Sample records for bmi control commands

  1. Detonation command and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves


    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link there between. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  2. Detonation command and control (United States)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves


    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  3. The command control; Le controle commande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billet, A.; Hilsenkopf, Ph.; Malry, Y. [Areva NP, 75 - Paris (France)


    The present article has for aim to detail the stakes of the nuclear rebirth which the command-control faces: to master the technological evolutions, to bring a strong response to the problematics of qualification and reliability more sensitive by the passage to numerical and to answer the needs of renovation of existing nuclear power plants. The Areva reply to these stakes is specified. (N.C.)

  4. Beyond Mission Command: Maneuver Warfare for Cyber Command and Control (United States)


    and a cyber- persona .12 Cyberspace is often only taken at the face value of the physical and logical layers, even though it is the human element of...the cyber- persona that creates the most complexity. The scientific, zeros and ones foundation of computer systems may lead people to think that...decentralized manner will each type of cyber team develop the best methods of supporting their assigned mission. Decentralization of command and control

  5. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.


    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  6. Command and Control in Disaster Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Surjeet Chaudhury


    Full Text Available Like war, the disasters are also much unstructured in scope. The national disaster system may employ detailed Command and Control (C2 which is poorly equipped to deal with uncertainty, complexity and variability. The first response to uncertainty is to try to minimize it by creating a powerful, highly efficient command and control apparatus (Command Structure able to process huge amounts of information and intended to reduce nearly all unknowns. Detailed command and control emphasizes vertical, linear information flow: in general, information flows up the chain of command and orders flow down. Discipline and coordination are imposed from above. The proposed C2 model accepts the turbulence and uncertainty of disaster. Rather than increase the level of certainty that C2 seeks, this approach of command and control reduces the degree of uncertainty that we need. This C2 for disaster management decentralizes decision-making authority and grants subordinates significant freedom of action which increases tempo and improves the ability to deal with fluid and disorderly situations.

  7. Communication for command and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, D J


    Communication for Command and Control Systems provides a thorough exposition of the basic theoretical and practical features involved in the design of communication networks for command and control systems. This book focuses primarily on the practical side of computer-controlled communication. This text concentrates on the communication sides of the subject by surveying the means of transferring data between the various processing points and by appraising their potential advantages and possible defects in implementation. In this respect, this book should prove useful for the practicing enginee

  8. Social Networking for Botnet Command and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Singh


    Full Text Available A botnet is a group of compromised computers—often a large group—under the command and control of a malicious botmaster. Botnets can be used for a wide variety of malicious attacks, including spamming, distributed denial of service, and identity theft. Botnets are generally recognized as a serious threat on the Internet. This paper discusses SocialNetworkingBot, a botnet we have developed that uses Twitter for command and control. In SocialNetworkingBot, the botmaster tweets commands that are acted on by the individual bots. We discuss the functionality and implementation of SocialNetworkingBot, as well as a small-scale experiment that we have conducted. The botnet presented here is intended to serve as a proof of concept and a platform to facilitate further research.

  9. Command and Control of Joint Air Operations through Mission Command (United States)


    coverage and connec- tivity, “Annex 3-30” highlights that “communications and information systems should provide a seamless information flow of...and outlines the C2 architecture systems , processes, and philosophy of com- mand required to enable mission command effectively. Mission a future dynamic security and threat environment that is vastly different from the one in which we operate today .10 Furthermore, as these

  10. Joint Command and Control: Integration Not Interoperability (United States)


    he notes, “Everything in war is very simple, but the simplest thing is difficult. The difficulties accumulate and end by producing a kind of...Leifler, Ola and Eriksson, Henrik. “Analysis tools in the study of distributed decision- making: A meta-study of command and control research

  11. Controle commande d'un robot sousmarin


    Durand, D.; Domingo, J; Levallois, E


    This system is composed of a high accuracy hydraulic manipulator arm with 6 degrees of freedom, for high loads (2000 daN), using ultrasound proximetry and contact force measurement data to carry out the subsea connection of bottom oil wells. An expert system controls the connection phases and generates the sequences of commands to be executed by the robot. The safety systems and failure modes are also taken into account. A graphic operator station provides easy control. Each connection phase ...

  12. 14 CFR 417.303 - Command control system requirements. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Command control system requirements. 417... control system requirements. (a) General. When initiated by a flight safety official, a command control... receipt of the signal by the onboard vehicle flight termination system. A command control system...

  13. Air Command and Control in Small Wars (United States)


    147Maj Gen Charles W. Lyon and Lt Col Andrew B. Stone, “Right Sizing Airpower: Command and Control for the Afghanistan Coutnerinsurgency,” Air and Space...and E. E. Conger , ed. RM-3653-PR, Symposium on the Role of Airpower in Counterinsurgency and Unconventional Warfare: The Algeriean War. Santa Monica...Journal. (accessed 15 June 2011). Lyon, Maj Gen Charles W., and Lt Col Andrew B. Stone

  14. Empowered Commanders: The Cornerstone to Agile, Flexible Command and Control (United States)


    decades, the the- ater air and space operations center has conducted this effort. Today’s fight, however, calls for all commanders, to some degree...components to maximize joint training exercises and op- portunities. Furthermore, it has created the theater security coopera- tion line of operation...that wisdom? Answering this question will call for deliberate efforts by the CFACC to groom, train, and exercise subordinate com- manders to develop

  15. 14 CFR 417.305 - Command control system testing. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Command control system testing. 417.305..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.305 Command control system testing. (a) General. (1) A command control system, including its subsystems and components must...

  16. Command Control Group Behaviors. Objective 1. A Methodology for and Identification of Command Control Group Behaviors. (United States)


    recordings were DD I JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED i SECUPITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (K4hen Data Entered) ’Ii...numbers of per- sonnet and 2weapons we now have at our disposal. The command and control (C ) process is one such factor where deficiencies invite...OBSERVATIONAL TASKS Position Codes: 01 10 S1 02 20 S2 03 Brigade 3 30 S3 04 40 S4 05 50 XO 06 60 Entire Group 07 70 Commander (71-"A" Co, 72-"B" Co, 73 -"C" Co

  17. Developing Flexible Command and Control of Airpower (United States)


    organizational level. The most famous practitioner of this concept, Gen Elwood “Pete” Quesada , commanded all tactical air forces on the continent, some more...XIX Tactical Air Command of Gen Otto “Opie” Weyland, who famously supported Gen George Patton’s charge across central France. Quesada trained all...understood his com- mand intent. He also worked closely with Lt Gen Courtney Hodges, commander of Army forces in France. Quesada saw to it that


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pawlik


    Full Text Available Purpose. Safety is seen as a must, for railway transport market. However it is not so obvious what does safety exactly mean as it means different things for different experts. Showing safety ensured by control command systems as a component of the railway operational safety and pointing associated challenges especially those arising from subdivision of the national railway system into different entities. Methodology. To achieve this purpose control command and signalling systems keeping safe distances between trains, preventing setting conflicting train routs, locking of the mobile elements of the switches, protecting the level crossings, enabling safe incorporation of additional trains were analyzed. Findings. Article analyses how control command system influence operational safety taking into account safety of the control-command system itself, interfaces on one side between signalling systems and control command system and on the other side between control command system and vehicle control systems, transmission, maintenance, and operation in degraded modes of running. Originality. New and high-effective scope of tests which are necessary for putting new control command installation into service both track-side and on-board are proposed. Practical value. Control command implementations will significantly improve operational safety, however it is possible only when recommendations defined in this article are taken into account. This means that all the components including interfaces have to meet acceptable hazard rate 10E-9 and have to be properly design, constructed, assembled and maintained, all taking into account whole chain of functions performed and supervised by different railway entities.

  19. Command control of reactors and factories: general architecture; Controle-commande des reacteurs et des usines: architecture generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appell, B.; Guesnier, G. [Electricite de France, 75 - Paris (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires; Chabert, J. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France)


    As any industrial installation, the nuclear power plants and the fuel reprocessing plants require means to survey and to command the physical process and the associated equipment. These means are grouped under the designation of `command-control`. The command control is constituted by captors allowing to transform the physical quantities in electric signals, by automates allowing to treat these signals, by surveillance and control means at operators disposal and finally activators allowing to transform the command electric signals in mechanical actions on the process. The equipment has to answer to specifications imposed by nuclear safety. (N.C.)

  20. Display For Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prabhu


    Full Text Available Display subsystem is an important part of command, control, communication and intelligence(C31 system. The display used in C31 system for air defence should provide a panoramic view of thecomplete air segment under its command and control in real-time. The necessary information requiredfor taking a quick decision should be available to the commander in easily understandable graphicformat This paper describes salient features of the display known as synthetic radar situation display(SRSD developed by the Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DLRL, Hyderabad, for such applications

  1. Self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective and BMI. (United States)

    Price, Menna; Higgs, Suzanne; Lee, Michelle


    Trait future time perspective measures the extent to which behaviour is dominated by a striving for future goals and rewards. Trait present time perspective measures orientation towards immediate pleasure. Previous research has explored the relationship between future and present time perspective and BMI with mixed findings. In addition, the psychological mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. Self-control is a likely candidate, as it has been related to both BMI and time perspective, but the relationship between all of these concepts has not been examined in a single study. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine if trait self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective (future and present) and BMI. Self-report time perspective (ZTPI), self-control (SCS) and height/weight data were collected using an online survey from a mixed student and community sample (N = 218) with wide ranging age (mean 29, SD 11, range 18-73 years) and BMI (mean 24, SD 4, range 15-43). The results of a structural equation model including both facets of time perspective suggested that the traits are related yet distinct measures that independently predict BMI through changes in self-control. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that self-control mediated the relationship between both future time perspective (95% CI, -0.10 to -0.02) and present time perspective (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.17), and BMI in opposite directions. Participants with higher future time perspective scores (higher present time perspective scores) had higher (lower) self-control, which predicted lower (higher) BMI. These results are consistent with previous research suggesting an important role for time perspective in health outcomes. Self-control likely mediates the relationship between temporal perspectives and BMI, suggesting that time perspective may be a target for individualised interventions.

  2. Distributed Command/Control Impacts on NAS Operations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Command and Control (C2) activities abound in the NAS, and significantly influence daily operations and overall NAS efficiency. Since C2 effects are so prominent,...

  3. Command and Control Organizations for Network Enabled Warfare (United States)


    resistance to change A well formulated strategy with well placed leadership support can produce organizations that are flexible, adaptive and responsive to meet the command and control needs of the 21st century

  4. Command and Control in a Complex World (United States)


    19 William  Welsh , “Nelson at Trafalgar:  He Did His Duty,” Military History 22, no. 7 (Oct 2005):  38‐44.  20 Lord...Co, 2005. Hanley, Brian. “The Enduring Relevance of the Battle for Stalingrad.” Joint Forces Quarterly Issue 43 (4th Qtr 2006): 92. Irvine ...William S. “Network-Enabled Battle Command.” Military Review (May/Jun 2005): 2-3. Welsh , William. “Nelson at Trafalgar: He Did His Duty

  5. Command and control displays for space vehicle operations (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Zetocha, Paul; Aleva, Denise


    This paper shall examine several command and control facility display architectures supporting space vehicle operations, to include TacSat 2, TacSat 3, STPSat 2, and Communications Navigation Outage Forecasting System (CNOFS), located within the Research Development Test & Evaluation Support Complex (RSC) Satellite Operations Center 97 (SOC-97) at Kirtland Air Force Base. A principal focus is to provide an understanding for the general design class of displays currently supporting space vehicle command and control, e.g., custom, commercial-off-the-shelf, or ruggedized commercial-off-the-shelf, and more specifically, what manner of display performance capabilities, e.g., active area, resolution, luminance, contrast ratio, frame/refresh rate, temperature range, shock/vibration, etc., are needed for particular aspects of space vehicle command and control. Another focus shall be to address the types of command and control functions performed for each of these systems, to include how operators interact with the displays, e.g., joystick, trackball, keyboard/mouse, as well as the kinds of information needed or displayed for each function. [Comparison with other known command and control facilities, such as Cheyenne Mountain and NORAD Operations Center, shall be made.] Future, anticipated display systems shall be discussed.

  6. Research into command, control, and communications in space construction (United States)

    Davis, Randal


    Coordinating and controlling large numbers of autonomous or semi-autonomous robot elements in a space construction activity will present problems that are very different from most command and control problems encountered in the space business. As part of our research into the feasibility of robot constructors in space, the CSC Operations Group is examining a variety of command, control, and communications (C3) issues. Two major questions being asked are: can we apply C3 techniques and technologies already developed for use in space; and are there suitable terrestrial solutions for extraterrestrial C3 problems? An overview of the control architectures, command strategies, and communications technologies that we are examining is provided and plans for simulations and demonstrations of our concepts are described.

  7. Command and Control during Security Incidents/Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipper, W. [NSTec


    This presentation builds on our response to events that pose, or have the potential to pose, a serious security or law enforcement risk and must be responded to and controlled in a clear a decisive fashion. We will examine some common concepts in the command and control of security-centric events.

  8. Indonesian Automatic Speech Recognition For Command Speech Controller Multimedia Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Arief Wardhany


    Full Text Available The purpose of multimedia devices development is controlling through voice. Nowdays voice that can be recognized only in English. To overcome the issue, then recognition using Indonesian language model and accousticc model and dictionary. Automatic Speech Recognizier is build using engine CMU Sphinx with modified english language to Indonesian Language database and XBMC used as the multimedia player. The experiment is using 10 volunteers testing items based on 7 commands. The volunteers is classifiedd by the genders, 5 Male & 5 female. 10 samples is taken in each command, continue with each volunteer perform 10 testing command. Each volunteer also have to try all 7 command that already provided. Based on percentage clarification table, the word “Kanan” had the most recognize with percentage 83% while “pilih” is the lowest one. The word which had the most wrong clarification is “kembali” with percentagee 67%, while the word “kanan” is the lowest one. From the result of Recognition Rate by male there are several command such as “Kembali”, “Utama”, “Atas “ and “Bawah” has the low Recognition Rate. Especially for “kembali” cannot be recognized as the command in the female voices but in male voice that command has 4% of RR this is because the command doesn’t have similar word in english near to “kembali” so the system unrecognize the command. Also for the command “Pilih” using the female voice has 80% of RR but for the male voice has only 4% of RR. This problem is mostly because of the different voice characteristic between adult male and female which male has lower voice frequencies (from 85 to 180 Hz than woman (165 to 255 Hz.The result of the experiment showed that each man had different number of recognition rate caused by the difference tone, pronunciation, and speed of speech. For further work needs to be done in order to improving the accouracy of the Indonesian Automatic Speech Recognition system

  9. A BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit: asynchronous control by SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi eSakurada


    Full Text Available A brain-machine interface (BMI is an interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines. Recent invasive BMI technologies have succeeded in the asynchronous control of robot arms for a useful series of actions, such as reaching and grasping. In this study, we developed non-invasive BMI technologies aiming to make such useful movements using the subject's own hands by preparing a BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit (BOTAS. We prepared a pre-recorded series of useful actionsa grasping-a-ball movement and a carrying-the-ball movementand added asynchronous control using steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP signals. A SSVEP signal was used to trigger the grasping-a-ball movement and another SSVEP signal was used to trigger the carrying-the-ball movement. A support vector machine was used to classify EEG signals recorded from the visual cortex (Oz in real time. Untrained, able-bodied participants (n = 12 operated the system successfully. Classification accuracy and time required for SSVEP detection were approximately 88% and 3 s, respectively. We further recruited three patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries; they also succeeded in operating the system without training. These data suggest that our BOTAS system is potentially useful in terms of rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities.

  10. Detection of Botnet Command and Control Traffic in Enterprise Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, P.


    Botnets play an important role in modern Internet-related cybercrime. A botnet consists of a group of infected computers, referred to as bots. The bots are remotely controlled and deployed in malicious activities, such as DDoS attacks, spam, and espionage. Clever design of the botnet C&C (Command an

  11. Global Strike 2035: Considerations for Enabling Effective Command and Control (United States)


    organizational networks and databases .49 The second implication for the organizational design stems from the requirement to operate globally. To...Press, 1997. ebook Collection ( EBSCOhost ), EBSCOhost (accessed 26 November 2011). Critchlow, Robert D. “Nuclear Command and Control: Current Programs

  12. Information Security / 2002 Command & Control Research & Technology Symposium


    Buddenberg, Rex


    Approved for public display, distribution unlimited 2002 Command & Control Research & Technology Symposium, Naval Postgraduate School, Code IS/Bu, Monterey,CA,93943 Security in information systems is a complex problem. Single solutions to complex problems don't exist and matching the appropriate solution (or more accurately, a set of solutions) to a requirement is necessary.

  13. CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations (United States)

    Hartley, Roger; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Williams, R. J.


    The CACTUS project was concerned with command and control training of large incidents where public order may be at risk, such as large demonstrations and marches. The training requirements and objectives of the project are first summarized justifying the use of knowledge-based computer methods to support and extend conventional training…

  14. Command Post Exercise Control at Division Level (United States)


    play. 7. vlar gaming methods utilized. 45Rudolf, War Games ( MSIP - 094, 1952), P• 22. ( ( ( 102 8. Intelligenc e play. 9. CBR play. Other areas...Army, MS #P-094, Washington , D. C., 1952. Howell, Robert P. Comments on CPX Control , Seventh Corps~ HQ Seventh Corps, APO 107, N.Y., N.Y., 14 Feb

  15. Cognitive Systems Modeling and Analysis of Command and Control Systems (United States)

    Norlander, Arne


    Military operations, counter-terrorism operations and emergency response often oblige operators and commanders to operate within distributed organizations and systems for safe and effective mission accomplishment. Tactical commanders and operators frequently encounter violent threats and critical demands on cognitive capacity and reaction time. In the future they will make decisions in situations where operational and system characteristics are highly dynamic and non-linear, i.e. minor events, decisions or actions may have serious and irreversible consequences for the entire mission. Commanders and other decision makers must manage true real time properties at all levels; individual operators, stand-alone technical systems, higher-order integrated human-machine systems and joint operations forces alike. Coping with these conditions in performance assessment, system development and operational testing is a challenge for both practitioners and researchers. This paper reports on research from which the results led to a breakthrough: An integrated approach to information-centered systems analysis to support future command and control systems research development. This approach integrates several areas of research into a coherent framework, Action Control Theory (ACT). It comprises measurement techniques and methodological advances that facilitate a more accurate and deeper understanding of the operational environment, its agents, actors and effectors, generating new and updated models. This in turn generates theoretical advances. Some good examples of successful approaches are found in the research areas of cognitive systems engineering, systems theory, and psychophysiology, and in the fields of dynamic, distributed decision making and naturalistic decision making.

  16. Joint Forward Operating Base Elements of Command and Control (United States)

    Summers, William C.


    Since the 1986 Goldwater-Nichols Act directed the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to develop doctrine for the joint employment of the armed forces, tactics, techniques, and procedures have evolved at different rates depending on the competency. Whereas the command of joint air forces is well prescribed within the structure of the air operations center and its associated leadership, command of air assets at a joint forward operating base lacks guidance. Today, the United States prosecutes an air war over Afghanistan from bases in Uzbekistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Elements of the United States Army, Air Force, and Marines combine at these geographically minute locations, each bringing a certain complement of support and command and control. Evidence from operations during the 1999 air war for Kosovo at Tirana Rinas Airport in Albania suggests that when these service elements meet at the airfield for the first time, there are problems associated with local procedure. At best, time is wasted creating local joint systems to overcome the difficulties. At worst, safety and mission accomplishment are jeopardized. This thesis will address the need to develop doctrine and a jointly integrated organization to support the command and control function at a forward operating base.

  17. Evaluation of Digital Checklists for Command and Control Operations (United States)


    EVALUATION OF DIGITAL CHECKLISTS FOR COMMAND AND CONTROL OPERATIONS Christopher K. McClernon 1 , Victor S. Finomore 2 , Terence S. Andre 3...the potential effectiveness of a digital system that could take the place of the paper system that is currently being used. A between groups...assessments of each system were analyzed and compared. The data showed that a linear digital checklist takes a longer amount of time than both a paper

  18. Describing the Elephant: Framing a Discussion on Command and Control (United States)


    July–August 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 17 From the Guest Editor Describing the Elephant Framing a Discussion on Command and Control Col Henry...DATE JUL 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Describing the Elephant: Framing a Discussion on...path ahead for better understanding and op- erational performance in this complex core function. To move down this path requires a common frame of

  19. Transforming Airborne Command and Control and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (United States)


    Information Age, Frank Cass Publishers, 2002. Hume , Col David B. “Command, Control and Integration of Weaponized...changes that codifies the changes in the previous elements or enhances our ability to execute our national-security strategy. Maj Gen David A...Deptula, “USAF Transformation,” Aerospace Power Journal, Fall 2001. 1. 3 Lt Gen David A. Deptula and Lt Col R. Greg Brown, “A House Divided: The

  20. Decoding of top-down cognitive processing for SSVEP-controlled BMI (United States)

    Min, Byoung-Kyong; Dähne, Sven; Ahn, Min-Hee; Noh, Yung-Kyun; Müller, Klaus-Robert


    We present a fast and accurate non-invasive brain-machine interface (BMI) based on demodulating steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) in electroencephalography (EEG). Our study reports an SSVEP-BMI that, for the first time, decodes primarily based on top-down and not bottom-up visual information processing. The experimental setup presents a grid-shaped flickering line array that the participants observe while intentionally attending to a subset of flickering lines representing the shape of a letter. While the flickering pixels stimulate the participant’s visual cortex uniformly with equal probability, the participant’s intention groups the strokes and thus perceives a ‘letter Gestalt’. We observed decoding accuracy of 35.81% (up to 65.83%) with a regularized linear discriminant analysis; on average 2.05-fold, and up to 3.77-fold greater than chance levels in multi-class classification. Compared to the EEG signals, an electrooculogram (EOG) did not significantly contribute to decoding accuracies. Further analysis reveals that the top-down SSVEP paradigm shows the most focalised activation pattern around occipital visual areas; Granger causality analysis consistently revealed prefrontal top-down control over early visual processing. Taken together, the present paradigm provides the first neurophysiological evidence for the top-down SSVEP BMI paradigm, which potentially enables multi-class intentional control of EEG-BMIs without using gaze-shifting.

  1. NATO Air Command-Afghanistan: The Continuing Evolution of Airpower Command and Control (United States)


    under the same AETF roof have been overwhelmingly positive. By having the EASOG commander in- volved in the weekly 9 AETF-A commander’s battle...single, perfect solution for CZ in a complex, constantly changing coalition environment-change itself is the only constant. Knowing this, we can

  2. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L W; Hunt, S T; Savage, S F [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P D; Shepard, A P; Worl, J C [Battelle Seattle Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)


    The following appendices contain the detailed analysis data for the questionnaires and various FDS-1 after action reports submitted to the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Systems' Engineer.

  3. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Min Soe


    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  4. The Unspoken Consequence of Command, Control Communications Technology: Enhanced Micromanagement by Risk-Averse Commanders (United States)


    commanders the opportunity to experiment with the application and misapplication of C3 in a relatively low-risk environment. Failure to maximize the...39 Yaacov Y. Vertzberger, Risk Taking and Decisionmaking; Foreign Miliary Intervention Decisions (Stanford: Standford University

  5. The Battle Command Sustainment Support System: The Army’s Command and Control System for Logistics (United States)

    2009-05-21 CISOBOX=1&REC=6 (accessed 15 Jan 09). 91 Donald Wright and Timothy Reese , On... Carol A. Wortman, ―Inefficient Battle Command Results from Unique Commanders Solutions,‖ (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategy Research Project), http...Dissertations. 7 th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007 Wright, Donald P. and Timothy R. Reese . On point II: Transition to the new

  6. Service-Oriented Architecture for Weaponry and Battle Command and Control Systems in Warfighting

    CERN Document Server

    Bassil, Youssef


    Military is one of many industries that is more computer-dependent than ever before, from soldiers with computerized weapons, and tactical wireless devices, to commanders with advanced battle management, command and control systems. Fundamentally, command and control is the process of planning, monitoring, and commanding military personnel, weaponry equipment, and combating vehicles to execute military missions. In fact, command and control systems are revolutionizing as war fighting is changing into cyber, technology, information, and unmanned warfare. As a result, a new design model that supports scalability, reusability, maintainability, survivability, and interoperability is needed to allow commanders, hundreds of miles away from the battlefield, to plan, monitor, evaluate, and control the war events in a dynamic, robust, agile, and reliable manner. This paper proposes a service-oriented architecture for weaponry and battle command and control systems, made out of loosely-coupled and distributed web servi...

  7. A neural command circuit for grooming movement control. (United States)

    Hampel, Stefanie; Franconville, Romain; Simpson, Julie H; Seeds, Andrew M


    Animals perform many stereotyped movements, but how nervous systems are organized for controlling specific movements remains unclear. Here we use anatomical, optogenetic, behavioral, and physiological techniques to identify a circuit in Drosophila melanogaster that can elicit stereotyped leg movements that groom the antennae. Mechanosensory chordotonal neurons detect displacements of the antennae and excite three different classes of functionally connected interneurons, which include two classes of brain interneurons and different parallel descending neurons. This multilayered circuit is organized such that neurons within each layer are sufficient to specifically elicit antennal grooming. However, we find differences in the durations of antennal grooming elicited by neurons in the different layers, suggesting that the circuit is organized to both command antennal grooming and control its duration. As similar features underlie stimulus-induced movements in other animals, we infer the possibility of a common circuit organization for movement control that can be dissected in Drosophila.

  8. An Analysis of Retaining or Replacing Air Force Command and Control Aircraft (United States)


    control aircraft perform, as well as the importance of maintaining the capability. Current command and control aircraft , as well as potential aircraft that...can replace the existing command and control aircraft , were researched to determine the cost and performance specifications. The current and...completed product identifies if the Air Force should retain or replace command and control aircraft . Additional areas for further research were listed

  9. Acquisition and control command system for power pulsed detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cornat, R; Magniette, F


    A DAQ system is developed within the SiW-Ecal ILC collaboration. It provides a flexible and scalable architecture, compound of four parts. A detector interface (DIF) extracting data from front-end electronics and sending them as packets. Two levels of data concentration, control clock and fast command fanout. The two cards, named DCC and GDCC, use respectively FastEthernet and GigaEthernet. A software suite (named Calicoes) allows to control the DAQ and the detector chips and to acquire data from GigaEthernet. It also includes programs for decoding frontend readout to various formats, and also dispatching and aggregating data. Overall architecture, performance in test beam and prospects for use with hundreds of thousands channels are discussed.

  10. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Haddock, Angie; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry


    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control demonstration of intelligent procedures to automatically initialize a rack onboard the International Space Station (ISS) with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). The autonomous operations concept includes a reduction of the amount of data a crew operator is required to verify during activation or de-activation, as well as integration of procedure execution status and relevant data in a single integrated display. During execution, the auto-procedures provide a step-by-step messaging paradigm and a high level status upon termination. This

  11. The Evolution of U.S. Strategic Command and Control and Warning, 1945-1972, (United States)


    234. 5(U) Arthur K. Marmor , USAF Command and Control Problems, 1958- 1961 (U) (Historical Division Liaison Office, US Air Force, January 1963...of Defense to the President, 23 May 1950, TOP SECRET. 9(U) Arthur K. Marmor , USAF Command and Control Problems, 1958-1961 (U) (Historical...Liaison Office, US Air Force, June 1961), p. 6, SECRET. 8(U) Arthur K. Marmor , USAF Command and Control Problems, 1958-1961 (U) (Historical

  12. Modeling and simulating command and control for organizations under extreme situations

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Il-Chul; Kim, Tag Gon


    Commanding and controlling organizations in extreme situations is a challenging task in military, intelligence, and disaster management. Such command and control must be quick, effective, and considerate when dealing with the changing, complex, and risky conditions of the situation. To enable optimal command and control under extremes, robust structures and efficient operations are required of organizations. This work discusses how to design and conduct virtual experiments on resilient organizational structures and operational practices using modeling and simulation. The work illustrates key a

  13. The Next Step: A Study on Resiliency in Command and Control (United States)


    disable , or overwhelm our systems and networks inhibiting the [JFACC’s] ability to efficiently [command and control], resulting in loss of operational...satellite weapons testing and is continuing to develop multiple counter space and cyber solutions to “ disabling US command and control in wartime...and the Air Mobility Division ( AMD ) provide the JFACC centralized control for coordinating high value assets across multiple commands. The ISRD

  14. An Analysis of Special Operations Command - South’s Distributive Command and Control Concept (United States)


    Special Ops aviation unit traverses Bermuda Triangle en route to new home”, News Service Release Number 03082525 (August 2003),, 2007). U.S. Army Special Operations Command. “Special Ops Aviation Unit Traverses Bermuda Triangle En Route to New Home.” News Service Release

  15. Adaptive optimization of agile organization of command and control resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chunhui; Liu Junxian; Chen Honghui; Luo Xueshan


    Adaptive optimization is one of the means that agile organization of command and control resource (AOC2R) adapts for the dynamic battlefield environment. A math model of the adaptive optimization of AOC2R is put forward by analyzing the interrelating concept and research. The model takes the adaptive process as a multi-stage decision making problem. The 2-phases method is presented to calculate the model, which obtains the related parameters by running the colored Petri net (CPN) model of AOC2R and then searches for the result by ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm integrated with genetic optimization techniques. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm greatly improves the performance of AOC2R.

  16. Spaceport Command and Control System - Support Software Development (United States)

    Tremblay, Shayne


    The Information Architecture Support (IAS) Team, the component of the Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) that is in charge of all the pre-runtime data, was in need of some report features to be added to their internal web application, Information Architecture (IA). Development of these reports is crucial for the speed and productivity of the development team, as they are needed to quickly and efficiently make specific and complicated data requests against the massive IA database. These reports were being put on the back burner, as other development of IA was prioritized over them, but the need for them resulted in internships being created to fill this need. The creation of these reports required learning Ruby on Rails development, along with related web technologies, and they will continue to serve IAS and other support software teams and their IA data needs.

  17. A hybrid BMI-based exoskeleton for paresis: EMG control for assisting arm movements (United States)

    Kawase, Toshihiro; Sakurada, Takeshi; Koike, Yasuharu; Kansaku, Kenji


    Objective. Brain-machine interface (BMI) technologies have succeeded in controlling robotic exoskeletons, enabling some paralyzed people to control their own arms and hands. We have developed an exoskeleton asynchronously controlled by EEG signals. In this study, to enable real-time control of the exoskeleton for paresis, we developed a hybrid system with EEG and EMG signals, and the EMG signals were used to estimate its joint angles. Approach. Eleven able-bodied subjects and two patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs) performed hand and arm movements, and the angles of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the index finger, wrist, and elbow were estimated from EMG signals using a formula that we derived to calculate joint angles from EMG signals, based on a musculoskeletal model. The formula was exploited to control the elbow of the exoskeleton after automatic adjustments. Four able-bodied subjects and a patient with upper cervical SCI wore an exoskeleton controlled using EMG signals and were required to perform hand and arm movements to carry and release a ball. Main results. Estimated angles of the MP joints of index fingers, wrists, and elbows were correlated well with the measured angles in 11 able-bodied subjects (correlation coefficients were 0.81  ±  0.09, 0.85  ±  0.09, and 0.76  ±  0.13, respectively) and the patients (e.g. 0.91  ±  0.01 in the elbow of a patient). Four able-bodied subjects successfully positioned their arms to adequate angles by extending their elbows and a joint of the exoskeleton, with root-mean-square errors  BMI-based exoskeleton for paralyzed arms and hands using real-time control was realized by designing a new method to estimate joint angles based on EMG signals, and these may be useful for practical rehabilitation and the support of daily actions.

  18. Artificial Intelligence Applied to the Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence of the U.S. Central Command. (United States)


    these components will be presented. 4.17 °°,. CHAPTER III FOOTNOTES 1. Arron Barr and Edward A. Feigenbaum, eds., Te Handbook gf Artificial Inteligence ol...RD-R137 205 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPLIED TO THE COMIMAND CONTROL i/i COMMUNICATIONS RND..(U) ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS U PA J N ENVART 06...appropriate mlitary servic or *swesmment aency. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPLIED TO THE COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS, AND INTELLIGENCE OF THE U.S. CENTRAL

  19. Improving Air Force Command and Control Through Enhanced Agile Combat Support Planning, Execution, Monitoring, and Control Processes (United States)


    assess, plan, execute [ MAPE ] model) are an integral part of Air Force enterprise and joint command and control capability. In the revised copy of Air...operations. 2 Similar in construct, the Air Force uses the MAPE model when discussing ACS processes. 3 In the revised copy of AFDD 1, dated November 12, 2010...MAJCOM major command xliv Improving Air Force C2 Through Enhanced Agile Combat Support Processes MAJCOM/CC commander, major command MAPE monitor, assess

  20. IT Security Support for the Spaceport Command Control System Development (United States)

    Varise, Brian


    My job title is IT Security support for the Spaceport Command & Control System Development. As a cyber-security analyst it is my job to ensure NASA's information stays safe from cyber threats, such as, viruses, malware and denial-of-service attacks by establishing and enforcing system access controls. Security is very important in the world of technology and it is used everywhere from personal computers to giant networks ran by Government agencies worldwide. Without constant monitoring analysis, businesses, public organizations and government agencies are vulnerable to potential harmful infiltration of their computer information system. It is my responsibility to ensure authorized access by examining improper access, reporting violations, revoke access, monitor information request by new programming and recommend improvements. My department oversees the Launch Control System and networks. An audit will be conducted for the LCS based on compliance with the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) and The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). I recently finished analyzing the SANS top 20 critical controls to give cost effective recommendations on various software and hardware products for compliance. Upon my completion of this internship, I will have successfully completed my duties as well as gain knowledge that will be helpful to my career in the future as a Cyber Security Analyst.

  1. Spaceport Command and Control System Support Software Development (United States)

    Brunotte, Leonard


    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is a project developed and used by NASA at Kennedy Space Center in order to control and monitor the Space Launch System (SLS) at the time of its launch. One integral subteam under SCCS is the one assigned to the development of a data set building application to be used both on the launch pad and in the Launch Control Center (LCC) at the time of launch. This web application was developed in Ruby on Rails, a web framework using the Ruby object-oriented programming language, by a 15 - employee team (approx.). Because this application is such a huge undertaking with many facets and iterations, there were a few areas in which work could be more easily organized and expedited. As an intern working with this team, I was charged with the task of writing web applications that fulfilled this need, creating a virtual and highly customizable whiteboard in order to allow engineers to keep track of build iterations and their status. Additionally, I developed a knowledge capture web application wherein any engineer or contractor within SCCS could ask a question, answer an existing question, or leave a comment on any question or answer, similar to Stack Overflow.

  2. Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel


    Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing (CARACaS) is a recent product of a continuing effort to develop architectures for controlling either a single autonomous robotic vehicle or multiple cooperating but otherwise autonomous robotic vehicles. CARACaS is potentially applicable to diverse robotic systems that could include aircraft, spacecraft, ground vehicles, surface water vessels, and/or underwater vessels. CARACaS incudes an integral combination of three coupled agents: a dynamic planning engine, a behavior engine, and a perception engine. The perception and dynamic planning en - gines are also coupled with a memory in the form of a world model. CARACaS is intended to satisfy the need for two major capabilities essential for proper functioning of an autonomous robotic system: a capability for deterministic reaction to unanticipated occurrences and a capability for re-planning in the face of changing goals, conditions, or resources. The behavior engine incorporates the multi-agent control architecture, called CAMPOUT, described in An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots (NPO-30345), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 65. CAMPOUT is used to develop behavior-composition and -coordination mechanisms. Real-time process algebra operators are used to compose a behavior network for any given mission scenario. These operators afford a capability for producing a formally correct kernel of behaviors that guarantee predictable performance. By use of a method based on multi-objective decision theory (MODT), recommendations from multiple behaviors are combined to form a set of control actions that represents their consensus. In this approach, all behaviors contribute simultaneously to the control of the robotic system in a cooperative rather than a competitive manner. This approach guarantees a solution that is good enough with respect to resolution of complex, possibly conflicting goals within the constraints of the mission to

  3. Command and Control in the Anti-Access/Area Denial Environment (United States)


    Control Squadron, and most recently was the Inspector General for the 461st Air Control Wing at Robins AFB, Georgia. Other aircraft he has flown include...directed telescopes ” to ensure forward commanders are not fighting “with a telegraph machine tied to their back.”49 Theater commanders would take as much

  4. Dynamic attitude command and control of the TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft (United States)

    Zimbelman, D. F.; Lee, B. B.; Welch, R. V.


    The dynamic control laws utilized by the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) spacecraft attitude determination and control subsystem to command and maneuver the satellite during normal mission mode (NMM) laws are described. Results show that the vehicle is able to respond to the dynamic attitude commands while at the same time providing ample disturbance rejection capability.

  5. IT Security Support for Spaceport Command and Control System (United States)

    McLain, Jeffrey


    During the fall 2013 semester, I worked at the Kennedy Space Center as an IT Security Intern in support of the Spaceport Command and Control System under the guidance of the IT Security Lead Engineer. Some of my responsibilities included assisting with security plan documentation collection, system hardware and software inventory, and malicious code and malware scanning. Throughout the semester, I had the opportunity to work on a wide range of security related projects. However, there are three projects in particular that stand out. The first project I completed was updating a large interactive spreadsheet that details the SANS Institutes Top 20 Critical Security Controls. My task was to add in all of the new commercial of the shelf (COTS) software listed on the SANS website that can be used to meet their Top 20 controls. In total, there are 153 unique security tools listed by SANS that meet one or more of their 20 controls. My second project was the creation of a database that will allow my mentor to keep track of the work done by the contractors that report to him in a more efficient manner by recording events as they occur throughout the quarter. Lastly, I expanded upon a security assessment of the Linux machines being used on center that I began last semester. To do this, I used a vulnerability and configuration tool that scans hosts remotely through the network and presents the user with an abundance of information detailing each machines configuration. The experience I gained from working on each of these projects has been invaluable, and I look forward to returning in the spring semester to continue working with the IT Security team.

  6. Information Management for an Automated Battlefield Command and Control System (United States)


    commander’s staff can translate the characteristics of a given operational situation into the required information that its commander would need. 2.5.2...HATTELI E-COLUMbOS LAtdOHAIUMILS IALTICAL TECHiNICAL UFC I LISA ARrcT)C TEST CEN ATTN, AMSTt-PL-Tti I USA ANr,11C TESI CEN ATTN; SIEAIL-L-MI I OSA

  7. The pathology of command and control: a formal synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cox


    Full Text Available One of the most important theories in the study of environmental governance and policy is the pathology of command and control, which describes the negative consequences of top-down, technocratic governance of social and ecological systems. However, to date, this theory has been expressed somewhat inconsistently and informally in the literature, even by the seminal works that have established its importance and popularized it. This presents a problem for the sustainability science community if it cannot be sure of the precise details of one of its most important theories. Without such precision, applications and tests of various elements of the theory cannot be conducted reliably to advance the knowledge of environmental governance. I address this problem by synthesizing several seminal works to formalize this theory. The formalization involves the identification of the individual elements of the theory and a diagrammatic description of their relationships with each other that unfold in a series of semi-independent causal paths. Ideally, with such a formalization, scholars can use this theory more reliably and more meaningfully in their future work. I conclude by discussing the implications this theory has for the governance of natural resources.

  8. First responder tracking and visualization for command and control toolkit (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Petrov, Plamen; Meisinger, Roger


    In order for First Responder Command and Control personnel to visualize incidents at urban building locations, DHS sponsored a small business research program to develop a tool to visualize 3D building interiors and movement of First Responders on site. 21st Century Systems, Inc. (21CSI), has developed a toolkit called Hierarchical Grid Referenced Normalized Display (HiGRND). HiGRND utilizes three components to provide a full spectrum of visualization tools to the First Responder. First, HiGRND visualizes the structure in 3D. Utilities in the 3D environment allow the user to switch between views (2D floor plans, 3D spatial, evacuation routes, etc.) and manually edit fast changing environments. HiGRND accepts CAD drawings and 3D digital objects and renders these in the 3D space. Second, HiGRND has a First Responder tracker that uses the transponder signals from First Responders to locate them in the virtual space. We use the movements of the First Responder to map the interior of structures. Finally, HiGRND can turn 2D blueprints into 3D objects. The 3D extruder extracts walls, symbols, and text from scanned blueprints to create the 3D mesh of the building. HiGRND increases the situational awareness of First Responders and allows them to make better, faster decisions in critical urban situations.

  9. Digital command and control (C2) in electromagnetic battlespace (United States)

    Kurt, Ekrem


    Military operations are executed in an increasingly complex electromagnetic environment. Over the last decade, All nations focused on improving their signal intelligence capabilities which has significantly improved intelligence support to EW. Today, there are many evolving facets of electromagnetic battlespace that include not only Electronic Attack (EA) but also improved situational awareness via information sharing and optimal positioning of Electronic Support (ES) systems.The aim is to use EW resources more intelligently in the battlespace and, by extension, improve their effectiveness. Another benefit is to provide tactical commanders with a timelier and accurate Common Operational Picture (COP) of the electromagnetic battlespace. In this study, the importance of controlling EM spectrum will be explained. The platforms and weapon systems which are used and being planned to use in the future for EM environment will be expressed. The main purpose is to help the planners who will execute the EW plan regarding to EM spectrum. The alghoritma can give planners to dynamic COP with effected sectors from enemy's EA platforms and systems. So that, planners can transmit it to friendly platforms at the same time. In addition, they can get the all needed informations related to enemy. In this way planners can easily send a message to friendly EA platforms to change the sector in order to affect the enemy. For all these reasons, it should have authority to give an order to friendly platforms about changing sector and frequency as well.

  10. Future command and control systems should combine decision support and personalization interface features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, J.W.; Smets, N.; Varkevisser, M.; Hiemstra-Van Mastrigt, S.


