and control concepts, from both the technological and the human perspectives. In the short term, Canada is working closely with traditional NATO and ABCA allies to ensure that the next generation of automated C2 information systems are able to exchange information effectively through structured messages, gateways and standardized data models. Canada is also conducting R&D, and participating in collaborative experiments, to evolve the next generation of systems to permit richer, more dynamic information sharing, along the lines of the Internet and World Wide Web. However, information technology alone will not solve the problems of coalition operations. Research needs to be undertaken to understand task assignment and information flow among coalition partners at the process or operational level. Research is also required at the human level, where differences between coalition partners in culture, personal values, military expectations, religions, and societal values are proving to be less tractable than differences in message formats and communication protocols.

  15. CONTROL COMMAND SYSTEMS IMPACT ON THE RAILWAY OPERATIONAL SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pawlik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Safety is seen as a must, for railway transport market. However it is not so obvious what does safety exactly mean as it means different things for different experts. Showing safety ensured by control command systems as a component of the railway operational safety and pointing associated challenges especially those arising from subdivision of the national railway system into different entities. Methodology. To achieve this purpose control command and signalling systems keeping safe distances between trains, preventing setting conflicting train routs, locking of the mobile elements of the switches, protecting the level crossings, enabling safe incorporation of additional trains were analyzed. Findings. Article analyses how control command system influence operational safety taking into account safety of the control-command system itself, interfaces on one side between signalling systems and control command system and on the other side between control command system and vehicle control systems, transmission, maintenance, and operation in degraded modes of running. Originality. New and high-effective scope of tests which are necessary for putting new control command installation into service both track-side and on-board are proposed. Practical value. Control command implementations will significantly improve operational safety, however it is possible only when recommendations defined in this article are taken into account. This means that all the components including interfaces have to meet acceptable hazard rate 10E-9 and have to be properly design, constructed, assembled and maintained, all taking into account whole chain of functions performed and supervised by different railway entities.

  16. Display For Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prabhu

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Display subsystem is an important part of command, control, communication and intelligence(C31 system. The display used in C31 system for air defence should provide a panoramic view of thecomplete air segment under its command and control in real-time. The necessary information requiredfor taking a quick decision should be available to the commander in easily understandable graphicformat This paper describes salient features of the display known as synthetic radar situation display(SRSD developed by the Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DLRL, Hyderabad, for such applications

  17. Distributed Command/Control Impacts on NAS Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Command and Control (C2) activities abound in the NAS, and significantly influence daily operations and overall NAS efficiency. Since C2 effects are so prominent,...

  18. Scenario design : adaptive architecture for command and control experiment eight

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Frankie J.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Adaptive Architectures for Command and Control (A2C2) project is an ongoing research effort sponsored by the Office of Naval Research to explore adaptation in joint command and control. The objective of the project's eighth experiment is to study the adjustments that organizations make when they are confronted with a scenario for which their organizational is ill-suited. To accomplish this, teams will each be in one of two fundame...

  19. Command and control displays for space vehicle operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Zetocha, Paul; Aleva, Denise

    2010-04-01

    This paper shall examine several command and control facility display architectures supporting space vehicle operations, to include TacSat 2, TacSat 3, STPSat 2, and Communications Navigation Outage Forecasting System (CNOFS), located within the Research Development Test & Evaluation Support Complex (RSC) Satellite Operations Center 97 (SOC-97) at Kirtland Air Force Base. A principal focus is to provide an understanding for the general design class of displays currently supporting space vehicle command and control, e.g., custom, commercial-off-the-shelf, or ruggedized commercial-off-the-shelf, and more specifically, what manner of display performance capabilities, e.g., active area, resolution, luminance, contrast ratio, frame/refresh rate, temperature range, shock/vibration, etc., are needed for particular aspects of space vehicle command and control. Another focus shall be to address the types of command and control functions performed for each of these systems, to include how operators interact with the displays, e.g., joystick, trackball, keyboard/mouse, as well as the kinds of information needed or displayed for each function. [Comparison with other known command and control facilities, such as Cheyenne Mountain and NORAD Operations Center, shall be made.] Future, anticipated display systems shall be discussed.

  20. Command and Control during Security Incidents/Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipper, W. [NSTec

    2013-10-16

    This presentation builds on our response to events that pose, or have the potential to pose, a serious security or law enforcement risk and must be responded to and controlled in a clear a decisive fashion. We will examine some common concepts in the command and control of security-centric events.

  1. Three dimensional visualization to support command and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Slambrook, G.A.

    1997-04-01

    Virtual reality concepts are changing the way one thinks about and with computers. The concepts have already proven their potential usefulness in a broad range of applications. This research was concerned with exploring and demonstrating the utility of virtual reality in robotics and satellite command and control applications. The robotics work addressed the need to quickly build accurate graphical models of physical environments by allowing a user to interactively build a model of a remote environment by superimposing stereo graphics onto live stereo video. The satellite work addressed the fusion of multiple data sets or models into one synergistic display for more effective training, design, and command and control of satellite systems.

  2. Three dimensional visualization to support command and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual reality concepts are changing the way one thinks about and with computers. The concepts have already proven their potential usefulness in a broad range of applications. This research was concerned with exploring and demonstrating the utility of virtual reality in robotics and satellite command and control applications. The robotics work addressed the need to quickly build accurate graphical models of physical environments by allowing a user to interactively build a model of a remote environment by superimposing stereo graphics onto live stereo video. The satellite work addressed the fusion of multiple data sets or models into one synergistic display for more effective training, design, and command and control of satellite systems

  3. Increasing the effectiveness of reachback and remote command and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, David R.

    2002-12-02

    Commanders and their staff, when geographically dispersed, continue to choose what they find to be the most effective remote collaboration tools: email and radio messages. Even command and control systems that provide a unified view of the battlefield among remote collaborators are often supplanted by more traditional tools, such as a large paper map (McGee, Cohen & Wu, 2000). Indeed, today's computer interfaces often impose too high a barrier for the capture and delivery of situational assessment (McGee, Cohen, Wesson & Horman, 2002). To compensate, commanders traditionally meet face-to-face at least once daily to debrief each other on the outcome of the day's fight and to coordinate a strategy for the next day's engagement. Each of these meetings presents a risk to commanders, in addition to lost time during travel and various other concerns. Ongoing activity at higher echelons may consist of this activity continuously. At lower echelons, coordination is typically mediated by a radio or other messaging platform. Common to each of these scenarios, the coordination and collaboration is mediated by physical tools, e.g., an up-to-date common operational picture. Much of the promise of collaboration technology, from video-conferencing to realtime collaboration tools, is meant to alleviate the need for face-to-face meetings and improve moment-to-moment coordination. However, these tools fall woefully short of meeting the needs of commanders in the battlefield.

  4. Detection of Botnet Command and Control Traffic in Enterprise Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Botnets play an important role in modern Internet-related cybercrime. A botnet consists of a group of infected computers, referred to as bots. The bots are remotely controlled and deployed in malicious activities, such as DDoS attacks, spam, and espionage. Clever design of the botnet C&C (Command an

  5. Development of a Testbed for Distributed Satellite Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetocha, Paul; Brito, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    At the Air Force Research Laboratory's Space Vehicles Directorate we are investigating and developing architectures for commanding and controlling a cluster of cooperating satellites through prototype development for the TechSat-21 program. The objective of this paper is to describe a distributed satellite testbed that is currently under development and to summarize near term prototypes being implemented for cluster command and control. To design, develop, and test our architecture we are using eight PowerPC 750 VME-based single board computers, representing eight satellites. Each of these computers is hosting the OSE(TM) real-time operating system from Enea Systems. At the core of our on-board cluster manager is ObjectAgent. ObjectAgent is an agent-based object-oriented framework for flight systems, which is particularly suitable for distributed applications. In order to handle communication with the ground as well as to assist with the cluster management we are using the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL). SCL is also at the centerpiece of our ground control station and handles cluster commanding, telemetry decommutation, state-of-health monitoring, and Fault Detection, Isolation, and Resolution (FDIR). For planning and scheduling activities we are currently using ASPEN from NASA/JPL. This paper will describe each of the above components in detail and then present the prototypes being implemented.

  6. Cognitive Systems Modeling and Analysis of Command and Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Military operations, counter-terrorism operations and emergency response often oblige operators and commanders to operate within distributed organizations and systems for safe and effective mission accomplishment. Tactical commanders and operators frequently encounter violent threats and critical demands on cognitive capacity and reaction time. In the future they will make decisions in situations where operational and system characteristics are highly dynamic and non-linear, i.e. minor events, decisions or actions may have serious and irreversible consequences for the entire mission. Commanders and other decision makers must manage true real time properties at all levels; individual operators, stand-alone technical systems, higher-order integrated human-machine systems and joint operations forces alike. Coping with these conditions in performance assessment, system development and operational testing is a challenge for both practitioners and researchers. This paper reports on research from which the results led to a breakthrough: An integrated approach to information-centered systems analysis to support future command and control systems research development. This approach integrates several areas of research into a coherent framework, Action Control Theory (ACT). It comprises measurement techniques and methodological advances that facilitate a more accurate and deeper understanding of the operational environment, its agents, actors and effectors, generating new and updated models. This in turn generates theoretical advances. Some good examples of successful approaches are found in the research areas of cognitive systems engineering, systems theory, and psychophysiology, and in the fields of dynamic, distributed decision making and naturalistic decision making.

  7. A Friendly Command, Control, and Information System for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, John T.; Duric, Nebojsa; Sjulin, Michael; Slezak, Scott; Westpfahl, David

    Virtually real user interfaces and device independent communications systems provide a robust, secure and efficient means for remote control of telescopes, data transfer, and interaction among personnel at distant sites. A variety of techniques has been implemented for remote operation of telescopes. This paper describes a new system incorporating secured, compacted, simultaneous information transfer of multiple data types, robust command structure and a user interface which pre-tests commands for security. Testing is accomplished by manipulating and displaying planned allowable motions using a virtual telescope and instrument before real hardware executes the desired motions. Embedded in this system is the ability to create efficient interfaces for all classes of users, data and system security, error correction and multiple forms of data compression. The system results from a merger of a military command and control system and a control system for robots operating in hazardous environments. Both systems were developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The merged system is proposed to enable elementary school children to access remotely operable telescopes and other assets of the LodeStar Project, which provides science education and research capability throughout New Mexico. The definition and constraints on the system are appropriate for its use by the professional astronomical community, as well, perhaps as a standard control and communications system supported, in part, within the national laboratories. In this paper we discuss implementation of the prototype system, its features, and its constraints, particularly with respect to bandwidth limitations.

  8. Introduction to Command, Control, and Communications: a primer

    OpenAIRE

    Eidson, Edward H.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis is a primer for students in the Introduction to Command, Control, and Communications Courses at the Naval Postgraduate School. This document provide students a consolidated reference that emphasizes key concepts and ideas presented by the course instructor and required readings. Its organization closely parallels the course outline used for in-class instruction. It supports course objectives by providing an executive overview of a wide variety of C2 topics. These topics include: C...

  9. Solution for future command and control: human-centered design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Amie A.; Crisp, Harry E.; McKneely, Jennifer A.; Wallace, Daniel F.

    2000-11-01

    The only way to deal with the increased complexities of the future in command and control, the huge amounts of data available, reduced manpower and cost goals, and training in tactical operations is to follow a human centered design process. It is time we design the hardware/software system to support the people instead of asking the people to compensate for the hardware/software system. This will only be accomplished by institutionalizing an integrated human systems engineering process that fully accounts for every person in the system. Use of this process will be critical to future complex system designs and in particular to integrated command centers. In addition to engineers following the process, engineering environments must facilitate a human systems engineering approach. A human systems engineering process and a prototype engineering environment, the Human Centered Design Environment which is currently under development, are described.

  10. Voluntary motor commands reveal awareness and control of involuntary movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Havas, Jack; Ghosh, Arko; Gomi, Hiroaki; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    The capacity to inhibit actions is central to voluntary motor control. However, the control mechanisms and subjective experience involved in voluntarily stopping an involuntary movement remain poorly understood. Here we examined, in humans, the voluntary inhibition of the Kohnstamm phenomenon, in which sustained voluntary contraction of shoulder abductors is followed by involuntary arm raising. Participants were instructed to stop the involuntary movement, hold the arm in a constant position, and 'release' the inhibition after ∼2s. Participants achieved this by modulating agonist muscle activity, rather than by antagonist contraction. Specifically, agonist muscle activity plateaued during this voluntary inhibition, and resumed its previous increase thereafter. There was no discernible antagonist activation. Thus, some central signal appeared to temporarily counter the involuntary motor drive, without directly affecting the Kohnstamm generator itself. We hypothesise a form of "negative motor command" to account for this novel finding. We next tested the specificity of the negative motor command, by inducing bilateral Kohnstamm movements, and instructing voluntary inhibition for one arm only. The results suggested negative motor commands responsible for inhibition are initially broad, affecting both arms, and then become focused. Finally, a psychophysical investigation found that the perceived force of the aftercontraction was significantly overestimated, relative to voluntary contractions with similar EMG levels. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the Kohnstamm generator does not provide an efference copy signal. Our results shed new light on this interesting class of involuntary movement, and provide new information about voluntary inhibition of action. PMID:27399155

  11. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Min Soe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  12. The Adverse Impact of Remote Command and Control under Live Fire

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kip

    2003-01-01

    The US Army is planning a shift in the mode of command and control between soldiers and their battlefield leaders. Soldiers will receive orders from afar through electronic means of communication. This practice is known as remote command and control. Reliance on remote command and control has the potential to erode trust between soldiers and their leaders and should, we hypothesize, slow soldiers' response times to commands to move and to shoot. We have conducted two field experiments to test...

  13. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L W; Hunt, S T; Savage, S F [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P D; Shepard, A P; Worl, J C [Battelle Seattle Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The following appendices contain the detailed analysis data for the questionnaires and various FDS-1 after action reports submitted to the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Systems' Engineer.

  14. Functional description of a command and control language tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elke, David R.; Seamster, Thomas L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    1990-01-01

    The status of an ongoing project to explore the application of Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) technology to NASA command and control languages is described. The primary objective of the current phase of the project is to develop a user interface for an ITS to assist NASA control center personnel in learning Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL). Although this ITS will be developed for Gamma Ray Observatory operators, it will be designed with sufficient flexibility so that its modules may serve as an ITS for other control languages such as the User Interface Language (UIL). The focus of this phase is to develop at least one other form of STOL representation to complement the operational STOL interface. Such an alternative representation would be adaptively employed during the tutoring session to facilitate the learning process. This is a key feature of this ITS which distinguishes it from a simulator that is only capable of representing the operational environment.

  15. A neural command circuit for grooming movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Stefanie; Franconville, Romain; Simpson, Julie H; Seeds, Andrew M

    2015-09-07

    Animals perform many stereotyped movements, but how nervous systems are organized for controlling specific movements remains unclear. Here we use anatomical, optogenetic, behavioral, and physiological techniques to identify a circuit in Drosophila melanogaster that can elicit stereotyped leg movements that groom the antennae. Mechanosensory chordotonal neurons detect displacements of the antennae and excite three different classes of functionally connected interneurons, which include two classes of brain interneurons and different parallel descending neurons. This multilayered circuit is organized such that neurons within each layer are sufficient to specifically elicit antennal grooming. However, we find differences in the durations of antennal grooming elicited by neurons in the different layers, suggesting that the circuit is organized to both command antennal grooming and control its duration. As similar features underlie stimulus-induced movements in other animals, we infer the possibility of a common circuit organization for movement control that can be dissected in Drosophila.

  16. Service-Oriented Architecture for Weaponry and Battle Command and Control Systems in Warfighting

    CERN Document Server

    Bassil, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    Military is one of many industries that is more computer-dependent than ever before, from soldiers with computerized weapons, and tactical wireless devices, to commanders with advanced battle management, command and control systems. Fundamentally, command and control is the process of planning, monitoring, and commanding military personnel, weaponry equipment, and combating vehicles to execute military missions. In fact, command and control systems are revolutionizing as war fighting is changing into cyber, technology, information, and unmanned warfare. As a result, a new design model that supports scalability, reusability, maintainability, survivability, and interoperability is needed to allow commanders, hundreds of miles away from the battlefield, to plan, monitor, evaluate, and control the war events in a dynamic, robust, agile, and reliable manner. This paper proposes a service-oriented architecture for weaponry and battle command and control systems, made out of loosely-coupled and distributed web servi...

  17. Spaceport Command and Control System - Support Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Shayne

    2016-01-01

    The Information Architecture Support (IAS) Team, the component of the Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) that is in charge of all the pre-runtime data, was in need of some report features to be added to their internal web application, Information Architecture (IA). Development of these reports is crucial for the speed and productivity of the development team, as they are needed to quickly and efficiently make specific and complicated data requests against the massive IA database. These reports were being put on the back burner, as other development of IA was prioritized over them, but the need for them resulted in internships being created to fill this need. The creation of these reports required learning Ruby on Rails development, along with related web technologies, and they will continue to serve IAS and other support software teams and their IA data needs.

  18. Adaptive optimization of agile organization of command and control resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chunhui; Liu Junxian; Chen Honghui; Luo Xueshan

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive optimization is one of the means that agile organization of command and control resource (AOC2R) adapts for the dynamic battlefield environment. A math model of the adaptive optimization of AOC2R is put forward by analyzing the interrelating concept and research. The model takes the adaptive process as a multi-stage decision making problem. The 2-phases method is presented to calculate the model, which obtains the related parameters by running the colored Petri net (CPN) model of AOC2R and then searches for the result by ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm integrated with genetic optimization techniques. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm greatly improves the performance of AOC2R.

  19. IT Security Support for the Spaceport Command Control System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varise, Brian

    2014-01-01

    My job title is IT Security support for the Spaceport Command & Control System Development. As a cyber-security analyst it is my job to ensure NASA's information stays safe from cyber threats, such as, viruses, malware and denial-of-service attacks by establishing and enforcing system access controls. Security is very important in the world of technology and it is used everywhere from personal computers to giant networks ran by Government agencies worldwide. Without constant monitoring analysis, businesses, public organizations and government agencies are vulnerable to potential harmful infiltration of their computer information system. It is my responsibility to ensure authorized access by examining improper access, reporting violations, revoke access, monitor information request by new programming and recommend improvements. My department oversees the Launch Control System and networks. An audit will be conducted for the LCS based on compliance with the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) and The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). I recently finished analyzing the SANS top 20 critical controls to give cost effective recommendations on various software and hardware products for compliance. Upon my completion of this internship, I will have successfully completed my duties as well as gain knowledge that will be helpful to my career in the future as a Cyber Security Analyst.

  20. Modeling and simulating command and control for organizations under extreme situations

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Il-Chul; Kim, Tag Gon

    2013-01-01

    Commanding and controlling organizations in extreme situations is a challenging task in military, intelligence, and disaster management. Such command and control must be quick, effective, and considerate when dealing with the changing, complex, and risky conditions of the situation. To enable optimal command and control under extremes, robust structures and efficient operations are required of organizations. This work discusses how to design and conduct virtual experiments on resilient organizational structures and operational practices using modeling and simulation. The work illustrates key a

  1. Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing (CARACaS) is a recent product of a continuing effort to develop architectures for controlling either a single autonomous robotic vehicle or multiple cooperating but otherwise autonomous robotic vehicles. CARACaS is potentially applicable to diverse robotic systems that could include aircraft, spacecraft, ground vehicles, surface water vessels, and/or underwater vessels. CARACaS incudes an integral combination of three coupled agents: a dynamic planning engine, a behavior engine, and a perception engine. The perception and dynamic planning en - gines are also coupled with a memory in the form of a world model. CARACaS is intended to satisfy the need for two major capabilities essential for proper functioning of an autonomous robotic system: a capability for deterministic reaction to unanticipated occurrences and a capability for re-planning in the face of changing goals, conditions, or resources. The behavior engine incorporates the multi-agent control architecture, called CAMPOUT, described in An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots (NPO-30345), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 65. CAMPOUT is used to develop behavior-composition and -coordination mechanisms. Real-time process algebra operators are used to compose a behavior network for any given mission scenario. These operators afford a capability for producing a formally correct kernel of behaviors that guarantee predictable performance. By use of a method based on multi-objective decision theory (MODT), recommendations from multiple behaviors are combined to form a set of control actions that represents their consensus. In this approach, all behaviors contribute simultaneously to the control of the robotic system in a cooperative rather than a competitive manner. This approach guarantees a solution that is good enough with respect to resolution of complex, possibly conflicting goals within the constraints of the mission to

  2. IT Security Support for Spaceport Command and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    During the fall 2013 semester, I worked at the Kennedy Space Center as an IT Security Intern in support of the Spaceport Command and Control System under the guidance of the IT Security Lead Engineer. Some of my responsibilities included assisting with security plan documentation collection, system hardware and software inventory, and malicious code and malware scanning. Throughout the semester, I had the opportunity to work on a wide range of security related projects. However, there are three projects in particular that stand out. The first project I completed was updating a large interactive spreadsheet that details the SANS Institutes Top 20 Critical Security Controls. My task was to add in all of the new commercial of the shelf (COTS) software listed on the SANS website that can be used to meet their Top 20 controls. In total, there are 153 unique security tools listed by SANS that meet one or more of their 20 controls. My second project was the creation of a database that will allow my mentor to keep track of the work done by the contractors that report to him in a more efficient manner by recording events as they occur throughout the quarter. Lastly, I expanded upon a security assessment of the Linux machines being used on center that I began last semester. To do this, I used a vulnerability and configuration tool that scans hosts remotely through the network and presents the user with an abundance of information detailing each machines configuration. The experience I gained from working on each of these projects has been invaluable, and I look forward to returning in the spring semester to continue working with the IT Security team.

  3. Adaptation to elastic loads and BMI robot controls during rat locomotion examined with point-process GLMs

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Weiguo; Cajigas, Iahn; Emery N Brown; Giszter, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Currently little is known about how a mechanically coupled BMI system's actions are integrated into ongoing body dynamics. We tested a locomotor task augmented with a BMI system driving a robot mechanically interacting with a rat under three conditions: control locomotion (BL), “simple elastic load” (E) and “BMI with elastic load” (BMI/E). The effect of the BMI was to allow compensation of the elastic load as a function of the neural drive. Neurons recorded here were close to one another in c...

  4. Generating Control Commands From Gestures Sensed by EMG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    An effort is under way to develop noninvasive neuro-electric interfaces through which human operators could control systems as diverse as simple mechanical devices, computers, aircraft, and even spacecraft. The basic idea is to use electrodes on the surface of the skin to acquire electromyographic (EMG) signals associated with gestures, digitize and process the EMG signals to recognize the gestures, and generate digital commands to perform the actions signified by the gestures. In an experimental prototype of such an interface, the EMG signals associated with hand gestures are acquired by use of several pairs of electrodes mounted in sleeves on a subject s forearm (see figure). The EMG signals are sampled and digitized. The resulting time-series data are fed as input to pattern-recognition software that has been trained to distinguish gestures from a given gesture set. The software implements, among other things, hidden Markov models, which are used to recognize the gestures as they are being performed in real time. Thus far, two experiments have been performed on the prototype interface to demonstrate feasibility: an experiment in synthesizing the output of a joystick and an experiment in synthesizing the output of a computer or typewriter keyboard. In the joystick experiment, the EMG signals were processed into joystick commands for a realistic flight simulator for an airplane. The acting pilot reached out into the air, grabbed an imaginary joystick, and pretended to manipulate the joystick to achieve left and right banks and up and down pitches of the simulated airplane. In the keyboard experiment, the subject pretended to type on a numerical keypad, and the EMG signals were processed into keystrokes. The results of the experiments demonstrate the basic feasibility of this method while indicating the need for further research to reduce the incidence of errors (including confusion among gestures). Topics that must be addressed include the numbers and arrangements

  5. A BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit: asynchronous control by SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi eSakurada

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brain-machine interface (BMI is an interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines. Recent invasive BMI technologies have succeeded in the asynchronous control of robot arms for a useful series of actions, such as reaching and grasping. In this study, we developed non-invasive BMI technologies aiming to make such useful movements using the subject's own hands by preparing a BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit (BOTAS. We prepared a pre-recorded series of useful actionsa grasping-a-ball movement and a carrying-the-ball movementand added asynchronous control using steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP signals. A SSVEP signal was used to trigger the grasping-a-ball movement and another SSVEP signal was used to trigger the carrying-the-ball movement. A support vector machine was used to classify EEG signals recorded from the visual cortex (Oz in real time. Untrained, able-bodied participants (n = 12 operated the system successfully. Classification accuracy and time required for SSVEP detection were approximately 88% and 3 s, respectively. We further recruited three patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries; they also succeeded in operating the system without training. These data suggest that our BOTAS system is potentially useful in terms of rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities.

  6. Synthesis of the IRSN analysis of the control-command architecture and platforms of the Flamanville 3 EPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document first briefly describes the context: control-command systems and functions, examples of control-command systems of the EPR, control-command platforms, and control-command architecture. It describes the method implemented by the IRSN to analyze the reactor control-command: assessment of the capacity of each system to perform its functions, assessment of the control-command architecture, hardware qualification. Then, it briefly recalls the assessments performed for the Teleperm XS platform and for the SPPA-T2000 platform, for the architecture (separation of systems belonging to different classes, in-depth defence, management of the architecture complexity)

  7. History of Command and Control at KSC: Kennedy Engineering Academy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, George Richard

    2007-01-01

    Agenda for this presentation is: Evolution of Command and Control (C&C), C&C history, Launch Processing System overview, Core System Overview, Checkout & Launch Control System, Overview and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf guidelines

  8. Detection of Botnet Command and Control Traffic by the Multistage Trust Evaluation of Destination Identifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Pieter Burghouwt; Marcel E.M. Spruit; Sips, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Network-based detection of botnet Command and Control communication is a difficult task if the traffic has a relatively low volume and if popular protocols, such as HTTP, are used to resemble normal traffic. We present a new network-based detection approach that is capable of detecting this type of Command and Control traffic in an enterprise network by estimating the trustworthiness of the traffic destinations. If the destination identifier of a traffic flow origins directly from: human inpu...

  9. The impact of command signal power distribution, processing delays, and speed scaling on neurally-controlled devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, A. R.; Taylor, D. M.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Decoding algorithms for brain-machine interfacing (BMI) are typically only optimized to reduce the magnitude of decoding errors. Our goal was to systematically quantify how four characteristics of BMI command signals impact closed-loop performance: (1) error magnitude, (2) distribution of different frequency components in the decoding errors, (3) processing delays, and (4) command gain. Approach. To systematically evaluate these different command features and their interactions, we used a closed-loop BMI simulator where human subjects used their own wrist movements to command the motion of a cursor to targets on a computer screen. Random noise with three different power distributions and four different relative magnitudes was added to the ongoing cursor motion in real time to simulate imperfect decoding. These error characteristics were tested with four different visual feedback delays and two velocity gains. Main results. Participants had significantly more trouble correcting for errors with a larger proportion of low-frequency, slow-time-varying components than they did with jittery, higher-frequency errors, even when the error magnitudes were equivalent. When errors were present, a movement delay often increased the time needed to complete the movement by an order of magnitude more than the delay itself. Scaling down the overall speed of the velocity command can actually speed up target acquisition time when low-frequency errors and delays are present. Significance. This study is the first to systematically evaluate how the combination of these four key command signal features (including the relatively-unexplored error power distribution) and their interactions impact closed-loop performance independent of any specific decoding method. The equations we derive relating closed-loop movement performance to these command characteristics can provide guidance on how best to balance these different factors when designing BMI systems. The equations reported

  10. Optogenetics Based Rat-Robot Control: Optical Stimulation Encodes "Stop" and "Escape" Commands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, SiCong; Zhou, Hong; Guo, SongChao; Zhang, JiaCheng; Qu, Yi; Feng, ZhouYan; Xu, KeDi; Zheng, XiaoXiang

    2015-08-01

    Electric brain stimulation is frequently used in bio-robot control. However, one possible limitation of electric stimulation is the resultant wide range of influences that may lead to unexpected side-effects. Although there has been prior research done towards optogenetics based brain activation, there has not been much development regarding the comparisons between electric and optical methods of brain activation. In this study, we first encode "Stop" and "Escape" commands by optical stimulation in the dorsal periaqueductal grey (dPAG). The rats behavioral comparisons are then noted down under these two methods. The dPAG neural activity recorded during optical stimulation suggests rate and temporal coding mechanisms in behavioral control. The behavioral comparisons show that rats exhibit anxiety under the "Stop" command conveyed through both optical and electric methods. However, rats are able to recover more quickly from freezing only under optical "Stop" command. Under "Escape" commands, also conveyed through optical means, the rat would move with lessened urgency but the results are more stable. Moreover, c-Fos study shows the optical stimulation activates restricted range in midbrain: the optical stimulation affected only dPAG and its downstreams but electric stimulation activates both the upstream and downstream circuits, in which the glutamatergic neurons are largely occupied and play important role in "Stop" and "Escape" behavior controls. We conclude that optical stimulation is more suited for encoding "Stop" and "Escape" commands for rat-robot control.

  11. Headless horseman of the apocalypse: command and control of US strategic forces. (Volumes I and II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    Mainstream strategic theory and analysis focus narrowly on issues of force structure. This perspective neglects an important dimension of the strategic situation. Crisis stability, deterrence, and the strategic balance are affected by command structure performance. The dissertation traces the development of the US strategic command structure - the command, control, communications, and early warning network used in managing strategic operations. Network performance in the mid 1960s, early 1970s and early 1980s is assessed against two criteria: negative control (prevention of unauthorized, accidental and inadvertent use of strategic weapons); and positive control (preparation and execution of a coordinated strategic attack). The assessment reveals serious deficiencies in both dimensions, deficiencies that carry strong policy implications. Main conclusions are presented.

  12. Combined Use of Command-Proportional Control of External Robotic Devices Based on Electromyography Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.А. Lobov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to develop a control system combining command and proportional control of robotic devices based on electromyography (EMG signals. Materials and Methods. EMG signals were recorded using 8-channel bracelet MYO Thalmic (Thalmic Labs, Canada. Command control of robotic devices was exercised by EMG patterns associated with 6 static hand gestures. The patterns were classified by periodic calculation of a root mean square value of an EMG signal for all channels with further recognition by a two-layer neural network based on back propagation algorithm. Proportional control was performed by calculating the mean absolute value of an EMG signal, and command execution speed adjustment proportional to this value. The software of the control unit was connected via wireless Bluetooth interface with a mobile robot assembled from a set of LEGO NXT Mindstorms (LEGO, Denmark. Results. We presented a soft and hardware platform combining command and proportional control of robotic devices based on EMG signals, and determined the parameters providing optimal characteristics of classification accuracy of EMG patterns, as well as the speed and accuracy of proportional control. We put forward and studied the following schemes combining command and proportional control: 1 the use of independent channels of different control types with recording EMG signals from both hands, 2 the use of independent channels of different control types with recording EMG signals from one hand only, 3 the use of all channels recording an EMG signal from one hand for classification and dynamic selection of a channel for proportional control, and 4 the use of all channels recording an EMG signal from one hand for classification with an average signal across all channels for proportional control. Conclusion. We proposed a novel system of combined command-proportional control of robotic devices based on the neuromuscular activity signals. We studies several

  13. Photovoltaic System Equipped with Digital Command Control and Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil Kassmi; Elhadi Baghaz; Kamal Hirech; Mustapha Melhaoui; Rajae Gaamouche; Med Faysal Yaden

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present results concerning the design, the realization and the characterization of a photovoltaic system (PV), equipped with a digital controls: Power Point Tracking (MPPT), charge/discharge lead acid batteries, sun tracker and supervision. These different functions are performed with a microcontroller that has capabilities and functions to the reliability of PV systems (signal generation Pulses Width Modulation (PWM), speed etc.). Concerning the MPPT control operation, we i...

  14. Photovoltaic System Equipped with Digital Command Control and Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Kassmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present results concerning the design, the realization and the characterization of a photovoltaic system (PV, equipped with a digital controls: Power Point Tracking (MPPT, charge/discharge lead acid batteries, sun tracker and supervision. These different functions are performed with a microcontroller that has capabilities and functions to the reliability of PV systems (signal generation Pulses Width Modulation (PWM, speed etc.. Concerning the MPPT control operation, we improved the accuracy and reliability of research by improving the search algorithm “Hill Climbing” taking into account the optimal operation of PV panels depending on weather conditions (temperature and light.The experiment of each block shows that the MPPT control converges instantly the operating point of the PV panels around the maximum power point, independently of sudden changes of the illumination or the load. The control blocks charge/discharge battery and sun tracking show good control of charge/discharge lead acid batteries and the need of sun tracker to increase the power supplied by the PV panel. By using the improved MPPT control, loss of power supplied by the PV panels are very low (below 5%.

  15. Detection of response to command using voluntary control of breathing in disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eCharland-Verville

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detecting signs of consciousness in patients in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS/VS or minimally conscious state (MCS is known to be very challenging. Plotkin et al. (2010 recently showed the possibility of using a breathing-controlled communication device in patients with locked in syndrome. We here aim to test a breathing-based sniff controller that could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to evaluate response to command in severely brain damaged patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC.Methods: Twenty-five DOC patients were included. Patients’ resting breathing-amplitude was measured during a 5 min resting condition. Next, they were instructed to end the presentation of a music sequence by sniffing vigorously. An automated detection of changes in breathing amplitude (i.e., > 1.5 SD of resting ended the music and hence provided positive feedback to the patient. Results: None of the 11 UWS/VS patients showed a sniff-based response to command. One out of 14 patients with MCS was able to willfully modulate his breathing pattern to answer the command on 16/19 trials (accuracy 84%. Interestingly, this patient failed to show any other motor response to command. Discussion: We here illustrate the possible interest of using breathing-dependent response to command in the detection of residual cognition in patients with DOC after severe brain injury.

  16. Optimization of Communication for Commanding and Controlling Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper mainly discussed some special requiremen ts for communication system and specific implement methods during the cause of cam paign cooperation in modern times. That system is the Advanced Field Tactical Da ta System which was developed to meet the requirements for controlling every fir e nodes, through which Army can achieve their campaign and tactical goals. The c ourse of dealing with communication message mainly include Emery's situation rep orted, Message change (generally referred to taxis a...

  17. XML-based Web Services Technology to Implement a Prototype Command and Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Show Lin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A command and control system is a complex system of systems. For its ability to improvethe command and control efficiency and multiply operational capability, command and controlsystem investment is always a benchmark for military modernisation. However, most commandand control systems were independently developed, validated and approved as a stand-alonesolution to reflect service requirement rather than joint focused. These stovepipe systems notonly have an adverse impact on joint or coalition operation, but also are fairly difficult to integrateand interoperate effectively with other systems. To solve these problems, the study appliesXML standard to redefine the structured radar track and global positioning system (GPSpositioning data formats. Radar tracking data and GPS positioning data generator wereimplemented to simulate air and land targets. In addition, the static intelligence databases, suchas order of battle, were built for information exchange with other systems. Sensors, GPS, andintelligence web services, including simple object access protocol (SOAP and web servicedefinition language (WSDL are constructed to provide near-real-time static intelligence anddynamic track services. All relevant command and control centres may subscribe the necessaryservices from the service providers to work together with their own systems for mission needs.The implementation of result demonstrates XML-based web services technology and makescommand and control system integration easy, flexible, and cost effective.

  18. Command Filtered Adaptive Fuzzy Neural Network Backstepping Control for Marine Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to retrain chaotic oscillation of marine power system which is excited by periodic electromagnetism perturbation, a novel command-filtered adaptive fuzzy neural network backstepping control method is designed. First, the mathematical model of marine power system is established based on the two parallel nonlinear model. Then, main results of command-filtered adaptive fuzzy neural network backstepping control law are given. And the Lyapunov stability theory is applied to prove that the system can remain closed-loop asymptotically stable with this controller. Finally, simulation results indicate that the designed controller can suppress chaotic oscillation with fast convergence speed that makes the system return to the equilibrium point quickly; meanwhile, the parameter which induces chaotic oscillation can also be discriminated.

  19. Pengembangan Bioelectrical Impedance Sebagai Control Commands Pengaturan Kecepatan Gerak Kursi Roda Dengan Metoda PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Sardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, bioimpedance signals of human body was utilized to control speed of a wheelchair movement. A bioimpedance is electrically passive part contained the body tissues. The research is one of alternative solutions for patients with paralysis of the upper and lower limb. Firstly, design of system of the research consisted of bioimpedance measuring instruments and a mechanical design of the wheelchair. Bioimpedance measurement was performed by injecting a sinusoidal current source of 0.5 mArms with a frequency of 50 kHz to muscle tissue (shoulder to obtain the output voltage in the range of 0-5 Vdc. With impulse and manual thresholding methods, the voltage signal was classified into several controls command to adjust the speed and direction of the wheelchair control based on PID Controller. The experimental result of the research was realization of bioimpedance signal that used as a reference to control the direction and speed of the wheelchair with a success rate of 86.7 %. A wheelchair velocity was classified into three types of motion, namely slow, medium and fast. Slow speed has a rated speed of 30 Cm/s, medium speed value speed of 40 Cm/s and fast speed value of 50 Cm/s. The wheelchair can also turn to the left and the right in accordance with the wishes of wheelchair user beside to moving forward.

  20. LABORATORY PROCESS CONTROLLER USING NATURAL LANGUAGE COMMANDS FROM A PERSONAL COMPUTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, H.

    1994-01-01

    The complex environment of the typical research laboratory requires flexible process control. This program provides natural language process control from an IBM PC or compatible machine. Sometimes process control schedules require changes frequently, even several times per day. These changes may include adding, deleting, and rearranging steps in a process. This program sets up a process control system that can either run without an operator, or be run by workers with limited programming skills. The software system includes three programs. Two of the programs, written in FORTRAN77, record data and control research processes. The third program, written in Pascal, generates the FORTRAN subroutines used by the other two programs to identify the user commands with the user-written device drivers. The software system also includes an input data set which allows the user to define the user commands which are to be executed by the computer. To set the system up the operator writes device driver routines for all of the controlled devices. Once set up, this system requires only an input file containing natural language command lines which tell the system what to do and when to do it. The operator can make up custom commands for operating and taking data from external research equipment at any time of the day or night without the operator in attendance. This process control system requires a personal computer operating under MS-DOS with suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. The program requires a FORTRAN77 compiler and user-written device drivers. This program was developed in 1989 and has a memory requirement of about 62 Kbytes.

  1. The Influence of Future Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (C4) on Doctrine and the Operational Commander's Decision-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Michael G.

    1996-01-01

    Future C4 systems will alter the traditional balance between force and information, having a profound influence on doctrine and the operational commander's decision making process. The Joint Staff's future vision of C4 is conceptualized in 'C4I for the Warrior' which envisions a joint C4I architecture providing timely sensor to shoot information direct to the warfighter. C4 system must manage and filter an overwhelming amount of information; deal with interoperability issues; overcome technological limitations; meet emerging security requirements; and protect against 'Information Warfare.' Severe budget constraints necessitate unified control of C4 systems under singular leadership for the common good of all the services. In addition, acquisition policy and procedures must be revamped to allow new technologies to be fielded quickly; and the commercial marketplace will become the preferred starting point for modernization. Flatter command structures are recommended in this environment where information is available instantaneously. New responsibilities for decision making at lower levels are created. Commanders will have to strike a balance between exerting greater control and allowing subordinates enough flexibility to maintain initiative. Clearly, the commander's intent remains the most important tool in striking this balance.

  2. Encode the "STOP" command by photo-stimulation for precise control of rat-robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sicong; Qu, Yi; Guo, Songchao; Shi, Zhaoyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2013-01-01

    Studies on behavior control are important for bio-robots designation. For auto or manual navigation of the bio-robots, the accuracy of the command execution is especially critical. In this paper, we reported a precise "STOP" command for the rat-robots by optical stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS). We labeled dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) neurons with light sensitive channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and directly probed the optical fiber to reactivate these neurons. The rats showed freezing behavior only upon the optical stimulation with an appropriate range of laser intensity and stimulation frequency. Neuron spikes and local field potential (LFP) were simultaneously recorded with optical stimulation by optrodes on free moving rat-robots. Together, our findings demonstrated the utility of deep brain optical stimulation for the stopping behavior of rat-robot control and indicated a potential application of optogenetics for precise control of bio-robots in further work.

  3. The Mobil Integrated C{sup 3} (command control and communications) and Security System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eras, A.; Brown, R.D.

    1993-06-15

    The current political and economic situations suggest that significant reductions of nuclear forces outside the US will continue. This implies that in times of crisis the rapid deployment of nuclear weapons into a theater may be required. This paper describes a proposed Mobile Integrated C{sup 3} and Security System (MICSS). The MICSS, together with associated personnel, could satisfy the command and control and security requirements of a deployed nuclear operation. Rapid deployment poses unique nuclear weapon surety difficulties that must be overcome for the operation to be effective and survivable. The MICSS must be portable, reliable, limited in size, and easily emplaced to facilitate movement, reduce the possibility of detection, and minimize manpower requirements. The MICSS will be based on existing technology. Sandia has designed prototype mobile command centers for the military. These command centers are based on an approach that stresses modularity, standards, and the use of an open architecture. Radio, telephone, satellite communications, communication security, and global positioning system equipment has been successfully integrated into the command centers. Sandia is also supporting the development of portable security systems for the military. These systems are rapidly deployable and mission flexible and are capable of intrusion detection, area and alarm display, night assessment, and wireless sensor communications. This paper is organized as follows: Background information about the prototype mobile command centers will be presented first. Background information about portable security systems concepts will then be given. Next, an integrated communications and security system will be presented, and finally, the design and status of a prototype MICSS will be described.

  4. Analysis of Team Communications in “Human-in-the-Loop” Experimentsin Joint Command and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchins, Susan G.; Hocevar, Susan P.; Kemple, William G.

    1999-01-01

    1999 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (CCRTS), June 29 - July 1, 1999, U.S. Naval War College, Rhode Island Successful mission accomplishment depends on more than individual skills and knowledge. Communication is essential to team performance in complex tasks. Interaction processes that occur via team communications are critical for appropriate use of individual resources, especially when situations call for sharing resources and coordinated responses. This pa...

  5. Command and Control in Virtual Environments: Using Contingency Theory to Understand Organization in Virtual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Nissen, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Organization Contingency Theory has served us well for more than half a century. It enjoys abundant empirical support and guides organizational design and change across a broad diversity of contingencies, in terms of command and control as well as organization and management. Through a combination of research and practice we understand how organizations are designed to fit their environments, technologies and other contingencies individually as well as simultaneously. An emerging phenomeno...

  6. THE USE OF AUGMENTED REALITY IN COMMAND AND CONTROL SITUATION AWARENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Willem Le Roux

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality is not completely new technology, but rather an interestingcombination of existing technologies, facilitated by the rapid progress made onultra-portable devices such as smart cellular telephones. It has the potential toenhance the situation awareness of military operators. This study identifies possibleuses of augmented reality in command and control applications with specificattention to situation awareness in the South African context. Applications across thedifferent comm...

  7. Service-Oriented Design of a Command and Control Intelligence Dashboard for Crisis Management

    OpenAIRE

    Domdouzis, Konstantinos; Andrews, Simon; Gibson, Helen; Akhgar, Babak; Hirsch, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The number and intensity of crisis incidents that have happened worldwide in the last decade, such as the Haiti earthquake and the Mumbai bombings, have revealed the need for an organized system to support search and rescue operations. This paper presents such a system and focuses on one of its central elements, the Crisis Management Command and Control Intelligence Dashboard (CCCID). The paper presents the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach that was followed for the design of th...

  8. A legal reasoning component of a network security command and control system

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Goncalo.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited There are numerous computer-aided tools to enable Computer Network Defense. However, their effectiveness in countering attacks is less than optimal when they are used independently of one another. Research has identified the requirements for an integrated command and control (C2) system that is able to conduct full-spectrum operations in the cyberspace environment. The most notable of that research revolves around the development ...

  9. On the exploitation of human inductive thought and intuition in future global command and control architectures

    OpenAIRE

    White, Timothy J.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Enabling technologies available today can be integrated to provide the necessary bandwidth, access, and computational power to support advanced global command and control architectures, but humans will ultimately use these architectures to select a course of action. People will continue to make decisions. The interface between the human operator and information collected, processed, fused, and disseminated by these advanced architectu...

  10. A distributed command governor strategy for the operational control of drinking water networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tedesco, Francesco; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cassavola, Alessandro; Puig, Vicenç

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the application of a distributed command governor (DCG) strategy for the operational control of drinking water networks (DWN). This approach is very suitable to this kind of management problems given the large-scale and complex nature of DWNs, the relevant effect of persistent disturbances (water demands) over the network evolutions and their marginal stability feature. The performance improvement offered by DCG is compared with the consideration of two non-centralized mod...

  11. Deployable command and control system for over the horizon small boat operations

    OpenAIRE

    Seegar, William D.

    2006-01-01

    The Deployable Navigation System (DeNS) is a prototype system designed to facilitate Command and Control during over the horizon small boat operations. It is designed to allow small boats to deploy from their host ships with a Bluetooth GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver and PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) running the appropriate software which provides a real time navigational picture in terms of position and relation to a predetermined track. This same data is shipped immediately bac...

  12. Consideration of Command and Control Performance during Accident Management Process at the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Nisrene M. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants shifted the nuclear safety paradigm from risk management to on-site management capability during a severe accident. The kernel of on-site management capability during an accident at a nuclear power plant is situation awareness and agility of command and control. However, little consideration has been given to accident management. After the events of September 11, 2001 and the catastrophic Fukushima nuclear disaster, agility of command and control has emerged as a significant element for effective and efficient accident management, with many studies emphasizing accident management strategies, particularly man-machine interface, which is considered a key role in ensuring nuclear power plant safety during severe accident conditions. This paper proposes a conceptual model for evaluating command and control performance during the accident management process at a nuclear power plant. Communication and information processing while responding to an accident is one of the key issues needed to mitigate the accident. This model will give guidelines for accurate and fast communication response during accident conditions.

  13. Man-portable command, communication, and control systems for the next generation of unmanned field systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Charles J.; Mitchell, Brian T.; Jacobus, Heidi N.; Watts, Russell C.; Taylor, Mark J.; Salazar, Alfonso

    1993-05-01

    New generations of military unmanned systems on the ground, at sea, and in the air will be driven by man-portable command units. In past efforts we implemented several prototypes of such units which provided display and capture of up to four video input channels, provided 4 color LCD screens and a larger status display LCD screen, provided drive input through two joysticks, and, through software, supported a flexible 'virtual' driver's interface. We have also performed additional trade analysis of prototype systems incorporating force feedback and extensive image-oriented processing facilities applied to man-controlled robotic control systems. This prior work has resulted in a database of practical design guidelines and a new generation of hardened compact robotic command center which is being designed and built to provide more advanced video capture, display, and interfacing features, supercomputer level computational performance, and ergonomic features for hard field use. In this paper we will summarize some past work and will project current performance to features likely to be common across most unmanned systems command, control, and communications subsystems of the near future.

  14. Control of cricket stridulation by a command neuron: efficacy depends on the behavioral state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, B

    2000-02-01

    Crickets use different song patterns for acoustic communication. The stridulatory pattern-generating networks are housed within the thoracic ganglia but are controlled by the brain. This descending control of stridulation was identified by intracellular recordings and stainings of brain neurons. Its impact on the generation of calling song was analyzed both in resting and stridulating crickets and during cercal wind stimulation, which impaired the stridulatory movements and caused transient silencing reactions. A descending interneuron in the brain serves as a command neuron for calling-song stridulation. The neuron has a dorsal soma position, anterior dendritic processes, and an axon that descends in the contralateral connective. The neuron is present in each side of the CNS. It is not activated in resting crickets. Intracellular depolarization of the interneuron so that its spike frequency is increased to 60-80 spikes/s reliably elicits calling-song stridulation. The spike frequency is modulated slightly in the chirp cycle with the maximum activity in phase with each chirp. There is a high positive correlation between the chirp repetition rate and the interneuron's spike frequency. Only a very weak correlation, however, exists between the syllable repetition rate and the interneuron activity. The effectiveness of the command neuron depends on the activity state of the cricket. In resting crickets, experimentally evoked short bursts of action potentials elicit only incomplete calling-song chirps. In crickets that previously had stridulated during the experiment, short elicitation of interneuron activity can trigger sustained calling songs during which the interneuron exhibits a spike frequency of approximately 30 spikes/s. During sustained calling songs, the command neuron activity is necessary to maintain the stridulatory behavior. Inhibition of the interneuron stops stridulation. A transient increase in the spike frequency of the interneuron speeds up the chirp

  15. Sliding Mode Implementation of an Attitude Command Flight Control System for a Helicopter in Hover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. McGeoch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the design of a flight control system, using a decoupled non-linear sliding mode control structure, designed using a linearised, 9th order representation of the dynamics of a PUMA helicopter in hover. The controllers are then tested upon a higher order, non-linear helicopter model, called RASCAL. This design approach is used for attitude command flight control implementation and the control performance is assessed in the terms of handling qualities through the Aeronautical Design Standards for Rotorcraft (ADS-33. In this context a linearised approximation of the helicopter system is used to design an SMC control scheme. These controllers have been found to yield a system that satisfies the Level 1 handling qualities set out by ADS-33. 

  16. Multivariable fuzzy modelling and command: application to the thermic engine control; Modelisation et commande multivariables floues: application a la commande d`un moteur thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolet, P.

    1998-12-11

    During these last two decades, the growing awareness of the contribution of the automobile to the degradation of the environment has forces different figures from the transportation world to put automobiles under more and more severe controls. Fuzzy logic is a technique which allows for the taking into account of experts knowledge; the most recent research work has moreover shown interest in associating fuzzy logic with algorithmic control techniques (adaptive control, robust control...). Our research work can be broken down into three distinct parts: a theoretical approach concerning the methods of fuzzy modeling permitting one to achieve models of the type Takagi-Sugeno and to use them in the synthesis of controls; the work of physical modeling of a four-stroke direct injection gas motor in collaboration with the development teams from Siemens Automotive SA; the simulated application of fuzzy modeling techniques and of fuzzy control developed on a theoretical level to a four-stroke direct injection gas motor. (author) 105 refs.

  17. RESEARCH ON GEAR SHIFTING PROCESS IN COMMAND MODE OF VEHICLE POWERTRAIN CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kusyak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a schematic diagram of the powertrain automated control system based on dry friction clutch and manual gearbox. Mechatronic system has a modular configuration and allows to make the vehicle starting-up, low speed maneuvering and command or automatic gearshifting. Diesel engine, clutch and 10-step gearbox control is carried out at all movement modes by electronic modules when affected on mode selector, accelerator pedal and, if necessary, on brake pedal. Data exchange between electronic units is carried by SAE-J1939 protocol with a transmission rate of 250 kbit/s. Change in diesel fuel supply, clutch engagement and gearshifting take place automatically as a result of pneumatic power actuator operation by a signal from the controller to the corresponding solenoid valve or a combination thereof.Presents the results of semi-natural experiment on research of gear shifting process in the command mode of powertrain control. Transient gearshift oscillograms with various control algorithm structure have been given in the paper. The paper contains a ^iT^rative analysis of the oscillograma and a conclusion on expediency of gear shifting automation. A graphic representation of the semi-natural experiment results has been performed with the help of CoDeSys V2.3-visualization facilities.

  18. Air Force Technical Objective Document (TOD) C(3)I (command, control, communications and intelligence) - fiscal year 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, C. P.

    1983-12-01

    This TOD describes the technical programs of the Rome Air Development Center in support of the Air Force Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) mission. The technical objectives have been aligned with the VANGUARD mission areas of Command, Control, and Communications (C3), Reconnaissance and Intelligence, Strategic Systems (Defense), and Technology as a means of focusing the RADC support of VANGUARD. This document is prepared to provide industry and universities with the midterm technical objectives in these areas.

  19. Mobile CubeSat Command and Control (MC3) 3-meter dish calibration and capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaide, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Mobile CubeSat Command and Control (MC3) architecture is a growing network of ground stations that spans the United States of America. It was designed to support the National Reconnaissance Office’s Experimental CubeSat Program. Each node was originally designed to communicate via UHF and S-band frequencies using Yagi antenna only. The MC3 ground station at the Naval Postgraduate School has recently incorporated a 3-meter S-band di...

  20. Command and Control Architectures for Autonomous Micro-Robotic Forces - FY-2000 Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean

    2001-04-01

    Advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and micro-technologies will soon give rise to production of large-scale forces of autonomous micro-robots with systems of innate behaviors and with capabilities of self-organization and real world tasking. Such organizations have been compared to schools of fish, flocks of birds, herds of animals, swarms of insects, and military squadrons. While these systems are envisioned as maintaining a high degree of autonomy, it is important to understand the relationship of man with such machines. In moving from research studies to the practical deployment of large-scale numbers of robots, one of critical pieces that must be explored is the command and control architecture for humans to re-task and also inject global knowledge, experience, and intuition into the force. Tele-operation should not be the goal, but rather a level of adjustable autonomy and high-level control. If a herd of sheep is comparable to the collective of robots, then the human element is comparable to the shepherd pulling in strays and guiding the herd in the direction of greener pastures. This report addresses the issues and development of command and control for largescale numbers of autonomous robots deployed as a collective force.

  1. A Prototype System for Controlling a Computer by Head Movements and Voice Commands

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Anis; Hajjar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new prototype system for controlling a PC by head movements and also with voice commands. Our system is a multimodal interface concerned with controlling the computer. The selected modes of interaction are speech and gestures. We are seeing the revolutionary of computers and information technologies into daily practice. Healthy people use keyboard, mouse, trackball, or touchpad for controlling the PC. However these peripheries are usually not suitable for handicapped people. They may have problems using these standard peripheries, for example when they suffer from myopathy, or cannot move their hands after an injury. Our system has been developed to provide computer access for people with severe disabilities. This system tracks the computer user's Head movements with a video camera and translates them into the movements of the mouse pointer on the screen and the voice as button presses. Therefore we are coming with a proposal system that can be used with handicapped people to control t...

  2. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Haddock, Angie T.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control experiment on-board the International Space Station that demonstrated single action intelligent procedures for crew command and control. The target problem was to enable crew initialization of a facility class rack with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as initialization of a medical facility to respond to a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). Utilization of Draper Laboratory's Timeliner software, deployed on-board the ISS within the Command and Control (C&C) computers and the Payload computers, allowed development of the automated procedures specific to ISS without having to certify

  3. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control through the World Wide Web: Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium Program (NMP) has identified a variety of revolutionary technologies that will support orders of magnitude improvements in the capabilities of spacecraft missions. This program's Autonomy team has focused on science and engineering automation technologies. In doing so, it has established a clear development roadmap specifying the experiments and demonstrations required to mature these technologies. The primary developmental thrusts of this roadmap are in the areas of remote agents, PI/operator interface, planning/scheduling fault management, and smart execution architectures. Phases 1 and 2 of the ASSET Project (previously known as the WebSat project) have focused on establishing World Wide Web-based commanding and telemetry services as an advanced means of interfacing a spacecraft system with the PI and operators. Current automated capabilities include Web-based command submission, limited contact scheduling, command list generation and transfer to the ground station, spacecraft support for demonstrations experiments, data transfer from the ground station back to the ASSET system, data archiving, and Web-based telemetry distribution. Phase 2 was finished in December 1996. During January-December 1997 work was commenced on Phase 3 of the ASSET Project. Phase 3 is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer; (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple PIs as well as associated payload experimenters; (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft; (4) Implement more advanced resource

  4. A distributable, display-device-independent vector graphics system for command and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbey, R., II; Hollingworth, D.

    1980-07-01

    This report documents a distributable, device-independent vector graphics system developed by ISI for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. It describes the system architecture, communications elements, and a phased implementation strategy. The system supports graphics-based command and control applications in distributed computational environments such as the ARPANET. The system has been in use at ISI and at the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC) in the Advanced Command and Control Architectural Testbed (ACCAT) since January 1977. The principal aim of the development effort is the device-independence of the vector graphics. 'Device-independence' means that graphic application programs can be written without regard to the particular display-device on which the output will ultimately be displayed. This system achieves display-device independence by providing the application program with a set of generic, two dimensional vector graphic primitives by which pictures can be described and interacted with at the application level. The particular graphics model used structures pictures as sets of subpictures that are absolute-transformed-segments, as defined by Newman and Sproull.

  5. Adaptation to Elastic Loads and BMI Robot Controls During Rat Locomotion examined with Point-Process GLMs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo eSong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently little is known about how a mechanically coupled BMI system’s actions are integrated into ongoing body dynamics. We tested a locomotor task augmented with a BMI system driving a robot mechanically interacting with a rat under three conditions: control locomotion (BL, ‘simple elastic load’ (E and ‘BMI with elastic load’ (BMI/E. The effect of the BMI was to allow compensation of the elastic load as a function of the neural drive. Neurons recorded here were close to one another in cortex, all within a 200 micron diameter horizontal distance of one another. The interactions of these close assemblies of neurons may differ from those among neurons at longer distances in BMI tasks and thus are important to explore. A point process generalized linear model (GLM, was used to examine connectivity at two different binning timescales (1ms vs. 10ms. We used GLM models to fit non-Poisson neural dynamics solely using other neurons’ prior neural activity as covariates. Models at different timescales were compared based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS goodness-of-fit and parsimony. About 15% of cells with non-Poisson firing were well fitted with the neuron-to-neuron models alone. More such cells were fitted at the 1ms binning than 10ms. Positive connection parameters (‘excitation’ ~70% exceeded negative parameters (‘inhibition’ ~30%. Significant connectivity changes in the GLM determined networks of well-fitted neurons occurred between the conditions. However, a common core of connections comprising at least ~15% of connections persisted between any two of the three conditions. Significantly almost twice as many connections were in common between the two load conditions (~27%, compared to between either load condition and the baseline. This local point process GLM identified neural correlation structure and the changes seen across task conditions in the rats in this neural subset may be intrinsic to cortex or due to feedback and input

  6. Command and Control of Space Assets Through Internet-Based Technologies Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center successfully demonstrated a transmission-control-protocol/ Internet-protocol- (TCP/IP) based approach to the command and control of onorbit assets over a secure network. This is a significant accomplishment because future NASA missions will benefit by using Internet-standards-based protocols. Benefits of this Internet-based space command and control system architecture include reduced mission costs and increased mission efficiency. The demonstration proved that this communications architecture is viable for future NASA missions. This demonstration was a significant feat involving multiple NASA organizations and industry. Phillip Paulsen, from Glenn's Project Development and Integration Office, served as the overall project lead, and David Foltz, from Glenn's Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch, provided the hybrid networking support for the required Internet connections. The goal was to build a network that would emulate a connection between a space experiment on the International Space Station and a researcher accessing the experiment from anywhere on the Internet, as shown. The experiment was interfaced to a wireless 802.11 network inside the demonstration area. The wireless link provided connectivity to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Internet Link Terminal (TILT) satellite uplink terminal located 300 ft away in a parking lot on top of a panel van. TILT provided a crucial link in this demonstration. Leslie Ambrose, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, provided the TILT/TDRSS support. The TILT unit transmitted the signal to TDRS 6 and was received at the White Sands Second TDRSS Ground Station. This station provided the gateway to the Internet. Coordination also took place at the White Sands station to install a Veridian Firewall and automated security incident measurement (ASIM) system to the Second TDRSS Ground Station Internet gateway. The firewall provides a trusted network for the simulated space

  7. Cyber Security for the Spaceport Command and Control System: Vulnerability Management and Compliance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, the number of malicious threats to organizations is continually increasing. In June of 2015, the United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) had a data breach resulting in the compromise of millions of government employee records. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is not exempt from these attacks. Cyber security is becoming a critical facet to the discussion of moving forward with projects. The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) project at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) aims to develop the launch control system for the next generation launch vehicle in the coming decades. There are many ways to increase the security of the network it uses, from vulnerability management to ensuring operating system images are compliant with securely configured baselines recommended by the United States Government.

  8. Man-machine interface in a submarine command and weapon control system: features and design experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan H. Aas

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Important man-machine interface (MMI issues concerning a submarine command and weapon control system (CWCS such as crew organization, automation level and decision support are discussed in this paper. Generic submarine CWCS functions and operating conditions are outlined. Detailed, dynamic and real-time prototypes were used to support the MMI design. The prototypes are described and experience with detailed prototyping is discussed. Some of the main interaction principles are summarized and a restricted example of the resulting design is given. Our design experience and current work have been used to outline future perspectives of MMI design in naval CWCSs. The need for both formal and experimental approaches is emphasized.

  9. BMI, Body Image, Emotional Well-Being and Weight-Control Behaviors in Urban African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Delenya; Belcher, Harolyn M.E.; Young, Allen; Gibson, Lillian Williams; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Trent, Maria

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE While urban African American adolescents face significant health disparities associated with overweight and obesity that follow them into adulthood; there is limited data on body image, emotional well-being, and weight control behaviors in this population to design effective public health interventions. OBJECTIVE This study was designed to understand the association of weight status to adolescent weight control, body image, and emotional well-being responses, in African American high school students. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS The study cohort consisted of 776 students, mean age 15.8 years (±1.2). Data from Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) student surveys and anthropometric studies were collected at School-Based Health Centers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Associations between adolescent responses on the GAPS and body mass index (BMI) status (healthy weight: 5th to less than 85th percentile, overweight: 85th to less than 95th percentile, obese: 95th percentile or greater) were estimated using logistic regression and dose- response plots. RESULTS There were statistically significant associations between BMI category and weight control (ranging from a mean 5.18 to 7.68 odds of obesity) and body image (3.40 to 13.26 odds of obesity) responses. Responses to weight control and body image questions exhibited a dose-response for odds of overweight and obesity. Feelings of depressed mood were associated with obesity (1.47 times the odds of obesity compared to students who did not endorse depressed mood; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.13) but not overweight status. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE Overweight and obese urban African American adolescents are more likely to screen positively on weight control risk behaviors and negative body image questions than their normal weight peers. The weight control and body image measures on the GAPS may provide information to identify youth in need of services and those motivated for brief school-based weight control

  10. A PROTOTYPE SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING A COMPUTER BY HEAD MOVEMENTS AND VOICE COMMANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Ismail

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new prototype system for controlling a PC by head movements and also with voice commands. Our system is a multimodal interface concerned with controlling the computer. The selected modes of interaction are speech and gestures. We are seeing the revolutionary of computers and information technologies into daily practice. Healthy people use keyboard, mouse, trackball, or touchpad for controlling the PC. However these peripheries are usually not suitable for handicapped people. They may have problems using these standard peripheries, for example when they suffer from myopathy, or cannot move their hands after an injury. Our system has been developed to provide computer access for people with severe disabilities. This system tracks the computer user’s Head movements with a video camera and translates them into the movements of the mouse pointer on the screen and the voice as button presses. Therefore we are coming with a proposal system that can be used with handicapped people to control the PC.

  11. Multi variable control of a switched ignition device: efficiency improvement under various constraints; Commande multivariable d`un moteur a allumage commande: Amelioration du rendement sous differentes contraintes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaumerliac, V.

    1995-03-09

    Spark-ignition engine control needs substantial improvement for various reasons: a non-linear and multivariable process, the strictness of anti-pollution constraints, the necessity of fuel economy, the variable running conditions, the aging, the reliability and the cost. The improvement of engine efficiency will be involved in this context and with the pollution constraints. This work develops a system approach and its philosophy is based on a suitable description of the main dynamics. A compartmentalized model of a spark-ignition engine and the dynamic of the vehicle is presented. The aim of this modeling is to have a good representativeness in transients and to describe the behavior of the outputs useful for control. The multivariable control is split in two independent systems. The first one controls the spark advance control to obtain the maximum torque. The second one controls the throttle and the electronic fuel injection device to have lower pollutant emissions. The spark advance closed loop control uses information measured with either a cylinder pressure sensor or a torque sensor. These studies have achieved to an adaptive tuning on engine bench. A new actuator, the electronic throttle control, can provide a higher degree of precision for the fuel/air ratio regulation system, particularly during fast accelerations and decelerations. An intake manifold pressure control is developed to coordinate the air and fuel flows. A delay strategy and a simple compensation of fuel supply dynamics allow to obtain good results on engine bench. Uncoupling the acceleration pedal and the throttle command is a promising way to improve engine efficiency and reduce exhaust emission during transient phases. (author) 59 refs.

  12. Real time command control architecture for an ITER relevant inspection robot in operation on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, the Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) performed its first deployment in Tore Supra tokamak vessel, under real vacuum and temperature conditions (10-6 Pa and 120 deg. C) after a conditioning phase to avoid pollution of the chamber. This full demonstration is a turning point in the project, allowing a second phase to start toward the objective to make use of the Remote Handling Equipment as an inspection routine tool. This feasibility demonstration will also be performed on Tore Supra. At this stage, the system requires enhancements of overall technologies and also developments of the Remote Handling control system. Lessons learned in the first phase of the project and experience collected for more than 20 years by Robotics Units of CEA-LIST teams on teleoperated systems enable to identify three main fields to explore to reach the objectives: - Development of a reliable control based on a real time generic command control system. - Development of a graphical supervisor for intuitive steering. - Development of a generic flexible model for realistic computations of the robot localization in the environment. This paper is dedicated to the description of the further developments that shall be done for routine Remote Handling operations. It presents the R and D project roadmap for the next years.

  13. Command and Control application framework for interoperable heterogeneous ITER Remote Handling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER divertor Remote Handling maintenance concepts are under investigation at a full scale mockup facility, the Divertor Test Platform, located in Tampere, Finland. The key devices to carry out these operations are the (CMM), Cassette Toroidal Mover, Multi Axis Manipulators (MAM) and related tooling. Despite their differences, in essence all of these devices are manipulators with varying specifications. Hence, from the operator's point of view, they perform similar operations, such as following predefined position trajectories and lifting and carrying tools and equipment. This paper explores how to implement a software framework for a Command and Control application, otherwise known as Human Machine Interface (HMI), in such a way that it could be used to control different manipulators. A framework is presented that supports the combining of small, independent modules into a single cohesive HMI. It is then shown that a HMI can be built by combining modules that are common to these manipulators and modules that are specific to a single manipulator. This will not only minimize the programming effort but also reduce the training required of operators. To elaborate on the concept, an example HMI is implemented to control virtual models of CMM and MAM.

  14. Real time command control architecture for an ITER relevant inspection robot in operation on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Delphine [CEA, LIST Service de Robotique Interactive, BP6 F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France)], E-mail: delphine.keller@cea.fr; Bayetti, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/IRFM, CEA/Cadarache F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bonnemason, J. [CEA, LIST Service de Robotique Interactive, BP6 F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Bruno, V. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/IRFM, CEA/Cadarache F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Chambaud, P.; Friconneau, J.P. [CEA, LIST Service de Robotique Interactive, BP6 F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Gargiulo, L. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/IRFM, CEA/Cadarache F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Itchah, M.; Lamy, S. [CEA, LIST Service de Robotique Interactive, BP6 F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Le, R. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/IRFM, CEA/Cadarache F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Measson, Y.; Perrot, Y.; Ponsort, D. [CEA, LIST Service de Robotique Interactive, BP6 F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France)

    2009-06-15

    In 2008, the Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) performed its first deployment in Tore Supra tokamak vessel, under real vacuum and temperature conditions (10{sup -6} Pa and 120 deg. C) after a conditioning phase to avoid pollution of the chamber. This full demonstration is a turning point in the project, allowing a second phase to start toward the objective to make use of the Remote Handling Equipment as an inspection routine tool. This feasibility demonstration will also be performed on Tore Supra. At this stage, the system requires enhancements of overall technologies and also developments of the Remote Handling control system. Lessons learned in the first phase of the project and experience collected for more than 20 years by Robotics Units of CEA-LIST teams on teleoperated systems enable to identify three main fields to explore to reach the objectives: - Development of a reliable control based on a real time generic command control system. - Development of a graphical supervisor for intuitive steering. - Development of a generic flexible model for realistic computations of the robot localization in the environment. This paper is dedicated to the description of the further developments that shall be done for routine Remote Handling operations. It presents the R and D project roadmap for the next years.

  15. Augmented Command and Control Table to Support Network-Centric Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zocco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The success in network-centric warfare requires information superiority to obtain dominant battlespace awareness. The time required to take a decision has been reduced by orders of magnitude, while the volume of accessible data has been increased exponentially. When this volume is displayed to an operator, the risk of reaching a state of information overload is real and great care shall be taken to make sure that what is provided is actually information and not noise. In this paper we propose a novel interaction environment that leverages the augmented reality technology to provide a digitally enhanced view of a real command and control table. The operator equipped with an optical see-through head-mounted display controls the virtual context, a synthetic view of the common operational picture, remaining connected to the real world. Technical details of the system are described together with the evaluation method. The results showed effectiveness of the proposed system in terms of understanding perception, depth impression, and level of immersion. A relevant reduction of the reaction time and of the number of errors made during the execution of complex tasks, have been obtained.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.39-45, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.6713

  16. Effects of two types of intra-team feedback on developing a shared mental model in Command & Control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasker, P.C.; Post, W.M.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2000-01-01

    In two studies, the effect of two types of intra-team feedback on developing a shared mental model in Command & Control teams was investigated. A distinction is made between performance monitoring and team self-correction. Performance monitoring is the ability of team members to monitor each other's

  17. LMI & BMI technics for the design of a PI control for irrigation channels

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Mickael; Wu, Yongxin; Aberkane, Samir; Dos Santos, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of control design for a nonlinear distributed parameter system in infinite dimension which is described by hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) of de Saint-Venant. For describing the dynamic of this nonlinear system over a wide operating range, the Multi-Models approach, which takes into account Linear Time Invariant (LTI) models defined around a set of operating points, has been used. By means of an Internal Model Boundary Control (IMBC), a new de...

  18. Multi-level tolerance opinion dynamics in military command and control networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Shi, Wen; Tan, Gary; Ma, Yaofei

    2015-11-01

    Opinion exchange is useful when a military agent needs to take the opinions of others into account before decision making. Few studies have addressed opinion dynamics in military command and control (C2) organizations, which are often hierarchically ranked in a tree structure. Moreover, military agents should have different tolerance levels when communicating with differentially ranked agents, which is our reasoning for proposing an opinion dynamics model with multi-level tolerance in this study. We can use this model to test opinion dynamics models in depth and further analyze and compare them to traditional tree organizations and other organization forms, including small-world and scale-free networks. Opinion dynamics experiments show that although traditional indices such as a clustering coefficient or the average distance of a small-world network are worse than those of a scale-free network, opinion dynamics indices, which include the number of rounds to fixed opinions, number of opinion clusters, and relative size of the largest small-world cluster are unexpectedly better than those of a scale-free network. Moreover, adding links to a tree network can enhance the tendency to consensus, while a small-world network needs fewer links compared to a scale-free network.

  19. Command and Control in a Nuclear-Armed Iran - Proliferation Papers No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the long standoff regarding its nuclear ambition, Iran has cultivated ambiguity and been loath to reliably assure the international community of its ultimate intentions, complicating Western efforts to understand, let alone constrain, Tehran's endeavors. While many analyses have focused on how to prevent or contain a potential nuclear-armed Iran, the posture Iran would adopt once it has developed its nuclear weapons remains elusive. This paper highlights that while opting for command-and-control (C2) arrangements, Iran would have to reconcile two contrasting imperatives: first, to disperse assets and decentralize C2 to minimize the risks and potential damages of a disabling strike, which has been seen as a real - even imminent - threat in recent years. A contrasting concern emerged as the Iranian Revolutionary Guards' Corps became a key formulator and executor of Tehran's security policy: how to guard against the risk of unauthorized use of major weapons systems? Among the factors that could influence Iran's choices in terms of C2 arrangements, this paper focuses on Tehran's national security experience, the lessons it may have derived from it, as well as from the experience of other countries. (author)

  20. The Command and Control Reference Model for modeling, simulations, and technology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayk, Israel

    1994-01-01

    The C2RM provides a framework for the evolution of a coordinated and detailed definition of a command and control (C2) discipline. The C2RM embodies an integrated multidisciplinary approach. It is intended to be complete and self-consistent for the main levels of abstractions encountered in models, simulations, operational applications, functional descriptions, paradigms and metaphors of C2. The scope of the C2RM embraces C2 using all key physical and logical interactions associated with C2 systems. It is concerned with interactions, involving not only communications (e.g., radios), but transportations (e.g., vehicles), identifications (e.g., sensors), and inflictions (e.g., weapons), which take place between resources of the same, friendly, hostile or neutral C2 units. High levels of abstractions of user requirements for C2 across the broad spectrum of military and civil domains have led to the development of the C2RM. It applies to all phases of system acquisition from the laboratory to the field and from conceptualization to realization. The C2RM is based upon generic and analog extensions to the International Standards Organization (ISO) open system interconnection (OSI) reference model (RM) which go far beyond the scope of the ISO OSI RM. The major theme, however, of layering services is preserved to facilitate understanding, reuse of design, implementation, and interoperability to the maximum degree possible with available C2 technology.

  1. Transportation Command, Control, Communication and Information Systems (C3I): ?Lifting the Lid of Pandora's Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocott, D. F. H.

    Integrated Command, Control, Communication and Information (C3I) Systems have developed a language of their own, drawing heavily on acronyms and information technology terminology, resulting in the impression being given to the uninitiated that either a black art is being practised or at least there is a mystique unknown in other complex systems. No master plan or model exists for C3I systems, and their very existence is predicated primarily on the need to fulfil two basic requirements. First, they exist where there is a need at the highest level of management of an international or national authority, or of a large company, or of a large organization, to exercise real-time optimum use of the total and diverse resources available to the corporate body in pursuit of its mission, charter or commercial goal. Secondly, at the lowest level, C3I systems exist to help an individual, or a machine, or a sensor, to perform a given task or rôle more effectively. The integration of emergency services and the operation of large modern transportation systems are among the civilian systems that stand to gain most from the use of integrated C3I systems.

  2. The changing paradigm for integrated simulation in support of Command and Control (C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Mark; Hieb, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Modern software and network technologies are on the verge of enabling what has eluded the simulation and operational communities for more than two decades, truly integrating simulation functionality into operational Command and Control (C2) capabilities. This deep integration will benefit multiple stakeholder communities from experimentation and test to training by providing predictive and advanced analytics. There is a new opportunity to support operations with simulation once a deep integration is achieved. While it is true that doctrinal and acquisition issues remain to be addressed, nonetheless it is increasingly obvious that few technical barriers persist. How will this change the way in which common simulation and operational data is stored and accessed? As the Services move towards single networks, will there be technical and policy issues associated with sharing those operational networks with simulation data, even if the simulation data is operational in nature (e.g., associated with planning)? How will data models that have traditionally been simulation only be merged in with operational data models? How will the issues of trust be addressed?

  3. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control Through the World Wide Web. Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    The Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) system is a simple yet comprehensive real-world operations network being developed. Phase 3 of the ASSET Project was January-December 1997 and is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer. (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple (PIs) Principle Investigators as well as associated payload experimenters. (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft. (4) Implement more advanced resource management, modeling and fault management capabilities that integrate the space and ground segments of the space system hardware. (5) Implement a beacon monitoring test. (6) Implement an experimental blackboard controller for space system management. (7) Further define typical ground station developments required for Internet-based remote control and for full system automation of the PI-to-spacecraft link. Each of those goals are examined. Significant sections of this report were also published as a conference paper. Several publications produced in support of this grant are included as attachments. Titles include: 1) Experimental Initiatives in Space System Operations; 2) The ASSET Client Interface: Balancing High Level Specification with Low Level Control; 3) Specifying Spacecraft Operations At The Product/Service Level; 4) The Design of a Highly Configurable, Reusable Operating System for Testbed Satellites; 5) Automated Health Operations For The Sapphire Spacecraft; 6) Engineering Data Summaries for Space Missions; and 7) Experiments In Automated Health

  4. Asynchronous machines. Direct torque control; Machines asynchrones. Commande par controle direct de couple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornel, B. de [Institut National Polytechnique, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2006-05-15

    The asynchronous machine, with its low cost and robustness, is today the most widely used motor to make speed variators. However, its main drawback is that the same current generates both the magnetic flux and the torque, and thus any torque variation creates a flux variation. Such a coupling gives to the asynchronous machine a nonlinear behaviour which makes its control much more complex. The direct self control (DSC) method has been developed to improve the low efficiency of the scalar control method and for the specific railway drive application. The direct torque control (DTC) method is derived from the DSC method but corresponds to other type of applications. The DSC and DTC algorithms for asynchronous motors are presented in this article: 1 - direct control of the stator flux (DSC): principle, flux control, torque control, switching frequency of the inverter, speed estimation; 2 - direct torque control (DTC): principle, electromagnetic torque derivative, signals shape and switching frequency, some results, DTC speed variator without speed sensor, DTC application to multi-machine multi-converter systems; 3 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  5. Suitability of Agent Technology for Military Command and Control in the Future Combat System Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potok, TE

    2003-02-13

    The U.S. Army is faced with the challenge of dramatically improving its war fighting capability through advanced technologies. Any new technology must provide significant improvement over existing technologies, yet be reliable enough to provide a fielded system. The focus of this paper is to assess the novelty and maturity of agent technology for use in the Future Combat System (FCS). The FCS concept represents the U.S. Army's ''mounted'' form of the Objective Force. This concept of vehicles, communications, and weaponry is viewed as a ''system of systems'' which includes net-centric command and control (C{sup 2}) capabilities. This networked C{sup 2} is an important transformation from the historically centralized, or platform-based, C{sup 2} function since a centralized command architecture may become a decision-making and execution bottleneck, particularly as the pace of war accelerates. A mechanism to ensure an effective network-centric C{sup 2} capacity (combining intelligence gathering and analysis available at lower levels in the military hierarchy) is needed. Achieving a networked C{sup 2} capability will require breakthroughs in current software technology. Many have proposed the use of agent technology as a potential solution. Agents are an emerging technology, and it is not yet clear whether it is suitable for addressing the networked C{sup 2} challenge, particularly in satisfying battlespace scalability, mobility, and security expectations. We have developed a set of software requirements for FCS based on military requirements for this system. We have then evaluated these software requirements against current computer science technology. This analysis provides a set of limitations in the current technology when applied to the FCS challenge. Agent technology is compared against this set of limitations to provide a means of assessing the novelty of agent technology in an FCS environment. From this analysis we

  6. Pengembangan Bioelectrical Impedance Sebagai Control Commands Pengaturan Kecepatan Gerak Kursi Roda Dengan Metoda PID Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Juli Sardi; Ali Basrah Pulungan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, bioimpedance signals of human body was utilized to control speed of a wheelchair movement. A bioimpedance is electrically passive part contained the body tissues. The research is one of alternative solutions for patients with paralysis of the upper and lower limb. Firstly, design of system of the research consisted of bioimpedance measuring instruments and a mechanical design of the wheelchair. Bioimpedance measurement was performed by injecting a sinusoidal current sour...

  7. Tools for automating spacecraft ground systems: The Intelligent Command and Control (ICC) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, A. William; Mclean, David

    1996-01-01

    The practical application of scripting languages and World Wide Web tools to the support of spacecraft ground system automation, is reported on. The mission activities and the automation tools used at the Goddard Space Flight Center (MD) are reviewed. The use of the Tool Command Language (TCL) and the Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) scripting tools for automating mission operations is discussed together with the application of different tools for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory ground system.

  8. Making and researching AutoCAD of drawing learning commands and programming control tools

    OpenAIRE

    Kažukauskas, Irmantas

    2004-01-01

    The created learning program is given for students to develop their general practical skills for the use of graphical system AutoCAD 2002. The learning program is given for leraning and teaching using computer. The man van use it anywhere, where is the possibility to work with computer and learn the learning program. There are practical exercises for drawing graphical primitives; hatch and dimension commands; tools for editing graphical objestc it the AutoCAD 2002 learning system. The learnin...

  9. Materiel Command and the Materiality of Commands: An Historical Examination of the US Air Force, Control Data Corporation, and the Advanced Logistics System

    OpenAIRE

    Yost, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1960s the US Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) engaged in an unparalleled, real-time computer networking project to manage all its logistics (location, inventory, maintenance, and transportation of personnel, aircraft, weapons, components, spare parts, etc.), the Advanced Logistics System (ALS). The $250 million ALS project was substantially larger in size and cost than earlier real-time computer networking projects (including SAGE programming and SABRE), but it has received virt...

  10. An initial study examining the feasibility of expert system technology for command and control of supporting arms in the United States Marine Corps

    OpenAIRE

    Albano, Michael C.; Gearhart, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The authors of this thesis propose the use of knowledge-based expert system technology to automate Marine Corps fire support command and control. It investigates the need for such support for the control of supporting arms and the ways to achieve it. The authors provide general information about artificial intelligence (specifically, expert system technology) and its potential use for automating command and control functions for Marine...

  11. Beyond command and control: USSOUTHCOM's use of social networking to 'connect and collaborate' during Haiti relief operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ricardo

    2011-06-01

    On 12 January 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake devastated Haiti killing over 230,000 unsuspecting victims, injuring tens of thousands more and displacing over 1.1 million people. The physical damage was so severe that over 50 percent of buildings in and near the affected areas were completely destroyed or damaged. After struggling for decades with adversity, and besieged by a myriad of social, economic and political challenges, Haiti, its government, and its people were by most accounts already in a state of crisis. The earthquake's devastation and its aftermath shocked the world and prompted a global response. Over 800 institutions and organizations representing the whole of society - governments and their militaries, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, public institutions, academia, corporations, and private citizens - mobilized to provide aid and relief. However, coordinating and managing their activities seemed a daunting, if not impossible, task. How could a global response achieve "unity of effort" when "unity of command" was not feasible? To provide a solution, US Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) looked beyond traditional Command and Control systems for collaboration with non-traditional partners and implemented the All Partners Access Network (APAN) in order to "Connect and Collaborate."

  12. About BMI for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boy in the 95 th percentile for BMI - meaning that his BMI is greater than that of ... psychopathology in women: a three decade prospective study." International ... of life in relation to overweight and body fat distribution." American Journal ...

  13. Human Walk Modeled by PCPG to Control a Lower Limb Neuroprosthesis by High-Level Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Duvinage

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current active leg prostheses do not integrate the most recent advances in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI and bipedal robotics. Moreover, their actuators are seldom driven by the subject’s intention. This paper aims at showing a summary of our current results in the field of human gait rehabilitation. In a first prototype, the main focus was on people suffering from foot drop problems, i.e. people who are unable to lift their feet. However, current work is focusing on a full active ankle orthosis. The approach is threefold: a BCI system, a gait model and an orthosis. Thanks to the BCI system, patients are able to generate high-level commands. Typically, a command could represent a speed modification. Then, a gait model based on a programmable central pattern generator is used to generate the adequate kinematics. Finally, the orthosis is tracking this kinematics when the foot is in the air, whereas, the orthosis is mimicking a spring when the foot is on the ground.

  14. The longitudinal BMI pattern and body composition of patients with anorexia nervosa who require urgent hospitalization: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai Keisuke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention of serious physical complications in anorexia nervosa (AN patients is important. The purpose of this study is to clarify which physical and social factors are related to the necessity for urgent hospitalization of anorexia nervosa (AN patients in a long-term starvation state. We hypothesized that the change of longitudinal BMI, body composition and social background would be useful as an index of the necessity for urgent hospitalization. Methods AN patients were classified into; urgent hospitalization, due to disturbance of consciousness or difficulty walking(n = 17; planned admission (n = 96; and outpatient treatment only groups (n = 136. The longitudinal BMI pattern and the clinical features of these groups were examined. In the hospitalization groups, comparison was done of body composition variation and the social background, including the educational level and advice from family members. Results After adjusting for age and duration of illness, the BMI of the urgent hospitalization group was lower than that of the other groups at one year before hospitalization (P Conclusions The longitudinal pattern of BMI and FFM may be useful for understanding the severity in AN from the viewpoint of failure of the homeostasis system.

  15. 从哲学视域探究指挥与控制%The Research on Command & Control from the Philosophical Field of Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向先; 吴伟花

    2012-01-01

    Command & Control is generally regarded as the basic category in Army or engineering automatization, but wider domain in the philosophical altitude. Command &. Control is the core behavior of human-being different from self-organized activities in nature. It is the human language that discoveries the real meaning of the concept of Command & Control at the beginning. Command Control is the combination of command and control, whose object is the system in which people are essential. Command and control can be combined successfully depends on factors such as Commander's prestige, right injunctions, unimpeded communication channels and so on. The establishmant of Command & Control is a complex systems engineering based on other correlative subjects both in natural science and social science.%指挥与控制一般被认为是军队和工程自动化的基本范畴,但从哲学的高度可以看到更广阔的领域.指挥与控制是人类区别于自然界自组织活动的核心行为.人类的语言从一开始就已相当传神地揭示了这一概念的具体内涵.指挥控制有别于自动控制,是指挥与控制的有机结合.指挥控制的对象是以人为基本要素的系统,指挥与控制能否合二为一,依赖于指挥者的威信、指令的正确度以及信道的畅通等因素.指挥与控制学科的建立是一项复杂的系统工程,依赖于自然科学和社会科学等相关学科群.

  16. Analysis, design, and testing of a low cost, direct force command linear proof mass actuator for structural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, G. L.; Shelley, Stuart; Jacobson, Mark

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the design, analysis, and test of a low cost, linear proof mass actuator for vibration control is presented. The actuator is based on a linear induction coil from a large computer disk drive. Such disk drives are readily available and provide the linear actuator, current feedback amplifier, and power supply for a highly effective, yet inexpensive, experimental laboratory actuator. The device is implemented as a force command input system, and the performance is virtually the same as other, more sophisticated, linear proof mass systems.

  17. HALE UAS Command and Control Communications: Step 1 - Functional Requirements Document. Version 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) unmanned aircraft system (UAS) communicates with an off-board pilot-in-command in all flight phases via the C2 data link, making it a critical component for the UA to fly in the NAS safely and routinely. This is a new requirement in current FAA communications planning and monitoring processes. This document provides a set of comprehensive C2 communications functional requirements and performance guidelines to help facilitate the future FAA certification process for civil UAS to operate in the NAS. The objective of the guidelines is to provide the ability to validate the functional requirements and in future be used to develop performance-level requirements.

  18. Cost efficient command management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Theresa; Murphy, C. W.; Kuntz, Jon; Barlett, Tom

    1996-01-01

    The design and implementation of a command management system (CMS) for a NASA control center, is described. The technology innovations implemented in the CMS provide the infrastructure required for operations cost reduction and future development cost reduction through increased operational efficiency and reuse in future missions. The command management design facilitates error-free operations which enables the automation of the routine control center functions and allows for the distribution of scheduling responsibility to the instrument teams. The reusable system was developed using object oriented methodologies.

  19. A Design Framework for Predictive Engine Control Un cadre de conception pour la commande prédictive de moteurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Model Predictive Control (MPC has been proposed several times for automotive control, with promising results, mostly based on a linear MPC approach. However, as most automotive systems are nonlinear, Nonlinear MPC (NMPC would be an interesting option. Unfortunately, an optimal control design with a generic nonlinear model usually leads to a complex, non convex problem. Against this background, this paper presents two different schemes to take into account the system nonlinearity in the control design. First, a multi-linear MPC method is shown based on the segmentation of the system and then a control system design based on a nonlinear system identification using a quasi Linear Parameter Varying (LPV structure is proposed, which is then used in a NMPC design framework. This paper presents the approaches and the application to a well studied system, the air path of a Diesel engine. La commande prédictive par modèle (Model Predictive Control; MPC a été proposée plusieurs fois dans l’automatique pour l’automobile, avec des résultats prometteurs, principalement à partir d’une approche MPC linéaire. Toutefois, comme la plupart des systèmes automobiles sont non linéaires, la commande prédictive non linéaire (Nonlinear MPC; NMPC pourrait représenter une option intéressante. Malheureusement, la conception d’une commande optimale à partir d’un modèle non linéaire générique conduit généralement à un problème non convexe complexe. Dans ce contexte, cet article présente deux schémas différents pour prendre en compte la non linéarité du système en vue de la conception de la commande. En premier lieu, une méthode MPC multilinéaire est présentée sur la base d’une segmentation du système et, en second lieu, une conception de système de commande basée sur une identification de système non linéaire utilisant une structure quasi linéaire à paramètres variants (Linear Parameter Varying; LPV est proposée; celle

  20. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The document provides the Human System Integration(HSI) high-level functional C3 HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot. Description includes (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge C3 system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain C3 information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate C3 technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how C3 operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary C3 functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for C3 are partitioned into three categories: (1) Pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) Voice Communications (2) Pilot-ATC Data Communications, and (3) command and control of the unmanned aircraft (UA). Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  1. Nonlinear Lateral Command Control Using Neural Network for F-16 Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    S. Suresh; Kannan, N; Omkar, SN; Mani, V

    2005-01-01

    A discrete time neural network based lateral controller design for an F-16 nonlinear model is presented. The controller is designed using model reference indirect adaptive control and the input output representation and control law for nonlinear model are established using system theory. The input-output representation and control law are approximated using neural networks with linear filters. The design takes into account the multi input multi output nature of the lateral model. Roll rate an...

  2. [Perceived or BMI-measured overweight and weight control behaviors in undergraduate adolescents from Ciudad Guzmán, Jalisco, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Carlos Alejandro; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe; Montaño Espinoza, Rosa; Hidalgo-San Martín, Alfredo

    2012-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate associations between weight control behaviors and overweight measured by BMI, overweight perception or inaccurate weight perception. 492 undergraduate adolescents from 17 to 19 years old participated in the study. A self-administered questionnaire on line was applied and weight and height were measured. Statistical analysis included weighted kappa and multivariate logistic regression. The concordance between weight perception and that evaluated by BMI was 78.7%, weight kappa = 0.62. Adolescents who perceived overweight tried to lose weight, exercised and ate less food more frequently than those who were overweight evaluated by BMI. A quarter tried to lose weight eventhough they did not perceive or were actually overweight. The odds of trying to lose weight were higher in men and women who perceived overweight (OR = 18.7, CI 95% 6.3-55.3 and OR = 10.4, IC 95% 4.5-24.2, respectively) andwomen who overestimated overweight (OR = 6.0, CI 95% 2.8-12.7). The odds of tying to lose weight when weight was underestimated were less in men (OR = 0.03, CI 95% 0.01-0.12) and women (OR = 0.19, IC 95% 0.05-0.70). In conclusion the behavior of trying to lose weight was better explained among adolescents of both genders who perceived overweight and among girls who overestimated it.

  3. The {open_quotes}Command and Control{close_quotes} philosophy of the Communist party of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kominiak, G.J.; Eisenberger, J.C.; Menaul, K.L. [and others

    1996-01-01

    China`s central political authorities have constructed a system which is designed to enable them to exert their personal influence and control over each level of every organization in the country -- both civil and military. The Communist Party of China (CPC) is represented at all levels of each and every organization, including the People`s Liberation Army (PLA). These Party entities are intended to both provide oversight and to ensure that Party policies, directives and orders are obeyed. This penchant for political control, which may have its roots in China`s imperial past, appears to have been reinforced by the early developmental path chosen by the Party`s leadership. Current attempts aimed at maintaining political control of its resources, especially the military, are embodied in the formal system of {open_quotes}Political Work.{close_quotes} In the PLA, this system of political control results in the involvement of political organs in day-to-day military matters to an extent unheard of in the West. Further work is needed in order to understand, more fully, both the system of {open_quotes}Political Work{close_quotes} and its contributions to the overall military (and civil) command and control philosophic of the Communist Party of China.