    On future battlefields, increasingly more sensor information will become available for military commanders to support mission execution. To improve (shared) situational awareness, decision-making and communication in face of this increased amount of information, the design of command and control (C2

  11. How Should the Joint Force Handle the Command and Control of Unmanned Aircraft Systems? (United States)


    that precipitated the centralization of the command and control of airpower in the United States military. This section begins with the first American...Officers Commanding, they were responsible for North-West Africa, the Middle East, and Malta . At this point in the war, the North-West African region

  12. Generating Control Commands From Gestures Sensed by EMG (United States)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles


    An effort is under way to develop noninvasive neuro-electric interfaces through which human operators could control systems as diverse as simple mechanical devices, computers, aircraft, and even spacecraft. The basic idea is to use electrodes on the surface of the skin to acquire electromyographic (EMG) signals associated with gestures, digitize and process the EMG signals to recognize the gestures, and generate digital commands to perform the actions signified by the gestures. In an experimental prototype of such an interface, the EMG signals associated with hand gestures are acquired by use of several pairs of electrodes mounted in sleeves on a subject s forearm (see figure). The EMG signals are sampled and digitized. The resulting time-series data are fed as input to pattern-recognition software that has been trained to distinguish gestures from a given gesture set. The software implements, among other things, hidden Markov models, which are used to recognize the gestures as they are being performed in real time. Thus far, two experiments have been performed on the prototype interface to demonstrate feasibility: an experiment in synthesizing the output of a joystick and an experiment in synthesizing the output of a computer or typewriter keyboard. In the joystick experiment, the EMG signals were processed into joystick commands for a realistic flight simulator for an airplane. The acting pilot reached out into the air, grabbed an imaginary joystick, and pretended to manipulate the joystick to achieve left and right banks and up and down pitches of the simulated airplane. In the keyboard experiment, the subject pretended to type on a numerical keypad, and the EMG signals were processed into keystrokes. The results of the experiments demonstrate the basic feasibility of this method while indicating the need for further research to reduce the incidence of errors (including confusion among gestures). Topics that must be addressed include the numbers and arrangements

  13. Hybrid EEG–fNIRS-Based Eight-Command Decoding for BCI: Application to Quadcopter Control (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Jawad; Hong, Keum-Shik


    In this paper, a hybrid electroencephalography–functional near-infrared spectroscopy (EEG–fNIRS) scheme to decode eight active brain commands from the frontal brain region for brain–computer interface is presented. A total of eight commands are decoded by fNIRS, as positioned on the prefrontal cortex, and by EEG, around the frontal, parietal, and visual cortices. Mental arithmetic, mental counting, mental rotation, and word formation tasks are decoded with fNIRS, in which the selected features for classification and command generation are the peak, minimum, and mean ΔHbO values within a 2-s moving window. In the case of EEG, two eyeblinks, three eyeblinks, and eye movement in the up/down and left/right directions are used for four-command generation. The features in this case are the number of peaks and the mean of the EEG signal during 1 s window. We tested the generated commands on a quadcopter in an open space. An average accuracy of 75.6% was achieved with fNIRS for four-command decoding and 86% with EEG for another four-command decoding. The testing results show the possibility of controlling a quadcopter online and in real-time using eight commands from the prefrontal and frontal cortices via the proposed hybrid EEG–fNIRS interface. PMID:28261084

  14. A Message Exchange Protocol in Command and Control Systems Integration, using the JC3IEDM (United States)


    19TH International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium C2 Agility: Lessons Learned from Research and Operations. A Message...overhead during packets reading. The service-oriented architecture (SOA) with the use of Web Services technology was chosen because of ease of learning ... Enviroments . IEEE Communications Magazine (Feb. 1997), 46-55. A Message Exchange Protocol in Command and Control Systems Integration, using the

  15. Tactical Edge Command and Control On-The-Move - A New Paradigm (United States)


    and Decision Making Mr. Ken D. Teske And Mr. Michael D. Tisdel Command and Control On-The-Move Focused Integration Team 1562 Mitscher...Avenue Norfolk, Virginia 23551 Point of Contact Ken D. Teske Command and Control On-The-Move Focused Integration Team 1562 Mitscher Avenue...Paradigm” UNCLASSIFIED Mr. Ken Teske and Mr. Mike Tisdel FGM, Inc. C2OTM Focused Integration Team (FIT) 16th ICCRTS 22 June 2011 Paper ID 149

  16. Nuclear Command, Control, and Communications: Update on DOD’s Modernization (United States)


    Page 1 GAO-15-584R NC3 Modernization Review 441 G St. N.W. Washington, DC 20548 June 15, 2015 Congressional Committees Nuclear Command...Control, and Communications: Update on DOD’s Modernization Nuclear command, control, and communications (NC3) is a large and complex system... architecture consists of components that support day-to-day nuclear and conventional operations prior to a nuclear event as well as those that provide

  17. Common Aviation Command and Control System Increment 1 (CAC2S Inc 1) (United States)


    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Common Aviation Command and Control System Increment 1 (CAC2S Inc 1) Defense Acquisition...BY - Base Year CAE - Component Acquisition Executive CDD - Capability Development Document CPD - Capability Production Document DAE - Defense...Command and Control System Increment 1 (CAC2S Inc 1) DoD Component Navy United States Marine Corps Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS

  18. A Mathematical Theory of Command and Control Structures. (United States)


    Systemw by David A. Castaffon APPENDIX C: PTRCCNET: A Software Teatbed for Use in C3 System Researob’ by Elizabeth R.* Duoot vi VK ~ ~ -Pi VjR -. -17717 T...assessments, receiving command inputs, and produoing outputs that are either inputs or omands to other DM’s. The detailed specification of the...of EECS, MIT (draft available; final draft in preparation). 34 ...- , ." . . ,ENVI X 2 DECENTRALIZED ESTIMATION OF LINEAR GAUSSIAN SYSTEMS* by David A

  19. Systems Architectures for a Tactical Naval Command and Control System (United States)


    assembly of the simpler portions of the problem [ Descartes , 1850: 61]. This thesis dissects the complex engineering process of naval tactical command...Clausewitz presents include courage, strength of body and soul, intelligence, coup d’oeil, determination, energy of action, staunchness, endurance...for the systems engineer will have a fault tolerance placeholder in their mind when defining system functions. Protect Information is removed as a

  20. Naval Doctrine Publication 6. Naval Command and Control. (United States)


    l’audace, et toujours de l’audace!" (Au- dacity, and again audacity, and always audacity!) - Georges Jacques Danton French Revolutionary Leader, 1792...the right time. "A good plan violently executed now is better than a perfect plan next week." - General George S. Patton, Jr., U.S. Army One theory of...1972). Marshall, S.L.A. Men Against Fire: The Problem of Battle Command in Future War. (Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1978). Orr, George E., Maj, USAF

  1. Introduction to Command, Control and Communications (C3) through comparative case analysis


    Berg, Scott A.


    Approved for public rerlease; distribution is unlimited This thesis contains material for the course, Introduction to Command, Control and Communications (C3). The first part of the thesis describes selected principles and concepts of C3 related to communication management, interoperability, command structure and standardization. The Crisis Action System is described emphasizing the roles and functions of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. A discussion of...

  2. Adaptation to Elastic Loads and BMI Robot Controls During Rat Locomotion examined with Point-Process GLMs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo eSong


    Full Text Available Currently little is known about how a mechanically coupled BMI system’s actions are integrated into ongoing body dynamics. We tested a locomotor task augmented with a BMI system driving a robot mechanically interacting with a rat under three conditions: control locomotion (BL, ‘simple elastic load’ (E and ‘BMI with elastic load’ (BMI/E. The effect of the BMI was to allow compensation of the elastic load as a function of the neural drive. Neurons recorded here were close to one another in cortex, all within a 200 micron diameter horizontal distance of one another. The interactions of these close assemblies of neurons may differ from those among neurons at longer distances in BMI tasks and thus are important to explore. A point process generalized linear model (GLM, was used to examine connectivity at two different binning timescales (1ms vs. 10ms. We used GLM models to fit non-Poisson neural dynamics solely using other neurons’ prior neural activity as covariates. Models at different timescales were compared based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS goodness-of-fit and parsimony. About 15% of cells with non-Poisson firing were well fitted with the neuron-to-neuron models alone. More such cells were fitted at the 1ms binning than 10ms. Positive connection parameters (‘excitation’ ~70% exceeded negative parameters (‘inhibition’ ~30%. Significant connectivity changes in the GLM determined networks of well-fitted neurons occurred between the conditions. However, a common core of connections comprising at least ~15% of connections persisted between any two of the three conditions. Significantly almost twice as many connections were in common between the two load conditions (~27%, compared to between either load condition and the baseline. This local point process GLM identified neural correlation structure and the changes seen across task conditions in the rats in this neural subset may be intrinsic to cortex or due to feedback and input

  3. The Next Generation of Ground Operations Command and Control; Scripting in C no. and Visual Basic (United States)

    Ritter, George; Pedoto, Ramon


    Scripting languages have become a common method for implementing command and control solutions in space ground operations. The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL), the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Scripting Language Processor (SLP), and the Spacecraft Control Language (SCL) offer script-commands that wrap tedious operations tasks into single calls. Since script-commands are interpreted, they also offer a certain amount of hands-on control that is highly valued in space ground operations. Although compiled programs seem to be unsuited for interactive user control and are more complex to develop, Marshall Space flight Center (MSFC) has developed a product called the Enhanced and Redesign Scripting (ERS) that makes use of the graphical and logical richness of a programming language while offering the hands-on and ease of control of a scripting language. ERS is currently used by the International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) Cadre team members. ERS integrates spacecraft command mnemonics, telemetry measurements, and command and telemetry control procedures into a standard programming language, while making use of Microsoft's Visual Studio for developing Visual Basic (VB) or C# ground operations procedures. ERS also allows for script-style user control during procedure execution using a robust graphical user input and output feature. The availability of VB and C# programmers, and the richness of the languages and their development environment, has allowed ERS to lower our "script" development time and maintenance costs at the Marshall POIC.

  4. Micro-controller based Remote Monitoring using Mobile through Spoken Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh P Jawarkar


    Full Text Available Mobile phone can serve as powerful tool for world-wide communication. A system is developed to remotely monitor process through spoken commands using mobile. Mel cepstrum features are extracted from spoken words. Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network is used for recognition of various words used in the command. The accuracy of spoken commands is about 98%. A text message is generated and sent to control system mobile in form of SMS. On receipt of SMS, control system mobile informs AVR micro-controller based card, which performs specified task. The system alerts user in case of occurrence of any abnormal conditions like power failure, loss of control, etc. Other applications where this approach can be extended are also discussed.

  5. Optogenetics Based Rat-Robot Control: Optical Stimulation Encodes "Stop" and "Escape" Commands. (United States)

    Chen, SiCong; Zhou, Hong; Guo, SongChao; Zhang, JiaCheng; Qu, Yi; Feng, ZhouYan; Xu, KeDi; Zheng, XiaoXiang


    Electric brain stimulation is frequently used in bio-robot control. However, one possible limitation of electric stimulation is the resultant wide range of influences that may lead to unexpected side-effects. Although there has been prior research done towards optogenetics based brain activation, there has not been much development regarding the comparisons between electric and optical methods of brain activation. In this study, we first encode "Stop" and "Escape" commands by optical stimulation in the dorsal periaqueductal grey (dPAG). The rats behavioral comparisons are then noted down under these two methods. The dPAG neural activity recorded during optical stimulation suggests rate and temporal coding mechanisms in behavioral control. The behavioral comparisons show that rats exhibit anxiety under the "Stop" command conveyed through both optical and electric methods. However, rats are able to recover more quickly from freezing only under optical "Stop" command. Under "Escape" commands, also conveyed through optical means, the rat would move with lessened urgency but the results are more stable. Moreover, c-Fos study shows the optical stimulation activates restricted range in midbrain: the optical stimulation affected only dPAG and its downstreams but electric stimulation activates both the upstream and downstream circuits, in which the glutamatergic neurons are largely occupied and play important role in "Stop" and "Escape" behavior controls. We conclude that optical stimulation is more suited for encoding "Stop" and "Escape" commands for rat-robot control.

  6. Command Filtering-Based Fuzzy Control for Nonlinear Systems With Saturation Input. (United States)

    Yu, Jinpeng; Shi, Peng; Dong, Wenjie; Lin, Chong


    In this paper, command filtering-based fuzzy control is designed for uncertain multi-input multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear systems with saturation nonlinearity input. First, the command filtering method is employed to deal with the explosion of complexity caused by the derivative of virtual controllers. Then, fuzzy logic systems are utilized to approximate the nonlinear functions of MIMO systems. Furthermore, error compensation mechanism is introduced to overcome the drawback of the dynamics surface approach. The developed method will guarantee all signals of the systems are bounded. The effectiveness and advantages of the theoretic result are obtained by a simulation example.

  7. The Next Generation of Ground Operations Command and Control; Scripting in C Sharp and Visual Basic (United States)

    Ritter, George; Pedoto, Ramon


    This slide presentation reviews the use of scripting languages in Ground Operations Command and Control. It describes the use of scripting languages in a historical context, the advantages and disadvantages of scripts. It describes the Enhanced and Redesigned Scripting (ERS) language, that was designed to combine the features of a scripting language and the graphical and IDE richness of a programming language with the utility of scripting languages. ERS uses the Microsoft Visual Studio programming environment and offers custom controls that enable an ERS developer to extend the Visual Basic and C sharp language interface with the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) telemetry and command system.

  8. XML-based Web Services Technology to Implement a Prototype Command and Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Show Lin


    Full Text Available A command and control system is a complex system of systems. For its ability to improvethe command and control efficiency and multiply operational capability, command and controlsystem investment is always a benchmark for military modernisation. However, most commandand control systems were independently developed, validated and approved as a stand-alonesolution to reflect service requirement rather than joint focused. These stovepipe systems notonly have an adverse impact on joint or coalition operation, but also are fairly difficult to integrateand interoperate effectively with other systems. To solve these problems, the study appliesXML standard to redefine the structured radar track and global positioning system (GPSpositioning data formats. Radar tracking data and GPS positioning data generator wereimplemented to simulate air and land targets. In addition, the static intelligence databases, suchas order of battle, were built for information exchange with other systems. Sensors, GPS, andintelligence web services, including simple object access protocol (SOAP and web servicedefinition language (WSDL are constructed to provide near-real-time static intelligence anddynamic track services. All relevant command and control centres may subscribe the necessaryservices from the service providers to work together with their own systems for mission needs.The implementation of result demonstrates XML-based web services technology and makescommand and control system integration easy, flexible, and cost effective.

  9. Adaptive Command-Filtered Backstepping Control for Linear Induction Motor via Projection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxu Yan


    Full Text Available A theoretical framework of the position control for linear induction motors (LIM has been proposed. First, indirect field-oriented control of LIM is described. Then, the backstepping approach is used to ensure the convergence and robustness of the proposed control scheme against the external time-varying disturbances via Lyapunov stability theory. At the same time, in order to solve the differential expansion and the control saturation problems in the traditional backstepping, command filter is designed in the control and compensating signals are presented to eliminate the influence of the errors caused by command filters. Next, unknown total mass of the mover, viscous friction, and load disturbances are estimated by the projection-based adaptive law which bounds the estimated function and simultaneously guarantees the robustness of the proposed controller against the parameter uncertainties. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate the validity and potential of the designed control scheme.

  10. Detection of response to command using voluntary control of breathing in disorders of consciousness (United States)

    Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Lesenfants, Damien; Sela, Lee; Noirhomme, Quentin; Ziegler, Erik; Chatelle, Camille; Plotkin, Anton; Sobel, Noam; Laureys, Steven


    Background: Detecting signs of consciousness in patients in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS/VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is known to be very challenging. Plotkin et al. (2010) recently showed the possibility of using a breathing-controlled communication device in patients with locked in syndrome. We here aim to test a breathing-based “sniff controller” that could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to evaluate response to command in severely brain damaged patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC). Methods: Twenty-five DOC patients were included. Patients’ resting breathing-amplitude was measured during a 5 min resting condition. Next, they were instructed to end the presentation of a music sequence by sniffing vigorously. An automated detection of changes in breathing amplitude (i.e., >1.5 SD of resting) ended the music and hence provided positive feedback to the patient. Results: None of the 11 UWS/VS patients showed a sniff-based response to command. One out of 14 patients with MCS was able to willfully modulate his breathing pattern to answer the command on 16/19 trials (accuracy 84%). Interestingly, this patient failed to show any other motor response to command. Discussion: We here illustrate the possible interest of using breathing-dependent response to command in the detection of residual cognition in patients with DOC after severe brain injury. PMID:25566035

  11. Command and Control (C2) Survey of Short-Range Air Defense (SHORAD) Elements. (United States)


    bounds on the responses are within +4.5 percentage points N or a frequency count of about 6 ( Scheaffer , Mendenhall, & Ott, 1979). Procedures The...air defense command and control (SHORAD G4 ) system. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: U.S. Army Human Engineering Laboratory. 9. Scheaffer , R. L

  12. Employment of Command and Control Systems within the U.S. Marine Corps (United States)

    Lang, Aaron B.


    The purpose of this study was to identify potential barriers to the effective employment of command and control (C2) systems to enhance warfighter readiness. Five research hypotheses guided this study, which addressed the perception of the effective employment of Marine Corps C2 systems based on demographic characteristics, which included:…

  13. The Imperative to Integrate Air Force Command and Control Systems into Maritime Plans (United States)


    accurate surface picture and an institutionally joint culture , the E-8C is ideally suited and al- ready vetted to complement the sea services’ own... ZULU .” July–August 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 116 Dalman, Kopp, & Redman Air Force Command and Control Systems in Maritime Plans Feature 18

  14. Input shaping control with reentry commands of prescribed duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek M.


    Full Text Available Control of flexible mechanical structures often deals with the problem of unwanted vibration. The input shaping is a feedforward method based on modification of the input signal so that the output performs the demanded behaviour. The presented approach is based on a finite-time Laplace transform. It leads to no-vibration control signal without any limitations on its time duration because it is not strictly connected to the system resonant frequency. This idea used for synthesis of control input is extended to design of dynamical shaper with reentry property that transform an arbitrary input signal to the signal that cause no vibration. All these theoretical tasks are supported by the results of simulation experiments.

  15. Air Force Command and Control: The Need for Increased Adaptability (United States)


    nally, the establishing authority must stay involved and, when necessary, arbitrate and resolve conflicting understanding of priorities or revise...unintended cascading effects is one area that could help decentralize control over their use. An ethical cyberweapon could (1) encrypt vital

  16. Pengembangan Bioelectrical Impedance Sebagai Control Commands Pengaturan Kecepatan Gerak Kursi Roda Dengan Metoda PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Sardi


    Full Text Available In the present study, bioimpedance signals of human body was utilized to control speed of a wheelchair movement. A bioimpedance is electrically passive part contained the body tissues. The research is one of alternative solutions for patients with paralysis of the upper and lower limb. Firstly, design of system of the research consisted of bioimpedance measuring instruments and a mechanical design of the wheelchair. Bioimpedance measurement was performed by injecting a sinusoidal current source of 0.5 mArms with a frequency of 50 kHz to muscle tissue (shoulder to obtain the output voltage in the range of 0-5 Vdc. With impulse and manual thresholding methods, the voltage signal was classified into several controls command to adjust the speed and direction of the wheelchair control based on PID Controller. The experimental result of the research was realization of bioimpedance signal that used as a reference to control the direction and speed of the wheelchair with a success rate of 86.7 %. A wheelchair velocity was classified into three types of motion, namely slow, medium and fast. Slow speed has a rated speed of 30 Cm/s, medium speed value speed of 40 Cm/s and fast speed value of 50 Cm/s. The wheelchair can also turn to the left and the right in accordance with the wishes of wheelchair user beside to moving forward.

  17. Optimization of Communication for Commanding and Controlling Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper mainly discussed some special requiremen ts for communication system and specific implement methods during the cause of cam paign cooperation in modern times. That system is the Advanced Field Tactical Da ta System which was developed to meet the requirements for controlling every fir e nodes, through which Army can achieve their campaign and tactical goals. The c ourse of dealing with communication message mainly include Emery's situation rep orted, Message change (generally referred to taxis a...

  18. Command Filtered Adaptive Fuzzy Neural Network Backstepping Control for Marine Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang


    Full Text Available In order to retrain chaotic oscillation of marine power system which is excited by periodic electromagnetism perturbation, a novel command-filtered adaptive fuzzy neural network backstepping control method is designed. First, the mathematical model of marine power system is established based on the two parallel nonlinear model. Then, main results of command-filtered adaptive fuzzy neural network backstepping control law are given. And the Lyapunov stability theory is applied to prove that the system can remain closed-loop asymptotically stable with this controller. Finally, simulation results indicate that the designed controller can suppress chaotic oscillation with fast convergence speed that makes the system return to the equilibrium point quickly; meanwhile, the parameter which induces chaotic oscillation can also be discriminated.


    Will, H.


    The complex environment of the typical research laboratory requires flexible process control. This program provides natural language process control from an IBM PC or compatible machine. Sometimes process control schedules require changes frequently, even several times per day. These changes may include adding, deleting, and rearranging steps in a process. This program sets up a process control system that can either run without an operator, or be run by workers with limited programming skills. The software system includes three programs. Two of the programs, written in FORTRAN77, record data and control research processes. The third program, written in Pascal, generates the FORTRAN subroutines used by the other two programs to identify the user commands with the user-written device drivers. The software system also includes an input data set which allows the user to define the user commands which are to be executed by the computer. To set the system up the operator writes device driver routines for all of the controlled devices. Once set up, this system requires only an input file containing natural language command lines which tell the system what to do and when to do it. The operator can make up custom commands for operating and taking data from external research equipment at any time of the day or night without the operator in attendance. This process control system requires a personal computer operating under MS-DOS with suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. The program requires a FORTRAN77 compiler and user-written device drivers. This program was developed in 1989 and has a memory requirement of about 62 Kbytes.

  20. Medical Command and Control in Sea-Based Operations (United States)


    AND CONTROL IN SEA-BASED OPERATIONS Captain Arthur M. Smith, MC, U.S. Navy Reserve (Retired), and Captain Harold R. Bohman, MC, U.S. Navy Medical...Operation Desert Storm: Full Army Capability Not Achieved, GAO/NSIAD 92-175 (Washington, D.C.: 1992), p. 47. See also Arthur M. Smith, “Integrated...September 1976), pp. 694–703; Ron R. Rozin and Y. Kleinman , “Surgical Priorities of Abdominal Wounded in a Combat Situation,” Journal of Trauma 27, no. 6

  1. An Inner Convex Approximation Algorithm for BMI Optimization and Applications in Control

    CERN Document Server

    Dinh, Quoc Tran; Diehl, Moritz


    In this work, we propose a new local optimization method to solve a class of nonconvex semidefinite programming (SDP) problems. The basic idea is to approximate the feasible set of the nonconvex SDP problem by inner positive semidefinite convex approximations via a parameterization technique. This leads to an iterative procedure to search a local optimum of the nonconvex problem. The convergence of the algorithm is analyzed under mild assumptions. Applications in static output feedback control are benchmarked and numerical tests are implemented based on the data from the COMPLeib library.

  2. Encode the "STOP" command by photo-stimulation for precise control of rat-robot. (United States)

    Chen, Sicong; Qu, Yi; Guo, Songchao; Shi, Zhaoyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Xiaoxiang


    Studies on behavior control are important for bio-robots designation. For auto or manual navigation of the bio-robots, the accuracy of the command execution is especially critical. In this paper, we reported a precise "STOP" command for the rat-robots by optical stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS). We labeled dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) neurons with light sensitive channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and directly probed the optical fiber to reactivate these neurons. The rats showed freezing behavior only upon the optical stimulation with an appropriate range of laser intensity and stimulation frequency. Neuron spikes and local field potential (LFP) were simultaneously recorded with optical stimulation by optrodes on free moving rat-robots. Together, our findings demonstrated the utility of deep brain optical stimulation for the stopping behavior of rat-robot control and indicated a potential application of optogenetics for precise control of bio-robots in further work.

  3. Nonlinear Control of Back-to-Back VSC-HVDC System via Command-Filter Backstepping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Huang


    Full Text Available This paper proposed a command-filtered backstepping controller to improve the dynamic performance of back-to-back voltage-source-converter high voltage direct current (BTB VSC-HVDC. First, the principle and model of BTB VSC-HVDC in abc and d-q frame are described. Then, backstepping method is applied to design a controller to maintain the voltage balance and realize coordinated control of active and reactive power. Meanwhile, command filter is introduced to deal with the problem of input saturation and explosion of complexity in conventional backstepping, and a filter compensation signal is designed to diminish the adverse effects caused by the command filter. Next, the stability and convergence of the whole system are proved via the Lyapunov theorem of asymptotic stability. Finally, simulation results are given to demonstrate that proposed controller has a better dynamic performance and stronger robustness compared to the traditional PID algorithm, which also proves the effectiveness and possibility of the designed controller.

  4. The Influence of Future Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (C4) on Doctrine and the Operational Commander's Decision-Making Process (United States)

    Mayer, Michael G.


    Future C4 systems will alter the traditional balance between force and information, having a profound influence on doctrine and the operational commander's decision making process. The Joint Staff's future vision of C4 is conceptualized in 'C4I for the Warrior' which envisions a joint C4I architecture providing timely sensor to shoot information direct to the warfighter. C4 system must manage and filter an overwhelming amount of information; deal with interoperability issues; overcome technological limitations; meet emerging security requirements; and protect against 'Information Warfare.' Severe budget constraints necessitate unified control of C4 systems under singular leadership for the common good of all the services. In addition, acquisition policy and procedures must be revamped to allow new technologies to be fielded quickly; and the commercial marketplace will become the preferred starting point for modernization. Flatter command structures are recommended in this environment where information is available instantaneously. New responsibilities for decision making at lower levels are created. Commanders will have to strike a balance between exerting greater control and allowing subordinates enough flexibility to maintain initiative. Clearly, the commander's intent remains the most important tool in striking this balance.

  5. Agile battle management efficiency for command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I) (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Bélanger, Micheline


    Various operations such as civil-military co-operation (CIMIC) affairs require orchestration of communications, assets, and actors. A key component includes technology advancements to enable coordination among people and machines the ability to know where things are, who to coordinate with, and open and consistent lines of communication. In this paper, we explore concepts of battle management (BM) to support high-tempo emergency response scenarios such as a disaster action response team (DART). Three concepts highlighted of agile battle management (ABM) include source orchestration (e.g., sensors and domains), battle management language (BML) development (e.g., software and ontologies), and command and control (C2) coordination (e.g., people and visualization); which require correlation and de-confliction. These concepts of ABM support the physical, information, and cognitive domains for efficient command, control, communications, and information (C3I) to synchronize data and people for efficient and effective operations.

  6. Vertical and Horizontal Forces: A Framework for Understanding Airpower Command and Control (United States)


    Gharajedaghi, Systems Thinking: Managing Chaos and Complexity: A Platform for Designing Business Architecture , 2nd ed. (New York, NY: Elsevier, 2006), 71...Foreign Relations Since 1776 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 949-950. 51Mary Jo Hatch, Organization Theory: Modern, Symbolic, and Postmodern ...Complexity: A Platform for Designing Business Architecture . 2nd ed. New York, NY: Elsevier, 2006. Gerber, David K. “Adaptive Command and Control of

  7. Review of Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Tools for Verifying Command and Control Software (United States)

    Aguilar, Michael L.; Bonanne, Kevin H.; Favretto, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Maddalena M.; Jones, Stephanie L.; Mackey, Ryan M.; Sarrel, Marc A.; Simpson, Kimberly A.


    The Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Standing Review Board (SRB) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) conduct an independent review of the plan developed by Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) for identifying models and emulators to create a tool(s) to verify their command and control software. The NESC was requested to identify any issues or weaknesses in the GSDO plan. This document contains the outcome of the NESC review.

  8. Command and Control for Distributed Operations: An Analysis of Possible Technologies, Structure and Employment (United States)


    Area of Operations AODV Add-hoc On-demand Distance Vector AP Access Point ARP Address Resolution Protocol C2CE Command and Control...could bridge existing technologies with emerging mesh routing protocols to greatly expand communications. This test demonstrated the successful...architecture using emerging Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) Radio Frequency to Internet- Protocol (RF to IP) technologies that would further advance the

  9. Program Executive Office Command, Control and Communications-Tactical Program Review & Vision Guide (United States)


    enhanced version, Joint Capabilities Release ( JCR ) to operational units in January. In response to requirements for faster position command and control, how your plan unfolds and how you execute.” The next iteration of FBCB2, known as Joint Capabilities Release ( JCR ), began...information through Tactical Ground Reporting (TIGR), so users can better plan maneuvers while on-the-move. The JCR upgrades are part of Capability

  10. Consideration of Command and Control Performance during Accident Management Process at the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Nisrene M. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants shifted the nuclear safety paradigm from risk management to on-site management capability during a severe accident. The kernel of on-site management capability during an accident at a nuclear power plant is situation awareness and agility of command and control. However, little consideration has been given to accident management. After the events of September 11, 2001 and the catastrophic Fukushima nuclear disaster, agility of command and control has emerged as a significant element for effective and efficient accident management, with many studies emphasizing accident management strategies, particularly man-machine interface, which is considered a key role in ensuring nuclear power plant safety during severe accident conditions. This paper proposes a conceptual model for evaluating command and control performance during the accident management process at a nuclear power plant. Communication and information processing while responding to an accident is one of the key issues needed to mitigate the accident. This model will give guidelines for accurate and fast communication response during accident conditions.

  11. Control of cricket stridulation by a command neuron: efficacy depends on the behavioral state. (United States)

    Hedwig, B


    Crickets use different song patterns for acoustic communication. The stridulatory pattern-generating networks are housed within the thoracic ganglia but are controlled by the brain. This descending control of stridulation was identified by intracellular recordings and stainings of brain neurons. Its impact on the generation of calling song was analyzed both in resting and stridulating crickets and during cercal wind stimulation, which impaired the stridulatory movements and caused transient silencing reactions. A descending interneuron in the brain serves as a command neuron for calling-song stridulation. The neuron has a dorsal soma position, anterior dendritic processes, and an axon that descends in the contralateral connective. The neuron is present in each side of the CNS. It is not activated in resting crickets. Intracellular depolarization of the interneuron so that its spike frequency is increased to 60-80 spikes/s reliably elicits calling-song stridulation. The spike frequency is modulated slightly in the chirp cycle with the maximum activity in phase with each chirp. There is a high positive correlation between the chirp repetition rate and the interneuron's spike frequency. Only a very weak correlation, however, exists between the syllable repetition rate and the interneuron activity. The effectiveness of the command neuron depends on the activity state of the cricket. In resting crickets, experimentally evoked short bursts of action potentials elicit only incomplete calling-song chirps. In crickets that previously had stridulated during the experiment, short elicitation of interneuron activity can trigger sustained calling songs during which the interneuron exhibits a spike frequency of approximately 30 spikes/s. During sustained calling songs, the command neuron activity is necessary to maintain the stridulatory behavior. Inhibition of the interneuron stops stridulation. A transient increase in the spike frequency of the interneuron speeds up the chirp

  12. The Command and Control of Communications in Joint and Combined Operations (United States)


    to thank Charlie, Joe, Tres , Phil, Erica, Karla, and a host of fellow students who helped me throughout the year. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page APPROVAL...decision makers and the actual executors of those decisions as quickly as possible.Z7 The first point LTC Guerra makes is even more valid today. The...2a To control a network integrating all the different tactical 2 7William M. Guerra , LTC, USA. C2 of C3: Command and Control of Conmand. Control

  13. Synthesis of the IRSN analysis of the control-command architecture and platforms of the Flamanville 3 EPR reactor; Synthese de l'analyse par l'IRSN de l'architecture et des plateformes du controle-commande du reacteur EPR de Flamanville 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document first briefly describes the context: control-command systems and functions, examples of control-command systems of the EPR, control-command platforms, and control-command architecture. It describes the method implemented by the IRSN to analyze the reactor control-command: assessment of the capacity of each system to perform its functions, assessment of the control-command architecture, hardware qualification. Then, it briefly recalls the assessments performed for the Teleperm XS platform and for the SPPA-T2000 platform, for the architecture (separation of systems belonging to different classes, in-depth defence, management of the architecture complexity)

  14. Sliding Mode Implementation of an Attitude Command Flight Control System for a Helicopter in Hover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. McGeoch


    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the design of a flight control system, using a decoupled non-linear sliding mode control structure, designed using a linearised, 9th order representation of the dynamics of a PUMA helicopter in hover. The controllers are then tested upon a higher order, non-linear helicopter model, called RASCAL. This design approach is used for attitude command flight control implementation and the control performance is assessed in the terms of handling qualities through the Aeronautical Design Standards for Rotorcraft (ADS-33. In this context a linearised approximation of the helicopter system is used to design an SMC control scheme. These controllers have been found to yield a system that satisfies the Level 1 handling qualities set out by ADS-33. 

  15. Web-Based Interface for Command and Control of Network Sensors (United States)

    Wallick, Michael N.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Shams, Khawaja S.


    This software allows for the visualization and control of a network of sensors through a Web browser interface. It is currently being deployed for a network of sensors monitoring Mt. Saint Helen s volcano; however, this innovation is generic enough that it can be deployed for any type of sensor Web. From this interface, the user is able to fully control and monitor the sensor Web. This includes, but is not limited to, sending "test" commands to individual sensors in the network, monitoring for real-world events, and reacting to those events

  16. Air Force Technical Objective Document (TOD) C(3)I (command, control, communications and intelligence) - fiscal year 1985 (United States)

    Crocetti, C. P.


    This TOD describes the technical programs of the Rome Air Development Center in support of the Air Force Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) mission. The technical objectives have been aligned with the VANGUARD mission areas of Command, Control, and Communications (C3), Reconnaissance and Intelligence, Strategic Systems (Defense), and Technology as a means of focusing the RADC support of VANGUARD. This document is prepared to provide industry and universities with the midterm technical objectives in these areas.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kusyak


    Full Text Available The paper presents a schematic diagram of the powertrain automated control system based on dry friction clutch and manual gearbox. Mechatronic system has a modular configuration and allows to make the vehicle starting-up, low speed maneuvering and command or automatic gearshifting. Diesel engine, clutch and 10-step gearbox control is carried out at all movement modes by electronic modules when affected on mode selector, accelerator pedal and, if necessary, on brake pedal. Data exchange between electronic units is carried by SAE-J1939 protocol with a transmission rate of 250 kbit/s. Change in diesel fuel supply, clutch engagement and gearshifting take place automatically as a result of pneumatic power actuator operation by a signal from the controller to the corresponding solenoid valve or a combination thereof.Presents the results of semi-natural experiment on research of gear shifting process in the command mode of powertrain control. Transient gearshift oscillograms with various control algorithm structure have been given in the paper. The paper contains a ^iT^rative analysis of the oscillograma and a conclusion on expediency of gear shifting automation. A graphic representation of the semi-natural experiment results has been performed with the help of CoDeSys V2.3-visualization facilities.

  18. Technology improvement of chromium on steel parts electrodeposition using complex command and control systems (United States)

    Stănescu, A.; Alecusan, A. M.; Dimitescu, A.


    The paper aims to provide improved technological process of electrochemical deposition of chromium on steel for decorative parts for corrosion protection but also to improve mechanical properties. The proposed idea is perfectly suited to be grafted onto existing electrodeposition installations, but it can be applied successfully in the development of new such plants. Complex command and control systems are designed to operate in high aggressive environmental conditions specific to these types of installations. The theoretical part completes the experimental results obtained on a laboratory facility.

  19. A nonlinear trajectory command generator for a digital flight-control system (United States)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Weissenberger, S.


    Operational application of the command generator (CG) was examined in detail in a simulation of a flight control system with the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. The basic repertoire of single axis maneuvers and operational constraints are discussed, and the system behavior is tested on a rigorous STOL approach path and as affected by various approximations in the CG synthesis and types of disturbances found in the operational environment. The simulation results indicate that a satisfactory nonlinear system with general maneuvering capabilities throughout the flight envelope was developed which satisfies the basic design objectives while maintaining a practicable degree of simplicity.

  20. Antagonistic interplay between necdin and Bmi1 controls proliferation of neural precursor cells in the embryonic mouse neocortex. (United States)

    Minamide, Ryohei; Fujiwara, Kazushiro; Hasegawa, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki


    Neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the neocortex exhibit a high proliferation capacity during early embryonic development and give rise to cortical projection neurons after maturation. Necdin, a mammal-specific MAGE (melanoma antigen) family protein that possesses anti-mitotic and pro-survival activities, is expressed abundantly in postmitotic neurons and moderately in tissue-specific stem cells or progenitors. Necdin interacts with E2F transcription factors and suppresses E2F1-dependent transcriptional activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 gene. Here we show that necdin serves as a suppressor of NPC proliferation in the embryonic neocortex. Necdin is moderately expressed in the ventricular zone of mouse embryonic neocortex, in which proliferative cell populations are significantly increased in necdin-null mice. In the neocortex of necdin-null embryos, expression of Cdk1 and Sox2, a stem cell marker, is significantly increased, whereas expression of p16, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, is markedly diminished. Cdk1 and p16 expression levels are also significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in primary NPCs prepared from necdin-null embryos. Intriguingly, necdin interacts directly with Bmi1, a Polycomb group protein that suppresses p16 expression and promotes NPC proliferation. In HEK293A cells transfected with luciferase reporter constructs, necdin relieves Bmi1-dependent repression of p16 promoter activity, whereas Bmi1 counteracts necdin-mediated repression of E2F1-dependent Cdk1 promoter activity. In lentivirus-infected primary NPCs, necdin overexpression increases p16 expression, suppresses Cdk1 expression, and inhibits NPC proliferation, whereas Bmi1 overexpression suppresses p16 expression, increases Cdk1 expression, and promotes NPC proliferation. Our data suggest that embryonic NPC proliferation in the neocortex is regulated by the antagonistic interplay between necdin and Bmi1.

  1. Command and Control Architectures for Autonomous Micro-Robotic Forces - FY-2000 Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean


    Advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and micro-technologies will soon give rise to production of large-scale forces of autonomous micro-robots with systems of innate behaviors and with capabilities of self-organization and real world tasking. Such organizations have been compared to schools of fish, flocks of birds, herds of animals, swarms of insects, and military squadrons. While these systems are envisioned as maintaining a high degree of autonomy, it is important to understand the relationship of man with such machines. In moving from research studies to the practical deployment of large-scale numbers of robots, one of critical pieces that must be explored is the command and control architecture for humans to re-task and also inject global knowledge, experience, and intuition into the force. Tele-operation should not be the goal, but rather a level of adjustable autonomy and high-level control. If a herd of sheep is comparable to the collective of robots, then the human element is comparable to the shepherd pulling in strays and guiding the herd in the direction of greener pastures. This report addresses the issues and development of command and control for largescale numbers of autonomous robots deployed as a collective force.

  2. A Prototype System for Controlling a Computer by Head Movements and Voice Commands

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Anis; Hajjar, Mohammad


    This paper introduces a new prototype system for controlling a PC by head movements and also with voice commands. Our system is a multimodal interface concerned with controlling the computer. The selected modes of interaction are speech and gestures. We are seeing the revolutionary of computers and information technologies into daily practice. Healthy people use keyboard, mouse, trackball, or touchpad for controlling the PC. However these peripheries are usually not suitable for handicapped people. They may have problems using these standard peripheries, for example when they suffer from myopathy, or cannot move their hands after an injury. Our system has been developed to provide computer access for people with severe disabilities. This system tracks the computer user's Head movements with a video camera and translates them into the movements of the mouse pointer on the screen and the voice as button presses. Therefore we are coming with a proposal system that can be used with handicapped people to control t...

  3. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy Onboard the International Space Station (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Haddock, Angie T.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry


    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control experiment on-board the International Space Station that demonstrated single action intelligent procedures for crew command and control. The target problem was to enable crew initialization of a facility class rack with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as initialization of a medical facility to respond to a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). Utilization of Draper Laboratory's Timeliner software, deployed on-board the ISS within the Command and Control (C&C) computers and the Payload computers, allowed development of the automated procedures specific to ISS without having to certify

  4. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control through the World Wide Web: Phase 3 (United States)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert


    NASA's New Millenium Program (NMP) has identified a variety of revolutionary technologies that will support orders of magnitude improvements in the capabilities of spacecraft missions. This program's Autonomy team has focused on science and engineering automation technologies. In doing so, it has established a clear development roadmap specifying the experiments and demonstrations required to mature these technologies. The primary developmental thrusts of this roadmap are in the areas of remote agents, PI/operator interface, planning/scheduling fault management, and smart execution architectures. Phases 1 and 2 of the ASSET Project (previously known as the WebSat project) have focused on establishing World Wide Web-based commanding and telemetry services as an advanced means of interfacing a spacecraft system with the PI and operators. Current automated capabilities include Web-based command submission, limited contact scheduling, command list generation and transfer to the ground station, spacecraft support for demonstrations experiments, data transfer from the ground station back to the ASSET system, data archiving, and Web-based telemetry distribution. Phase 2 was finished in December 1996. During January-December 1997 work was commenced on Phase 3 of the ASSET Project. Phase 3 is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer; (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple PIs as well as associated payload experimenters; (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft; (4) Implement more advanced resource

  5. Multivariable fuzzy modelling and command: application to the thermic engine control; Modelisation et commande multivariables floues: application a la commande d`un moteur thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolet, P.


    During these last two decades, the growing awareness of the contribution of the automobile to the degradation of the environment has forces different figures from the transportation world to put automobiles under more and more severe controls. Fuzzy logic is a technique which allows for the taking into account of experts knowledge; the most recent research work has moreover shown interest in associating fuzzy logic with algorithmic control techniques (adaptive control, robust control...). Our research work can be broken down into three distinct parts: a theoretical approach concerning the methods of fuzzy modeling permitting one to achieve models of the type Takagi-Sugeno and to use them in the synthesis of controls; the work of physical modeling of a four-stroke direct injection gas motor in collaboration with the development teams from Siemens Automotive SA; the simulated application of fuzzy modeling techniques and of fuzzy control developed on a theoretical level to a four-stroke direct injection gas motor. (author) 105 refs.

  6. Cyber Security for the Spaceport Command and Control System: Vulnerability Management and Compliance Analysis (United States)

    Gunawan, Ryan A.


    With the rapid development of the Internet, the number of malicious threats to organizations is continually increasing. In June of 2015, the United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) had a data breach resulting in the compromise of millions of government employee records. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is not exempt from these attacks. Cyber security is becoming a critical facet to the discussion of moving forward with projects. The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) project at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) aims to develop the launch control system for the next generation launch vehicle in the coming decades. There are many ways to increase the security of the network it uses, from vulnerability management to ensuring operating system images are compliant with securely configured baselines recommended by the United States Government.

  7. A Framework for Failure? The Impact of Short Tour Lengths and Separate National Command and Control on British Operational Art and Coalition Warfare in Iraq, 2003-2009 (United States)


    architecture of the campaign by focusing on the military command and control structure. The command and control structure was the common denominator...approach was off the mark. The attack on the Golden Mosque on 23 March 2006 provided the watershed moment within MNF-I when leaders began shifting...command and control architecture a detailed analysis is conducted assessing its impact on problem framing and the development of an effective operational

  8. Man-machine interface in a submarine command and weapon control system: features and design experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan H. Aas


    Full Text Available Important man-machine interface (MMI issues concerning a submarine command and weapon control system (CWCS such as crew organization, automation level and decision support are discussed in this paper. Generic submarine CWCS functions and operating conditions are outlined. Detailed, dynamic and real-time prototypes were used to support the MMI design. The prototypes are described and experience with detailed prototyping is discussed. Some of the main interaction principles are summarized and a restricted example of the resulting design is given. Our design experience and current work have been used to outline future perspectives of MMI design in naval CWCSs. The need for both formal and experimental approaches is emphasized.

  9. [Perceived or BMI-measured overweight and weight control behaviors in undergraduate adolescents from Ciudad Guzmán, Jalisco, México]. (United States)

    Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Carlos Alejandro; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe; Montaño Espinoza, Rosa; Hidalgo-San Martín, Alfredo


    The aim was to evaluate associations between weight control behaviors and overweight measured by BMI, overweight perception or inaccurate weight perception. 492 undergraduate adolescents from 17 to 19 years old participated in the study. A self-administered questionnaire on line was applied and weight and height were measured. Statistical analysis included weighted kappa and multivariate logistic regression. The concordance between weight perception and that evaluated by BMI was 78.7%, weight kappa = 0.62. Adolescents who perceived overweight tried to lose weight, exercised and ate less food more frequently than those who were overweight evaluated by BMI. A quarter tried to lose weight eventhough they did not perceive or were actually overweight. The odds of trying to lose weight were higher in men and women who perceived overweight (OR = 18.7, CI 95% 6.3-55.3 and OR = 10.4, IC 95% 4.5-24.2, respectively) andwomen who overestimated overweight (OR = 6.0, CI 95% 2.8-12.7). The odds of tying to lose weight when weight was underestimated were less in men (OR = 0.03, CI 95% 0.01-0.12) and women (OR = 0.19, IC 95% 0.05-0.70). In conclusion the behavior of trying to lose weight was better explained among adolescents of both genders who perceived overweight and among girls who overestimated it.

  10. About BMI for Adults (United States)

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs About Adult BMI ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español ( ...

  11. A novel framework for command and control of networked sensor systems (United States)

    Chen, Genshe; Tian, Zhi; Shen, Dan; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh


    In this paper, we have proposed a highly innovative advanced command and control framework for sensor networks used for future Integrated Fire Control (IFC). The primary goal is to enable and enhance target detection, validation, and mitigation for future military operations by graphical game theory and advanced knowledge information fusion infrastructures. The problem is approached by representing distributed sensor and weapon systems as generic warfare resources which must be optimized in order to achieve the operational benefits afforded by enabling a system of systems. This paper addresses the importance of achieving a Network Centric Warfare (NCW) foundation of information superiority-shared, accurate, and timely situational awareness upon which advanced automated management aids for IFC can be built. The approach uses the Data Fusion Information Group (DFIG) Fusion hierarchy of Level 0 through Level 4 to fuse the input data into assessments for the enemy target system threats in a battlespace to which military force is being applied. Compact graph models are employed across all levels of the fusion hierarchy to accomplish integrative data fusion and information flow control, as well as cross-layer sensor management. The functional block at each fusion level will have a set of innovative algorithms that not only exploit the corresponding graph model in a computationally efficient manner, but also permit combined functional experiments across levels by virtue of the unifying graphical model approach.