  4. Field Command of a Tactical Satellite System

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Ron; Hopkins, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    One way to ensure tactical satellite systems remain fully responsive to a field commander's needs would be to place all command and control aspects of the system under direct field control. This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the feasibility of field command of a notional tactical imaging satellite system. The study indicates that such a system is feasible. A satellite constellation can be designed to provide the field commander with significant, timely, tactical data. The ...

  5. Optimized control unit for solar combi systems; Commande optimale de systemes solaires combines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud' homme, T.; Gillet, D.

    2003-07-01

    This report presents in detail the development of an optimized control unit for solar combi systems designed for both space heating and domestic hot water preparation. The objective is to minimize the heat supply from the auxiliary gas heater while providing high indoor comfort to the occupants. The authors suggest a dynamic model for the building, designed to be easily adapted to different types of building. Its main parameters are automatically identified. On the contrary, the solar-heating-system dynamic model is the same for all buildings. The system control strategy relies on these dynamic models and on real-time weather forecast from the meteorological institute, in particular the predicted outdoor temperature. The parameter identification is repeated at regular intervals to enable the control system to learn from possible errors and improve optimization. The auxiliary energy savings are estimated to be 13% compared to usual control strategies.

  6. Laboratory process control using natural language commands from a personal computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Herbert A.; Mackin, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    PC software is described which provides flexible natural language process control capability with an IBM PC or compatible machine. Hardware requirements include the PC, and suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Software required includes the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system, a PC-based FORTRAN-77 compiler, and user-written device drivers. Instructions for use of the software are given as well as a description of an application of the system.

  7. Neural networks applied to inverters control; Les reseaux de neurones appliques a la commande des convertisseurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammes, B.; Marpinard, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Neural networks are scarcely applied to power electronics. This attempt includes two different topics: optimal control and computerized simulation. The learning has been performed through output error feedback. For implementation, a buck converter has been used as a voltage pulse generator. (D.L.) 7 refs.

  8. OPTIMAL CONFIGURATION OF A COMMAND AND CONTROL NETWORK: BALANCING PERFORMANCE AND RECONFIGURATION CONSTRAINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. DOWELL

    1999-07-01

    The optimization of the configuration of communications and control networks is important for assuring the reliability and performance of the networks. This paper presents techniques for determining the optimal configuration for such a network in the presence of communication and connectivity constraints.

  9. OPTIMAL CONFIGURATION OF A COMMAND AND CONTROL NETWORK: BALANCING PERFORMANCE AND RECONFIGURATION CONSTRAINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. DOWELL

    1999-08-01

    The optimization of the configuration of communications and control networks is important for assuring the reliability and performance of the networks. This paper presents techniques for determining the optimal configuration for such a network in the presence of communication and connectivity constraints. reconfiguration to restore connectivity to a data-fusion network following the failure of a network component.

  10. Command and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....

  11. SPIRAL2 control command: a standardized interface between high level applications and EPICS IOCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPIRAL2 linear accelerator will produce entirely new particle beams enabling exploration of the boundaries of matter. Coupled with the existing GANIL machine this new facility will produce light and heavy exotic nuclei at extremely high intensities. The field deployment of the Control System relies on Linux PCs and servers, VME VxWorks crates and Siemens PLCs; equipment will be addressed either directly or using a Modbus/TCP field bus network. Several laboratories are involved in the software development of the control system. In order to improve efficiency of the collaboration, a special care is taken to the software organization. During the development phase, in a context of tough budget and time constraint, this really makes sense, but also for the exploitation of the new machine, it helps us to design a control system that will require as little effort as possible for maintenance and evolution. The major concepts of this organization are the choice of EPICS, the definition of an EPICS directory tree specific to SPIRAL2, called 'topSP2', this is our reference work area for development, integration and exploitation, and the use of version control system (SVN) to store and share our developments independently of the multi-site dimension of the project. The next concept is the definition of a 'standardized interface' between high level applications programmed in Java and EPICS databases running in IOCs. This paper relates the rational and objectives of this interface and also its development cycle from specification using UML diagrams to test on the actual equipment. (authors)

  12. IT Security Support for the Spaceport Command Control Systems Development Ground Support Development Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Security is one of the most if not the most important areas today. After the several attacks on the United States, security everywhere has heightened from airports to the communication among the military branches legionnaires. With advanced persistent threats (APT's) on the rise following Stuxnet, government branches and agencies are required, more than ever, to follow several standards, policies and procedures to reduce the likelihood of a breach. Attack vectors today are very advanced and are going to continue to get more and more advanced as security controls advance. This creates a need for networks and systems to be in an updated and secured state in a launch control system environment. FISMA is a law that is mandated by the government to follow when government agencies secure networks and devices. My role on this project is to ensure network devices and systems are in compliance with NIST, as outlined in FISMA. I will achieve this by providing assistance with security plan documentation and collection, system hardware and software inventory, malicious code and malware scanning, and configuration of network devices i.e. routers and IDS's/IPS's. In addition, I will be completing security assessments on software and hardware, vulnerability assessments and reporting, and conducting patch management and risk assessments. A guideline that will help with compliance with NIST is the SANS Top 20 Critical Controls. SANS Top 20 Critical Controls as well as numerous security tools, security software and the conduction of research will be used to successfully complete the tasks given to me. This will ensure compliance with FISMA and NIST, secure systems and a secured network. By the end of this project, I hope to have carried out the tasks stated above as well as gain an immense knowledge about compliance, security tools, networks and network devices, as well as policies and procedures.

  13. Modelling and control of a tokamak plasma; Modelisation et commande d`un plasma de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremond, S.

    1995-10-18

    Vertically elongated tokamak plasmas, while attractive as regards Lawson criteria, are intrinsically instable. It is found that the open-loop instability dynamics is characterised by the relative value of two dimensionless parameters: the coefficient of inductive coupling between the vessel and the coils, and the coil damping efficiency on the plasma displacement relative to that of the vessel. Applications to Tore Supra -where the instability is due to the iron core attraction- and DIII-D are given. A counter-effect of the vessel, which temporarily reverses the effect of coil control on the plasma displacement, is seen when the inductive coupling is higher than the damping ratio. Precise control of the plasma boundary is necessary if plasma-wall interaction and/or coupling to heating antennas are to be monitored. A positional drift, of a few mm/s, which had been observed in the Tore Supra tokamak, is explained and corrected. A linear plasma shape response model is then derived from magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium calculation, and proved to be in good agreement with experimental data. An optimal control law is derived, which minimizes an integral quadratic criteria on tracking errors and energy expenditure. This scheme avoids compensating coil currents, and could render local plasma shaping more precise. (authors). 123 refs., 77 figs., 6 tabs., 4 annexes.

  14. An Efficient Machine Learning Based Classification Scheme for Detecting Distributed Command & Control Traffic of P2P Botnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijush Barthakur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Biggest internet security threat is the rise of Botnets having modular and flexible structures. The combined power of thousands of remotely controlled computers increases the speed and severity of attacks. In this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of machine-learning based classification of botnet command & control(C&C traffic for proactive detection of Peer-to-Peer (P2P botnets. We combine some of selected botnet C&C traffic flow features with that of carefully selected botnet behavioral characteristic features for better classification using machine learning algorithms. Our simulation results show that our method is very effective having very good test accuracy and very little training time. We compare the performances of Decision Tree (C4.5, Bayesian Network and Linear Support Vector Machines using performance metrics like accuracy, sensitivity, positive predictive value(PPV and F-Measure. We also provide a comparative analysis of our predictive models using AUC (area under ROC curve. Finally, we propose a rule induction algorithm from original C4.5 algorithm of Quinlan. Our proposed algorithm produces better accuracy than the original decision tree classifier.

  15. SPIRAL2 control command: first high-level Java applications based on the open-XAL library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Ions Beam SPIRAL2 facility will be based on a supra-conducting driver providing deuterons or heavy ions beams at different energies and intensities. Using then the fragmentation and ISOLD method, exotic nuclei beams will be sent either to new physics facilities or to the existing GANIL experimental areas. To tune this large range of beams, high-level applications will be mainly developed in Java language. The choice of the OPEN-XAL application framework, developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), has proven to be very efficient and greatly helps us to design our first software pieces to tune the accelerator. The first part of this paper presents some new applications: 'Minimization' which aims at optimizing a section of the accelerator; a general purpose software named 'Hook' for interacting with equipment of any kind; and an application called 'Profils' to visualize and control the SPIRAL2 beam wire harps. As tuning operation has to deal with configuration and archiving issues, databases are an effective way to manage data. Therefore, two databases are being developed to address these problems for the SPIRAL2 command control: one is in charge of device configuration upstream the Epics databases while another one is in charge of accelerator configuration (lattice, optics and set of values). The last part of this paper aims at describing these databases and how Java applications will interact with them. (authors)

  16. Commensal observing with the Allen Telescope array: software command and control

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; MacMahon, David; Williams, Peter K G; Harp, Gerald; Ackermann, Robert; Kilsdonk, Tom; Richards, Jon; Barott, William C; 10.1117/12.857860

    2010-01-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a Large-Number-Small-Diameter radio telescope array currently with 42 individual antennas and 5 independent back-end science systems (2 imaging FX correlators and 3 time domain beam formers) located at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory (HCRO). The goal of the ATA is to run multiple back-ends simultaneously, supporting multiple science projects commensally. The primary software control systems are based on a combination of Java, JRuby and Ruby on Rails. The primary control API is simplified to provide easy integration with new back-end systems while the lower layers of the software stack are handled by a master observing system. Scheduling observations for the ATA is based on finding a union between the science needs of multiple projects and automatically determining an efficient path to operating the various sub-components to meet those needs. When completed, the ATA is expected to be a world-class radio telescope, combining dedicated SETI projects with numerous radio astronom...

  17. Commensal observing with the Allen Telescope array: software command and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Keating, Garrett K.; MacMahon, David; Williams, Peter K. G.; Harp, Gerald; Ackermann, Robert; Kilsdonk, Tom; Richards, Jon; Barott, William C.

    2010-07-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a Large-Number-Small-Diameter radio telescope array currently with 42 individual antennas and 5 independent back-end science systems (2 imaging FX correlators and 3 time domain beam formers) located at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory (HCRO). The goal of the ATA is to run multiple back-ends simultaneously, supporting multiple science projects commensally. The primary software control systems are based on a combination of Java, JRuby and Ruby on Rails. The primary control API is simplified to provide easy integration with new back-end systems while the lower layers of the software stack are handled by a master observing system. Scheduling observations for the ATA is based on finding a union between the science needs of multiple projects and automatically determining an efficient path to operating the various sub-components to meet those needs. When completed, the ATA is expected to be a world-class radio telescope, combining dedicated SETI projects with numerous radio astronomy science projects.

  18. The lysosome as a command-and-control center for cellular metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chun-Yan; Zoncu, Roberto

    2016-09-12

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles found in every eukaryotic cell. They are widely known as terminal catabolic stations that rid cells of waste products and scavenge metabolic building blocks that sustain essential biosynthetic reactions during starvation. In recent years, this classical view has been dramatically expanded by the discovery of new roles of the lysosome in nutrient sensing, transcriptional regulation, and metabolic homeostasis. These discoveries have elevated the lysosome to a decision-making center involved in the control of cellular growth and survival. Here we review these recently discovered properties of the lysosome, with a focus on how lysosomal signaling pathways respond to external and internal cues and how they ultimately enable metabolic homeostasis and cellular adaptation. PMID:27621362

  19. Wireless Command-and-Control of UAV-Based Imaging LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwitz, Stanley; Dunagan, S. E.; Sullivan, D. V.; Slye, R. E.; Leung, J. G.; Johnson, L. F.

    2006-01-01

    Dual airborne imaging system networks were operated using a wireless line-of-sight telemetry system developed as part of a 2002 unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging mission over the USA s largest coffee plantation on the Hawaiian island of Kauai. A primary mission objective was the evaluation of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) 802.11b wireless technology for reduction of payload telemetry costs associated with UAV remote sensing missions. Predeployment tests with a conventional aircraft demonstrated successful wireless broadband connectivity between a rapidly moving airborne imaging local area network (LAN) and a fixed ground station LAN. Subsequently, two separate LANs with imaging payloads, packaged in exterior-mounted pressure pods attached to the underwing of NASA's Pathfinder-Plus UAV, were operated wirelessly by ground-based LANs over independent Ethernet bridges. Digital images were downlinked from the solar-powered aircraft at data rates of 2-6 megabits per second (Mbps) over a range of 6.5 9.5 km. An integrated wide area network enabled payload monitoring and control through the Internet from a range of ca. 4000 km during parts of the mission. The recent advent of 802.11g technology is expected to boost the system data rate by about a factor of five.

  20. Command Process Modeling & Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    Commanding Errors may be caused by a variety of root causes. It's important to understand the relative significance of each of these causes for making institutional investment decisions. One of these causes is the lack of standardized processes and procedures for command and control. We mitigate this problem by building periodic tables and models corresponding to key functions within it. These models include simulation analysis and probabilistic risk assessment models.

  1. 无人作战平台指挥控制技术%Command and Control Technology for Unmanned Combat Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑜; 张文玉

    2011-01-01

    无人作战平台(UCV)包括无人机(UAV)、无人艇(USV)和无人潜器(群)(UUV)等,能够在危险复杂环境中执行情报监视与侦察、目标攻击、通信中继和电子干扰等任务。作为武器作战平台,其信息化作战水平相对较低。针对智能指挥控制,重点讨论了无人作战平台的指挥控制关键技术,采用了实用的自主行为建模新技术,提出了目标分配、自主行为决策控制等研究方法。最后指出当前的技术解决方案的局限性。%Unmanned combat vehicles (UCVs) include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), unmanned surface vehicles(USVs) and unmanned underwater vehicles(UUVs), etc. UCVs can be used to complete tasks of intelligence surveillance, target attack, communication relay, and electronic jamming in dangerous and complex environments. They cannot be used as combat vehicles in information operations. Intelligent command and control technologies for UCV are analyzed. Autonomous modeling techniques are used to solve problems of target assignment and autonomous decision control. Finally, methods and solutions are given.

  2. The E3 ubiquitin-ligase Bmi1/Ring1A controls the proteasomal degradation of Top2alpha cleavage complex - a potentially new drug target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Alchanati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The topoisomerases Top1, Top2alpha and Top2beta are important molecular targets for antitumor drugs, which specifically poison Top1 or Top2 isomers. While it was previously demonstrated that poisoned Top1 and Top2beta are subject to proteasomal degradation, this phenomena was not demonstrated for Top2alpha. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show here that Top2alpha is subject to drug induced proteasomal degradation as well, although at a lower rate than Top2beta. Using an siRNA screen we identified Bmi1 and Ring1A as subunits of an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in this process. We show that silencing of Bmi1 inhibits drug-induced Top2alpha degradation, increases the persistence of Top2alpha-DNA cleavage complex, and increases Top2 drug efficacy. The Bmi1/Ring1A ligase ubiquitinates Top2alpha in-vitro and cellular overexpression of Bmi1 increases drug induced Top2alpha ubiquitination. A small-molecular weight compound, identified in a screen for inhibitors of Bmi1/Ring1A ubiquitination activity, also prevents Top2alpha ubiquitination and drug-induced Top2alpha degradation. This ubiquitination inhibitor increases the efficacy of topoisomerase 2 poisons in a synergistic manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The discovery that poisoned Top2alpha is undergoing proteasomal degradation combined with the involvement of Bmi1/Ring1A, allowed us to identify a small molecule that inhibits the degradation process. The Bmi1/Ring1A inhibitor sensitizes cells to Top2 drugs, suggesting that this type of drug combination will have a beneficial therapeutic outcome. As Bmi1 is also a known oncogene, elevated in numerous types of cancer, the identified Bmi1/Ring1A ubiquitin ligase inhibitors can also be potentially used to directly target the oncogenic properties of Bmi1.

  3. A comparative assessment of economic-incentive and command-and-control instruments for air pollution and CO2 control in China's iron and steel sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Mao, Xianqiang; Tu, Jianjun; Jaccard, Mark

    2014-11-01

    China's iron and steel sector is faced with increasing pressure to control both local air pollutants and CO2 simultaneously. Additional policy instruments are needed to co-control these emissions in this sector. This study quantitatively evaluates and compares two categories of emission reduction instruments, namely the economic-incentive (EI) instrument of a carbon tax, and the command-and-control (CAC) instrument of mandatory application of end-of-pipe emission control measures for CO2, SO2 and NOx. The comparative evaluation tool is an integrated assessment model, which combines a top-down computable general equilibrium sub-model and a bottom-up technology-based sub-model through a soft-linkage. The simulation results indicate that the carbon tax can co-control multiple pollutants, but the emission reduction rates are limited under the tax rates examined in this study. In comparison, the CAC instruments are found to have excellent effects on controlling different pollutants separately, but not jointly. Such results indicate that no single EI or CAC instrument is overwhelmingly superior. The environmental and economic effectiveness of an instrument highly depends on its specific attributes, and cannot be predicted by the general policy category. These findings highlight the necessity of clearer identification of policy target priorities, and detail-oriented and integrated policy-making among different governmental departments.

  4. Establishment of Command and Control Discipline%指挥与控制学科确立的回顾与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄迎馨

    2015-01-01

    指挥与控制学科的确立是指挥与控制科技发展的重要里程碑。简要回顾了指挥与控制学科的确立,介绍了其在中国现行国家标准《学科分类与代码》中的位置,分析了指挥与控制学科确立的意义,提出了进一步推动指挥与控制科技发展的建议。%The establishment of command and control discipline is very important to the development of command and control science and technology. How this discipline is set up and what is its position in the current Classification and cod of disciplines of Chinese Standard? This paper gives the answer. The significance is described,and the suggestions for the further development of command an control science and technology is put forward.

  5. DNA methyltransferase controls stem cell aging by regulating BMI1 and EZH2 through microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah-Young So

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is well known mechanism that regulates cellular senescence of cancer cells. Here we show that inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC or with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA against DNMT1 and 3b induced the cellular senescence of human umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (hUCB-MSCs and increased p16(INK4A and p21(CIP1/WAF1 expression. DNMT inhibition changed histone marks into the active forms and decreased the methylation of CpG islands in the p16(INK4A and p21(CIP1/WAF1 promoter regions. Enrichment of EZH2, the key factor that methylates histone H3 lysine 9 and 27 residues, was decreased on the p16(INK4A and p21(CIP1/WAF1 promoter regions. We found that DNMT inhibition decreased expression levels of Polycomb-group (PcG proteins and increased expression of microRNAs (miRNAs, which target PcG proteins. Decreased CpG island methylation and increased levels of active histone marks at genomic regions encoding miRNAs were observed after 5-AzaC treatment. Taken together, DNMTs have a critical role in regulating the cellular senescence of hUCB-MSCs through controlling not only the DNA methylation status but also active/inactive histone marks at genomic regions of PcG-targeting miRNAs and p16(INK4A and p21(CIP1/WAF1 promoter regions.

  6. Wheel slide protection control using a command map and Smith predictor for the pneumatic brake system of a railway vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Kang, Chul-Goo

    2016-10-01

    In railway vehicles, excessive sliding or wheel locking can occur while braking because of a temporarily degraded adhesion between the wheel and the rail caused by the contaminated or wet surface of the rail. It can damage the wheel tread and affect the performance of the brake system and the safety of the railway vehicle. To safeguard the wheelset from these phenomena, almost all railway vehicles are equipped with wheel slide protection (WSP) systems. In this study, a new WSP algorithm is proposed. The features of the proposed algorithm are the use of the target sliding speed, the determination of a command for WSP valves using command maps, and compensation for the time delay in pneumatic brake systems using the Smith predictor. The proposed WSP algorithm was verified using experiments with a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system including the hardware of the pneumatic brake system.

  7. US command improvements and command vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In essence, the United States still relies on the strategic command system erected during the 1960s and 1970s, but as we have seen, this system suffers from a number of serious weaknesses. Among these the authors emphasized the vulnerability of vital communications even before any warheads impact directly on U.S. targets, as well as the systems; heavy reliance on a relatively small number of limited-endurance aircraft as command posts and radio relays. This paper focuses on the committed improvement program, assess its impact on command vulnerability, and offer suggestions for further command improvements designed to enhance crisis stability and to facilitate ware termination should deterrence fail. The reader should note that this chapter is rather more technical than the remainder of this book

  8. MSTI-3 Commander-In-The-Field "Battlefield" Payload Command Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Probert, Todd; Lockwood, Dale

    1994-01-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) Miniature Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) program is conducting research and development into advanced satellite command control architectures, including options for theater command and control by U.S. forces. Elements within the National Test Facility (NTF), Falcon AFB, CO, will use MSTI satellites as prototype test assets to develop and evaluate potential satellite command and control systems to improve future satellite control archit...

  9. Replacement of the instrumentation and control system of Tore Supra; Remplacement du systeme de controle commande de Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P.

    1995-02-01

    The control system of the Tore-Supra is a wide and complex system that cannot be interrupted while running without significant consequences on the operating of the machine. Replacing the current system cannot be achieved in a global way without immobilisation and high costs. Therefore partial changes have been decided on. This work presents the detailed analysis of the arrangements and the operating of the system that will be replaced: the pro`s and con`s that have appeared through experience are related. The possibilities that the new apparatus offers are also examined. A method of step by step replacements had to be set up in order to assess the means, funds, term of achievement, performance and quality of the overall project. (TEC). 15 refs., 29 figs.

  10. A Multi-Component Day-Camp Weight-Loss Program Is Effective in Reducing BMI in Children after One Year: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Ried-Larsen, Mathias;

    2016-01-01

    index (BMI) was the primary outcome. BMI z-score, clustered cardiovascular risk z-score, and body composition were secondary outcomes. All outcomes were measured at baseline, six week-, and 52 week follow-up. After six weeks, children from the day-camp intervention arm had improved their BMI (-2.2 kg/m2.......008)), and clustered cardiovascular risk z-score (-0.23 (95% CI -0.37 to -0.08, P = 0.002)) compared to the standard intervention arm. No group differences were detected in body composition after 52 weeks. This study shows that the day-camp intervention arm is effective in reducing BMI and improving the metabolic...

  11. Command and Control Relation and Centrality Analysis based on SNA%基于SNA的指挥控制关系及其中心性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常树春; 张东戈; 周道安

    2009-01-01

    社会网络分析方法(Social Network Analysis,以下简称SNA)是指挥控制关系研究领域新近引入的一种有效的定量分析方法.从社会学的角度分析了指挥控制关系网络中权力的"影响"和"支配"两个维度,研究了C2组织中的指挥控制权力和指挥控制关系.结合一个想定,从点度中心性和中间中心性两个方面介绍了指挥控制关系中心性研究的基本思路,并且借助于社会网络分析应用软件,对想定中的C2组织进行了中心性的实际计算和分析,得出的结论对于C2组织及指挥控制关系的设计和建模仿真具有重要意义.%Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a quantitative analytical method introduced to the filed of Command and Control (C2) research recently. Two dimension of the power 'influence' and 'domination' in command and control relation network is studied in the point of sociological view. Combined with a scene, we introduced the basic method of researching the centrality of command and control relation network from degree centrality and betweenness centrality, and calculated the centrality of the C2 organization in the scene with the help of SNA software. The conclusion is important to designing C2 organization and C2 relation.

  12. Model-based system-of-systems engineering for space-based command, control, communication, and information architecture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindiy, Oleg V.

    executing multi-purpose analysis studies is presented. These efforts are coupled to the generation of aggregate and time-dependent solution performance metrics via the hierarchical decomposition of objectives and the analytical recomposition of multi-attribute qualitative program drivers from quantifiable measures. This methodology was also applied to generate problem-specific solution structure evaluation metrics that facilitate the comparison of alternate solutions at a high level of aggregation, at lower levels of abstraction, and to relate options for design variables with associated performance values. For proof-of-capability demonstration, the selected application problem concerns the design of command, control, communication, and information (C3I) architecture services for a notional campaign of crewed and robotic lunar surface missions. The impetus for the work was the demonstration of using model-based SoSE for design of sustainable interoperability capabilities between all data and communication assets in extended lunar campaigns. A comprehensive Lunar C3I simulation tool was developed by a team of researchers at Purdue University in support of NASA's Constellation Program; the author of this dissertation was a key contributor to the creation of this tool and made modifications and extensions to key components relevant to the methodological concepts presented in this dissertation. The dissertation concludes with a presentation of example results based on the interrogation of the constructed Lunar C3I computational model. The results are based on a family of studies, structured around a trade-tree of architecture options, which were conducted to test the hypothesis that the SoSE approach is efficacious in the information-exchange architecture design in space exploration domain. Included in the family of proof-of-capability studies is a simulation of the Apollo 17 mission, which allows not only for partial verification and validation of the model, but also provides

  13. 基于BMI方法的线性系统的关联稳定与协调控制%BMI Approach to the Interconnected Stability and Cooperative Control of Linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    年晓红; 曹莉

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the interconnected stability and cooperative control of large-scale linear systems. Using the technique of the bilinear matrix inequality (BMI), the necessary and sufficient conditions are given for interconnected stability and cooperative stabilization of two subsystems. It is shown that the systems can be cooperatively stabilized even if the subsystems are not stable.It is not necessary for us to presume the stability of the subsystems. Furthermore, the problems of designing interconnected and cooperative controllers are converted into the optimization problems using BMI constraints. To solve these problems, certain optimal alternate algorithms are proposed, and the proof for the convergence of the algorithms is presented. Finally, several examples are given to illustrate the optimization results.

  14. Voice command weapons launching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. E.

    1984-09-01

    This abstract discloses a voice-controlled weapons launching system for use by a pilot of an aircraft against a plurality of simultaneously appearing (i.e., existing) targets, such as two or more aggressor aircraft (or tanks, or the like) attacking more aggressor aircraft. The system includes, in combination, a voice controlled input device linked to and controlling a computer; apparatus (such as a television camera, receiver, and display), linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot, for acquiring and displaying an image of the multi-target area; a laser, linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot to point to (and to lock on to) any one of the plurality of targets, with the laser emitting a beam toward the designated (i.e., selected) target; and a plurality of laser beam-rider missiles, with a different missile being launched toward and attacking each different designated target by riding the laser beam to that target. Unlike the prior art, the system allows the pilot to use his hands full-time to fly and to control the aircraft, while also permitting him to launch each different missile in rapid sequence by giving a two-word spoken command after he has visually selected each target of the plurality of targets, thereby making it possible for the pilot of a single defender aircraft to prevail against the plurality of simultaneously attacking aircraft, or tanks, or the like.

  15. Remote Task-level Commanding of Centaur over Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Ngo, Tam; Burridge, Robert; Wang, Lui; Izygon, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Remote operation of robots on the lunar surface by ground controllers poses unique human-robot interaction challenges due to time delay and constrained bandwidth. One strategy for addressing these challenges is to provide task-level commanding of robots by a ground controller. Decision-support tools are being developed at JSC for remote task-level commanding over time-delay. The approach is to provide ground procedures that guide a controller when executing task-level command sequences and aid awareness of the state of command execution in the robot. This approach is being evaluated using the Centaur robot at JSC. The Centaur Central Commander provides a task-level command interface that executes on the robot side of the delay. Decision support tools have been developed for a human Supervisor in the JSC Cockpit to use when interacting with the Centaur Central Commander. Commands to the Central Commander are defined as instructions in a procedure. Sequences of these instructions are grouped into procedures for the Cockpit Supervisor. When a Supervisor is ready to perform a task, a procedure is loaded into the decision support tool. From this tool, the Supervisor can view command sequences and dispatch individual commands to Centaur. Commands are queued for execution on the robot side of the delay. Reliable command sequences can be dispatched automatically upon approval by the Supervisor. The decision support tool provides the Supervisor with feedback about which commands are waiting for execution and which commands have finished. It also informs the Supervisor when a command fails to have its intended effect. Cockpit procedures are defined using the Procedure Representation Language (PRL) developed at JSC for mission operations. The decision support tool is based on a Procedure Sequencer and multi-agent software developed for human-robot interaction. In this paper the approach for remote task-level commanding of robots is described and the results of the evaluation

  16. 基于坐标变换的武器平台运动模拟%Non-Command Control Platform Simulation Based on Coordinate Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕

    2012-01-01

      A method of non-command control platform movement simulation is given using the coordinate transformation technology in this paper, and a right line and a broken line movement model are established, basing on this movement model, Real-time target movement track is calculated, and dynamic process track is realized.%  利用坐标转换技术提出了一种武器平台运动模拟方法,建立了直线、折线运动模型,并根据所建立的模型实时计算目标运动轨迹,实现了航迹的动态推演

  17. Contribution to the evaluation of safety of software used in command control systems in nuclear plants: application to the SPIN N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The licensing procedures process of nuclear plants features compulsory steps which bring about a thorough exam of the commands control system. This analysis accounts for the aspects linked to technologies (integrated circuits, software packages) which have been chosen by the manufacturer for the programmed systems in charge of safety functions. Important innovations have been introduced in terms of design and manufacturing processes of safety systems of 1400 MWe pressurized water reactors, more precisely for the integrated numerical protection system (SPIN). The methodology used by the IPSN for the exam of the software of this system is presented in the communication. This methodology leads the IPSN to carry out studies and developments of tools keeping in sight as their main goal to bring substantial help to analysis. (authors). 2 refs

  18. Survivability enhancement study for C/sup 3/I/BM (communications, command, control and intelligence/battle management) ground segments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-30

    This study involves a concept developed by the Fairchild Space Company which is directly applicable to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Program as well as other national security programs requiring reliable, secure and survivable telecommunications systems. The overall objective of this study program was to determine the feasibility of combining and integrating long-lived, compact, autonomous isotope power sources with fiber optic and other types of ground segments of the SDI communications, command, control and intelligence/battle management (C/sup 3/I/BM) system in order to significantly enhance the survivability of those critical systems, especially against the potential threats of electromagnetic pulse(s) (EMP) resulting from high altitude nuclear weapon explosion(s). 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. A Survey on Adaptive Command and Control Organizational Design%适应性指挥控制组织设计与研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万路军; 姚佩阳; 梁霄

    2011-01-01

    近年来,适应性指挥控制组织设计已经成为指挥控制领域的研究热点之一.分析了指挥控制组织设计的理论和方法,包括计算数学组织理论、Agent组织模型、Petri网、系统工程技术等,归纳总结相关技术的各自优势和不足之处.特别针对适应性和鲁棒性分析、组织测试、组织结构和任务计划识别3个指挥组织设计研究的新动向进行了细致阐述,指出了各研究领域方向的发展趋势,对开展指挥控制组织设计研究具有一定的指导意义.%The adaptive Command and Control (C2) organizational design becomes one of the hotspots in recent years. The theory and method of C2 organizational design was analyzed, including computational mathematics organization theory, agent organizational model, petri net, and system engineering technology. The advantages and shortages of each technology were summarized. The three new research orientations in organizational design were expatiated, including adaptability and robustness analysis, organizational test, organizational structure and mission plan identification. The further development tendency on each research orientation was discussed. It is meaningful to the investigation of command and control organizational design for the future.

  20. A weight-neutral versus weight-loss approach for health promotion in women with high BMI: A randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensinger, Janell L; Calogero, Rachel M; Stranges, Saverio; Tylka, Tracy L

    2016-10-01

    Weight loss is the primary recommendation for health improvement in individuals with high body mass index (BMI) despite limited evidence of long-term success. Alternatives to weight-loss approaches (such as Health At Every Size - a weight-neutral approach) have been met with their own concerns and require further empirical testing. This study compared the effectiveness of a weight-neutral versus a weight-loss program for health promotion. Eighty women, aged 30-45 years, with high body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) were randomized to 6 months of facilitator-guided weekly group meetings using structured manuals that emphasized either a weight-loss or weight-neutral approach to health. Health measurements occurred at baseline, post-intervention, and 24-months post-randomization. Measurements included blood pressure, lipid panels, blood glucose, BMI, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, distress, self-esteem, quality of life, dietary risk, fruit and vegetable intake, intuitive eating, and physical activity. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed using linear mixed-effects models to examine group-by-time interaction effects and between and within-group differences. Group-by-time interactions were found for LDL cholesterol, intuitive eating, BMI, weight, and dietary risk. At post-intervention, the weight-neutral program had larger reductions in LDL cholesterol and greater improvements in intuitive eating; the weight-loss program had larger reductions in BMI, weight, and larger (albeit temporary) decreases in dietary risk. Significant positive changes were observed overall between baseline and 24-month follow-up for waist-to-hip ratio, total cholesterol, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, self-esteem, and quality of life. These findings highlight that numerous health benefits, even in the absence of weight loss, are achievable and sustainable in the long term using a weight-neutral approach. The trial positions weight-neutral programs as a

  1. For an offshore construction: a digital control orbital system; Pour une construction offshore, un systeme orbital a commande numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-01-15

    To carry out in offshore conditions, a pipeline in South-East Asia, the Korean Hyundai has retained an orbital welding system running with several pairs of torches perfectly synchronized with their digital control. (O.M.)

  2. Operation safety of control systems. Principles and methods; Surete de fonctionnement des systemes de commande. Principes et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, J.F. [Institut National Polytechnique, 54 - Nancy (France); Chatelet, E. [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 10 (France)

    2008-09-15

    This article presents the main operation safety methods that can be implemented to design safe control systems taking into account the behaviour of the different components with each other (binary 'operation/failure' behaviours, non-consistent behaviours and 'hidden' failures, dynamical behaviours and temporal aspects etc). To take into account these different behaviours, advanced qualitative and quantitative methods have to be used which are described in this article: 1 - qualitative methods of analysis: functional analysis, preliminary risk analysis, failure mode and failure effects analyses; 2 - quantitative study of systems operation safety: binary representation models, state space-based methods, event space-based methods; 3 - application to the design of control systems: safe specifications of a control system, qualitative analysis of operation safety, quantitative analysis, example of application; 4 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  3. State Constrained Optimal Control Applied to Supervisory Control in HEVs Commande optimale avec restrictions d’états appliquée à la supervision de l’énergie de véhicules hybrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez L.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of the supervisory control of hybrid electric vehicles over predetermined driving cycles has been used as a previous study for determining on-line strategies and also for design and sizing purposes. This problem may be posed as an optimal control problem, in which the energy in the bank of batteries is often the state variable, and the power from any of the system sources is, the control action. As both of these quantities are bounded, the optimal control problem has control constraints or state constraints or both. Usually, the charge-sustaining mode of operation is ensured just by imposing a transversality condition, i.e. a fixed final energy, or including an additional term in the cost functional that penalizes the moving away of the state variable from the nominal value. We considered the problem where the state is allowed to move freely within a band. This led to an optimal control problem with control and state constraints. In this work we describe the difficulties that arise while solving the equations given by the Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle and how these difficulties can be overcome by using the so-called Direct Transcription approach that consists of a programming tool to solve the resultant large-scale finite dimensional optimization problem. L’optimisation de la commande au niveau superviseur de véhicules hybrides sur cycles d’usage prédéterminés a été utilisée comme une première étude pour déterminer des stratégies en ligne mais aussi avec des objectifs de conception et dimensionnement. Ce problème peut être posé comme un problème de commande optimale, où l’énergie dans les batteries est généralement la variable d’état et où la puissance de n’importe quelle source du système est l’action de commande. Comme ces deux quantités sont bornées, le problème de commande optimale a des restrictions sur la fonction de commande et sur l’état. Généralement, le fonctionnement

  4. Extraction of neural control commands using myoelectric pattern recognition: a novel application in adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Li, Xiaoyan; Marciniak, Christina; Rymer, William Zev; Zhou, Ping

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates an electromyogram (EMG)-based neural interface toward hand rehabilitation for patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Forty-eight channels of surface EMG signals were recorded from the forearm of eight adult subjects with CP, while they tried to perform six different hand grasp patterns. A series of myoelectric pattern recognition analyses were performed to identify the movement intention of each subject with different EMG feature sets and classifiers. Our results indicate that across all subjects high accuracies (average overall classification accuracy > 98%) can be achieved in classification of six different hand movements, suggesting that there is substantial motor control information contained in paretic muscles of the CP subjects. Furthermore, with a feature selection analysis, it was found that a small number of ranked EMG features can maintain high classification accuracies comparable to those obtained using all the EMG features (average overall classification accuracy > 96% with 16 selected EMG features). The findings of the study suggest that myoelectric pattern recognition may be a useful control strategy for promoting hand rehabilitation in CP patients.

  5. Free Surface Command Layer for Photoswitchable Out-of-Plane Alignment Control in Liquid Crystalline Polymer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Takashi; Tanaka, Daisuke; Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Seki, Takahiro

    2016-01-26

    To date, reversible alignment controls of liquid crystalline materials have widely been achieved by photoreactive layers on solid substrates. In contrast, this work demonstrates the reversible out-of-plane photocontrols of liquid crystalline polymer films by using a photoresponsive skin layer existing at the free surface. A polymethacrylate containing a cyanobiphenyl side-chain mesogen adopts the planar orientation. Upon blending a small amount of azobenzene-containing side-chain polymer followed by successive annealing, segregation of the azobenzene polymer at the free surface occurs and induces a planar to homeotropic orientation transition of cyanobiphenyl mesogens underneath. By irradiation with UV light, the mesogen orientation turns into the planar orientation. The orientation reverts to the homeotropic state upon visible light irradiation or thermally, and such cyclic processes can be repeated many times. On the basis of this principle, erasable optical patterning is performed by irradiating UV light through a photomask.

  6. Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts KidsHealth > For Parents > Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts Print A A A Text ... same age. Now they have another tool: body mass index (BMI). BMI is a calculation that uses ...

  7. An agent-based approach to decluttering the interfaces of multi-UAV command and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Stephen; Dwyer, Nathan

    2007-04-01

    Information overload and cluttered user interfaces can lead to decreased situational awareness and lowered performance of human operators. Irrelevant data increases searching times for tasks requiring the identification of threats, causing delayed decisions. Cognitive burden on the user increases as displays become more cluttered, which results in increased operator stress leading to poor decision-making ability. To address this issue, we have designed an intelligent agentbased system for the automatic de-cluttering of a representative net-centric interface designed for controlling multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) by a single operator. Our concept is called ARID, for Agent-based Reduction of Information Density. The ARID hypothesis is that intelligent agents can improve operator performance by deemphasizing those aspects of a display that can be inferred as less-important to the mission goals. ARID agents receive information about the world via data feeds provided by various net-centric sources. Each agent has an understanding of the user interface symbols that are used to represent various entities, terrain features, and zones. The agent also is provided with a mission goal which is used for inferring the relevance of a given symbol to the success of the mission goal. First level facts, such as spatial relationships, are calculated by supporting agents and assigned a BDU (belief/disbelief/uncertainty) value. A dynamic set of rules provides an inference mechanism by which an agent can infer new facts from the given assertions. We have developed a Subjective Logic-based Evidential Reasoning Network that explicitly deals with belief and uncertainty in the knowledge base, and is used to derive a relevancy belief for every UI symbol in the map display. Subjective Logic is used to combine values when different sources provide different results for the same symbol. User Interface agents apply the results of the relevancy beliefs and transform the display to

  8. Research on Security Control of Info-Net for Command Information System%指挥信息系统信息网络安全控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金朝; 杨文; 李英华; 梁良

    2014-01-01

    针对指挥信息系统日益凸显的信息网络安全问题,分析了指挥信息系统结构模型及面临的安全威胁,在此基础上运用网络控制论的原理和方法,建立了指挥信息系统安全控制的基本框架和技术体系,明确了信息网络安全控制的核心内容和技术措施,并举例分析了信息网络安全控制系统的体系结构及组成功能,为有效保障指挥信息系统信息网络安全提供了新的途径和方法。%Focus on the security of Info-Net for command information system of our army,this paper analyses the configuration and the current safety threaten of command information system,use the theory and method of Network Cybernetics to establish basic framework and technology architecture of security control for command information system,defines the kernel and measures of security control, illustrates the architecture framework and function of security control system. It provides a new method to effectively protect the security of Info-Net for command information system.

  9. Robot Task Commander with Extensible Programming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen W (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Wightman, Brian J (Inventor); Dinh, Duy Paul (Inventor); Gooding, Dustin R (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for developing distributed robot application-level software includes a robot having an associated control module which controls motion of the robot in response to a commanded task, and a robot task commander (RTC) in networked communication with the control module over a network transport layer (NTL). The RTC includes a script engine(s) and a GUI, with a processor and a centralized library of library blocks constructed from an interpretive computer programming code and having input and output connections. The GUI provides access to a Visual Programming Language (VPL) environment and a text editor. In executing a method, the VPL is opened, a task for the robot is built from the code library blocks, and data is assigned to input and output connections identifying input and output data for each block. A task sequence(s) is sent to the control module(s) over the NTL to command execution of the task.

  10. Command and Control Modes for Attack of Time-Sensitive Targets%时间敏感目标打击指挥控制模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    端木竹筠; 闫晶晶

    2012-01-01

    An attack chain model of time-sensitive target based on several decision variables and constrains is developed. Three command and control modes for the attack of time-sensitive targets, including decider-led mode, sensor-led mode and shooter-led mode are discussed based on optimization of the attack chain model. Then, the battle condition and factors affecting the efficiency for each mode are analyzed.%通过引入决策变量和约束条件对时间敏感目标(简称时敏目标)打击链进行了模型描述,并根据模型的优化问题引入了时敏目标打击的指挥控制模式,包括决策者主导模式、传感器主导模式以及射手主导模式,分析了每种模式适合的作战情形以及作战效能的影响因素。

  11. Internal models for interpreting neural population activity during sensorimotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Chase, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    To successfully guide limb movements, the brain takes in sensory information about the limb, internally tracks the state of the limb, and produces appropriate motor commands. It is widely believed that this process uses an internal model, which describes our prior beliefs about how the limb responds to motor commands. Here, we leveraged a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus monkeys and novel statistical analyses of neural population activity to gain insight into moment-by-moment internal model computations. We discovered that a mismatch between subjects' internal models and the actual BMI explains roughly 65% of movement errors, as well as long-standing deficiencies in BMI speed control. We then used the internal models to characterize how the neural population activity changes during BMI learning. More broadly, this work provides an approach for interpreting neural population activity in the context of how prior beliefs guide the transformation of sensory input to motor output.

  12. Modelling command and control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den; Essens, P.J.M.D.; Post, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a computational approach to modelling and simulating C2-team behaviour. Within this approach team models may be used to develop, test, and compare different C2-architectures, that is different structures and processes, without the need for real teams. The advantage of this metho

  13. 基于实体的指挥控制过程仿真建模%Entity-based Modeling and Simulation of Command and Control Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高飞; 高阜乡; 王钰; 杨威

    2012-01-01

    指挥控制是军队遂行军事任务的关键环节,对指挥控制过程进行建模并采用仿真的方法对其效能进行评估,进而考察指挥控制系统的典型效能指标是否符合预期的需求,具有重要的理论和应用意义.采用基于实体的仿真建模方法,提出指挥控制过程的实体仿真建模框架,以信息流为重点,从信息获取、信息融合、信息共享、自身任务规划、作战筹划、部队掌控、任务执行和信息输出等八个方面对其进行建模,实现了对指挥控制过程的描述,有效支撑了指挥控制系统仿真效能评估.%Command and control process is a key link in military operations. As a result, it is of important theory value and practice significance to model and to assess C2 process as to validate whether typical effectiveness can meet the intended requirements. Using the modeling and simulation method based on entity a modeling framework of C2 entity is built, which emphasizes information flow and abstract C2 systems through information gathering, information fusion, information sharing, self behavior planning, plan making, inferior action controlling, task executing and information exporting. The method describes the C2 capability and behavior in detail and supports the C2 system effectiveness evaluation significantly.

  14. 体重指数与乳腺癌发病风险的病例对照研究%BMI and breast cancer:a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟健华; 石晶; 曲秀娟; 滕月娥; 于萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer.Methods:A case-control study (1 ∶ 1 matched) was conducted between June 2008 and August 2009 in the First Hospital of China Medical University.Three hundred and thirty breast cancer patients and 330 healthy people from the Health Examination Center were matched with age(-5 years old),sex and region.Information was collected on their BMI index at 21 years old,5 years ago and now.Conditional logistic regression was applied to analyze the risk factors of breast cancer.Results:The adjusted ORs and 95% CI of BMI at 5 years ago,menopause and passive smoking were 1.465 (1.016-2.112),2.347 (1.459-3.777) and 1.384 (1.009-1.897),respectively.Conclusion:Overweight at 5 years ago was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Chinese women,menopause and passive smoking were also the risk factors of breast cancer.%目的:探讨体重指数(BMI)与乳腺癌发病风险的关系.方法:采用1∶1匹配病例对照研究,收集2008年6月至2009年8月由中国医科大学附属第一医院确诊的女性乳腺癌患者330例及同期就诊体检中心的健康人群330例,调查患者21岁时、5年前及目前的BMI指数.采用多因素条件Logistic回归分析乳腺癌发病风险的影响因素.结果:5年前BMI指数、绝经、被动吸烟的OR值及95%可信区间分别是1.465(1.016-2.112)、2.347(1.459-3.777)和1.384(1.009-1.897).结论:5年前超重可明显增加乳腺癌发病的危险,绝经和暴露被动吸烟是乳腺癌发病的危险因素.

  15. Lessons learned in simulating a command center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Gregory A.; Cantor, Robert M.; Wenzel, Gregory

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents some lessons learned from simulating the operation of a command center in distributed interactive simulations (DIS). We present the design of the Booz Allen Command Center Systems Interface (C2SI) in terms of its functional architecture as well as the technologies used in its implementation. We discuss the design of the distributed component interfaces based on cooperating software agent pairs. We discuss aspects of several issues in simulating command and control systems in the ADS/DIS environment, namely, interoperation of constructive and virtual simulation, situation awareness, communication with adjacent C2 entities, control of subordinate entities and external sensors, terrain/environmental data management, and data collection for after-action reporting.