  12. Real time command control architecture for an ITER relevant inspection robot in operation on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Delphine [CEA, LIST Service de Robotique Interactive, BP6 F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Bayetti, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/IRFM, CEA/Cadarache F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bonnemason, J. [CEA, LIST Service de Robotique Interactive, BP6 F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Bruno, V. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/IRFM, CEA/Cadarache F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Chambaud, P.; Friconneau, J.P. [CEA, LIST Service de Robotique Interactive, BP6 F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Gargiulo, L. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/IRFM, CEA/Cadarache F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Itchah, M.; Lamy, S. [CEA, LIST Service de Robotique Interactive, BP6 F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Le, R. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/IRFM, CEA/Cadarache F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Measson, Y.; Perrot, Y.; Ponsort, D. [CEA, LIST Service de Robotique Interactive, BP6 F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France)


    In 2008, the Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) performed its first deployment in Tore Supra tokamak vessel, under real vacuum and temperature conditions (10{sup -6} Pa and 120 deg. C) after a conditioning phase to avoid pollution of the chamber. This full demonstration is a turning point in the project, allowing a second phase to start toward the objective to make use of the Remote Handling Equipment as an inspection routine tool. This feasibility demonstration will also be performed on Tore Supra. At this stage, the system requires enhancements of overall technologies and also developments of the Remote Handling control system. Lessons learned in the first phase of the project and experience collected for more than 20 years by Robotics Units of CEA-LIST teams on teleoperated systems enable to identify three main fields to explore to reach the objectives: - Development of a reliable control based on a real time generic command control system. - Development of a graphical supervisor for intuitive steering. - Development of a generic flexible model for realistic computations of the robot localization in the environment. This paper is dedicated to the description of the further developments that shall be done for routine Remote Handling operations. It presents the R and D project roadmap for the next years.

  13. Tactics, Functions, Techniques, and Procedures in the Command, Control, and Communications (C3) of a Combat Electronic Warfare Intelligence Battalion (United States)


    77 MOVEMENT AND STATUS OF ASSETS .... ....................... 77 TCAE ...MIB commander or G-2 and his collection management element better direct postoning and dynmi collection activities from the rear? Should the TCAE ...put all of its control functions in the 15 centralized and serial operations of a TCAE or collection management shop? The answer to all of these

  14. Effects of two types of intra-team feedback on developing a shared mental model in Command & Control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasker, P.C.; Post, W.M.; Schraagen, J.M.C.


    In two studies, the effect of two types of intra-team feedback on developing a shared mental model in Command & Control teams was investigated. A distinction is made between performance monitoring and team self-correction. Performance monitoring is the ability of team members to monitor each other's

  15. Moving beyond command-and-control: reflexivity in the regulation of occupational safety and health and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalders, M.V.C.; Wilthagen, T.


    Direct or "command-and-control" regulation has had limited success in dealing with occupational health and safety and with environmental regulation. This lack of success has led policymakers to experiment with self-regulation as an alternative means of achieving the goals of social regulation. The e

  16. Multi variable control of a switched ignition device: efficiency improvement under various constraints; Commande multivariable d`un moteur a allumage commande: Amelioration du rendement sous differentes contraintes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaumerliac, V.


    Spark-ignition engine control needs substantial improvement for various reasons: a non-linear and multivariable process, the strictness of anti-pollution constraints, the necessity of fuel economy, the variable running conditions, the aging, the reliability and the cost. The improvement of engine efficiency will be involved in this context and with the pollution constraints. This work develops a system approach and its philosophy is based on a suitable description of the main dynamics. A compartmentalized model of a spark-ignition engine and the dynamic of the vehicle is presented. The aim of this modeling is to have a good representativeness in transients and to describe the behavior of the outputs useful for control. The multivariable control is split in two independent systems. The first one controls the spark advance control to obtain the maximum torque. The second one controls the throttle and the electronic fuel injection device to have lower pollutant emissions. The spark advance closed loop control uses information measured with either a cylinder pressure sensor or a torque sensor. These studies have achieved to an adaptive tuning on engine bench. A new actuator, the electronic throttle control, can provide a higher degree of precision for the fuel/air ratio regulation system, particularly during fast accelerations and decelerations. An intake manifold pressure control is developed to coordinate the air and fuel flows. A delay strategy and a simple compensation of fuel supply dynamics allow to obtain good results on engine bench. Uncoupling the acceleration pedal and the throttle command is a promising way to improve engine efficiency and reduce exhaust emission during transient phases. (author) 59 refs.

  17. A survey of ring-building network protocols suitable for command and control group communications (United States)

    Sobeih, Ahmed; Yurcik, William


    Multicasting is the enabling technology for group communication. However, network-layer multicasting (e.g., IP multicast) has not been widely adopted more than 10 years of its invention due to the concerns related to deployment, scalability and network management. Application-layer multicast (ALM) has been proposed as an alternative for IP multicast. In ALM, group communications take place on an overlay network in which each edge corresponds to a direct unicast path between two group members. ALM protocols differ in, among other aspects, the topology of the underlying overlay network (e.g., tree, mesh or ring). Ring-based ALM protocols have the advantages of providing a constant node degree, and enabling the implementation of reliable and totally-ordered message delivery through the use of a ring with a token that contains ordering and flow control information. In addition, a ring overlay network topology is inherently reliable to single node failures. In this paper, we provide a survey and a taxonomy of several ring-building group communication protocols. Investigating the major characteristics of ring-building network protocols is an important step towards understanding which of them are suitable for command and control group communications.

  18. Augmented Command and Control Table to Support Network-Centric Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zocco


    Full Text Available The success in network-centric warfare requires information superiority to obtain dominant battlespace awareness. The time required to take a decision has been reduced by orders of magnitude, while the volume of accessible data has been increased exponentially. When this volume is displayed to an operator, the risk of reaching a state of information overload is real and great care shall be taken to make sure that what is provided is actually information and not noise. In this paper we propose a novel interaction environment that leverages the augmented reality technology to provide a digitally enhanced view of a real command and control table. The operator equipped with an optical see-through head-mounted display controls the virtual context, a synthetic view of the common operational picture, remaining connected to the real world. Technical details of the system are described together with the evaluation method. The results showed effectiveness of the proposed system in terms of understanding perception, depth impression, and level of immersion. A relevant reduction of the reaction time and of the number of errors made during the execution of complex tasks, have been obtained.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.39-45, DOI:

  19. Human factors requirements for telerobotic command and control: The European Space Agency experimental programme (United States)

    Stone, Robert J.


    Space Telerobotics research, performed under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), concerning the execution of human factors experiments, and ultimately leading to the development of a telerobotics test bed, has been carried out since 1985 by a British Consortium consisting of British Aerospace, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and, more recently, the UK National Advanced Robotics Research Centre. The principal aim of the first study of the series was to derive preliminary requirements for a teleoperation servicing system, with reference to two mission model scenarios. The first scenario introduced the problem of communications time delays, and their likely effect on the ground-based operator in control of a manipulator system on board an unmanned servicing vehicle in Low Earth Orbit. In the second scenario, the operator was located on the NASA Orbiter aft flight deck, supervising the control of a prototype manipulator in the 'servicing' of an experimental payload in the cargo bay area. Human factors analyses centered on defining the requirements for the teleoperator workstation, such as identifying basic ergonomic requirements for workstation and panel layouts, defining teleoperation strategies, developing alphanumeric and graphic screen formats for the supervision or direct control of the manipulator, and the potential applications of expert system technology. The second study for ESA involved an experimental appraisal of some of the important issues highlighted in the first study, for which relevant human factors data did not exist. Of central importance during the second study was the issue of communications time delays and their effect on the manual control of a teleoperated manipulator from a ground-based command and control station.

  20. Opinion on the examination of the control-command general architecture of the Flamanville 3 EPR reactor and of its associated platforms; Avis relatif a l'examen de l'architecture generale du controle-commande du reacteur EPR Flamanville 3 et des plateformes associees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report first recalls the different technical and hardware elements and components discussed by the ISRN (Nuclear Radioprotection and Safety Institute) in front of the Expert Permanent Group for nuclear reactors. These elements and components are concerning the control-command architecture as a whole, and the technical ability of networks, computers, and robots. It outlines the main principles which the control-and-command must comply with: compliance of each component of the retained technological solution with the design requirements corresponding to the safety classification, robustness of the whole control-command architecture. Then, it comments and sometimes criticizes the status of the various components of the control-command platforms with respect to this compliance. Eight recommendations are given for the SPPA T2000 control-command platform and for the robustness of the control-command architecture.

  1. Increasing operational command and control security by the implementation of device independent quantum key distribution (United States)

    Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Messina, Angelo


    In a very simplistic way, the Command and Control functions can be summarized as the need to provide the decision makers with an exhaustive, real-time, situation picture and the capability to convey their decisions down to the operational forces. This two-ways data and information flow is vital to the execution of current operations and goes far beyond the border of military operations stretching to Police and disaster recovery as well. The availability of off-the shelf technology has enabled hostile elements to endanger the security of the communication networks by violating the traditional security protocols and devices and hacking sensitive databases. In this paper an innovative approach based to implementing Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution system is presented. The use of this technology would prevent security breaches due to a stolen crypto device placed in an end-to-end communication chain. The system, operating with attenuated laser, is practical and provides the increasing of the distance between the legitimate users.

  2. The changing paradigm for integrated simulation in support of Command and Control (C2) (United States)

    Riecken, Mark; Hieb, Michael


    Modern software and network technologies are on the verge of enabling what has eluded the simulation and operational communities for more than two decades, truly integrating simulation functionality into operational Command and Control (C2) capabilities. This deep integration will benefit multiple stakeholder communities from experimentation and test to training by providing predictive and advanced analytics. There is a new opportunity to support operations with simulation once a deep integration is achieved. While it is true that doctrinal and acquisition issues remain to be addressed, nonetheless it is increasingly obvious that few technical barriers persist. How will this change the way in which common simulation and operational data is stored and accessed? As the Services move towards single networks, will there be technical and policy issues associated with sharing those operational networks with simulation data, even if the simulation data is operational in nature (e.g., associated with planning)? How will data models that have traditionally been simulation only be merged in with operational data models? How will the issues of trust be addressed?

  3. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control Through the World Wide Web. Phase 3 (United States)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert


    The Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) system is a simple yet comprehensive real-world operations network being developed. Phase 3 of the ASSET Project was January-December 1997 and is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer. (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple (PIs) Principle Investigators as well as associated payload experimenters. (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft. (4) Implement more advanced resource management, modeling and fault management capabilities that integrate the space and ground segments of the space system hardware. (5) Implement a beacon monitoring test. (6) Implement an experimental blackboard controller for space system management. (7) Further define typical ground station developments required for Internet-based remote control and for full system automation of the PI-to-spacecraft link. Each of those goals are examined. Significant sections of this report were also published as a conference paper. Several publications produced in support of this grant are included as attachments. Titles include: 1) Experimental Initiatives in Space System Operations; 2) The ASSET Client Interface: Balancing High Level Specification with Low Level Control; 3) Specifying Spacecraft Operations At The Product/Service Level; 4) The Design of a Highly Configurable, Reusable Operating System for Testbed Satellites; 5) Automated Health Operations For The Sapphire Spacecraft; 6) Engineering Data Summaries for Space Missions; and 7) Experiments In Automated Health

  4. The Development of German Doctrine and Command And Control and Its Application to Supporting Arms, 1832 - 1945 (United States)


    as a management science because of the relationship between the German General Staff and the Commander. due in large part to their training. The two...AKA fires 75% Blue and Green Cross to 25% HE. -FEKA hits rear area conmand, control and comunnication targets and reserves. -All guns shift to enemy... managed this disparity through their Keil und Kessel tactics. The extended distances over which the Germans operated aggravated this problem, opening

  5. SANDERLINO, Final Report: Part C, A Research Study into KBS for Command and Control in Naval and TMD Applications (United States)


    for Command and Control in Naval and TMD Applications Personal Author: Various from Logica , British Aerospace & Cambridge Consul. Corporate Author Or...Programme SANDERLING 706.70040 ARE, Portsdown SLS21C/19 Authors: Status: Signed : Various from Logica , British Aerospace and Cambridge Consultants...Ltd. Final <T. G^uJ - Authorised PLEASE RETURN TO: SDI TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER ©1990 Logica UK Ltd. Copyright in the whole and every part of

  6. Suitability of Agent Technology for Military Command and Control in the Future Combat System Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potok, TE


    The U.S. Army is faced with the challenge of dramatically improving its war fighting capability through advanced technologies. Any new technology must provide significant improvement over existing technologies, yet be reliable enough to provide a fielded system. The focus of this paper is to assess the novelty and maturity of agent technology for use in the Future Combat System (FCS). The FCS concept represents the U.S. Army's ''mounted'' form of the Objective Force. This concept of vehicles, communications, and weaponry is viewed as a ''system of systems'' which includes net-centric command and control (C{sup 2}) capabilities. This networked C{sup 2} is an important transformation from the historically centralized, or platform-based, C{sup 2} function since a centralized command architecture may become a decision-making and execution bottleneck, particularly as the pace of war accelerates. A mechanism to ensure an effective network-centric C{sup 2} capacity (combining intelligence gathering and analysis available at lower levels in the military hierarchy) is needed. Achieving a networked C{sup 2} capability will require breakthroughs in current software technology. Many have proposed the use of agent technology as a potential solution. Agents are an emerging technology, and it is not yet clear whether it is suitable for addressing the networked C{sup 2} challenge, particularly in satisfying battlespace scalability, mobility, and security expectations. We have developed a set of software requirements for FCS based on military requirements for this system. We have then evaluated these software requirements against current computer science technology. This analysis provides a set of limitations in the current technology when applied to the FCS challenge. Agent technology is compared against this set of limitations to provide a means of assessing the novelty of agent technology in an FCS environment. From this analysis we

  7. Undersea Communications Between Submarines and Unmanned Undersea Vehicles in a Command and Control Denied Environment (United States)



  8. Who’s In Charge: Command and Control of Military Forces During Domestic Emergencies (United States)


    in the South, the riots that occurred after the assassination of Martin Luther King , JR ., and the Rodney King riots in Los Angeles.47 A quote from a...officer could be a discriminating factor when selecting the dual-status commander. Additionally, consideration must be given as to whether or not an

  9. A Basis for a Command, Control and Communications (C3) System Architecture for the Argentine Army (United States)


    needed on the bat- tlefield, Most commanders derive important situational clues by listening to how their subordinates sound in their verbal reports. F...0142 2 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5002 3. Estado Mayor General del Ejercito Argentino 5 Direccion de Comunicaciones Azopardo 250

  10. Environmental Assessment: Construction and Operation of Security Forces & Command Post / Installation Control Center Facilities (United States)


    Operation of Security Forces &Command Post/ICC Facilities January 03, 2008 91 6.0 PERSONS CONTACTED Russell Adams – 78th CEG/CEVQ Larry J. Allen...fPD believes the proposed project will have no adverse effect on Building 300, as defined in 36 CFR Parr 800.5(d)(l). Please note that historic and

  11. The E3 ubiquitin-ligase Bmi1/Ring1A controls the proteasomal degradation of Top2alpha cleavage complex - a potentially new drug target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Alchanati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The topoisomerases Top1, Top2alpha and Top2beta are important molecular targets for antitumor drugs, which specifically poison Top1 or Top2 isomers. While it was previously demonstrated that poisoned Top1 and Top2beta are subject to proteasomal degradation, this phenomena was not demonstrated for Top2alpha. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show here that Top2alpha is subject to drug induced proteasomal degradation as well, although at a lower rate than Top2beta. Using an siRNA screen we identified Bmi1 and Ring1A as subunits of an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in this process. We show that silencing of Bmi1 inhibits drug-induced Top2alpha degradation, increases the persistence of Top2alpha-DNA cleavage complex, and increases Top2 drug efficacy. The Bmi1/Ring1A ligase ubiquitinates Top2alpha in-vitro and cellular overexpression of Bmi1 increases drug induced Top2alpha ubiquitination. A small-molecular weight compound, identified in a screen for inhibitors of Bmi1/Ring1A ubiquitination activity, also prevents Top2alpha ubiquitination and drug-induced Top2alpha degradation. This ubiquitination inhibitor increases the efficacy of topoisomerase 2 poisons in a synergistic manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The discovery that poisoned Top2alpha is undergoing proteasomal degradation combined with the involvement of Bmi1/Ring1A, allowed us to identify a small molecule that inhibits the degradation process. The Bmi1/Ring1A inhibitor sensitizes cells to Top2 drugs, suggesting that this type of drug combination will have a beneficial therapeutic outcome. As Bmi1 is also a known oncogene, elevated in numerous types of cancer, the identified Bmi1/Ring1A ubiquitin ligase inhibitors can also be potentially used to directly target the oncogenic properties of Bmi1.

  12. What is the Role of the Joint Forces Air Component Commander as Airspace Control Authority during Stability Operations (United States)


    Control System Handbook, MCWP 3-25.3 (Washington, DC., 2 Dec 97), Chapter 1, 3-5 [document on-line]; available from http:// ismo ismo; Internet; accessed 18 January 2007. 54Ibid., Chapter 4, 4-5. 55Ibid., Chapter 5, and Appendix A. 56Ibid...States Marine Corps. Marine Air Command and Control System Handbook, MCWP 3-25.3. Washington, DC, 2 December 97. Available from http:// ismo -www1

  13. The SAS-3 delayed command system (United States)

    Hoffman, E. J.


    To meet the requirements arising from the increased complexity of the power, attitude control and telemetry systems, a full redundant high-performance control section with delayed command capability was designed for the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3). The relay command system of SAS-3 is characterized by 56 bystate relay commands, with capability for handling up to 64 commands in future versions. The 'short' data command service of SAS-1 and SAS-2 consisting of shifting 24-bit words to two users was expanded to five users and augmented with a 'long load' data command service (up to 4080 bits) used to program the telemetry system and the delayed command subsystem. The inclusion of a delayed command service ensures a program of up to 30 relay or short data commands to be loaded for execution at designated times. The design and system operation of the SAS-3 command section are analyzed, with special attention given to the delayed command subsystem.

  14. Beyond command and control: USSOUTHCOM's use of social networking to 'connect and collaborate' during Haiti relief operations (United States)

    Arias, Ricardo


    On 12 January 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake devastated Haiti killing over 230,000 unsuspecting victims, injuring tens of thousands more and displacing over 1.1 million people. The physical damage was so severe that over 50 percent of buildings in and near the affected areas were completely destroyed or damaged. After struggling for decades with adversity, and besieged by a myriad of social, economic and political challenges, Haiti, its government, and its people were by most accounts already in a state of crisis. The earthquake's devastation and its aftermath shocked the world and prompted a global response. Over 800 institutions and organizations representing the whole of society - governments and their militaries, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, public institutions, academia, corporations, and private citizens - mobilized to provide aid and relief. However, coordinating and managing their activities seemed a daunting, if not impossible, task. How could a global response achieve "unity of effort" when "unity of command" was not feasible? To provide a solution, US Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) looked beyond traditional Command and Control systems for collaboration with non-traditional partners and implemented the All Partners Access Network (APAN) in order to "Connect and Collaborate."

  15. $36 Million Command and Control Facility at Camp Leatherneck, Afghanistan: Unwanted, Unneeded, and Unused (United States)


    8217 RIChii’ CJoOI’I. »-nes M IJ5 MG Ol’f:AATIOIW CORPS rtQ-. 0CG ~"’ fl1UI$0~ JUlY t tJ !J ’ 1’ 1\\1 1!. ’I To: WlltS()Il. ilryol" G -’ 4G IJSAAMY :S J...discussion in command and staff channels . I realize this was a few years ago, but appreciate any information you might recall. If I can provide or regulation, but simply a matter of clarifying the discussion in command and staff channels . I realize this was a few years ago, but appreciate

  16. On the Exploitation of Human Inductive Thought and Intuition in Future Global Command and Control Architectures (United States)


    battlespace, the commander strives to obtain all relevant information concerning hisI combat environment while chaos serves to disrupt, disable , and...1990) Cognition : an intellectual process by which knowledge is gained about perceptions or ideas. (Gevarter, 1985) Common Sense : the ability to...knowledge, heuristic rules that simplify and improve approaches to problem-solving, metaknowledge and metacognition , and compiled forms of behavior that

  17. Can’t Stop the Signal: Regaining Reliable Access to Cyberspace for Command and Control (United States)


    nations now have the ability to destroy or disable satellites outright with anti- satellite ( ASAT ) technology, forcing the combatant commander to analyze...the problem of how to provide cyber without space. 24 Even if the JFC would like to assume that an ASAT -capable nation would not use this ability...for guarantees from the adversary not to utilize ASAT first. This would severely hamper the operational commander’s ability to utilize cyber unless

  18. U.S. Southern Command Government Purchase Card Controls Need Improvement to Prevent Improper Purchases (United States)


    Comptroller and Staff Judge Advocate officials approved the request on September 28, 2011. Gift items purchased included 11 iPod Touch devices engraved...cardholder made the payment on September 29, 2011. The USSOUTHCOM Protocol Office received the iPods in November 2011 and stored them in the Consequently, the iPods were an unnecessary purchase because they did not meet the needs of the command during the fiscal year the purchase

  19. Command and Control of Special Operations Aviation: Time for a Change (United States)


    coordination or aircraft deconfliction as a significant issue. The actions of TF Ranger during Operation GOTHIC SERPENT in Somalia is the final...examples. However, a significant difference between the previous two operations listed and GOTHIC SERPENT was the time sensitive and dynamic nature of... GOTHIC SERPENT proved essential for prosecuting time sensitive targets (TSTs). A command relationship of ARSOA as a subordinate element in the JSOTF also

  20. DNA methyltransferase controls stem cell aging by regulating BMI1 and EZH2 through microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah-Young So

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is well known mechanism that regulates cellular senescence of cancer cells. Here we show that inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC or with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA against DNMT1 and 3b induced the cellular senescence of human umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (hUCB-MSCs and increased p16(INK4A and p21(CIP1/WAF1 expression. DNMT inhibition changed histone marks into the active forms and decreased the methylation of CpG islands in the p16(INK4A and p21(CIP1/WAF1 promoter regions. Enrichment of EZH2, the key factor that methylates histone H3 lysine 9 and 27 residues, was decreased on the p16(INK4A and p21(CIP1/WAF1 promoter regions. We found that DNMT inhibition decreased expression levels of Polycomb-group (PcG proteins and increased expression of microRNAs (miRNAs, which target PcG proteins. Decreased CpG island methylation and increased levels of active histone marks at genomic regions encoding miRNAs were observed after 5-AzaC treatment. Taken together, DNMTs have a critical role in regulating the cellular senescence of hUCB-MSCs through controlling not only the DNA methylation status but also active/inactive histone marks at genomic regions of PcG-targeting miRNAs and p16(INK4A and p21(CIP1/WAF1 promoter regions.

  1. Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) and Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers: A Population-based Case-control Study in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehong Zhang; Ann W Hsing; Yutang Gao; Asif Rashid; Jie Deng; Enju Liu; Kai Wu; Lu Sun; Jiarong Cheng; Gloria Gridley


    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between BMI, WHR and billary tract cancers (CBT).METHODS A population-based case-control study was conducted in urban Shanghai from June 1, 1997 to May 31, 2001 involving interviews with 627 new cases of biliary tract cancers aged 35 to 74 years and 959frequency-matched population controls by gender and age in five-year groups. All subjects were interviewed in person by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. An unconditional logistic regression was performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios (Ors) and 95% confidence intervals (Cis).RESULTS Obesity was associated with an increased risk of gallbladder cancer across adulthood at ages 20-29 and 30-39 in females. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile of WHR, Ors for the highest quartile and P for trend for cancers of gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct both reached significant levels among males and females.CONCLUSION Our observations in urban Shanghai suggested that obesity in early adult life may contribute to the risk of gallbladder cancer, and increased WHR may substantially elevated risk of cancers of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct.

  2. An extension of command shaping methods for controlling residual vibration using frequency sampling (United States)

    Singer, Neil C.; Seering, Warren P.


    The authors present an extension to the impulse shaping technique for commanding machines to move with reduced residual vibration. The extension, called frequency sampling, is a method for generating constraints that are used to obtain shaping sequences which minimize residual vibration in systems such as robots whose resonant frequencies change during motion. The authors present a review of impulse shaping methods, a development of the proposed extension, and a comparison of results of tests conducted on a simple model of the space shuttle robot arm. Frequency shaping provides a method for minimizing the impulse sequence duration required to give the desired insensitivity.

  3. Command in Air War: Centralized vs. Decentralized Control of Combat Airpower (United States)


    would like to thank them for taking the time to educate me: � Calvin ,� �Zam,� �UB,� �Stilly,� �Alien,� �Zing,� �Goldie,� �Knob,� TSgt Frank Lofton... Calvin , Gen., USA Deputy Commander, CENTCOM during Desert Storm Warden, John, Col., USAF Director of Checkmate during Desert Storm Welch, Larry, Gen...Proverbs 16:9, New American Standard Bible Air Force aircraft were not involved in the battle in Mogadishu, Somalia on October 3, 1993� Army helicopters

  4. Human Walk Modeled by PCPG to Control a Lower Limb Neuroprosthesis by High-Level Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Duvinage


    Full Text Available Current active leg prostheses do not integrate the most recent advances in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI and bipedal robotics. Moreover, their actuators are seldom driven by the subject’s intention. This paper aims at showing a summary of our current results in the field of human gait rehabilitation. In a first prototype, the main focus was on people suffering from foot drop problems, i.e. people who are unable to lift their feet. However, current work is focusing on a full active ankle orthosis. The approach is threefold: a BCI system, a gait model and an orthosis. Thanks to the BCI system, patients are able to generate high-level commands. Typically, a command could represent a speed modification. Then, a gait model based on a programmable central pattern generator is used to generate the adequate kinematics. Finally, the orthosis is tracking this kinematics when the foot is in the air, whereas, the orthosis is mimicking a spring when the foot is on the ground.

  5. Command and Control: Does Current U.S. Army Tactical Command and Control Doctrine Meet the Requirement for Today’s High Intensity Battlefield? (United States)


    Pentaon2 objective. PLRS and Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS), along with a handful of new tactical radios and satellite navigation...make this system work, the Army must continue to develop, field, and incorporate the advances in new technology Into our tactical C2 doctrine and...Philosophies C2 OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES* CONTROL ORIENTED COMtW1D ORIENTED (HIGH TECMNOLOGY-LOW RISK) <AUSTgRE TECNOLOGY -HIGH RISK) STRATEGY: Non-relational

  6. A Design Framework for Predictive Engine Control Un cadre de conception pour la commande prédictive de moteurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X.


    Full Text Available Model Predictive Control (MPC has been proposed several times for automotive control, with promising results, mostly based on a linear MPC approach. However, as most automotive systems are nonlinear, Nonlinear MPC (NMPC would be an interesting option. Unfortunately, an optimal control design with a generic nonlinear model usually leads to a complex, non convex problem. Against this background, this paper presents two different schemes to take into account the system nonlinearity in the control design. First, a multi-linear MPC method is shown based on the segmentation of the system and then a control system design based on a nonlinear system identification using a quasi Linear Parameter Varying (LPV structure is proposed, which is then used in a NMPC design framework. This paper presents the approaches and the application to a well studied system, the air path of a Diesel engine. La commande prédictive par modèle (Model Predictive Control; MPC a été proposée plusieurs fois dans l’automatique pour l’automobile, avec des résultats prometteurs, principalement à partir d’une approche MPC linéaire. Toutefois, comme la plupart des systèmes automobiles sont non linéaires, la commande prédictive non linéaire (Nonlinear MPC; NMPC pourrait représenter une option intéressante. Malheureusement, la conception d’une commande optimale à partir d’un modèle non linéaire générique conduit généralement à un problème non convexe complexe. Dans ce contexte, cet article présente deux schémas différents pour prendre en compte la non linéarité du système en vue de la conception de la commande. En premier lieu, une méthode MPC multilinéaire est présentée sur la base d’une segmentation du système et, en second lieu, une conception de système de commande basée sur une identification de système non linéaire utilisant une structure quasi linéaire à paramètres variants (Linear Parameter Varying; LPV est proposée; celle

  7. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3) (United States)


    The document provides the Human System Integration(HSI) high-level functional C3 HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot. Description includes (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge C3 system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain C3 information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate C3 technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how C3 operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary C3 functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for C3 are partitioned into three categories: (1) Pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) Voice Communications (2) Pilot-ATC Data Communications, and (3) command and control of the unmanned aircraft (UA). Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  8. Data acquisition and command system for use with a microprocessor-based control chassis. [PIGMI-Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Martinez, V.A. Jr.


    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is developing the technology to build smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linear accelerators for medical applications, and has designed a powerful, simple, inexpensive, and reliable control and data acquisition system that is central to the program development. The system is a NOVA-3D minicomputer interfaced to several outlying microprocessor-based controllers, which accomplish control and data acquisition through data I/O chasis. The equipment interface chassis, which can issue binary commands, read binary data, issue analog commands, and read timed and untimed analog data is described.

  9. Design and Control of the Swing Gates with Implementation of Multiple Command Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Afanasov


    Full Text Available The paper presents a drive system for a swing gate. The control of opening and closing of the gate was made in different ways: sound control, control by changing the light flux, control by overload protection, control by laser barrier, remote control and control from central panel. The gate is driven with a single motor which drives a mechanical motion transmission system. The drive system is controlled by a programmable smart relay.

  10. Analysis of the Foreign Military Command and Control Process Model%外军指挥控制过程模型剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙瑞; 王智学; 姜志平; 蒋鑫


    指挥控制过程的研究历来是指挥控制理论研究的重点,特别是有关指挥控制过程模型的研究,自从OODA模型提出以来,有关指挥控制过程模型的研究得到了长足的进步和发展。文章首先介绍现阶段外军比较经典的指挥控制过程模型,然后通过各模型与最为经典的OODA模型的对比,找出各模型的优点和不足,对建立适合我军的指挥控制过程模型具有一定的借鉴意义。%It is important for the study of the command and control theory to research the command and control process model. Since the OODA(Observe, Orient, Decide, Act) model has been proposed, the research of the command and control process model has been con siderable progress and development. This paper makes horizontal and vertical comparison for command and control process model based on in trodueing the classic foreign military command and control process model, finds out the strengths and weaknesses of these models, and brings some useful reference for developing command and control process model suitable for PLA.

  11. The {open_quotes}Command and Control{close_quotes} philosophy of the Communist party of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kominiak, G.J.; Eisenberger, J.C.; Menaul, K.L. [and others


    China`s central political authorities have constructed a system which is designed to enable them to exert their personal influence and control over each level of every organization in the country -- both civil and military. The Communist Party of China (CPC) is represented at all levels of each and every organization, including the People`s Liberation Army (PLA). These Party entities are intended to both provide oversight and to ensure that Party policies, directives and orders are obeyed. This penchant for political control, which may have its roots in China`s imperial past, appears to have been reinforced by the early developmental path chosen by the Party`s leadership. Current attempts aimed at maintaining political control of its resources, especially the military, are embodied in the formal system of {open_quotes}Political Work.{close_quotes} In the PLA, this system of political control results in the involvement of political organs in day-to-day military matters to an extent unheard of in the West. Further work is needed in order to understand, more fully, both the system of {open_quotes}Political Work{close_quotes} and its contributions to the overall military (and civil) command and control philosophic of the Communist Party of China.

  12. Communications and Imaging Technology: Revolutionizing Command and Control of the Future Battlefield (United States)


    ICAC Te.hnical Control and Anelysis Coe tot TCAE Technical Control end Analysis Ele- mont Current IEW systems. 107 CORPS 2 AS -GUARAlL ) DIVISION 3 AS...Processing Facility RPV Remotely Piloted Vehicle RWS Remoe Workstation TACIES Tactical Imagery Exploitation Sys. tem TCAE Technical Control and Analysis Ele

  13. 基于BMI方法的线性系统的关联稳定与协调控制%BMI Approach to the Interconnected Stability and Cooperative Control of Linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    年晓红; 曹莉


    This paper studies the interconnected stability and cooperative control of large-scale linear systems. Using the technique of the bilinear matrix inequality (BMI), the necessary and sufficient conditions are given for interconnected stability and cooperative stabilization of two subsystems. It is shown that the systems can be cooperatively stabilized even if the subsystems are not stable.It is not necessary for us to presume the stability of the subsystems. Furthermore, the problems of designing interconnected and cooperative controllers are converted into the optimization problems using BMI constraints. To solve these problems, certain optimal alternate algorithms are proposed, and the proof for the convergence of the algorithms is presented. Finally, several examples are given to illustrate the optimization results.

  14. Design of Advanced Digital Flight Control Systems via Command Generator Tracker (CGT) Synthesis Methods. Volume I. (United States)


    of the CGT controllers. For the aircraft longitudinal dynamics system, three different design models are used. All three design jmodels employ simple... longitudinal dynamics are given below. Reference 30 details * Ithe derivation of the linear perturbation model of aircraft longitudinal dynamics while the...decoupled pitch-pointing control for an aircraft system model representative of modern aircraft longitudinal dynamics. The CGT/PI/KF controller is found

  15. Optimized control unit for solar combi systems; Commande optimale de systemes solaires combines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud' homme, T.; Gillet, D.


    This report presents in detail the development of an optimized control unit for solar combi systems designed for both space heating and domestic hot water preparation. The objective is to minimize the heat supply from the auxiliary gas heater while providing high indoor comfort to the occupants. The authors suggest a dynamic model for the building, designed to be easily adapted to different types of building. Its main parameters are automatically identified. On the contrary, the solar-heating-system dynamic model is the same for all buildings. The system control strategy relies on these dynamic models and on real-time weather forecast from the meteorological institute, in particular the predicted outdoor temperature. The parameter identification is repeated at regular intervals to enable the control system to learn from possible errors and improve optimization. The auxiliary energy savings are estimated to be 13% compared to usual control strategies.

  16. Laboratory process control using natural language commands from a personal computer (United States)

    Will, Herbert A.; Mackin, Michael A.


    PC software is described which provides flexible natural language process control capability with an IBM PC or compatible machine. Hardware requirements include the PC, and suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Software required includes the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system, a PC-based FORTRAN-77 compiler, and user-written device drivers. Instructions for use of the software are given as well as a description of an application of the system.

  17. An Efficient Machine Learning Based Classification Scheme for Detecting Distributed Command & Control Traffic of P2P Botnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijush Barthakur


    Full Text Available Biggest internet security threat is the rise of Botnets having modular and flexible structures. The combined power of thousands of remotely controlled computers increases the speed and severity of attacks. In this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of machine-learning based classification of botnet command & control(C&C traffic for proactive detection of Peer-to-Peer (P2P botnets. We combine some of selected botnet C&C traffic flow features with that of carefully selected botnet behavioral characteristic features for better classification using machine learning algorithms. Our simulation results show that our method is very effective having very good test accuracy and very little training time. We compare the performances of Decision Tree (C4.5, Bayesian Network and Linear Support Vector Machines using performance metrics like accuracy, sensitivity, positive predictive value(PPV and F-Measure. We also provide a comparative analysis of our predictive models using AUC (area under ROC curve. Finally, we propose a rule induction algorithm from original C4.5 algorithm of Quinlan. Our proposed algorithm produces better accuracy than the original decision tree classifier.

  18. A force commanded impedance control for a robot finger with uncertain kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulgeri, Z.; Arimoto, Suguru


    The authors consider the problem of impedance control for the physical interaction between the soft tip of a robot finger, where the nonlinear characteristics of the reproducing force and the finger dynamic parameters are unknown, and a rigid object or environment under kinematic uncertainties arising from both uncertain contact point location and uncertain rigid object geometry. An adaptive controller is proposed, and the asymptotic stability of the force regulation problem is shown for the planar case even when finger kinematics and rigid surface orientation are uncertain. Confirmation of the theoretical findings is done through simulation of a 3-degree-of-freedom planar robotic finger.

  19. Command, Control, Communication, Computers and Information Technology (C4&IT). Strategic Plan, FY2008 - 2012 (United States)


    environment that includes migration of Microsite participants and documents 30 • External Web site via FatWire Content Management System (CMS) to...Integration CMS Content Management System CND Computer Network Defense COBIT Control Objectives for Information and related Technology


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The optimization of the configuration of communications and control networks is important for assuring the reliability and performance of the networks. This paper presents techniques for determining the optimal configuration for such a network in the presence of communication and connectivity constraints.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The optimization of the configuration of communications and control networks is important for assuring the reliability and performance of the networks. This paper presents techniques for determining the optimal configuration for such a network in the presence of communication and connectivity constraints. reconfiguration to restore connectivity to a data-fusion network following the failure of a network component.

  2. Neural networks applied to inverters control; Les reseaux de neurones appliques a la commande des convertisseurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammes, B.; Marpinard, J.C.


    Neural networks are scarcely applied to power electronics. This attempt includes two different topics: optimal control and computerized simulation. The learning has been performed through output error feedback. For implementation, a buck converter has been used as a voltage pulse generator. (D.L.) 7 refs.

  3. An Integrated Command and Control Architecture Concept for Unmanned Systems in the Year 2030 (United States)


    84  Internal Combustion Engines.............................................84  Diesel Engines...graphic representation denoting the key considerations with respect to the three identified deliverables (shown in gold bubbles ) for this project...with dimensions on the nano -scale to investigating whether it can directly control matter on the atomic scale. The implications of nanotechnology

  4. Complex Systems Engineering Applications for Future Battle Management and Command and Control (United States)


    Remote unit provides FCQ threat data. Firing ship launches interceptor based on remote threat data. Remote unit continues to control...Unit Threat Local Unit 1 1 2 2 3 3 Remote unit provides FCQ threat data. Firing ship launches interceptor based on remote Local unit tasks local sensor to provide FCQ threat data for remainder of post- launch engagement cycle. Remote sensor data is used to

  5. MORS Workshop: How Cognitive and Behavioral Factors Influence Command and Control (United States)


    are teams formed? What team roles can be identified? How is team experience and trust developed? How is workload shared within a team? What processes...control - How do teams fit within existing organizational structures? • Teams vis-6-vis informal relationships . Team formation • Team roles . Developnrent...Synthe- only those media that have a positive teams formed? What team roles can be sis Group in identifying the key drivers and impact on individual

  6. IT Security Support for the Spaceport Command Control Systems Development Ground Support Development Operations (United States)

    Branch, Drew A.


    Security is one of the most if not the most important areas today. After the several attacks on the United States, security everywhere has heightened from airports to the communication among the military branches legionnaires. With advanced persistent threats (APT's) on the rise following Stuxnet, government branches and agencies are required, more than ever, to follow several standards, policies and procedures to reduce the likelihood of a breach. Attack vectors today are very advanced and are going to continue to get more and more advanced as security controls advance. This creates a need for networks and systems to be in an updated and secured state in a launch control system environment. FISMA is a law that is mandated by the government to follow when government agencies secure networks and devices. My role on this project is to ensure network devices and systems are in compliance with NIST, as outlined in FISMA. I will achieve this by providing assistance with security plan documentation and collection, system hardware and software inventory, malicious code and malware scanning, and configuration of network devices i.e. routers and IDS's/IPS's. In addition, I will be completing security assessments on software and hardware, vulnerability assessments and reporting, and conducting patch management and risk assessments. A guideline that will help with compliance with NIST is the SANS Top 20 Critical Controls. SANS Top 20 Critical Controls as well as numerous security tools, security software and the conduction of research will be used to successfully complete the tasks given to me. This will ensure compliance with FISMA and NIST, secure systems and a secured network. By the end of this project, I hope to have carried out the tasks stated above as well as gain an immense knowledge about compliance, security tools, networks and network devices, as well as policies and procedures.

  7. Modelling and control of a tokamak plasma; Modelisation et commande d`un plasma de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremond, S.


    Vertically elongated tokamak plasmas, while attractive as regards Lawson criteria, are intrinsically instable. It is found that the open-loop instability dynamics is characterised by the relative value of two dimensionless parameters: the coefficient of inductive coupling between the vessel and the coils, and the coil damping efficiency on the plasma displacement relative to that of the vessel. Applications to Tore Supra -where the instability is due to the iron core attraction- and DIII-D are given. A counter-effect of the vessel, which temporarily reverses the effect of coil control on the plasma displacement, is seen when the inductive coupling is higher than the damping ratio. Precise control of the plasma boundary is necessary if plasma-wall interaction and/or coupling to heating antennas are to be monitored. A positional drift, of a few mm/s, which had been observed in the Tore Supra tokamak, is explained and corrected. A linear plasma shape response model is then derived from magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium calculation, and proved to be in good agreement with experimental data. An optimal control law is derived, which minimizes an integral quadratic criteria on tracking errors and energy expenditure. This scheme avoids compensating coil currents, and could render local plasma shaping more precise. (authors). 123 refs., 77 figs., 6 tabs., 4 annexes.

  8. OCULUS fire: a command and control system for fire management with crowd sourcing and social media interconnectivity (United States)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Astyakopoulos, Alkiviadis; Dimitros, Kostantinos; Margonis, Christos; Thanos, Giorgos Konstantinos; Skroumpelou, Katerina


    AF3 (Advanced Forest Fire Fighting2) is a European FP7 research project that intends to improve the efficiency of current fire-fighting operations and the protection of human lives, the environment and property by developing innovative technologies to ensure the integration between existing and new systems. To reach this objective, the AF3 project focuses on innovative active and passive countermeasures, early detection and monitoring, integrated crisis management and advanced public information channels. OCULUS Fire is the innovative control and command system developed within AF3 as a monitoring, GIS and Knowledge Extraction System and Visualization Tool. OCULUS Fire includes (a) an interface for real-time updating and reconstructing of maps to enable rerouting based on estimated hazards and risks, (b) processing of GIS dynamic re-construction and mission re-routing, based on the fusion of airborne, satellite, ground and ancillary geolocation data, (c) visualization components for the C2 monitoring system, displaying and managing information arriving from a variety of sources and (d) mission and situational awareness module for OCULUS Fire ground monitoring system being part of an Integrated Crisis Management Information System for ground and ancillary sensors. OCULUS Fire will also process and visualise information from public information channels, social media and also mobile applications by helpful citizens and volunteers. Social networking, community building and crowdsourcing features will enable a higher reliability and less false alarm rates when using such data in the context of safety and security applications.

  9. Evolvable work-centred support systems for command and control: creating systems users can adapt to meet changing demands. (United States)

    Roth, E; Scott, R; Deutsch, S; Kuper, S; Schmidt, V; Stilson, M; Wampler, J


    Military command and control (C2) organizations are complex socio-technical systems which must constantly adapt to meet changing operational requirements. We describe our experiences in developing a work-centred support system (WCSS) to aid weather forecasting and monitoring in a military airlift C2 organization as an illustrative case. As part of the development process we conducted field observations both before and after introduction of the WCSS in their operations centre. A striking finding was the constant changes that operations personnel faced (changes in goals and priorities, changes in scale of operations, changes in team roles and structure, and changes in information sources and systems). We describe the changes in workplace demands that we observed and the modifications we needed to make to the WCSS in response. For today's fielded systems, it is seldom possible to make changes that are responsive to users' changing requirements in a timely manner. We argue for the need to incorporate facilities that enable users to adapt their systems to the changing requirements of work and point to some promising directions towards evolvable work-centred support systems.

  10. Commensal observing with the Allen Telescope array: software command and control

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; MacMahon, David; Williams, Peter K G; Harp, Gerald; Ackermann, Robert; Kilsdonk, Tom; Richards, Jon; Barott, William C; 10.1117/12.857860


    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a Large-Number-Small-Diameter radio telescope array currently with 42 individual antennas and 5 independent back-end science systems (2 imaging FX correlators and 3 time domain beam formers) located at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory (HCRO). The goal of the ATA is to run multiple back-ends simultaneously, supporting multiple science projects commensally. The primary software control systems are based on a combination of Java, JRuby and Ruby on Rails. The primary control API is simplified to provide easy integration with new back-end systems while the lower layers of the software stack are handled by a master observing system. Scheduling observations for the ATA is based on finding a union between the science needs of multiple projects and automatically determining an efficient path to operating the various sub-components to meet those needs. When completed, the ATA is expected to be a world-class radio telescope, combining dedicated SETI projects with numerous radio astronom...

  11. Command and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh


    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....