  16. Bayesian Decision Support for Military Command and Control%军事指挥控制中的贝叶斯决策支持

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉

    2013-01-01

    军事指挥控制是一个复杂的决策过程,该过程中信息是结合定性的专家知识和定量的融合数据而得到的.贝叶斯网为指挥控制系统提供了一个框架来处理这种专家知识和具体数据相结合的问题,并且影响图作为贝叶斯网的延伸可被用于分析指挥控制系统中某个决策的可行性.进一步地,为了减少所需指定的条件概率的数量并引入时变的概念,提出动态影响网作为一种新的决策支持方法.%The military Command and Control (C2) is a complicated decision process.Moreover,the information acquirement of this decision process is based on the qualitative data of experts'knowledge structure and quantitative fusion data.Bayesian Networks (BNs) provide a framework for the C2 system in which to deal with the problems combining the experts' knowledge structure and specific data,and Influence Diagrams can be used to analysis the feasibility of some decisions in the C2 system as the extension of BNs.Furthermore,in order to decrease the amount of assigned conditional probabilities and introduce the concept of time-varying,Dynamic Influence Networks is proposed to be used as a new method of decision-making support.

  17. Using HMI Weintek in command of an industrial robot arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, C.; Latinovic, T.; Balan, I. B. A.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.

    2015-06-01

    The present paper intends to highlight the utility and importance of HMI in the control of the robotic arm, commanding a Siemens PLC. The touch screen HMI Weinteke MT3070a is the user interface in the process command of Siemens PLC, in which the distances and displacement speeds are introduced on the three axes. The interface includes monitoring robotic arm movement but also allows its command by incrementing step by step the motion over axis.

  18. Marriage, BMI, and wages: a double selection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Obesity rates have been rising over the past decade. As more people become obese, the social stigma of obesity may be reduced. Marriage has typically been used as a positive signal to employers. If obese individuals possess other characteristics that are valued in the labour market they may no longer face a wage penalty for their physical appearance. This paper investigates the relationship between marital status, body mass index (BMI), and wages by estimating a double selection model that controls for selection into the labour and marriage markets using waves 14 and 16 (2004 and 2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. Results suggest that unobserved characteristics related to marriage and labour market participation are causing an upward bias on the BMI coefficients. The BMI coefficient is positive and significant for married men only in the double selection model. The findings provide evidence that unobserved characteristics related to success in the marriage and labour market may influence the relationship between BMI and wages.

  19. Construction of antisense Bmi-1 expression plasmid and its inhibitory effect on K562 cells proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiu-xiang; LIU Wei-hong; LIU Dan-dan; ZHAO Xin-yu; SU Ben-li

    2005-01-01

    Background Bmi-1 gene determines the proliferative capacity of normal and leukemia stem cells. Expression of Bmi-1 has been found in all types of myeloid leukemia cells in both humans and mice. This study aimed at assessing the effect of antisense Bmi-1 expression on K562 cells proliferation and p16 protein (p16) expression.Results K562 cells transfected with antisense Bmi-1 plasmid grew significantly slower than that of controls (the parental K562 and cells transfected with empty plasmid). The colony forming ability of antisense Bmi-1 plasmid transfected cells decreased significantly (P<0.01) compared with controls. The p16 expression of cells transfected with antisense Bmi-1 was upgraded more apparently than that of controls.Conclusion The antisense Bmi-1 gene can inhibit the growth of K562 cell and upgrade expression of p16 in K562 cells.

  20. 基于命令语法结构特征的IRC僵尸网络控制命令识别方法%A method for identification of IRC botnets'control commands based on syntax features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫健恩; 张兆心; 许海燕

    2013-01-01

    To solve the problem of detection of an IRC Botnet's control commands,a syntax feature-based identification method is presented.The method,firstly,analyzes the lexical features of keywords and parameters of IRC Botnet control commands,and then unifies them for input processing.Secondly,starting from the features of syntax structures such as the type and amount of parameters,three kinds of control commands' formalized grammar descriptions are defined to fit different syntax structures,furthermore a prototype system based on the LR parsing technique is designed and implemented.The availability of the method was verified by experiment and the experimental results showed that the grammar had the good ability in recognizing the Botnet control commands,and its performance met the pactical requirement.%通过分析僵尸网络控制命令的语法结构特征,提出一种基于语法结构特征识别IRC僵尸网络控制命令的方法.该方法首先分析命令关键字和命令参数的词法特征,对其进行归一化处理,其次从参数的类型和数量等语法结构特征出发,定义三种僵尸网络控制命令的文法形式化描述,以适合不同的命令语法结构,并基于LR语法分析技术实现识别原型系统.最后经过实验测试,结果表明文法对僵尸网络控制命令有很好的识别能力,从而验证了方法的有效性,且性能能够满足实际的需要.

  1. Design of Software of Command and Control System with Multitask and Man-machine Interaction Based on Tilcon%基于Tilcon的指控系统多任务人机交互软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟; 许春雷; 孔军

    2011-01-01

    Tilcon是军事特别是指挥控制领域广泛使用的人机交互界面开发工具.简单介绍了Tilcon的组成和人机交互处理流程,分析了应用Tilcon处理多任务人机交互事件的不足,设计了一个基于Tilcon的指控系统多任务人机交互软件架构,并给出了具体实现方法.工程应用表明,该人机交互软件体系结构清晰,具有较好的健壮性、开放性和兼容性,可显著提高指控系统人机交互处理的实时性.%Tilcon is the main development tool of man-machine interaction of command and control system. Tilcon's composition and method of Man-machine Interaction are simply introduced. After analyzing the shortage of handling multitask and man-machine interaction with Tilcon, a multitask man-machine interaction software architecture of command and control system and a realizing method based on Tilcon are lay out. According to practical application, the architecture is legible, with preferable robustness, open and compatibility. It can obviously improve real-time performance of command and control system's Man-machine Interaction.

  2. Effects of a 20-month cluster randomised controlled school-based intervention trial on BMI of school-aged boys and girls: the HEIA study

    OpenAIRE

    Grydeland, May; Bjelland, Mona; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bergh, Ingunn Holden; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Lien, Nanna

    2013-01-01

    Background School-based interventions that target prevention of overweight and obesity in children have been tested with mixed results. Thus, successful interventions are still called for. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of a multicomponent school-based intervention programme targeting physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours on anthropometric outcomes. Methods A 20-month intervention was evaluated in a cluster randomised, controlled study of 1324 11-year-ol...

  3. Young Children and Turtle Graphics Programming: Understanding Turtle Commands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, Diane O.

    The LOGO programing language developed for children includes a set of primitive graphics commands that control the displacement and rotation of a display screen cursor called a turtle. The purpose of this study was to examine 4- to 7-year-olds' understanding of single turtle commands as transformations that connect turtle states and to…

  4. 拮抗细菌BMY-1菌株对几种水果储藏病原真菌的抑制作用%Inhibition of Antagonistic Bacterium BMY-1 on Fungal Pathogens of Some Postharvest Fruits and Controls on Fruit Rots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    暴增海; 李一; 曹冬阳

    2007-01-01

    采用平板对峙培养法测定从土壤中分离获得的拮抗细菌BMY-1菌株对柑桔绿霉病菌(Penicillium digatatum)、柑桔青霉病菌(Penicillium italicum)、苹果炭疽病菌(Glomerella cingulata)、苹果轮纹病菌(Physalospora piricola)、梨扩展青霉病菌(Penicillium expansum)、葡萄白腐病菌(Coniothyrium dlodiella)等6种水果产后病原真菌的抑制作用.结果表明,BMY-1菌株对苹果炭疽病菌(G.cingulata)和梨扩展青霉菌(P.expansum)的生长有较好的作用,抑菌率分别达48.43%和50.37%.采用液体共培养法观察到BMY-1菌株对病原真菌的菌丝有破坏作用,使苹果炭疽病菌菌丝扭曲和断裂,葡萄白腐病菌菌丝膨大畸形.对几种水果同时接种拮抗细菌BMY-1和病原真菌,BMY-1菌株对苹果炭疽病病斑和梨扩青病病斑扩展有较强的抑制作用,并能有效延迟葡萄白腐病发病时间.

  5. Genetic Sensitivity to the Bitter Taste of 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP and Its Association with Physiological Mechanisms Controlling Body Mass Index (BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly J. Tepper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP is considered a marker for individual differences in taste perception that may influence food preferences and eating behavior, and thereby energy metabolism. This review describes genetic factors that may contribute to PROP sensitivity including: (1 the variants of the TAS2R38 bitter receptor with their different affinities for the stimulus; (2 the gene that controls the gustin protein that acts as a salivary trophic factor for fungiform taste papillae; and (3 other specific salivary proteins that could be involved in facilitating the binding of the PROP molecule with its receptor. In addition, we speculate on the influence of taste sensitivity on energy metabolism, possibly via modulation of the endocannabinoid system, and its possible role in regulating body composition homeostasis.

  6. Early life cognitive abilities and body weight: cross-sectional study of the association of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and sustained attention with BMI percentiles in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494. PMID:25874122

  7. Hierarchical Control for Optimised Operation of a Gas Plant At Mobil Oil La commande hiérarchique pour une conduite optimisée d'unité de gas plant (Mobil Oil française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbi O.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the interest and the benefit of hierarchical control through a typical example as applied to a gas plant. After a description of the hierarchical control principles, the plant is presented to highlight the interest of such an approach. The implemented control architecture consists of regular controllers and two Model Based Predictive Control algorithms (MONOREG and IDCOM-HIECON whose capabilities were helpful in this application. The implementation of these algorithms follows several steps which make use of the corresponding CAD tools. The performance is evaluated in different operating conditions, once the designed controllers are installed on the process computer. En s'appuyant sur une application exemplaire, cet article décrit l'intérêt et l'apport de la commande hiérarchique dans la conduite optimisée d'une unité. Après une description des principes de la hiérarchisation, la présentation de l'atelier gas plantmet en évidence l'intérêt d'une telle approche. L'architecture de commande fait intervenir des régulations classiques et deux algorithmes de commande prédictive mono et multivariable (MONOREG et IDCOM-HIECON dont les fonctionnalités sont mises à profit dans l'application. La mise en oeuvre de ces algorithmes comprend plusieurs étapes qui exploitent les outils de CAO associés. Après implantation dans le calculateur du site, les performances sont évaluées dans les différents modes opératoires.

  8. Bmi-1, stem cells and prostate carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Moscatelli; E Lynette Wilson

    2011-01-01

    @@ Malignant transformation is likely to arise in a subset of organ-specific primitive cells that are subverted to acquire the properties of uncontrolled self-renewal.1,2 It is therefore likely that stem cells and tumor-initiating cells share many properties and that an understanding of the biology of normal stem cells and the identification of the pathways and molecules that regulate their self-renewal may result in our ability to design inhibitors that control the growth of tumor cells.In an interesting recent paper, Lukacs et al.3 show that the polycomb group transcriptional repressor, Bmi-1, regulates the self-renewal of normal prostate stem cells and also contributes to the initiation of prostate cancer.

  9. Rod cluster control assemblies and rod cluster control guide tubes: wear and drop time; Grappes de commande et guides de grappes: usure et tempes de chute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbinden, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-12-31

    The wear of RCCAs and of RCC guide tubes is due to two quite different mechanisms and the remedies to apply for each case might lead to contradictory solutions: - the impact/sliding wear for the seldom moving RCCAs, namely the shutdown RCCAs, under flow-induced vibrations, - the axial sliding wear for the control rods subjected to the stepping movements ordered by the acting load. In this case the hydraulic sticking forces are those which produce an evolution of the surface states that may increase the drop time. The introduction, an historical survey of the encountered difficulties, is followed by short description of the components and then the paper presents contributions of EDF in the R and D field, which take place in two successive multi-annual projects. Lastly, some information is given about the recent evolutions and new problems as well for impact/sliding wear as for drop time under normal or seismic conditions. (author).

  10. The Double Love Commandment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gospel of Matthew was written during a period of dispute between the Matthean community and their fellow Jews, with the Pharisees playing a leading role. The Matthean community was heir to the same scriptures as its opponents. They continued to have a firm commitment to the Torah, but they developed a distinctive understanding of it based on Jesus’ teaching. The formation of this community is investigated in this article, considering the Mediterranean perspectives of group-oriented societies prevalent in the first century. Such a group provided a sense of self and an interactive support system, where love functioned to bind the group together. The subordinates showed their undivided loyalty towards their superiors because of the favours they received from them, whilst they supported and cared for other members within the group as they care for themselves. Reading the double love commandment of Matthew 22:34−40 from this perspective reveals significant aspects of the community’s identity with regard to their commitment to God and their view of their neighbours.Die Dubbele Liefdesgebod. Die Matteusevangelie is gedurende ’n periode van konfliktussen die Matteusgemeenskap en mede-Jode geskryf met die Fariseërs in ’n leidende rol. Die Matteusgemeenskap het van dieselfde geskrifte as hulle opponente gebruik gemaak. Hulle was steeds aan die Torah lojaal, maar het ’n unieke interpretasie daarvan gehuldig, gebaseer op die onderrig van Jesus. In hierdie artikel word die vorming van die Matteusgemeenskap ondersoek met inagneming van die Mediterreense beskouing van die groepgeoriënteerde gemeenskappe wat tipies van die eerste eeu was. So ’n groep het aan individue ’n bewustheid van eie waarde verskaf te midde van ’n interaktiewe ondersteuningsisteem waarin liefde as samebindende faktor gefunksioneer het. Ondergeskiktes het onverdeelde lojaliteit teenoor hulle meerderes betoon vanweë die gunste wat hulle van die meerderes geniet het

  11. 面向服务的指挥控制系统协作方法研究%Research on Collaboration Method of Service-oriented Command and Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘杭萍; 雷智朋

    2014-01-01

    As the diverse needs of the new military revolution and diversified military tasks, command and control system faces unprecedented challenges. Research shows that service-oriented collaboration applications can effectively enhance infor-mation systems real-time information sharing and collaboration capabilities, but the existing platform adaptability and scal-ability is not strong. By introducing live object technology, this paper presents a design of a live object-based application framework for collaborative services, and the prototype system was established based on command and control system. Analy-sis shows that the proposed service collaboration application framework has good adaptability and scalability, which is impor-tant for the build of the command and control systems under the condition of information.%新军事变革和多样化军事任务为当前指挥控制系统带来了前所未有的挑战。研究表明,面向服务协作( Service-oriented Collaboration,SOC)的应用可以有效增强信息系统的实时信息共享和协同能力,但现有平台存在自适应性和扩展性不强等问题。通过引入灵活对象技术,设计提出了一种基于灵活对象的服务协作应用框架,并基于指挥控制系统建立了原型系统。应用分析表明,该服务协作应用框架具有很好的自适应性和扩展性,有利于信息化条件下的指挥控制系统快速构建的要求。

  12. Dysregulation of Bmi1 promotes malignant transformation of hepatic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Wu, W R; Shi, X D; Xu, L B; Zhu, M S; Zeng, H; Liu, C

    2016-01-01

    Adult hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are involved in a wide range of human liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bmi1 has been reported to have vital roles in stem cell self-renewal and carcinogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that Bmi1 is upregulated in HCC with bile duct tumor thrombi, a subtype of HCC characterized by profuse expression of hepatic stem cell markers. However, the function of Bmi1 in HPCs has not yet been well elucidated. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of Bmi1 on the biological properties of rat HPCs. To accomplish this, Bmi1 was silenced or enhanced in two HPC cell lines (WB-F344 and OC3) by, respectively, using either small interfering RNA against Bmi1 or a forced Bmi1 expression retroviral vector. The biological functions of Bmi1 in HPCs were investigated through cell proliferation assays, colony-formation assays, cell cycle analysis and invasion assays, as well as through xenograft-formation assays. In this study, genetic depletion of Bmi1 repressed cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion in both assessed HPC cell lines relative to controls. Conversely, forced expression of Bmi1 in two HPCs cell lines promoted cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion in vitro. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) assay revealed a significant increase in the number of ALDH-positive cells following the forced expression of Bmi1 in HPCs. Most importantly, transplantation of forced Bmi1 expression HPCs into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors with histological features of poorly differentiated HCC. Taken together, our findings indicate that forced expression of Bmi1 promotes the malignant transformation of HPCs, suggesting Bmi1 might be a potential molecular target for the treatment of HCC. PMID:26926789

  13. 基于效果的装备保障指挥决策与体系控制研究%Research on Command Decision and System Control of Equipment Support Based on Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓山; 朱建冲; 翁辉

    2013-01-01

    以探索装备保障的信息化决策与控制方法为目的,从基于效果作战的观点出发,利用概念模型,从OODA环的相互作用、混沌现象和自同步及蜂群效应3个方面,研究了网络中心条件下装备保障指挥决策与体系控制的激励与响应模式,并得出了相关结论,以此为基础提出了装备保障指挥决策与体系控制的3项建议.%For the purpose to explore informationalized decision and control methods about equipment support,based on effects based operations (EBO),pattern of stimulus and response about command decision and system control of equipment support are studied with conceptual model in network centric warfare (NCW) environment,which comprises reciprocity of observe orient decide act(OODA) loop,chaos phenomenon,self-synchronization and swarm effect.According to these primary conclusions of the research,three suggestions are made about command decision and system control of equipment support.

  14. Embedded battle command: a vehicle systems integrator's prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Terry L.; Wyrembelski, Rick J.

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of a major weapon system, the Abrams Main Battle Tank, as it relates to the integration of EMbedded Battle Command and Control element is essential to the tanks future role in the Army as they focus more on increased organizational effectiveness and less on individual platforms. The Abrams is poised to field the Abrams System Enhancement Package with its 2nd generation of Command and Control.

  15. SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH BMI OF 25 OR MORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Body mass index [BMI] of 25 or greater is a significant health problem associated with a variety of disorders and in adults it has been found to be a risk factor for hearing loss. Higher BMI is independently associated with increased hearing loss. We investigated the hypothesis that young adults with a BMI of 25 or more are at increased risk of mild sensorineural hearing loss. AIMS AN D OBJECTIVES: To assess hearing acuity in individuals with high BMI (≥25 by audiometric assessment and compare it with the control group (BMI <25. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A comparative and cross sectional study among volunteers residing in Bengaluru. METHODS AND MATERIAL : Data collected from 2 groups containing 30 participants each, test group contained individual with a BMI of 25 or more and the control group consisted individuals with BMI of <25, in the age group of 18 - 35 yrs. Pure tone audiometry was carried out across various frequencies (0. 5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 kHz in both groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student t - test was used to compare hearing thresholds across various frequencies in both groups. RESULTS: Compared to control group, high BMI (≥25 was associated with increased pure tone hearing thresholds across lower frequencies (0. 5, 1, 2 kHz. The degree of hearing loss is mild (26 - 40dB . CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that young adults with a BMI of 25 or more are at increasing risk of mild sensorineural hearing loss.

  16. Metadata Analysis at the Command-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Phillips

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years the University of North Texas Libraries' Digital Projects Unit (DPU has developed a set of metadata analysis tools, processes, and methodologies aimed at helping to focus limited quality control resources on the areas of the collection where they might have the most benefit. The key to this work lies in its simplicity: records harvested from OAI-PMH-enabled digital repositories are transformed into a format that makes them easily parsable using traditional Unix/Linux-based command-line tools. This article describes the overall methodology, introduces two simple open-source tools developed to help with the aforementioned harvesting and breaking, and provides example commands to demonstrate some common metadata analysis requests. All software tools described in the article are available with an open-source license via the author's GitHub account.

  17. Bmi-1, stem cells and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Jiang; Jun Li; Libing Song

    2009-01-01

    Bmi-1,a polycomb gene family member,plays an important role in cell cycle regulation,cell immortalization,and cell senescence.Recently,numerous studies have demonstrated that Bmi-1 is involved in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells.However,the molecular mechanism underlying this biological process remains largely unclear.In the present review,we summarized the function of Bmi-1 as a tran-scriptional regulator of gene expression,with particular reference to stem cells.

  18. Model-Based Throttle Control using Static Compensators and Pole Placement Commande des gaz basée sur un modèle utilisant des compensateurs statiques et un placement de pôles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomasson A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In modern spark ignited engines, the throttle is controlled by the Electronic Control Unit (ECU, which gives the ECU direct control of the air flow and thereby the engine torque. This puts high demands on the speed and accuracy of the controller that positions the throttle plate. The throttle control problem is complicated by two strong nonlinear effects, friction and limp-home torque. This paper proposes the use of two, simultaneously active, static compensators to counter these effects and approximately linearize the system. A PID controller is designed for the linearized system, where pole placement is applied to design the PD controller and a gain scheduled I-part is added for robustness against model errors. A systematic procedure for generating compensator and controller parameters from open loop experiments is also developed. The controller performance is evaluated both in simulation, on a throttle control benchmark problem, and experimentally. A robustness investigation pointed out that the limp-home position is an important parameter for the controller performance, this is emphasized by the deviations found in experiments. The proposed method for parameter identification achieves the desired accuracy. Au sein des moteurs à allumage commandé modernes, les gaz sont régulés par le boîtier de commande électronique (ECU; Electronic Control Unit, qui permet la régulation directe par l’ECU du flux d’air et ainsi du couple moteur. Cela conduit à des exigences élevées quant à la vitesse et à la précision du régulateur qui positionne le papillon des gaz. Le problème de commande des gaz est compliqué par deux forts effets non linéaires, le frottement et le couple de mode de secours (“limp-home”. Cet article propose l’utilisation de deux compensateurs statiques, actifs simultanément, pour contrer ces effets et linéariser approximativement le système. Un régulateur PID est conçu pour le système linéarisé, où un

  19. Bmi-1 absence causes premature brain degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangliang Cao

    Full Text Available Bmi-1, a polycomb transcriptional repressor, is implicated in cell cycle regulation and cell senescence. Its absence results in generalized astrogliosis and epilepsy during the postnatal development, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of four-week-old Bmi-1 null mice. The mice showed various hallmarks of neurodegeneration including synaptic loss, axonal demyelination, reactive gliosis and brain mitochondrial damage. Moreover, astroglial glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase decreased in the Bmi-1 null hippocampus, which might contribute to the sporadic epileptic-like seizures in these mice. These results indicate that Bmi-1 is required for maintaining endogenous antioxidant defenses in the brain, and its absence subsequently causes premature brain degeneration.

  20. The Naval telecommunications system: a command and staff manual

    OpenAIRE

    Babb, Robin M.

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis provides prospective Naval communications mangers, senior officers, and supervisory command and control officers with a basic, non-technical description of the Naval Telecommunications System (NTS). It is suitable as a general primer for the communications manager, for new personnel indoctrination, for command briefings, and for general reference to the NTS. This thesis includes a description of the organic structure, admi...

  1. New Commander,New Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Stanley McChrystal came into the spotlight in June 2009 when U.S. President Barack Obama entrusted him with fighting America's longest war since the end of the Cold War as commander of U.S. forces in Afghanistan.

  2. Estimation, filtering and adaptative control of a waste water processing process; Estimation, filtrage et commande adaptive d`un procede de traitement des eaux usees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Youssef, C.; Dahhou, B.; Roux, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Rols, J.L. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    Controlling the process of a fixed bed bioreactor imply solving filtering and adaptative control problems. Estimation processes have been developed for unmeasurable parameters. An adaptative non linear control has been built, instead of conventional approaches trying to linearize the system and apply a linear control system. (D.L.) 10 refs.

  3. Command Preprocessor for the Beam-Waveguide Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, W.

    1998-10-01

    The high-gain linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controllers, designed for 32-GHz (Ka-band) monopulse tracking, have small tracking errors and are resistant to wind disturbances. However, during antenna slewing, they induce limit cycling caused by the violation of the antenna rate and acceleration limits. This problem can be avoided by the introduction of a command that does not exceed the limits. The command preprocessor presented in this article generates a command that is equal to the original command if the latter does not exceed the limits and varies with the maximal (or minimal) allowable rate and acceleration if the limits are met or exceeded. It is comparatively simple since it requires only knowledge of the command at the current and the previous time instants, while other known preprocessors require knowledge of the terminal state and the acquisition time. Thus, the presented preprocessor is more suitable for implementation into the antenna control software. In this article, analysis of the preprocessor is presented. Also, the performances of the preprocessor itself and of the antenna with the preprocessor are illustrated with typical antenna commands.

  4. Influence of character display of command and control cabin display interface on cognitive load%指控舱显控界面字符显示对认知负荷的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨景; 李培林; 王崴; 瞿珏; 刘晓卫

    2015-01-01

    为研究指控舱显控界面中字符显示方式对人的认知负荷影响性问题,提出一种面向脑力认知负荷的综合评价方法。以舱内显控界面中的二号字体为研究对象,根据正交实验法设计三因素(字符显示密度、显示类型、颜色匹配)三水平的脑电生理实验;以θ波功率和近似熵作为认知负荷评定指标,采用因子方差法定量分析字符显示各因素及其交互作用对认知负荷的影响;结合认知负荷理论对各显示因素的影响机理进行分析。分析结果表明,显示密度、颜色匹配以及显示密度与其它两因素之间的交互作用对认知负荷产生显著影响,其中显示密度的影响高度显著。研究结果可为指控舱显控界面的优化设计与评价提供依据。%A comprehensive evaluation method based on mental cognitive load (CL)was proposed to investigate the influence of different display showed on command and control cabin display interface on the CL of commanders.Taking the font 2 as the re-search object,a three-factor and three-level EEG physiological experiments were designed based on orthogonality.Taking the power of theta wave value (Pθ)and the approximate entropy (ApEn)as the CL index,the three factors and their interaction be-tween each other were analyzed.Each factors’impact mechanism was analyzed combined with CL theory.The results indicate that the display density,color matching and interactions of display density with the other two factors have significant influence on CL,and the influence of display density is more significant.The results provide basis for characters optimal design and assess-ment of the command and control cabin display interface.

  5. 指挥控制组织结构扁平化分析及测度%Research on Analysis and Measure of Combat Command and Control Organization Flattening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翔翔; 姚佩阳; 王欣; 万路军

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the flat degree of Command and Control (C2) organization structure, the concepts of C2 tree and collaboration net are given. The pyramid type C2 organization structure and flat type C2 organization structure are expatiated. On the base of these, the C2 organization structure flat measure based on the organization topology and based on tasks under two kinds of C2 organization working condition are designed. The flat measure calculation results of two organization structures are given in the case, and the feasibility and validity of the flat measure calculation methods are proved by the results and comparison.%为分析研究指挥控制(Command and Control,C2)组织结构的扁平化程度,给出了指挥控制树和协作交流网的概念,阐述了金字塔式C2组织结构和扁平式C2组织结构.在此基础之上,针对两种C2组织运作环境,分别设计基于拓扑的C2组织结构扁平化测度和基于任务的C2组织结构扁平化测度.案例给出了两种组织结构的扁平化测度计算结果,结果及比较分析表明扁平化测度计算方法的可行性和有效性.

  6. Layered Command and Control Simulation System Architecture Based on SOA%一种基于SOA的指控仿真系统的分层体系结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾艳阳; 康凤举; 张建春

    2011-01-01

    针对以往指控仿真系统体系结构对中心服务器的依赖程度大,提出了一种基于SOA(Service Oriented Architecture)的分层体系结构。利用这种结构,运用SCA(Service Component Architecture)方法将指控仿真系统的服务进行构建与组合,在系统交互过程中结合Web服务实现下层功能组件的透明封装和上层服务的灵活调用,从而缓解了中心服务器的数据处理压力,提高了系统的鲁棒性。仿真结果表明:技术的可行性和实用性,同时可以运用这种分层的体系结构来开发其他的具有中心服务器的异%To deal with relying heavily on the center server for command and control simulation system architecture,a layered architecture was employed based on SOA(Service Oriented Architecture).Using of this architecture,the service of command and control simulation system was built and composed with the method of SCA(Service Component Architecture),the lower functional components are encapsulated transparently and upper service is invoked flexibly in interactive with Web Services.Thus,it relieves the pressure of central service in data processing and improves the robustness of the system.The simulation shows that the technical feasibility and practicality and the layered architecture can be used in other heterogeneous systems which own the center server.

  7. Research on Hybrid Layered Architecture of Command and Control System for Space-air-ground Collaboration%空天地协同作战混合分层指挥控制体系结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤霞; 张耀中; 吕迎迎

    2013-01-01

    In order to settle a series of decision issues in combat system of space-air-ground ,such as tasks classification ,collaborative decision-making between the superior and the subordinate ,or be-tween the peer ,a hybrid layered architecture is proposed in this context ,along with the functional a-nalysis of components .Combat units are divided into multiple layers according to the granularity of tasks which they take on .Collaborative planning network is designed to couple among the layers . This thesis plays emphasis on the method of multi-level collaborative planning in hybrid layered com-mand and control system ,as well as the model description of the issues that will be further studied , which lays a foundation subsequent design of command and control system for space-air-ground collab-oration .%为了解决空天地信息网络下作战系统中指挥决策的任务分级方式、上下级之间以及同级之间的协同决策问题,提出一种混合分层指挥控制体系结构,并对其组成元素进行分析。每个作战单元根据其所承担任务的粒度,被分成多个层次,并利用协同规划网络完成层次之间的链接。重点介绍了混合分层指挥控制系统多级协同规划方法,并针对相关的重点问题给出简单模型描述,为系统的进一步设计提供依据。

  8. Exploring the comparative cost-effectiveness of economic incentive and command-and-control instruments, and of renewable energy technologies in PM10 emission control: A case study of Lima-Callao, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Timm

    Much economic literature expounds the superior cost-effectiveness of economic incentive (EI) policies over command-and-control (CAC) ones, based on appealing theoretical arguments. However, one of the assumptions underlying much of this literature is that monitoring and enforcement (M&E) of policies are not only feasible, but essentially costless. In reality, M&E are never costless and sometimes infeasible, and, crucially, M&E requirements vary across policy types. Furthermore, in technical economic terms, cost-effectiveness is defined with respect to variable costs only; however, in choosing among policies, the objective generally is to identify that with the lowest total (variable plus fixed) cost per unit abatement, which in its own right may be termed cost-effective. The neglect of M&E and of fixed costs throws up the question of the validity of much of the policy advice that draws on the environmental economics literature for developing countries, where the institutional capacity for effective M&E often is strongly limited, and where creating this capacity will require considerable infrastructure investments. The limited institutional capacity also has led to the suggestion that in developing countries, conventional environmental policies, such as input or output taxes, emission charges, or standards, may be less cost-effective than non-conventional environmental policies, such as direct public provision of electricity from renewable sources, because the M&E capacity required for the implementation of non-conventional policies is often less stringent. I test the hypotheses of superior cost-effectiveness of EI over CAC and of non-conventional over conventional environmental policy instruments. The samples of pollution control policies used to test the hypotheses are drawn from a list of frequently recommended urban air pollution abatement measures for developing countries, plus two renewable energy sources. Both sets of environmental policy types are compared

  9. Adaptive multiparameter control: application to a Rapid Thermal Processing process; Commande Adaptative Multivariable: Application a un Procede de Traitement Thermique Rapide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mago, S.J.

    1995-12-20

    In this work the problem of temperature uniformity control in rapid thermal processing is addressed by means of multivariable adaptive control. Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) is a set of techniques proposed for semiconductor fabrication processes such as annealing, oxidation, chemical vapour deposition and others. The product quality depends on two mains issues: precise trajectory following and spatial temperature uniformity. RTP is a fabrication technique that requires a sophisticated real-time multivariable control system to achieve acceptable results. Modelling of the thermal behaviour of the process leads to very complex mathematical models. These are the reasons why adaptive control techniques are chosen. A multivariable linear discrete time model of the highly non-linear process is identified on-line, using an identification scheme which includes supervisory actions. This identified model, combined with a multivariable predictive control law allows to prevent the controller from systems variations. The control laws are obtained by minimization of a quadratic cost function or by pole placement. In some of these control laws, a partial state reference model was included. This reference model allows to incorporate an appropriate tracking capability into the control law. Experimental results of the application of the involved multivariable adaptive control laws on a RTP system are presented. (author) refs

  10. Sex-differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K; Willemsen, G; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2003-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI), a simple anthropometric measure, is the most frequently used measure of adiposity and has been instrumental in documenting the worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity witnessed during the last decades. Although this increase in overweight and obesity is thought...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....

  11. 32 CFR 700.1053 - Commander of a task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commander of a task force. 700.1053 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1053 Commander of a task force. (a) A geographic fleet commander, and any other naval commander, may detail in command of a task force, or other task command, any...

  12. Virtual command center for distributed collaborative undersea warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Robert J., III; Encarnacao, L. M.; Shane, Richard T.; Drew, Ernest; Mulhearn, Jim F.

    2000-08-01

    The Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport (NUWCDIVNPT) and its partners have developed a prototype CTI (Command Technology Initiatives) Test Bed to demonstrate the utility of a facility where warfighters, government, academia and industry can evaluate the application of collaborate decision support and advanced computer graphics technologies to submarine command and control. The CTI Test bed is currently comprised of three components: Collaborative Visualization Environment (CVE) for Submarine Command and Control, which provides a coherent 3-D display of the perceived undersea battlespace. Individual windows can display multi-dimensional data/information to support a common picture of undersea battlespace management and tactical control; Submarine Fleet Mission Programming Library (SFMPL) which provides environmental data, such as transmission loss, to CVE; Command and Control Data Server which provides contact reports, areas of uncertainty, and ownship/contact motion to CVE Facilitated by a CORBA4 (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) compliant architecture, remotely connected collaborators interact via a computer network to generate and share information. Additionally, collaborators communicate orally via network telephony. Currently, the CTI Test bed is configured to provide volumetric displays of: undersea battlespace w/ bathymetry; Detection/Counter-detection regions for a given probability of detection; Contact(s) Volume of Uncertainty The CTI Test Bed provides a CORBA compliant framework, which can be readily expanded to evaluate candidate applications of collaborative command and tactical decision support and advanced computer graphics technologies.

  13. Decision Allocation of Manned/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Formation Command and Control System%有人/无人机编队指挥控制系统决策分配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓栋; 刘跃峰; 陈哨东

    2013-01-01

    In order to make full use of the advantages of manned-aircraft commander and autonomous system of UAVs in decision-making, we need to allocate the decision-making task between them during the design process of manned/unmanned aerial vehicle formation command and control system. The decision-making allocation process was proposed. Since the process is subjective and uncertain, and it is difficult to estimate the attribute values accurately, we use Uncertain Linguistic Multiple Attribute Decision Making (ULMADM) method to aggregate the attribute values and to determine the range of automation levels and the optimal automation level. Simulation result indicates that the method is feasible and effective in decision allocation.%在有人/无人机编队指挥控制系统设计与作战使用过程中,为了充分发挥有人机指挥员与无人机自主决策系统的决策优势,需要将决策功能在两者之间进行合理分配.给出了指挥控制系统决策分配过程,在该过程中存在较大的主观不确定性,针对属性值无法准确测度的特点,采用不确定性语言型多属性决策(ULMADM)方法,综合处理不确定语言评估属性值,确定了决策功能的自动化等级范围和最优自动化等级.算例表明了ULMADM方法解决决策分配问题的可行性、有效性和通用性.

  14. Non-linear control of a doubly fed induction machine; Commande non-lineaire d'une machine asynchrone a double alimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, P.E.

    2004-12-15

    This study deals with linear and non-linear control strategies applied to the rotation speed feedback of a doubly fed induction machine (DFIM), whose stator and rotor windings are connected to two Pulse Width Modulation voltage source inverters. We choose to distribute the active powers between the stator and the rotor following a certain proportionality ratio. This leads to guarantee, in steady state operation, a stator and rotor angular frequencies sharing. This distribution is initially assured by two shared angular frequencies controllers, and in a second time by the means of the Park transformation angles directly. Two models are established: the first express the currents, and the second is linked with the fluxes. The simulations results of the linear control (field oriented control), and non-linear control (sliding mode control), show a good independence between the main flux and the torque. An experimental validation is also presented. The results presented show the satisfactory DFIM flux control. Special attention is paid to the active power dispatching. (author)

  15. Fonctionnement transitoire et controle de la richesse des moteurs à allumage commandé à injection multipoint Transient Operation and Air-Fuel Ratio Control of Spark-Ignition Port-Injected Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Moyne L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sur les moteurs à allumage commandé à injection multipoint on observe des désadaptations de richesse lors de fonctionnement transitoire. Ces désadaptations sont dues au dépôt, sous forme de film liquide, du carburant injecté dans le collecteur. Elles peuvent être compensées par une gestion adéquate de la masse injectée. Ainsi, afin d'obtenir la masse de carburant qui maintient la richesse constante, nous avons développé un modèle bidimensionnel des écoulements dans le collecteur au cours du cycle moteur. Ce modèle décrit l'écoulement des gaz frais, des gouttes injectées, des gaz brûlés refoulés vers l'admission et du film sur les parois, sur le principe de la séparation des phases. Nous montrons que le modèle reproduit correctement le signal de richesse et comment il permet de supprimer les désadaptations. La mesure de richesse est faite à l'échappement avec une sonde à oxygène dont nous validons le fonctionnement en transitoire avec une corrélation à la pression maximale du cycle dans le cylindre. Air-fuel ratio excursions are observed on port-injected spark ignition engines during transients. This excursions result from the liquid fuel film deposited on intake port. They can be compensated by controlling the injected fuel mass. In order to have the amount of fuel that keeps air-fuel ratio constant, we have developed a 2D model of flows in the intake port during engine cycle. This separate phases model describes the flow of fresh gases, injected droplets, hot burned gases and film on port walls. We show that the model effectively predicts the equivalence ratio and how it allows to eliminate excursions. Equivalence ratio measures are made with an oxygen sensor which functioning is validated during transients by correlating it to maximal pressure during engine cycle.

  16. Peer effects in adolescent BMI: evidence from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Toni; Gil, Joan

    2013-05-01

    This paper extends the recent literature on the influence of peers on adolescent weight on three new fronts. First, based on a survey of secondary school students in Spain in which peers are formed by nominated classmate friends, we find a more powerful positive and significant causal effect of friends' mean BMI on adolescent BMI than previous US-based research. These results are in line with international data, which show that peer group contact tends to vary across countries. Our findings cover a large set of controls, fixed effects, the testing of correlated unobservables, contextual influences and instrumental variables. Second, social interactions are identified through the property of intransitivity in network relationships. Finally, we report evidence of a strong, positive effect of peer pressure on several subgroups of adolescents in an attempt to study their vulnerability to social influences. PMID:22473688

  17. BMI in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrowolska-Zarzycka Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a disease of multicasual etiology. The risk factors include obesity, among other issues. Hence, it is extremely important to determine the effect of body weight on the severity of OSA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the body weight expressed as body mass index (BMI, on the value of upper airways diameter and on the AHI (Apnea-Hypopnea Index value. The study was comprised of 41 patients diagnosed with OSA by way of polysomnography. Each patient was first examine via a lateral cephalometric image of the skull, which served to measure the upper and lower diameter of the upper airways. BMI was also calculated for each patient. Statistical analysis was carried out in accordance with Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Our work demonstrated a negative correlation between BMI and the diameter of the upper airways, and a positive correlation between BMI and AHI value. We thus put forward that the increase in body weight in patients with OSA can contribute to the severity of the disease, regardless of the fact that it may not lead to a reduction of the lumen of the upper airways.

  18. Analysis list: BMI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BMI1 Blood,Digestive tract,Neural,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.5.tsv http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Digestive_tract.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Neural.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscie

  19. Insertion anomaly of control rod assemblies in nuclear reactors; Anomalies d'insertion des grappes de commande des reacteurs electronucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-06

    Some malfunction have been noticed in the insertion of the control rod assemblies in some PWR reactors of Electricite de France (EdF). These anomalies (insufficient speed, incomplete insertion) are due to a deformation of the most irradiated fuel assemblies. A prevention and monitoring program has been implemented by EdF, first in 1997 on its 1300 MW plants, and extended in 1999 to its 900 MW plants. The progress of this program is controlled by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN) and the preventive and surveillance measures (falling time, rebound, and insertion stress measurements of control rods) are described in the appendixes of this document for the 900 MWe, 1300 MWe and 1450 MWe reactors, respectively. (J.S.)

  20. Windows Command Line Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion to any book on Windows Server 2008 or Windows 7, and the quickest way to access critical information. Focusing just on the essentials of command-line interface (CLI), Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference easily shows how to quickly perform day-to-day tasks of Windows administration without ever touching the graphical user interface (GUI). Specifically designed for busy administrators, Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference replaces many tedious GUI steps with just one command at the command-line, while concise, easy to access answers provid

  1. Models for the control of electric actuators (EGEM, electrical engineering series); Modeles pour la commande des actionneurs electriques (Traite EGEM, serie Genie electrique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, J.P.

    2004-07-01

    The modeling of a system to be automatized is a key step for the determination of the control laws because these laws are based on inverse models deduced from direct models. The ideal example is the DC actuator, the simpleness of which allows to directly shift from the modeling to the control law. For AC actuators, the modeling tools are based on the classical hypotheses: linearity, first harmonics, symmetry. They lead to very efficient models which allow to study the properties in dynamical and permanent regime of the most important actuators: synchronous motors, asynchronous motors, voltage inverters. Some extensions to other kind of machines which does not fulfill the classical hypotheses are also proposed: synchronous machines with non-sinusoidal field distribution and asynchronous machines in saturated regime. (J.S.)

  2. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L; Gaylis, Jaclyn B

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was conducted at San Diego State University. Data were analysed by using t tests, χ(2) tests and regression analysis in SPSS. NMs exhibited a lower BMI than OMs (P NMs had a BMI in the range of overweight or obese; however, prevalence was three times higher for OMs, being 9·2 %. A healthier meal option was the most influential factor in NMs' meal choices whereas convenience and weight control were influential factors in OMs' meal choices. Most NMs read nutrition labels and reported that this affects their food choices. NMs exercised longer than OMs in the NMs only (P NMs compared with OMs.

  3. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  4. Overexpression of AtBMI1C, a polycomb group protein gene, accelerates flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Polycomb group protein (PcG-mediated gene silencing is emerging as an essential developmental regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic organisms. PcGs inactivate or maintain the silenced state of their target chromatin by forming complexes, including Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1 and 2 (PRC2. Three PRC2 complexes have been identified and characterized in Arabidopsis; of these, the EMF and VRN complexes suppress flowering by catalyzing the trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 of FLOWER LOCUS T (FT and FLOWER LOCUS C (FLC. However, little is known about the role of PRC1 in regulating the floral transition, although AtRING1A, AtRING1B, AtBMI1A, and AtBMI1B are believed to regulate shoot apical meristem and embryonic development as components of PRC1. Moreover, among the five RING finger PcGs in the Arabidopsis genome, four have been characterized. Here, we report that the fifth, AtBMI1C, is a novel, ubiquitously expressed nuclear PcG protein and part of PRC1, which is evolutionarily conserved with Psc and BMI1. Overexpression of AtBMI1C caused increased H2A monoubiquitination and flowering defects in Arabidopsis. Both the suppression of FLC and activation of FT were observed in AtBMI1C-overexpressing lines, resulting in early flowering. No change in the H3K27me3 level in FLC chromatin was detected in an AtBMI1C-overexpressing line. Our results suggest that AtBMI1C participates in flowering time control by regulating the expression of FLC; moreover, the repression of FLC by AtBMI1C is not due to the activity of PRC2. Instead, it is likely the result of PRC1 activity, into which AtBMI1C is integrated.

  5. The Eclipse system for surveying the guide tubes of control rod clusters; Systeme Eclipse pour l'expertise des tubes guides de commande de grappes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Y.M. [Areva NP, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)

    2008-07-15

    Eclipse is a new system developed by Areva to assess the wear of the guide tubes of control rod clusters. This system is based on the projection of a shadow on a light plan in order to record the profile and the internal diameter of a hollow tube. This system allows us to quantify the wear and it can be included in a program dedicated to monitor the wear and master its kinetics. This system has been validated on the guide tubes from the Ringhals units. (A.C.)

  6. Botnet Command Detection using Virtual Honeynet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.Bhatia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet attacks are growing with time, threats are increasing to disableinfrastructure to those that also target peoples and organization, these increasing largeattacks, and the new class of attacks directly targets the large businesses and governmentsaround the world. At the centre of many of these attacks is a large pool of compromisedcomputers which are called zombies commonly controlled by the attackers by using somecommon channels? Attackers use these zombies as anonymous proxies to hide their realidentities and amplify their attacks. A botnet is a network of compromised machines thatcan be remotely controlled by an attacker. With the view of affect made by the botnet, wepropose an approach using Virtual Honeynet data collection mechanisms to detect IRCand HTTP based botnet Command signatures. We have evaluated our approach using realworld network traces.

  7. Computer programme for control and maintenance and object oriented database: application to the realisation of an particle accelerator, the VIVITRON; Logiciel de controle et commande et base de donnees orientee objet: application dans le cadre de la mise en oeuvre d`un accelerateur de particules, le VIVITRON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A

    1996-01-11

    The command and control system for the Vivitron, a new generation electrostatic particle accelerator, has been implemented using workstations and front-end computers using VME standards, the whole within an environment of UNIX/VxWorks. This architecture is distributed over an Ethernet network. Measurements and commands of the different sensors and actuators are concentrated in the front-end computers. The development of a second version of the software giving better performance and more functionality is described. X11 based communication has been utilised to transmit all the necessary informations to display parameters within the front-end computers on to the graphic screens. All other communications between processes use the Remote Procedure Call method (RPC). The conception of the system is based largely on the object oriented database O{sub 2} which integrates a full description of equipments and the code necessary to manage it. This code is generated by the database. This innovation permits easy maintenance of the system and bypasses the need of a specialist when adding new equipments. The new version of the command and control system has been progressively installed since August 1995. (author) 38 refs.

  8. Palo Verde Unit 3 BMI nozzle modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 61 BMI (Bottom Mount Instrumentation) nozzles of the unit 3 of the Palo Verde plant have been examined through ASME Code Case N722. The nozzle 3 was the only one with leakage noted. The ultrasound testing results are characteristic of PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking). The initiation likely occurred at a weld defect which was exposed to the primary water environment resulting in PWSCC. All other nozzles (60) showed no unacceptable indications. Concerning nozzle 3 one crack in J-groove weld connected large defect to primary water. An environmental model has been used to simulate and optimize the repair. The AREVA crew was on site 18 days after contract award and the job was completed in 12 days, 30 hours ahead of baseline schedule. This series of slides describes the examination of the BMI nozzles, the repair steps, and alternative design concepts

  9. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L;

    2013-01-01

    with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men......BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review......) obtained from the Infertility Center of Bondy, France. Abstracts of relevant articles were examined and studies that could be included in this review were retrieved. Authors of relevant studies for the meta-analysis were contacted by email and asked to provide standardized data. RESULTS A total of 21...

  10. Two Types of ISR Commands Under Two Different Mission Intensities: Examining ESG Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Entin, Elliot; Weil, Shawn; Hutchins, Susan G.; Kleinman, David L.; Hocevar, Susan P.; Kemple, William G.; Pfeiffer, Karl

    2008-01-01

    13th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), June 17-19, 2008, Seattle, WA. The U.S. Navy is developing new maritime strategies and command structures to guide transformation efforts, to ensure the security of the global maritime commons in the new network-centric era, and to fit the challenges of the 21st century. The addition of an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) commander is one such innovative structural innovation that is unde...

  11. Comparison between BMI and Inverted BMI in Evaluating Metabolic Risk and Body Composition in Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Saki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare BMI and inverted BMI in evaluating body measurement, resting blood pressure, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA parameters of fat mass and metabolic risk factors in Iranian children Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on 477 children aged 9-18 yearsin the South of Iran. Weight, height, resting blood pressure, waist and hip circumference and pubertal stage of all participants was measured with standard methods. DEXA was used to determine body composition index. Blood samples were checked for serum lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar (FBS. Metabolic risk score (MRS was calculated by the summation of the Z-scores for TC, TG/HDL, LDL, systolic blood pressure, and waist circumference minus HDL Z-score. Results: BMI did not have a normal distribution in our participants but iBMI had a normal distribution. IBMI had more significant correlation with waist to hip ratio and systolic blood pressure (r2=0.053 and r2=0.182 than BMI (r2=0.041 and r2=0.101. MRS had a positive correlation with BMI (P

  12. Design, dimensioning and control of a synchronous motor/generator with homopolar excitation and coils inside the air gap for electromechanical energy accumulator; Conception, dimensionnement et commande d'un moteur/generateur synchrone a excitation homopolaire et a bobinages dans l'entrefer pour accumulateur electromecanique d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, N.

    2001-12-15

    A new axial field machine with armature and field windings fixed in the air-gap is studied. A double face printed winding is presented and a new tool, using a surface permeance model is developed. A simplified current control is proposed. Finally, considering the association synchronous machine-inverter the loss minimization problem is investigated, including both geometry and command parameters. (author)

  13. Ionic nitriding as remedy for control rod elements wear; La nitruration ionique, remede a l`usure des crayons de grappes de commande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertz, D.; Peyran, J.C. [Societe Franco-Americaine de Constructions Atomiques (FRAMATOME), 92 - Paris-La-Defense (France)

    1994-12-31

    As soon as the reactor control mode enabling grid follow was implemented, FRAMATOME focussed on the impact of RCCA motion on the wear resistance of the RCCA rod lets. This led to the choice of the ionitriding process from a range of candidate surface treatments. By means of process adaptations, the wear resistance of austenitic stainless steels is enhanced with no significant degradation of their corrosion performance. Apart from the surface treatment principle, this paper outlines the wear and corrosion characteristics of the product, together with the experience feedback from the roughly 350 RCCA`s manufactured in 1993 and more than 200 RCCA`s loaded into reactors, the first of which have exceeded 5 cycles of irradiation. (authors). 2 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  14. Inspection and repair technology for BMI penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, United States (US) nuclear power plant inspections of the reactor vessel bottom-mounted-instrument (BMI) penetrations have been limited to visual verification via a combination of walk-downs and pressure tests. However in France, more than 18 ultrasonic examination (UT) and weld-surface visual test (VT) campaigns had been performed to inspect the BMI penetration nozzles and welds since 1992 with no observed failures through 2002. In April 2003, South Texas Project Unit 1 discovered apparent leakage from two nozzles during a bare-metal examination. Based on the French inspection experience, Framatome-ANP was selected for inspection and repair services to address the leaking nozzles. Inspection activities included ultrasonic examination of the tube, enhanced visual test and eddy current testing (ECT) of the J-groove weld, bobbin ECT and profile measurement of the tube inside, helium leak test, phased-array UT, borescope VT, and boat-sample removal with destructive metallurgical analysis. Repair activities included sealing the top portion of the penetration, cutting out the old nozzles, and welding in new nozzles. This presentation discusses BMI inspection and repair technology focused particularly on the South Texas Project experience. (authors)

  15. 基于指控系统的数据链战术能力测试研究%Research of Data Link's Tactics Ability Test Based on CommandControl System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯卫永; 张洪水; 陈永华

    2011-01-01

    文章针对现行海军舰船数据链设计鉴定测试方法的不足,基于指控系统从数据链战术应用角度出发,面向海军舰船作战系统使命任务,提出了海军舰船数据链设计鉴定的评价指标体系及其测试方法,对客观、科学、有效地评估海军舰船数据链战术数据传输能力有着重要实践参考价值。%Based on command-control system, considering the lack of the evaluation methods for navy ship data link design, facing for operation system task, this paper proposes the exam specification system and test method for the design and evaluation of navy ship data link, which has important value to evaluate the data transfers ability of navy ship data link.

  16. 黑盒测试技术在指控分系统软件测试中的应用%Application of black-box testing technologies to command and control subsystem software testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 赵平; 张蓉

    2013-01-01

    软件测试是保证软件产品质量的一个重要手段,其中测试用例的设计是软件测试的关键.以指控分系统软件测试为例,详细介绍了软件黑盒测试的几种方法,以及如何采用黑盒测试技术来设计切实可行的测试用例,实践证明,应用这些黑盒测试技术在该系统软件测试的用例设计中,极大地提高了测试效率,取得了较好的效果,具有一定的推广价值.%Software testing is one of the most important means to ensure quality of software.The design of test cases is the key of software testing.This paper describes several methods of black-box testing technologies and how to skillfully apply black-box testing technologies to the command and control subsystem software testing.It is shown that in this system software testing,the application of these black-box testing technologies significantly increases the efficiency of the test case designing with good performance.The application value can be popularized to other projects.

  17. Reliability Analysis and Standardization of Spacecraft Command Generation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Grenander, Sven; Evensen, Ken

    2011-01-01

    center dot In order to reduce commanding errors that are caused by humans, we create an approach and corresponding artifacts for standardizing the command generation process and conducting risk management during the design and assurance of such processes. center dot The literature review conducted during the standardization process revealed that very few atomic level human activities are associated with even a broad set of missions. center dot Applicable human reliability metrics for performing these atomic level tasks are available. center dot The process for building a "Periodic Table" of Command and Control Functions as well as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models is demonstrated. center dot The PRA models are executed using data from human reliability data banks. center dot The Periodic Table is related to the PRA models via Fault Links.

  18. ACL command with forward converter

    OpenAIRE

    Morard, Julien; Biner, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objectif: Les ACL sont des lampes 28V/250W utilisées dans le domaine de l’éclairage scénique. Jusqu’à présent 8 lampes sont branchées en série sur le réseau ce qui interdit toute commande individuelle. L’appareil conçu dans ce projet contient un « Power Factor Corrector PFC » pour pouvoir créer un bus de tension à 400V et un convertisseur de type « Forward » pour chaque lampe qui réduit la tension à 28 Volts efficace. Le convertisseur Forward a été conçu lors du travail de semestre. L’objecti...

  19. Commander Brand stows trash in jettison bag on middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand disposes of empty food containers and dry trash in jettison bag and stows bag in middeck volume under MA73C control panel. Side hatch is visible behind Brand. Brand is wearing constant wear garment with communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) and note pad strapped to his thighs.

  20. Apollo 15 mission. Temporary loss of command module television picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made into the temporary loss of command module color television picture by the ground station converter at Mission Control Center. Results show the picture loss was caused by a false synchronization pulse that resulted from the inability of the black level clipping circuit to respond adequately to the video signal when bright sunlight suddenly entered the camera's field of view.

  1. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  2. BMI in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolska-Zarzycka Magdalena; Dunin-Wilczynska Izabella; Mitura Iwona; Szymanska Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease of multicasual etiology. The risk factors include obesity, among other issues. Hence, it is extremely important to determine the effect of body weight on the severity of OSA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the body weight expressed as body mass index (BMI), on the value of upper airways diameter and on the AHI (Apnea-Hypopnea Index) value. The study was comprised of 41 patients diagnosed with OSA by way of polysomnography. Each...

  3. Communication in command and control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Rasker, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    An important factor affecting team performance in Combat Information Centers is communication. Previous research has shown that high-performing teams use effective communication patterns, such as limiting idle chatter during high workload conditions, and sharing information before it is needed. Alth

  4. Command-And-Control or Taxation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Christina; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    California and Denmark are both facing water scarcity issues as demand has increased and supply has decreased over the years. In order to solve this problem these two actors have chosen very different ways of dealing with sustaining an adequate amount of domestic water supply. California has chos...

  5. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C;

    2006-01-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle.......A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle....

  6. Control of Urea SCR Systems for US Diesel Applications Commande des systèmes de RCS à l’urée destinés aux applications Diesel US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Nieuwstadt M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to qualify challenges in the control of urea selective catalytic reduction systems for NOx conversion in Diesel powertrains. We show the importance of ammonia storage control, and the difficulties in estimating it in the face of system uncertainties. The slow storage dynamics of the SCR catalyst are shown to be a major limiting factor on the performance of SCR systems in transient operation. Lastly we show the effect of sensor uncertainty on system performance and how NOx sensors can be used in conjunction with input correlation to distinguish NOx slip from ammonia slip. Cet article a pour objet de qualifier les défis en matière de commande des systèmes de réduction catalytique sélective (RCS dans une solution à base d’urée, pour la conversion des NOx au sein de groupes motopropulseurs Diesel. Nous montrons l’importance de la maîtrise du stockage d’ammoniac ainsi que les difficultés à l’estimer face aux incertitudes du système. Les dynamiques de stockage lentes du catalyseur de RCS s’avèrent constituer un facteur de limitation majeur quant aux performances des systèmes de RCS au cours d’un fonctionnement transitoire. Enfin, nous montrons l’effet de l’incertitude des capteurs sur les performances du système et comment les capteurs de NOx peuvent être utilisés en association avec une corrélation d’entrée pour distinguer une déviation de NOx d’un glissement d’ammoniac.

  7. Trends in BMI of urban Australian adults, 1980-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Helen L; Wolfe, Rory; Haby, Michelle M;

    2010-01-01

    of 7.4 kg/m2 at the higher end for women aged 55-64 years. While the prevalence of obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg/m2) doubled, the prevalence of obesity class III (BMI >or= 40 kg/m2) increased fourfold. CONCLUSIONS: BMI in urban Australian adults has increased and its distribution has become increasingly...

  8. 连续搅拌釜反应系统稳定性的BMI控制算法%BMI control algorithm of robust stability for continuous stirred tank reactor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 聂宏

    2015-01-01

    针对具有强非线性、时变、有纯滞后等综合复杂性的连续搅拌釜(CSTR)反应过程,提出了一种非线性鲁棒模型BMI控制方法.该方法根据CSTR的机理,根据Lyapunov稳定性分析理论,将Lyapunov函数差分转化为双线性矩阵不等式(BMI).该方法引入适当的松弛矩阵,设计出了系统鲁棒稳定性判定的一个新算法,获得了相应闭环系统的状态反馈控制器,提高了算法的通用性,改善系统的性能.通过连续搅拌釜的仿真实验,说明了所提算法的正确性和有效性.

  9. Development of the Macro Command Editing Executive System for Factory Workers-Oriented Programless Visual Inspection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anezaki, Takashi; Wakitani, Kouichi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Kubo, Hiroyasu

    Because visual inspection systems are difficult to tune, they create many problems for the kaizen process. This results in increased development costs and time to assure that the inspection systems function properly. In order to improve inspection system development, we designed an easy-tuning system called a “Program-less” visual inspection system. The ROI macro command which consisted of eight kinds of shape recognition macro commands and decision, operation, control commands was built. Furthermore, the macro command editing executive system was developed by the operation of only the GUI without editing source program. The validity of the ROI macro command was proved by the application of 488 places.

  10. 32 CFR 552.65 - Command supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Command supervision. 552.65 Section 552.65 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND....65 Command supervision. (a) All insurance business conducted on Army installation will be...

  11. XTCE. XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad; Simon, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    An XML Telemetry Command Exchange (XTCE) tutoral oriented towards packets or minor frames is shown. The contents include: 1) The Basics; 2) Describing Telemetry; 3) Describing the Telemetry Format; 4) Commanding; 5) Forgotten Elements; 6) Implementing XTCE; and 7) GovSat.

  12. Precede-and-command revisited revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Basing his argumentation on an analysis of condition C effects, Bruening (2014) proposes to replace the familiar notion of c-command underlying dependency relations with a precede-and-command condition, which defines dependency relations as precedence relations within a local domain (phase). In this

  13. RAPID: Collaborative Commanding and Monitoring of Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Powell, Mark W.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Abramyan, Lucy; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael; Allan, Mark; Hirsh, Robert

    2011-01-01

    RAPID (Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate) software utilizes highly robust technology to facilitate commanding and monitoring of lunar assets. RAPID provides the ability for intercenter communication, since these assets are developed in multiple NASA centers. RAPID is targeted at the task of lunar operations; specifically, operations that deal with robotic assets, cranes, and astronaut spacesuits, often developed at different NASA centers. RAPID allows for a uniform way to command and monitor these assets. Commands can be issued to take images, and monitoring is done via telemetry data from the asset. There are two unique features to RAPID: First, it allows any operator from any NASA center to control any NASA lunar asset, regardless of location. Second, by abstracting the native language for specific assets to a common set of messages, an operator may control and monitor any NASA lunar asset by being trained only on the use of RAPID, rather than the specific asset. RAPID is easier to use and more powerful than its predecessor, the Astronaut Interface Device (AID). Utilizing the new robust middleware, DDS (Data Distribution System), developing in RAPID has increased significantly over the old middleware. The API is built upon the Java Eclipse Platform, which combined with DDS, provides platform-independent software architecture, simplifying development of RAPID components. As RAPID continues to evolve and new messages are being designed and implemented, operators for future lunar missions will have a rich environment for commanding and monitoring assets.

  14. Differential expression of two ß-amylase genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in developing and mature barley grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific (Bmy1) and ubiquitous (Bmy2) ß-amylase were studied during the late maturation phase of seed development in four genotypes. Sequencing of Bmy2 from genomic DNA revealed six polymorphisms in the introns and two synonymous SNPs in the coding region. Acc...

  15. Mendelian Randomisation Study of Childhood BMI and Early Menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah S. Mumby; Elks, Cathy E; Shengxu Li; Sharp, Stephen J.; Kay-Tee Khaw; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ken K Ong

    2011-01-01

    To infer the causal association between childhood BMI and age at menarche, we performed a mendelian randomisation analysis using twelve established “BMI-increasing” genetic variants as an instrumental variable (IV) for higher BMI. In 8,156 women of European descent from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, height was measured at age 39–77 years; age at menarche was self-recalled, as was body weight at age 20 years, and BMI at 20 was calculated as a proxy for childhood BMI. DNA was genotyped for twelve BM...

  16. 14 CFR 1214.703 - Chain of command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chain of command. 1214.703 Section 1214.703... Shuttle Commander § 1214.703 Chain of command. (a) The Commander is a career NASA astronaut who has been..., and that another crew member in the chain of command is to succeed to the authority of the...

  17. Changes of BMI Distribution in Chinese Adults from 1989 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-fei OUYANG; Hui-jun WANG; Chang SU; Wen-wen DU; Ji-guo ZHANG; Bing ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the changing trends of body mass index (BMI) distribution in Chinese adults from 1989 to 2011. MethodsThe data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected in 1989, 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 were used. A total of 14831 participants aged 18-45 years with 39497 observations were included in the final analysis. Lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method was applied to describe the changes of BMI distribution.ResultsFrom 1989 to 2011, the distribution curve of BMI showed shifts toward the right in both men and women. All percentile curves displayed an increasing trend and the change was much larger at higher percentile levels mainly among men. The median values of BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity exhibited increasing trends in both genders, especially in the period from 1997 to 2011. The quartile range of BMI increased from 3.4kg/m2 to 4.8kg/m2 for men and from 3.7kg/m2 to 4.4 kg/m2 for women. The prevalence of overweight and obesity appeared to be higher in three megacities than in nine provinces in both men and women. ConclusionAs indicated by the changes of the BMI distribution in Chinese adults, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased greatly during the past 23 years, especially in men. It is urgent to take strategies for obesity prevention and control immediately in China.

  18. Higher BMI Is Associated with Reduced Cognitive Performance in Division I Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fedor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Poor cardiovascular fitness has been implicated as a possible mechanism for obesity-related cognitive decline, though no study has examined whether BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in persons with excellent fitness levels. The current study examined the relationship between BMI and cognitive function by the Immediate Post Concussion and Cognitive Test (ImPACT in Division I collegiate athletes. Methods: Participants had an average age of 20.14 ± 1.78 years, were 31.3% female, and 53.9% football players. BMI ranged from 19.04 to 41.14 and averaged 26.72 ± 4.62. Results: Regression analyses revealed that BMI incrementally predicted performance on visual memory (R2 change = 0.015, p = 0.026 beyond control variables. Follow-up partial correlation analyses revealed small but significant negative correlations between BMI and verbal memory (r = -0.17, visual memory (r = -0.16, and visual motor speed (r = -0.12. Conclusions: These results suggest that higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive function, even in a sample expected to have excellent levels of cardiovascular fitness. Further work is needed to better understand mechanisms for these associations.

  19. Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The authoritative guide to Linux command line and shell scripting?completely updated and revised [it's not a guide to Linux as a whole ? just to scripting] The Linux command line allows you to type specific Linux commands directly to the system so that you can easily manipulate files and query system resources, thereby permitting you to automate commonly used functions and even schedule those programs to run automatically. This new edition is packed with new and revised content, reflecting the many changes to new Linux versions, including coverage of alternative shells to the default bash shel

  20. The Linux command line a complete introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Shotts, William E

    2012-01-01

    You've experienced the shiny, point-and-click surface of your Linux computer—now dive below and explore its depths with the power of the command line. The Linux Command Line takes you from your very first terminal keystrokes to writing full programs in Bash, the most popular Linux shell. Along the way you'll learn the timeless skills handed down by generations of gray-bearded, mouse-shunning gurus: file navigation, environment configuration, command chaining, pattern matching with regular expressions, and more.

  1. Astronaut John Young in Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, command module pilot, inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot are out of the view.

  2. Introduction to the Bash Command Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Milligan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This lesson uses a Unix shell, which is a command-line interpreter that provides a user interface for the Unix operating system and for Unix-like systems. This lesson will cover a small number of basic commands. By the end of this tutorial you will be able to navigate through your file system and find files, open them, perform basic data manipulation tasks such as combining and copying files, as well as both reading them and making relatively simple edits. These commands constitute the building blocks upon which more complex commands can be constructed to fit your research data or project. Readers wanting a reference guide that goes beyond this lesson are recommended to read Deborah S. Ray and Eric J. Ray, Unix and Linux: Visual Quickstart Guide, 4th edition (2009.

  3. Basic interrupt and command structures and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrupt and command structures of a real-time system are described through specific examples. References to applications of a real-time system and programing development references are supplied. (auth)

  4. Karachi Commander Escapes Attack, 10 Dead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志强

    2004-01-01

    KARACHI: The army commander in the Pakistani city of Karachi narrowly① escaped assassination② yesterday when gunmen attacked his convoy③ with gunfire and a bomb, killing at least 10 and wounding his driver, officials said.

  5. Schema for Spacecraft-Command Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Sharon; Garcia, Celina; Maxwell, Scott; Wright, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema was developed as a means of defining and describing a structure for capturing spacecraft command- definition and tracking information in a single location in a form readable by both engineers and software used to generate software for flight and ground systems. A structure defined within this schema is then used as the basis for creating an XML file that contains command definitions.

  6. Effect of BMI on knee joint torques in ergometer rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity biomechanics during rowing in 10 normal weight (BMI 18-25), 10 overweight (BMI 25-30 kg·m⁻²), and 10 obese (BMI > 30 kg·m⁻²) participants. The results showed that BMI affects joint kinematics and primarily knee joint kinetics. The data revealed that high BMI leads to unfavorable knee joint torques, implying increased loads of the medial compartment in the knee joint that could be avoided by allowing more variable foot positioning on future designs of rowing ergometers.

  7. The Validity of Administrative BMI Data in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmund C; Son, Min-Sun; Mossad, David; Toossi, Nader; Johanson, Norman A; Gonzalez, Mark H; Meller, Menachem M

    2015-10-01

    Identifying BMI via administrative data is a useful way to evaluate outcomes in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) for varying degrees of obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concordance between BMI coding in administrative claims data and actual clinical BMI measurements in the medical record for patients undergoing TJA. Clinical BMI value was shown to be a significant determinant of whether ICD-9 codes were used to report the patient's obesity status (P<0.01). Although a higher clinical BMI strongly increased the likelihood of having either of the ICD-9 diagnosis codes used to identify obesity status, only the accuracy of the V85 code increased with increasing levels of BMI. PMID:26088396

  8. Distress Tolerance as a Predictor of Adherence to a Yoga Intervention: Moderating Roles of BMI and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Scarlett O; Hopkins, Lindsey B; Medina, Johnna L; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether distress tolerance, body image, and body mass index (BMI) predicted adherence to a yoga intervention. Participants were 27 women who participated in a yoga intervention as part of a randomized controlled trial. Attendance and distress tolerance were assessed weekly, and body image and BMI were measured at baseline. Multilevel modeling revealed a three-way interaction of distress tolerance, BMI, and body image (p body image concerns, distress tolerance was positively associated with adherence regardless of BMI (p = .009). However, for those with poor body image, increases in distress tolerance were associated with increases in adherence among overweight participants (p body image concerns, BMI, and their interaction. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26530475

  9. Glycemic and lipid metabolic disorders in diabetic and non-diabetic patients bmi 35 before gastric bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Garciacaballero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and diabetes are diseases with high prevalence worldwide. There is currently no effective medical treatment for combat the weight gain. It is precursor of diseases such as diabetes or metabolic syndrome. It is necessary to know if weight gain has cumulative effects on the glycemic and lipid metabolism as precursors of complications or comorbidities. Patients and methods: We studied 131 patients (78 nondiabetic and 53 diabetic, 37 BMI 35 (81 BMI 35-49.9 and 13 BMI > 50. We analyzed BMI, gender, diabetes and the time of evolution. Lipid profile, glucose, HbA1c and C-peptide evaluated after 12-hour fasting. Results: Diabetic and diabese patients showed high triglycerides. Non-diabetics have impaired glucose (58% BMI 35. The 20% of non-diabetics BMI 35 had high levels. The 5% of diabetics BMI 35 had high levels. HbA1c was higher in 40% of non-diabetic patients BMI 35. Conclusions: Glucose and triglycerides increase with age and years of development of T2DM. Age of 51 and more, and men are more affected. The weight increase has cumulative effect by altering the metabolism favoring the onset of diabetes and comorbidities. Despite having intensive control treatment of diabetes, it continues its deleterious effects on patients through the years.

  10. Factors that impact a virtual commander in a concurrent command structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Waugh, Alexander J.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis analyzes factors that impact a Virtual Commander. In- depth interviews with personnel at the Naval Postgraduate School and the George C. Marshall Center for European Studies informed the development of a case study documenting the implementation and maintenance of a virtual command structure. Qualitative and archival data are analyzed to inform the professional officer corps about factors that impact a virtual command structure. Based in a systems approach, seven factors frame the...

  11. STS-29 Commander Coats in JSC fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Michael L. Coats sits at commanders station forward flight deck controls in JSC fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). Coats, wearing communications kit assembly headset and flight coveralls, looks away from forward control panels to aft flight deck. Pilots station seat back appears in foreground. FB-SMS is located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  12. Assessing the Influence of Sleep-Wake Variables on Body Mass Index (BMI in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has established an association between overweight/obesity and sleep duration, suggesting that short sleep duration and timing of sleeping may lead to overweight. Most of these studies considered sleep-length rather than any other aspects associated with the sleep and wake rhythm, e.g. chronotype, which is a measure of timing of sleeping (‘when to sleep’; based on the midpoint of sleep. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different factors of the sleep-wake cycle and of co-variates on the Body Mass Index in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Nine hundred and thirteen pupils (406 boys, 507 girls from Southwestern Germany participated in this study. Mean age was 13.7 ± 1.5 (SD years and range was between 11 – 16 years. We found that chronotype (β = .079 and social jetlag (β = .063 showed a significant influence on Body Mass Index (BMI, while sleep duration did not. Social jetlag is the absolute difference between mid-sleep time on workdays and free days. Further, screen time (in front of TV, computer, β = .13 was positively related with BMI. Self-efficacy on nutrition (β = -.11, a psychological variable important in health-behaviour models, showed an influence with high scores on self-efficacy related to lower BMI. A high BMI was correlated with low fast-food consumption (β = -.12 suggesting that adolescents with high BMI may exert some control over their eating.

  13. Associations among parent acculturation, child BMI, and child fruit and vegetable consumption in a Hispanic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Monica I; Madanat, Hala; Crespo, Noe C; Lemus, Hector; Elder, John

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of parent acculturation with child fruit and vegetable consumption and obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI). Participants included 250 Mexican-American and other Hispanic families living within San Diego County. Height and weight measurements were collected to calculate the age- and sex-specific BMI for each child and parent, and parents completed self-administered surveys. Child BMI z-score was significantly related to parent BMI after controlling for parent acculturation and parent birth place (β = 0.05, p fruit consumption was significantly associated with parent acculturation (β = -0.02, p = 0.01) and parent BMI (β = 0.02, p = 0.04) after adjusting for the other variables in the model. Child vegetable consumption was not significantly related to parent acculturation. Findings suggest that parental weight status may be more predictive of child obesity than acculturation, and highlight the need to examine culturally relevant behavioral and psychosocial factors related to childhood obesity and dietary behaviors.

  14. An incident command system in practice and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic organizational problems and options for forming a pollution response organization are described. Problems with multi-agency response organizations include poor coordination and lack of accountability. Alternatives to autonomous organizations operating with minimal coordination are the multi-agency/organization teams working under a controlling organization, and organizations formed into a single response organization (the incident command system or ICS). Design criteria for an ICS include flexibility as to the jurisdiction and agency, adaptable organizational structure, capability to expand in a logical manner, and uniform elements in terminology, organization, and procedures. ICS in practice is illustrated both by the CANUSLAK exercise undertaken in August 1990 and a real incident that occurred several days after the exercise was finished. CANUSLAK involved the US Coast Guard and its Canadian and Michigan counterparts in a simulated incident in the St. Clair river. The real incident was the explosion of the gasoline-carrying tank vessel Jupiter in the Saginaw River. In both instances, ICS combined many organizations into one team with a single incident commander. The eight basic components of ICS are common terminology, modular organization, integrated communications, unified command structure, consolidated action plan, manageable span of control, designated incident facilities, and comprehensive resource management. ICS has been tailored to a wide range of applications and is not only used in major disasters but as a part of routine operations. 18 refs., 5 figs

  15. SOA approach to battle command: simulation interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayott, Gregory; Self, Mid; Miller, Gordon J.; McDonnell, Joseph S.

    2010-04-01

    NVESD is developing a Sensor Data and Management Services (SDMS) Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that provides an innovative approach to achieve seamless application functionality across simulation and battle command systems. In 2010, CERDEC will conduct a SDMS Battle Command demonstration that will highlight the SDMS SOA capability to couple simulation applications to existing Battle Command systems. The demonstration will leverage RDECOM MATREX simulation tools and TRADOC Maneuver Support Battle Laboratory Virtual Base Defense Operations Center facilities. The battle command systems are those specific to the operation of a base defense operations center in support of force protection missions. The SDMS SOA consists of four components that will be discussed. An Asset Management Service (AMS) will automatically discover the existence, state, and interface definition required to interact with a named asset (sensor or a sensor platform, a process such as level-1 fusion, or an interface to a sensor or other network endpoint). A Streaming Video Service (SVS) will automatically discover the existence, state, and interfaces required to interact with a named video stream, and abstract the consumers of the video stream from the originating device. A Task Manager Service (TMS) will be used to automatically discover the existence of a named mission task, and will interpret, translate and transmit a mission command for the blue force unit(s) described in a mission order. JC3IEDM data objects, and software development kit (SDK), will be utilized as the basic data object definition for implemented web services.

  16. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to BMI Screening in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses advocates for body mass index (BMI) screening. Little research describes school nurse practice of BMI screening. In this descriptive study, 25 Ohio school nurses participated in three focus groups. An adapted "Healthy People 2010" Determinants of Health Model guided the research questions. School nurses…

  17. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  18. Implementation of FCI heating system to the control system of Tore-Supra; Integration du systeme de chauffage FCI au sein du reseau de controle commande du Tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, S

    2001-11-01

    This report presents the implementation of the ion cyclotron resonance heating system (FCI) to the instrumentation and control system of the Tore-Supra tokamak. The new plasma heating system involves 3 antennas delivering 12 MW that are required to maintain fusion reactions. This paper is divided into 8 chapters: 1) thermonuclear fusion and Tore-Supra tokamak; 2) hardware system around Tore-Supra, in this chapter the control system and the data acquisition and processing systems are presented; 3) functional analysis, this analysis defines the different needs concerning timing and pilot-controlling, a preliminary proposition of hardware equipment is made; 4) operating modes of FCI; 5) communication within the control system network; 6) communication with the supervisory system of the power stations; 7) management of data exchange with SMX generators; and 8) control of the rate of stationary waves during the injection of power into the plasma.

  19. 32 CFR 536.7 - Responsibilities of the Commander USARCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to any legal office or command throughout the world. When authorized by the chain of command or... assistance as available or take appropriate action to ensure that command claims services and ACOs are... Medical Command (MEDCOM) on matters relating to medical malpractice claims. (x) Issue an...

  20. Power of the power command in Stata 13

    OpenAIRE

    Yulia Marchenko

    2013-01-01

    Stata 13's new power command performs power and sample-size analysis. The power command expands the statistical methods that were previously available in Stata's sampsi command. I will demonstrate the power command and its additional features, including the support of multiple study scenarios and automatic and customizable tables and graphs.

  1. Induction of neural stem cell-like cells (NSCLCs) from mouse astrocytes by Bmi1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Bmi1 was shown to control the proliferation and self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs). In this study, we demonstrated the induction of NSC-like cells (NSCLCs) from mouse astrocytes by Bmi1 under NSC culture conditions. These NSCLCs exhibited the morphology and growth properties of NSCs, and expressed NSC marker genes, including nestin, CD133, and Sox2. In vitro differentiation of NSCLCs resulted in differentiated cell populations containing astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes. Following treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (trichostatin A and valproic acid), the potential of NSCLCs for proliferation, dedifferentiation, and self-renewal was significantly inhibited. Our data indicate that multipotent NSCLCs can be generated directly from astrocytes by the addition of Bmi1

  2. BMI AND LENGTH OF HOSPITAL STAY IN LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder disease is one of the most common causes of hospital admission in middle-aged women in developed countries. Body Mass Index (BMI is a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. A high BMI can be an indicator of high body fatness. Postoperative length of stay (POLOS was defined as the time from operative end to discharge from the hospital. Although increased Body Mass Index (BMI is well recognized as a risk factor for gallstones and subsequent cholecystectomy, there is little information on what direct impact underweight, overweight and obesity have on the length of hospital stay for gallbladder disease. Aim of this study was to find out effect of BMI on length of hospital stay .This retrospective study of 55 patients was conducted over 3months in the department of general surgery, Father Muller Medical College Hospital (FMMCH Mangalore, India, and BMI appeared to contribute to a decreased POLOS.

  3. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel;

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight......, and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared...... environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due...

  4. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and sedentariness (Sed in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years. Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002 and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002. Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04, while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13, biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07, media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08 and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03 and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04 diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25, playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20 and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08 were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  5. The Women's Health Initiative: The food environment, neighborhood socioeconomic status, BMI, and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Eibner, Christine; Slaughter, Mary E; Fernandes, Meenakshi; Whitsel, Eric A; Bird, Chloe E; Jewell, Adria; Margolis, Karen L; Li, Wenjun; Michael, Yvonne L; Shih, Regina A; Manson, Joann E; Escarce, José J

    2012-04-01

    Using data (n = 60,775 women) from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial (WHI CT)-a national study of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years-we analyzed cross-sectional associations between the availability of different types of food outlets in the 1.5 miles surrounding a woman's residence, census tract neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), BMI, and blood pressure (BP). We simultaneously modeled NSES and food outlets using linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for multiple sociodemographic factors, population density and random effects at the tract and metropolitan statistical area (MSA) level. We found significant associations between NSES, availability of food outlets and individual-level measurements of BMI and BP. As grocery store/supermarket availability increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile of its distribution, controlling for confounders, BMI was lower by 0.30 kg/m(2). Conversely, as fast-food outlet availability increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile, BMI was higher by 0.28 kg/m(2). When NSES increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile of its distribution, BMI was lower by 1.26 kg/m(2). As NSES increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile, systolic and diastolic BP were lower by 1.11 mm Hg and 0.40 mm Hg, respectively. As grocery store/supermarket outlet availability increased from the 10th and 90th percentiles, diastolic BP was lower by 0.31 mm Hg. In this national sample of postmenopausal women, we found important independent associations between the food and socioeconomic environments and BMI and BP. These findings suggest that changes in the neighborhood environment may contribute to efforts to control obesity and hypertension. PMID:21660076

  6. Control of fast non linear systems - application to a turbo charged SI engine with variable valve timing; controle des systemes rapides non lineaires - application au moteur a allumage commande turbocompresse a distribution variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, G.

    2006-10-15

    Spark ignition engine control has become a major issue for the compliance with emissions legislation while ensuring driving comfort. Engine down-sizing is one of the promising ways to reduce fuel consumption and resulting CO{sub 2} emissions. Combining several existing technologies such as supercharging and variable valve actuation, down-sizing is a typical example of the problems encountered in Spark Ignited (SI) engine control: nonlinear systems with saturation of actuators; numerous major physical phenomena not measurable; limited computing time; control objectives (consumption, pollution, performance) often competing. A methodology of modelling and model-based control (internal model and predictive control) for these systems is also proposed and applied to the air path of the down-sized engine. Models, physicals and generics, are built to estimate in-cylinder air mass, residual burned gases mass and air scavenged mass from the intake to the exhaust. The complete and generic engine torque control architecture for the turbo-charged SI engine with variable cam-shaft timing was tested in simulation and experimentally (on engine and vehicle). These tests show that new possibilities are offered in order to decrease pollutant emissions and optimize engine efficiency. (author)

  7. Linux command line and shell scripting bible

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Talk directly to your system for a faster workflow with automation capability Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible is your essential Linux guide. With detailed instruction and abundant examples, this book teaches you how to bypass the graphical interface and communicate directly with your computer, saving time and expanding capability. This third edition incorporates thirty pages of new functional examples that are fully updated to align with the latest Linux features. Beginning with command line fundamentals, the book moves into shell scripting and shows you the practical application

  8. BMI percentiles for the identification of abdominal obesity and metabolic risk in children and adolescents: Evidence in support of the CDC 95th percentile

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Deirdre M.; Amanda E. Staiano; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Gupta, Alok K; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives BMI percentiles have been routinely and historically used to identify elevated adiposity. This paper aimed to investigate the optimal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI) percentile that predicts elevated visceral adipose tissue (VAT), fat mass and cardiometabolic risk in a biracial sample of children and adolescents. Participants and Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 369 white and African American children (5–18 y). BMI was calculated...

  9. Ten Commandments of Tractor Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Know your tractor . Most farmers know their machines well, but what about new farm help, or a neighbor’s tractor? Always look at the operators manual before operating an unfamiliar machine. Know the location of each control. Locations of important items, PTO levers for example, vary from one manufacturer to another. Be sure you can stop the tractor and its implements quickly if needed. It is important to perform a daily maintenance check on a tractor every time it is used. This will ensure th...

  10. The Hospital Incident Command System: Modified Model for Hospitals in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Hosseinijenab, Vahid; Peyravi, Mahmoudreza; NEKOEI-MOGHADAM, Mahmood; Hosseini, Bashir; Schoenthal, Lisa; Koenig, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Effectiveness of hospital management of disasters requires a well-defined and rehearsed system. The Hospital Incident Command System (HICS), as a standardized method for command and control, was established in Iranian hospitals, but it has performed fairly during disaster exercises. This paper describes the process for, and modifications to HICS undertaken to optimize disaster management in hospitals in Iran. Methods: In 2013, a group of 11 subject matter experts participated in...

  11. A High Efficiency System for Science Instrument Commanding for the Mars Global Surveyor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr., R. N. Brooks

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission will return to Mars to re- cover most of the science lost when the ill fated Mars Observer space- craft suffered a catastrophic anomaly in its propulsion system and did not go into orbit. Described in detail are the methods employed by the MGS Sequence Team to accelerate science command processing by using standard command generation process and standard UNIX control scripts.

  12. Parents’ Readiness to Change Affects BMI Reduction Outcomes in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen P. Jakubowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supports the importance of parental involvement for youth’s ability to manage weight. This study utilized the stages of change (SOC model to assess readiness to change weight control behaviors as well as the predictive value of SOC in determining BMI outcomes in forty adolescent-parent dyads (mean adolescent age = 15 ± 1.84 (13–20, BMI = 37 ± 8.60; 70% white participating in a weight management intervention for adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adolescents and parents completed a questionnaire assessing their SOC for the following four weight control domains: increasing dietary portion control, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, decreasing dietary fat, and increasing usual physical activity. Linear regression analyses indicated that adolescent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was not predictive of adolescent change in BMI from baseline to treatment completion. However, parent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was predictive of adolescent change in BMI, (t(24 = 2.15, p=0.043. Findings support future research which carefully assesses adolescent and parent SOC and potentially develops interventions targeting adolescent and parental readiness to adopt healthy lifestyle goals.

  13. Positive parenting mitigates the effects of poor self-regulation on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Lauren E.; Francis, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderated the effects of delay of gratification on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed on 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) was created from measures of mothers’ sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4 to 15 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4 to 15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting x delay group. Conclusions Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles. PMID:23977874

  14. Relationship between blood pressure and BMI: a cross sectional study among government employees of Gujarat state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Gadhavi

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: There is significant correlation between BMI and DBP or SBP among government employees of Gujarat state situated in western part of India, thus basic measurement of weight and height to determine the BMI as a routine assessment during clinic visitation with appropriate lifestyle modification would help in controlling hypertension as well as reduce its prevalence. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1637-1640

  15. Spark ignition engine control: estimation and prediction of the in-cylinder mass and chemical species; Controle moteur a allumage commande: estimation / prediction de la masse et de la composition du melange enferme dans le cylindre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giansetti, P.

    2005-09-15

    Spark ignition engine control has become a major issue regarding compliance with emissions legislation while ensuring driving comfort. The objective of this thesis was to estimate the mass and composition of gases inside the cylinder of an engine based on physics in order to insure better control of transient phases taking into account residual gases as well as exhaust gas recirculation. Residual gas fraction has been characterized using two experiments and one CFD code. A model has been validated experimentally and integrated into an observer which predicts pressure and temperature inside the manifold. The predictions of the different gas flows and the chemical species inside the cylinder are deduced. A closed loop observer has been validated experimentally and in simulation. Moreover, an algorithm estimating the fresh and burned gas mass from the cylinder pressure has been proposed in order to obtain the information cycle by cycle and cylinder by cylinder. (author)

  16. Commander Crippen exercises on middeck treadmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    On middeck in front of open airlock hatch, Commander Crippen, shirtless and restrained by harness, exercises on treadmill as fellow crew members conduct other activities around him. Mission Specialist (MS) Thagard removes equipment from forward modular locker single tray assembly (ASSY).

  17. Commander Brand sleeps on aft flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand, with hands folded in front of his chest, sleeps on aft flight deck. Brand's head is just above aft flight deck floor with his back to onorbit station panels. The back and feet of a second crewmember appear next to Brand.

  18. APOLLO 11 COMMANDER NEIL ARMSTRONG IN SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong is going through flight training in the lunar module simulator situated in the flight crew training building at KSC. Armstrong will pilot the lunar module to a moon landing on July 20, following launch from KSC on July 16.

  19. Team 16: Logistics Battle Command Model

    OpenAIRE

    Baez, Francisco; Shockley, Jonathan; Sultz, Carston

    2010-01-01

    from Scythe : Proceedings and Bulletin of the International Data Farming Community, Issue 8 Workshop 20 This working group explored the use of the newly developed Logistics Battle Command (LBC) model prototype Graphical User Interface (GUI). Team 16 focused on the development and implementation of a logistics scenario designed to assess the operational impact of different strategies for the management and allocation of transportation assets.

  20. Smart command recognizer (SCR) - For development, test, and implementation of speech commands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol A.; Bunnell, John W.; Krones, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    The SCR, a rapid prototyping system for the development, testing, and implementation of speech commands in a flight simulator or test aircraft, is described. A single unit performs all functions needed during these three phases of system development, while the use of common software and speech command data structure files greatly reduces the preparation time for successive development phases. As a smart peripheral to a simulation or flight host computer, the SCR interprets the pilot's spoken input and passes command codes to the simulation or flight computer.

  1. Satraplatin: BMS 182751, BMY 45594, JM 216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Satraplatin [BMS 182751, BMY 45594, JM 216] belongs to a series of orally-active platinum compounds with anticancer activity. It was jointly originated by Bristol-Myers Squibb, Johnson Matthey and the Institute of Cancer Research in the UK; however, Johnson Matthey has since ceased involvement with drug development. Subsequently, the agent has been licensed to and is under development with GPC Biotech, Pharmion and Spectrum Pharmaceuticals. Clinical trials are underway to evaluate satraplatin among patients with different tumour types, including prostate, breast, cervical and lung cancers. The compound is under regulatory review with the US FDA for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. NeoTherapeutics (now Spectrum Pharmaceuticals) granted GPC Biotech an exclusive worldwide licence to develop and market satraplatin in October 2002. Under the terms of the agreement, GPC Biotech is fully funding development costs and commercialisation requirements for the drug. The deal also involves GPC Biotech paying a signing fee, milestone and royalty payments. Spectrum is a member of a joint development committee headed by GPC Biotech to govern development of satraplatin. Previously in October 2001, NeoOncoRx (Spectrum Pharmaceuticals) gained the rights to develop and market the compound worldwide. In December 2005, GPC Biotech and Pharmion Corporation entered into a co-development and license agreement for satraplatin. Under the agreement terms, Pharmion has exclusive commercialisation rights for Europe, Turkey, the Middle East, Australia and New Zealand, while GPC Biotech retains rights to North America and all other territories. Pharmion made an upfront payment of $US37.1 million to GPC Biotech, which included reimbursement for past clinical development costs plus funding for ongoing and certain clinical development activities to be jointly conducted by the companies. In addition, both parties will pursue a joint development plan for satraplatin in a variety of

  2. Mature data transport and command management services for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, R. D.

    The duplex space/ground/space data services for the Space Station are described. The need to separate the uplink data service functions from the command functions is discussed. Command management is a process shared by an operation control center and a command management system and consists of four functions: (1) uplink data communications, (2) management of the on-board computer, (3) flight resource allocation and management, and (4) real command management. The new data service capabilities provided by microprocessors, ground and flight nodes, and closed loop and open loop capabilities are studied. The need for and functions of a flight resource allocation management service are examined. The system is designed so only users can access the system; the problems encountered with open loop uplink access are analyzed. The procedures for delivery of operational, verification, computer, and surveillance and monitoring data directly to users are reviewed.

  3. Introduction to the constructive idea of Guangdong command center for nuclear accident emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article introduced the constructive idea of Guangdong Command Center for Nuclear Accident briefly through the general design program and thoughts, functional demand, elements of the agency and each functional department, the network design and the requirement of system integraty. The functional requirement and actual goal of the system were also considered on the basis of the condition of the network. The command center was divided into 8 parts according to the constitutive units of Guangdong Command System for Nuclear Accident, including the Commanding Part, Chief Controlling Part, Expert Part, Evaluation Part, Communication Part, News Part, Central Computer Part and Special Group Part. We, furthermore, analyzed and designed the 3 chief systems of the direction system, that is Phonic Communication System, Video and Acoustic System and Network System. At the same time, some suggestion about the Communication System, Telephone Mediating System, Digital Conference System, Amplifying System, Network Design, Security Property and Systemic Integration have been given in this article. (authors)

  4. An extendible User-Command Framework based on tagging system

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Ajinkya; Jadhav, Nitin

    2009-01-01

    Memorizing the user commands has been a problem since long. In this study we try to propose solutions to overcome two problems - the problem of selecting appropriate commands names during application development and the problem of memorizing these command names. The proposed solution includes a framework in which the applications can plug into, to get their application commands and corresponding tags in to the new command execution application.We also propose a mechanism where user can generate her own set of tags for a command and share those with peers.

  5. Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children

    OpenAIRE

    Vítor P. Lopes; Stodden, David F.; Bianchi, Mafalda M.; Maia, José A. R.; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the association between motor coordination (MC) and body mass index (BMI) across childhood and early adolescence. Design: This study is cross-sectional. Methods: Data were collected in 7175 children (boys n = 3616, girls n = 3559), ages 6–14 years. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight [body mass (kg)/height (m2)]. Motor coordination was evaluated using Kiphard-Schilling’s body coordination test (KTK). Spearman’s rank correlation was used to study ...