  12. Examining Cyber Command Structures (United States)


    C2 command and control CIA Central Intelligence Agency CMT cyber mission team CNA computer network attack CND computer network defense CNE...defense [ CND ]) all had roles in cyberspace. Unlike space, the functions of the disparate organizations (other than the NSA) were brought together...subsequent disestablishment also brought the CND mission to USCYBERCOM.71 In this dual-hatted setup, the USCYBERCOM and NSA head is responsible for both

  13. 无人作战平台指挥控制技术%Command and Control Technology for Unmanned Combat Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑜; 张文玉


    无人作战平台(UCV)包括无人机(UAV)、无人艇(USV)和无人潜器(群)(UUV)等,能够在危险复杂环境中执行情报监视与侦察、目标攻击、通信中继和电子干扰等任务。作为武器作战平台,其信息化作战水平相对较低。针对智能指挥控制,重点讨论了无人作战平台的指挥控制关键技术,采用了实用的自主行为建模新技术,提出了目标分配、自主行为决策控制等研究方法。最后指出当前的技术解决方案的局限性。%Unmanned combat vehicles (UCVs) include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), unmanned surface vehicles(USVs) and unmanned underwater vehicles(UUVs), etc. UCVs can be used to complete tasks of intelligence surveillance, target attack, communication relay, and electronic jamming in dangerous and complex environments. They cannot be used as combat vehicles in information operations. Intelligent command and control technologies for UCV are analyzed. Autonomous modeling techniques are used to solve problems of target assignment and autonomous decision control. Finally, methods and solutions are given.

  14. The association between BMI and mortality using offspring BMI as an indicator of own BMI: large intergenerational mortality study


    Davey Smith, George; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Fraser, Abigail; Tynelius, Per; Lawlor, Debbie A; Rasmussen, Finn


    Objectives To obtain valid estimates of the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality by using offspring BMI as an instrumental variable for own BMI. Design Cohort study based on record linkage, with 50 years of follow-up for mortality. Associations of offspring BMI with all cause and cause specific maternal and paternal mortality were estimated as hazard ratios per standard deviation of offspring BMI. Setting A large intergenerational prospective population based database cover...

  15. A comparative assessment of economic-incentive and command-and-control instruments for air pollution and CO2 control in China's iron and steel sector. (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Mao, Xianqiang; Tu, Jianjun; Jaccard, Mark


    China's iron and steel sector is faced with increasing pressure to control both local air pollutants and CO2 simultaneously. Additional policy instruments are needed to co-control these emissions in this sector. This study quantitatively evaluates and compares two categories of emission reduction instruments, namely the economic-incentive (EI) instrument of a carbon tax, and the command-and-control (CAC) instrument of mandatory application of end-of-pipe emission control measures for CO2, SO2 and NOx. The comparative evaluation tool is an integrated assessment model, which combines a top-down computable general equilibrium sub-model and a bottom-up technology-based sub-model through a soft-linkage. The simulation results indicate that the carbon tax can co-control multiple pollutants, but the emission reduction rates are limited under the tax rates examined in this study. In comparison, the CAC instruments are found to have excellent effects on controlling different pollutants separately, but not jointly. Such results indicate that no single EI or CAC instrument is overwhelmingly superior. The environmental and economic effectiveness of an instrument highly depends on its specific attributes, and cannot be predicted by the general policy category. These findings highlight the necessity of clearer identification of policy target priorities, and detail-oriented and integrated policy-making among different governmental departments.

  16. Existence conditions of optimal trajectories in dynamic control processes; Conditions d'existence de trajectoires optimales des processus dynamiques commandes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnemay-Juricek, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The existence of solutions in the optimal control problems with free endpoints is studied in this report and existence conditions are established without the usual assumption that the control region is convex. Furthermore the results, in order to be of some utility in physical applications, are expressed only by means of conditions on the parameters defining the system. (author) [French] Ce rapport etudie l'existence de solutions optimales dans les problemes de commande ou le point terminal est libre et ou la duree de l'evolution du systeme a optimiser est connue. Des conditions d'existence y sont formulees sans recourir a l'hypothese usuelle de convexite du domaine des valeurs des commandes. De plus on a cherche a rendre utilisables les resultats en ne faisant porter les conditions que sur les parametres directement accessibles du systeme. (auteur)

  17. Microbiota conservation and BMI signatures in adult monozygotic twins. (United States)

    Tims, Sebastian; Derom, Catherine; Jonkers, Daisy M; Vlietinck, Robert; Saris, Wim H; Kleerebezem, Michiel; de Vos, Willem M; Zoetendal, Erwin G


    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota acts like a virtual organ and is suggested to be of great importance in human energy balance and weight control. This study included 40 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs to investigate the influence of the human genotype on GI microbiota structure as well as microbial signatures for differences in body mass index (BMI). Phylogenetic microarraying based on 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that MZ twins have more similar microbiotas compared with unrelated subjects (Ptwins. Half of the twin pairs were selected on discordance in terms of BMI, which revealed an inverse correlation between Clostridium cluster IV diversity and BMI. Furthermore, relatives of Eubacterium ventriosum and Roseburia intestinalis were positively correlated to BMI differences, and relatives of Oscillospira guillermondii were negatively correlated to BMI differences. Lower BMI was associated with a more abundant network of primary fiber degraders, while a network of butyrate producers was more prominent in subjects with higher BMI. Combined with higher butyrate and valerate contents in the fecal matter of higher BMI subjects, the difference in microbial networks suggests a shift in fermentation patterns at the end of the colon, which could affect human energy homeostasis.

  18. Command Process Modeling & Risk Analysis (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila


    Commanding Errors may be caused by a variety of root causes. It's important to understand the relative significance of each of these causes for making institutional investment decisions. One of these causes is the lack of standardized processes and procedures for command and control. We mitigate this problem by building periodic tables and models corresponding to key functions within it. These models include simulation analysis and probabilistic risk assessment models.

  19. Performance comparison of relational and native-xml databases using the semantics of the land command and control information exchange data model (LC2IEDM)


    Dieter, Jahn


    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Efforts to improve the military decision and action cycle have centered on automating the command and control process and improving interoperability among joint and coalition forces. However, information automation by itself can lead to increased operator overload when the way this information is stored and presented is not structured and consistently filtered. The majority of messaging systems store information in a document-centric free...

  20. Understanding Command and Control (United States)


    US), Mr. Graham Cook- man (UK), Mr. Natalino Dazzi (IT), Dr. Lorraine Dodd (UK), Ms. Petra Eggen- hofer (GE), Mr. Geir Enemo (NO), Mr. Fernando Freire ...Daniel Maxwell (US), Dr. James Moffat (UK), Mr. Allen Murashige (US), Mr. Klaus Niemeyer (GE), Mr. Arne Norlander (SE), Maj. Paulo Nunes (PO), Dr. Paul

  1. Analysis of Shipborne Command and Control System Development%舰艇指挥控制系统的发展方向分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    总结了舰艇指控系统的发展历程,重点介绍了指控系统体系结构发展的四个阶段;分析了西方主要国家的先进舰艇指挥控制系统的体系架构、装备组成和系统功能等方面的技术特点,并研究了舰艇指控系统未来发展的趋势;最后提出了舰艇指控系统应在一体化跨平台体系、全维战场态势感知、智能指挥决策支持和自然人机交互几方面重点发展建议。%The development history of the shipborne command and control (C2) system is summarized .Four develop-ment stages of the system architecture are emphatically introduced .The structure ,compasition and function of the advanced shipborne command and control systems of the western countries are analysed .The future development trend of shipborne command and control system is also researched .Then it is adviced that the integrative system of multi-platform ,comprehen-sive situation awareness ,intelligentized combat decision support natural man-machine interaction need to be enhanced .

  2. Simulation-Based Assessment of Automated Command, Control, and Communication Capabilities for Armor Crews and Platoons: The Intervehicular Information System (United States)


    evaluation and C3 performance measures for IVIS-equipped commanders ....... ................. .. 96 xii CONTENTS (Continued) Page Table 30. POSNAV...standard deviations were nearly half their mean value. 49 Tabla 7 Soldier Measures by Test Condition: Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) Soldier

  3. The Adjustment of AD Speed Command Range of Motor Controller%电机控制器的AD速度指令范围调整

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松松; 卢刚; 李声晋; 周勇


    The data communication between host computer and brushless DC motor controller base on TMS320F28335 were researched and achieved, and the adjustment of AD speed command range was realized. The PC monitoring platform was programmed by the CVI8.5 language. The adjustment procedures of AD speed command rang was written by the C language , which was correspond to the PC monitoring platform. The experimental results validated the data communication between host computer and motor controller, and the adjustment of AD speed command range.%研究实现了基于TMS320F28335控制的无刷直流电动机控制器与上位机之间的数据通讯,并在此基础上实现了AD速度指令范围调整功能.用CV18.5编写了上位机监控平台,C语言编写了与之对应的AD速度指令范围调整程序,实验结果验证了上位机与电机控制器之间的数据通讯和AD速度指令范围调整功能.

  4. Wheel slide protection control using a command map and Smith predictor for the pneumatic brake system of a railway vehicle (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Kang, Chul-Goo


    In railway vehicles, excessive sliding or wheel locking can occur while braking because of a temporarily degraded adhesion between the wheel and the rail caused by the contaminated or wet surface of the rail. It can damage the wheel tread and affect the performance of the brake system and the safety of the railway vehicle. To safeguard the wheelset from these phenomena, almost all railway vehicles are equipped with wheel slide protection (WSP) systems. In this study, a new WSP algorithm is proposed. The features of the proposed algorithm are the use of the target sliding speed, the determination of a command for WSP valves using command maps, and compensation for the time delay in pneumatic brake systems using the Smith predictor. The proposed WSP algorithm was verified using experiments with a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system including the hardware of the pneumatic brake system.

  5. Replacement of the instrumentation and control system of Tore Supra; Remplacement du systeme de controle commande de Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P.


    The control system of the Tore-Supra is a wide and complex system that cannot be interrupted while running without significant consequences on the operating of the machine. Replacing the current system cannot be achieved in a global way without immobilisation and high costs. Therefore partial changes have been decided on. This work presents the detailed analysis of the arrangements and the operating of the system that will be replaced: the pro`s and con`s that have appeared through experience are related. The possibilities that the new apparatus offers are also examined. A method of step by step replacements had to be set up in order to assess the means, funds, term of achievement, performance and quality of the overall project. (TEC). 15 refs., 29 figs.

  6. 无人反潜系统自主指挥控制研究%S tudy on Autonomous Command and Control of Unmanned Anti Submarine System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张起; 苏金涛


    无人反潜系统的指挥控制问题是关系其具备实际作战能力的主要问题之一。论文在分析无人反潜系统指控原理和其自主指控水平分级的基础上,采用可变自主控制结构,研究了无人反潜系统分级可变自主指控实现的方法。该方法可赋予无人反潜系统可变的指挥控制自主性,使其在工作环境中能够实时评估自身的自主能力,并主动引入人工干预。这种具备人机智能融合特性的自主指挥控制方法更适应无人反潜系统在复杂战场环境中实战化的需求。%It is a challenge to the command and control of Unmanned Anti Submarine System(UASS) which determines its actual combat capability .The autonomous command and control method which is hierarchical and adjustable is developed based on the autonomous command and control levels and the adjustable control framework .It makes the UASS momentarily evaluate its autonomous abilities and initiatively request assistance from humans which realizes man‐machine intelligence inte‐gration ,and no more adapts the actual combat demand of UASS in complex battlefield .

  7. Internal models for interpreting neural population activity during sensorimotor control. (United States)

    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Chase, Steven M


    To successfully guide limb movements, the brain takes in sensory information about the limb, internally tracks the state of the limb, and produces appropriate motor commands. It is widely believed that this process uses an internal model, which describes our prior beliefs about how the limb responds to motor commands. Here, we leveraged a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus monkeys and novel statistical analyses of neural population activity to gain insight into moment-by-moment internal model computations. We discovered that a mismatch between subjects' internal models and the actual BMI explains roughly 65% of movement errors, as well as long-standing deficiencies in BMI speed control. We then used the internal models to characterize how the neural population activity changes during BMI learning. More broadly, this work provides an approach for interpreting neural population activity in the context of how prior beliefs guide the transformation of sensory input to motor output.

  8. Marriage, BMI, and wages: a double selection approach. (United States)

    Brown, Heather


    Obesity rates have been rising over the past decade. As more people become obese, the social stigma of obesity may be reduced. Marriage has typically been used as a positive signal to employers. If obese individuals possess other characteristics that are valued in the labour market they may no longer face a wage penalty for their physical appearance. This paper investigates the relationship between marital status, body mass index (BMI), and wages by estimating a double selection model that controls for selection into the labour and marriage markets using waves 14 and 16 (2004 and 2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. Results suggest that unobserved characteristics related to marriage and labour market participation are causing an upward bias on the BMI coefficients. The BMI coefficient is positive and significant for married men only in the double selection model. The findings provide evidence that unobserved characteristics related to success in the marriage and labour market may influence the relationship between BMI and wages.

  9. Usability Engineering Life Cycle Model of Command and Control Software%指控软件可用性工程生命周期模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建明; 王洪艳; 宣亚克


    针对当前装甲指控软件的应用现状和存在的问题,运用可用性工程理论和方法,提出了指控软件的可用性工程生命周期模型,该模型包括可用性需求分析、模型构建、可用性设计、可用性测试与评估、安装部署与使用体验、用户反馈等过程.通过与一般软件测试的比较,强调可用性测试实验环境的作用.该模型突出用户的作用,重视用户反馈,可为指控软件的设计和开发提供理论指导.%According to the application situation and questions of the command and control software, usability engineering life cycle model of the command and control software is proposed by using usability theories and methods. This model includes six steps: a)usability requirement analysis, b)model conduction, c)usability design, d)sability testing and evaluation, e)installation deployment and user experience, f)user feedback. Comparing with general software testing method, usability testing experiment environment must be set up so as to acquire valid data. This model emphasizes the important role of users involvement. It is useful for designers to develop the command and control software.

  10. Applicability of Existing C3 (Command, Control and Communications) Vulnerability and Hardness Analyses to Sentry System Issues. (United States)


    R. C. Anderson, H. G. Horak, E. M. Jones, J. W. Kodin, M. T. Sanfrod, C. D. Sutherland, and J. Zinn , "Near Surface Phenomenology" Los Alamos. Two...34 "". ""’ "- - ’.° " • • " ’ " i .’ -’" i". -: i" - .".". ’ ŕ" "." i’."."-" .- •.".1 - ’ ’ - - -- " i - ]-" ’ L,- 9. 136. Howard Frank, "Survivability Analysis of Command

  11. BCS-18A command decoder-selector (United States)

    Laping, H.


    This report describes an 18-channel command decoder-selector which operates in conjunction with an HF command receiver to allow secure and reliable radio control of high altitude balloon payloads. A detailed technical description and test results are also included.

  12. 拮抗细菌BMY-1菌株对几种水果储藏病原真菌的抑制作用%Inhibition of Antagonistic Bacterium BMY-1 on Fungal Pathogens of Some Postharvest Fruits and Controls on Fruit Rots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    暴增海; 李一; 曹冬阳


    采用平板对峙培养法测定从土壤中分离获得的拮抗细菌BMY-1菌株对柑桔绿霉病菌(Penicillium digatatum)、柑桔青霉病菌(Penicillium italicum)、苹果炭疽病菌(Glomerella cingulata)、苹果轮纹病菌(Physalospora piricola)、梨扩展青霉病菌(Penicillium expansum)、葡萄白腐病菌(Coniothyrium dlodiella)等6种水果产后病原真菌的抑制作用.结果表明,BMY-1菌株对苹果炭疽病菌(G.cingulata)和梨扩展青霉菌(P.expansum)的生长有较好的作用,抑菌率分别达48.43%和50.37%.采用液体共培养法观察到BMY-1菌株对病原真菌的菌丝有破坏作用,使苹果炭疽病菌菌丝扭曲和断裂,葡萄白腐病菌菌丝膨大畸形.对几种水果同时接种拮抗细菌BMY-1和病原真菌,BMY-1菌株对苹果炭疽病病斑和梨扩青病病斑扩展有较强的抑制作用,并能有效延迟葡萄白腐病发病时间.

  13. Genetic Sensitivity to the Bitter Taste of 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP and Its Association with Physiological Mechanisms Controlling Body Mass Index (BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly J. Tepper


    Full Text Available Taste sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP is considered a marker for individual differences in taste perception that may influence food preferences and eating behavior, and thereby energy metabolism. This review describes genetic factors that may contribute to PROP sensitivity including: (1 the variants of the TAS2R38 bitter receptor with their different affinities for the stimulus; (2 the gene that controls the gustin protein that acts as a salivary trophic factor for fungiform taste papillae; and (3 other specific salivary proteins that could be involved in facilitating the binding of the PROP molecule with its receptor. In addition, we speculate on the influence of taste sensitivity on energy metabolism, possibly via modulation of the endocannabinoid system, and its possible role in regulating body composition homeostasis.

  14. Model-based system-of-systems engineering for space-based command, control, communication, and information architecture design (United States)

    Sindiy, Oleg V.

    executing multi-purpose analysis studies is presented. These efforts are coupled to the generation of aggregate and time-dependent solution performance metrics via the hierarchical decomposition of objectives and the analytical recomposition of multi-attribute qualitative program drivers from quantifiable measures. This methodology was also applied to generate problem-specific solution structure evaluation metrics that facilitate the comparison of alternate solutions at a high level of aggregation, at lower levels of abstraction, and to relate options for design variables with associated performance values. For proof-of-capability demonstration, the selected application problem concerns the design of command, control, communication, and information (C3I) architecture services for a notional campaign of crewed and robotic lunar surface missions. The impetus for the work was the demonstration of using model-based SoSE for design of sustainable interoperability capabilities between all data and communication assets in extended lunar campaigns. A comprehensive Lunar C3I simulation tool was developed by a team of researchers at Purdue University in support of NASA's Constellation Program; the author of this dissertation was a key contributor to the creation of this tool and made modifications and extensions to key components relevant to the methodological concepts presented in this dissertation. The dissertation concludes with a presentation of example results based on the interrogation of the constructed Lunar C3I computational model. The results are based on a family of studies, structured around a trade-tree of architecture options, which were conducted to test the hypothesis that the SoSE approach is efficacious in the information-exchange architecture design in space exploration domain. Included in the family of proof-of-capability studies is a simulation of the Apollo 17 mission, which allows not only for partial verification and validation of the model, but also provides

  15. Remote Task-level Commanding of Centaur over Time Delay (United States)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Ngo, Tam; Burridge, Robert; Wang, Lui; Izygon, Michel


    Remote operation of robots on the lunar surface by ground controllers poses unique human-robot interaction challenges due to time delay and constrained bandwidth. One strategy for addressing these challenges is to provide task-level commanding of robots by a ground controller. Decision-support tools are being developed at JSC for remote task-level commanding over time-delay. The approach is to provide ground procedures that guide a controller when executing task-level command sequences and aid awareness of the state of command execution in the robot. This approach is being evaluated using the Centaur robot at JSC. The Centaur Central Commander provides a task-level command interface that executes on the robot side of the delay. Decision support tools have been developed for a human Supervisor in the JSC Cockpit to use when interacting with the Centaur Central Commander. Commands to the Central Commander are defined as instructions in a procedure. Sequences of these instructions are grouped into procedures for the Cockpit Supervisor. When a Supervisor is ready to perform a task, a procedure is loaded into the decision support tool. From this tool, the Supervisor can view command sequences and dispatch individual commands to Centaur. Commands are queued for execution on the robot side of the delay. Reliable command sequences can be dispatched automatically upon approval by the Supervisor. The decision support tool provides the Supervisor with feedback about which commands are waiting for execution and which commands have finished. It also informs the Supervisor when a command fails to have its intended effect. Cockpit procedures are defined using the Procedure Representation Language (PRL) developed at JSC for mission operations. The decision support tool is based on a Procedure Sequencer and multi-agent software developed for human-robot interaction. In this paper the approach for remote task-level commanding of robots is described and the results of the evaluation

  16. Sex-differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K; Willemsen, G; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm


    to be mainly due to environmental changes, i.e., sedentary lifestyles and high caloric diets, consistent evidence from twin studies demonstrates high heritability and the importance of genetic differences for normal variation in BMI. We analysed self-reported data on BMI from approximately 37,000 complete twin...

  17. Adaptive architecture for command and control (A2C2) Experiment 11 determining an effective ISR management structure at the operational level of conflict


    Stockton, Daniel W.


    This thesis on Experiment 11 concentrates on two conditions of the main independent variable: the position of the ISR Officer. Analysis compares different performance variables under the two ISR role structures. Condition I is comprised of an ISR Coordinator (ISR Coord), a Sea Combat Commander (SCC) and a Marine Expeditionary Unit Commander (MEU). Condition II is comprised of an ISR Commander (ISR Cdr), an SCC and a MEU. Both ISR Officer conditions are examined in a HA/DR scenario. The a...

  18. Survivability enhancement study for C/sup 3/I/BM (communications, command, control and intelligence/battle management) ground segments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This study involves a concept developed by the Fairchild Space Company which is directly applicable to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Program as well as other national security programs requiring reliable, secure and survivable telecommunications systems. The overall objective of this study program was to determine the feasibility of combining and integrating long-lived, compact, autonomous isotope power sources with fiber optic and other types of ground segments of the SDI communications, command, control and intelligence/battle management (C/sup 3/I/BM) system in order to significantly enhance the survivability of those critical systems, especially against the potential threats of electromagnetic pulse(s) (EMP) resulting from high altitude nuclear weapon explosion(s). 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. A Survey on Adaptive Command and Control Organizational Design%适应性指挥控制组织设计与研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万路军; 姚佩阳; 梁霄


    近年来,适应性指挥控制组织设计已经成为指挥控制领域的研究热点之一.分析了指挥控制组织设计的理论和方法,包括计算数学组织理论、Agent组织模型、Petri网、系统工程技术等,归纳总结相关技术的各自优势和不足之处.特别针对适应性和鲁棒性分析、组织测试、组织结构和任务计划识别3个指挥组织设计研究的新动向进行了细致阐述,指出了各研究领域方向的发展趋势,对开展指挥控制组织设计研究具有一定的指导意义.%The adaptive Command and Control (C2) organizational design becomes one of the hotspots in recent years. The theory and method of C2 organizational design was analyzed, including computational mathematics organization theory, agent organizational model, petri net, and system engineering technology. The advantages and shortages of each technology were summarized. The three new research orientations in organizational design were expatiated, including adaptability and robustness analysis, organizational test, organizational structure and mission plan identification. The further development tendency on each research orientation was discussed. It is meaningful to the investigation of command and control organizational design for the future.

  20. State Constrained Optimal Control Applied to Supervisory Control in HEVs Commande optimale avec restrictions d’états appliquée à la supervision de l’énergie de véhicules hybrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez L.V.


    Full Text Available The optimization of the supervisory control of hybrid electric vehicles over predetermined driving cycles has been used as a previous study for determining on-line strategies and also for design and sizing purposes. This problem may be posed as an optimal control problem, in which the energy in the bank of batteries is often the state variable, and the power from any of the system sources is, the control action. As both of these quantities are bounded, the optimal control problem has control constraints or state constraints or both. Usually, the charge-sustaining mode of operation is ensured just by imposing a transversality condition, i.e. a fixed final energy, or including an additional term in the cost functional that penalizes the moving away of the state variable from the nominal value. We considered the problem where the state is allowed to move freely within a band. This led to an optimal control problem with control and state constraints. In this work we describe the difficulties that arise while solving the equations given by the Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle and how these difficulties can be overcome by using the so-called Direct Transcription approach that consists of a programming tool to solve the resultant large-scale finite dimensional optimization problem. L’optimisation de la commande au niveau superviseur de véhicules hybrides sur cycles d’usage prédéterminés a été utilisée comme une première étude pour déterminer des stratégies en ligne mais aussi avec des objectifs de conception et dimensionnement. Ce problème peut être posé comme un problème de commande optimale, où l’énergie dans les batteries est généralement la variable d’état et où la puissance de n’importe quelle source du système est l’action de commande. Comme ces deux quantités sont bornées, le problème de commande optimale a des restrictions sur la fonction de commande et sur l’état. Généralement, le fonctionnement

  1. Synthesis of the IRSN report on the control-command architecture of the Flamanville 3 EPR reactor and the associated platforms; Synthese du rapport de l'IRSN portant sur l'architecture du controle commande du reacteur EPR de Flamanville 3 et les plateformes associees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document briefly reports the IRSN's comments on the robustness of the control-command architecture of the Flamanville 3 EPR (European pressurized reactor), that is of the equipment which, to various extent, contribute to the installation safety. This report identifies the equipment the robustness of which should be improved, outlines the problems created by the complexity of computerized systems. Notably, the authors comment the ability of the off-the-shelf computer platforms acquired by EDF to deal with the nuclear context.

  2. Rapid control and feedback rates enhance neuroprosthetic control (United States)

    Shanechi, Maryam M.; Orsborn, Amy L.; Moorman, Helene G.; Gowda, Suraj; Dangi, Siddharth; Carmena, Jose M.


    Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) create novel sensorimotor pathways for action. Much as the sensorimotor apparatus shapes natural motor control, the BMI pathway characteristics may also influence neuroprosthetic control. Here, we explore the influence of control and feedback rates, where control rate indicates how often motor commands are sent from the brain to the prosthetic, and feedback rate indicates how often visual feedback of the prosthetic is provided to the subject. We developed a new BMI that allows arbitrarily fast control and feedback rates, and used it to dissociate the effects of each rate in two monkeys. Increasing the control rate significantly improved control even when feedback rate was unchanged. Increasing the feedback rate further facilitated control. We also show that our high-rate BMI significantly outperformed state-of-the-art methods due to higher control and feedback rates, combined with a different point process mathematical encoding model. Our BMI paradigm can dissect the contribution of different elements in the sensorimotor pathway, providing a unique tool for studying neuroprosthetic control mechanisms.

  3. BMI, a performance parameter for speed improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Sedeaud

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996-2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r = 0.71 and BMI (r = 0.71 in world-class runners and moderately with height (r = 0.39. Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. « Lighter and smaller is better » in endurance events but « heavier and taller is better » for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distance-specific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique. BMI is a relevant indicator, which allows for a clear differentiation of athletes' capacities between each discipline and level of performance in the fields of human possibilities.

  4. BMI, a performance parameter for speed improvement. (United States)

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Marck, Adrien; Dor, Frédéric; Schipman, Julien; Dorsey, Maya; Haida, Amal; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI) as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996-2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r = 0.71) and BMI (r = 0.71) in world-class runners and moderately with height (r = 0.39). Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. « Lighter and smaller is better » in endurance events but « heavier and taller is better » for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distance-specific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique. BMI is a relevant indicator, which allows for a clear differentiation of athletes' capacities between each discipline and level of performance in the fields of human possibilities.

  5. On Preparing for Squadron Command (United States)


    Requirements 5. NCO Professional Military Education (PNE) Program 6. SOS Selection Procedures and Criteria 7. Officer PFE 3. Decorations Progrars 9... Audit Program 42, Commander’s Management System (CXS) 43. Economic Analysis (EA) Charter 44. Internal Control Review Program 45. Management Assistance...Comptroller I, Overview of Financial Structure 2. Your Role as a Financial Manager 3. Audit Focal Point 4. Military Pay 5. Per Diem and Travel

  6. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L


    with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men...... concentration did not differ significantly across BMI categories. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI categories and risk of oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Compared with men of normal weight, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for oligozoospermia or azoospermia was 1.15 (0...

  7. 基于IEEE1149.7的TAP控制器命令研究%Commands of TAP controller based on IEEE1149.7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江坤; 高俊强


    随着待测芯片的集成度越来越高,IEEE 1149.1标准已很难满足芯片设计对测试与调试的要求.IEEE1149.7标准在保持与IEEE1149.1兼容的基础上增加了新功能,提供了一种全新的双引脚测试与调试方法.目前对IEEE1149.7的研究处于起步阶段,所以研究支持其的控制器命令对今后的发展具有重要的意义.本文在深入研究IEEE 1149.7标准的基础上,利用Quartus Ⅱ开发平台设计了基于TAP控制器命令的测试控制器,并进行了仿真验证.结果表明产生的命令测试信号符合IEEE 1149.7标准对TAP控制器命令的规定.%With the increasing integration of test chip,IEEE 1149.1 has been difficult to meet the requirements of the chip testing and designing.Being compatible with IEEE 1149.1,IEEE 1149.7 provides a new two-pin test and debug methods.Because IEEE 1149.7 is still in the initial stage,to study its commands of controller is of great significance on the future development of IEEE 1149.7.This paper is based on the deep study of IEEE 1149.7 standard,to design a test controller based on the commands of TAP controller by using QuartusⅡ platform and perform simulation verification.The result shows that the test signal generated by the controller can meet the requirements of IEEE 1149.7.

  8. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) (United States)

    ... using three key measures: body mass index (BMI) waist circumference, and risk factors for diseases and conditions associated with obesity. Waist Circumference Determine your waist circumference by placing a measuring ...

  9. Bmi-1 absence causes premature brain degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangliang Cao

    Full Text Available Bmi-1, a polycomb transcriptional repressor, is implicated in cell cycle regulation and cell senescence. Its absence results in generalized astrogliosis and epilepsy during the postnatal development, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of four-week-old Bmi-1 null mice. The mice showed various hallmarks of neurodegeneration including synaptic loss, axonal demyelination, reactive gliosis and brain mitochondrial damage. Moreover, astroglial glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase decreased in the Bmi-1 null hippocampus, which might contribute to the sporadic epileptic-like seizures in these mice. These results indicate that Bmi-1 is required for maintaining endogenous antioxidant defenses in the brain, and its absence subsequently causes premature brain degeneration.

  10. For an offshore construction: a digital control orbital system; Pour une construction offshore, un systeme orbital a commande numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    To carry out in offshore conditions, a pipeline in South-East Asia, the Korean Hyundai has retained an orbital welding system running with several pairs of torches perfectly synchronized with their digital control. (O.M.)

  11. Equipment, Organization and Command and Control Relationships of Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Support to the Heavy Division, (United States)


    standard tactical mission given to the ESM and ECM as- sets of the division, the MI battalion Technical Control and Analysis Element ( TCAE ) performs all...and ESM assets within the division and assets that are supporting the division. Doctrinally the TCAE orchestrates the IEW system at division level by...totally dependent on the mission management and technical control exercised by the TCAE . It is this centralized management which most drives the

  12. Research on Security Control of Info-Net for Command Information System%指挥信息系统信息网络安全控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金朝; 杨文; 李英华; 梁良


    针对指挥信息系统日益凸显的信息网络安全问题,分析了指挥信息系统结构模型及面临的安全威胁,在此基础上运用网络控制论的原理和方法,建立了指挥信息系统安全控制的基本框架和技术体系,明确了信息网络安全控制的核心内容和技术措施,并举例分析了信息网络安全控制系统的体系结构及组成功能,为有效保障指挥信息系统信息网络安全提供了新的途径和方法。%Focus on the security of Info-Net for command information system of our army,this paper analyses the configuration and the current safety threaten of command information system,use the theory and method of Network Cybernetics to establish basic framework and technology architecture of security control for command information system,defines the kernel and measures of security control, illustrates the architecture framework and function of security control system. It provides a new method to effectively protect the security of Info-Net for command information system.

  13. Operation safety of control systems. Principles and methods; Surete de fonctionnement des systemes de commande. Principes et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, J.F. [Institut National Polytechnique, 54 - Nancy (France); Chatelet, E. [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 10 (France)


    This article presents the main operation safety methods that can be implemented to design safe control systems taking into account the behaviour of the different components with each other (binary 'operation/failure' behaviours, non-consistent behaviours and 'hidden' failures, dynamical behaviours and temporal aspects etc). To take into account these different behaviours, advanced qualitative and quantitative methods have to be used which are described in this article: 1 - qualitative methods of analysis: functional analysis, preliminary risk analysis, failure mode and failure effects analyses; 2 - quantitative study of systems operation safety: binary representation models, state space-based methods, event space-based methods; 3 - application to the design of control systems: safe specifications of a control system, qualitative analysis of operation safety, quantitative analysis, example of application; 4 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  14. Command and Control Modes for Attack of Time-Sensitive Targets%时间敏感目标打击指挥控制模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    端木竹筠; 闫晶晶


    An attack chain model of time-sensitive target based on several decision variables and constrains is developed. Three command and control modes for the attack of time-sensitive targets, including decider-led mode, sensor-led mode and shooter-led mode are discussed based on optimization of the attack chain model. Then, the battle condition and factors affecting the efficiency for each mode are analyzed.%通过引入决策变量和约束条件对时间敏感目标(简称时敏目标)打击链进行了模型描述,并根据模型的优化问题引入了时敏目标打击的指挥控制模式,包括决策者主导模式、传感器主导模式以及射手主导模式,分析了每种模式适合的作战情形以及作战效能的影响因素。

  15. Extraction of neural control commands using myoelectric pattern recognition: a novel application in adults with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Li, Xiaoyan; Marciniak, Christina; Rymer, William Zev; Zhou, Ping


    This study investigates an electromyogram (EMG)-based neural interface toward hand rehabilitation for patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Forty-eight channels of surface EMG signals were recorded from the forearm of eight adult subjects with CP, while they tried to perform six different hand grasp patterns. A series of myoelectric pattern recognition analyses were performed to identify the movement intention of each subject with different EMG feature sets and classifiers. Our results indicate that across all subjects high accuracies (average overall classification accuracy > 98%) can be achieved in classification of six different hand movements, suggesting that there is substantial motor control information contained in paretic muscles of the CP subjects. Furthermore, with a feature selection analysis, it was found that a small number of ranked EMG features can maintain high classification accuracies comparable to those obtained using all the EMG features (average overall classification accuracy > 96% with 16 selected EMG features). The findings of the study suggest that myoelectric pattern recognition may be a useful control strategy for promoting hand rehabilitation in CP patients.

  16. Free Surface Command Layer for Photoswitchable Out-of-Plane Alignment Control in Liquid Crystalline Polymer Films. (United States)

    Nakai, Takashi; Tanaka, Daisuke; Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Seki, Takahiro


    To date, reversible alignment controls of liquid crystalline materials have widely been achieved by photoreactive layers on solid substrates. In contrast, this work demonstrates the reversible out-of-plane photocontrols of liquid crystalline polymer films by using a photoresponsive skin layer existing at the free surface. A polymethacrylate containing a cyanobiphenyl side-chain mesogen adopts the planar orientation. Upon blending a small amount of azobenzene-containing side-chain polymer followed by successive annealing, segregation of the azobenzene polymer at the free surface occurs and induces a planar to homeotropic orientation transition of cyanobiphenyl mesogens underneath. By irradiation with UV light, the mesogen orientation turns into the planar orientation. The orientation reverts to the homeotropic state upon visible light irradiation or thermally, and such cyclic processes can be repeated many times. On the basis of this principle, erasable optical patterning is performed by irradiating UV light through a photomask.

  17. Robot Task Commander with Extensible Programming Environment (United States)

    Hart, Stephen W (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Wightman, Brian J (Inventor); Dinh, Duy Paul (Inventor); Gooding, Dustin R (Inventor)


    A system for developing distributed robot application-level software includes a robot having an associated control module which controls motion of the robot in response to a commanded task, and a robot task commander (RTC) in networked communication with the control module over a network transport layer (NTL). The RTC includes a script engine(s) and a GUI, with a processor and a centralized library of library blocks constructed from an interpretive computer programming code and having input and output connections. The GUI provides access to a Visual Programming Language (VPL) environment and a text editor. In executing a method, the VPL is opened, a task for the robot is built from the code library blocks, and data is assigned to input and output connections identifying input and output data for each block. A task sequence(s) is sent to the control module(s) over the NTL to command execution of the task.



    Norm Clothier, MD, M. Kim Marvel, PhD, Courtney S. Cruickshank, MS


    Purpose: Despite the associated health consequences, obesity is infrequently documented as a problem in medical charts. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a simple intervention (routine listing of the BMI on the medical chart) will increase physician documentation of obesity in the medical record. Methods: Participants were resident physicians in a family medicine residency program. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. For expe...

  19. Does Presenting Patients BMI Increase Documentation of Obesity?


    Clothier, Norm; Marvel, M. Kim; Cruickshank, Courtney S.


    Purpose: Despite the associated health consequences, obesity is infrequently docu-mented as a problem in medical charts. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a simple intervention (routine listing of the BMI on the medical chart) will increase physician documenta-tion of obesity in the medical record. Methods: Participants were resident physicians in a family medicine residency program. Partici-pants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. For ...

  20. Bmi1 confers resistance to oxidative stress on hematopoietic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nakamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The polycomb-group (PcG proteins function as general regulators of stem cells. We previously reported that retrovirus-mediated overexpression of Bmi1, a gene encoding a core component of polycomb repressive complex (PRC 1, maintained self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs during long-term culture. However, the effects of overexpression of Bmi1 on HSCs in vivo remained to be precisely addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we generated a mouse line where Bmi1 can be conditionally overexpressed under the control of the endogenous Rosa26 promoter in a hematopoietic cell-specific fashion (Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FLBmi1. Although overexpression of Bmi1 did not significantly affect steady state hematopoiesis, it promoted expansion of functional HSCs during ex vivo culture and efficiently protected HSCs against loss of self-renewal capacity during serial transplantation. Overexpression of Bmi1 had no effect on DNA damage response triggered by ionizing radiation. In contrast, Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FLBmi1 HSCs under oxidative stress maintained a multipotent state and generally tolerated oxidative stress better than the control. Unexpectedly, overexpression of Bmi1 had no impact on the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of Bmi1 confers resistance to stresses, particularly oxidative stress, onto HSCs. This thereby enhances their regenerative capacity and suggests that Bmi1 is located downstream of ROS signaling and negatively regulated by it.

  1. An agent-based approach to decluttering the interfaces of multi-UAV command and control systems (United States)

    O'Hara, Stephen; Dwyer, Nathan


    Information overload and cluttered user interfaces can lead to decreased situational awareness and lowered performance of human operators. Irrelevant data increases searching times for tasks requiring the identification of threats, causing delayed decisions. Cognitive burden on the user increases as displays become more cluttered, which results in increased operator stress leading to poor decision-making ability. To address this issue, we have designed an intelligent agentbased system for the automatic de-cluttering of a representative net-centric interface designed for controlling multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) by a single operator. Our concept is called ARID, for Agent-based Reduction of Information Density. The ARID hypothesis is that intelligent agents can improve operator performance by deemphasizing those aspects of a display that can be inferred as less-important to the mission goals. ARID agents receive information about the world via data feeds provided by various net-centric sources. Each agent has an understanding of the user interface symbols that are used to represent various entities, terrain features, and zones. The agent also is provided with a mission goal which is used for inferring the relevance of a given symbol to the success of the mission goal. First level facts, such as spatial relationships, are calculated by supporting agents and assigned a BDU (belief/disbelief/uncertainty) value. A dynamic set of rules provides an inference mechanism by which an agent can infer new facts from the given assertions. We have developed a Subjective Logic-based Evidential Reasoning Network that explicitly deals with belief and uncertainty in the knowledge base, and is used to derive a relevancy belief for every UI symbol in the map display. Subjective Logic is used to combine values when different sources provide different results for the same symbol. User Interface agents apply the results of the relevancy beliefs and transform the display to

  2. Genetic Influences on Growth Traits of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Fagnani, Corrado; Silventoinen, Karri;


    Objective:To investigate the interplay between genetic factors influencing baseline level and changes in BMI in adulthood.Methods and Procedures:A longitudinal twin study of the cohort of Finnish twins (N = 10,556 twin individuals) aged 20-46 years at baseline was conducted and followed up 15 years....... Data on weight and height were obtained from mailed surveys in 1975, 1981, and 1990.Results:Latent growth models revealed a substantial genetic influence on BMI level at baseline in males and females (heritability (h(2)) 80% (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.80) for males and h(2) = 82% (0.81, 0.......84) for females) and a moderate-to-high influence on rate of change in BMI (h(2) = 58% (0.50, 0.69) for males and h(2) = 64% (0.58, 0.69) for females). Only very weak evidence for genetic pleiotropy was observed; the genetic correlation between baseline and rate of change in BMI was very modest (-0.070 (-0.13, -0...

  3. BMI in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrowolska-Zarzycka Magdalena


    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a disease of multicasual etiology. The risk factors include obesity, among other issues. Hence, it is extremely important to determine the effect of body weight on the severity of OSA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the body weight expressed as body mass index (BMI, on the value of upper airways diameter and on the AHI (Apnea-Hypopnea Index value. The study was comprised of 41 patients diagnosed with OSA by way of polysomnography. Each patient was first examine via a lateral cephalometric image of the skull, which served to measure the upper and lower diameter of the upper airways. BMI was also calculated for each patient. Statistical analysis was carried out in accordance with Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Our work demonstrated a negative correlation between BMI and the diameter of the upper airways, and a positive correlation between BMI and AHI value. We thus put forward that the increase in body weight in patients with OSA can contribute to the severity of the disease, regardless of the fact that it may not lead to a reduction of the lumen of the upper airways.

  4. [BMI changes in adolescents and adults women between pregnancy and pospartum]. (United States)

    Severi T, María Cecilia; Alonso, Rafael; Atalah S, Eduardo


    Te aim of the study was to evaluate pregnancy nutritional consequences in adolescent pregnant women and to identify factors which increase risk of an adverse postpartum nutritional result. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 742 adolescent and 779 adult pregnant women in Guatemala, Dominican Republic and Uruguay, assessing demographic, social, obstetric, weight gain and BMI at first prenatal control, and 4 +/- 1 month postpartum. BMI in adults was classified according to WHO recommendations and NCHS/WHO in adolescents. We assessed changes of BMI between the beginning and postpartum time and a logistic model analysis was applied about the risk of having low BMI at postpartum time. At the beginning of pregnancy the prevalence of low weight was higher in adolescent group and the overweight and obesity higher in adults (p nutritional BMI, except for low weighted. Adolescents had a significant change in their BMI at postpartum time, showing a tendency to increase weight and a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (p nutritional status was not damaged after pregnancy. The strongest variable associated with postpartum low BMI was BMI which mothers begin pregnancy as equal of adult mothers.

  5. Bayesian Decision Support for Military Command and Control%军事指挥控制中的贝叶斯决策支持

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    军事指挥控制是一个复杂的决策过程,该过程中信息是结合定性的专家知识和定量的融合数据而得到的.贝叶斯网为指挥控制系统提供了一个框架来处理这种专家知识和具体数据相结合的问题,并且影响图作为贝叶斯网的延伸可被用于分析指挥控制系统中某个决策的可行性.进一步地,为了减少所需指定的条件概率的数量并引入时变的概念,提出动态影响网作为一种新的决策支持方法.%The military Command and Control (C2) is a complicated decision process.Moreover,the information acquirement of this decision process is based on the qualitative data of experts'knowledge structure and quantitative fusion data.Bayesian Networks (BNs) provide a framework for the C2 system in which to deal with the problems combining the experts' knowledge structure and specific data,and Influence Diagrams can be used to analysis the feasibility of some decisions in the C2 system as the extension of BNs.Furthermore,in order to decrease the amount of assigned conditional probabilities and introduce the concept of time-varying,Dynamic Influence Networks is proposed to be used as a new method of decision-making support.