  6. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  7. RNAi抑制人大肠癌LOVO细胞Bmi-1基因的表达%Effects of RNAi on expression of Bmi-1 gene in human colorectal carcinoma LOVO cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢敏; 沙卫红; 王启仪

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨RNA干扰(RNAi)技术沉默Bmi-1基因表达对人大肠癌细胞株LOVO增殖和侵袭力的影响及机制.方法 将化学法合成的针对Bmi-1 mRNA不同位点设计的3对siRNA序列(siR-NA1~3)和1对带有荧光标记的FAM-siRNA(siRNA4)转染至人大肠癌LOVO细胞,荧光显微镜下观察siRNA的转染效率,QRT-PCR检测Bmi-1 mRNA表达抑制作用,Western Blot检测Bmi-1蛋白表达变化,MTT法检测LOVO细胞体外增殖变化,小室侵袭实验检测LOVO细胞侵袭能力.结果 利用荧光标记的Oligo观察到siRNA转染效率达70%.siRNA1对mRNA表达抑制率最高,从而筛选出沉默效应最强的siRNA序列为siRNA1.siRNA1转染组LOVO细胞Bmi-1蛋白表达,增殖及侵袭力明显低于阴性对照组和空白对照组(P<0.05).结论 化学合成的靶向Bmi-1 siRNA转染人大肠癌LOVO细胞能有效抑制Bmi-1的mRNA和蛋白质表达水平,Bmi-1基因的RNA干扰可有效抑制人大肠癌LOVO细胞的增殖和侵袭能力.%Objective To investigate the mechanism and effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) on Bmi-1 in the human colorectal carcinoma LOVO cells. Methods Three si RNA sequences targeting Bmi-1 (siRNAI, siRNA2, siRNA3), a fluorescein-labeled double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) oligomer (siRNA4), and the negative control were chemically synthesized. All siRNA sequences were transinfected into LOVO cells. Inverse microscopy was used to observe the efficacy of transinfecion. Bmi-1 mRNA expression and protein expression were detected by real time quantitative PCR (QRT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. The proliferation and invasion of LOVO cells were detected by MTT and transwell invasion assay, respectively. Results The efficacy of transfection was 70%. The Bmi-1 mRNA expression inhibition rate of siRNAI was the most effective, and therefore was selected to interfere with the expression of Bmi-1 gene. The Bmi-1 protein expression and cell proliferation and invasion were significantly fewer than that in the

  8. Adolescent BMI Trajectory and Risk of Diabetes versus Coronary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Afek, Arnon; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Ayalon, Nir; Gordon, Barak; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Shamis, Ari; Vinker, Shlomo; Rudich, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association of body-mass index (BMI) from adolescence to adulthood with obesity-related diseases in young adults has not been completely delineated. METHODS We conducted a prospective study in which we followed 37,674 apparently healthy young men for incident angiography-proven coronary heart disease and diabetes through the Staff Periodic Examination Center of the Israeli Army Medical Corps. The height and weight of participants were measured at regular intervals, with the first measurements taken when they were 17 years of age. RESULTS During approximately 650,000 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up, 17.4 years), we documented 1173 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and 327 of coronary heart disease. In multivariate models adjusted for age, family history, blood pressure, lifestyle factors, and biomarkers in blood, elevated adolescent BMI (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters; mean range for the first through last deciles, 17.3 to 27.6) was a significant predictor of both diabetes (hazard ratio for the highest vs. the lowest decile, 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 3.58) and angiography-proven coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.77 to 10.62). Further adjustment for BMI at adulthood completely ablated the association of adolescent BMI with diabetes (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.37) but not the association with coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 6.85; 95% CI, 3.30 to 14.21). After adjustment of the BMI values as continuous variables in multivariate models, only elevated BMI in adulthood was significantly associated with diabetes (β = 1.115, P = 0.003; P = 0.89 for interaction). In contrast, elevated BMI in both adolescence (β = 1.355, P = 0.004) and adulthood (β = 1.207, P = 0.03) were independently associated with angiography-proven coronary heart disease (P = 0.048 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS An elevated BMI in adolescence — one that is well within the range

  9. BMI predicts emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility in adolescents with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rico, Elena; Río-Valle, Jacqueline S; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Campoy, Cristina; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is increasingly viewed as a brain-related dysfunction, whereby reward-driven urges for pleasurable foods "hijack" response selection systems, such that behavioral control progressively shifts from impulsivity to compulsivity. In this study, we aimed to examine the link between personality factors (sensitivity to reward (SR) and punishment (SP), BMI, and outcome measures of impulsivity vs. flexibility in--otherwise healthy--excessive weight adolescents. Sixty-three adolescents (aged 12-17) classified as obese (n = 26), overweight (n = 16), or normal weight (n = 21) participated in the study. We used psychometric assessments of the SR and SP motivational systems, impulsivity (using the UPPS-P scale), and neurocognitive measures with discriminant validity to dissociate inhibition vs. flexibility deficits (using the process-approach version of the Stroop test). We tested the relative contribution of age, SR/SP, and BMI on estimates of impulsivity and inhibition vs. switching performance using multistep hierarchical regression models. BMI significantly predicted elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity (positive and negative urgency) and inferior flexibility performance in adolescents with excess weight--exceeding the predictive capacity of SR and SP. SR was the main predictor of elevations in sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. These findings demonstrate that increases in BMI are specifically associated with elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility, supporting a dimensional path in which adolescents with excess weight increase their proneness to overindulge when under strong affective states, and their difficulties to switch or reverse habitual behavioral patterns. PMID:22421897

  10. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  11. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  12. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations ...

  13. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. PMID:25596500

  14. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman O Oloritun

    Full Text Available Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and R(2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001 of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as

  15. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  16. Leaders in space: Mission commanders and crew on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena

    Understanding the relationship between leaders and their subordinates is important for building better interpersonal connections, improving group cohesion and cooperation, and increasing task success. This relationship has been examined in many types of groups but not a great amount of analysis has been applied to spaceflight crews. We specifically investigated differences between mission commanders and flight commanders during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). Astronauts and cosmonauts on the ISS participate in long-duration missions (2 to 6 months in length) in which they live and work in close proximity with their 2 or 3 member crews. The leaders are physically distant from their command centres which may result in delay of instructions or important advice. Therefore, the leaders must be able to make quick, sound decisions with unwavering certainty. Potential complications include that the leaders may not be able to exercise their power fully, since material reward or punishment of any one member affects the whole group, and that the leader's actions (or lack thereof) in this isolated, confined environment could create stress in members. To be effective, the mission commander must be able to prevent or alleviate any group conflict and be able to relate to members on an emotional level. Mission commanders and crew are equal in the competencies of spaceflight; therefore, what are the unique characteristics that enable the commanders to fulfill their role? To highlight the differences between commander and crew, astronaut journals, diaries, pre- flight interviews, NASA oral histories, and letters written to family from space were scored and analyzed for values and coping styles. During pre-flight, mission commanders scored higher than other crew members on the values of Stimulation, Security, Universalism, Conformity, Spirituality, and Benevolence, and more often used Self-Control as a coping style. During the long-duration mission on ISS, mission

  17. Is EURONET C.C.L. a "Common" Command Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen-Voogd, C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a chart which compares selected command functions of DIMDI and IRS/ESA, two major versions of the EURONET Common Command Language, with the IRS/ESA-Quest retrieval language and includes specific remarks for most of the commands. (RBF)

  18. 78 FR 24694 - Family Advocacy Command Assistance Team (FACAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 60 RIN 0790-AI40 Family Advocacy Command Assistance Team (FACAT) AGENCY... prescribe procedures for implementation and use of the multi-disciplinary Family Advocacy Command Assistant... establishes a DoD multi-disciplinary Family Advocacy Command Assistant Team (FACAT) to support...

  19. 32 CFR 700.902 - Eligibility for command at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility for command at sea. 700.902 Section... Present Contents § 700.902 Eligibility for command at sea. All officers of the line of the Navy, including... deck duties afloat, are eligible for command at sea....

  20. Prevalence of Central Obesity among Adults with Normal BMI and Its Association with Metabolic Diseases in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Jiang, Lingling; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of central obesity among adults with normal BMI and its association with metabolic diseases in Jilin Province, China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Jilin Province of China. Information was collected by face to face interview. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Log-binomial regression analyses were used to find the independent factors associated with central obesity and to explore the adjusted association between central obesity and metabolic diseases among adults with normal BMI. Results Among the adult residents with normal BMI in Jilin Province, 55.6% of participants with central obesity self-assessed as normal weight and 27.0% thought their body weight were above normal. 12.7% of central obesity people took methods to lose weight, while 85.3% didn’t. Female, older people and non-manual worker had higher risk to be central obesity among adults with normal BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI, the PRs were 1.337 (1.224–1.461), 1.323 (1.193–1.456) and 1.261 (1.152–1.381) separately when adjusted for gender, age and BMI. Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI in Jilin Province, China. The low rates of awareness and control of central obesity among adults with normal BMI should be improved by government and health department. PMID:27467819

  1. Changes in weight and BMI following the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, L; Bar-Niv, M; Lebenthal, Y; Tenenbaum, A; Shalitin, S; Lazar, L; Cohen, A; Phillip, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study weight and body mass index (BMI) before, at, and after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to identify factors associated with weight gain. Studied retrospectively were 209 children <18 years with T1D followed for 6 years. Data collected included clinical and laboratory data before diagnosis, at diagnosis, and during 6 years of follow-up. Anthropometric parameters of patients were compared along follow-up and with those of their parents and siblings. Mean BMI-standard deviation score (SDS) was below average at diagnosis (-0.66 ± 1.27), had increased to 0.37 ± 0.93 at 3 months, and decreased to a nadir at 6 months in females and 12 months in males; between 1 and 3 years, there was a slight increase and between 3 and 6 years a further increase only in the females. BMI-SDS at 6 years was significantly higher than pre-diabetes BMI-SDS (0.35 ± 0.83 vs. -0.04 ± 1.23, p < 0.001). Patients' BMI-SDS at 6 years was similar to that of their parents and siblings, was higher in the females (0.53 ± 0.74 vs. 0.27 ± 0.82, p = 0.02) and in those keeping diabetes a secret (0.66 ± 0.82 vs. 0.33 ± 0.78, p = 0.027), and was not associated with age or pubertal stage at diagnosis, ethnicity, or metabolic control. A longer duration of insulin pump therapy was associated with a lower BMI-SDS (r = -0.2375, p < 0.025). BMI-SDS increased during the 6 years following diagnosis of T1D in pediatric patients, especially in the females, but remained in the normal range and was similar to that of other family members.

  2. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred James; Braun, Wiebke; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-01-01

    BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA). However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis) does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC) integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity) and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient). FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone. PMID:27286962

  3. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred James Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA. However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient. FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone.

  4. Plant Habitat Telemetry / Command Interface and E-MIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Uriae M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant Habitat (PH) is an experiment to be taken to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2016. It is critical that ground support computers have the ability to uplink commands to control PH, and that ISS computers have the ability to downlink PH telemetry data to ground support. This necessitates communication software that can send, receive, and process, PH specific commands and telemetry. The objective of the Plant Habitat Telemetry/ Command Interface is to provide this communication software, and to couple it with an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI). Initial investigation of the project objective led to the decision that code be written in C++ because of its compatibility with existing source code infrastructures and robustness. Further investigation led to a determination that multiple Ethernet packet structures would need to be created to effectively transmit data. Setting a standard for packet structures would allow us to distinguish these packets that would range from command type packets to sub categories of telemetry packets. In order to handle this range of packet types, the conclusion was made to take an object-oriented programming approach which complemented our decision to use the C++ programming language. In addition, extensive utilization of port programming concepts was required to implement the core functionality of the communication software. Also, a concrete understanding of a packet processing software was required in order to put aU the components of ISS-to-Ground Support Equipment (GSE) communication together and complete the objective. A second project discussed in this paper is Exposing Microbes to the Stratosphere (EMIST). This project exposes microbes into the stratosphere to observe how they are impacted by atmospheric effects. This paper focuses on the electrical and software expectations of the project, specifically drafting the printed circuit board, and programming the on-board sensors. The Eagle Computer-Aided Drafting

  5. Commande vectorielle d'un moteur asynchrone sans capteur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourth, T.

    1993-06-01

    A field-oriented control strategy for induction machines which does not use mechanical sensors is presented. The rotor flux is observed by a reduced-order Luenberger-type observer based on a model using a stator-fixed reference frame. An estimate of the rotation speed is derived from the flux vector, the measured stator currents and the field orientation angle. Simulations demonstrate that this control strategy performs well even in the presence of parameter variations up to ± 50% (resistances). Ce papier présente la commande par flux orienté d'une machine asynchrone sans capteur de vitesse ou de position. Le flux rotorique est évalué grâce à un observateur d'ordre réduit d'un type voisin de Luenberger travaillant dans un repère fixe statorique. L'estimation de la vitesse est obtenue à partir du module du flux rotorique, des courants statoriques mesurés et de l'angle d'orientation du flux rotorique. Cette étude basée sur des simulations démontre un comportement acceptable de la commande malgré la variation des paramètres comme les résistances de la machine.

  6. THE IMPACT OF FAST FOOD CONSUMPTION ON THE LIPID PROFILE, BMI AND BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS

    OpenAIRE

    Afroz Afshan*, Veeresh B Salgar, Manjushree Sugoor and Anupriya Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    In India smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary life style and junk foods are risk factors that has increased the burden of cardiovascular disease. To evaluate and compare the lipid profile, BMI and blood sugar levels in vegetarian home food eaters and fast food eaters. Apparently healthy 300 males aged between 15-35years were participants of our study. Out of them 150 vegetarian home food eaters formed control group, 150 fast food eaters formed study group. We observed over all highly signi...

  7. Automatic-Control Challenges in Future Urban Vehicles: A Blend of Chassis, Energy and Networking Management Les défis de la commande automatique dans les futurs véhicules urbains : un mélange de gestion de châssis, d’énergie et du réseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaresi S.M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is the discussion of new challenges that the scientific field of automatic-control will face in the next decades, in the area of vehicles control. The focus is on urban vehicles for personal mobility, since this type of vehicles will be subject to the biggest changes in the next decades. The paper is articulated in three sections – in a top-down framework – briefly addressing and discussing the following items: the main drivers, which will force a change in urban personal mobility; the main types of vehicles, which are expected to address at best such drivers; the main automatic-control challenges on such type of vehicles. The scope of this paper is purposely non-technical. Its aim is mainly to discuss the emerging new challenges from the perspective of the automatic-control scientists and practitioners. The goal of the paper is to establish a discussion framework on the problems and opportunities, which will arise in this field, in the near future. Le sujet du présent article est une discussion sur les nouveaux défis auxquels le domaine scientifique de la commande automatique des véhicules va faire face dans les prochaines décennies. L’accent est mis sur les véhicules urbains destinés à une mobilité individuelle, puisque c’est ce type de véhicules qui va faire l’objet des plus grands changements dans les prochaines décennies. Le présent article s’articule, selon une démarche descendante, en trois sections abordant et discutant brièvement les éléments suivants : les principaux moteurs qui vont imposer un changement en matière de mobilité individuelle; les principaux types de véhicules qui sont attendus pour répondre au mieux à de tels moteurs et les principaux défis de la commande automatique sur un tel type de véhicules. À dessein, la portée du présent article est non technique. Son but est principalement de discuter les nouveaux défis émergeants, à partir de perspectives des

  8. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L; Gaylis, Jaclyn B

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was conducted at San Diego State University. Data were analysed by using t tests, χ(2) tests and regression analysis in SPSS. NMs exhibited a lower BMI than OMs (P food choices. NMs exercised longer than OMs in the habits and superior food choices among young adult females. More regular meal patterns, healthier snack choice and adherence to dietary guidelines may contribute to the lower BMI values observed among NMs compared with OMs. PMID:27066257

  9. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansmann Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs, quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS. We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. Results GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. Conclusion GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  10. Commande de systèmes instationnaires : séquencement de compensateurs et commande LPV

    OpenAIRE

    Pellanda, Paulo César

    2001-01-01

    Cette thèse s'inscrit dans le domaine de la commande de systèmes instationnaires, avec une orientation particulière vers la commande robuste H² et H∞ et la commande de systèmes variants paramétriquement. Trois techniques nouvelles pour la synthèse de correcteurs séquencés sont proposées. La première méthode concerne le séquencement classique d'un ensemble arbitraire de compensateurs dynamiques stabilisants prédéterminés qui correspond à une séquence donnée de points de fonctionnement. Nous pr...

  11. Nível de conhecimento da simbologia gráfica utilizada para caracterizar comandos e controles de máquinas agrícolas Level of knowledge of graphic symbols used to characterize commands and controls of agricultural machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton dos Santos Alonço

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado no período compreendido entre março de 2000 a junho de 2005, com entrevistados de várias regiões do Brasil, e teve por objetivo realizar uma pesquisa analítica a respeito do grau de conhecimento sobre símbolos gráficos, para a identificação dos comandos e controles de operação e manutenção em máquinas agrícolas, dos principais clientes envolvidos no processo, desde o projeto da máquina agrícola até sua utilização e conseqüente manutenção. Os resultados encontrados indicam que o conhecimento sobre o significado que possuem os símbolos gráficos utilizados para caracterizar comandos e controles de máquinas agrícolas é bastante reduzido por parte dos principais envolvidos no processo.The present study was carried out from March 2000 to June 2005 by interviewing many people from several parts of Brazil. It was aimed at assessing the level of knowledge on technical graphic symbols used for identification of commands and operation controls, and support in agricultural machines. The main customers involved in the process from the project of the agricultural machine to its use and support were interviewed. Results suggest that the knowledge of the graphic symbols meaning is quite reduced among the main customers involved in the process.

  12. Preparation of the Heat Resistant Adhesive of NBR Modified BMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A Kind of homogeneous resin, which can be used as thermal resistant adhesive and matrix for composite,was prepared by bis(4-maleimidophenyl)methane (BMI), 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane(DDM), aniline(An), phenol type epoxy resin (F-51) and nitrile -butadiene rubber (NBR) through solution copolymerization. The reaction from prepolymerization to curing of the resin system was studied. And the factors such as raw material ratio and curing temperature, which affect thermal resistance and adhesives of cured product,were also analyzed. SEM and IR spectra were utilized to discuss the mechanisms of toughness and reaction of modified BMI.

  13. ADRB3 Polymorphism Associated with BMI Gain in Japanese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiki Kuroda; Takahiko Katoh; Takenori Yamauchi; Shouhei Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3: rs4994) and BMI and serological and anthropometric data in healthy Japanese. Methods. Healthy Japanese recruited in a large-scale integrated manufacturing facility in Japan ( = 1 3 5 5 ; age: 37.25 ± 9.43; BMI: 22.86 ± 3.46) were eligible for analysis. The anthropometric data and serological data were measured during a comprehensive health check, a...

  14. Can self-reported BMI be used as a valid measure among novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Martin Serup; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, Sten

    There is an increased risk of running related injuries (RRI) among novice runners with a Body Mass Index (BMI) above 25. Information about BMI can be collected through questionnaires, when studies investigate if there is an association between BMI and RRI among novice runners. But can self-reported...... BMI be used as a valid measure compared to BMI measured with a calibrated weight. PURPOSE : To determine the validity of self-reported BMI among novice runners. METHODS: Data on BMI was obtained from a prospective follow-up study investigating the link between training exposure and the development...... SC-330) while their height was measured with a tape measure. Based on these data BMI were calculated based on the equation: BMI = mass (kg) / (height (m))2. Paired t-test was used to compare mean difference between self-reported BMI and measured BMI. Bland Altman limits of agreement were used...

  15. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations with NGOs, relations with other armies, the impact of the rules of engagement (ROEs, training and education, and operational experiences. The paper ends with a discussion of the lessons learned.

  16. Central Command Architecture for High Order Autonomous Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Chad Michael

    This dissertation describes a High-Order Central Command (HOCC) architecture and presents a flight demonstration where a single user coordinates 4 unmanned fixed-wing aircraft. HOCC decouples the user from control of individual vehicles, eliminating human limits on the size of the system, and uses a non-iterative sequence of algorithms that permit easy estimation of how computational complexity scales. The Hungarian algorithm used to solve a min-sum assignment with a one-task planning horizon becomes the limiting complexity, scaling at O(x3) where x is the larger number of vehicles or tasks in the assignment. This method is shown to have a unique property of creating non-intersecting routes which is used to drastically reduce the computational cost of deconflicting planned routes. Results from several demonstration flights are presented where a single user commands a system of 4 fixed-wing aircraft. The results confirm that autonomous flight of a large number of UAVs is a bona fide engineering sub-discipline, which is expected to be of interest to engineers who will find its utility in the aviation industry and in other emerging markets.

  17. Battlefield Air Command and Control Center of US-Army:E-2/E-3 Warning Control Platform%美军战场空中指挥控制中心:E-2/E-3预警指控平台磁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王谦; 王建荣; 姜耿

    2014-01-01

    以E-2/E-3为主要分析对象,讨论了美空海军的空中指挥控制中心的组成、定位与发展历史。首先,以系统功能的分解为基础,讨论了主要作战任务、作战样式、整体能力。其次,分析了系统在作战使用中具备的优势,并结合具体战例讨论了E-2/E-3的使用情况。最后,结合美军在空中预警指控平台的最新动向,分析了我军在该领域应重点关注的若干问题。%With E-2/E-3 as the main analysis object ,the composition ,orientation and development history of American Air Force's Naval Air-Command and Control Center has been discussed ,its main combat missions ,combat-style and the o-verall capacity are discussed ,Secondly ,combining with concrete examples of E-2/E-3 ,the advantage of the system in opera-tion is analyzed .Finally ,with the latest trends of US-Army in airborne warning and control platform ,several issues which should be focused on our troops in the field are analyzed .

  18. Cognitive biases to healthy and unhealthy food words predict change in BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calitri, Raff; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Tapper, Katy; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    The current study explored the predictive value of cognitive biases to food cues (assessed by emotional Stroop and dot probe tasks) on weight change over a 1-year period. This was a longitudinal study with undergraduate students (N = 102) living in shared student accommodation. After controlling for the effects of variables associated with weight (e.g., physical activity, stress, restrained eating, external eating, and emotional eating), no effects of cognitive bias were found with the dot probe. However, for the emotional Stroop, cognitive bias to unhealthy foods predicted an increase in BMI whereas cognitive bias to healthy foods was associated with a decrease in BMI. Results parallel findings in substance abuse research; cognitive biases appear to predict behavior change. Accordingly, future research should consider strategies for attentional retraining, encouraging individuals to reorient attention away from unhealthy eating cues. PMID:20379149

  19. Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kishore Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33±13.12 years from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02±1.47 kg/m2 was compared with obese group (29.31±3.95 kg/m2, <0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92±4.28 kg was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1 kg, <0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

  20. Social ideological influences on reported food consumption and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worsley Anthony

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between ideological beliefs, perceptions of the importance of health behaviours, health attitudes, food consumption, and Body Mass Index (BMI. A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975. Methods A survey was conducted among shoppers aged between 40 and 70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested with this empirical data (n = 410 for younger (n = 151 and older (n = 259 age groups using structural equation modelling. Results The findings generally support the study hypotheses. For both groups, egalitarianism had a direct and positive influence on perceptions of the importance of health behaviours. Materialism and masculinity impacted negatively on health attitudes, which positively influenced importance of health behaviours. Perceptions of importance of health behaviours impacted positively on the consumption of healthy foods such as vegetables and fruits, but negatively on consumption of unhealthy foods including sweets and fats. However, BMI was significantly influenced by the consumption of unhealthy foods (e.g., sugar and fats only for the younger age group. Hence, the associations between beliefs, attitudes, consumption behaviours, and BMI outcomes differed between younger and older age populations. Conclusion Social ideological beliefs appear to influence health attitudes and thereafter, the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods and BMI via different pathways.

  1. Longitudinal association between marital disruption and child BMI and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7,299 observations for 2,333 children, aged 5-14, over the 1986-2006 period, from a US representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before-after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop. Despite having a larger sample than the previous studies, the results provide no evidence that, on average, children's BMI and BMI percentile scores (measured with continuous outcomes) are affected before the disruption, after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption, relative to a baseline period a few years before the disruption. However, children experiencing a family disruption do have an increased risk of obesity (having a BMI percentile score of 95 or higher) in the two years leading up to the disruption as well as after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption. PMID:22484366

  2. BMI and depressive symptoms: the role of media pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders. PMID:24183138

  3. ADRB3 Polymorphism Associated with BMI Gain in Japanese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouhei Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3: rs4994 and BMI and serological and anthropometric data in healthy Japanese. Methods. Healthy Japanese recruited in a large-scale integrated manufacturing facility in Japan (=1355; age: 37.25 ± 9.43; BMI: 22.86 ± 3.46 were eligible for analysis. The anthropometric data and serological data were measured during a comprehensive health check, and a self-reporting questionnaire was used to assess lifestyle habits (current exercise, smoking status, alcohol intake, and working style and weight at age 20. Genotyping for the ADRB3 polymorphism was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Results. Among 1355 participants, the genotype frequencies of the Trp/Trp, Trp/Arg, and Arg/Arg variants were 920 (67.9%, 394 (29.1%, and 41 (3.05%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, a multiple linear regression model in men for the adjustment of age, drinking habits, smoking habits, exercise habits, working status and serological measurements statistically showed an overall weak significance between annual BMI gain from age 20 and age, LDL or ADRB3 polymorphism. Conclusions. The level of LDL, age, and ADRB3 polymorphism (Arg/Arg genotype were statistically associated with annual BMI gain in Japanese men.

  4. Effect of BMI on Knee Joint Torques in Ergometer Rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity bi

  5. Bmi-1 Regulates Extensive Erythroid Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Ram Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs, responsible for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide exchange, are essential for our well-being. Alternative RBC sources are needed to meet the increased demand for RBC transfusions projected to occur as our population ages. We previously have discovered that erythroblasts derived from the early mouse embryo can self-renew extensively ex vivo for many months. To better understand the mechanisms regulating extensive erythroid self-renewal, global gene expression data sets from self-renewing and differentiating erythroblasts were analyzed and revealed the differential expression of Bmi-1. Bmi-1 overexpression conferred extensive self-renewal capacity upon adult bone-marrow-derived self-renewing erythroblasts, which normally have limited proliferative potential. Importantly, Bmi-1 transduction did not interfere with the ability of extensively self-renewing erythroblasts (ESREs to terminally mature either in vitro or in vivo. Bmi-1-induced ESREs can serve to generate in vitro models of erythroid-intrinsic disorders and ultimately may serve as a source of cultured RBCs for transfusion therapy.

  6. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M E; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P 0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.

  7. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  8. COMPARISION OF BODY MASS INDEX (BMI WITH HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (HDL LEVELS IN OBESE PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized nations. Serum lipid concentrations are related to cardiovascular disease risk and one notable association is a statistically significant inverse correlation between HDL-cholesterol concentrations and the probability of developing coronary artery disease. A major related cardiovascular disease risk factor is obesity. Excess body weight is closely linked to low serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The general assumption now is that excessive body weight is associated with enlarged adipose tissue deposits, visceral adipose tissue in particular, which in turn are accompanied by elevated serum triacylglycerol concentrations. A well-studied inverse association exists between serum triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and this may explain the observed low serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations in obesity. This study is done to confirm the above fact. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects for the study were 100 males in the age group of 21 to 40 years. The subjects taken as obese were 50 and those taken as controls were 50. Obesity was taken into account according to the Body Mass Index. RESULTS: Paired T test is done. Results show that 34/50 subjects with BMI 40mg/dl. 40/50 obese patients with BMI >25kg/m2 show HDL levels of <40mg/dl. Significant P value is seen. The study shows that BMI is inversely related to HDL cholesterol levels. DISCUSSION: High HDL cholesterol, above 60 mg/dl is associated with low risk of coronary heart disease. HDL cholesterol below 40 mg/dL is considered too low and appears to be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Low HDL cholesterol is one of the most common phenotypes seen in persons with premature heart disease. Obesity is associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels. A negative correlation exists between HDL cholesterol and body-mass index (BMI, meaning that HDL

  9. The best breathing command for abdominal PETCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the best breathing command for combined PETCT scanning on a in-line system (Discovery LS, GEMS). Material and Methods: Eight patients underwent FDG PET and CT for attenuation correction and image co-registration on a combined PETCT scanner. CT was acquired during maximum inspiration (MaxInsp) with a starting point at the level of the head. Patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. Then, a CT scan was acquired during normal expiration (NormExp), which corresponded to the respiratory level reached when the patient first inhaled and then exhaled without forcing expiration. Again, CT started at the head and patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. In a third run, patients performed again the NormExp breathing manoeuvre but the breathing command was given after the start of the CT scan. Using this respiration protocol, the hold on time for the patients was between 10 and 15 seconds. All PET images were corrected for attenuation using the CT-based attenuation maps acquired with these three respiration protocols and then were reconstructed using an iterative algorithm. Results: In all patients, attenuation correction of the PET image using the CT scan acquired during MaxInsp caused mis-correction, which mimicked a decrease of FDG concentration in the base of the lungs. During MaxInsp the upper abdominal organs change their position and air filling of the lower lung zone is increased, thus, causing an underestimation of correction values. Subtraction images of the CT scans acquired during MaxInsp and NormExp illustrate the range of organ movements. Subtraction images of the attenuation corrected PET scans illustrate the deterioration of the final PET image. CT acquisition during NormExp provides better PET and co-registered PET/CT images. Using the shorter breath hold time the visual image quality was good in all patients. Conclusion: CT based attenuation correction can severely deteriorate PET image quality, if the CT scan

  10. Definition and implementation of internal model control laws for a direct injection engine; Definition et mise en oeuvre de lois de commande a modele interne pour un moteur thermique a injection directe d'essence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grousson, F.

    2000-10-03

    This study has been achieved in order to improve the direct injection engine control, by using internal model control strategies. Its aim is to optimise the engine performance and to decrease the polluting emissions through a better dynamic control. The use of internal model controls brings robustness in order to face the engine parameter disparity and allows great improvements in the control calibration thanks to a shorter tuning time. The first part gives the outlines of thermic engine operating and focuses on modeling with the final control in view. The second part tackles the implementation of regulation algorithms. Firstly, the air path control uses the state feedback linearization mixed with the predictive control. Secondly, the torque control of the driver's requests is performed with a static inversion using the Jacobian matrix. Finally, a simplified predictive control makes it possible to solve idle speed regulation problems. The last part is devoted to real time and fast proto-typing tests. The main simulation results have been validated through experimental tests on a direct injection car. (author)

  11. The Arecibo Remote Command Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Jenet, Fredrick; Siemens, Xavier; Dolch, Timothy; Stovall, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    The Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC) is a multi-institution research and education program that introduces undergraduates to the field of pulsar research. Specifically, the program trains students to work in small teams to operate several of the world's largest radio telescopes (both Arecibo and the Green Bank Telescope). Students conduct survey observations for the PALFA Galactic plane pulsar survey and conduct timing observations of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) for the NANOGrav search for gravitational waves using these telescopes. In addition, ARCC students search pulsar candidates generated from processed survey data in order to find both new radio MSPs and non-recycled pulsars. The ARCC program currently operates at four U.S. institutions and involves more than 50 undergraduate students each year. To date, ARCC students have discovered 64 new pulsars in this program.

  12. XTCE: XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial, XTCE Version 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad

    2008-01-01

    These presentation slides are a tutorial on XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE). The goal of XTCE is to provide an industry standard mechanism for describing telemetry and command streams (particularly from satellites.) it wiill lower cost and increase validation over traditional formats, and support exchange or native format.XCTE is designed to describe bit streams, that are typical of telemetry and command in the historic space domain.

  13. A Framework for Command Recovery in User Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海鹰

    1990-01-01

    In this paper,a framework is presented for adding a general command recovery facility to user interface.A simple model of interactive system is discussed and four meta commands.UNDO,REDO.SKIPBACK,and SKIPFORWARD,are defined.The double-linked list is used to organize the recovery information in a natural way for easy implementation.Applications of the framework to various demands of command recoveries show that the use of the framework is veryeasy and convenient.

  14. Association between family divorce and children's BMI and meal patterns: the GENDAI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Hatzopoulou, Ioanna; Efstathiou, Eleftheria; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Dedoussis, George V

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the associations between family factors, including divorce, and children's overweight as well as eating and physical activity patterns in a population-based sample of healthy school-aged children. In this cross-sectional study, 1,138 children (53% girls; age: 11.2 +/- 0.7 years) from elementary schools in the Attica region participated. Their parents provided sociodemographic information, including their marital status. Overweight status classification was based on weight and height measurements and BMI evaluation. Children completed a physical activity checklist and a questionnaire on meal patterns and eating behaviors. The Eating Style score was calculated: the higher the score, the more frequent a child was engaged in less-structured feeding practices promoting food intake for reasons other than hunger. Analysis revealed significant association between family divorce and children's overweight: compared with children of married parents, those of divorced had significantly higher BMI levels (20.0 +/- 3.6 kg/m(2) vs. 21.3 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2), respectively, P = 0.007). Controlling for socioeconomic and physical activity factors, divorce remains a significant predictor of a higher BMI, along with older age, higher father's and mother's BMI, less children in the family, and more minutes of daily screen time. Children who had experienced a divorce in their family also reported higher Eating Style score, even after adjusting for potential confounders. In conclusion, in this sample of fifth and sixth graders, unfavorable family circumstances have been associated with children's overweight, as well as with aspects of their eating behavior, namely eating style in relation to conditions around food consumption and hunger, independent of other socioeconomic factors.

  15. Alternative measures to BMI: Exploring income-related inequalities in adiposity in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davillas, Apostolos; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-10-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in adiposity are of particular interest themselves but also because they may be associated with inequalities in overall health status. Using cross-sectional representative data from Great Britain (1/2010-3/2012) for 13,138 adults (5652 males and 7486 females) over age 20, we aimed to explore the presence of income-related inequalities in alternative adiposity measures by gender and to identify the underlying factors contributing to these inequalities. For this reason, we employed concentration indexes and regression-based decomposition techniques. To control for non-homogeneity in body composition, we employed a variety of adiposity measures including body fat (absolute and percentage) and central adiposity (waist circumference) in addition to the conventional body mass index (BMI). The body fat measures allowed us to distinguish between the fat- and lean-mass components of BMI. We found that the absence of income-related obesity inequalities for males in the existing literature may be attributed to their focus on BMI-based measures. Pro-rich inequalities were evident for the fat-mass and central adiposity measures for males, while this was not the case for BMI. Irrespective of the adiposity measure applied, pro-rich inequalities were evident for females. The decomposition analysis showed that these inequalities were mainly attributable to subjective financial well-being measures (perceptions of financial strain and material deprivation) and education, with the relative contribution of the former being more evident in females. Our findings have important implications for the measurement of socio-economic inequalities in adiposity and indicate that central adiposity and body composition measures should be included health policy agendas. Psycho-social mechanisms, linked to subjective financial well-being, and education -rather than income itself-are more relevant for tackling inequalities. PMID:27580342

  16. Modelling and development of estimation and control algorithms: application to a bio process; Modelisation et elaboration d`algorithmes d`estimation et de commande: application a un bioprocede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, M.

    1995-02-03

    Modelling, estimation and control of an alcoholic fermentation process is the purpose of this thesis. A simple mathematical model of a fermentation process is established by using experimental results obtained on the plant. This nonlinear model is used for numerical simulation, analysis and synthesis of estimation and control algorithms. The problem of state and parameter nonlinear estimation of bio-processes is studied. Two estimation techniques are developed and proposed to bypass the lack of sensors for certain physical variables. Their performances are studied by numerical simulation. One of these estimators is validated on experimental results of batch and continuous fermentations. An adaptive control by law is proposed for the regulation and tracking of the substrate concentration of the plant by acting on the dilution rate. It is a nonlinear control strategy coupled with the previous validated estimator. The performance of this control law is evaluated by a real application to a continuous flow fermentation process. (author) refs.

  17. Study of the strategies and controls of fuel cell systems associated with traction; Etude des strategies et des structures de commande pour le pilotage des systemes energetiques a Pile a Combustible (PAC) destines a la traction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachaize, J.

    2004-09-15

    This work falls into project COPPACE (Contribution to the Control of Embedded Fuel cell) carried out by ALSTOM in partnership with the LEEI-INPT and the CEA and supported by the ADEME. The study deals with the modelling and the control of a Fuel Cell system (flow, pressure, temperature) and the definition of the control laws for the static inverters associated with the traction of power train. We develop then a strategy of management of energy by taking into account the criteria of the hydrogen consumption or energy stored in the ultracaps. Each step is verified by total simulation according to a specific profile of mission and a precise model of fuel cells which has been simplified to reduce the computing time. The control of this system is defined by a separate treatment of the components, to finalize the total function objective. The results of simulations show that the system can follow the requested power while controlling the critical elements. (author)

  18. Analysis of the influence of sound signal processing parameters on the quality voice command recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Dyuzhayev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the task of voice control over different devices recognition of single (isolated voice commands is required. Typically, this control method requires high reliability (at least 95% accuracy voice recognition. It should be noted that voice commands are often pronounced in high noisiness. All presently known methods and algorithms of speech recognition do not allow to clearly determine which parameters of sound signal can provide the best results. The main part. On the first level of voice recognition is about preprocessing and extracting of acoustic features that have a number of useful features – they are easily calculated, providing a compact representation of the voice commands that are resistant to noise interference; On the next level given command is looked for in the reference dictionary. To get MFCC coefficients input file has to be divided into frames. Each frame is measured by a window function and processed by discrete Fourier transform. The resulting representation of signal in the frequency domain is divided into ranges using a set of triangular filters. The last step is to perform discrete cosine transform. Method of dynamic time warping allows to get a value that is an inverse of degree of similarity between given command and a reference. Conclusions. Research has shown that in the field of voice commands recognition optimum results in terms of quality / performance can be achieved using the following parameters of sound signal processing:8 kHz sample rate, frame duration 70–120 ms, Hamming weighting function of a window, number of Fourier samples is 512.

  19. Design of the control room of the N4-type PWR: main features and feedback operating experience; La salle de commande du palier N4: principales caracteristiques et retour d'experience d'exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyrouton, J.M.; Guillas, J.; Nougaret, Ch. [Electricite de France (EDF/DPN/CAPE), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2004-07-01

    This article presents the design, specificities and innovating features of the control room of the N4-type PWR. A brief description of control rooms of previous 900 MW and 1300 MW -type PWR allows us to assess the change. The design of the first control room dates back to 1972, at that time 2 considerations were taken into account: first the design has to be similar to that of control rooms for thermal plants because plant operators were satisfied with it and secondly the normal operating situation has to be privileged to the prejudice of accidental situations just as it was in a thermal plant. The turning point was the TMI accident that showed the weight of human factor in accidental situations in terms of pilot team, training, procedures and the ergonomics of the work station. The impact of TMI can be seen in the design of 1300 MW-type PWR. In the beginning of the eighties EDF decided to launch a study for a complete overhaul of the control room concept, the aim was to continue reducing the human factor risk and to provide a better quality of piloting the plant in any situation. The result is the control room of the N4-type PWR. Today the cumulated feedback experience of N4 control rooms represents more than 20 years over a wide range of situations from normal to incidental, a survey shows that the N4 design has fulfilled its aims. (A.C.)

  20. To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-06-01

    AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

  1. On control strategies for power optimization and regulation of variable speed wind turbines; Sur les strategies de commande pour l'optimisation et la regulation de puissance des eoliennes a vitesse variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukhezzar, B

    2006-02-15

    The research work is dealing with variable speed wind turbines modelling and control design, in order to achieve the objectives of maximizing the extracted energy from the wind, below the rated power area in the one hand and in the other hand regulating the electric power production, above the rated power area, while reducing mechanical transient loads. For this purpose, we have studied various control strategies from linear to nonlinear based. some of the controllers that we have developed, herein appear for the first time in the relevant domain, the remaining others are an adaptation of well know controllers to the adopted wind turbine models. as matter of fact, we have derived two wind turbine models as well as a wind speed estimator. Indeed, the estimator allows obtaining the effective wind speed which cannot be measured, since the wind profile around the rotor is variable in time and space. As results, it has been shown that single input control by means of pitch angle or generator control cannot succeed to simultaneously drive the electric power output regulation and the rotor speed reference tracking. So then, our idea is to combine nonlinear dynamic state feedback torque control and pitch linear based control which turns out to be the best strategy. In addition, the validation of the controllers performance, using a high turbulence wind speed profile, has been performed through wind turbine simulators provided by nrel (national renewable energy laboratory, golden, co), has confirmed the theoretical results and has led to quite satisfactory conclusions in terms of energy capture optimization, power regulation and disturbances strong rejection as well. (author)

  2. Socioeconomic status in relation to BMI in Macedonian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bojadzieva, Biljana; Nakeva, Natasa; Zafirova, Biljana; Matveeva, Niki; Chadikovska, Elizabeta; Jovevska, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status in Macedonian high school students in relation to their socioeconomic status (SES), education and employment of their parents. In this study 117 adolescent students (48 males and 69 females) at the age of 17 and 18 were included. We measured weight and height using standard procedures while BMI was calculated. The examinees completed the questionnaire including data for SES, parents’ education and employment. Male ...

  3. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L.; Gaylis, Jaclyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was c...

  4. Modeling of electrical machines with a view to their control: general concepts (EGEM, electrical engineering series); Modelisation des machines electriques en vue de leur commande: Concepts generaux (Traite EGEM, serie Genie electrique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, J.P.

    2004-07-01

    Electrical actuators are present in automatized factories, in transportation systems and in many devices of the everyday life. They must be controlled in order to get an intelligent behaviour. Control systems are based on a good knowledge of actuators, electrical machines and static converters. This knowledge is condensed in models which are based on physical laws but also on hypotheses which have to be discussed (linearity, first harmonics, symmetry). These properties are used in direct models from which the inverse models are deduced and are at the origin of control algorithms. This book deals with the general concepts of the modeling of electrical machines. The analysis, simulation and synthesis of control laws is based on dynamical models used in automation (frequency and state models). The most relevant models are based on the vectorial properties of the physical models which lead to the most commonly used transformations: Clarke, Concordia, Fortescue, Lyon, Ku and Park. (J.S.)

  5. Control algorithms for single inverter dual induction motor system applied to railway traction; Commande algorithmique d'un systeme mono-onduleur bimachine asynchrone destine a la traction ferroviaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Eguiluz, R.

    2002-11-15

    The goal of this work concerns the modelling and the behaviour characterisation of a single inverter dual induction motor system applied to a railway traction bogie (BB36000) in order to concept its control. First part of this job is dedicated to the detailed description of overall system. The influence analysis of the internal perturbations (motor parameters variation) and, external perturbations (pantograph detachment, adherence loss, stick-slip) of the system have made considering the field oriented control applied to each motor of the bogie (classical traction structure). vi In a second part, a novel propulsion structure is proposed. It is composed by a single pulse-width modulated two level voltage source inverter. It supplies two parallel connected induction motors, which generate the transmitted traction force to the bogie wheels. The locomotive case represents the common load for the two motors. Several co-operative control strategies (CS) are studied. They are: the mean CS, the double mean CS, the master - slave switched CS and, the mean differential CS. In addition, an appropriated electric modes observer structure for these different controls has studied. These controls have validated applying the perturbations to the models using the solver SABER. This special approach is equivalent to quasi-experimentation, because the mechanical and the electrical system components have modelled using MAST language and, the sample control has created by a C code programme in the SABER environment. Third part is dedicated to the mechanical sensor suppression and, its adaptation in the cooperative control strategies. The partial speed reconstruction methods are: the fundamental frequency relation, the mechanical Kalman filter, the variable structure observer and the MRAS. Finally, the hardware system configuration of the experimental realisation is described. (author)

  6. Levantamento e identificação dos símbolos gráficos utilizados para a caracterização de controles e comandos em máquinas agrícolas Classification and identification of the graphic symbols used for the characterization of controls and commands in agricultural machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton dos S. Alonço

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Os símbolos gráficos utilizados para indicar a função dos comandos e controles das máquinas agrícolas tornam a operação mais segura. Logo, este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a simbologia existente nas máquinas agrícolas disponíveis nas quatro principais concessionárias de Santa Maria - RS. No levantamento, foram utilizados como parâmetros os símbolos gráficos recomendados pelas normas técnicas, sendo os existentes nas máquinas estudadas fotografados e posteriormente anotados em planilha. O resultado encontrado foi, em média, de 86%, em relação à utilização dos símbolos gráficos recomendados pelas normas, porém existe também a utilização de símbolos gráficos criados pela própria empresa, o que pode gerar dúvidas no operador da máquina agrícola, pois nem sempre o significado dos mesmos coincide com o descrito nas normas. Os resultados demonstraram que os fabricantes das máquinas agrícolas utilizam as normas existentes, mas ainda não o fazem de forma correta e homogênea.The graphic symbols that indicate the function of the commands and controls of the agricultural machines, keep its safer operation. Therefore, this work had as objective, the identification of the existent ones in the available agricultural machines in the four principal concessionary of Santa Maria City - RS, Brazil, the rising were used as parameter, the graphic symbols recommended in the standards, and the existent ones in the studied machines were photographed and later logged in a spreadsheet. The conformities and nonconformities found were contained in a table for better visualization. The result found was average of 86%, in relation to the use of the graphic symbols recommended by the standards, however, there is the use of graphic symbols also created by the own company, what generates doubts in the operator of the agricultural machine, because not always the meaning of the same ones coincides with described in the standards

  7. Somatic Changes of University Students in BMI and WHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cepková Alena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with the assessment of somatic changes of the students at the Slovak University of Technology (STU, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FME, specifically expressed by Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR during the years 2007 and 2013. In total 2228 men were involved in the study and measured upon their entry at the university. It was found out that the values of BMI belonged to the category of average range measured for adults (from 22.96 kg.m-2 to 24.60 kg.m-2 and indicates standard values. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01 were discovered between the years 2011 (23.70 kg.m-2 and 2012 (24.60 kg.m-2, 2012 (24.60 kg.m-2 and 2013 (22.96 kg.m-2. In 2012 participants achieved in average the highest values (BMI = 24.60 kg.m-2, which borders with a moderate overweight. In the contrary, in 2013 the students achieved the lowest values of BMI (22.96 kg.m-2. A slight increase of average BMI values may be observed from the first test in 2007 until 2012. The predominance of standard weight was measured at 71% of the total number of monitored students and the predominance of overweight was measured at 22% of students from the total number of university students. The observation of WHR numbers makes us conclude that during our seven year study no significant differences were discovered in the first five years. The values were stable and from the mean point of view, they do not indicate the risk of development of diseases relating to overweight and obesity. In 2012 and 2013 a slight decrease of WHR values was detected < 0.85. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05 were discovered between the years 2010 (0.854 and 2011 (0.864, and also between 2011 (0.864 and 2012 (0.843. The lowest mean value of WHR was measured when performing the last test in the year 2013 (0.823. There was a statistically significant difference at p<0.05 within the years 2012 and 2013. The highest mean value was discovered in 2011 (0

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Mao, Yundong; Diao, Feiyang; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Biochemical or clinical changes of hyperandrogenism are important elements of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There is currently no consensus on the definition and diagnostic criteria of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. The aim of this study was to investigate the complex symptoms of hyperandrogenic disorders and the correlations between metabolism and hyperandrogenism in patients with PCOS from an outpatient reproductive medicine clinic in China. We conducted a case control study of 125 PCOS patients and 130 controls to evaluate differences in body mass index (BMI), total testosterone (TT), modified Ferriman-Gallwey hirsutism score, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and free androgen index (FAI) between PCOS patients and controls and subgroups of PCOS. The prevalence of acne and hirsutism did not differ significantly between the hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic subgroup. Patients with signs of hyperandrogenism had significantly higher BMI (P PCOS patients. Our results suggest that PCOS patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess; therefore, BMI may be a strong predictor of hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

  9. Expert supervision and adaptative control of biotechnological processes. Utilization of an interactive numerical simulation module; Supervision experte et commande adaptative de procedes biotechnologiques. Utilisation d`un module de simulation numerique interactif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahhou, B.; Pourciel, J.B.; Trave Massuyes, L.