  6. 未来数字化战场中的指挥控制语言研究%Research on Command and Control Language in Future Digital Battlefield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚宁; 谭伟; 周伟; 袁黎苗


    The command and control ( C2 ) and the collaborative operations of the robotic forces in the future digital battle-field have become a newly developing research field. Along with achievements, some problems have also emerged, such as the collaboration between robots and the intelligent information fusion between human and robotic systems. With the aim of solving these problems, a technical framework and some key techniques have been proposed. The formalized syntax and se-mantic annotation method, as well as the communication protocol of C2 L, are described in this paper as key points. And all the research work is based on the necessity of building C2L for the army. In the end of this paper, a case of navy vessel has illustrated the feasibility and the effectiveness of C2 L.%针对未来数字化战场中机器人部队指挥控制与协同作战领域需解决的机-机协同和人-机智能融合等问题,综述国内外相关领域的研究现状,分析了构建我军指挥控制语言的必要性,研究了机器人部队指挥控制语言的技术架构与关键技术,提出了指挥控制语言的一种形式化语法和语义标注方法和通信协议,并结合海军舰艇作战示例分析了指挥控制语言的可行性及有效性。

  7. Modelling command and control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den; Essens, P.J.M.D.; Post, W.M.


    This paper describes a computational approach to modelling and simulating C2-team behaviour. Within this approach team models may be used to develop, test, and compare different C2-architectures, that is different structures and processes, without the need for real teams. The advantage of this metho

  8. The Unified Command Plan and Combatant Commands: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    Structure, and Arms Control Issues, by Amy F. Woolf . 49 Statement of General C. Robert Kehler, Commander, United States Strategic Command before the simulated chemical, radiological, and explosive hazards, conducted in California and Virginia . In the same month, USNORTHCOM supported the...protecting the District of Columbia and neighboring counties and cities of Maryland and northern Virginia . JFHQ-NCR draws together the existing resources

  9. Design of Software of Command and Control System with Multitask and Man-machine Interaction Based on Tilcon%基于Tilcon的指控系统多任务人机交互软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟; 许春雷; 孔军


    Tilcon是军事特别是指挥控制领域广泛使用的人机交互界面开发工具.简单介绍了Tilcon的组成和人机交互处理流程,分析了应用Tilcon处理多任务人机交互事件的不足,设计了一个基于Tilcon的指控系统多任务人机交互软件架构,并给出了具体实现方法.工程应用表明,该人机交互软件体系结构清晰,具有较好的健壮性、开放性和兼容性,可显著提高指控系统人机交互处理的实时性.%Tilcon is the main development tool of man-machine interaction of command and control system. Tilcon's composition and method of Man-machine Interaction are simply introduced. After analyzing the shortage of handling multitask and man-machine interaction with Tilcon, a multitask man-machine interaction software architecture of command and control system and a realizing method based on Tilcon are lay out. According to practical application, the architecture is legible, with preferable robustness, open and compatibility. It can obviously improve real-time performance of command and control system's Man-machine Interaction.

  10. 基于MVC模式的指控系统软件设计与实现%Design and actualization of command and control system software based on MVC mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 赵平; 何静; 陈朝福; 邓浩


    介绍了MVC模式各部分的功能和关系,针对指控系统的业务需求特点,提出了一个基于MVC模式的指控系统关系模型.基于此模型,针对某试验指控系统软件的研制需求,进行了软件总体架构设计,并在Linux环境下,利用QT开发平台完成了指控软件的设计与实现.%The function and relationship of all parts of MVC mode are introduced.According to operation requirement peculiarity of command and control system,a certain relationship model is advanced based on MVC mode.To meet the development requirement of command and control system software in a certain experiment,the software architecture is designed.In Linux environment,the command and control software is actualized based on QT development platform.

  11. Changing BMI Categories and Healthcare Expenditures Among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries


    Wilkins, Tricia Lee; Rust, George S.; Sambamoorthi, Usha


    To examine the association between changes in BMI categories and health-care expenditures among elderly Medicare beneficiaries using longitudinal data of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) 2000–2005. Changes in BMI were (i) Stayed Normal: individuals with a normal BMI at baseline and follow-up; (ii) Stayed Overweight individuals with overweight BMI at baseline and follow-up; (iii) Stayed Obese individuals with obese BMI at baseline and follow-up; (iv) Normal-Overweight: individual...

  12. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students. (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L; Gaylis, Jaclyn B


    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was conducted at San Diego State University. Data were analysed by using t tests, χ(2) tests and regression analysis in SPSS. NMs exhibited a lower BMI than OMs (P NMs had a BMI in the range of overweight or obese; however, prevalence was three times higher for OMs, being 9·2 %. A healthier meal option was the most influential factor in NMs' meal choices whereas convenience and weight control were influential factors in OMs' meal choices. Most NMs read nutrition labels and reported that this affects their food choices. NMs exercised longer than OMs in the NMs only (P NMs compared with OMs.

  13. Overexpression of AtBMI1C, a polycomb group protein gene, accelerates flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Polycomb group protein (PcG-mediated gene silencing is emerging as an essential developmental regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic organisms. PcGs inactivate or maintain the silenced state of their target chromatin by forming complexes, including Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1 and 2 (PRC2. Three PRC2 complexes have been identified and characterized in Arabidopsis; of these, the EMF and VRN complexes suppress flowering by catalyzing the trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 of FLOWER LOCUS T (FT and FLOWER LOCUS C (FLC. However, little is known about the role of PRC1 in regulating the floral transition, although AtRING1A, AtRING1B, AtBMI1A, and AtBMI1B are believed to regulate shoot apical meristem and embryonic development as components of PRC1. Moreover, among the five RING finger PcGs in the Arabidopsis genome, four have been characterized. Here, we report that the fifth, AtBMI1C, is a novel, ubiquitously expressed nuclear PcG protein and part of PRC1, which is evolutionarily conserved with Psc and BMI1. Overexpression of AtBMI1C caused increased H2A monoubiquitination and flowering defects in Arabidopsis. Both the suppression of FLC and activation of FT were observed in AtBMI1C-overexpressing lines, resulting in early flowering. No change in the H3K27me3 level in FLC chromatin was detected in an AtBMI1C-overexpressing line. Our results suggest that AtBMI1C participates in flowering time control by regulating the expression of FLC; moreover, the repression of FLC by AtBMI1C is not due to the activity of PRC2. Instead, it is likely the result of PRC1 activity, into which AtBMI1C is integrated.

  14. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  15. 僵尸网络命令与控制信道的特征提取模型研究%Signature generation model for botnet command and control channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海龙; 唐勇; 龚正虎


    僵尸网络发起的分布式拒绝服务攻击、垃圾邮件发送以及敏感信息窃取等恶意活动已经成为网络安全面临的重要威胁.命令与控制信道正是僵尸网络操纵这些恶意活动的唯一途径.利用命令与控制信道中攻击命令具有相对固定的格式和命令字的特点,基于现有的特征提取技术,针对边缘网络的可疑流量,提出了一个新型的特征提取模型.实验结果表明,该模型能够准确地提取出具有命令格式的特征,而且由这些特征转化的入侵检测规则能够有效识别感染的僵尸主机.%The malicious activities such as distributed denial of service attack, spam sending, and sensitive information theft launched by botnet have been the serious threats to Internet security. Command and control channel is the only way for botnet to manipulate these malicious activities. With the features of relatively fixed command format and string in the command and control channel, a novel signature generation model is proposed based on the existing techniques of signature generation, which focuses on the edge network's suspect traffics. Experiment results show that the proposed model can generate accurate signatures conforming to the command format. Furthermore, the intrusion detection rules generated from these signatures can be used to identify the zombies effectively.

  16. Hierarchical Control for Optimised Operation of a Gas Plant At Mobil Oil La commande hiérarchique pour une conduite optimisée d'unité de gas plant (Mobil Oil française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbi O.


    Full Text Available This article shows the interest and the benefit of hierarchical control through a typical example as applied to a gas plant. After a description of the hierarchical control principles, the plant is presented to highlight the interest of such an approach. The implemented control architecture consists of regular controllers and two Model Based Predictive Control algorithms (MONOREG and IDCOM-HIECON whose capabilities were helpful in this application. The implementation of these algorithms follows several steps which make use of the corresponding CAD tools. The performance is evaluated in different operating conditions, once the designed controllers are installed on the process computer. En s'appuyant sur une application exemplaire, cet article décrit l'intérêt et l'apport de la commande hiérarchique dans la conduite optimisée d'une unité. Après une description des principes de la hiérarchisation, la présentation de l'atelier gas plantmet en évidence l'intérêt d'une telle approche. L'architecture de commande fait intervenir des régulations classiques et deux algorithmes de commande prédictive mono et multivariable (MONOREG et IDCOM-HIECON dont les fonctionnalités sont mises à profit dans l'application. La mise en oeuvre de ces algorithmes comprend plusieurs étapes qui exploitent les outils de CAO associés. Après implantation dans le calculateur du site, les performances sont évaluées dans les différents modes opératoires.

  17. Control systems of fission reactors and of reprocessing plants: general architecture; Controle-commande des reacteurs et des usines: architecture generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, B.; Guesnier, G. [Electricite de France, 75 - Paris (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires; Chabert, J. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France)


    As any industrial facility, nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing centers need means to monitor and manage the physical processes that are involved in their activities. All these means form the control system. Control systems are made up of sensors, able to turn physical data into electric signals, of automatic control circuits dedicated to process these electric signals, of supervisor systems to give to the staff the possibility to intervene, and of actuators designed to transform electric signals into actions on the physical process. The general design of control systems has to conform to the requirements imposed by the physical process itself, by nuclear safety and by operating conditions. As for the physical process, requirements can be diverse according to the purpose of the nuclear facility but the continuity must be assured because of the permanent release of energy from irradiated materials. As for safety, we have to notice the stiff requirements for all the equipment that is concerned by the confinement of radioactivity. The general architecture of control systems is made up of 3 levels; i) level 0: sensors and actuators, ii) level 1: automatic control circuits and iii) level 2: the control room. The second and third levels are mainly based on computer and data processing systems. All the equipment is classified into 3 levels of demands. The first level is the stiffest which generally implies that devices are specially designed so that they satisfy all the requirements. (A.C.)

  18. Command Information Requirements on the Airland Battlefield (United States)


    Synchronize of deep attack assets. - Develop a valid deception plan. - Detei-,’ne the availabilty of deep attack assets. - Have detailsd knowledge of...controlled by the commander because of their scarcity, value or planned usage in an upcoming maneuver. Communication Centers. Location of communication centers

  19. Light Reconnaissance Vehicle (LRV): Enhancing Command, Control, Communications, and Computers and Information Systems (C4I) to Tactically Employed Forces via a Mobile Platform (United States)


    collection to any point designated by the commander for analysis and pushing the information to key decision makers in the AOR remains an obstacle . E...RESEARCH GOALS OF THE LIGHT RECONNAISSANCE VEHICLE The LRV Project was designed to solve some of the major obstacles presented by the advanced...known distances and elevation changes. Figure 23 depicts a representation of the trigonometry used in deriving the elevation angles for the antennae


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this wireless communication era, mobile phones have become a necessity in the common man’s life. Besides being capable of making calls and sending messages, the latest advancements in mobile phones facilitate them to connect to the internet also. With these capabilities, there has been an unprecedented use of mobile phones in many areas of automation. One such area where mobile phone can help with the automation is irrigation process. The main aim of the work is to simplify the method of irrigation using vocal commands through the mobile phone. The Farmer just needs to call a fixed number and utter the control commands through his phone. The control system at the field involves a PIC microcontroller interfaced with GSM modem to receive the command from the farmer and a voice recognition unit which decodes it. The motor is turned on/off according to the decoded commands by the controller. In addition, the system also sends back a message to the farmer’s mobile about the action that has taken place. The power detection and battery backup unit helps in detecting the power availability in the field and inform the farmer about the same, even if the there is no supply at the field. The moisture sensor attached to the system helps in collecting the moisture content of the soil and switch off the motor after it reaches the required value.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of a novel five-degrees-of-freedom user command controller in people with spinal cord injury and non-injured for full upper extremity neuroprosthesis, wearable powered orthoses and prosthetics. (United States)

    Scott, Timothy R D; Vare, Veronica A


    Sensitivity analysis for a user command controller monitoring head position for artificial control of the proximal upper limb was performed. The controller was evaluated by having subjects complete target matching tasks manipulating a simulated on-screen hand representation to investigate the effects of target location and target speed on performance. Sixteen subjects took part in the study, 11 of whom had sustained cervical spinal cord injuries. The subjects were able to control the on-screen hand with overall low sensitivity of performance with the controller to target position in its five-degrees-of-freedom. The optimal speed was found to be a compromise between low speed and high accuracy but longer completion time and fast speed for short completion time with lower accuracy. The results demonstrated the robustness of the controller across a population of non-injured subjects and those with tetraplegia.

  2. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C


    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle.......A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle....

  3. Interactive Raytracing: The nirt Command (United States)


    Interactive Raytracing : The nirt Command by Clifford Yapp ARL-CR-624 April 2009 prepared by Quantum Research...Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5068 ARL-CR-624 April 2009 Interactive Raytracing : The nirt Command Clifford Yapp Quantum...DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2008–October 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Interactive Raytracing : The nirt Command 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911QX-06-F

  4. Theater Special Operations Commands Realignment (United States)


    D. Teske Mr. William C. Fleser United States Special Operations Command 7701 Tampa Point Boulevard MacDill Air Force Base, Florida 33621 Point...of Contact Ken D. Teske United States Special Operations Command 7701 Tampa Point Boulevard MacDill Air Force Base, Florida 33621 (757) 510...Theater Special Operations Commands Realignment Mr. Michael D. Tisdel Mr. Ken D. Teske Mr. William C. Fleser 19th ICCRTS 17 June 2014 Paper ID

  5. There is no difference in the plasma cortisol level between women with body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal 25 kg/m² and polycystic ovary syndrome and the control group without polycystic ovary syndrome and BMI 25 kg/m². (United States)

    Mrozińska, Sandra; Milewicz, Tomasz; Kiałka, Marta; Gosztyła, Katarzyna; Lurzyńska, Małgorzata; Kabzińska-Turek, Monika


    A 4-8% of women of reproductive age suffer from the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The clinical and/ or biochemical hyperandrogenemia is found up to 75% of women with PCOS. It is unclear whether the hyperandogenemia in PCOS is caused directly by this disorder or by obesity. The recent studies have shown that the cortisol level in PCOS patients can be elevated, decreased or comparable to the control group. The aim of our study was to assess the cortisol plasma level in women with body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/ m², with and without PCOS. The study population consisted of 17 overweight women with PCOS and 44 overweight women without PCOS. There were not statistically significant differences in the body mass (group 1: 88.9 ± 17.0 kg, vs. group 2: 84.4 ± 15.2 kg; NS) nor the body mass index between both groups (group 1: 31.7 ± 5.9 kg/m², vs. group 2: 30.6 ± 5.4 kg/m²; NS). The groups did not differ in TSH, FSH, estradiol, SHBG, prolactin level at the baseline. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups in the cortisol levels at 5 a.m. and 7 a.m. Our study suggests that there is no difference in the morning and 7 p.m. cortisol level between the women with and without PCOS among the population of women with body mass index greater than or equal 25 kg/m².

  6. Trends in BMI of urban Australian adults, 1980-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Helen L; Wolfe, Rory; Haby, Michelle M;


    of 7.4 kg/m2 at the higher end for women aged 55-64 years. While the prevalence of obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg/m2) doubled, the prevalence of obesity class III (BMI >or= 40 kg/m2) increased fourfold. CONCLUSIONS: BMI in urban Australian adults has increased and its distribution has become increasingly...

  7. 基于虚拟人机环境的某指控舱CATIA人机分析%CATIA Analysis on One Command-control Tank Based on Virtual Man-machine Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖康; 高虹霓; 丁日显; 杨景


    针对因人机工程模块中缺乏中国大陆成年人数字模型而导致CATIA软件在座舱性化设计适用性差的现象,以GJB4856-2003和指控舱结构设计参数需求为依据,建立了中国大陆成年男子P5、P95人体数字模型和指控舱三维模型,通过人体模型对指控舱的虚拟操作,分别评价了驾驶舱的视野域、操作域和舒适度等方面布局工效,得到了各工效布局评价的结果,并提出了改进建议。%To solve the problem that the lack of Chinese adults’digital models in the module of ergonomics will result in the bad performance of CATIA in the individualized design of cockpit, Chinese adults’P5 & P95 human digital model and the command-and-control tank’s 3D model are established according to GJB4856-2003 and parameter requirements for the design of the command -control tank’s structure. Based on pseudo operations which human digital model performs in the command-control tank,ergonomic layout designs of the cockpit are evaluated from perspectives of view field,operating field and comfort level. Results of evaluations are obtained and suggestions for improvement are provided.

  8. 面向服务的指挥控制系统协作方法研究%Research on Collaboration Method of Service-oriented Command and Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘杭萍; 雷智朋


    As the diverse needs of the new military revolution and diversified military tasks, command and control system faces unprecedented challenges. Research shows that service-oriented collaboration applications can effectively enhance infor-mation systems real-time information sharing and collaboration capabilities, but the existing platform adaptability and scal-ability is not strong. By introducing live object technology, this paper presents a design of a live object-based application framework for collaborative services, and the prototype system was established based on command and control system. Analy-sis shows that the proposed service collaboration application framework has good adaptability and scalability, which is impor-tant for the build of the command and control systems under the condition of information.%新军事变革和多样化军事任务为当前指挥控制系统带来了前所未有的挑战。研究表明,面向服务协作( Service-oriented Collaboration,SOC)的应用可以有效增强信息系统的实时信息共享和协同能力,但现有平台存在自适应性和扩展性不强等问题。通过引入灵活对象技术,设计提出了一种基于灵活对象的服务协作应用框架,并基于指挥控制系统建立了原型系统。应用分析表明,该服务协作应用框架具有很好的自适应性和扩展性,有利于信息化条件下的指挥控制系统快速构建的要求。

  9. 连续搅拌釜反应系统稳定性的BMI控制算法%BMI control algorithm of robust stability for continuous stirred tank reactor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 聂宏



  10. Strategic Automated Command Control System-Data Transmission Subsystem (SACCS-DTS) Operation of Aircraft Wing Command Post/Modified User Terminal Element (AWCP/Mute), Base Communications Processor (BCP), Port Expansion Processor (PEP), and SACCS Desktop Terminal (SDT) (United States)


    failure (KEY ERR) indicates a parity error exists between the KB and the VDU. It shows up as a blob (bright square). 2.3. Keyboard (KB). 2.3.1. The KB is...session security level if the "PRNT" key was pressed. Table 2.3. describes the controls/indicators and functions. 2.4.2. The error ( blob or battery...perform warm IPLs. Make two small cardboard signs with the words "CURRENT" and "SPARE" printed on them for mounting on the MSU doors. Swap the two signs

  11. Rod cluster control assemblies and rod cluster control guide tubes: wear and drop time; Grappes de commande et guides de grappes: usure et tempes de chute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbinden, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)


    The wear of RCCAs and of RCC guide tubes is due to two quite different mechanisms and the remedies to apply for each case might lead to contradictory solutions: - the impact/sliding wear for the seldom moving RCCAs, namely the shutdown RCCAs, under flow-induced vibrations, - the axial sliding wear for the control rods subjected to the stepping movements ordered by the acting load. In this case the hydraulic sticking forces are those which produce an evolution of the surface states that may increase the drop time. The introduction, an historical survey of the encountered difficulties, is followed by short description of the components and then the paper presents contributions of EDF in the R and D field, which take place in two successive multi-annual projects. Lastly, some information is given about the recent evolutions and new problems as well for impact/sliding wear as for drop time under normal or seismic conditions. (author).

  12. A Balanced Approach: Thoughts for the Adoption of Mission Command by the Joint Force (United States)


    Mission Command.” Defence Studies 3, no. 3 (November 2003): 121, Military and Government Collection, EBSCOhost . 4 Dempsey, “Mission Command White...Quarterly no. 68 (2013 1 st Quarter 2013): 32, Military and Government Collection, EBSCOhost 8 U.S. Army, Mission Command: Command and Control of Army...operations center." Army Communicator 36, no. 3 (Fall2011 2011): 14-19. Military & Government Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed 21 March 2013

  13. 基于效果的装备保障指挥决策与体系控制研究%Research on Command Decision and System Control of Equipment Support Based on Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓山; 朱建冲; 翁辉


    以探索装备保障的信息化决策与控制方法为目的,从基于效果作战的观点出发,利用概念模型,从OODA环的相互作用、混沌现象和自同步及蜂群效应3个方面,研究了网络中心条件下装备保障指挥决策与体系控制的激励与响应模式,并得出了相关结论,以此为基础提出了装备保障指挥决策与体系控制的3项建议.%For the purpose to explore informationalized decision and control methods about equipment support,based on effects based operations (EBO),pattern of stimulus and response about command decision and system control of equipment support are studied with conceptual model in network centric warfare (NCW) environment,which comprises reciprocity of observe orient decide act(OODA) loop,chaos phenomenon,self-synchronization and swarm effect.According to these primary conclusions of the research,three suggestions are made about command decision and system control of equipment support.

  14. Analysis list: BMI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BMI1 Blood,Digestive tract,Neural,Prostate + hg19,,,http://dbarchive.bioscie

  15. Changes of BMI Distribution in Chinese Adults from 1989 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-fei OUYANG; Hui-jun WANG; Chang SU; Wen-wen DU; Ji-guo ZHANG; Bing ZHANG


    Objective To examine the changing trends of body mass index (BMI) distribution in Chinese adults from 1989 to 2011. MethodsThe data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected in 1989, 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 were used. A total of 14831 participants aged 18-45 years with 39497 observations were included in the final analysis. Lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method was applied to describe the changes of BMI distribution.ResultsFrom 1989 to 2011, the distribution curve of BMI showed shifts toward the right in both men and women. All percentile curves displayed an increasing trend and the change was much larger at higher percentile levels mainly among men. The median values of BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity exhibited increasing trends in both genders, especially in the period from 1997 to 2011. The quartile range of BMI increased from 3.4kg/m2 to 4.8kg/m2 for men and from 3.7kg/m2 to 4.4 kg/m2 for women. The prevalence of overweight and obesity appeared to be higher in three megacities than in nine provinces in both men and women. ConclusionAs indicated by the changes of the BMI distribution in Chinese adults, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased greatly during the past 23 years, especially in men. It is urgent to take strategies for obesity prevention and control immediately in China.

  16. Embedded battle command: a vehicle systems integrator's prospective (United States)

    Frey, Terry L.; Wyrembelski, Rick J.


    This paper provides an overview of a major weapon system, the Abrams Main Battle Tank, as it relates to the integration of EMbedded Battle Command and Control element is essential to the tanks future role in the Army as they focus more on increased organizational effectiveness and less on individual platforms. The Abrams is poised to field the Abrams System Enhancement Package with its 2nd generation of Command and Control.

  17. Fire Command Control Model for Multi-Waveband Photoelectrical Camouflage Weapon System%多波段光电伪装武器系统射击指挥控制模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱安国; 王朝晖; 张继春; 杨槐


    快速实施大面积多波段烟幕防护,是现代战争中保护重要军事、经济目标的有效手段.多波段光电伪装武器系统是近年来因这种需求而发展起来的一种新型武器装备,但大多自主作战、缺乏统一的指挥控制功能,给出系统成建制协同作战时,从目标预测、建立空间遮障到火力分配等射击指挥控制相关模型.%To quickly carry out the large-area and multi-waveband smoke protection is the effective means for protecting the important military and electronic targets in the modern war. The multi-waveband photoelectrical weapon system is the new type of weapon device developed to meet this requirement in recent years. But it independently carries out the war task without the unified command and control function, so this paper gives the related fire command control models involving the target prediction,establishment of the space block, and the fire allocation when the system carries out the cooperative war task.

  18. Model-Based Throttle Control using Static Compensators and Pole Placement Commande des gaz basée sur un modèle utilisant des compensateurs statiques et un placement de pôles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomasson A.


    Full Text Available In modern spark ignited engines, the throttle is controlled by the Electronic Control Unit (ECU, which gives the ECU direct control of the air flow and thereby the engine torque. This puts high demands on the speed and accuracy of the controller that positions the throttle plate. The throttle control problem is complicated by two strong nonlinear effects, friction and limp-home torque. This paper proposes the use of two, simultaneously active, static compensators to counter these effects and approximately linearize the system. A PID controller is designed for the linearized system, where pole placement is applied to design the PD controller and a gain scheduled I-part is added for robustness against model errors. A systematic procedure for generating compensator and controller parameters from open loop experiments is also developed. The controller performance is evaluated both in simulation, on a throttle control benchmark problem, and experimentally. A robustness investigation pointed out that the limp-home position is an important parameter for the controller performance, this is emphasized by the deviations found in experiments. The proposed method for parameter identification achieves the desired accuracy. Au sein des moteurs à allumage commandé modernes, les gaz sont régulés par le boîtier de commande électronique (ECU; Electronic Control Unit, qui permet la régulation directe par l’ECU du flux d’air et ainsi du couple moteur. Cela conduit à des exigences élevées quant à la vitesse et à la précision du régulateur qui positionne le papillon des gaz. Le problème de commande des gaz est compliqué par deux forts effets non linéaires, le frottement et le couple de mode de secours (“limp-home”. Cet article propose l’utilisation de deux compensateurs statiques, actifs simultanément, pour contrer ces effets et linéariser approximativement le système. Un régulateur PID est conçu pour le système linéarisé, où un

  19. Using BMI to Determine Cardiovascular Risk in Childhood: How Do the BMI Cutoffs Fare? (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Mayer, Michelle L.; Flower, Kori; Perrin, Eliana M.; Weinberger, Morris


    OBJECTIVE Although adverse health outcomes are increased among children with BMI above the 85th (overweight) and 95th (obese) percentiles, previous studies have not clearly defined the BMI percentile at which adverse health outcomes begin to increase. We examined whether the existing BMI percentile cutoffs are optimal for defining increased risk for dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, and hypertension. METHODS This was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2006. Studied were 8216 children aged 6 to 17 years, representative of the US population. BMI was calculated by using measured height and weight and converted to percentiles for age in months and gender. Outcome measures (dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, and hypertension) were based on laboratory and physical examination results; these were analyzed as both continuous and categorical outcomes. RESULTS Significant increases for total cholesterol values and prevalence of abnormal cholesterol begin at the 80th percentile. Significant increases in glycohemoglobin values and prevalence of abnormal values begin at the 99th percentile. Consistent significant increases in the prevalence of high or borderline systolic blood pressure begin at the 90th percentile. CONCLUSIONS Intervening for overweight children and their health requires clinical interventions that target the right children. On the basis of our data, a judicious approach to screening could include consideration of lipid screening for children beginning at the 80th percentile but for dysglycemia at the 99th percentile. Current definitions of overweight and obese may be more useful for general recognition of potential health problems and discussions with parents and children about the need to address childhood obesity. WHAT'S KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT: Previous research has shown that cardiovascular risk factors are related to the currently used definitions of obesity in children but has not specified the BMI percentiles

  20. Garrison Command Skills for Success (United States)


    Leadership ” in Leadership : Theory and Practice , third edition, by Peter G. Northouse (Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage) 2006, pp. 206-210 11. From Garrison Commander briefing received via personal e-mail, Oct. 3, 2007. ...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College,Department of Command, Leadership & Management...Strate- gic Leadership Primer”3 that is the off- At the time of the publication of this article, the slate of garrison commanders

  1. Effect of BMI on knee joint torques in ergometer rowing. (United States)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie


    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity biomechanics during rowing in 10 normal weight (BMI 18-25), 10 overweight (BMI 25-30 kg·m⁻²), and 10 obese (BMI > 30 kg·m⁻²) participants. The results showed that BMI affects joint kinematics and primarily knee joint kinetics. The data revealed that high BMI leads to unfavorable knee joint torques, implying increased loads of the medial compartment in the knee joint that could be avoided by allowing more variable foot positioning on future designs of rowing ergometers.

  2. Comparison of dyslipidemia among the normal-BMI and high-BMI group of people of rural Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetharaman Ranganathan


    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity are considered major epidemic health problems in both developed and underdeveloped countries, as many studies showed a remarkable rise. One of the causes of dyslipidemia is obesity. Body mass index (BMI correlates reasonably well with laboratory-based measures of adiposity for population studies, and is extremely practical in most clinical settings. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the lipid profile of patients with normal BMI and high BMI. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 400 subjects attended the medical outpatient department (OPD of a private medical college hospital at Salem from March 2010 to August 2011. The subjects were divided into two groups (200 in each group: (1 high BMI (BMI 25 and above and (2 normal BMI (BMI less than 25. The laboratory parameters; cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride (TG were determined directly by using an automated chemistry analyzer. Statistical Analysis: The Student′s t-test was used for comparison between categorical variables, i.e. lipid profile, high-BMI and normal-BMI subjects at P ≤0.05. Results: The total cholesterol, LDL and very LDL cholesterol and the TGs are found to be relatively high among the subjects with high BMI when compared with normal BMI persons, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05. Conclusion: By analyzing the results of the study conducted, it was concluded that there was an increased risk of dyslipidemia among the high-BMI group compared with the normal-BMI people. Hence, a community-based education in this regard is of utmost importance.

  3. Evaluation of Injuries among Command and General Staff College Students, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas (United States)


    Control and Prevention (CDC). 2015. About BMI for Adults. In Healthy Weight - it’s not a diet, it’s a lifestyle . Report No. S.0023115-14, November 2015 Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance Portfolio/Injury Prevention Program Evaluation...of CGSC Class 14-02 students had a ‘normal’ body mass index (BMI) according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI

  4. Gettysburg: A Study in Command (United States)


    division (VA) -- George Pickett (7500 men) with brigades commanded by: --- Kemper --- Garnett --- Armistead Total forces: ~12,500...with 2 brigades forward (Garnett north, Kemper south, Armistead to the rear). 8 States

  5. Identification of Company Command Competencies (United States)


    45 Virtual role plays ( VRPs ) could be used to measure many of the company command competencies identified in this project. In a VRP , the user...could play the role of a Company Commander who must deal with myriad crises, challenges, and potential opportunities. In a web- enabled VRP , the be concerned about. Future research should create VRPs or other engaging assessments to determine proficiency levels on the identified company

  6. Metadata Analysis at the Command-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Phillips


    Full Text Available Over the past few years the University of North Texas Libraries' Digital Projects Unit (DPU has developed a set of metadata analysis tools, processes, and methodologies aimed at helping to focus limited quality control resources on the areas of the collection where they might have the most benefit. The key to this work lies in its simplicity: records harvested from OAI-PMH-enabled digital repositories are transformed into a format that makes them easily parsable using traditional Unix/Linux-based command-line tools. This article describes the overall methodology, introduces two simple open-source tools developed to help with the aforementioned harvesting and breaking, and provides example commands to demonstrate some common metadata analysis requests. All software tools described in the article are available with an open-source license via the author's GitHub account.

  7. Comparison of dyslipidemia among the normal-BMI and high-BMI group of people of rural Tamil Nadu


    Seetharaman Ranganathan; Tuman US Krishnan; Shankar Radhakrishnan


    Background: Overweight and obesity are considered major epidemic health problems in both developed and underdeveloped countries, as many studies showed a remarkable rise. One of the causes of dyslipidemia is obesity. Body mass index (BMI) correlates reasonably well with laboratory-based measures of adiposity for population studies, and is extremely practical in most clinical settings. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the lipid profile of patients with normal BMI and high BMI. Material...

  8. Does Maternal BMI Influence Treatment Effect in Women with Mild Gestational Diabetes? (United States)

    Casey, Brian M.; Mele, Lisa; Landon, Mark B.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Ramin, Susan M.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Thorp, John M.; Catalano, Patrick; Harper, Margaret; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Peaceman, Alan M.


    Objective To determine whether maternal body mass index (BMI) influences the beneficial effects of diabetes treatment in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Study Design Secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized treatment trial of women with GDM. Outcomes of interest were elevated umbilical cord c-peptide levels (>90th percentile 1.77 ng/mL), LGA birth weight (>90th percentile), and neonatal fat mass (g). Women were grouped into five BMI categories adapted from the WHO International Classification of normal, overweight, and obese adults. Outcomes were analyzed according to treatment group assignment. Results A total of 958 women were enrolled (485 treated and 473 controls). Maternal BMI at enrollment was not related to umbilical cord c-peptide levels. However, treatment of women in the overweight, Class I, and Class II obese categories was associated with a reduction in both LGA birth weight and neonatal fat mass. Neither measure of excess fetal growth was reduced with treatment in normal weight (BMI <25) or Class III (BMI ≥ 40) obese women. Conclusion There was a beneficial effect of treatment on fetal growth in women with mild GDM who were overweight or Class I and II obese. These effects were not apparent for normal weight and very obese women. PMID:24839145

  9. Associations among parent acculturation, child BMI, and child fruit and vegetable consumption in a Hispanic sample. (United States)

    Morello, Monica I; Madanat, Hala; Crespo, Noe C; Lemus, Hector; Elder, John


    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of parent acculturation with child fruit and vegetable consumption and obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI). Participants included 250 Mexican-American and other Hispanic families living within San Diego County. Height and weight measurements were collected to calculate the age- and sex-specific BMI for each child and parent, and parents completed self-administered surveys. Child BMI z-score was significantly related to parent BMI after controlling for parent acculturation and parent birth place (β = 0.05, p fruit consumption was significantly associated with parent acculturation (β = -0.02, p = 0.01) and parent BMI (β = 0.02, p = 0.04) after adjusting for the other variables in the model. Child vegetable consumption was not significantly related to parent acculturation. Findings suggest that parental weight status may be more predictive of child obesity than acculturation, and highlight the need to examine culturally relevant behavioral and psychosocial factors related to childhood obesity and dietary behaviors.

  10. A comparison of different regulatory approaches, analysis of the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations (United States)

    Ghanaati, Sahar

    This paper explores the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations. Recognizing why oil sands and their development are significant, the background and development are reviewed first, and then the focus is shifted to look at its economics including the benefits, uncertainties and environmental costs of development. This paper examines how lawmakers in Canada have failed to meet their respective obligation. Drawing on environmental provisions, case law and legal scholars’ articles, books and reports, this paper examines the very problematic issue of oil sands regulation. It proposes to provide an in depth analysis of each regulatory forms and their application to the oil sands. It concludes that in order to solve the oil sands regulation challenges, a collaborative stringent enforcement of regulation from both federal and provincial governments, oil industry and public Pressure is required.

  11. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI (United States)

    Mills, Terence C.


    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  12. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel


    , and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared...

  13. Accuracy of body mass index (BMI) thresholds for predicting excess body fat in girls from five ethnicities. (United States)

    Duncan, J Scott; Duncan, Elizabeth K; Schofield, Grant


    The association between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in young people differs among ethnic groups. Consequently, BMI thresholds for defining childhood overweight may not represent an equivalent level of adiposity in multiethnic populations. The objectives of this study were to characterise the relationships between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) and to determine the appropriateness of universal BMI standards for predicting excess fatness in girls from five ethnic groups. The BMI and %BF of 1,676 European, Maori, Pacific Island, East Asian, and South Asian girls aged 5-16 years were determined using anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were prepared to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI thresholds for detecting %BF >85th percentile. Compared with European girls, South and East Asians averaged 4.2% and 1.3% more %BF at a fixed BMI and age, whereas Pacific Islanders averaged 1.8% less %BF. Areas under the ROC curves ranged from 89.9% to 92.4%, suggesting that BMI is an acceptable screening tool for identifying excess adiposity. However, the IOTF and CDC thresholds showed low sensitivity for predicting excess %BF in South and East Asian girls, with low specificity in Pacific Island and Maori girls. The development of an ethnic-specific definition of overweight improved diagnostic performance. We conclude that BMI can be an acceptable proxy measure of excess fatness in girls from diverse ethnicities, especially when ethnic-specific BMI reference points are implemented.

  14. 指挥控制组织结构扁平化分析及测度%Research on Analysis and Measure of Combat Command and Control Organization Flattening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翔翔; 姚佩阳; 王欣; 万路军


    In order to analyze the flat degree of Command and Control (C2) organization structure, the concepts of C2 tree and collaboration net are given. The pyramid type C2 organization structure and flat type C2 organization structure are expatiated. On the base of these, the C2 organization structure flat measure based on the organization topology and based on tasks under two kinds of C2 organization working condition are designed. The flat measure calculation results of two organization structures are given in the case, and the feasibility and validity of the flat measure calculation methods are proved by the results and comparison.%为分析研究指挥控制(Command and Control,C2)组织结构的扁平化程度,给出了指挥控制树和协作交流网的概念,阐述了金字塔式C2组织结构和扁平式C2组织结构.在此基础之上,针对两种C2组织运作环境,分别设计基于拓扑的C2组织结构扁平化测度和基于任务的C2组织结构扁平化测度.案例给出了两种组织结构的扁平化测度计算结果,结果及比较分析表明扁平化测度计算方法的可行性和有效性.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar


    Full Text Available Gallbladder disease is one of the most common causes of hospital admission in middle-aged women in developed countries. Body Mass Index (BMI is a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. A high BMI can be an indicator of high body fatness. Postoperative length of stay (POLOS was defined as the time from operative end to discharge from the hospital. Although increased Body Mass Index (BMI is well recognized as a risk factor for gallstones and subsequent cholecystectomy, there is little information on what direct impact underweight, overweight and obesity have on the length of hospital stay for gallbladder disease. Aim of this study was to find out effect of BMI on length of hospital stay .This retrospective study of 55 patients was conducted over 3months in the department of general surgery, Father Muller Medical College Hospital (FMMCH Mangalore, India, and BMI appeared to contribute to a decreased POLOS.

  16. Miniature Transportable Communications Central (MTCC): answering law enforcement needs for worldwide access to command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) (United States)

    Maxey, W. John


    The Mini-Transportable Communications Central (MTCC), developed by Rome Laboratories C3 Directorate, provides the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) with a transportable, fast reaction communications terminal. The MTCC is capable of operating as a self-contained miniature command center supporting efforts such as the President's War on Drugs, or the rescue services necessary in the wake of man-made or natural disasters. The MTCC is capable of communicating with field elements including ships, small water-craft, aircraft, other elements of the USCG law enforcement agencies (LEAs), the FAA, and a wide range of U.S. and foreign armed forces. The MTCC terminal is contained in a trailer-mounted shelter suitable for towing by a 3/4 ton truck or for transport by C-130 aircraft. The MTCC provides simultaneous one-way and two-way communications in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequency bands, as well as the INMARSAT international satellite band. The MTCC also offers communications through subscriber and trunk telephone connectivity via ISDN compatible PABX. The MTCC's three channel operations personnel cellular telephone system provides self-contained cellular telephone operations in the vicinity of the deployed shelter. In the USCG application, an operator console inside the air-conditioned shelter serves as the source and destination for voice, data, and fax traffic, by means of secure fax telephone, operator headsets, and a powerful computer workstation that provides word processing, e-mail, and data communications capabilities. The communications operator may reconfigure the system for a specific mission by means of patchfields that enable the selection of radios, encrypted or clear-text operations, audio termination, and antennas.

  17. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and sedentariness (Sed in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years. Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002 and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002. Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04, while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13, biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07, media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08 and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03 and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04 diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25, playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20 and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08 were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  18. Estimation, filtering and adaptative control of a waste water processing process; Estimation, filtrage et commande adaptive d`un procede de traitement des eaux usees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Youssef, C.; Dahhou, B.; Roux, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Rols, J.L. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France)


    Controlling the process of a fixed bed bioreactor imply solving filtering and adaptative control problems. Estimation processes have been developed for unmeasurable parameters. An adaptative non linear control has been built, instead of conventional approaches trying to linearize the system and apply a linear control system. (D.L.) 10 refs.

  19. Fonctionnement transitoire et controle de la richesse des moteurs à allumage commandé à injection multipoint Transient Operation and Air-Fuel Ratio Control of Spark-Ignition Port-Injected Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Moyne L.


    Full Text Available Sur les moteurs à allumage commandé à injection multipoint on observe des désadaptations de richesse lors de fonctionnement transitoire. Ces désadaptations sont dues au dépôt, sous forme de film liquide, du carburant injecté dans le collecteur. Elles peuvent être compensées par une gestion adéquate de la masse injectée. Ainsi, afin d'obtenir la masse de carburant qui maintient la richesse constante, nous avons développé un modèle bidimensionnel des écoulements dans le collecteur au cours du cycle moteur. Ce modèle décrit l'écoulement des gaz frais, des gouttes injectées, des gaz brûlés refoulés vers l'admission et du film sur les parois, sur le principe de la séparation des phases. Nous montrons que le modèle reproduit correctement le signal de richesse et comment il permet de supprimer les désadaptations. La mesure de richesse est faite à l'échappement avec une sonde à oxygène dont nous validons le fonctionnement en transitoire avec une corrélation à la pression maximale du cycle dans le cylindre. Air-fuel ratio excursions are observed on port-injected spark ignition engines during transients. This excursions result from the liquid fuel film deposited on intake port. They can be compensated by controlling the injected fuel mass. In order to have the amount of fuel that keeps air-fuel ratio constant, we have developed a 2D model of flows in the intake port during engine cycle. This separate phases model describes the flow of fresh gases, injected droplets, hot burned gases and film on port walls. We show that the model effectively predicts the equivalence ratio and how it allows to eliminate excursions. Equivalence ratio measures are made with an oxygen sensor which functioning is validated during transients by correlating it to maximal pressure during engine cycle.

  20. Parents’ Readiness to Change Affects BMI Reduction Outcomes in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen P. Jakubowski


    Full Text Available Evidence supports the importance of parental involvement for youth’s ability to manage weight. This study utilized the stages of change (SOC model to assess readiness to change weight control behaviors as well as the predictive value of SOC in determining BMI outcomes in forty adolescent-parent dyads (mean adolescent age = 15 ± 1.84 (13–20, BMI = 37 ± 8.60; 70% white participating in a weight management intervention for adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adolescents and parents completed a questionnaire assessing their SOC for the following four weight control domains: increasing dietary portion control, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, decreasing dietary fat, and increasing usual physical activity. Linear regression analyses indicated that adolescent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was not predictive of adolescent change in BMI from baseline to treatment completion. However, parent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was predictive of adolescent change in BMI, (t(24 = 2.15, p=0.043. Findings support future research which carefully assesses adolescent and parent SOC and potentially develops interventions targeting adolescent and parental readiness to adopt healthy lifestyle goals.

  1. Decision Allocation of Manned/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Formation Command and Control System%有人/无人机编队指挥控制系统决策分配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓栋; 刘跃峰; 陈哨东


    In order to make full use of the advantages of manned-aircraft commander and autonomous system of UAVs in decision-making, we need to allocate the decision-making task between them during the design process of manned/unmanned aerial vehicle formation command and control system. The decision-making allocation process was proposed. Since the process is subjective and uncertain, and it is difficult to estimate the attribute values accurately, we use Uncertain Linguistic Multiple Attribute Decision Making (ULMADM) method to aggregate the attribute values and to determine the range of automation levels and the optimal automation level. Simulation result indicates that the method is feasible and effective in decision allocation.%在有人/无人机编队指挥控制系统设计与作战使用过程中,为了充分发挥有人机指挥员与无人机自主决策系统的决策优势,需要将决策功能在两者之间进行合理分配.给出了指挥控制系统决策分配过程,在该过程中存在较大的主观不确定性,针对属性值无法准确测度的特点,采用不确定性语言型多属性决策(ULMADM)方法,综合处理不确定语言评估属性值,确定了决策功能的自动化等级范围和最优自动化等级.算例表明了ULMADM方法解决决策分配问题的可行性、有效性和通用性.

  2. Enhancing chemotherapy response with Bmi-1 silencing in ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enfeng Wang

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly ovarian cancer is a vexing, incurable disease for patients with recurrent cancer and therapeutic options are limited. Although the polycomb group gene, Bmi-1 that regulates the self-renewal of normal stem and progenitor cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human malignancies, yet a role for Bmi-1 in influencing chemotherapy response has not been addressed before. Here we demonstrate that silencing Bmi-1 reduces intracellular GSH levels and thereby sensitizes chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin. By exacerbating ROS production in response to cisplatin, Bmi-1 silencing activates the DNA damage response pathway, caspases and cleaves PARP resulting in the induction apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. In an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of chemoresistant ovarian cancer, knockdown of Bmi-1 by nanoliposomal delivery significantly inhibits tumor growth. While cisplatin monotherapy was inactive, combination of Bmi-1 silencing along with cisplatin almost completely abrogated ovarian tumor growth. Collectively these findings establish Bmi-1 as an important new target for therapy in chemoresistant ovarian cancer.

  3. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI. (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Deary, Ian J; Sørensen, Thorkild I A


    Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight, and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI were substantial among the well-educated, suggesting importance of familial environmental influences common to high education and lower BMI. Family influence was particularly important in linking high education and lower levels of obesity.

  4. Bmi1 gene silencing inhibits the proliferation and invasiveness of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and increases their sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil. (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Xu, Lei-Bo; Yue, Xiu-Jing; Yu, Xian-Huan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Chao


    The Bmi1 gene has been reported to play important roles in cancer initiation and progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of Bmi1 gene expression on the proliferation and invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and on the efficacy of chemotherapy in HCC patients. The Bmi1 gene was silenced by Bmi1-siRNA (small interfering RNA) in the human HCC cell lines HepG2 and Bel-7402, and the gene expression levels were assayed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. The proliferation and migration of Bmi1-silenced tumor cells and their sensitivity to 5-FU treatment were determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), transwell assays and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and flow cytometry, respectively. Bmi1-siRNA inhibited the Bmi1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in HCC cells. Proliferation and migration of HCC cells treated with Bmi1-siRNA was significantly lower compared to that of the control cells. Moreover, Bmi1 gene silencing increased the percentage of apoptotic cells treated by 5-FU and decreased the IC50 values of 5-FU to a greater extent. Downregulation of the Bmi1 gene by RNAi can inhibit the proliferation and invasivesness of HCC cells and increase their sensitivity to 5-FU treatment.

  5. Computer programme for control and maintenance and object oriented database: application to the realisation of an particle accelerator, the VIVITRON; Logiciel de controle et commande et base de donnees orientee objet: application dans le cadre de la mise en oeuvre d`un accelerateur de particules, le VIVITRON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A


    The command and control system for the Vivitron, a new generation electrostatic particle accelerator, has been implemented using workstations and front-end computers using VME standards, the whole within an environment of UNIX/VxWorks. This architecture is distributed over an Ethernet network. Measurements and commands of the different sensors and actuators are concentrated in the front-end computers. The development of a second version of the software giving better performance and more functionality is described. X11 based communication has been utilised to transmit all the necessary informations to display parameters within the front-end computers on to the graphic screens. All other communications between processes use the Remote Procedure Call method (RPC). The conception of the system is based largely on the object oriented database O{sub 2} which integrates a full description of equipments and the code necessary to manage it. This code is generated by the database. This innovation permits easy maintenance of the system and bypasses the need of a specialist when adding new equipments. The new version of the command and control system has been progressively installed since August 1995. (author) 38 refs.

  6. Adaptive multiparameter control: application to a Rapid Thermal Processing process; Commande Adaptative Multivariable: Application a un Procede de Traitement Thermique Rapide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mago, S.J.


    In this work the problem of temperature uniformity control in rapid thermal processing is addressed by means of multivariable adaptive control. Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) is a set of techniques proposed for semiconductor fabrication processes such as annealing, oxidation, chemical vapour deposition and others. The product quality depends on two mains issues: precise trajectory following and spatial temperature uniformity. RTP is a fabrication technique that requires a sophisticated real-time multivariable control system to achieve acceptable results. Modelling of the thermal behaviour of the process leads to very complex mathematical models. These are the reasons why adaptive control techniques are chosen. A multivariable linear discrete time model of the highly non-linear process is identified on-line, using an identification scheme which includes supervisory actions. This identified model, combined with a multivariable predictive control law allows to prevent the controller from systems variations. The control laws are obtained by minimization of a quadratic cost function or by pole placement. In some of these control laws, a partial state reference model was included. This reference model allows to incorporate an appropriate tracking capability into the control law. Experimental results of the application of the involved multivariable adaptive control laws on a RTP system are presented. (author) refs

  7. 32 CFR 700.1053 - Commander of a task force. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commander of a task force. 700.1053 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1053 Commander of a task force. (a) A geographic fleet commander, and any other naval commander, may detail in command of a task force, or other task command, any...

  8. Design, dimensioning and control of a synchronous motor/generator with homopolar excitation and coils inside the air gap for electromechanical energy accumulator; Conception, dimensionnement et commande d'un moteur/generateur synchrone a excitation homopolaire et a bobinages dans l'entrefer pour accumulateur electromecanique d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, N.


    A new axial field machine with armature and field windings fixed in the air-gap is studied. A double face printed winding is presented and a new tool, using a surface permeance model is developed. A simplified current control is proposed. Finally, considering the association synchronous machine-inverter the loss minimization problem is investigated, including both geometry and command parameters. (author)

  9. Optimal command generation for tracking a class of discontinuous trajectories (United States)

    Weissenberger, S.


    Commands are found to drive a linear system to optimally track a class of prescribed trajectories, each of which contains a point of discontinuity. The paper focuses on the guidance problem of command generation, to be implemented in a feedforward fashion; the necessary additional control or feedback regulation structure is not studied in detail, but assumed to be provided in applications as a conventional error-feedback regulator. Solutions are found for the infinite-time problem which are optimal with respect to a quadratic performance criterion; suboptimal controls which satisfy a continuity condition are also found. The controls have applications to certain problems in aircraft guidance where command trajectories are piecewise continuous. Several examples are worked out in detail, with comparisons with conventional, nonfeedforward solutions to the problem, and a brief discussion of a simpler, suboptimal solution.

  10. New Commander,New Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YAN


    @@ Stanley McChrystal came into the spotlight in June 2009 when U.S. President Barack Obama entrusted him with fighting America's longest war since the end of the Cold War as commander of U.S. forces in Afghanistan.

  11. Unity of Command and Interdiction (United States)


    18 February 1991, 54. "U.S. Speeds Development of Kinetic Weapons Designed to Penetrate Underground Command Centers." Aviation Week & Space Technology...Forces of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, February 1993. Rader , William K. Targeting Air Interdiction In Support Of

  12. Childhood BMI growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate;


    cancer and its sub-types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6 to 14 years and born 1930-89 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age-specific z-scores. Using linear spline multilevel models......Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer, however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial......, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain...

  13. [BMI of the children attending elementary schools in Tuzla Canton]. (United States)

    Jusupović, Fatima; Juricić, Mojca; Rudić, Aida; Hazihalilović, Jasminka; Kasumović, Merima; Kalesic, Mirela


    BMI is frequently used in different studies as indicator of nutritional status. When BMI exceeds the limit values then it represents the risk factor leading to different diseases; therefore it is important to calculate BMI for young persons. In cases when BMI differs from the recommended value it is necessary to apply different measures in order to prevent diseases. The aim of this paper was to assess the present status and on the basis of the result obtained to assess the need for eventual preventive activities leading to healthy life stytes. This study was performed on a sample of 1544 school boys and girls aged eight, ten and fourteen attending first, third and seventh class of elementary school. The study covered four municipalities of Tuzla Canton: Tuzla, Lukavac, Gradanica and Kladanj, and both urban and rural areas. We used the method of anthropometric measurement (IBP International Biological Program) of body mass and body height, followed by calculation of BMI and statistical evaluation. This study found that the average BMI of girls and boys is increasinglongitudinally with the age, with significant change between 10 years and 14 years, without significant gen der difference. Boys aged eight have BMI 15.76, len years 16.52 and are similar to the BMI of girls aged eight 15.44 and ten years 16.59. Fourteen-year-old girls have BMI which is 19.54, higher than the BMI of boys at the same age which is 18.75. Having in mind the range of BMI percentile values for normal nutritional status (from 5 to 85) the values for eight years old boys ranged from 14.1 to 19.4, for ten-year-old boys from 13.4 to 19.2, and for fourteen-year-old boys from 13.6 to 19.5. The values for girls showed the following results; for eight-year-old girls the value ranged from 13.9 to 20.6; for ten-year-old girls t'rom 13.5 to 20.5 and fourteen-year-old girls from 13.7 to 19.6. In the sample there was 6.6% underweight children, and 15.2% overweight children, but the portion of overweight

  14. Non-linear control of a doubly fed induction machine; Commande non-lineaire d'une machine asynchrone a double alimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, P.E.


    This study deals with linear and non-linear control strategies applied to the rotation speed feedback of a doubly fed induction machine (DFIM), whose stator and rotor windings are connected to two Pulse Width Modulation voltage source inverters. We choose to distribute the active powers between the stator and the rotor following a certain proportionality ratio. This leads to guarantee, in steady state operation, a stator and rotor angular frequencies sharing. This distribution is initially assured by two shared angular frequencies controllers, and in a second time by the means of the Park transformation angles directly. Two models are established: the first express the currents, and the second is linked with the fluxes. The simulations results of the linear control (field oriented control), and non-linear control (sliding mode control), show a good independence between the main flux and the torque. An experimental validation is also presented. The results presented show the satisfactory DFIM flux control. Special attention is paid to the active power dispatching. (author)

  15. Modelling the relationship between body fat and the BMI. (United States)

    Mills, T C; Gallagher, D; Wang, J; Heshka, S


    OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing concerns about the levels of obesity being reached throughout the world, this paper analyses the relationship between the most common index of obesity, the BMI, and levels of body fat. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The statistical relationship, in terms of functional form, between body fat and BMI is analysed using a large data set which can be categorized by race, sex and age. RESULTS: Irrespective of race, body fat and BMI are linearly related for males, with age entering logarithmically and with a positive effect on body fat. Caucasian males have higher body fat irrespective of age, but African American males' body fat increases with age faster than that of Asians and Hispanics. Age is not a significant predictor of body fat for females, where the relationship between body fat and BMI is nonlinear except for Asians. Caucasian females have higher predicted body fat than other races, except at low BMIs, where Asian females are predicted to have the highest body fat. DISCUSSION: Using BMIs to make predictions about body fat should be done with caution, as such predictions will depend upon race, sex and age and can be relatively imprecise. The results are of practical importance for informing the current debate on whether standard BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity should apply to all sex and racial groups given that these BMI values are shown to correspond to different levels of adiposity in different groups.

  16. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Veit


    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  17. 76 FR 19893 - Unified Command Plan 2011 (United States)


    ...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of April 6, 2011 Unified Command Plan 2011 Memorandum for the Secretary of... the revised Unified Command Plan. Consistent with title 10, United States Code, section 161(b)(2)...

  18. Battle Command: An Approach to Wickedness (United States)


    blank slate‖ ( tabula rasa – a blank mind) approach that allows the practitioner to develop a true appreciation of the unique problem without...Command describes the role of the commander in the Operations Process. 11 Commanders must understand the nature of their environment, the disposition of...Operations Process. The commander‘s role within the Operational Process is Battle Command. On Wickedness A problem, as defined by FM 5-0, is the

  19. A Dynamic Simulation Strategy for PCCI Combustion Control Design Méthode de développement de lois de commande pour la combustion PCCIbasée sur la simulation système

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters N.


    Full Text Available Subject of this work is a dynamic simulation strategy for PCCI combustion that can be used in closed-loop control development. A detailed multi-zone chemistry model for the high-pressure part of the engine cycle is extended by a mean value model accounting for the gas exchange losses. The resulting stationary model is capable of describing PCCI combustion sufficiently well. It is at the same time very economic with respect to computational costs. The model is further extended by identified system dynamics influencing the stationary inputs. For this, a Wiener model is set up that uses the stationary model as a nonlinear system representation. In this way, a dynamic nonlinear model for the representation of the controlled plant Diesel engine is created. This paper summarizes an important outcome of the the Collaborative Research Centre "SFB 686 - Modellbasierte Regelung der homogenisierten Niedertemperatur-Verbrennung" at RWTH Aachen University and Bielefeld University, Germany. Cet article présente une méthodologie de développement de lois de commande pour la combustion PCCI. La méthode proposée repose sur l’utilisation d’un simulateur du moteur dont le niveau de représentation est adapté aux besoins de l’application ciblée. Le simulateur proposé repose sur l’association d’un modèle de combustion multidimensionnel (pour la partie haute pression du cycle moteur et d’un modèle à valeurs moyennes (pour la description des d’échanges gazeux. L’association des caractéristiques de ces modèles permet d’aboutir à un niveau de représentation suffisamment précis pour accompagner le développement de lois de commande. De plus, les simplifications réalisées permettent des gains conséquents en termes de temps de simulation. Cet article propose aussi une simplification supplémentaire en introduisant une méthode d’identification d’un modèle de Wiener. Les résultats présentés dans cette publication sont le fruit

  20. Applying the Combatant Command Construct to the DHS Command Structure (United States)


    human trafficking, insurgency, narcotics smuggling, and even narco -terrorism. As described in a Strategic Studies Institute publication “…Unrestrained...of El Chapo ,” The Virginian-Pilot, October 29, 2011. 39 Naler, “Are We Ready for and Interagency Combatant Command?”, p. 26. 63 concerns...Publication 1. Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, May 2, 2007. William Booth and Nick Miroff, “The Ballad of El Chapo ,” The Virginian Pilot

  1. Swing-Free Cranes via Input Shaping of Operator Commands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, Kenneth N.; Parker, Gordon G.; Robinett, Rush D.; Leban, Frank


    This paper presents an open-loop control method for suppressing payload oscillation or swing caused by operator commanded maneuvers in rotary boom cranes and the method is experimentally verified on a one-sixteenth scale model of a Hagglunds shipboard crane. The crane configuration consists of a payload mass that swings like a spherical pendulum on the end of a lift-line which is attached to a boom capable of hub rotation (slewing) and elevation (luffing). Positioning of the payload is accomplished through the hub and boom angles and the load-line length. Since the configuration of the crane affects the excitation and response of the payload, the swing control scheme must account for the varying geometry of the system. Adaptive forward path command filters are employed to remove components of the command signal which induce payload swing.

  2. RNAi抑制人大肠癌LOVO细胞Bmi-1基因的表达%Effects of RNAi on expression of Bmi-1 gene in human colorectal carcinoma LOVO cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢敏; 沙卫红; 王启仪


    目的 探讨RNA干扰(RNAi)技术沉默Bmi-1基因表达对人大肠癌细胞株LOVO增殖和侵袭力的影响及机制.方法 将化学法合成的针对Bmi-1 mRNA不同位点设计的3对siRNA序列(siR-NA1~3)和1对带有荧光标记的FAM-siRNA(siRNA4)转染至人大肠癌LOVO细胞,荧光显微镜下观察siRNA的转染效率,QRT-PCR检测Bmi-1 mRNA表达抑制作用,Western Blot检测Bmi-1蛋白表达变化,MTT法检测LOVO细胞体外增殖变化,小室侵袭实验检测LOVO细胞侵袭能力.结果 利用荧光标记的Oligo观察到siRNA转染效率达70%.siRNA1对mRNA表达抑制率最高,从而筛选出沉默效应最强的siRNA序列为siRNA1.siRNA1转染组LOVO细胞Bmi-1蛋白表达,增殖及侵袭力明显低于阴性对照组和空白对照组(P<0.05).结论 化学合成的靶向Bmi-1 siRNA转染人大肠癌LOVO细胞能有效抑制Bmi-1的mRNA和蛋白质表达水平,Bmi-1基因的RNA干扰可有效抑制人大肠癌LOVO细胞的增殖和侵袭能力.%Objective To investigate the mechanism and effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) on Bmi-1 in the human colorectal carcinoma LOVO cells. Methods Three si RNA sequences targeting Bmi-1 (siRNAI, siRNA2, siRNA3), a fluorescein-labeled double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) oligomer (siRNA4), and the negative control were chemically synthesized. All siRNA sequences were transinfected into LOVO cells. Inverse microscopy was used to observe the efficacy of transinfecion. Bmi-1 mRNA expression and protein expression were detected by real time quantitative PCR (QRT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. The proliferation and invasion of LOVO cells were detected by MTT and transwell invasion assay, respectively. Results The efficacy of transfection was 70%. The Bmi-1 mRNA expression inhibition rate of siRNAI was the most effective, and therefore was selected to interfere with the expression of Bmi-1 gene. The Bmi-1 protein expression and cell proliferation and invasion were significantly fewer than that in the

  3. BMI predicts emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility in adolescents with excess weight. (United States)

    Delgado-Rico, Elena; Río-Valle, Jacqueline S; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Campoy, Cristina; Verdejo-García, Antonio


    Adolescent obesity is increasingly viewed as a brain-related dysfunction, whereby reward-driven urges for pleasurable foods "hijack" response selection systems, such that behavioral control progressively shifts from impulsivity to compulsivity. In this study, we aimed to examine the link between personality factors (sensitivity to reward (SR) and punishment (SP), BMI, and outcome measures of impulsivity vs. flexibility in--otherwise healthy--excessive weight adolescents. Sixty-three adolescents (aged 12-17) classified as obese (n = 26), overweight (n = 16), or normal weight (n = 21) participated in the study. We used psychometric assessments of the SR and SP motivational systems, impulsivity (using the UPPS-P scale), and neurocognitive measures with discriminant validity to dissociate inhibition vs. flexibility deficits (using the process-approach version of the Stroop test). We tested the relative contribution of age, SR/SP, and BMI on estimates of impulsivity and inhibition vs. switching performance using multistep hierarchical regression models. BMI significantly predicted elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity (positive and negative urgency) and inferior flexibility performance in adolescents with excess weight--exceeding the predictive capacity of SR and SP. SR was the main predictor of elevations in sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. These findings demonstrate that increases in BMI are specifically associated with elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility, supporting a dimensional path in which adolescents with excess weight increase their proneness to overindulge when under strong affective states, and their difficulties to switch or reverse habitual behavioral patterns.

  4. Adult BMI Change and Risk of Colon Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyla Blake-Gumbs


    Full Text Available Purpose. We recently reported an association of adult BMI change with colon cancer risk. Here, we sought to further explore this association with respect to postmenopausal HRT use in a larger study population. Methods. We included 1,457 postmenopausal women participating in an ongoing population-based case-control study of colon cancer. Results. We confirmed a previously reported association of adulthood weight gain and increased risk of colon cancer: compared to those with 10 kg/m2 BMI changes since their 20s had OR estimates of 1.54 (95% CI = 1.09–2.19 and 1.45 (95% CI = 0.90–2.33, respectively (P for trend = 0.05. Stratified analyses showed that this association was limited to HRT nonusers: ORs were 1.77 (95% CI = 1.02–3.05 and 2.21 (95% CI = 1.09–4.45, respectively (P for trend = 0.03, for BMI changes occurring between the 20s decade and time of recruitment among non-users. Similar associations were observed for BMI changes since the 30s decade. There was no association among HRT users. Conclusion. Our results suggest early adulthood weight gain increases colon cancer risk in postmenopausal women who do not use HRT.

  5. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman O Oloritun

    Full Text Available Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and R(2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001 of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as

  6. Models for the control of electric actuators (EGEM, electrical engineering series); Modeles pour la commande des actionneurs electriques (Traite EGEM, serie Genie electrique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, J.P.


    The modeling of a system to be automatized is a key step for the determination of the control laws because these laws are based on inverse models deduced from direct models. The ideal example is the DC actuator, the simpleness of which allows to directly shift from the modeling to the control law. For AC actuators, the modeling tools are based on the classical hypotheses: linearity, first harmonics, symmetry. They lead to very efficient models which allow to study the properties in dynamical and permanent regime of the most important actuators: synchronous motors, asynchronous motors, voltage inverters. Some extensions to other kind of machines which does not fulfill the classical hypotheses are also proposed: synchronous machines with non-sinusoidal field distribution and asynchronous machines in saturated regime. (J.S.)

  7. The Compass Paradigm for the Systematic Evaluation of U.S. Army Command and Control Systems Using Neural Network and Discrete Event Computer Simulation (United States)


    have limited capability in actual performance. 10. Occlusion : This is a time-sharing technique that is similar to the secondary task method...when compared to other techniques. o Substantial lengths of time may be necessary for operators to learn to use the occlusion apparatus. 11...TSCD Targeting Station Control And Display TSFO Training Set Fire Observation TMD Tactical Munitions Dispenser TSG The Surgeon General TMD

  8. Evaluation of Potential Test Environments for Assessing the Impact of Multi-Sensor Data Fusion on Command and Control Operations in the HALIFAX Class Frigate (United States)


    T&E paradigm) • Flexible arrangement for workstation/controller combinations • Capability to simulate the functions required for the team role or...functional arrangement of the workstations to allow either individual players to play individual team roles (as in the ORTT) but also to allow...Capability to simulate the ~ ?3 ~ ~ ~ functions required to support the team role or roles under analysis Capability to create T&E ~ ~ ~ ?4 ?s

  9. Windows Command Line Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul


    The perfect companion to any book on Windows Server 2008 or Windows 7, and the quickest way to access critical information. Focusing just on the essentials of command-line interface (CLI), Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference easily shows how to quickly perform day-to-day tasks of Windows administration without ever touching the graphical user interface (GUI). Specifically designed for busy administrators, Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference replaces many tedious GUI steps with just one command at the command-line, while concise, easy to access answers provid

  10. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred James Müller


    Full Text Available BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA. However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient. FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone.

  11. Social ideological influences on food consumption, physical activity and BMI. (United States)

    Wang, W C; Worsley, A; Cunningham, E G


    We investigated relationships between ideological beliefs (i.e., diaphanous body image and environmental concerns), food attitudes, evening meal patterns, physical activity, and Body Mass Index (BMI). A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. A survey was conducted among shoppers aged 40-70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested among female baby boomers (n=547) for younger (n=245) and older (n=302) age groups using structural equation modeling. Findings showed that diaphanous body image had a direct and positive influence on negative food attitudes, which is likely to lead to higher BMI for both age groups. Body image beliefs were positively related to physical activity only for women aged 56-70 years. In contrast, among women aged 40-55 years, strong pro-environmental concerns suggested less consumption of both healthy (e.g., fruit and vegetables) and unhealthy (e.g., sugar and fats) foods. Moreover, strong pro-animal concerns resulted in higher BMI for the younger women. As expected, increased physical activity negatively influenced BMI. Importantly, the associations between ideological beliefs, attitudes, evening meal patterns, and BMI differed between younger and older female baby boomers.

  12. Development of the Macro Command Editing Executive System for Factory Workers-Oriented Programless Visual Inspection System (United States)

    Anezaki, Takashi; Wakitani, Kouichi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Kubo, Hiroyasu

    Because visual inspection systems are difficult to tune, they create many problems for the kaizen process. This results in increased development costs and time to assure that the inspection systems function properly. In order to improve inspection system development, we designed an easy-tuning system called a “Program-less” visual inspection system. The ROI macro command which consisted of eight kinds of shape recognition macro commands and decision, operation, control commands was built. Furthermore, the macro command editing executive system was developed by the operation of only the GUI without editing source program. The validity of the ROI macro command was proved by the application of 488 places.

  13. Changes in weight and BMI following the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. (United States)

    de Vries, L; Bar-Niv, M; Lebenthal, Y; Tenenbaum, A; Shalitin, S; Lazar, L; Cohen, A; Phillip, M


    The aim of this study was to study weight and body mass index (BMI) before, at, and after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to identify factors associated with weight gain. Studied retrospectively were 209 children 18 years with T1D followed for 6 years. Data collected included clinical and laboratory data before diagnosis, at diagnosis, and during 6 years of follow-up. Anthropometric parameters of patients were compared along follow-up and with those of their parents and siblings. Mean BMI-standard deviation score (SDS) was below average at diagnosis (-0.66 ± 1.27), had increased to 0.37 ± 0.93 at 3 months, and decreased to a nadir at 6 months in females and 12 months in males; between 1 and 3 years, there was a slight increase and between 3 and 6 years a further increase only in the females. BMI-SDS at 6 years was significantly higher than pre-diabetes BMI-SDS (0.35 ± 0.83 vs. -0.04 ± 1.23, p 1). Patients' BMI-SDS at 6 years was similar to that of their parents and siblings, was higher in the females (0.53 ± 0.74 vs. 0.27 ± 0.82, p = 0.02) and in those keeping diabetes a secret (0.66 ± 0.82 vs. 0.33 ± 0.78, p = 0.027), and was not associated with age or pubertal stage at diagnosis, ethnicity, or metabolic control. A longer duration of insulin pump therapy was associated with a lower BMI-SDS (r = -0.2375, p < 0.025). BMI-SDS increased during the 6 years following diagnosis of T1D in pediatric patients, especially in the females, but remained in the normal range and was similar to that of other family members.

  14. The mediating role of dichotomous thinking and emotional eating in the relationship between depression and BMI. (United States)

    Antoniou, Evangelia E; Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita


    Obesity and depression have important health implications. Although there is knowledge about the moderators of the depression-obesity association, our understanding of the potential behavioral and cognitive mediators that may explain the relationship between depression and obesity, is scarcely researched. The aim of this study is to investigate the mediating role of emotional eating and dichotomous thinking in the depression-obesity relationship. Data on 205 individuals from a community-based study conducted at Maastricht University, Netherlands were used. Self-reported data on depression, emotional eating and dichotomous thinking were collected and BMI scores were calculated in a cross-sectional research design. Correlations between variables were calculated. The primary analysis tested the hypothesis that depression has an effect on BMI through dichotomous thinking and emotional eating. A two-mediator model was used to predict the direct and indirect effects of emotional eating and dichotomous thinking on the depression-BMI relationship. Depression was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.21, p=0.005), emotional eating (r=0.38, pthinking (r=0.49, pthinking and emotional eating were positively correlated with BMI (r=0.35, pthinking (Z=2.54, p=0.01, 95% confidence intervals=0.01-0.17) and emotional eating (Z=3.92 pthinking might be useful in guiding assessment and treatment protocols for weight management. The present study adds to the existing literature on the role of dysfunctional cognitions and emotions on eating behavior, and particularly to the factors that may impede people's ability to control their eating.

  15. Methods, systems and apparatus for adjusting modulation index to improve linearity of phase voltage commands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Perisic, Milun; Kinoshita, Michael H.


    Embodiments of the present invention relate to methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of a multi-phase machine in a motor drive system. The disclosed embodiments provide a mechanism for adjusting modulation index of voltage commands to improve linearity of the voltage commands.

  16. Reliability Analysis and Standardization of Spacecraft Command Generation Processes (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Grenander, Sven; Evensen, Ken


    center dot In order to reduce commanding errors that are caused by humans, we create an approach and corresponding artifacts for standardizing the command generation process and conducting risk management during the design and assurance of such processes. center dot The literature review conducted during the standardization process revealed that very few atomic level human activities are associated with even a broad set of missions. center dot Applicable human reliability metrics for performing these atomic level tasks are available. center dot The process for building a "Periodic Table" of Command and Control Functions as well as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models is demonstrated. center dot The PRA models are executed using data from human reliability data banks. center dot The Periodic Table is related to the PRA models via Fault Links.

  17. Botnet Command Detection using Virtual Honeynet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Internet attacks are growing with time, threats are increasing to disableinfrastructure to those that also target peoples and organization, these increasing largeattacks, and the new class of attacks directly targets the large businesses and governmentsaround the world. At the centre of many of these attacks is a large pool of compromisedcomputers which are called zombies commonly controlled by the attackers by using somecommon channels? Attackers use these zombies as anonymous proxies to hide their realidentities and amplify their attacks. A botnet is a network of compromised machines thatcan be remotely controlled by an attacker. With the view of affect made by the botnet, wepropose an approach using Virtual Honeynet data collection mechanisms to detect IRCand HTTP based botnet Command signatures. We have evaluated our approach using realworld network traces.

  18. The relation between BMI with exercise test in individuals with cardiac ischemic pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanbakhsh Esmaeili1


    Full Text Available (Received 19 Nov, 2008; Accepted 28 Jan, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Prevalence of over weight and obesity is increasing in the world. Those over weight are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases than other individual's. Studies indicate that body fat distribution has a determining role in the identification of risk factors. Also, the relation between BMI, cardiac ischemic pains and exercise test condition in such patients, is in need further investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between BMI with exercise tolerance test in patients with cardiac ischemic pains, who were referred to the Cardiac Center of Mazandaran Province, in Sari Township.Materials and methods: In this case control study considering the BMI in ischemic patients, 65 were selected as case and 65 persons as control using Tread mill and according to Bruce Protocol, results and tolerance test time was recorded. Independent T test was used for comparison of quantitative indexes mean, while x2 test using SPSS soft ware was used for comparison of the ratio of persons with the qualitative features.Results: Data indicated mean weight of 57.1 kg and height of 1.64m in the case group. Also, 58.5% had history of hyperlipidemia (Cholesterol higher than 200mg/dl and 78.8% with history of blood sugar (higher than 120mg/dl (P<0.001. Even 63.6% had hypertension of 140/9o mm Hg. Our findings showed that BMI in the case and control groups were (26.95±3.94 and (25.95±3.49 respectively. Moreover, a significant relationship between high BMI with cardiac ischemic pains and exercise tolerance test (P<0.001 were demonstrated.Conclusion: Cardiac ischemic pains in individuals with high BMI is common. Exercise tolerance test as one of the non invasive and less expensive procedures, can be an indicator of cardiac ischemic disease.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(68: 64-69 (Persian

  19. What It Takes. Air Force Command of Joint Operations (United States)


    Vago Muradian, “USAF Struggles with Budget Shortfall,” Defense News, August 20, 2007, p. 4. 50 Headquarters, U.S. Air Force, Air and Space Operations...Antonio III, USMC, NATO Command and Control: Bridging the Gap, Newport, R.I.: Naval War College, February 5, 2001. Muradian, Vago , “USAF Struggles with

  20. Preparation of the Heat Resistant Adhesive of NBR Modified BMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A Kind of homogeneous resin, which can be used as thermal resistant adhesive and matrix for composite,was prepared by bis(4-maleimidophenyl)methane (BMI), 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane(DDM), aniline(An), phenol type epoxy resin (F-51) and nitrile -butadiene rubber (NBR) through solution copolymerization. The reaction from prepolymerization to curing of the resin system was studied. And the factors such as raw material ratio and curing temperature, which affect thermal resistance and adhesives of cured product,were also analyzed. SEM and IR spectra were utilized to discuss the mechanisms of toughness and reaction of modified BMI.

  1. Comparison between a classical command law and a new advanced recovery command law in a MCB-ARS boost (United States)

    Petit, Pierre; Saint-Eve, Frédéric; Sawicki, Jean-Paul; Aillerie, Michel


    This paper focuses on an original performed command on DC-DC boosts developed for applications in the LMOPS lab for the photovoltaic energy conversion and more specifically the Photovoltaic panels connected to HVDC smart grids. This boost, commonly named MCB-ARS (Magnetically Coupled Boost with Active Recovery Switch) presents great advantages concerning the simplicity of the command on the single constitutive switch, the global efficiency and the voltage conversion ratio. A fine analysis of the losses all over the entire converter shows that losses are not distributed uniformly in the constituting components. So a previous modification described in a previous paper consisting in the conducting assistance on the power flowing intermediate diode, performed advantageously the global efficiency. The present analysis takes into account the fact that the new configuration obtained after this important improvement looks like a classical half-bridge push-pull stage and may be controlled by a twice complementary command. In that way, a comparison has been done between a natural commutation recovery diode and an assisted switch commutation driven in a push-pull mode. As attempted, the switching command laws in charge to assume the energy transfer has been compared to the classical previous system described in anterior papers, and we demonstrate in this publication that a commutation based on a push-pull command mode within the two switches of the MCB-ARS converter is possible and increases the power transfer.

  2. Commande adaptive d'une machine asynchrone (United States)

    Slama-Belkhodja, I.; de Fornel, B.


    The paper deals with an indirect self-tuning speed control for an induction motor supplied by a chopper-filter-inverter system. Input/Output models are identified with the recursive least squares algorithm and the controller adaptation is based on a pole assignement strategy. Emphasis is put on the evaluation of the parameter identification in order to avoid instabilities because of disturbances or insufficient excitations. This is especially of importance when the adaptive control is carried out in closed loop systems and without additional test signals. Simulation results show the improvement of the dynamic responses and the robustness against load variations or parameters variations (rotor resistance, inertia). Cat article décrit une stratégie de commande adaptive indirecte à Placement de Pôles (PP), appliquée à la commande en vitesse d'une machine asynchrone alimentée par un ensemble hacheur-filtre-onduleur de tension. L'algorithme des Moindres Carrés Récursifs (MCR) est utilisé pour l'identification des modèles de comportement type entrées/sorties. Un intérêt particulier est porté à la mise en oeuvre de cet algorithme et à la discussion de ses résultats, tenant compte des erreurs de modélisation et de la nature peu riche en excitations des entrées du processus. Différents régimes transitoires ont été simulés pour apprécier l'apport de cette association (MCR-PP) : démarrages et inversion des sens de rotation, à vide et en charges, applications d'échelons de couple résistant, variations paramétriques. Les résultats permettent d'illustrer, tant au niveau des performances que de la robustesse, l'apport d'une telle commande adaptive pour des entraînements électriques avec une machine asynchrone.

  3. Les esclaves du commandant Quiquandon


    Tymowski, Michal


    Le 10 janvier 1895, Albert Grodet, gouverneur général du Soudan français, adressa au ministère des Colonies une dépêche accusant le commandant Quiquandon, dirigeant de la région Nord-Est (Ségou), d'exploiter illégalement un domaine sur lequel travaillent 140 esclaves. À partir de ce cas particulier, l'auteur analyse les conflits qui existaient à l'époque entre l'administration civile et un groupe d'officiers soudanais. Il se demande si la possession d'esclaves par des officiers, prenant...

  4. BMI and depressive symptoms: the role of media pressures. (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G


    Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders.

  5. Social ideological influences on reported food consumption and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worsley Anthony


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between ideological beliefs, perceptions of the importance of health behaviours, health attitudes, food consumption, and Body Mass Index (BMI. A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975. Methods A survey was conducted among shoppers aged between 40 and 70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested with this empirical data (n = 410 for younger (n = 151 and older (n = 259 age groups using structural equation modelling. Results The findings generally support the study hypotheses. For both groups, egalitarianism had a direct and positive influence on perceptions of the importance of health behaviours. Materialism and masculinity impacted negatively on health attitudes, which positively influenced importance of health behaviours. Perceptions of importance of health behaviours impacted positively on the consumption of healthy foods such as vegetables and fruits, but negatively on consumption of unhealthy foods including sweets and fats. However, BMI was significantly influenced by the consumption of unhealthy foods (e.g., sugar and fats only for the younger age group. Hence, the associations between beliefs, attitudes, consumption behaviours, and BMI outcomes differed between younger and older age populations. Conclusion Social ideological beliefs appear to influence health attitudes and thereafter, the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods and BMI via different pathways.

  6. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forthun, Ingeborg; Wilcox, Allen J; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine


    the national CP registries. Associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and CP in offspring were investigated by using log-binomial regression models. RESULTS: The 2 cohorts had 390 eligible cases of CP (2.1 per 1000 live-born children). Compared with mothers in the lower normal weight group, mothers...

  7. Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kishore Mohan


    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33±13.12 years from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02±1.47 kg/m2 was compared with obese group (29.31±3.95 kg/m2, <0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92±4.28 kg was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1 kg, <0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

  8. Bmi-1 Regulates Extensive Erythroid Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Ram Kim


    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs, responsible for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide exchange, are essential for our well-being. Alternative RBC sources are needed to meet the increased demand for RBC transfusions projected to occur as our population ages. We previously have discovered that erythroblasts derived from the early mouse embryo can self-renew extensively ex vivo for many months. To better understand the mechanisms regulating extensive erythroid self-renewal, global gene expression data sets from self-renewing and differentiating erythroblasts were analyzed and revealed the differential expression of Bmi-1. Bmi-1 overexpression conferred extensive self-renewal capacity upon adult bone-marrow-derived self-renewing erythroblasts, which normally have limited proliferative potential. Importantly, Bmi-1 transduction did not interfere with the ability of extensively self-renewing erythroblasts (ESREs to terminally mature either in vitro or in vivo. Bmi-1-induced ESREs can serve to generate in vitro models of erythroid-intrinsic disorders and ultimately may serve as a source of cultured RBCs for transfusion therapy.

  9. Effect of BMI on Knee Joint Torques in Ergometer Rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie


    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity bi

  10. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake. (United States)

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M E; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Slimani, Nadia


    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P 0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.

  11. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.


    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  12. CCL: console command language, RSX11M V4. 0, V7. OC tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downward, J. G.


    The normal user interface to an RSX11M operating system is via MCR (Monitor Console Routine). If terminal input is not specifically requested by a task, all data or commands typed in at a user's terminal, are sent by the terminal driver to MCR for decoding. The MCR task (and its child ...SYS) decode user commands (ACT, ABORT,RUN, DEV, ETC.). Tasks installed with special names of the form ...XYZ are treated as an external MCR command. Hence if a user types, XYZ COMMANDLINE, the commandline in its entirety (or at least up to 79 characters) is sent as input to the task ...XYZ. This is the conventional way of supplying most system commands and controlling the operation of the RSX11M utility program. The limitations of this method are: (1) each task must be installed to get MCR command lines; (2) each installed task uses valuable POOL space; (3) only privileged users can INSTALL and REMOVE tasks; and (4) non-privileged users are restricted to RUNning non-installed tasks. To solve this problem, a user tailorable Console Command Language (CCL) has been implemented which allows each user to have a private task control language to pass command lines to tasks that are not installed in th system as external MCR commands.

  13. Can self-reported BMI be used as a valid measure among novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Martin Serup; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, Sten

    SC-330) while their height was measured with a tape measure. Based on these data BMI were calculated based on the equation: BMI = mass (kg) / (height (m))2. Paired t-test was used to compare mean difference between self-reported BMI and measured BMI. Bland Altman limits of agreement were used...

  14. Command-And-Control or Taxation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Christina; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    California and Denmark are both facing water scarcity issues as demand has increased and supply has decreased over the years. In order to solve this problem these two actors have chosen very different ways of dealing with sustaining an adequate amount of domestic water supply. California has chos...

  15. Resilient Organizational Architectures for Command and Control (United States)


    translating other architectural approaches (for example Business Process Model and Notation or BPMN ) into Petri Net format. 2.2 The Attributes of...implementing workflows such as Business Process Model and Notation ( BPMN ) [76] and Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) [77]. The domain specific...Language (GPL) [79] and can be a specific profile of an existing GPL, i.e., BPMN . Figure 33 shows the mapping between our proposed Domain Specific Multi

  16. Modelling of Command and Control Agility (United States)


    TOIS), Volume 10, Issue 2:181-212. Checkland, P. & Poulter, J., 2007. Learning For Action: A Short Definitive Account of Soft Systems Methodology , and...its use Practitioners, Teachers and Students. Wiley, UK. Checkland, P., & Scholes, J., 1990. Soft Systems Methodology in Action. Wiley, Chichester

  17. Coalitions: Organizational, Political, Command & Control Challenges (United States)


    conditions dans lesquelles les coalitions sont formées sont décrites, considérant coûts et bénéfices d’une telle entreprise . Les propriétés des...environment, and external and internal coupling. • Context is a way of life and work in a specific geographic area with its own set of business ...economic systems, corporate governance, management systems, and incentive, motivation or reward schemes. • People who design, support, lead or work in

  18. Interoperable Architecture for Command and Control (United States)


    Data-in-rest client Data-in-motion client Gateway Combat Group B BGAN Satellite Emergency Services radio GIS data-in-motion source C2 App WiMax ...Data-in-motion client Gateway Combat Group C BGAN Satellite GIS WiMax /Wifi Routing DM Email data-in-motion source & data-in-rest client Data-in-rest...Combat Group B BGAN Satellite Emergency Services radio GIS data-in-motion source C2 App WiMax /Wifi Routing DM Combat Communications Infrastructure

  19. Option Generation Techniques for Command and Control. (United States)


    elted in Slock 20, it different from Repot) Same I$. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES RADC Project Engineer: James R. Jecen (COAD) This effort was funded totally...beneficial in prompting the decision maker trainee , when he is stuck, to select and begin a next appropriate action, instructing him on the use of any...associated tool. It could also point out when the trainee is likely to suffer the effects of the various types of biases. For example, an evaluation tool

  20. Command and Control for War and Peace (United States)


    the more rational ones link creativity with cognitive development and draw on the work of Jean Piaget and William Perry. Others derive from Henri...uphill rule,2 Piaget , Jean , I l l "Politicians, See also Congress objective, 24, ,1 perspectives on C3 , 48-49, offensive, 24, 30-31 50 security, 25, 27, 80

  1. Enhancing Command and Control in Multinational Operations (United States)


    the twentieth century. This new geopolitical role brought with it an initially reluctant move away from isolationism and a gradual acceptance of...However, high technology solutions face two major hurdles that limit their full potential. First, budget constraints and national protectionism of

  2. Wireless Technology for Command Control and Communications (United States)


    considered as an interim approach to digital services . How will cellular providers react to these multiple approaches for digital services is hard to...customer base to introduce digital services . Economic force and market initiation of CDPD is of great concerns to competitive providers such as ARDIS and

  3. Evaluation of Command and Control Centers (United States)


    MAUA ) model for the evaluation of C information capabili- ties. MAUA is a structured, logically defensible approach to the evaluation of entities which...vary along more than one dimension. A MAUA model is hierarchical in nature, starting with the specified top-level factor for which an overall score...used in MAUA . One is a "top-down" approach, which begins at the top of a hierarchy, first establishing the relative importance between factors (level

  4. Database Migration for Command and Control (United States)


    resulting in an estimated workload increase of 26 man-years, which includes the impacts to users worldwide. 2 MY for SPOC 24+ MY for Users...The unit-level TBMCS is not online with common TBMCS databases, MIDB and AODB, but instead copies the databases for their use. PACAF is developing...SERVICES Operating System Services (Unix, NT) and Windowing (X, Motif, NT)K ER N EL MCG&I Alerts OnLine Help Correlation Office Automation Logistics

  5. Command Control for Many-Robot Systems (United States)


    Intelligence", American Scientist , vol 77, March-April 1989, pp 139-145. 14. Deneubourg, J.L., et al. ÒThe Dynamics of Collective Sorting Robot-Like Ants...Colony as a Superorganism", American Scientist , Volume 77, November-December 1989, pp 546-553. 16. Braitenberg, V. Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic

  6. Command, Control, and the Common Defense (United States)


    submitting to anything less than a presidential directive and sometimes, to his eventual regret , not even then) and ultimately to the 1958 legislation...Analysis and Evaluation is the lineal descendant of the Enthoven-Hitch systems analysis office brought to the Pentagon by Robert McNamara. Like other


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized nations. Serum lipid concentrations are related to cardiovascular disease risk and one notable association is a statistically significant inverse correlation between HDL-cholesterol concentrations and the probability of developing coronary artery disease. A major related cardiovascular disease risk factor is obesity. Excess body weight is closely linked to low serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The general assumption now is that excessive body weight is associated with enlarged adipose tissue deposits, visceral adipose tissue in particular, which in turn are accompanied by elevated serum triacylglycerol concentrations. A well-studied inverse association exists between serum triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and this may explain the observed low serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations in obesity. This study is done to confirm the above fact. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects for the study were 100 males in the age group of 21 to 40 years. The subjects taken as obese were 50 and those taken as controls were 50. Obesity was taken into account according to the Body Mass Index. RESULTS: Paired T test is done. Results show that 34/50 subjects with BMI 40mg/dl. 40/50 obese patients with BMI >25kg/m2 show HDL levels of <40mg/dl. Significant P value is seen. The study shows that BMI is inversely related to HDL cholesterol levels. DISCUSSION: High HDL cholesterol, above 60 mg/dl is associated with low risk of coronary heart disease. HDL cholesterol below 40 mg/dL is considered too low and appears to be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Low HDL cholesterol is one of the most common phenotypes seen in persons with premature heart disease. Obesity is associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels. A negative correlation exists between HDL cholesterol and body-mass index (BMI, meaning that HDL

  8. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  9. RAPID: Collaborative Commanding and Monitoring of Lunar Assets (United States)

    Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Powell, Mark W.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Abramyan, Lucy; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael; Allan, Mark; Hirsh, Robert


    RAPID (Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate) software utilizes highly robust technology to facilitate commanding and monitoring of lunar assets. RAPID provides the ability for intercenter communication, since these assets are developed in multiple NASA centers. RAPID is targeted at the task of lunar operations; specifically, operations that deal with robotic assets, cranes, and astronaut spacesuits, often developed at different NASA centers. RAPID allows for a uniform way to command and monitor these assets. Commands can be issued to take images, and monitoring is done via telemetry data from the asset. There are two unique features to RAPID: First, it allows any operator from any NASA center to control any NASA lunar asset, regardless of location. Second, by abstracting the native language for specific assets to a common set of messages, an operator may control and monitor any NASA lunar asset by being trained only on the use of RAPID, rather than the specific asset. RAPID is easier to use and more powerful than its predecessor, the Astronaut Interface Device (AID). Utilizing the new robust middleware, DDS (Data Distribution System), developing in RAPID has increased significantly over the old middleware. The API is built upon the Java Eclipse Platform, which combined with DDS, provides platform-independent software architecture, simplifying development of RAPID components. As RAPID continues to evolve and new messages are being designed and implemented, operators for future lunar missions will have a rich environment for commanding and monitoring assets.