    1995-12-31

    This bioreactor control system is based on an expert system achieving a prediction of substrate consumption. It uses a biological model of fermentation, built for that purpose. It should be implanted on a pilot plant at Aramon. (D.L.) 12 refs.

  10. 32 CFR 700.702 - Responsibility and authority of commanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subordinate commands are fully aware of the importance of strong, dynamic leadership and its relationship to the overall efficiency and readiness of naval forces. Commanders shall exercise positive leadership and actively develop the highest qualities of leadership in persons with positions of authority...

  11. Turn-based gaming for convoy commander training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, R.C.; Muller, T.J.; Vrijer, J.C. de

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of current-day military operations, effective education and training of military commanders is of vital importance. Commanders need to perform within a broader range of conflicts; unpredictable threats and civil-military interaction place a great demand on their decisi

  12. Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Operators of a pair of robotic hands report ownership for those hands when they hold image of a grasp motion and watch the robot perform it. We present a novel body ownership illusion that is induced by merely watching and controlling robot's motions through a brain machine interface. In past studies, body ownership illusions were induced by correlation of such sensory inputs as vision, touch and proprioception. However, in the presented illusion none of the mentioned sensations are integrated except vision. Our results show that during BMI-operation of robotic hands, the interaction between motor commands and visual feedback of the intended motions is adequate to incorporate the non-body limbs into one's own body. Our discussion focuses on the role of proprioceptive information in the mechanism of agency-driven illusions. We believe that our findings will contribute to improvement of tele-presence systems in which operators incorporate BMI-operated robots into their body representations.

  13. Irrigation and crop management in Gandak Canal command of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gandak Project is one of the biggest irrigation projects in India, covering a culturable command area (CCA) of 4.44 lakh ha in U.P., 9.6 lakh ha CCA in Bihar and 0.44 lakh ha in Nepal (Singh and Khan, 2002). The total culturable command areas are 14.44 lakh hectares. The command area is located in between latitude 25 deg 40' to 27 deg 25' and longitude between 83 deg 15' to 85 deg 15'. It is a diversion project through construction of a barrage on the river Gandak. This project area covers up to five districts in the Command of Tirhut Main Canal (TMC) and 3 districts in the Saran Main Canal (SMC) command. The length of main canal is usually long (990 and 650 R.D.'s in eastern and western side, respectively) and the channels are unlined and seepage loss is quite high. (author)

  14. The Impact of State-Level Nutrition-Education Program Funding on BMI: Evidence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry Anne McGeary

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is insufficient evidence regarding which policies will improve nutrition, reduce BMI, the probability of obesity and the probability of overweight nationwide. This preliminary study investigates the impact of a nutrition-education policy relative to price policy as a means to improve nutrition and reduce BMI. Model estimations are created with pooled cross-sectional data from the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC), Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), American...

  15. Explore the influence of BMI in the optimal time of weaning from sequential mechanical ventilation for severity chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Li-dong, Sun; Chang-sheng, Guo; Zi-yu, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of body mass index (BMI) in the optimal time of weaning from sequential invasive-noninvasive mechanical ventilation (MV) by treating severity chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Methods 94 patients with severity COPD were divided into the control group (BMI21). These two groups were treated by similar symptomatic therapies such as mechanical ventilation, antibacterial, antispasmodic, relieving asthma, antitussive, expectorant, correcti...

  16. African-American Parents' Knowledge and Perceptions About BMI Measurements, School-Based BMI Screening Programs, and BMI Report Cards: Results from a Qualitative Investigation and Implications for School-to-Parent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Dominique G; Bass, Sarah Bauerle

    2016-06-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) screenings can help parents make informed decisions about their child's health, but schools have questioned parents' understanding and attitudes about BMI measures and report cards. Although researchers have investigated minority parents' perceptions of their child's weight, no research has explored minority parents' knowledge and perceptions related to BMI measurements, school-based BMI screening programs, and BMI report cards. To address this gap, focus groups were conducted (n = 20) with female Black or African-American parents/guardians from a large urban school district. Participants were asked to share their perceptions before and after receiving education about BMI measurements and screening programs. Pre-education: Many participants had heard of BMI, thought it was similar to body fat, believed screenings were intended to track students' weights and monitor eating habits, and were concerned that screenings could cause their child embarrassment. Post-education: Most participants did not object to screenings, but said they would have without education about why and how BMI measurements are taken. They also voiced concerns about lack of prior notice, confidentiality, and the need for schools to serve healthier food. Some of these findings support those of other qualitative studies of parents' concerns about BMI screenings, but no previous studies have compared parents' perceptions of screening programs pre-/post-education. The results reinforce that schools' efforts to explain what BMI measurements are as well as why and how they are taken can increase parents' confidence in the schools and level of comfort with BMI screening programs and report cards. PMID:27271073

  17. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  18. Control strategy minimizing the converter-alternating current motor losses: application to electric traction; Strategies de commande minimisant les pertes d'un ensemble convertisseur - machine alternative: application a la traction electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastiani, Ph.

    2001-02-01

    Improving the efficiency of the converter-alternating current motor system is a major task in electric traction. Global energy optimisation implies a specific approach at system scale. To reach this goal, we have chosen an algebraic method using sub-system models. To start with, a synchronous machine Park model is developed to take account magnetic saturation and iron losses. Then, an averaged model of the voltage inverter is used in order to obtain a simplified model of the losses to be implemented in our optimisation method. This is how the global model is built including losses in the synchronous machine along with the losses of the power converter. Experimental results are there to validate our approach. This study proposes a method based on algebraic formulation of the general laws to control torque. Algorithms take into account magnetic circuits saturation and power losses in both the machine and its converter. Here again, experimental results validate the algorithm on several test benches. Achieved efficiency improvement is important compared to existing usual control strategies. The proposed method can be generalised to other machine-converter systems. As a matter of fact we have extended our study to the induction machine. As a complement ti this study we have looked at the effects natural limitations of voltages and currents in the torque-speed plane. Therefore algebraic formulation of the torque-speed plane and optimisation strategies are proposed including those constraints. (author)

  19. The Arecibo Remote Command Center: Undergraduate and High School Students Exploring Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The University of Texas-Brownsville (UTB) is home to the Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC). The ARCC is a virtual control room where researchers and undergraduate students_with the assistance of local high school students_control in real time the Arecibo Observatory_the world's largest single dish radio telescope. This poster presents a general outline of ARCC programs and recent accomplishments.

  20. A Spread Acceleration Guidance Scheme for Command Guided Surface-To-Air Missiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose, D.; B. van Dam; Prasad, UR

    1989-01-01

    A new guidance law for command guided surface-to-air missiles is presented. It attempts to reduce the integral control effort while at the same time takes into account the maneuvers of the target. A Monte-Carlo simulation of a missile-target engagement in an inclined plane is carried out to check the performance of the new guidance law in comparison with existing laws in terms of integral control effort, interception time and miss distance.

  1. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  2. Modelling BMI trajectories in children for genetic association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Warrington

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The timing of associations between common genetic variants and changes in growth patterns over childhood may provide insight into the development of obesity in later life. To address this question, it is important to define appropriate statistical models to allow for the detection of genetic effects influencing longitudinal childhood growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: Children from The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine; n=1,506 Study were genotyped at 17 genetic loci shown to be associated with childhood obesity (FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, GNPDA2, KCTD15, NEGR1, BDNF, ETV5, SEC16B, LYPLAL1, TFAP2B, MTCH2, BCDIN3D, NRXN3, SH2B1, MRSA and an obesity-risk-allele-score was calculated as the total number of 'risk alleles' possessed by each individual. To determine the statistical method that fits these data and has the ability to detect genetic differences in BMI growth profile, four methods were investigated: linear mixed effects model, linear mixed effects model with skew-t random errors, semi-parametric linear mixed models and a non-linear mixed effects model. Of the four methods, the semi-parametric linear mixed model method was the most efficient for modelling childhood growth to detect modest genetic effects in this cohort. Using this method, three of the 17 loci were significantly associated with BMI intercept or trajectory in females and four in males. Additionally, the obesity-risk-allele score was associated with increased average BMI (female: β=0.0049, P=0.0181; male: β=0.0071, P=0.0001 and rate of growth (female: β=0.0012, P=0.0006; male: β=0.0008, P=0.0068 throughout childhood. CONCLUSIONS: Using statistical models appropriate to detect genetic variants, variations in adult obesity genes were associated with childhood growth. There were also differences between males and females. This study provides evidence of genetic effects that may identify individuals early in life that are more likely to rapidly increase their BMI

  3. [PRODUCT OF THE BMI1--A KEY COMPONENT OF POLYCOMB--POSITIVELY REGULATES ADIPOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION OF MOUSE MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, N S; Vereschagina, N A; Sushilova, E N; Kropotov, A V; Miheeva, N F; Popov, B V

    2016-01-01

    Bmil is a key component of Polycomb (PcG), which in mammals controls the basic functions of mammalian somatic stem cells (SSC) such as self-renewal and differentiation. Bmi1 supports SSC via transcriptional suppression of genes associated with cell cycle and differentiation. The most studied target genes of Bmi1 are the genes of Ink4 locus, CdkI p16(Ink4a) and p1(Arf), suppression of which due to activating mutations of the BMI1 results in formation of cancer stem cells (CSC) and carcinomas in various tissues. In contrast, inactivation of BMI1 results in cell cycle arrest and cell senescence. Although clinical phenomena of hypo- and hyperactivation of BMI1 are well known, its targets and mechanisms of regulation of tissue specific SSC are still obscure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the regulatory role of BMI1 in adipocyte differentiation (AD) of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Induction of AD in mouse MSC of the C3H10T1/2 cell line was associated with an increase in the expression levels of BMI1, the genes of pRb family (RB, p130) and demethylase UTX, but not methyltransferase EZH2, whose products regulate the methylation levels of H3K27. It was observed earlier that H3K27me3 may play the role of the epigenetic switch by promoting AD of human MSC via activating expression of the PPARγ2, the master gene of AD (Hemming et al., 2014). Here we show that inactivation of BMI1 using specific siRNA slows and decreases the levels of AD, but does not abolish it. This is associated with a complete inhibition of the expression of adipogenic marker genes--PPARγ2, ADIPOQ and a decrease in the expression of RB, p130, but not UTX. The results obtained give evidence that the epigenetic mechanism regulating AD differentiation in mouse and human MSC is different.

  4. Brain-controlled telepresence robot by motor-disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, Luca; Carlson, Tom; Leeb, Robert; del R Millán, José

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the first results of users with disabilities in mentally controlling a telepresence robot, a rather complex task as the robot is continuously moving and the user must control it for a long period of time (over 6 minutes) to go along the whole path. These two users drove the telepresence robot from their clinic more than 100 km away. Remarkably, although the patients had never visited the location where the telepresence robot was operating, they achieve similar performances to a group of four healthy users who were familiar with the environment. In particular, the experimental results reported in this paper demonstrate the benefits of shared control for brain-controlled telepresence robots. It allows all subjects (including novel BMI subjects as our users with disabilities) to complete a complex task in similar time and with similar number of commands to those required by manual control. PMID:22255272

  5. Brain-controlled telepresence robot by motor-disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, Luca; Carlson, Tom; Leeb, Robert; del R Millán, José

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the first results of users with disabilities in mentally controlling a telepresence robot, a rather complex task as the robot is continuously moving and the user must control it for a long period of time (over 6 minutes) to go along the whole path. These two users drove the telepresence robot from their clinic more than 100 km away. Remarkably, although the patients had never visited the location where the telepresence robot was operating, they achieve similar performances to a group of four healthy users who were familiar with the environment. In particular, the experimental results reported in this paper demonstrate the benefits of shared control for brain-controlled telepresence robots. It allows all subjects (including novel BMI subjects as our users with disabilities) to complete a complex task in similar time and with similar number of commands to those required by manual control.

  6. Open Issues in Supervisory Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: A Unified Approach Using Optimal Control Methods Questions ouvertes sur la supervision énergétique des véhicules hybrides électriques : une approche unifiée par la théorie de la commande optimale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrao L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy management of hybrid propulsion systems is considered, presenting new issues that extend the energy management role beyond the standard torque splitting to maximize system efficiency. The new issues include additional optimization criteria, constraints and relevant dynamics to deal with. New optimization criteria in addition the sole fuel consumption minimization include engine-out pollutant emissions and battery aging. State constraints are modified to account for plug-in hybrid vehicles. Moreover, specific supervisory control problems are recognized to need additional state variables. The latter comprise: engine and catalyst temperature to deal with engine warm-up effects on fuel consumption and after-catalyst emissions; thermal dynamics of heat recovery systems (Rankine or Thermo-Electric Generators, TEGs; and battery temperature, which influences battery performance and aging. It is shown that all these control problems can be treated in an unified fashion by extending the well-known ECMS (Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy, which is an implementation of Pontryagin Minimum Principle (PMP as formulated by optimal control theory. Extended definitions of the Hamiltonian function and Lagrange multipliers are introduced. Optimization runs performed off line are reported. Results show the benefits of the proposed unified approach and enlighten some first online implementation issues. Cet article a pour objet la gestion optimale de l’énergie pour un système de propulsion hybride. Le problème traditionnel de répartition de la puissance est modifié avec des nouveaux objectifs d’optimisation et des nouvelles contraintes. Les nouveaux objectifs d’optimisation incluent les émissions de polluants et le vieillissement de la batterie. Les contraintes sont modifiées pour prendre en compte des batteries à recharge externe (hybrides plug-in. De plus, des problèmes spécifiques sont traités avec une modélisation plus d

  7. The decline in BMI among Japanese women after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka

    2015-07-01

    The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II. PMID:26057102

  8. File list: Oth.ALL.05.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. The decline in BMI among Japanese women after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka

    2015-07-01

    The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II.

  20. Associations between Three School-Based Measures of Health: Is BMI Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emily H.; Houser, Robert F.; Au, Lauren E.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) notification programs are often used to raise parental awareness of childhood overweight and obesity, but how BMI results are associated with physical fitness and diet is less clear. This study examined the relationship between BMI, fitness, and diet quality in a diverse sample of urban schoolchildren…

  1. Mid-year Status of MESSENGER SciBox Science Planning and Commanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Choo, T. H.; Steele, R. J.; Lucks, M.; Nair, H.; Perry, M. E.; Anderson, B. J.; Berman, A. F.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    More than halfway into its primary orbital mission, MESSENGER has successfully exploited the SciBox planning and commanding system to automate science observation scheduling and command generation for its full instrument suite, as well as its radio-frequency communication and guidance and control systems. MESSENGER's SciBox software coordinates instrument observations to determine the optimal conflict-free science schedule for the entire orbital mission and generates weekly command sequences for submission to mission operations. SciBox maximizes science return by filling all available observing opportunities and fully utilizing onboard storage and downlink bandwidth. As of four months into its one-year orbital mission, MESSENGER SciBox had scheduled the acquisition and downlink of nearly 40,000 images and comparable data sets from the spacecraft's six other instruments. The flexibility of MESSENGER SciBox allows for rapid re-optimization of schedules in the event of unforeseen circumstances. It has also allowed the science and planning teams to analyze rapidly the effects of modifying operational parameters and adding new observations. Within two hours, the entire mission can be re-optimized, schedules and command sequences generated, and a full set of plots and reports produced. The effects on resource usage, observational coverage, and compliance with operational constraints may be quickly assessed. This rapid turnaround ensures that optimal schedules are produced regardless of circumstances. We present an overview of the MESSENGER SciBox design and its operation.

  2. An objective method for selecting command sources for myoelectrically triggered lower-limb neuroprostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Dutta, PhD

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional electrical stimulation (FES facilitates ambulatory function after paralysis of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI by exciting the peripheral motor nerves to activate the muscles of the lower limbs. This study identified a process for selecting command sources for triggering FES with the surface electromyogram (EMG from muscles partially paralyzed by incomplete SCI, given its high degree of intersubject variability. We found Discriminability Index (DI to be a good metric to evaluate the potential of controlling FES-assisted ambulation in four nondisabled volunteers and two participants with incomplete paralysis. The left erector spinae (ES (mean DI = 0.87 for triggering the left step and the right ES (mean DI = 0.83 for triggering the right step were the best command sources for participant 1. The left ES (mean DI = 0.93 for triggering the left step and the right medial gastrocnemius (mean DI = 0.88 for triggering the right step were the best command sources for participant 2. Our results showed that command sources can be selected objectively from surface EMG before a fully implantable EMG-triggered FES system for walking is implemented.

  3. Using Arm and Hand Gestures to Command Robots during Stealth Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Assad, Chris; Wolf, Michael; You, Ki Sung; Pavone, Marco; Huntsberger, Terry; Iwashita, Yumi

    2012-01-01

    Command of support robots by the warfighter requires intuitive interfaces to quickly communicate high degree-of-freedom (DOF) information while leaving the hands unencumbered. Stealth operations rule out voice commands and vision-based gesture interpretation techniques, as they often entail silent operations at night or in other low visibility conditions. Targeted at using bio-signal inputs to set navigation and manipulation goals for the robot (say, simply by pointing), we developed a system based on an electromyography (EMG) "BioSleeve", a high density sensor array for robust, practical signal collection from forearm muscles. The EMG sensor array data is fused with inertial measurement unit (IMU) data. This paper describes the BioSleeve system and presents initial results of decoding robot commands from the EMG and IMU data using a BioSleeve prototype with up to sixteen bipolar surface EMG sensors. The BioSleeve is demonstrated on the recognition of static hand positions (e.g. palm facing front, fingers upwards) and on dynamic gestures (e.g. hand wave). In preliminary experiments, over 90% correct recognition was achieved on five static and nine dynamic gestures. We use the BioSleeve to control a team of five LANdroid robots in individual and group/squad behaviors. We define a gesture composition mechanism that allows the specification of complex robot behaviors with only a small vocabulary of gestures/commands, and we illustrate it with a set of complex orders.

  4. Using arm and hand gestures to command robots during stealth operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Assad, Chris; Wolf, Michael; You, Ki Sung; Pavone, Marco; Huntsberger, Terry; Iwashita, Yumi

    2012-06-01

    Command of support robots by the warfighter requires intuitive interfaces to quickly communicate high degree-offreedom (DOF) information while leaving the hands unencumbered. Stealth operations rule out voice commands and vision-based gesture interpretation techniques, as they often entail silent operations at night or in other low visibility conditions. Targeted at using bio-signal inputs to set navigation and manipulation goals for the robot (say, simply by pointing), we developed a system based on an electromyography (EMG) "BioSleeve", a high density sensor array for robust, practical signal collection from forearm muscles. The EMG sensor array data is fused with inertial measurement unit (IMU) data. This paper describes the BioSleeve system and presents initial results of decoding robot commands from the EMG and IMU data using a BioSleeve prototype with up to sixteen bipolar surface EMG sensors. The BioSleeve is demonstrated on the recognition of static hand positions (e.g. palm facing front, fingers upwards) and on dynamic gestures (e.g. hand wave). In preliminary experiments, over 90% correct recognition was achieved on five static and nine dynamic gestures. We use the BioSleeve to control a team of five LANdroid robots in individual and group/squad behaviors. We define a gesture composition mechanism that allows the specification of complex robot behaviors with only a small vocabulary of gestures/commands, and we illustrate it with a set of complex orders.

  5. Reprogramming fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells with Bmi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jai-Hee Moon; June Seok Heo; Jun Sung Kim; Eun Kyoung Jun; Jung Han Lee; Aeree Kim; Jonggun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by the transcription factors Oct4,Sox2,and Klf4 in combination with c-Myc.Recently,Sox2 plus Oct4 was shown to reprogram fibroblasts and Oct4 alone was able to reprogram mouse and human neural stem cells (NSCs) into iPS cells.Here,we report that Bmi1 leads to the transdifferentiation of mouse fibroblasts into NSC-like cells,and,in combination with Oct4,can replace Sox2,Klf4 and c-Myc during the reprogramming of fibroblasts into iPS cells.Furthermore,activation of sonic hedgehog signaling (by Shh,purmorphamine,or oxysterol) compensates for the effects of Bmil,and,in combination with Oct4,reprograms mouse embryonic and adult fibroblasts into iPS cells.One- and two-factor iPS cells are similar to mouse embryonic stem cells in their global gene expression profile,epigenetic status,and in vitro and in vivo differentiation into all three germ layers,as well as teratoma formation and germline transmission in vivo.These data support that converting fibroblasts with Bmi1 or activation of the sonic hedgehog pathway to an intermediate cell type that expresses Sox2,KIf4,and N-Myc allows iPS generation via the addition of Oct4.

  6. Commander manipulator scoops prestigious mulit-million pound BNFL contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one Commander robotic arms are on order from INBIS (formerly Ricardo Hitec) and BNFL Engineering Limited (''BEL'', the engineering arm of parent company BNFL). The multi-million pound contract was won amid fierce competition from other well-known names in robotic engineering. The specially designed Commander manipulators will be engaged in remotely handling Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) in a suite of four BNFL ILW plants, which are currently either under construction or planned at Sellafield. The first Commander will delivered to BNFL's Sellafield Silo Emptying Project in January 1998. (Author)

  7. The Arecibo Remote Command Center: Students Doing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andy; Jenet, F. A.; Rodriguez-Zermeno, A.; Stovall, K.

    2010-01-01

    The University of Texas-Brownsville (UTB) is home to the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy (CGWA) which is, in turn, the home of the Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC). The ARCC is a virtual control room where researchers and undergraduate students--with the assistance of local high school students--control in real time the Arecibo Observatory--the world's largest single dish radio telescope. This poster presents a general outline of ARCC programs and recent accomplishments. Several notable accomplishments include: 1) the direct involvement of high school students in the PALFA pulsar search project at the Arecibo Observatory; 2) ARCC Scholars (undergraduate physics majors at UTB) led observations for a significant percentage of PALFA observing runs; 3) a summer astronomy academy for local high school students was held for the fifth consecutive year; 4) a second cohort of ARCC Scholars brings to ten the number of undergraduate physics majors specializing in astrophysics at UTB; 5) two members of the second cohort of ARCC Scholars, along with four summer academy high school students, attended the Pulsar Search Collaboratory program at the Green Bank Observatory; 6) specialized astrophysics programs are being expanded into a number of local high schools to stimulate interest in astrophysics research.

  8. Detecting body fat-A weighty problem BMI versus subcutaneous fat patterns in athletes and non-athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Kruschitz

    Full Text Available We aimed to describe the relationship between BMI and the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography within young athletes and non-athletic controls, to comparatively evaluate the diagnostic powers of subcutaneous adipose tissue thicknesses at different body sites, furthermore to explore appropriate cut-offs to discriminate between athletes and controls. Measurements were determined in 64 males and 42 females, who were subsequently separated into two even groups (athletes and non-athletes. The optical device LIPOMETER was applied at standardised body sites to measure the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue layers. To calculate the power of the different body sites and the BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. In men, the neck (optimal cut-off value 2.3 mm and trunk (optimal cut-off value 15.5 mm provided the strongest discrimination power: with 90.6% (58 of 64 of the subjects being correctly classified into athletes or non-athletes. Discrimination power of the BMI values was 64.1% (41 of 64 were correctly classified. In women, the upper back (optimal cut-off value 3.3 mm and arms (optimal cut-off value 15.9 mm provided the strongest discrimination power with 88.1% (37 of 42 being correctly classified. When using BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes only 52.4% (22 of 42 were correctly classified. These results suggest that compared to BMI levels, subcutaneous fat patterns are a more accurate way of discriminating between athletes and non-athletes. In particular the neck and the trunk compartment in men and the upper back and arms compartment in women, were the best sites to discriminate between young athletes and non-athletes on the basis of their fat patterns.

  9. A user report on the trial use of gesture commands for image manipulation and X-ray acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ellis Chun Fai; Lai, Christopher Wai Keung

    2016-07-01

    Touchless environment for image manipulation and X-ray acquisition may enhance the current infection control measure during X-ray examination simply by avoiding any touch on the control panel. The present study is intended at designing and performing a trial experiment on using motion-sensing technology to perform image manipulation and X-ray acquisition function (the activities a radiographer frequently performs during an X-ray examination) under an experimental setup. Based on the author's clinical experience, several gesture commands were designed carefully to complete a single X-ray examination. Four radiographers were randomly recruited for the study. They were asked to perform gesture commands in front of a computer integrated with a gesture-based touchless controller. The translational movements of the tip of their thumb and index finger while performing different gesture commands were recorded for analysis. Although individual operators were free to decide the extent of movement and the speed at which their fingers and thumbs moved while performing these gesture commands, the result of our study demonstrated that all operators could perform our proposed gesture commands with good consistency, suggesting that motion-sensing technology could, in practice, be integrated into radiographic examinations. To summarize, although the implementation of motion-sensing technology as an input command in radiographic examination might inevitably slow down the examination throughput considering that extra procedural steps are required to trigger specific gesture commands in sequence, it is advantageous in minimizing the potential of the pathogen contamination during image operation and image processing that leads to cross infection. PMID:27230385

  10. Relations of self-regulation and self-efficacy for exercise and eating and BMI change: A field investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annesi James J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study aimed to assess relations of self-regulatory skill use with self-efficacy for exercise and appropriate eating, and the resulting change in weight associated with participation in a nutrition and exercise treatment supported by cognitive-behavioral methods. Methods Adults with severe obesity (N = 95; mean BMI = 40.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2 participated in a 6-month exercise and nutrition treatment emphasizing self-regulatory skills. Changes in self-regulatory skills usage, self-efficacy, overall mood, and BMI were measured. Relations of changes in self-regulatory skill use and self-efficacy, for both physical activity and appropriate eating, were assessed, as was the possibility of mood change being a mediator of these relationships. Indirect effects of the variables associated with the present treatment on BMI change were then estimated. Results For both exercise and appropriate eating, changes in self-regulation were associated with self-efficacy change. Mood change partially mediated the relationship between changes in self-regulation for appropriate eating and self-efficacy for appropriate eating. Self-efficacy changes for physical activity and controlled eating, together, explained a significant portion of the variance in BMI change (R2 = 0.26, p Conclusion Findings suggest that training in self-regulation for exercise and eating may benefit self-efficacy and weight-loss outcomes. Thus, these variables should be considered in both the theory and behavioral treatment of obesity.

  11. Bmi1 Is Required for Hedgehog Pathway-Driven Medulloblastoma Expansion12

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Lowell Evan; Westerman, Bart A.; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Wang, Aiqin; Ferris, Jennifer; Liu, Jianhong; Blom, Marleen; Ellison, David W.; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.

    2008-01-01

    Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh) signaling underlies development of a subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in transgenic mice expressing an oncogenic Hh effector, SmoA1, driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Whereas 100% of SmoA1; Bmi1+/+ or SmoA1;Bmi1+/- mice examined between postnatal (P) ...

  12. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Reproductive Health of Daughters in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariansdatter, Saga Elise; Ernst, Andreas; Toft, Gunnar;

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 1988......-significantly lower dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS), estradiol, and free estrogen index (FEI), compared to the middle BMI tertile. This was supported by a sub-analysis using the WHO classification (underweight, BMI < 18.50; normal range, BMI 18.50-24.99; overweight/obese, BMI ≥ 25.00 kg/m2) as exposure groups...

  13. Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents' BMI and educational level: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilato Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are responsible not only for the genetic structure of their children, but also for passing onto them their behaviours and attitudes toward life. The aim of this study was to analyse the connection between school-age children's obesity and that of their parents as well as between child obesity and parents' educational level, as a proxy indicator of the socio-economic status (SES of families in Tuscany. Methods The children sample was selected from "OKkio alla Salute 2010" (a cross sectional survey carried out by the Italian Institute of Health and consisted of 1,751 (922 males and 855 females 8-9 year-old school children. Weight and height were measured by ad hoc trained personnel, and Body Mass Index (BMI categories were calculated using Cole et al.'s cut-off. Parents' weight, height and educational level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The educational levels were classified as high, medium and low. Results The prevalence of obese children increased along the parents' BMI category: from 1.4% for underweight mothers to 30.3% for obese mothers and from 4% for under-normal-weight fathers to 23.9% for obese fathers (p Conclusion Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of the family, particularly the father's, seem to influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tuscan children.

  14. Gesture Commanding of a Robot with EVA Gloves Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gesture commanding can be applied and evaluated with NASA robot systems. Application of this input modality can improve the way crewmembers interact with robots...

  15. Nuclear BMI-1 expression in laryngeal carcinoma correlates with lymph node pathological status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegra Eugenia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main cause of treatment failure and death in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. The current clinical staging criteria fail to differentiate patients with occult metastasis from patients without metastasis. Identifying molecular markers of the disease might improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and development of laryngeal carcinoma and may help improve clinical staging and treatment. Methods Sixty-four previously untreated patients who underwent surgical excision of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with neck dissection were included in this study. The expression of B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1 was examined immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissue specimens. Results Nuclear expression of BMI-1 (nBMI-1 was detected in 32 of the 64 tumors (50%, cytoplasmic expression of BMI-1 (cBMI-1 was detected in 22 (34.4%, and 10 tumors (15.6% showed no BMI-1 immunoreactivity. High nBMI-1 expression levels (≥10 were detected in 28 of the 32 (87.5% nBMI-1-positive patients. Multivariate analysis including age at diagnosis, grade, tumor location, TNM status, and nBMI-1 expression showed that a high nBMI-1 expression level was an independent prognostic factor for lymph node metastasis. Conclusion The expression of BMI-1 in patients with laryngeal carcinoma seems to correlate with lymph node metastasis.

  16. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. Methods We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Results Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P P P P P > 0.5. In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P P P > 0.05. Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P P Conclusion Expression of Bmi-1 was greater in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues. The examination of Bmi-1 protein expression is potentially valuable in prognostic evaluation of bladder cancer.

  17. Decision making in military command teams: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Christopher James; Monk, John Wesley

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study examines the role of resource allocation in naval command teams. The experiment is based on the Composite Warfare Commander - Distributed Dynamic Decision-making (CWC-DDD) paradigm and investigates the impact of uncertainty in neutral/enemy discriminability, team information structure, and leader's involvement in resource coordination. Seven four-member teams, consisting of military officers, used the CWC-DDD to combat a p...

  18. Afloat surface line commanding officer leadership : a comprehensive study

    OpenAIRE

    Provencher, Jerome R.

    1992-01-01

    CIVINS This thesis explored the leadership styles of Navy commanding officers of afloat commands to determine if there were any differences in leadership styles and the effect, if any, of rank, age, commissioning source, education, ethnicity, location, and ship community type that influenced that leadership style. A review of the literature indicated that the Navy adopted the Situational Leadership Model in 1976. The Navy concurred with the philosophy that there was no one style of leaders...

  19. An analysis of Navy Recruiting Command's officer goaling models

    OpenAIRE

    Senter, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This study examines the goaling models used by the Navy Recruiting Command for the Nurse Corps and Nuclear Propulsion Officer Candidate (NUPOC) programs. These two programs serve as representative samples for the numerous officer recruitment programs administered by the Navy Recruiting Command. The intent of the study is to analyze and validate the accuracy of the current goaling models, to ascertain factors which could improve the accur...

  20. Model and analysis of trim commands in solid state drives

    OpenAIRE

    Frankie, Tasha Christine

    2012-01-01

    NAND flash solid state drives (SSDs) have recently become popular storage alternatives to traditional magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs), due partly to their superior performance in write speed. However, SSDs suffer from a decrease in write speed as they fill with data, due largely to write amplification, a phenomenon in which more writes than requested are performed by the device. Use of the Trim command is known to result in improvement in NAND flash SSD performance; the Trim command informs ...

  1. Bmi1 Is Required for Hedgehog Pathway-Driven Medulloblastoma Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Evan Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh signaling underlies development of a subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in transgenic mice expressing an oncogenic Hh effector, SmoA1, driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter. Whereas 100% of SmoA1; Bmi1+/+ or SmoA1;Bmi1+/- mice examined between postnatal (P days 14 and 26 had typical medulloblastomas (N = 29, tumors were not detected in any of the SmoA1;Bmi1-/- animals examined (N = 6. Instead, small ectopic collections of cells were present in the region of greatest tumor load in SmoA1 animals, suggesting that medulloblastomas were initiated but failed to undergo expansion into frank tumors. Cells within these Bmi1-/- lesions expressed SmoA1 but were largely nonproliferative, in contrast to cells in Bmi1+/+ tumors (6.2% vs 81.9% PCNA-positive, respectively. Ectopic cells were negative for the progenitor marker nestin, strongly GFAP-positive, and highly apoptotic, relative to Bmi1+/+ tumor cells (29.6% vs 6.3% TUNEL-positive. The alterations in proliferation and apoptosis in SmoA1;Bmi1-/- ectopic cells are associated with reduced levels of Cyclin D1 and elevated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19Arf, two inversely regulated downstream targets of Bmi1. These data provide the first demonstration that Bmi1 is required for spontaneous de novo development of a solid tumor arising in the brain, suggest a crucial role for Bmi1-dependent, nestin-expressing progenitor cells in medulloblastoma expansion, and implicate Bmi1 as a key factor required for Hh pathway-driven tumorigenesis.

  2. Testing command and control of the satellites in formation flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Popan; Gheorghe, Gh. Ion; Gabriel, Todoran

    2013-10-01

    The topics covered in the paper are mechatronic systems for determining the distance between the satellites and the design of the displacement system on air cushion table for satellites testing. INCDMTM has the capability to approach the collaboration within European Programms (ESA) of human exploration of outer space through mechatronic systems and accessories for telescopes, mechatronics systems used by the launchers, sensors and mechatronic systems for the robotic exploration programs of atmosphere and Mars. This research has a strong development component of industrial competitiveness many of the results of space research have direct applicability in industrial fabrication.

  3. Challenges in sharing information effectively: examples from command and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane H. Sonnenwald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of information sharing is to change a person's image of the world and to develop a shared working understanding. It is an essential component of collaboration. This paper examines barriers to sharing information effectively in dynamic group work situations.Three types of battlefield training simulations were observed and open-ended interviews with military personnel were conducted. Observation notes and interview transcripts were analysed to identify incidents when group members erroneously believed they had shared information effectively and were collaborating successfully, i.e., a deceptively false shared understanding had emerged. These incidents were analysed to discover what led to these unsuspected breakdowns in information sharing. Results. Unsuspected breakdowns in information sharing emerged when: differences in implementations of shared symbols were not recognized; implications of relevant information were not shared; differences in the role and expression of emotions when sharing information was not understood; and, the need to re-establish trust was not recognized. Conclusion. The challenges in information sharing identified here may extend to other high stress, unique and complex situations, such as natural disasters. Recommendations for more effective information behavior techniques in dynamic group work situations are presented.

  4. Constellation's Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.

    2007-01-01

    Operations concepts are highly effective for: 1) Developing consensus; 2) Discovering stakeholder needs, goals, objectives; 3) Defining behavior of system components (especially emergent behaviors). An interoperability standard can provide an excellent lever to define the capabilities needed for system evolution. Two categories of architectures are needed in a program of this size are: 1) Generic - Needed for planning, design and construction standards; 2) Specific - Needed for detailed requirement allocations, interface specs. A wide variety of architectural views are needed to address stakeholder concerns, including: 1) Physical; 2) Information (structure, flow, evolution); 3) Processes (design, manufacturing, operations); 4) Performance; 5) Risk.

  5. 32 CFR 761.9 - Entry Control Commanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... registered private vessels to enter Midway Island, Kingman Reef, Kaneohe Bay Naval Defensive Sea Area, Pearl Harbor Defensive Sea Area and Filipino workers employed by U.S. contractors to enter Wake Island....

  6. Multi-Robot Planetary Exploration Command and Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences, The MIT Manned Vehicle Laboratory (MVL), and the MIT Humans and Automation Laboratory (HAL) together propose to adapt existing software,...

  7. Distributed Command/Control Impacts on NAS Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In an effort to cope with air traffic demand growths and changing demand patterns, FAA, NASA, and industry have developed a number of simulation tools to model...

  8. COMMAND AND CONTROL STRATEGIES APPLIED TO HIGHPOWER STEAM GENERATORS

    OpenAIRE

    DUINEA. A.M.; MIRCEA P.M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the actual operation scheme existing for steam generator drum. Following the trend valid for forced circulation steam generator, it is proposed to replace the classical adjustment loops with new regulation scheme highlighting its advantages in steam generation operation.

  9. COMMAND AND CONTROL STRATEGIES APPLIED TO HIGHPOWER STEAM GENERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUINEA. A.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the actual operation scheme existing for steam generator drum. Following the trend valid for forced circulation steam generator, it is proposed to replace the classical adjustment loops with new regulation scheme highlighting its advantages in steam generation operation.

  10. Environment Perception Process in Maritime Command and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paradis, S.; Treurniet, W.; Roy, J.

    1999-01-01

    Various operational trends in naval warfare, such as technological advances in threat technology and an ongoing shift to littoral warfare, put the shipboard decision making process under pressure. Data must be processed under time-critical conditions and, as a consequence, the risk of saturation in

  11. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P Results Height, weight and BMI percentiles increased with age among both boys and girls, and both had approximately the same height and a lower weight and BMI as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P Conclusion Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed from the WHO and USCDC references. However, z score means relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Overweight and obesity were significantly higher while underweight and thinness/wasting were significantly lower relative to the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference and the IOTF cut-offs. New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed. Nevertheless, shifting to use of the 2007 WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics.

  12. The command team experimental test-bed stage 1: design and build of a submarine command room simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, A; Stanton, N A; Fay, D

    2015-01-01

    The command room system has developed across a century of submarine operations and so reflects a high state of evolution, but that does not mean that the system cannot be improved upon. Technological advances have resulted in the retrospective fitting of upgrades which may not have maximized the potential improvements offered. Future challenges for command teams in almost every domain include increasing amounts of data coupled with more automated systems and reduced manning. To optimise funct...

  13. Function Activation on Intelligent Buildings Using Mobile Devices through Voice Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumtadi Fatima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of information and communication technologies has allowed the incorporation into different areas of human activity of apps that control electrical and electronic devices through voice commands. With these apps, in telemedicine people affected by some temporary decrease in their physical capacities have improved their level of autonomy; utilities have been added to educational environments to facilitate the use of IT applications to users with physical disability; finally, home automated solutions have made possible to any person with permanent limited mobility to take control over home devices using voice commands. In this article a home automated solution, developed over a client-server principle is presented. As the client device a MIDP 2.0 cell phone with a Java MicroEdition application loaded was used; as server a web server PC was used serving also as gateway towards a Konnex network, added with a speech recognizer engine. Fully functional prototype developed allowed take control over 3 devices with 87% success of the speech recognizer reliability, this percentage improved after the use of a drop-down menu of commands displayed over the monitor.

  14. What should be the relationship between the National Guard and United States Northern Command in civil support operations following catastrophic events

    OpenAIRE

    Topp, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Military civil support operations following Hurricane Katrina revealed a compelling need for improving the command and control arrangements between the National Guard, operating in Title 32 status subordinate to the governors, and U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) who controlled all of the assigned Title 10 active duty forces subordinate to the President. This details the three mutually exclusive duty statuses of the National Guard, reviews the statutory, strategy and po...

  15. Impact of Masked Replacement of Sugar-Sweetened with Sugar-Free Beverages on Body Weight Increases with Initial BMI: Secondary Analysis of Data from an 18 Month Double-Blind Trial in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn B Katan

    Full Text Available Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. This effect may be more pronounced in children with a high body mass index (BMI because their sensing of kilocalories might be compromised. We investigated the impact of sugar-free versus sugary drinks separately in children with a higher and a lower initial BMI z score, and predicted caloric intakes and degree of compensation in the two groups.This is a secondary, explorative analysis of our double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT which showed that replacement of one 250-mL sugary drink per day by a sugar-free drink for 18 months significantly reduced weight gain. In the 477 children who completed the trial, mean initial weights were close to the Dutch average. Only 16% were overweight and 3% obese. Weight changes were expressed as BMI z-score, i.e. as standard deviations of the BMI distribution per age and sex group. We designated the 239 children with an initial BMI z-score below the median as 'lower BMI' and the 238 children above the median as 'higher BMI'. The difference in caloric intake from experimental beverages between treatments was 86 kcal/day both in the lower and in the higher BMI group. We used a multiple linear regression and the coefficient of the interaction term (initial BMI group times treatment, indicated whether children with a lower BMI responded differently from children with a higher BMI. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Relative to the sugar sweetened beverage, consumption of the sugar-free beverage for 18 months reduced the BMI z-score by 0.05 SD units within the lower BMI group and by 0.21 SD within the higher BMI group. Body weight gain was reduced by 0.62 kg in the lower BMI group and by 1.53 kg in the higher BMI group. Thus the treatment reduced the BMI z-score by 0.16 SD units more in the higher BMI group than in the lower BMI group (p = 0.04; 95% CI -0.31 to -0.01. The impact of the intervention on body weight

  16. Bmi1 is required for hepatic progenitor cell expansion and liver tumor development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Fan

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a polycomb group transcriptional repressor and it has been implicated in regulating self-renewal and proliferation of many types of stem or progenitor cells. In addition, Bmi1 has been shown to function as an oncogene in multiple tumor types. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of Bmi1 in regulating hepatic oval cells, the major type of bipotential progenitor cells in adult liver, as well as the role of Bmi1 during hepatocarcinogenesis using Bmi1 knockout mice. We found that loss of Bmi1 significantly restricted chemically induced oval cell expansion in the mouse liver. Concomitant deletion of Ink4a/Arf in Bmi1 deficient mice completely rescued the oval cell expansion phenotype. Furthermore, ablation of Bmi1 delayed hepatocarcinogenesis induced by AKT and Ras co-expression. This antineoplastic effect was accompanied by the loss of hepatic oval cell marker expression in the liver tumor samples. In summary, our data demonstrated that Bmi1 is required for hepatic oval cell expansion via deregulating the Ink4a/Arf locus in mice. Our study also provides the evidence, for the first time, that Bmi1 expression is required for liver cancer development in vivo, thus representing a promising target for innovative treatments against human liver cancer.

  17. Disentangling the associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition using the four‐component model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813

  18. Limiting vibration in systems with constant amplitude actuators through command preshaping. M.S Thesis - MIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Keith Eric

    1994-01-01

    The basic concepts of command preshaping were taken and adapted to the framework of systems with constant amplitude (on-off) actuators. In this context, pulse sequences were developed which help to attenuate vibration in flexible systems with high robustness to errors in frequency identification. Sequences containing impulses of different magnitudes were approximated by sequences containing pulses of different durations. The effects of variation in pulse width on this approximation were examined. Sequences capable of minimizing loads induced in flexible systems during execution of commands were also investigated. The usefulness of these techniques in real-world situations was verified by application to a high fidelity simulation of the space shuttle. Results showed that constant amplitude preshaping techniques offer a substantial improvement in vibration reduction over both the standard and upgraded shuttle control methods and may be mission enabling for use of the shuttle with extremely massive payloads.

  19. A commercial procedure execution engine completing the command chain of a university satellite simulation infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Michael; Falke, Albert; Kuwahara, Toshinori; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Pearson, Steve; Witts, Andrew; Eickhoff, Jens

    2010-03-01

    The Institute of Space Systems at the University of Stuttgart has a small satellite programme consisting of currently four missions. The first of these missions is the Flying Laptop, the purpose of which are technology evaluation, Earth observation and scientific measurement. Since the budget for a University satellite programme is obviously limited, engineering models of the entire spacecraft are to be avoided. In order to keep technical risks at a low level, a simulation based development approach was selected instead which already has been applied as proven technology in industry. The Institute of Space Systems applies the system simulation infrastructure Model- based Development and Verification Environment (MDVE) developed by Astrium as real-time simulator which is commanded via a SCOS-2000 mission control system. Easy commanding of such an entire simulated S/C, respectively, later the hardware in AIT phase, is mandatory especially for students only working with the equipment for a typical 6 months thesis period. Therefore the infrastructure setup was completed by the test procedure editor and execution engine Manufacturing and Operations Information System (MOIS) which for the first time provides a complete command/execution/control chain in the programme.

  20. ITOUGH2 command reference. Version 3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a detailed description of all ITOUGH2 commands. It complements the ITOUGH2 User's Guide and the collection of ITOUGH2 sample problems. ITOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media. Extensive experience in using TOUGH2 is a prerequisite for using ITOUGH2. The preparation of an input file for TOUGH2 or its derivatives is described in separate manuals and is not part of this report. The ITOUGH2 user's guide summarizes the inverse modeling theory pertaining to ITOUGH2, and describes the program output. Furthermore, information about code architecture and installation are given. In Chapter 2 of this report, a brief summary of inverse modeling theory is given to restate the main concepts implemented in ITOUGH2 and to introduce certain definitions. Chapter 3 introduces the basic concepts of the ITHOUGH2 input language and the main structure of an ITOUGH2 input file. Chapter 4, the main part of this report, provides detailed descriptions of each ITOUGH2 command in alphabetical order. It is complemented by a command index in Appendix B in which the commands are given in logical order. The content of Chapter 4 is also available on-line using command it2help. Chapter 5 describes the usage of the UNIX script files for executing, checking, and terminating ITOUGH2 simulations

  1. 32 CFR 700.723 - Administration and discipline: Separate and detached command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration and discipline: Separate and... OFFICIAL RECORDS Commanders In Chief and Other Commanders Administration and Discipline § 700.723 Administration and discipline: Separate and detached command. Any flag or general officer in command, any...

  2. Commande optimale à flux libre des machines asynchrones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedinger, J. M.; Poullain, S.; Yvon, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the optimal control with unconstrained flux of an induction motor being considered as a distributed parameter system described by a nonlinear diffusion equation. This approach allows to describe the electrodynamic state of the motor by taking into account, in a natural way, the influence of saturation and eddy-currents, as well as the nonlinearities due to the variable flux operation. Equations are approximated via a finite element formulation which leads to a finite dimensional dynamical system to which the techniques of optimal control may be applied. The generality of the methodology allows to treat various criteria. The objective aimed in this paper is to force the motor torque to follow a given input, especially under initially demagnetized conditions and with, naturally, constraints on the currents. For this purpose the criterion will be chosen as a norm of the difference between the electromagnetic torque and a given reference torque. Numerical simulations are presented for the case of a squirrel-cage rotor and for a solid iron rotor. Results are compared with those deduced from strategies based on lumped-parameter models. Torque responses obtained with field-oriented control method adapted to the case of flux-variable operation are also presented. Finally a modification of the criterion is proposed for identifying the command which allows to obtain the larger torque during transient states. Dans cet article on traite le problème du contrôle optimal à flux libre d'un moteur asynchrone considéré comme un système à paramètres répartis gouverné par une équation de diffusion non linéaire. Cette approche permet de décrire l'état électrodynamique de la machine en prenant naturellement en compte les effets de la saturation et des courants induits, ainsi que les non-linéarités liées au fonctionnement à flux variable. La formulation éléments finis est utilisée pour traduire le problème continu sous la forme d

  3. Does body mass index (BMI) influence the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score in axial spondyloarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336

  4. Depression and BMI influences the serum vascular endothelial growth factor level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Foldager, Leslie;

    2014-01-01

    measured in serum by immunoassay and independent determinants of the serum VEGF level were assessed by generalized linear models.The main findings were that depression, severity of depression, previous depressive episodes, age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher serum VEGF levels. The......Recent studies suggest that the angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. However, only a few studies have investigated serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression, or the possible association between genetic variants within...... the VEGF gene and depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences between serum VEGF levels in individuals with depression vs. control individuals, and associations between genetic markers located within VEGF and depression. In addition, determinants of the serum VEGF...

  5. BMI and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.;

    2006-01-01

    BMI differentiation and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people were analysed. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years. 21 food patterns were separated by the factor analysis. On the basis of the self-reported body mass and height, the BMI and percentages...... of overweight or obese people were calculated. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence for both sexes was unequivocally connected with eating rye. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence depended among women on consuming pork meat and alcoholic beverages. For men...

  6. Overexpression of Bmi1 in Lymphocytes Stimulates Skeletogenesis by Improving the Osteogenic Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xichao; Dai, Xiuliang; Wu, Xuan; Ji, Ji; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Yang, Xiangjiao; Miao, Dengshun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes can stimulate skeletogenesis by improving the osteogenic microenvironment, we examined the skeletal phenotype of EμBmi1 transgenic mice with overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes. The size of the skeleton, trabecular bone volume and osteoblast number, indices of proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were increased significantly, ROS levels were reduced and antioxidative capacity was enhanced in EμBmi1 mice compared to WT mice. In PTHrP1–84 knockin (PthrpKI/KI) mice, the expression levels of Bmi1 are reduced and potentially can mediate the premature osteoporosis observed. We therefore generated a PthrpKI/KI mice overexpressing Bmi1 in lymphocytes and compared them with PthrpKI/KI and WT littermates. Overexpression of Bmi1 in PthrpKI/KI mice resulted in a longer lifespan, increased body weight and improvement in skeletal growth and parameters of osteoblastic bone formation with reduced ROS levels and DNA damage response parameters. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes can stimulate osteogenesis in vivo and partially rescue defects in skeletal growth and osteogenesis in PthrpKI/KI mice. These studies therefore indicate that overexpression of Bmi1 in lymphocytes can stimulate skeletogenesis by inhibiting oxidative stress and improving the osteogenic microenvironment. PMID:27373231

  7. Botnet Command Detection using Virtual Honeynet

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.Bhatia; Sehgal, R K; Sanjeev Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Internet attacks are growing with time, threats are increasing to disableinfrastructure to those that also target peoples and organization, these increasing largeattacks, and the new class of attacks directly targets the large businesses and governmentsaround the world. At the centre of many of these attacks is a large pool of compromisedcomputers which are called zombies commonly controlled by the attackers by using somecommon channels? Attackers use these zombies as anonymous proxies to hid...

  8. Algorithmique et commande du mouvement en robotique

    OpenAIRE

    Lamiraux, Florent

    2004-01-01

    The work presented in this document is concerned with the problem of automatic motion planning and control for mobile robots. The goal is the develop algorithmic tools that will enable a nonholonomic mobile robot to navigate autonomously in a partially known environment cluttered with obstacles. The originality of the work presented in this document resides in the genericity of the approaches proposed for each type of problem and in the applicability to real sized experimental mobile robots. ...

  9. THE PARTICULARITIES OF THE COST CALCULATION METHOD ON COMMANDS IN FURNITURE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Felicia Sabou

    2014-01-01

    The paper present the importance of the method on commands in cost calculation and the particularities of the cost calculation method on commands in the furniture industry. This paper presents a hypotetical study on the method on commands, considering the observations made during 2013-2014, on how it is organized and managed accounts management using method on commands.By presenting this hypothetical model about the accounting in management accounting using the method on commands, the pape...

  10. Some aspects of management of a command in handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serduyk D.G.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An appropriateness and efficiency of the use of two components of management a game is considered in a handball: leadthrough of replacements and taking of minute interruptions. Such actions allow to do the game of command more guided and more disciplined. They render assistance to achievement stably of high sporting results. The leadthrough of replacements and taking of minute interruptions in a great deal depends on experience of trainer, his psychological state. Taking of minute interruption can be accompanied the series of replacements. It causes the sharp change of tactical actions of game or removal of nervousness in the actions of command.

  11. Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c command-line interface

    CERN Document Server

    Pot'Vin, Kellyn; Smith, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Command-Line Interface shows how to use Enterprise Manager's powerful scripting language to automate your database administration work and save time by scripting routine tasks, and then executing those scripts across collections of databases and instances in your environment. This book is chock full of ready-made scripting examples contributed by the authors and leading members of the community. For example, you'll find scripts and examples of commands to: Remove an Enterprise Manager agent and its related targetsQuickly create administrator accounts that are ful

  12. Phoneme Based Speaker—Independent English Command Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贲俊; 万旺根; 余小清

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new algorithm of phoneme based speaker-independent English command recognition and develop a speaker-independent English command recognition system. It accelerates the whole system development by using HTK (hide Markov toolkits) and Visual C + + based on the character' istics of speaker-independent speech recognition. In recognition phase we combine the confidence measures with incomplete matching, which considerably improve the quality of recognition. The recognition accuracyis increased by 4.8 % over complete matching without back-end processing when the sige of vocabulary is more than 10.

  13. The Arecibo Remote Command Center: Undergraduates and High School Students Exploring Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andy; Jenet, F.; Price, R. H.; Rodriguez-Zermeno, A.; Creighton, T. D.; Benacquista, M.; Guerrero-miller, A.; Romano, J. D.; Quetschke, V.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Texas-Brownsville (UTB) is home to the Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC). The ARCC is a virtual control room where researchers and undergraduate students—and local high school students—control in real time the Arecibo Observatory—the world’s largest single dish radio telescope. This poster presents a general outline of ARCC programs and recent accomplishments—including pulsar discoveries, construction of our own telescope array named the Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM), the graduation of our first cohort of ARCC Scholars, and the establishment of the Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy (CARA).

  14. Bmi-1 confers adaptive radioresistance to KYSE-150R esophageal carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanyu [Department of General Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Liu, Luying [Department of Radiotherapy, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Sharma, Sherven [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, and the Department of Veterans Affairs, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Liu, Hai; Yang, Weifang; Sun, Xiaonan [Department of Radiotherapy, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Dong, Qinghua, E-mail: dongqinghua@zju.edu.cn [Biomedical Research Center, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adaptive radioresistant KYSE-150R cells expressed high level of Bmi-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bmi-1 depletion sensitized KYSE-150R cells to RT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bmi-1 depletion increased the generation of ROS in KYSE-150R cells exposed to radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bmi-1 depletion impaired DNA repair capacities in KYSE-150R cells exposed to radiation. -- Abstract: Radiotherapy (RT) is a major modality of cancer treatment. However, tumors often acquire radioresistance, which causes RT to fail. The exact mechanisms by which tumor cells subjected to fractionated irradiation (FIR) develop an adaptive radioresistance are largely unknown. Using the radioresistant KYSE-150R esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) model, which was derived from KYSE-150 parental cells using FIR, the role of Bmi-1 in mediating the radioadaptive response of ESCC cells to RT was investigated. The results showed that the level of Bmi-1 expression was significantly higher in KYSE-150R cells than in the KYSE-150 parental cells. Bmi-1 depletion sensitized the KYSE-150R cells to RT mainly through the induction of apoptosis, partly through the induction of senescence. A clonogenic cell survival assay showed that Bmi-1 depletion significantly decreased the radiation survival fraction in KYSE-150R cells. Furthermore, Bmi-1 depletion increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of oxidase genes (Lpo, Noxo1 and Alox15) in KYSE-150R cells exposed to irradiation. DNA repair capacities assessed by {gamma}-H2AX foci formation were also impaired in the Bmi-1 down-regulated KYSE-150R cells. These results suggest that Bmi-1 plays an important role in tumor radioadaptive resistance under FIR and may be a potent molecular target for enhancing the efficacy of fractionated RT.

  15. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis-BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Ojo, Diane; Wei, Fengxiang; Wong, Nicholas; Gu, Yan; Tang, Damu

    2015-01-01

    BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase. Through mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119Ub), BMI1 represses multiple gene loci; among these, the INK4A/ARF locus has been most thoroughly investigated. The locus encodes the p16INK4A and p14/p19ARF tumor suppressors that function in the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Its repression contributes to BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. BMI1 also possesses other oncogenic functions, specifically its regulative role in DNA damage response (DDR). In this process, BMI1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and γH2AX, thereby facilitating the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) through stimulating homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Additionally, BMI1 compromises DSB-induced checkpoint activation independent of its-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We review the emerging role of BMI1 in DDR regulation and discuss its impact on BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. PMID:26633535

  16. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis—BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozeng Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1, and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase. Through mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119Ub, BMI1 represses multiple gene loci; among these, the INK4A/ARF locus has been most thoroughly investigated. The locus encodes the p16INK4A and p14/p19ARF tumor suppressors that function in the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Its repression contributes to BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. BMI1 also possesses other oncogenic functions, specifically its regulative role in DNA damage response (DDR. In this process, BMI1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and γH2AX, thereby facilitating the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs through stimulating homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Additionally, BMI1 compromises DSB-induced checkpoint activation independent of its-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We review the emerging role of BMI1 in DDR regulation and discuss its impact on BMI1-derived tumorigenesis.

  17. Combined introduction of Bmi-1 and hTERT immortalizes human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells with low risk of transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatrai, Peter, E-mail: peter.tatrai@biomembrane.hu [Institute of Enzymology, Research Center for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Karolina ut 29, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Szepesi, Aron, E-mail: aron.szepesi@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Matula, Zsolt, E-mail: matula.zsolt@gmail.com [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Szigeti, Anna, E-mail: anna.szigeti@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Buchan, Gyoengyi, E-mail: buchan@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Madi, Andras, E-mail: madi@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Stem Cell, Apoptosis and Genomics Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Uher, Ferenc, E-mail: uher@biomembrane.hu [Stem Cell Laboratory, Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service, Dioszegi ut 64, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We immortalized human adipose stromal cells (ASCs) with hTERT, Bmi-1, and SV40T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT-only ASCs are prone to transformation, while Bmi-only ASCs become senescent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SV40T introduced along with hTERT abrogates proliferation control and multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT combined with Bmi-1 yields stable phenotype up to 140 population doublings. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are increasingly being studied for their usefulness in regenerative medicine. However, limited life span and donor-dependent variation of primary cells such as ASCs present major hurdles to controlled and reproducible experiments. We therefore aimed to establish immortalized ASC cell lines that provide steady supply of homogeneous cells for in vitro work while retain essential features of primary cells. To this end, combinations of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), murine Bmi-1, and SV40 large T antigen (SV40T) were introduced by lentiviral transduction into ASCs. The resulting cell lines ASC{sup hTERT}, ASC{sup Bmi-1}, ASC{sup Bmi-1+hTERT} and ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} were tested for transgene expression, telomerase activity, surface immunomarkers, proliferation, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, karyotype, tumorigenicity, and cellular senescence. All cell lines have maintained expression of characteristic surface immunomarkers, and none was tumorigenic. However, ASC{sup Bmi-1} had limited replicative potential, while the rapidly proliferating ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} acquired chromosomal aberrations, departed from MSC phenotype, and lost differentiation capacity. ASC{sup hTERT} and ASC{sup hTERT+Bmi-1}, on the other hand, preserved all essential MSC features and did not senesce after 100 population doublings. Notably, a subpopulation of ASC{sup hTERT} also acquired aberrant karyotype and showed signs of transformation after long-term culture

  18. Verifying command sequences for satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, James F., III; Ramanna, Sheela

    1992-10-01

    We present a formal basis for the design of a Checker used in validating safe schedules and in selecting error recovery schedules for satellite control systems. This design includes a high-level specification of Checker behavior and properties (called flight rules) of safe schedules. Specifications are written in Timed Linear Logic (TLL). Validation of schedules is performed in terms of real-time telemetry and deduction system proof rules. Telemetry (state information for satellite subsystems) serves as input to the Checker. Detection of violation of a flight rule by the Checker results in the selection of a contingency plan (error recovery schedule). The Checker is illustrated in terms of the TOPEX/Poseidon Oceanographic Satellite System.

  19. Recovery of premorbid BMI trajectory without overshoot during the first year of treatment of children with type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönberg, Annika; Swenne, Ingemar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study body mass index (BMI) changes and metabolic control in children and adolescents during the first year following the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Research design and methods 200 children and adolescents (0.05). In a multiple regression analysis, BMISDS at 1 year was directly proportional to and highly predicted by BMISDS prior to onset of diabetes (R2=0.57; pdiabetes in children and adolescents, it is possible to achieve good metabolic control without excess weight gain. PMID:27547411

  20. A Multi-Component Day-Camp Weight-Loss Program Is Effective in Reducing BMI in Children after One Year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Ried-Larsen, Mathias;

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year multi-component immersive day-camp weight-loss intervention for children with overweight and obesity. The study design was a parallel-group randomized controlled trial. One hundred fifteen 11-13-year-old children...... index (BMI) was the primary outcome. BMI z-score, clustered cardiovascular risk z-score, and body composition were secondary outcomes. All outcomes were measured at baseline, six week-, and 52 week follow-up. After six weeks, children from the day-camp intervention arm had improved their BMI (-2.2 kg/m2...... (95% CI -2.6 to -1.7, Pchildren from the standard intervention arm. After 52 weeks, the day-camp intervention arm had a lower BMI (-1.2 kg/m2 (95% CI -1.8 to -0.5, P = 0.001)), and BMI z-score (-0.20 (95% CI -0.35 to -0.05, P = 0...

  1. Elevated BMI and Male Sex Are Associated with Greater Underreporting of Caloric Intake as Assessed by Doubly Labeled Water12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Palmrose, Christina A; Burger, Kyle S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inaccuracies in energy intake (EI) measurement hinder identification of risk factors that predict weight gain and evaluation of obesity prevention and treatment interventions. Research has used objective measures of EI to identify underreporting correlates, producing mixed results, suggesting the need to examine novel potential correlates. Objective: With the use of an objective measure of EI from doubly labeled water (DLW) this report examined multiple potential underreporting correlates. Methods: Adolescents from 2 studies (study 1, n = 91; mean age: 18.4 ± 0.58 y; 100% female; study 2, n = 162; mean age: 15.2 ± 1.99 y; 82 female adolescents; 80 male adolescents) completed a DLW assessment of EI, a food-frequency questionnaire, and measures of perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, food-cue reactivity, eating disorder symptoms, socioeconomic status, and neural response to food; BMI (in kg/m2) was measured over a 2-y follow-up. Results: Elevated BMI correlated with underreported EI in study 1 (r = 0.26, P Underreporting correlated negatively (r = −0.29; uncorr P Underreporting did not predict future change in BMI in either study. Conclusions: Findings document marked underreporting and replicate evidence that BMI correlates positively with underreporting and extends this literature by revealing that several novel factors were unrelated to underreporting and further that neural responsivity to food correlated with underreporting, suggesting that adolescents who showed reduced responsivity in a motor control region to food receipt and elevated responsivity of gustatory regions to anticipated palatable food receipt showed greater underreporting. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00433680 and NCT02084836. PMID:26338886

  2. The Chain of Command May Be Broken--Sometimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendor, Benjamin

    1986-01-01

    Board members should learn from two court decisions about the limits the First Amendment places on chain-of-command policies. Employees who have complaints about matters that affect the public may not be prohibited from bypassing the superintendent and coming directly to the school board. (MLF)

  3. PetroChina to Establish Command Center on Oil Dispatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Desin

    2008-01-01

    @@ PetroChina will install a command center on the distribution of refined oil products in 2008 to improve supply efficiency amidst oil shortage. The center with its layout designed by the China Petroleum and Petrochemical Engineering Institute has entered feasibility study, and may be put to use in August at the earliest,according to the recent reports from China news media.

  4. Commander Brand shaves in front of forward middeck lockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand, wearing shorts, shaves in front of forward middeck lockers using personal hygiene mirror assembly (assy). Open modular locker single tray assy, Field Sequential (FS) crew cabin camera, communications kit assy mini headset (HDST) and HDST interface unit (HIU), personal hygiene kit, and meal tray assemblies appear in view.

  5. Voice Command Recognition in Multirobot Systems: Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Miček

    2012-11-01

    Therefore, we refrain from the analytical analysis and the choice of appropriate level of information fusion, but in four different scenarios we focus on solving ‘voice command recognition‘ ‐ we would like to show the advantages and disadvantages of individual approaches. The experiments described and the results achieved are based on simulation experiments and verified by experimental and demonstrative MRS.

  6. 32 CFR 724.407 - Commander, Naval Reserve Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commander, Naval Reserve Force. 724.407 Section 724.407 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL..., Naval Reserve Force. Manages Naval Reserve resources. Responsible for providing limited support to...

  7. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrenˋs BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanette Erkelenz, Susanne Kobel, Sarah Kettner, Clemens Drenowatz, Jürgen M. Steinacker and the Research Group "Join the Healthy Boat - Primary School"

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children’s MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children’s PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively. There was no association between parental and children’s PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively. Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children.

  8. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    .041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late matured pubertal children...

  9. Correlation of Bmi-1 expression and telomerase activity in human ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, F. B.; Sui, L. H.; Xin, T.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the correlation between the oncoprotein Bmi-1 and telomerase activity in ovarian cancer. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is used to detect the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Bmi-1 protein in 47 ovarian epithelial cancer cases, and immunohistochemistry i

  10. Model and solving method for adaptive evolution of command and control relationship in C4 ISR system%C4 ISR 系统指挥控制关系适应性演化模型和方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰勇; 蓝羽石; 易侃; 毛少杰; 王珩

    2015-01-01

    研究了C4 ISR系统结构中指挥控制关系的适应性演化问题。构建了C4 ISR系统结构中的指挥控制关系模型,在对指挥控制关系适应性演化过程分析和描述的基础上,设计了演化过程中的指挥控制关系的结构变化代价和性能代价,并以最小化总的演化代价为目标函数构建了指挥控制关系适应性演化问题的数学模型。提出了基于 n-Best 策略层级聚类方法和遗传算法(genetic algorithm,GA)的问题模型求解思路。n-Best 策略层级聚类方法用来获取每个任务阶段可行的指挥控制关系集合,而 GA 用来搜索最优的演化路径。最后通过某一仿真算例验证了求解方法的可行性、稳定性。%The adaptive evolution of command and control (C2 )relationship in C4 ISR system structure is studied.The model of the C2 relationship is established,the process of the C2 relationship adaptive evolution is analyzed and depicted,the cost of structure change and the cost of performance are designed,and the mathemat-ic model with the value of sum of evolution cost minimization as the objective function is built for the problem of the C2 relationship adaptive evolution.Then the method based on the n-Best strategy hierarchical clustering al-gorithm and genetic algorithm (GA)to solve this model is designed.The hierarchical clustering algorithm based on n-Best strategy is used for getting the feasible C2 relationship in each task window,and the GA is used for searching the best path of evolution.Finally,the applicability and stability of this solving algorithm are illustra-ted by a case of joint operational plan.

  11. Nativity, US Length of Residence, and BMI Among Diverse Asian American Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups. PMID:25192818

  12. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  13. BMI as a mediator of the relationship between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in children: a mediation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Díez-Fernández

    Full Text Available Muscular fitness levels have been associated with cardiometabolic risk in children, although whether body weight acts as a confounder or as an intermediate variable in this relationship remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors is mediated by body mass index (BMI.Cross-sectional study using a sample of 1158 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the province of Cuenca, Spain. We measured anthropometrics and biochemical variables and we calculated a muscular fitness index as the sum of z-scores of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing long jump, and we estimated a previously validated cardiometabolic risk index (CMRI. Linear regression models were fitted for mediation analysis to assess whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk was mediated by BMI.Children with normal weight (NW had a better cardiometabolic risk profile than their overweight (OW or obese (OB peers after controlling for muscular fitness. Marginal estimated mean ± SE values for NW, OW and OB categories of CMRI were -0.75 ± 0.06 0.05 ± 0.09 >-1.16 ± 0.13 for lower, middle and upper quartiles of muscular fitness in boys and 1.01 ± 0.16 > 0.10 ± 0.09 > -1.02 ± 0.15 in girls, both p < 0.001, but differences disappeared when controlling for BMI. BMI acted as a full mediator between muscular fitness and most cardiometabolic risk factors (Sobel test z = -11.44 for boys; z = -11.83 for girls; p < 0.001 in CMRI mediation model and as a partial mediator in the case of waist circumference (Sobel test z=-14.86 for boys; z=-14.51 for girls; p<0.001.BMI mediates the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in schoolchildren. Overall, good muscular fitness is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, but particularly when accompanied by normal weight.

  14. EXPRESSION OF BMI-1 PROTIEN IN OVARIAN TUMOR%bmi-1基因编码蛋白在卵巢肿瘤中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小萍

    2006-01-01

    目的:了解bmi-1基因编码蛋白在卵巢肿瘤中的表达情况,为阐明卵巢肿瘤发生的分之机理提供依据.方法:选择我校附属医院病理科2000~2006年的患者切片,包括浆液性囊腺癌27例、粘液性囊腺癌29例、恶性宫内膜样癌28例、卵巢良性肿瘤10例,正常卵巢标本10例.免疫组化法测bmi-1蛋白.结果:(1)不同分化程度的三种肿瘤的与正常卵巢及卵巢良性肿瘤比较,bmi-1蛋白呈过表达(P<0.05);(2)进一步作关联性分析,浆液性囊腺癌、粘液性囊腺癌、恶性宫内膜样癌的肿瘤细胞分化程度与bmi-1表达程度之间无关联性.结论:bmi-1基因的过表达在卵巢肿瘤的发生中有重要愿意.

  15. Commande sans modèle et commande à modèle restreint

    OpenAIRE

    Fliess, Michel; Join, Cédric

    2008-01-01

    International audience; We are introducing a model-free control and a control with a restricted model for finite-dimensional complex systems. This control design may be viewed as a contribution to ``intelligent'' PID controllers, the tuning of which becomes quite easy, even with highly nonlinear and/or time-varying systems. Our main tool is a newly developed numerical differentiator. Differential algebra provides the theoretical framework. Our approach is validated by several numerical experi...

  16. Adolescent BMI at Northern Israel: From Trends, to Associated Variables and Comorbidities, and to Medical Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machluf, Yossy; Fink, Daniel; Farkash, Rivka; Rotkopf, Ron; Pirogovsky, Avinoam; Tal, Orna; Shohat, Tamar; Weisz, Giora; Ringler, Erez; Dagan, David; Chaiter, Yoram

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of abnormal body mass index (BMI), mainly obesity, is becoming a significant public health problem. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide a comprehensive view of secular trends of BMI, and the associated socio-demographic variables and comorbidities among adolescents with abnormal BMI. Individuals of the study population were born mainly between 1970 and 1993, and were examined at 16 to 19 years of age during the years 1987 to 2010, at 1 conscription center in the northern district of Israel.The study population included 113,694 adolescents. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between BMI categories, socio-demographic variables, and medical conditions.A downward trend in the prevalence of normal BMI among both male and female adolescents was obtained, while trends of overweight and obesity (in both genders) and underweight (only among females) rose. Socio-demographic variables such as religion, education, family-related parameters, residential environment, country of birth, and origin were all associated with different risks for abnormal BMI. Obesity was associated with higher risk for hyperlipidemia, endocrine disorders (only in males), knee disorders, and hypertension type I + II (in both genders). Overweight was associated with knee disorders (only in females). Underweight, exclusively in males, was associated with increased risk for endocrine disorders, proteinuria, and cardiac disorders. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the intricate relations between gender, BMI, and medical signatures. It brought to light novel clusters of diseases that were abundant among populations having above-normal BMI or underweight males. Furthermore, above-normal BMI was associated with a lower rate of cardiac anomalies and scoliosis/kyphosis, whereas being underweight was associated with a lower risk for hypertension and flat foot.This study provides a reliable and in-depth view

  17. Parents' and boys' perceptions of boys' body size for average and high BMI boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Lynn S

    2011-07-01

    A study on 49 preadolescent boys and their parents was performed to determine if differences existed in boys' body esteem and body size perceptions and to determine how accurately parents perceive their sons' body size. The boys were grouped by their body mass index (BMI) into average and high BMI groups. The boys completed the Body Esteem Scale; the boys and the parents rated the boys' body size perceptions. No differences were found in the boys' body esteem. The boys in the high BMI group perceived themselves as bigger than the boys in the average BMI group, and the parents of the boys with a high BMI perceived their sons as bigger. The boys in the high BMI group rated their current figure as heavier than their ideal figure. The results supported that the boys and the parents were aware of the boys' current body size. However, the parents of the boys with high BMI were more accepting of a larger ideal body figure. PMID:21689273

  18. MDR1 mediated chemoresistance: BMI1 and TIP60 in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee Mustafi, Soumyajit; Chakraborty, Prabir Kumar; Naz, Sarwat; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar; Street, Mark; Basak, Rumki; Yang, Da; Ding, Kai; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Bhattacharya, Resham

    2016-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced emergence of drug resistant cells is frequently observed and is exemplified by the expression of family of drug resistance proteins including, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). However, a concise mechanism for chemotherapy-induced MDR1 expression is unclear. Mechanistically, mutational selection, epigenetic alteration, activation of the Wnt pathway or impaired p53 function have been implicated. The present study describes that the surviving fraction of cisplatin resistant cells co- upregulate MDR1, BMI1 and acetyl transferase activity of TIP60. Using complementary gain and loss of function approaches, we demonstrate that the expression of MDR1 is positively regulated by BMI1, a stem-cell factor classically known as a transcriptional repressor. Our study establishes a functional interaction between TIP60 and BMI-1 resulting in upregulation of MDR1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays further establish that the proximal MDR1 promoter responds to cisplatin in a BMI1 dependent manner. BMI1 interacts with a cluster of E-box elements on the MDR1 promoter and recruits TIP60 resulting in acetylation of histone H2A and H3. Collectively, our data establish a hitherto unknown liaison among MDR1, BMI1 and TIP60 and provide mechanistic insights into cisplatin-induced MDR1 expression resulting in acquired cross-resistance against paclitaxel, doxorubicin and likely other drugs. In conclusion, our results advocate utilizing anti-BMI1 strategies to alleviate acquired resistance to chemotherapy. PMID:27295567

  19. p21/Cyclin E pathway modulates anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1 in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen; Zhou, Yuan; Tiwari, Agnes F Y; Su, Hang; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Dandan; Lau, Victoria Ming Yi; Hau, Pok Man; Yip, Yim Ling; Cheung, Annie L M; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Tsao, Sai Wah

    2015-03-15

    Apart from regulating stem cell self-renewal, embryonic development and proliferation, Bmi-1 has been recently reported to be critical in the maintenance of genome integrity. In searching for novel mechanisms underlying the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1, we observed, for the first time, that Bmi-1 positively regulates p21 expression. We extended the finding that Bmi-1 deficiency induced chromosome breaks in multiple cancer cell models. Interestingly, we further demonstrated that knockdown of cyclin E or ectopic overexpression of p21 rescued Bmi-1 deficiency-induced chromosome breaks. We therefore conclude that p21/cyclin E pathway is crucial in modulating the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1. As it is well established that the overexpression of cyclin E potently induces genome instability and p21 suppresses the function of cyclin E, the novel and important implication from our findings is that Bmi-1 plays an important role in limiting genomic instability in cylin E-overexpressing cancer cells by positive regulation of p21.

  20. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  1. Associations between Food Outlets around Schools and BMI among Primary Students in England: A Cross-Classified Multi-Level Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Williams

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy-makers are interested in the influence that food retailing around schools may have on child obesity risk. Most previous research comes from North America, uses data aggregated at the school-level and focuses on associations between fast food outlets and school obesity rates. This study examines associations between food retailing and BMI among a large sample of primary school students in Berkshire, England. By controlling for individual, school and home characteristics and stratifying results across the primary school years, we aimed to identify if the food environment around schools had an effect on BMI, independent of socio-economic variables.We measured the densities of fast food outlets and food stores found within schoolchildren's home and school environments using Geographic Information Systems (GIS and data from local councils. We linked these data to measures from the 2010/11 National Child Measurement Programme and used a cross-classified multi-level approach to examine associations between food retailing and BMI z-scores. Analyses were stratified among Reception (aged 4-5 and Year 6 (aged 10-11 students to measure associations across the primary school years.Our multilevel model had three levels to account for individual (n = 16,956, home neighbourhood (n = 664 and school (n = 268 factors. After controlling for confounders, there were no significant associations between retailing near schools and student BMI, but significant positive associations between fast food outlets in home neighbourhood and BMI z-scores. Year 6 students living in areas with the highest density of fast food outlets had an average BMI z-score that was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.20 higher than those living in areas with none.We found little evidence to suggest that food retailing around schools influences student BMI. There is some evidence to suggest that fast food outlet densities in a child's home neighbourhood may have an effect on BMI

  2. BMI and Health Status in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes Trial (BARI 2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng-Chia; Hlatky, Mark A.; Stone, Roslyn A.; Rana, Jamal S.; Escobedo, Jorge; Rogers, William J.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Brooks, Maria Mori

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The longitudinal association between obesity, weight variability and health status outcomes is important for patients with coronary disease and diabetes. METHODS The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial (BARI 2D) was a multi-center randomized clinical trial to evaluate the best treatment strategy for patients with both documented stable ischemic heart disease and type 2 diabetes. We examined BARI 2D participants for four years to study how BMI was associated with health status outcomes. Health status was evaluated by the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI), RAND Energy/fatigue, Health Distress, and Self-rated health. BMI was measured quarterly throughout follow-up years, and health status was assessed at each annual follow-up visit. Variation in BMI measures was separated into between-person and within-person change in longitudinal analysis. RESULTS Higher mean BMI over follow-up years (the between-person BMI) was associated with poorer health status outcomes. Decreasing BMI (the within-person BMI change) was associated with better Self-rated health. The relationships between BMI variability and DASI or Energy appeared to be curvilinear, and differed by baseline obesity status. Decreasing BMI was associated with better outcomes if patients were obese at baseline, but was associated with poorer DASI and Energy outcomes if patients were non-obese at baseline. CONCLUSIONS For patients with stable ischemic heart disease and diabetes, weight gain was associated with poorer health status outcomes, independent of obesity-related comobidities. Weight reduction is associated with better functional capacity and perceived energy for obese patients but not for non-obese patients at baseline. PMID:21742107

  3. Association between Bmi1 and clinicopathological status of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ting He; Xiu-Feng Cao; Lv Ji; Bin Zhu; Jin Lv; Dong-Dong Wang; Pei-Hua Lu; Heng-Guan Cui

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinicopathological roles of Bmi1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining for Bmi1 were performed in cancerous and adjacent noncancerous paraffin-embedded esophageal specimens. RESULTS: The Bmi1 expression level was unaffected by gender and age. The level of Bmi1 mRNA in ESCC was significantly higher than that in the adjacent noncancerous tissues (2.181 ± 2.158 vs 0.931 ± 0.894, P = 0.0152), and its over-expression was aggressively associated with lymph node metastasis (3.580 ± 2.487 vs 1.703 ± 0.758, P = 0.0003), poorer cell differentiation ( P = 0.0000) and advanced pathological stage (3.827 ± 2.673 vs 1.590 ± 0.735, P = 0.0001). The patients were divided into high-expression and low-expression groups based on the median expression level of Bmi1 mRNA, and a shorter overall survival time in the former group was observed. Immunohistochemistry for Bmi1 oncoprotein showed diffusely positive, focally positive and negative expression in 44, 16 and 10 of 70 ESCC cases, respectively, compared with three, two and five of 10 adjacent non-cancerous cases ( P = 0.027). The positive rate of the oncoprotein in samples of histological grade Ⅲ was higher than that of grade Ⅱ ( P = 0.031), but its expression had no relation to the lymph node metastasis and pathological staging. In 70 ESCC samples, Bmi1 showed high intense expression in the cytoplasm and less or even no expression in the nucleus. CONCLUSION: Bmi1 was over-expressed in ESCC. Increased Bmi1 mRNA expression was significantly associated with ESCC progression, and the oncoprotein was largely distributed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells.

  4. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and BMI change among U.S. adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Falbe, Jennifer; Hu, Frank B.; Field, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Among adults, the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is inversely related to body mass index (BMI). Data are lacking on adherence to the MDP among youth in the United States and whether the MDP is related to weight change in that group. Objective To assess whether adherence to the MDP was associated with BMI change among adolescents. To examine temporality we studied the association between baseline and 2–3 year changes in adherence to the MDP with concurrent changes in BMI, as well as subsequent changes in BMI over a 7-year period. Methods We prospectively followed 6 002 females and 4 916 males in the Growing Up Today Study 2, aged 8–15 in 2004, living across the United States. Data were collected by questionnaire in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011. Dietary intake was assessed by the Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire. The KidMed Index was derived to measure the adherence to the MDP. We used generalized estimating equations with repeated measures within subjects to assess the association between MDP and BMI change. Results A two-point increment in the KidMed Index was independently associated with a lower gain in BMI (−0.04 kg/m2; p=0.001). A greater increase in adherence to the KidMed Index was independently related to a lower gain in BMI in both the concurrent (p-for-trend<0.001) and the subsequent period (p-for-trend=0.002). Conclusions Adherence to MDP was inversely associated with change in BMI among adolescents. 2-year improvement in adherence to MDP was independently associated with less steep gain in the BMI in both the concurrent and the subsequent period. PMID:27102053

  5. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  6. Diabetes surgery in type 2 BMI 24-29 vs IMC 30-34 diabetic patients: is there differences among restrictive, malabsorptive and gastric bypass procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciacaballero, M; Navarrete, S; Favretti, F; Celik, A; Del Castillo, D

    2013-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a public health problem with a prevalence of 345 million people worldwide that it may double by the year 2030 and have a high costs and mortality. Gastrointestinal surgery is accepted as a form of treatment that was already suggested for obese in 1987 by Pories, confirmed for obese patients by the metaanalysis of Buchwald and the direct comparison of gastric bypass with medical treatment in the study of Schauer that demonstrate a 4 fold greater resolution rate of DM with surgery. Improvement occurs immediately after surgery, before the patients lose weight in with BMI > 35; but there is doubt if the existent evidence is enough to extrapolate these results to patients with BMI < 35 and especially with BMI < 30, in spite that four reviews in patients with this BMI and DM2 demonstrated the same results when stomach, duodenum and part of jejunum is bypassed as happen gastric bypass (better results with this of one anastomosis than of two anastomosis, Roux-en-Y) BPD. For patients with a BMI between 30 and 35 restrictive techniques: LAGB and SGL are good but not better than the mixed: RYGB, BAGUA, or SG-DJB with remission from 60 to 100%, minor in the derivative: BPD and above on the IID with a 81% of remission. There are no differences in the metabolic control in comparison to the obese, It is progressively better with DJB, SDS, IID and BAGUA especially in patients who do not require insulin, have less time with disease, have normal C peptide levels, and not so much relation with the initial BMI that is only important to decide the degree of restriction. Although several mechanisms has been suggested for explaining these results such as caloric intake, hormonal changes, bypass of the anterior or early stimulation of posterior intestine, fundectomy, intestinal gluconeogenesis and others, new ones will appear in the near future.

  7. Diabetes surgery in type 2 BMI 24-29 vs IMC 30-34 diabetic patients: is there differences among restrictive, malabsorptive and gastric bypass procedures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garciacaballero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a public health problem with a prevalence of 345 million people worldwide that it may double by the year 2030 and have a high costs and mortality. Gastrointestinal surgery is accepted as a form of treatment that was already suggested for obese in 1987 by Pories, confirmed for obese patients by the meta-analysis of Buchwald and the direct comparison of gastric bypass with medical treatment in the study of Schauer that demonstrate a 4 fold greater resolution rate of DM with surgery. Improvement occurs immediately after surgery, before the patients lose weight in with BMI > 35; but there is doubt if the existent evidence is enough to extrapolate these results to patients with BMI < 35 and especially with BMI < 30, in spite that four reviews in patients with this BMI and DM2 demonstrated the same results when stomach, duodenum and part of jejunum is bypassed as happen gastric bypass (better results with this of one anastomosis than of two anastomosis, Rouxen-Y BPD. For patients with a BMI between 30 and 35 restrictive techniques: LAGB and SGL are good but not better than the mixed: RYGB, BAGUA, or SG-DJB with remission from 60 to 100%, minor in the derivative: BPD and above on the IID with a 81% of remission. There are no differences in the metabolic control in comparison to the obese, It is progressively better with DJB, SDS, IID and BAGUA especially in patients who do not require insulin, have less time with disease, have normal C peptide levels, and not so much relation with the initial BMI that is only important to decide the degree of restriction. Although several mechanisms has been suggesed for explaining these results such as caloric intake, hormonal changes, bypass of the anterior or early stimulation of posterior intestine, fundectomy, intestinal gluconeogenesis and others, new ones will appear in the near future.

  8. Mission operations and command assurance: Instilling quality into flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, Linda L.; Witkowski, Mona M.; Bruno, Kristin J.; Potts, Sherrill S.

    1993-03-01

    Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA) is a Total Quality Management (TQM) task on JPL projects to instill quality in flight mission operations. From a system engineering view, MO&CA facilitates communication and problem-solving among flight teams and provides continuous process improvement to reduce the probability of radiating incorrect commands to a spacecraft. The MO&CA task has evolved from participating as a member of the spacecraft team to an independent team reporting directly to flight project management and providing system level assurance. JPL flight projects have benefited significantly from MO&CA's effort to contain risk and prevent rather than rework errors. MO&CA's ability to provide direct transfer of knowledge allows new projects to benefit from previous and ongoing flight experience.

  9. JAMES MARSHALL-CORNWALL: Foch as Military Commander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Bouch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marshal Foch will always be remembered along with Joffre, Petain, Waygand, Castelnau and the other French commanders who on several occasions helped to save their country from catastrophe during the First World War. In this book General Marshall-Cornwall considers the contribution of Foch to France's war effort and to ultimate Allied victory. As befits a volume in the 'Military Commanders' series, the bulk of the account (thirteen chapters out of twenty-one is devoted to the period of hostilities. The first eight chapters cover Foch's early years and the development of his military throught and philosophy, and proceed to an evaluation of the European political situation in the years before 1914, including the evolution of the Entente CordiaIe.

  10. Are associations between electronic media use and BMI different across levels of physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Haug, Ellen; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    and electronic media use are additive or interactive in predicting BMI and risk for overweight among adolescents. METHODS: The data used in this study stem from the 2009/2010 survey of "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: A WHO Cross-National Survey. The sample consisted of 107184 13 and 15......BACKGROUND: The use of electronic media has been found to be a risk factor for higher BMI and for being overweight. Physical activity has been found to be associated with lower BMI and lower risk for being overweight. Little is known about whether the associations between physical activity...

  11. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year...... and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ...

  12. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40...... was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did...

  13. Contribution of the BMI Level or the Body Fat Percentage Level to Bone-Mass

    OpenAIRE

    高畑,陽子; 穴井,孝信

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear which body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage level has the strongest effect on the bone mass in young women.We examined the data gathered from 233 adolescent girls in a junior high,high school,and university to ascertain the relationship between BMI or body fat percentage and bone mass. The transmission index (TI) of the calcaneus was measured using an ultrasound bone densitometer. The subjects were classified into 3 groups by BMI and body fat percentage se...

  14. Design of a programming for numerical command machine-tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the development of a specialised language particularly suited to machining tasks in order to facilitate the programmer's task. The objective is to produce a punched tape building up identifiable sectors which define successive task stages. The author presents some generalities about numerical command machine-tools, reports the development of a programming on such machines, describes the organisation of the envisaged system, and reports an implementation example

  15. United States Special Operations command professional military education

    OpenAIRE

    Dexter, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Reissued 10 Sep 2015 to revise acknowledgements and narrative on p. 6. The United States Special Operations Command does not have an intermediate-level professional military education program for its officers. Current service-provided PME programs are not adequately meeting the educational goals for officers as required by USSOCOM. Through the Joint Special Operations University, SOCOM could establish its own PME program for office...

  16. Disagreement, Cognitive Command, and the Indexicality of Moral Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichardt Bastian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Moral Relativism can be considered an attractive alternative to realism because relativists can make good sense of cultural and societal disagreements by seeing them as faultless. However, we can show that this advantage is made possible by systematically disagreeing with moral phenomenology. Relativists make a substantial distinction between intercultural and intracultural discourses which turns out to be incoherent. This can be shown by making use of Crispin Wright’s notion of Cognitive Command.

  17. 32 CFR 700.722 - Administration and discipline: Staff unassigned to an administrative command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration and discipline: Staff unassigned... REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS Commanders In Chief and Other Commanders Administration and Discipline § 700.722 Administration and discipline: Staff unassigned to an administrative command. (a) When it is...

  18. Does BMI influence hospital stay and morbidity after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Jørgensen, Christoffer C.; Gromov, Kirill;

    2016-01-01

    patients only) was associated with a LOS of >4 days (p = 0.001), but not with re-admission. No such relationship existed for TKA. Interpretation - A fast-track setting resulted in similar length of hospital stay and re-admission rates regardless of BMI, except for very obese and morbidly obese THA patients.......Background and purpose - Body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range possibly affects the perioperative morbidity and mortality following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in traditional care programs. We determined perioperative morbidity and mortality....... Complete 90-day follow-up was achieved using national registries and review of medical records. Patients were grouped according to BMI as being underweight, of normal weight, overweight, obese, very obese, and morbidly obese. Results - Median length of stay (LOS) was 2 (IQR: 2-3) days in all BMI groups. 30...

  19. Sickness Presenteeism Among Health Care Workers and the Effect of BMI, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kongstad, Malte Bue; Sjøgaard, Gisela;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between sickness presenteeism and body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). METHODS: Female health care workers (n = 139) were analyzed cross-sectional as well...... as longitudinal after 3 and 12-month follow-up. Sickness presenteeism was assessed as a summed score using validated questions from three questionnaires: Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Quantity and Quality Method. CRF was assessed by a maximal cycling test and MVC from four...... muscle groups. RESULTS: Significant relationships were found between sickness presenteeism and BMI as well as MVC both cross-sectional and as changes over 3 months. Participants with BMI more than 30 kg/m had significantly higher sickness presenteeism than those with BMI less than 25 kg/m. CONCLUSIONS...

  20. Fat and lean BMI reference curves in children and adolescents and their utility in identifying excess adiposity compared with BMI and percentage body fat1234

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, David R.; Moore, Reneé H.; Leonard, Mary B.; Babette S. Zemel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) are widely used to assess adiposity. These indexes fail to account for independent contributions of fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) to body weight, which vary according to age, sex, pubertal status, and population ancestry in the pediatric population.