  10. Defense Headquarters: Geographic Combatant Commands Rely on Subordinate Commands for Mission Management and Execution (United States)


    Additionally, in November 2015, the Secretary of Defense directed a review of DOD’s organizational structures and is considering a number of actions... changes have occurred since the 2011 Unified Command Plan was published. Page 2 GAO-16-652R Defense Headquarters sufficiently reliable for the...commands. • We found that the combatant commands utilize subordinate commands to execute assigned missions. The organizational construct DOD created

  11. Supervisory Control of Multiple Uninhabited Systems Methodologies and Human-Robot Interface Technologies Technical (Commande et Surveillance de multiples systemes sans pilote Methodologies et technologies d’interfaces homme-robot) (United States)


    generation and application of state-of-the- art , validated knowledge for defence and security purposes. S&T activities embrace scientific research...résultats ont été réunis en un nouveau projet de modèle de commande et surveillance qui tient compte de tous les aspects de recherche prioritaire. Deux

  12. Association between family divorce and children's BMI and meal patterns: the GENDAI Study. (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Hatzopoulou, Ioanna; Efstathiou, Eleftheria; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Dedoussis, George V


    The aim of this work was to explore the associations between family factors, including divorce, and children's overweight as well as eating and physical activity patterns in a population-based sample of healthy school-aged children. In this cross-sectional study, 1,138 children (53% girls; age: 11.2 +/- 0.7 years) from elementary schools in the Attica region participated. Their parents provided sociodemographic information, including their marital status. Overweight status classification was based on weight and height measurements and BMI evaluation. Children completed a physical activity checklist and a questionnaire on meal patterns and eating behaviors. The Eating Style score was calculated: the higher the score, the more frequent a child was engaged in less-structured feeding practices promoting food intake for reasons other than hunger. Analysis revealed significant association between family divorce and children's overweight: compared with children of married parents, those of divorced had significantly higher BMI levels (20.0 +/- 3.6 kg/m(2) vs. 21.3 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2), respectively, P = 0.007). Controlling for socioeconomic and physical activity factors, divorce remains a significant predictor of a higher BMI, along with older age, higher father's and mother's BMI, less children in the family, and more minutes of daily screen time. Children who had experienced a divorce in their family also reported higher Eating Style score, even after adjusting for potential confounders. In conclusion, in this sample of fifth and sixth graders, unfavorable family circumstances have been associated with children's overweight, as well as with aspects of their eating behavior, namely eating style in relation to conditions around food consumption and hunger, independent of other socioeconomic factors.

  13. Integrated genomic and BMI analysis for type 2 diabetes risk assessment (United States)

    Lebrón-Aldea, Dayanara; Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Klimentidis, Yann C.; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Vazquez, Ana I.


    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a chronic disease arising from the development of insulin absence or resistance within the body, and a complex interplay of environmental and genetic factors. The incidence of T2D has increased throughout the last few decades, together with the occurrence of the obesity epidemic. The consideration of variants identified by Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) into risk assessment models for T2D could aid in the identification of at-risk patients who could benefit from preventive medicine. In this study, we build several risk assessment models, evaluated with two different classification approaches (Logistic Regression and Neural Networks), to measure the effect of including genetic information in the prediction of T2D. We used data from to the Original and the Offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study, which provides phenotypic and genetic information for 5245 subjects (4306 controls and 939 cases). Models were built by using several covariates: gender, exposure time, cohort, body mass index (BMI), and 65 SNPs associated to T2D. We fitted Logistic Regressions and Bayesian Regularized Neural Networks and then assessed their predictive ability by using a ten-fold cross validation. We found that the inclusion of genetic information into the risk assessment models increased the predictive ability by 2%, when compared to the baseline model. Furthermore, the models that included BMI at the onset of diabetes as a possible effector, gave an improvement of 6% in the area under the curve derived from the ROC analysis. The highest AUC achieved (0.75) belonged to the model that included BMI, and a genetic score based on the 65 established T2D-associated SNPs. Finally, the inclusion of SNPs and BMI raised predictive ability in all models as expected; however, results from the AUC in Neural Networks and Logistic Regression did not differ significantly in their prediction accuracy. PMID:25852736

  14. Integrated genomic and BMI analysis for type 2 diabetes risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanara eLebrón-Aldea


    Full Text Available Type 2 Diabetes (T2D is a chronic disease arising from the development of insulin absence or resistance within the body, and a complex interplay of environmental and genetic factors. The incidence of T2D has increased throughout the last few decades, together with the occurrence of the obesity epidemic. The consideration of variants identified by Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS into risk assessment models for T2D could aid in the identification of at-risk patients who could benefit from preventive medicine. In this study, we build several risk assessment models, and evaluated them with two different classification approaches (Logistic Regression and Neural Networks, to measure the effect of including genetic information in the prediction of T2D. We used data from to the Original and the Offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study, which provides phenotypic and genetic information for 5,245 subjects (4,306 controls and 939 cases. Models were built by using several covariates: gender, exposure time, cohort, body mass index (BMI, and 65 established T2D-associated SNPs. We fitted Logistic Regressions and Bayesian Regularized Neural Network and then assessed their predictive ability by using a ten-fold cross validation. We found that the inclusion of genetic information into the risk assessment models increased the predictive ability by 2%, when compared to the baseline model. Furthermore, the models that included BMI at the onset of diabetes as a possible effector, gave an improvement of 6% in the area under the curve derived from the ROC analysis. The highest AUC achieved (0.75 belonged to the model that included BMI, and a genetic score based on the 65 established T2D-associated SNPs. Finally, the inclusion of SNPs and BMI raised predictive ability in all models as expected; however, results from the AUC in Neural Networks and Logistic Regression did not differ significantly in their prediction accuracy.

  15. 14 CFR 1214.703 - Chain of command. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chain of command. 1214.703 Section 1214.703... Shuttle Commander § 1214.703 Chain of command. (a) The Commander is a career NASA astronaut who has been..., and that another crew member in the chain of command is to succeed to the authority of the...

  16. To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome (United States)

    Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan


    AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

  17. 32 CFR 552.65 - Command supervision. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Command supervision. 552.65 Section 552.65 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND....65 Command supervision. (a) All insurance business conducted on Army installation will be...

  18. General Troy H. Middleton: Steadfast in Command (United States)


    September 1943. Middleton’s chronic football injury to his left knee forced him to relinquish command of the 45th Infantry division on November 19, 1943...gone down in history as an irresponsible commander who recklessly sacrificed his divisions or ignored true objectives… gambling always looks brilliant

  19. Distress tolerance as a predictor of adherence to a yoga intervention: Moderating roles of BMI and body image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, S.O.; Hopkins, L.B.; Medina, J.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.


    This study tested whether distress tolerance, body image, and body mass index (BMI) predicted adherence to a yoga intervention. Participants were 27 women who participated in a yoga intervention as part of a randomized controlled trial. Attendance and distress tolerance were assessed weekly, and bod

  20. Somatic Changes of University Students in BMI and WHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cepková Alena


    Full Text Available The article dealt with the assessment of somatic changes of the students at the Slovak University of Technology (STU, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FME, specifically expressed by Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR during the years 2007 and 2013. In total 2228 men were involved in the study and measured upon their entry at the university. It was found out that the values of BMI belonged to the category of average range measured for adults (from 22.96 kg.m-2 to 24.60 kg.m-2 and indicates standard values. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01 were discovered between the years 2011 (23.70 kg.m-2 and 2012 (24.60 kg.m-2, 2012 (24.60 kg.m-2 and 2013 (22.96 kg.m-2. In 2012 participants achieved in average the highest values (BMI = 24.60 kg.m-2, which borders with a moderate overweight. In the contrary, in 2013 the students achieved the lowest values of BMI (22.96 kg.m-2. A slight increase of average BMI values may be observed from the first test in 2007 until 2012. The predominance of standard weight was measured at 71% of the total number of monitored students and the predominance of overweight was measured at 22% of students from the total number of university students. The observation of WHR numbers makes us conclude that during our seven year study no significant differences were discovered in the first five years. The values were stable and from the mean point of view, they do not indicate the risk of development of diseases relating to overweight and obesity. In 2012 and 2013 a slight decrease of WHR values was detected < 0.85. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05 were discovered between the years 2010 (0.854 and 2011 (0.864, and also between 2011 (0.864 and 2012 (0.843. The lowest mean value of WHR was measured when performing the last test in the year 2013 (0.823. There was a statistically significant difference at p<0.05 within the years 2012 and 2013. The highest mean value was discovered in 2011 (0

  1. 指控系统中多操作系统启动工具的研究%Research on Multiple OS Boot-loader for Command and Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连建永; 顾忠明; 张安琳; 黄道颖; 张安琴


    指控系统中GRUB2作为启动引导器,管理多种操作系统平台。GRUB2采用模块化设计,可以提供给使用者更大的灵活性和性能改进。Linux系统的模块化设计与运行机制已被广泛讨论,有关GRUB2的模块化设计与运行机制的资料却很少。为了了解它的模块化编程与运行机制,通过对一个模块程序的分析,介绍了GRUB2中模块程序的基本结构及模块化设计的灵活性;并讨论了GRUB2的模块运行机制,明确了模块运行所需的底层工作。在此基础上,可以对GRUB2进行二次开发,扩展其应用场合。%As a boot loader,GRUB2 for Command and Control Systems manage a wide range of OS platform. GRUB2 uses a modular design,provided to the user greater flexibility and performance improvements. It is being discussed very clear on Linux module programming and running mechanism, but the same information about GRUB2 is seldom. In order to understand GRUB2’s modular programming and running,by analyzing a module program,its basic structure of module program in the GRUB2 is introduced and the flexibility of GRUB2 modular design is showed,by discussing GRUB2 module mechanism,the underlying work solution that required to run the module is clarified. On this basis,GRUB2 can be redeveloped to consummate its functions and extend its application occasions.

  2. Astronaut John Young in Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation (United States)


    Astronaut John W. Young, command module pilot, inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot are out of the view.

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess: a prospective study (United States)

    Yuan, Chun; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Mao, Yundong; Diao, Feiyang; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin


    Abstract Biochemical or clinical changes of hyperandrogenism are important elements of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There is currently no consensus on the definition and diagnostic criteria of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. The aim of this study was to investigate the complex symptoms of hyperandrogenic disorders and the correlations between metabolism and hyperandrogenism in patients with PCOS from an outpatient reproductive medicine clinic in China. We conducted a case control study of 125 PCOS patients and 130 controls to evaluate differences in body mass index (BMI), total testosterone (TT), modified Ferriman-Gallwey hirsutism score, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and free androgen index (FAI) between PCOS patients and controls and subgroups of PCOS. The prevalence of acne and hirsutism did not differ significantly between the hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic subgroup. Patients with signs of hyperandrogenism had significantly higher BMI (P < 0.05), but differences in TT, SHBG, FAI and waist/hip ratio were insignificant. The odds ratio of overweight was calculated for all PCOS patients. Our results suggest that PCOS patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess; therefore, BMI may be a strong predictor of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. PMID:27526961

  4. No Obesity Paradox—BMI Incapable of Adequately Capturing the Relation of Obesity with All-Cause Mortality: An Inception Diabetes Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Bozorgmanesh


    Full Text Available Background. To reconcile “the obesity paradox,” we tested if (1 the contribution of anthropometric measures to mortality was nonlinear and (2 the confounding of hip circumference contributed to the obesity paradox recently observed among diabetic patients. Methods. We analyzed data of diabetic patients attending a community-based prospective, “Tehran lipid and glucose study.” In the mortality analysis, anthropometric measures—body mass index (BMI, waist, and hip circumference—were assessed using Cox models incorporating cubic spline functions. Results. During 12 990 person-years follow-up, BMI levels below 27 and those above 40 kg·m−2 were associated with increased mortality. When we added waist circumference to the BMI in the multivariate-adjusted model, the steepness of BMI-mortality association curve slope for values below 27 kg·m−2 increased, whereas the steepness of BMI-mortality association curve slope for values above this threshold decreased. Further adjusting the model for hip circumference, the steepness of the slopes of the association curve moved towards null on both extremes and no associations between BMI and all-cause mortality remained. Conclusion. BMI harbors intermixed positive and negative confounding effects on mortality of waist and hip circumference. Failing to control for the confounding effect of hip circumference may stymie unbiased hazard estimation and render conclusions paradoxical.

  5. Delayed Bilateral Teleoperation of Wheeled Robots including a Command Metric



    This paper proposes a control scheme applied to the delayed bilateral teleoperation of wheeled robots with force feedback, considering the performance of the operator`s command execution. In addition, the stability of the system is analyzed taking into account the dynamic model of the master as well as the remote mobile robot under asymmetric and time-varying delays of the communication channel. Besides, the performance of the teleoperation system, where a human operator drives a 3D simulator...

  6. BMI1 gene expression and significance in chronic myeloid leukemia%慢性粒细胞白血病BMI1基因表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛熙; 赵枰


    Objective:To detect the expressions of BMI1 mRNA in chronic myeloid leukemia(CML)and explore their clinical significance.Methods:Using real-time PCR technique,expression of BMI1 mRNA was detected in 41 CML patients and 10 healthy adults.Results: A positive rate of BMI1 in the patients was 68.3%,significantly higher than that of the controls(P<0.01). BMI1 expression was much higher in accelerated phase and acute transfomation phase than in chronic phase(t=3.421、4.231, P<0.01).Conclusions:The BMI1 gene is closely related to the advancement and prognosis of CML,which is valuable molecular markers to be used for monitoring the disease.%目的:检测慢性粒细胞白血病(CML)病人BMI1 mRNA的表达情况,以探讨其在CML病情进展及预后中的意义。方法:应用定量实时荧光PCR(real-time PCR)技术检测4l例CML病人和10例健康者上述基因的表达。结果:BMI1 mRNA在CML病人的阳性表达率为68.3%,明显高于正常对照组10.0%(P<0.01),在CML的加速期、急变期的表达水平明显高于慢性期(t =3.421、4.231,P<0.01)。结论:BMI1基因与CML的病情进展密切相关,是监测CML病情进展及判断预后的有价值的分子标记物。

  7. Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Richard


    The authoritative guide to Linux command line and shell scripting?completely updated and revised [it's not a guide to Linux as a whole ? just to scripting] The Linux command line allows you to type specific Linux commands directly to the system so that you can easily manipulate files and query system resources, thereby permitting you to automate commonly used functions and even schedule those programs to run automatically. This new edition is packed with new and revised content, reflecting the many changes to new Linux versions, including coverage of alternative shells to the default bash shel

  8. The Linux command line a complete introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Shotts, William E


    You've experienced the shiny, point-and-click surface of your Linux computer—now dive below and explore its depths with the power of the command line. The Linux Command Line takes you from your very first terminal keystrokes to writing full programs in Bash, the most popular Linux shell. Along the way you'll learn the timeless skills handed down by generations of gray-bearded, mouse-shunning gurus: file navigation, environment configuration, command chaining, pattern matching with regular expressions, and more.

  9. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  10. The Design and Development of BMI Calc Android Application (United States)

    Mohd Ali, Iliana; Samsudin, Nooraida


    Body mass index is a familiar term for those who are weight conscious. It is the term that let user know about the overall body composition in terms of fat.The available body mass index calculators whether online or on Play Store do not provide Malaysian meal suggestions. Hence, this paper proposes an application for body mass index calculator together with Malaysian meal suggestion. The objectives of the study are to design and develop BMI Calc android application for the purpose of calculating body mass index while embedding meal suggestion module. The design and methodology involve in the process are also presented.

  11. Implementation of FCI heating system to the control system of Tore-Supra; Integration du systeme de chauffage FCI au sein du reseau de controle commande du Tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, S


    This report presents the implementation of the ion cyclotron resonance heating system (FCI) to the instrumentation and control system of the Tore-Supra tokamak. The new plasma heating system involves 3 antennas delivering 12 MW that are required to maintain fusion reactions. This paper is divided into 8 chapters: 1) thermonuclear fusion and Tore-Supra tokamak; 2) hardware system around Tore-Supra, in this chapter the control system and the data acquisition and processing systems are presented; 3) functional analysis, this analysis defines the different needs concerning timing and pilot-controlling, a preliminary proposition of hardware equipment is made; 4) operating modes of FCI; 5) communication within the control system network; 6) communication with the supervisory system of the power stations; 7) management of data exchange with SMX generators; and 8) control of the rate of stationary waves during the injection of power into the plasma.

  12. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project (United States)

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.


    Petrov, N S; Vereschagina, N A; Sushilova, E N; Kropotov, A V; Miheeva, N F; Popov, B V


    Bmil is a key component of Polycomb (PcG), which in mammals controls the basic functions of mammalian somatic stem cells (SSC) such as self-renewal and differentiation. Bmi1 supports SSC via transcriptional suppression of genes associated with cell cycle and differentiation. The most studied target genes of Bmi1 are the genes of Ink4 locus, CdkI p16(Ink4a) and p1(Arf), suppression of which due to activating mutations of the BMI1 results in formation of cancer stem cells (CSC) and carcinomas in various tissues. In contrast, inactivation of BMI1 results in cell cycle arrest and cell senescence. Although clinical phenomena of hypo- and hyperactivation of BMI1 are well known, its targets and mechanisms of regulation of tissue specific SSC are still obscure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the regulatory role of BMI1 in adipocyte differentiation (AD) of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Induction of AD in mouse MSC of the C3H10T1/2 cell line was associated with an increase in the expression levels of BMI1, the genes of pRb family (RB, p130) and demethylase UTX, but not methyltransferase EZH2, whose products regulate the methylation levels of H3K27. It was observed earlier that H3K27me3 may play the role of the epigenetic switch by promoting AD of human MSC via activating expression of the PPARγ2, the master gene of AD (Hemming et al., 2014). Here we show that inactivation of BMI1 using specific siRNA slows and decreases the levels of AD, but does not abolish it. This is associated with a complete inhibition of the expression of adipogenic marker genes--PPARγ2, ADIPOQ and a decrease in the expression of RB, p130, but not UTX. The results obtained give evidence that the epigenetic mechanism regulating AD differentiation in mouse and human MSC is different.

  14. Specific food intake, fat and fiber intake, and behavioral correlates of BMI among overweight and obese members of a managed care organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood Nancy E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study examined correlates of body mass index (BMI in overweight and obese members of a managed care organization seeking treatment for obesity. It assessed intake of specific foods, dietary fat or fiber, and behaviors attempted to control weight. Methods Participants were 508 men and 1293 women who were > 18 years and had a self-reported BMI > 27.0. This paper reports analyses of baseline and 24-month follow-up data from a randomized weight-loss trial. Cross-sectional and prospective relationships between BMI and behaviors were examined with regression analyses controlling for age and education. Results At baseline, hamburger and beef consumption were associated with higher BMI for men; for women, hamburger, fried chicken, hot dog, bacon or sausage, egg, French fry, and overall fat consumption were associated with higher BMI, while eating high fiber cereal, fruit, and overall fiber intake were associated with lower BMI. Virtually all forms of weight control behavior were reported more often in heavier people. Subscribing to exercise magazines, however, was associated with lower BMI. Decreased fat intake and increased fruit/vegetable/fiber intake over the course of the study were associated with reductions in BMI at 24 months. Conclusion The same behaviors that differentiate individuals with different body weight in the general population also differentiate between individuals of different body weights at the high end of the weight distribution. Educational efforts aimed at preventing weight gain and reducing obesity might benefit from focusing on specific foods known to be associated empirically with body weight and weight change over time.

  15. Introduction to the Bash Command Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Milligan


    Full Text Available This lesson uses a Unix shell, which is a command-line interpreter that provides a user interface for the Unix operating system and for Unix-like systems. This lesson will cover a small number of basic commands. By the end of this tutorial you will be able to navigate through your file system and find files, open them, perform basic data manipulation tasks such as combining and copying files, as well as both reading them and making relatively simple edits. These commands constitute the building blocks upon which more complex commands can be constructed to fit your research data or project. Readers wanting a reference guide that goes beyond this lesson are recommended to read Deborah S. Ray and Eric J. Ray, Unix and Linux: Visual Quickstart Guide, 4th edition (2009.

  16. Control of fast non linear systems - application to a turbo charged SI engine with variable valve timing; controle des systemes rapides non lineaires - application au moteur a allumage commande turbocompresse a distribution variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, G.


    Spark ignition engine control has become a major issue for the compliance with emissions legislation while ensuring driving comfort. Engine down-sizing is one of the promising ways to reduce fuel consumption and resulting CO{sub 2} emissions. Combining several existing technologies such as supercharging and variable valve actuation, down-sizing is a typical example of the problems encountered in Spark Ignited (SI) engine control: nonlinear systems with saturation of actuators; numerous major physical phenomena not measurable; limited computing time; control objectives (consumption, pollution, performance) often competing. A methodology of modelling and model-based control (internal model and predictive control) for these systems is also proposed and applied to the air path of the down-sized engine. Models, physicals and generics, are built to estimate in-cylinder air mass, residual burned gases mass and air scavenged mass from the intake to the exhaust. The complete and generic engine torque control architecture for the turbo-charged SI engine with variable cam-shaft timing was tested in simulation and experimentally (on engine and vehicle). These tests show that new possibilities are offered in order to decrease pollutant emissions and optimize engine efficiency. (author)

  17. The decline in BMI among Japanese women after World War II. (United States)

    Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka


    The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II.

  18. File list: Oth.Neu.10.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Neural SRX109477,SRX109480,SRX1094...82,SRX109479 ...

  19. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls. (United States)

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others


    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  20. File list: Oth.Neu.05.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Neural SRX109477,SRX109480,SRX1094...82,SRX109479 ...

  1. File list: Oth.ALL.10.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.10.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 All cell types SRX109477,SRX109480...86,SRX644709,SRX644713,SRX644717,SRX113591,SRX644721 ...

  2. Associations between Three School-Based Measures of Health: Is BMI Enough? (United States)

    Morgan, Emily H.; Houser, Robert F.; Au, Lauren E.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.


    School-based body mass index (BMI) notification programs are often used to raise parental awareness of childhood overweight and obesity, but how BMI results are associated with physical fitness and diet is less clear. This study examined the relationship between BMI, fitness, and diet quality in a diverse sample of urban schoolchildren…

  3. File list: Oth.ALL.20.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.20.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 All cell types SRX109477,SRX109480...17,SRX113591,SRX644729,SRX359986,SRX109479,SRX644721 ...

  4. File list: Oth.Neu.20.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Neural SRX109477,SRX109480,SRX1094...82,SRX109479 ...

  5. File list: Oth.Kid.50.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Kid.50.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Kidney SRX644725,SRX149704,SRX1497...12,SRX644709,SRX644713,SRX644721,SRX149708,SRX644729,SRX113591,SRX644717 ...

  6. File list: Oth.ALL.05.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.05.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 All cell types SRX644721,SRX109477...79,SRX149715,SRX359986,SRX644717,SRX644709,SRX644713 ...

  7. File list: Oth.Kid.10.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Kid.10.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Kidney SRX149704,SRX644725,SRX1497...08,SRX644729,SRX149712,SRX644709,SRX644713,SRX644717,SRX113591,SRX644721 ...

  8. File list: Oth.Kid.20.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Kid.20.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Kidney SRX644725,SRX149704,SRX1497...12,SRX644713,SRX644709,SRX149708,SRX644717,SRX113591,SRX644729,SRX644721 ...

  9. File list: Oth.Neu.50.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Neural SRX109477,SRX109480,SRX1094...82,SRX109479 ...

  10. File list: Oth.ALL.50.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 All cell types SRX109477,SRX109480...08,SRX644729,SRX113591,SRX359986,SRX644717,SRX109479 ...

  11. Auftragstaktik: The Basis for Modern Military Command? (United States)


    ranks . In theory, every soldier in the US Army has the potential to move into the officer ranks , command units, and make attain the rank of general...the officer corps. Although the king did not surrender his right to appoint commanders, the commission recommended the opening of the officer ranks ... Leopold , a Protestant Hohenzollern candidate for the throne of Catholic Spain albeit not seriously. Faced with the threat of the House of

  12. Schema for Spacecraft-Command Dictionary (United States)

    Laubach, Sharon; Garcia, Celina; Maxwell, Scott; Wright, Jesse


    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema was developed as a means of defining and describing a structure for capturing spacecraft command- definition and tracking information in a single location in a form readable by both engineers and software used to generate software for flight and ground systems. A structure defined within this schema is then used as the basis for creating an XML file that contains command definitions.

  13. Commanding Coalitions: The Diplomat-at-Arms (United States)


    never tested so dramatically. Of course it is somewhat of a US Army self -aggrandizing account, but undeniably the ability to enlist 34 countries of...commanded this ad hoc coalition proves invaluable in defining more contemporary diplomatic roles of such an esteemed appointment. President Bush defined...know which four traits would seem to stand out as ‘fundamental’ for future multinational coalition commanders. In other words, what is the makeup

  14. Command Philosophy: The Secret of Organizational Leadership (United States)


    contemporary leadership issues. It confronts compx social problems, such as sexual harassment, drug and alcohol abuse, and racial disharmony. Specifically...already. Figure Fourteen provides an abbreviated analysis of the survey (see appendix A for the questionaire ). FIGURE 14 DIMENSIONS: COMMAND PHILOSOPHY...written command philosophies have better units in terms of organizational health . So why the hesitation? Certainly, it is personal: even the AWC 1989

  15. Air Force Materiel Command Reorganization Analysis (United States)


    Babbitt served as commander thereafter. One of General Babbitt’s notable initiatives at AFMC emphasized learning not simply how well a given mission...inventories for developing responsive supply capabilities. Gen- eral Babbitt was one of the major proponents of ACS and was convinced that improve...rationalize the business relationships that we had across our centers.”38 Finally, during another interview, AFMC Commander General Babbitt stated that he

  16. Reprogramming fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells with Bmi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jai-Hee Moon; June Seok Heo; Jun Sung Kim; Eun Kyoung Jun; Jung Han Lee; Aeree Kim; Jonggun Kim


    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by the transcription factors Oct4,Sox2,and Klf4 in combination with c-Myc.Recently,Sox2 plus Oct4 was shown to reprogram fibroblasts and Oct4 alone was able to reprogram mouse and human neural stem cells (NSCs) into iPS cells.Here,we report that Bmi1 leads to the transdifferentiation of mouse fibroblasts into NSC-like cells,and,in combination with Oct4,can replace Sox2,Klf4 and c-Myc during the reprogramming of fibroblasts into iPS cells.Furthermore,activation of sonic hedgehog signaling (by Shh,purmorphamine,or oxysterol) compensates for the effects of Bmil,and,in combination with Oct4,reprograms mouse embryonic and adult fibroblasts into iPS cells.One- and two-factor iPS cells are similar to mouse embryonic stem cells in their global gene expression profile,epigenetic status,and in vitro and in vivo differentiation into all three germ layers,as well as teratoma formation and germline transmission in vivo.These data support that converting fibroblasts with Bmi1 or activation of the sonic hedgehog pathway to an intermediate cell type that expresses Sox2,KIf4,and N-Myc allows iPS generation via the addition of Oct4.

  17. Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi


    Operators of a pair of robotic hands report ownership for those hands when they hold image of a grasp motion and watch the robot perform it. We present a novel body ownership illusion that is induced by merely watching and controlling robot's motions through a brain machine interface. In past studies, body ownership illusions were induced by correlation of such sensory inputs as vision, touch and proprioception. However, in the presented illusion none of the mentioned sensations are integrated except vision. Our results show that during BMI-operation of robotic hands, the interaction between motor commands and visual feedback of the intended motions is adequate to incorporate the non-body limbs into one's own body. Our discussion focuses on the role of proprioceptive information in the mechanism of agency-driven illusions. We believe that our findings will contribute to improvement of tele-presence systems in which operators incorporate BMI-operated robots into their body representations.

  18. Detecting body fat-A weighty problem BMI versus subcutaneous fat patterns in athletes and non-athletes. (United States)

    Kruschitz, Renate; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Hamlin, Michael J; Moser, Maximilian; Ludvik, Bernhard; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Tafeit, Erwin


    We aimed to describe the relationship between BMI and the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography within young athletes and non-athletic controls, to comparatively evaluate the diagnostic powers of subcutaneous adipose tissue thicknesses at different body sites, furthermore to explore appropriate cut-offs to discriminate between athletes and controls. Measurements were determined in 64 males and 42 females, who were subsequently separated into two even groups (athletes and non-athletes). The optical device LIPOMETER was applied at standardised body sites to measure the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue layers. To calculate the power of the different body sites and the BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. In men, the neck (optimal cut-off value 2.3 mm) and trunk (optimal cut-off value 15.5 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power: with 90.6% (58 of 64) of the subjects being correctly classified into athletes or non-athletes. Discrimination power of the BMI values was 64.1% (41 of 64 were correctly classified). In women, the upper back (optimal cut-off value 3.3 mm) and arms (optimal cut-off value 15.9 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power with 88.1% (37 of 42 being correctly classified). When using BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes only 52.4% (22 of 42) were correctly classified. These results suggest that compared to BMI levels, subcutaneous fat patterns are a more accurate way of discriminating between athletes and non-athletes. In particular the neck and the trunk compartment in men and the upper back and arms compartment in women, were the best sites to discriminate between young athletes and non-athletes on the basis of their fat patterns.

  19. 32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a submarine. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command of a submarine. 700.1058 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a submarine. The officer detailed to command a submarine... submarines....

  20. Converting a commercial electric direct-drive robot to operate from joint torque commands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, P.F.


    Many robot control algorithms for high performance in-contact operations including hybrid force/position, stiffness control and impedance control approaches require the command the joint torques. However, most commercially available robots do not provide joint torque command capabilities. The joint command at the user level is typically position or velocity and at the control developer level is voltage, current, or pulse-width, and the torque generated is a nonlinear function of the command and joint position. To enable the application of high performance in-contact control algorithms to commercially available robots, and thereby facilitate technology transfer from the robot control research community to commercial applications, an methodology has been developed to linearize the torque characteristics of electric motor-amplifier combinations. A four degree of freedom Adept 2 robot, having pulse-width modulation amplifiers and both variable reluctance and brushless DC motors, is converted to operate from joint torque commands to demonstrate the methodology. The commercial robot controller is replaced by a VME-based system incorporating special purpose hardware and firmware programmed from experimental data. The performance improvement is experimentally measured and graphically displayed using three-dimensional plots of torque vs command vs position. The average percentage torque deviation over the command and position ranges is reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for the direct-drive joints 1, 2 and 4 and is cut by one half in the remaining ball-screw driven joint 3. Further, the torque deviation of the direct-drive joints drops below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. 23 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents' BMI and educational level: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilato Valentina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are responsible not only for the genetic structure of their children, but also for passing onto them their behaviours and attitudes toward life. The aim of this study was to analyse the connection between school-age children's obesity and that of their parents as well as between child obesity and parents' educational level, as a proxy indicator of the socio-economic status (SES of families in Tuscany. Methods The children sample was selected from "OKkio alla Salute 2010" (a cross sectional survey carried out by the Italian Institute of Health and consisted of 1,751 (922 males and 855 females 8-9 year-old school children. Weight and height were measured by ad hoc trained personnel, and Body Mass Index (BMI categories were calculated using Cole et al.'s cut-off. Parents' weight, height and educational level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The educational levels were classified as high, medium and low. Results The prevalence of obese children increased along the parents' BMI category: from 1.4% for underweight mothers to 30.3% for obese mothers and from 4% for under-normal-weight fathers to 23.9% for obese fathers (p Conclusion Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of the family, particularly the father's, seem to influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tuscan children.

  2. 2011西安世界园艺博览会指挥中心总控软件平台的设计和实现%The Design and Implementation of the Command Center General Control Software Platform of International Horticultural Exposition 2011 Xi'an China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 扬建军; 徐卫选


    为保障2011西安世界园艺博览会能够顺利、安全、高效、稳定运行.针对指挥中心总控软件平台建设需求,采用了西安协同Synchro IBMS系统。作为世园会指挥中心总控软件平台,该系统对园区内所有智能化设备统一监视、控制和管理,为游客提供一个舒适便利、新奇满意、和谐自然的园艺盛会。%To ensure International Horticultural Exposition 2011 Xi'an China can smoothly, safety, high efficiency, stable operation, in light of the construction demand of the Command Center General Control Software Platform, use Synchro IBMS of Xi'an Synchrotime Software Co., Ltd. As the Command Center General Control Software Platform of expo 2011 Xi'an China, the system unified monitoring, control and management of park of all intelligent equipment and provided a comfortable and convenient, novel, natural harmony with horticultural grand meeting for tourists.

  3. Spark ignition engine control: estimation and prediction of the in-cylinder mass and chemical species; Controle moteur a allumage commande: estimation / prediction de la masse et de la composition du melange enferme dans le cylindre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giansetti, P.


    Spark ignition engine control has become a major issue regarding compliance with emissions legislation while ensuring driving comfort. The objective of this thesis was to estimate the mass and composition of gases inside the cylinder of an engine based on physics in order to insure better control of transient phases taking into account residual gases as well as exhaust gas recirculation. Residual gas fraction has been characterized using two experiments and one CFD code. A model has been validated experimentally and integrated into an observer which predicts pressure and temperature inside the manifold. The predictions of the different gas flows and the chemical species inside the cylinder are deduced. A closed loop observer has been validated experimentally and in simulation. Moreover, an algorithm estimating the fresh and burned gas mass from the cylinder pressure has been proposed in order to obtain the information cycle by cycle and cylinder by cylinder. (author)

  4. Nuclear BMI-1 expression in laryngeal carcinoma correlates with lymph node pathological status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegra Eugenia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main cause of treatment failure and death in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. The current clinical staging criteria fail to differentiate patients with occult metastasis from patients without metastasis. Identifying molecular markers of the disease might improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and development of laryngeal carcinoma and may help improve clinical staging and treatment. Methods Sixty-four previously untreated patients who underwent surgical excision of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with neck dissection were included in this study. The expression of B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1 was examined immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissue specimens. Results Nuclear expression of BMI-1 (nBMI-1 was detected in 32 of the 64 tumors (50%, cytoplasmic expression of BMI-1 (cBMI-1 was detected in 22 (34.4%, and 10 tumors (15.6% showed no BMI-1 immunoreactivity. High nBMI-1 expression levels (≥10 were detected in 28 of the 32 (87.5% nBMI-1-positive patients. Multivariate analysis including age at diagnosis, grade, tumor location, TNM status, and nBMI-1 expression showed that a high nBMI-1 expression level was an independent prognostic factor for lymph node metastasis. Conclusion The expression of BMI-1 in patients with laryngeal carcinoma seems to correlate with lymph node metastasis.

  5. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li-Hua


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. Methods We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Results Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P P P P P > 0.5. In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P P P > 0.05. Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P P Conclusion Expression of Bmi-1 was greater in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues. The examination of Bmi-1 protein expression is potentially valuable in prognostic evaluation of bladder cancer.

  6. Command and Control (C2) Agility (Agilite du commandement et du controle (C2)) (United States)


    together throughout the process to ensure consistency of ideas and terminology. Thus, hypotheses were reformulated based upon insights from actual cases...Agility language and definitions (terminology). Clear terminology is necessary to effectively communicate the C2ACM. It is anticipated that the ethnically distinct from Georgians, with their own language and an affinity with Russians. Tensions remained high in the region and a peace

  7. Brain-controlled telepresence robot by motor-disabled people. (United States)

    Tonin, Luca; Carlson, Tom; Leeb, Robert; del R Millán, José


    In this paper we present the first results of users with disabilities in mentally controlling a telepresence robot, a rather complex task as the robot is continuously moving and the user must control it for a long period of time (over 6 minutes) to go along the whole path. These two users drove the telepresence robot from their clinic more than 100 km away. Remarkably, although the patients had never visited the location where the telepresence robot was operating, they achieve similar performances to a group of four healthy users who were familiar with the environment. In particular, the experimental results reported in this paper demonstrate the benefits of shared control for brain-controlled telepresence robots. It allows all subjects (including novel BMI subjects as our users with disabilities) to complete a complex task in similar time and with similar number of commands to those required by manual control.

  8. Conflicting effects of BMI and waist circumference on iron status. (United States)

    Choma, Solomon Simon Ramphai; Alberts, Marianne; Modjadji, Sewela Elizabeth Perpetua


    The association between obesity and iron status has a long history and is still receiving attention. However comparative analysis of the association between general obesity (BMI) and visceral obesity (waist circumference) with iron status has not been extensively researched. The aim of the present study is thus to determine if body mass index and waist circumference have the same correlation with iron status. One thousand one hundred and thirty people (225 men and 905 women) aged 30 years and above participated in this study. Anthropometric parameters, haemoglobin, iron and total iron binding capacity concentrations were measured using standard methods. Percentage transferrin saturation was calculated and ferritin concentrations were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Obese or overweight women had significantly lower iron and transferrin saturation concentration when compared to non-obese women. In contrast, women with high waist circumference had comparable plasma iron and transferrin saturation to women with normal waist circumference. Partial correlation analysis and linear regression analysis showed that BMI is negatively and significantly associated with plasma iron, transferrin saturation, Hb and ferritin concentration, whilst waist circumference is positively but insignificantly associated with plasma iron, transferrin saturation, Hb and ferritin concentration. Binary regression analysis showed that obese or overweight people are more likely to have iron deficiency, whilst those with raised waist circumference are more likely to have iron overload. Multivariate analysis showed that body mass index is negatively and significantly associated with low iron status, while waist circumference is positively and insignificantly associated with iron status. This is supported by a comparison of plasma iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin concentrations in participants with high body mass index and normal waist circumference and participants with

  9. Bmi1 Is Required for Hedgehog Pathway-Driven Medulloblastoma Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Evan Michael


    Full Text Available Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh signaling underlies development of a subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in transgenic mice expressing an oncogenic Hh effector, SmoA1, driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter. Whereas 100% of SmoA1; Bmi1+/+ or SmoA1;Bmi1+/- mice examined between postnatal (P days 14 and 26 had typical medulloblastomas (N = 29, tumors were not detected in any of the SmoA1;Bmi1-/- animals examined (N = 6. Instead, small ectopic collections of cells were present in the region of greatest tumor load in SmoA1 animals, suggesting that medulloblastomas were initiated but failed to undergo expansion into frank tumors. Cells within these Bmi1-/- lesions expressed SmoA1 but were largely nonproliferative, in contrast to cells in Bmi1+/+ tumors (6.2% vs 81.9% PCNA-positive, respectively. Ectopic cells were negative for the progenitor marker nestin, strongly GFAP-positive, and highly apoptotic, relative to Bmi1+/+ tumor cells (29.6% vs 6.3% TUNEL-positive. The alterations in proliferation and apoptosis in SmoA1;Bmi1-/- ectopic cells are associated with reduced levels of Cyclin D1 and elevated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19Arf, two inversely regulated downstream targets of Bmi1. These data provide the first demonstration that Bmi1 is required for spontaneous de novo development of a solid tumor arising in the brain, suggest a crucial role for Bmi1-dependent, nestin-expressing progenitor cells in medulloblastoma expansion, and implicate Bmi1 as a key factor required for Hh pathway-driven tumorigenesis.

  10. Excessive adiposity at low BMI levels among women in rural Bangladesh. (United States)

    Shaikh, Saijuddin; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Schulze, Kerry; Ali, Hasmot; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Labrique, Alain; Klemm, Rolf; Wu, Lee; Rashid, Mahbubur; West, Keith P


    Asian populations have a higher percentage body fat (%BF) and are at higher risk for CVD and related complications at a given BMI compared with those of European descent. We explored whether %BF was disproportionately elevated in rural Bangladeshi women with low BMI. Height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfolds and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured in 1555 women at 3 months postpartum. %BF was assessed by skinfolds and by BIA. BMI was calculated in adults and BMI Z-scores were calculated for females BMI and BMI Z-score cut-offs that optimally classified women as having moderately excessive adipose tissue (defined as >30 % body fat). Linear regressions estimated the association between BMI and BMI Z-score (among adolescents) and %BF. Mean BMI was 19·2 (sd 2·2) kg/m(2), and mean %BF was calculated as 23·7 (sd 4·8) % by skinfolds and 23·3 (sd 4·9) % by BIA. ROC analyses indicated that a BMI value of approximately 21 kg/m(2) optimised sensitivity (83·6 %) and specificity (84·2 %) for classifying subjects with >30 % body fat according to BIA among adults. This BMI level is substantially lower than the WHO recommended standard cut-off point of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The equivalent cut-off among adolescents was a BMI Z-score of -0·36, with a sensitivity of 81·3 % and specificity of 80·9 %. These findings suggest that Bangladeshi women exhibit excess adipose tissue at substantially lower BMI compared with non-South Asian populations. This is important for the identification and prevention of obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  11. Body adiposity index (BAI) correlates with BMI and body fat pre- and post-bariatric surgery but is not an adequate substitute for BMI in severely obese women. (United States)

    Gibson, C D; Atalayer, D; Flancbaum, L; Geliebter, A


    OBJECTIVE: Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height 1.5-18]), has been proposed as a more accurate alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI and their correlations with measures of body fat, waist circumference (WC), and indirect indices of fat pre- and post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Sixteen clinically severe obese (CSO) non-diabetic women (age = 33.9± 7.9 SD; BMI = 46.5±9.5 kg/m(2)) were assessed pre-surgery, and at 2 (n=9) and 5 mo (n=8) post-surgery. Body fat percentage (% fat) was estimated with bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). WC, an indicator of central fat, and both plasma leptin (ng/ml) and insulin (mU/l) concentrations were measured as indirect body fat indices. Pre- and post-surgery values were analyzed with Pearson correlations and linear regressions. RESULTS: BAI and BMI correlated significantly with each other pre-surgery and at each time point post surgery. BAI and BMI also correlated significantly with % fat from BIA and ADP; however, only BMI correlated significantly with % fat from DXA pre- and post-RYGB. BMI was the single best predictor of WC and leptin at 2 and 5 mo post-surgery and had significant longitudinal changes correlating with % fat from BIA and DXA as well as with leptin. DISCUSSION: Both BAI and BMI were good surrogates of % fat as estimated from BIA and ADP, but only BMI was a good surrogate of % fat from DXA in CSO women. Thus, BAI may not be a better alternative to BMI.

  12. Impact of Masked Replacement of Sugar-Sweetened with Sugar-Free Beverages on Body Weight Increases with Initial BMI: Secondary Analysis of Data from an 18 Month Double-Blind Trial in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn B Katan

    Full Text Available Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. This effect may be more pronounced in children with a high body mass index (BMI because their sensing of kilocalories might be compromised. We investigated the impact of sugar-free versus sugary drinks separately in children with a higher and a lower initial BMI z score, and predicted caloric intakes and degree of compensation in the two groups.This is a secondary, explorative analysis of our double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT which showed that replacement of one 250-mL sugary drink per day by a sugar-free drink for 18 months significantly reduced weight gain. In the 477 children who completed the trial, mean initial weights were close to the Dutch average. Only 16% were overweight and 3% obese. Weight changes were expressed as BMI z-score, i.e. as standard deviations of the BMI distribution per age and sex group. We designated the 239 children with an initial BMI z-score below the median as 'lower BMI' and the 238 children above the median as 'higher BMI'. The difference in caloric intake from experimental beverages between treatments was 86 kcal/day both in the lower and in the higher BMI group. We used a multiple linear regression and the coefficient of the interaction term (initial BMI group times treatment, indicated whether children with a lower BMI responded differently from children with a higher BMI. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Relative to the sugar sweetened beverage, consumption of the sugar-free beverage for 18 months reduced the BMI z-score by 0.05 SD units within the lower BMI group and by 0.21 SD within the higher BMI group. Body weight gain was reduced by 0.62 kg in the lower BMI group and by 1.53 kg in the higher BMI group. Thus the treatment reduced the BMI z-score by 0.16 SD units more in the higher BMI group than in the lower BMI group (p = 0.04; 95% CI -0.31 to -0.01. The impact of the intervention on body weight

  13. Experimentation of RT-LOTOS for a critical function of a power plant instrumentation and control system; Experimentation de RT-LOTOS pour une fonction critique d`un systeme de controle-commande en centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriantsiiferana, L.; Courtiat, J.P.; De Oliveira, R.C.


    This document is the final report of the contract between LAAS-CNRS and the EdF Direction of Researches and Studies about the experimentation of RT-LOTOS formal description technique on a critical function of a nuclear power plant instrumentation and control system. This report comprises 4 parts: part 1 describes the RT-LOTOS (Real Time-Language of Temporal Ordering Specifications) tutorial and its RTL tool environment, the different RT-LOTOS operators and semantics, and the RTL tool main functionalities; part 2 deals with the methodology and the global architecture for the specification and validation of the CCT (Central Calculator for Treatment); part 3 gives more details about the different processes identified in the specification architecture and presents the main results obtained for the validation of the nominal functioning; part 4 describes some exceptional situations and shows how some failures and their associated recovery mechanisms can be modelled. (J.S.). 6 refs., 53 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appends.

  14. BMI and WHR Are Reflected in Female Facial Shape and Texture: A Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis (United States)

    Mayer, Christine; Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp


    Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3–10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception. PMID:28052103

  15. Down-regulation of Bmi-1 by RNA interference in Jurkat cells%RNAi抑制Bmi-1基因表达对Jurkat细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangen Zheng; Qibin Jing; Yaqiong Zheng; Yinjuan Ding; Qianchuan Huang; Guoqiang Zhao


    Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of down-regulation Bmi-1 by RNA interference (RNAi) in T Lymphocytic leukemia Jurkat cells. Methods: Two complementary oligonucleotide strands were synthesized based on the siRNA sequence targeting Bmi-1 gene. After annealing, siRNA strands were recombined into the pRNATU6.2 vector, and then DNA sequencing was carried out following transformation and amplification. The recombinant was transfected into Jurkat cells with liposomes. Positive colonies were obtained through G418 selection. The mRNA and protein expressions of Bmi-1 were detected by RT-PCR and Western-blot, respectively. Effects of Bmi-1 silence on cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell aging of Jurkat cells were detected by MTT assay, flow cytometry, colony formation assay and SA-β-Gal staining, respectively. Results: The siRNA recombinant targeting Bmi-1 gene was successfully constructed. All three siRNA recombinants could significantly inhibit the expression of Bmi-1. The siRNA targeting 825nt-843nt (GACCAGACCACTACT GAAT) has the strongest inhibitory effect on Bmi-1 expression, with almost complete inhibition on Bmi-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Compared with the non-transfection group and the empty vector group, growth velocity and colony formation ability were significantly decreased, while the proportion of cells in G1 phase and the percentage of senile cells were significantly increased in highly transfected group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Down-regulation Bmi-1 by RNA interference (RNAi) could significantly inhibit the growth of Jurkat cells in vitro.

  16. Linux command line and shell scripting bible

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Richard


    Talk directly to your system for a faster workflow with automation capability Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible is your essential Linux guide. With detailed instruction and abundant examples, this book teaches you how to bypass the graphical interface and communicate directly with your computer, saving time and expanding capability. This third edition incorporates thirty pages of new functional examples that are fully updated to align with the latest Linux features. Beginning with command line fundamentals, the book moves into shell scripting and shows you the practical application

  17. Leaders in space: Mission commanders and crew on the International Space Station (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena

    Understanding the relationship between leaders and their subordinates is important for building better interpersonal connections, improving group cohesion and cooperation, and increasing task success. This relationship has been examined in many types of groups but not a great amount of analysis has been applied to spaceflight crews. We specifically investigated differences between mission commanders and flight commanders during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). Astronauts and cosmonauts on the ISS participate in long-duration missions (2 to 6 months in length) in which they live and work in close proximity with their 2 or 3 member crews. The leaders are physically distant from their command centres which may result in delay of instructions or important advice. Therefore, the leaders must be able to make quick, sound decisions with unwavering certainty. Potential complications include that the leaders may not be able to exercise their power fully, since material reward or punishment of any one member affects the whole group, and that the leader's actions (or lack thereof) in this isolated, confined environment could create stress in members. To be effective, the mission commander must be able to prevent or alleviate any group conflict and be able to relate to members on an emotional level. Mission commanders and crew are equal in the competencies of spaceflight; therefore, what are the unique characteristics that enable the commanders to fulfill their role? To highlight the differences between commander and crew, astronaut journals, diaries, pre- flight interviews, NASA oral histories, and letters written to family from space were scored and analyzed for values and coping styles. During pre-flight, mission commanders scored higher than other crew members on the values of Stimulation, Security, Universalism, Conformity, Spirituality, and Benevolence, and more often used Self-Control as a coping style. During the long-duration mission on ISS, mission

  18. An extendible User-Command Framework based on tagging system

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Ajinkya; Jadhav, Nitin


    Memorizing the user commands has been a problem since long. In this study we try to propose solutions to overcome two problems - the problem of selecting appropriate commands names during application development and the problem of memorizing these command names. The proposed solution includes a framework in which the applications can plug into, to get their application commands and corresponding tags in to the new command execution application.We also propose a mechanism where user can generate her own set of tags for a command and share those with peers.

  19. Development of automated nondestructive inspection system for BMI nozzles in nuclear vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon Soo; Lee, Won Kun; Han, Won Jin; Lee, Sun Ho; Seong, Un Hak [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)


    BMI nozzles in bottom head of the nuclear vessel are one of major components in nuclear power plants. The BMI nozzles have high possibility to generate PWSCC(primary water stress corrosion crack) according to recent foreign case although operation temperature is lower then the upper head of the nuclear vessel. Thus, nondestructive inspection of the BMI nozzles is required. But, inspection of BMI nozzles is not easy since the BMI nozzles placed in high radiated area and inside the nozzles filled with boric acid. Thus, in this study, a TOFD transducer for inspection of BMI and automated scanner system with water were developed. Also, validation of performance of the developed transducer and system are performed using specimens with artificial defects.

  20. Nativity, US Length of Residence, and BMI Among Diverse Asian American Ethnic Groups. (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N


    Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p born ethnic groups significantly higher than BMI for immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups.

  1. PMC Control Design Principle and Program Implementation of Auxiliary Function M Commands in CNC Machine Tool Based on FANUC Oi Mate-MD System%基于FANUC Oi Mate-MD 系统的数控辅助功能M指令的PMC控制设计原理和程序实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼刚义; 杨新刚; 杨鹏


    数控机床辅助功能指令由CNC和PMC共同处理,但其具体运算处理过程国内还未见文献系统报道。用一具体实例对冷却液M指令的运行机制、PMC程序设计及加载、辅助功能M指令机床验证进行了详细阐述,有助于更好地使用、维护机床和利用系统提供的PMC梯形图来快速诊断故障,特别是对理解PMC程序、扩展开发机床控制功能提供了参考。%CNC machine tool auxiliary function commands are handled by CNC and PMC,but their concrete operation processes have not been reported in domestic literature system. Based on the specific examples,the operation mechanism of coolant M instruc-tion,the design and load of PMC program,the auxiliary function commands machine validation,were elaborated in detail. This will contribute to a better use and maintenance,and using PMC ladder diagram interface of NC system to diagnose fault quickly,especially it provides reference for understanding the PMC program,extending the development of machine control function.

  2. Smart command recognizer (SCR) - For development, test, and implementation of speech commands (United States)

    Simpson, Carol A.; Bunnell, John W.; Krones, Robert R.


    The SCR, a rapid prototyping system for the development, testing, and implementation of speech commands in a flight simulator or test aircraft, is described. A single unit performs all functions needed during these three phases of system development, while the use of common software and speech command data structure files greatly reduces the preparation time for successive development phases. As a smart peripheral to a simulation or flight host computer, the SCR interprets the pilot's spoken input and passes command codes to the simulation or flight computer.

  3. Nível de conhecimento da simbologia gráfica utilizada para caracterizar comandos e controles de máquinas agrícolas Level of knowledge of graphic symbols used to characterize commands and controls of agricultural machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton dos Santos Alonço


    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado no período compreendido entre março de 2000 a junho de 2005, com entrevistados de várias regiões do Brasil, e teve por objetivo realizar uma pesquisa analítica a respeito do grau de conhecimento sobre símbolos gráficos, para a identificação dos comandos e controles de operação e manutenção em máquinas agrícolas, dos principais clientes envolvidos no processo, desde o projeto da máquina agrícola até sua utilização e conseqüente manutenção. Os resultados encontrados indicam que o conhecimento sobre o significado que possuem os símbolos gráficos utilizados para caracterizar comandos e controles de máquinas agrícolas é bastante reduzido por parte dos principais envolvidos no processo.The present study was carried out from March 2000 to June 2005 by interviewing many people from several parts of Brazil. It was aimed at assessing the level of knowledge on technical graphic symbols used for identification of commands and operation controls, and support in agricultural machines. The main customers involved in the process from the project of the agricultural machine to its use and support were interviewed. Results suggest that the knowledge of the graphic symbols meaning is quite reduced among the main customers involved in the process.

  4. Self-Reported and Measured BMI in Ireland: Should We Adjust the Obesity Thresholds?


    Madden, David


    Using the nationally representative Slan dataset of 2007 we analyse the relationship between self-reported and measured BMI. We find that self-reported BMI significantly underestimates obesity rates and suggest that the traditional threshold of 30 should be adjusted downwards. We outline a number of approaches to choose the optimal threshold and results suggest that the new obesity threshold for self-reported BMI could be as low as 26.

  5. Does body mass index (BMI) influence the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score in axial spondyloarthritis? (United States)

    Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée


    Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336

  6. Association of eating behaviors and BMI among elementary school students from Mexico


    Samuel Munguía-Lizárraga; Montserrat Bacardí-Gascón; Ana Armendáriz-Anguiano; Arturo Jiménez-Cruz


    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE) with body max index (BMI) among elementary schools children in Mexico. 5th and 6th grade students were recruited from two schools. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obese children were classified according to the World Health Organizations (WHO) BMI z-score. The TFEQ -R18 questionnaire was applied to as...

  7. Cure effects on microcracking in IM7 fiber/Matrimid 5292{reg_sign} BMI composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilenski, M.S.; Shin, E.; Morgan, R.J.; Drzal, L.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)


    Initial results from a study of the microcracking behavior of the Matrimid 5292{reg_sign} BMI/IM7 carbon fiber system are presented. Studies were performed to determine the composite`s Stress Free Temperature (SFT) which is seen to control the presence and extent of microcracking. The SFT was determined using asymmetric laminates [0{sub 2}/90{sub 2}]. Varied post-cure cycles were utilized and it was found that until complete cure is obtained, the SFT is a function of the highest temperature experienced by the laminate, with little effect of previous thermal history. The reactions necessary to fully cure this system are not active at temperatures below 250 C, ruling out the possibility of obtaining a fully cured composite with a low SFT through extended post-cures at lower temperatures.

  8. Mission Command: Elasticity, Equilibrium, Culture, and Intent (United States)


    nouveau point d’équilibre C2. Afin d’être en mesure de fonctionner efficacement d’une façon adaptative, les organisations militaires doivent élaborer...Establishing common intent: The key to co-ordinated military action. In Allan English (ed.), Leadership and Command and the Operational Art : Canadian



    Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong is going through flight training in the lunar module simulator situated in the flight crew training building at KSC. Armstrong will pilot the lunar module to a moon landing on July 20, following launch from KSC on July 16.

  10. Relationship between changes of body mass index (BMI) and cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD). (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Oh, Eung Seok; Lee, Ji Hee; Moon, Jung Soo; Oh, Ji Eun; Shin, Jong Wook; Lee, Kyung Jae; Baek, In Chul; Jeong, Seong-Hae; Song, Hee-Jung; Sohn, Eun Hee; Lee, Ae Young


    Decreased BMI has been reported that it may be associated with cognitive decline in the elderly. Weight loss is common in patients with PD. However, studies comparing cognitive changes according to BMI changes in PD have not been done yet. We performed this study to know a relationship between BMI changes and the rate of cognitive decline in PD. PD patients were recruited retrospectively. The patients (n=104) were divided into two groups according to BMI changes during initial 6 months of follow-up: decreased (n=52) vs. stable BMI groups (n=52). Cognitive functions were repeated until 36 months of follow-up using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and the modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) test. We calculated the rate of cognitive decline (K-MMSE and 3MS score changes/month) and compared it between the two groups. The decreased BMI group showed lower level of cognitive function than that of stable BMI group, especially at the 36th month of follow-up (p<0.05). In addition, the rate of cognitive decline was also significantly faster in the decreased BMI group, particularly at the 36th month of follow-up (p<0.05). This study suggests that decreased BMI during initial 6 months of follow-up in PD might be a useful indicator for future risk of dementia and let clinicians predict faster rate of cognitive decline in patients with PD.

  11. STS-26 Commander Hauck poses on shuttle mockup aft flight deck (United States)


    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck poses on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Hauck's right hand is propped on Onorbit Station control panel A2 remote manipulator system (RMS) translation hand control. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  12. Mothers' pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and risk of breast cancer in daughters. (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Willett, Walter C; Michels, Karin B


    Previous studies have established that higher birthweight is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We explored whether maternal pregnancy weight gain and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), which influence birthweight, are associated with risk of breast cancer in offspring. The Nurses' Mothers case-control study of breast cancer was nested in the Nurses' Health Study I and II cohorts. Mothers of 814 nurses with and 1,809 nurses without breast cancer completed questionnaires with information on pre-pregnancy height and weight, pregnancy weight gain, and other aspects of their pregnancies with the nurse daughters. We calculated odds ratios for breast cancer using conditional logistic regression. Mean pregnancy weight gain was 23 lb, and average pre-pregnancy BMI was 21 kg/m². Mothers' weight gain during pregnancy was not associated with the daughters' risk of breast cancer. Compared to women whose mothers gained 20-29 lb, women whose mothers gained less than 10 lb had a relative risk of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-1.36), adjusting for the age of the nurses. Women whose mothers gained 40 or more pounds had a relative risk of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.55-1.23). Mothers' pre-pregnancy BMI was not associated with the daughters' risk of breast cancer. Women whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of 30 or more had a relative risk of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.74) compared to those with BMI less than 20. Additional adjustment for prenatal factors or for nurses' characteristics later in life had no effect on the results. The association between birthweight and breast cancer risk is likely due to factors independent of mothers' weight gain during pregnancy or pre-pregnancy BMI. Because BMIs and pregnancy weight gains were lower in this population than today, we cannot rule out associations for very high pre-pregnancy BMIs or pregnancy weight gains.

  13. Incorrect Responses to Locative Commands: A Case Study. (United States)

    Duchan, Judith; Siegel, Leo


    A six-year-old with a language problem responded consistently to 100 locative commands by putting objects in containers and on flat surfaces regardless of the preposition or order of the nouns in the commands. (Author/CL)

  14. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Faughnan, Patrick D.; Batterson, Lawrence M.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.


    Engineers today are presented with the opportunity to design and build the next generation of space vehicles out of the lightest, strongest, and most durable materials available. Composites offer excellent structural characteristics and outstanding reliability in many forms that will be utilized in future aerospace applications including the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program and the Orion space capsule. NASA's Composites for Exploration (CoEx) project researches the various methods of manufacturing composite materials of different fiber characteristics while using proven infusion methods of different resin compositions. Development and testing on these different material combinations will provide engineers the opportunity to produce optimal material compounds for multidisciplinary applications. Through the CoEx project, engineers pursue the opportunity to research and develop repair patch procedures for damaged spacecraft. Working in conjunction with Raptor Resins Inc., NASA engineers are utilizing high flow liquid infusion molding practices to manufacture high-temperature composite parts comprised of intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) carbon fiber material. IM7 is a continuous, high-tensile strength composite with outstanding structural qualities such as high shear strength, tensile strength and modulus as well as excellent corrosion, creep, and fatigue resistance. IM7 carbon fiber, combined with existing thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems, can provide improvements in material strength reinforcement and deformation-resistant properties for high-temperature applications. Void analysis of the different layups of the IM7 material discovered the largest total void composition within the [ +45 , 90 , 90 , -45 ] composite panel. Tensile and compressional testing proved the highest mechanical strength was found in the [0 4] layup. This paper further investigates the infusion procedure of a low-cost/high-performance BMI resin into an IM7 carbon fiber material and the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athikari ChandraSekhar


    Full Text Available Aims: To look for changes in nerve conduction velocity (NCV in newly diagnosed type II diabetic subjects. To compare the nerve conduction velocity studies of both sensory and motor nerves in upper and lower limb are correlated with height, weight, BMI, fasting and PPBS. Materials and Methods: The study comprises of 40 subjects, 25 subjects were male and 15 subjects were female aged between 38-62 years. All the patents are on oral hypoglycaemic agents. Random sampling techniques were applied for the criteria of sample selection. Results: The mean MCV was significantly lower in type II diabetics common peroneal nerve (38.37±9.43 m/s and posterior tibial nerve (9.78±9.39 m/s. The mean SNC in the type II diabetes median nerve 43.25±11.64, ulnar nerve 43.62±15.77 m/sec sural nerve 38.27±14.32 m/sec and posterior tibial nerve 33.51±20.39. The height mean 163.53±7.23 cm, weight mean 66.98±8.70 kg, BMI 25.10±3.29, FBS mean 158.70±56.58 mg/dl and PPBS mean 223.68±67.95 mg/dl. Abnormal MCV, SCV was found to be associated with FBS and PPBS. Conclusion: Hyperglycaemia is a well established risk factor in type 2 diabetic subjects. Other parameters correlated with Height, Weight, BMI, FBS, PPBS increases most recognized neurological complications. Predominately sensorimotor distal polyneuropathy is the most common of the diabetic neuropathy. Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy. In our study conducted the changes of diabetic neuropathy affected sensorimotor nerves in both limbs. Nerve conduction studies not only used to diagnose the DM but also monitor the effects of treatment of DM by regular NCS good glycemic control, symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can be reversed and further complication like foot ulceration.

  16. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis—BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozeng Lin


    Full Text Available BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1, and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase. Through mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119Ub, BMI1 represses multiple gene loci; among these, the INK4A/ARF locus has been most thoroughly investigated. The locus encodes the p16INK4A and p14/p19ARF tumor suppressors that function in the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Its repression contributes to BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. BMI1 also possesses other oncogenic functions, specifically its regulative role in DNA damage response (DDR. In this process, BMI1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and γH2AX, thereby facilitating the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs through stimulating homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Additionally, BMI1 compromises DSB-induced checkpoint activation independent of its-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We review the emerging role of BMI1 in DDR regulation and discuss its impact on BMI1-derived tumorigenesis.

  17. The Digital GCC: USCYBERCOM As a Combatant Command (United States)


    AU/ACSC/HELMS /AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE DIGITAL GCC: USCYBERCOM AS A COMBATANT COMMAND by...Unified Command Plan (UCP). AU/ACSC/HELMS/AY15 4 Contents The Digital GCC: USCYBERCOM as a Unified Combatant Command...allows the nation to flourish, and thus, the continuous and safe operation of cyberspace is crucial to America’s economy and national security. The

  18. Combined introduction of Bmi-1 and hTERT immortalizes human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells with low risk of transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatrai, Peter, E-mail: [Institute of Enzymology, Research Center for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Karolina ut 29, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Szepesi, Aron, E-mail: [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Matula, Zsolt, E-mail: [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Szigeti, Anna, E-mail: [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Buchan, Gyoengyi, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Madi, Andras, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Stem Cell, Apoptosis and Genomics Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Uher, Ferenc, E-mail: [Stem Cell Laboratory, Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service, Dioszegi ut 64, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); and others


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We immortalized human adipose stromal cells (ASCs) with hTERT, Bmi-1, and SV40T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT-only ASCs are prone to transformation, while Bmi-only ASCs become senescent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SV40T introduced along with hTERT abrogates proliferation control and multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT combined with Bmi-1 yields stable phenotype up to 140 population doublings. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are increasingly being studied for their usefulness in regenerative medicine. However, limited life span and donor-dependent variation of primary cells such as ASCs present major hurdles to controlled and reproducible experiments. We therefore aimed to establish immortalized ASC cell lines that provide steady supply of homogeneous cells for in vitro work while retain essential features of primary cells. To this end, combinations of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), murine Bmi-1, and SV40 large T antigen (SV40T) were introduced by lentiviral transduction into ASCs. The resulting cell lines ASC{sup hTERT}, ASC{sup Bmi-1}, ASC{sup Bmi-1+hTERT} and ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} were tested for transgene expression, telomerase activity, surface immunomarkers, proliferation, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, karyotype, tumorigenicity, and cellular senescence. All cell lines have maintained expression of characteristic surface immunomarkers, and none was tumorigenic. However, ASC{sup Bmi-1} had limited replicative potential, while the rapidly proliferating ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} acquired chromosomal aberrations, departed from MSC phenotype, and lost differentiation capacity. ASC{sup hTERT} and ASC{sup hTERT+Bmi-1}, on the other hand, preserved all essential MSC features and did not senesce after 100 population doublings. Notably, a subpopulation of ASC{sup hTERT} also acquired aberrant karyotype and showed signs of transformation after long-term culture

  19. Plant Habitat Telemetry / Command Interface and E-MIST (United States)

    Walker, Uriae M.


    Plant Habitat (PH) is an experiment to be taken to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2016. It is critical that ground support computers have the ability to uplink commands to control PH, and that ISS computers have the ability to downlink PH telemetry data to ground support. This necessitates communication software that can send, receive, and process, PH specific commands and telemetry. The objective of the Plant Habitat Telemetry/ Command Interface is to provide this communication software, and to couple it with an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI). Initial investigation of the project objective led to the decision that code be written in C++ because of its compatibility with existing source code infrastructures and robustness. Further investigation led to a determination that multiple Ethernet packet structures would need to be created to effectively transmit data. Setting a standard for packet structures would allow us to distinguish these packets that would range from command type packets to sub categories of telemetry packets. In order to handle this range of packet types, the conclusion was made to take an object-oriented programming approach which complemented our decision to use the C++ programming language. In addition, extensive utilization of port programming concepts was required to implement the core functionality of the communication software. Also, a concrete understanding of a packet processing software was required in order to put aU the components of ISS-to-Ground Support Equipment (GSE) communication together and complete the objective. A second project discussed in this paper is Exposing Microbes to the Stratosphere (EMIST). This project exposes microbes into the stratosphere to observe how they are impacted by atmospheric effects. This paper focuses on the electrical and software expectations of the project, specifically drafting the printed circuit board, and programming the on-board sensors. The Eagle Computer-Aided Drafting

  20. Recovery of premorbid BMI trajectory without overshoot during the first year of treatment of children with type 1 diabetes (United States)

    Grönberg, Annika; Swenne, Ingemar


    Objective To study body mass index (BMI) changes and metabolic control in children and adolescents during the first year following the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Research design and methods 200 children and adolescents (0.05). In a multiple regression analysis, BMISDS at 1 year was directly proportional to and highly predicted by BMISDS prior to onset of diabetes (R2=0.57; pdiabetes in children and adolescents, it is possible to achieve good metabolic control without excess weight gain. PMID:27547411

  1. Elevated BMI and Male Sex Are Associated with Greater Underreporting of Caloric Intake as Assessed by Doubly Labeled Water12 (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Palmrose, Christina A; Burger, Kyle S


    Background: Inaccuracies in energy intake (EI) measurement hinder identification of risk factors that predict weight gain and evaluation of obesity prevention and treatment interventions. Research has used objective measures of EI to identify underreporting correlates, producing mixed results, suggesting the need to examine novel potential correlates. Objective: With the use of an objective measure of EI from doubly labeled water (DLW) this report examined multiple potential underreporting correlates. Methods: Adolescents from 2 studies (study 1, n = 91; mean age: 18.4 ± 0.58 y; 100% female; study 2, n = 162; mean age: 15.2 ± 1.99 y; 82 female adolescents; 80 male adolescents) completed a DLW assessment of EI, a food-frequency questionnaire, and measures of perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, food-cue reactivity, eating disorder symptoms, socioeconomic status, and neural response to food; BMI (in kg/m2) was measured over a 2-y follow-up. Results: Elevated BMI correlated with underreported EI in study 1 (r = 0.26, P Underreporting correlated negatively (r = −0.29; uncorr P Underreporting did not predict future change in BMI in either study. Conclusions: Findings document marked underreporting and replicate evidence that BMI correlates positively with underreporting and extends this literature by revealing that several novel factors were unrelated to underreporting and further that neural responsivity to food correlated with underreporting, suggesting that adolescents who showed reduced responsivity in a motor control region to food receipt and elevated responsivity of gustatory regions to anticipated palatable food receipt showed greater underreporting. This trial was registered at as NCT00433680 and NCT02084836. PMID:26338886

  2. Effects of an Obesity Intervention Integrating Physical Activity and Psychological Strategy on BMI, Physical Activity, and Psychological Variables in Male Obese Adolescents. (United States)

    Lee, HakGweon; Kim, YoungHo


    The current study investigated the effect of an obesity intervention incorporating physical activity and behavior-based motivational enhancement intervention on BMI, physical activity levels, and psychological variables toward physical activity in male obese adolescents. Single group study without having a control group was carried out in Korea. Sixty-eight obese male adolescents who had BMI greater than 25 kg/m(2) participated in the 16-week obesity intervention. During this period, the study participants' BMI, physical activity levels, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits and barriers were measured at the three time point (baseline, after week 8, and after week 16). Results indicated that obese adolescents' BMI significantly decreased (F = 3.51, p = .03) and physical activity (F = 4.01, p = .02) significantly increased over the 16-week obesity intervention. In addition, Exercise self-efficacy (F = 5.02) and perceived benefits toward physical activity (F = 5.34) significantly increased but perceived barriers of physical activity (F = 5.10) gradually decreased over the intervention. This study suggests that an obesity intervention combining physical activity and behavior-based motivational enhancement intervention significantly contributed to decreased BMI, increased physical activity, and positively changed psychological variables related to physical activity. This first application has resulted in preliminary support for this intervention modality within non-western obese adolescents.

  3. Association between preterm delivery and pre-pregnancy body mass (BMI), exercise and sleep during pregnancy among working women in Southern California. (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Pearl, Michelle; Kosa, Jessica L; Graham, Steve; Abrams, Barbara; Kharrazi, Martin


    Little is known about modifiable lifestyle factors beyond quitting smoking that could prevent preterm delivery (PTD, pregnancy BMI, second trimester exercise and sleep on PTD. We conducted a nested, population-based case-control study interviewing postpartum 344 cases delivering at pregnancy, and delivered a singleton birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Modeled separately, moderate (odds ratio [OR] = 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.96--per hour/week) and vigorous (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.46-0.98 for yes vs. no) exercise during the second trimester were associated with a reduced odds of PTD, and sleep duration was not (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.80-1.48 for 8 h vs. 7-8 h). When sleep and exercise variables were modeled together along with pre-pregnancy BMI, only moderate exercise (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.85-0.98) continued to be associated with reduced odds of PTD. The benefits of moderate exercise appeared strongest for women with BMI greater than 24 kg/m(2) (OR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.79-0.93) and weakened with decreasing BMI. No other interactions were found. Moderate exercise is associated with reduced PTD, particularly for women with BMI above the normal range. The results are of public health relevance given that these risk factors are potentially modifiable both pre-conceptionally and during pregnancy and rates of PTD are still high in the United States.

  4. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrenˋs BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanette Erkelenz, Susanne Kobel, Sarah Kettner, Clemens Drenowatz, Jürgen M. Steinacker and the Research Group "Join the Healthy Boat - Primary School"


    Full Text Available Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children’s MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children’s PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively. There was no association between parental and children’s PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively. Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children.

  5. Commande vectorielle d'un moteur asynchrone sans capteur (United States)

    Ourth, T.


    A field-oriented control strategy for induction machines which does not use mechanical sensors is presented. The rotor flux is observed by a reduced-order Luenberger-type observer based on a model using a stator-fixed reference frame. An estimate of the rotation speed is derived from the flux vector, the measured stator currents and the field orientation angle. Simulations demonstrate that this control strategy performs well even in the presence of parameter variations up to ± 50% (resistances). Ce papier présente la commande par flux orienté d'une machine asynchrone sans capteur de vitesse ou de position. Le flux rotorique est évalué grâce à un observateur d'ordre réduit d'un type voisin de Luenberger travaillant dans un repère fixe statorique. L'estimation de la vitesse est obtenue à partir du module du flux rotorique, des courants statoriques mesurés et de l'angle d'orientation du flux rotorique. Cette étude basée sur des simulations démontre un comportement acceptable de la commande malgré la variation des paramètres comme les résistances de la machine.

  6. BMI and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.;


    BMI differentiation and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people were analysed. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years. 21 food patterns were separated by the factor analysis. On the basis of the self-reported body mass and height, the BMI and percentages...

  7. Bmi-1, a polycomb Group Protein, Plays an Essential Role in tumorigenesis and Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libing SONG; Jun LI; Wenting LIAO; Yan FENG; Wanli LIU; Yixin ZENG; Musheng ZENG


    @@ Dysregulation of polycomb group protein Bmi-1 expression has been linked with an invasive phenotype of certain human cancers and poor prog-nosis of patients; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly under-stood. Here, we demonstrate that Bmi-1 expression is inversely correlated with E-cadherin expression in various cancers.

  8. Correlation of Bmi-1 expression and telomerase activity in human ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, F. B.; Sui, L. H.; Xin, T.


    This study investigates the correlation between the oncoprotein Bmi-1 and telomerase activity in ovarian cancer. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is used to detect the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Bmi-1 protein in 47 ovarian epithelial cancer cases, and immunohistochemistry i

  9. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage studies in BMI and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, Catherine L.; Chiodini, Benedetta D.; Sham, Pak; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Abkevich, Victor; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; de Andrade, Mariza; Arya, Rector; Berenson, Gerald S.; Blangero, John; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Chen, Wei; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Deng, Hong-Wen; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Feitosa, Mary F.; Froguel, Philippe; Hanson, Robert L.; Hebebrand, Johannes; Huezo-Dias, Patricia; Kissebah, Ahmed H.; Li, Weidong; Luke, Amy; Martin, Lisa J.; Nash, Matthew; Ohman, Muena; Palmer, Lyle J.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Price, R. Arlen; Redline, Susan; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Stern, Michael P.; Stone, Steven; Stringham, Heather; Turner, Stephen; Wijmenga, Cisca; Collier, David A.


    Objective: The objective was to provide an overall assessment of genetic linkage data of BMI and BMI-defined obesity using a nonparametric genome scan meta-analysis. Research Methods and Procedures: We identified 37 published studies containing data on over 31,000 individuals from more than >10,000

  10. Does pre-pregnancy BMI determine blood pressure during pregnancy? : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savitri, Ary I; Zuithoff, Peter; Browne, Joyce L; Amelia, Dwirani; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M


    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) determines blood pressure throughout pregnancy and to explore the role of gestational weight gain in this association. In addition, the effects of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on the occurrence of gestational hypertensio

  11. BMI1 attenuates etoposide-induced G2/M checkpoints via reducing ATM activation. (United States)

    Wei, F; Ojo, D; Lin, X; Wong, N; He, L; Yan, J; Xu, S; Major, P; Tang, D


    The BMI1 protein contributes to stem cell pluripotency and oncogenesis via multiple functions, including its newly identified role in DNA damage response (DDR). Although evidence clearly demonstrates that BMI1 facilitates the repair of double-stranded breaks via homologous recombination (HR), it remains unclear how BMI1 regulates checkpoint activation during DDR. We report here that BMI1 has a role in G2/M checkpoint activation in response to etoposide (ETOP) treatment. Ectopic expression of BMI1 in MCF7 breast cancer and DU145 prostate cancer cells significantly reduced ETOP-induced G2/M arrest. Conversely, knockdown of BMI1 in both lines enhanced the arrest. Consistent with ETOP-induced activation of the G2/M checkpoints via the ATM pathway, overexpression and knockdown of BMI1, respectively, reduced and enhanced ETOP-induced phosphorylation of ATM at serine 1981 (ATM pS1981). Furthermore, the phosphorylation of ATM targets, including γH2AX, threonine 68 (T68) on CHK2 (CHK2 pT68) and serine 15 (S15) on p53 were decreased in overexpression and increased in knockdown BMI1 cells in response to ETOP. In line with the requirement of NBS1 in ATM activation, we were able to show that BMI1 associates with NBS1 and that this interaction altered the binding of NBS1 with ATM. BMI1 consists of a ring finger (RF), helix-turn-helix-turn-helix-turn (HT), proline/serine (PS) domain and two nuclear localization signals (NLS). Although deletion of either RF or HT did not affect the association of BMI1 with NBS1, the individual deletions of PS and one NLS (KRMK) robustly reduced the interaction. Stable expression of these BMI1 mutants decreased ETOP-induced ATM pS1981 and CHK2 pT68, but not ETOP-elicited γH2AX in MCF7 cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of BMI1 in non-transformed breast epithelial MCF10A cells also compromised ETOP-initiated ATM pS1981 and γH2AX. Taken together, we provide compelling evidence that BMI1 decreases ETOP-induced G2/M checkpoint activation via

  12. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro


    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  13. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders


    .041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late matured pubertal children......OBJECTIVE: Early pubertal timing is consistently associated with increased BMI percentile-for-age in pubertal girls, while data in boys are more ambiguous. However, higher BMI percentile-for-age may be a result of the earlier puberty per se rather than vice versa. The aim was to evaluate markers...... of adiposity in relation to pubertal timing and reproductive hormone levels in healthy pubertal boys and girls. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study (The Copenhagen Puberty Study). Eight-hundred and two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents (486 girls) aged 8.5-16.5 years participated. BMI...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to evaluate any association between BMI, WC and Blood pressure and any tendency to develop prehypertension. The study comprises of 100 medical students of NRI medical college, Sangivalasa near Visakhapatnam. It was carried out ongirl students with age of 17 ye ars. Their BMI, WC and Blood pressure were determined. The examination included measurement of weight, height of the student to determine BMI, measurement of waist circumference, and measurement of blood pressure by sphygmomanometer. In the present study t he results are consistent with early clinical studies reporting that there is elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing BMI and waist circumference and there is tendency to develop prehypertension in students with higher BMI. Modificat ion of life style factors should be emphasized.

  15. How you look versus how you feel: Associations between BMI z-score, body dissatisfaction, peer victimization, and self-worth for African American and white adolescents. (United States)

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Adams, Ryan E


    Being overweight and having negative self-perceptions (body dissatisfaction) can have problematic consequences for adolescents physically, socially, and psychologically. Understanding associations between weight, self-perceptions, and peer experiences across ethnicities is particularly important given recent increases in obesity among ethnic minorities. The current study aimed to address these issues by examining Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores and body dissatisfaction predicting change in general self-worth over time via peer victimization experiences in a diverse sample of 236 youth (ages 10-16 years). Body dissatisfaction predicted decreases in self-worth over time even after controlling for BMI z-score. BMI z-scores predicted decreases in self-worth over time only for white adolescents, whereas body dissatisfaction directly predicted decreases in self-worth for African American youth and indirectly via peer victimization for white youth. Associations were also considered by gender. Implications for intervention efforts for both white and African American adolescents are discussed.

  16. Commande adaptive d'une machine asynchrone


    I. Slama-Belkhodja; De Fornel, B.


    Cat article décrit une stratégie de commande adaptive indirecte à Placement de Pôles (PP), appliquée à la commande en vitesse d'une machine asynchrone alimentée par un ensemble hacheur-filtre-onduleur de tension. L'algorithme des Moindres Carrés Récursifs (MCR) est utilisé pour l'identification des modèles de comportement type entrées/sorties. Un intérêt particulier est porté à la mise en oeuvre de cet algorithme et à la discussion de ses résultats, tenant compte des erreurs de modélisation e...

  17. Polycomb Repressor Complex 1 Member, BMI1 Contributes to Urothelial Tumorigenesis through p16-Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia E. De Faveri


    Full Text Available Urothelial carcinoma (UC causes significant morbidity and remains the most expensive cancer to treat because of the need for repeated resections and lifelong monitoring for patients with non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. Novel therapeutics and stratification approaches are needed to improve the outlook for both NMIBC and muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We investigated the expression and effects of B Lymphoma Mo-MLV Insertion Region 1 (BMI1 in UC. BMI1 was found to be overexpressed in most UC cell lines and primary tumors by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In contrast to some previous reports, no association with tumor stage or grade was observed in two independent tumor panels. Furthermore, upregulation of BMI1 was detected in premalignant bladder lesions, suggesting a role early in tumorigenesis. BMI1 is not located within a common region of genomic amplification in UC. The CDKN2A locus (which encodes the p16 tumor suppressor gene is a transcriptional target of BMI1 in some cellular contexts. In UC cell lines and primary tissues, no correlation between BMI1 and p16 expression was observed. Retroviral-mediated overexpression of BMI1 immortalized normal human urothelial cells (NHUC in vitro and was associated with induction of telomerase activity, bypass of senescence, and repression of differentiation. The effects of BMI1 on gene expression were identified by expression microarray analysis of NHUC-BMI1. Metacore analysis of the gene expression profile implicated downstream effects of BMI1 on α4/β1 integrin-mediated adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling, and CREB1-mediated transcription.

  18. Command History. 1969. Volume 3. Sanitized (United States)


    proveedings. USG# is determined, to ,-xtont legally possible, to bring to justice perrmns rce- sponsihle for an- wrong-doing, In meantihe matter "should...closed would again be given permits to operate, as would papers of all legally constituted nationalist groups, i.e. , political parties qualifying...the marihuana problem; and the continuing incidents of black market and illicit currency and com- modity transactions. (See 1968 MACV Command History

  19. Allied Command Structures in the New NATO (United States)


    Aircraft Carriers Other Surface Combatants* Attack Submarines Amphibious Ready Groups Command Ship Mobile Logistics Support** Sub Tender Maritime...29% of file enlisted personnel for the ACE Mobility Coordination Center (SHAPE). From the Regional Air Movement Coordination Center h~ Vicenza...Bosnia primarily to stop air attacks by the Serbian Air Force. 58 T H E U . S . R O L E IN A F S O U T H Advanced U.S. techonology employed

  20. BMI as a mediator of the relationship between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in children: a mediation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Díez-Fernández

    Full Text Available Muscular fitness levels have been associated with cardiometabolic risk in children, although whether body weight acts as a confounder or as an intermediate variable in this relationship remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors is mediated by body mass index (BMI.Cross-sectional study using a sample of 1158 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the province of Cuenca, Spain. We measured anthropometrics and biochemical variables and we calculated a muscular fitness index as the sum of z-scores of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing long jump, and we estimated a previously validated cardiometabolic risk index (CMRI. Linear regression models were fitted for mediation analysis to assess whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk was mediated by BMI.Children with normal weight (NW had a better cardiometabolic risk profile than their overweight (OW or obese (OB peers after controlling for muscular fitness. Marginal estimated mean ± SE values for NW, OW and OB categories of CMRI were -0.75 ± 0.06 0.05 ± 0.09 >-1.16 ± 0.13 for lower, middle and upper quartiles of muscular fitness in boys and 1.01 ± 0.16 > 0.10 ± 0.09 > -1.02 ± 0.15 in girls, both p < 0.001, but differences disappeared when controlling for BMI. BMI acted as a full mediator between muscular fitness and most cardiometabolic risk factors (Sobel test z = -11.44 for boys; z = -11.83 for girls; p < 0.001 in CMRI mediation model and as a partial mediator in the case of waist circumference (Sobel test z=-14.86 for boys; z=-14.51 for girls; p<0.001.BMI mediates the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in schoolchildren. Overall, good muscular fitness is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, but particularly when accompanied by normal weight.

  1. Commande numérique de moteurs synchrones à aimants permanents de faible puissance (United States)

    Robyns, B.; Fu, Y.; Labrique, F.; Buyse, H.


    High performance motion control with permanent magnet synchronous actuators needs complex control strategies. These control strategies lead frequently to algorithms requiring powerful microprocessors for their digital implementation. In this paper, we consider an approach of the control of small power permanent magnets synchronous actuators which allows to design and to implement control algorithms requiring only a reduced computation power, while maintaining satisfactory static and dynamic performance and a good insensitivity to perturbations and parameter uncertainties. L'actionnement électrique à hautes performances par moteurs synchrones à aimants permanents impose des stratégies de commande évoluées liées au comportement dynamique complexe de ces machines. Ces stratégies de commande conduisent fréquemment à des algorithmes dont l'implantation numérique exige des microprocesseurs ayant une puissance de calcul élevée. Dans cet article, nous développons une approche du problème de la commande des moteurs synchrones à aimants permanents de faible puissance qui permet de concevoir et d'implanter des algorithmes de commande ne nécessitant qu'une puissance de calcul réduite, tout en garantissant des performances statiques et dynamiques satisfaisantes ainsi qu'une bonne insensibilité aux perturbations agissant sur le système et aux incertitudes sur les paramètres.

  2. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae


    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  3. Personnel Information Requirements for the Support of Air Force Squadron Commanders’ Information Systems (United States)


    With Graphic Format Generated By A Squadron Commander Emlis+ed Monning 20 110 1807 C-198 or-ly Ju e o Feb 0p u c e 512S 1988 Jon Mar May JuI S;p Nv...I I 1988 Jon Mar’ Ma’y Jul Sep Nov Feb Apr Jun Rug Oci Dec Mo n th 61 Bibliography 1. Barros, Oscar. "Information Requirements And Alternatives In...14. Gruber , W.H. and J.S. Niles. The New Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976. 15. Hughes, David. "MAC Command and Control Center To Serve As

  4. Central Command Architecture for High Order Autonomous Unmanned Systems (United States)

    Bieber, Chad Michael

    This dissertation describes a High-Order Central Command (HOCC) architecture and presents a flight demonstration where a single user coordinates 4 unmanned fixed-wing aircraft. HOCC decouples the user from control of individual vehicles, eliminating human limits on the size of the system, and uses a non-iterative sequence of algorithms that permit easy estimation of how computational complexity scales. The Hungarian algorithm used to solve a min-sum assignment with a one-task planning horizon becomes the limiting complexity, scaling at O(x3) where x is the larger number of vehicles or tasks in the assignment. This method is shown to have a unique property of creating non-intersecting routes which is used to drastically reduce the computational cost of deconflicting planned routes. Results from several demonstration flights are presented where a single user commands a system of 4 fixed-wing aircraft. The results confirm that autonomous flight of a large number of UAVs is a bona fide engineering sub-discipline, which is expected to be of interest to engineers who will find its utility in the aviation industry and in other emerging markets.

  5. Non-intrusive human fatigue monitoring in command centers (United States)

    Alsamman, A.; Ratecki, T.


    An inexpensive, non-intrusive, vision-based, active fatigue monitoring system is presented. The system employs a single consumer webcam that is modified to operate in the near-IR range. An active IR LED system is developed to facilitate the quick localization of the eye pupils. Imaging software tracks the eye features by analyzing intensity areas and their changes in the vicinity of localization. To quantify the level of fatigue the algorithm measures the opening of the eyelid, PERCLOS. The software developed runs on the workstation and is designed to draw limited computational power, so as to not interfere with the user task. To overcome low-frame rate and improve real-time monitoring, a two-phase detection and tacking algorithm is implemented. The results presented show that the system successfully monitors the level of fatigue at a low rate of 8 fps. The system is well suited to monitor users in command centers, flight control centers, airport traffic dispatchers, military operation and command centers, etc., but the work can be extended to wearable devices and other environments.

  6. Command decoder unit. [performance tests of data processing terminals and data converters for space shuttle orbiters (United States)


    The design and testing of laboratory hardware (a command decoder unit) used in evaluating space shuttle instrumentation, data processing, and ground check-out operations is described. The hardware was a modification of another similar instrumentation system. A data bus coupler was designed and tested to interface the equipment to a central bus controller (computer). A serial digital data transfer mechanism was also designed. Redundant power supplies and overhead modules were provided to minimize the probability of a single component failure causing a catastrophic failure. The command decoder unit is packaged in a modular configuration to allow maximum user flexibility in configuring a system. Test procedures and special test equipment for use in testing the hardware are described. Results indicate that the unit will allow NASA to evaluate future software systems for use in space shuttles. The units were delivered to NASA and appear to be adequately performing their intended function. Engineering sketches and photographs of the command decoder unit are included.

  7. Greater perceived ability to form vivid mental images in individuals with high compared to low BMI. (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Shamah, Daniel; Small, Dana M


    Obese individuals report more frequent food cravings than their lean counterparts. Since mental imagery plays a role in eliciting and maintaining craving we hypothesized that one's ability to image may be associated with body mass index (BMI) and account, at least in part, for the association between BMI and craving. Twenty-five participants (BMI range: 17.7 kg/m(2)-34.2 kg/m(2)) completed three measures of perceived mental imagery ability (The Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, The Vividness of Olfactory Imagery Questionnaire, The Vividness of Food Imagery Questionnaire), and one measure of craving (Food-Craving Inventory). As predicted, correlation analyses revealed positive associations between BMI and perceived ability to image odors and foods, but not visual objects. Olfactory imagery was singled out as the best predictor of BMI in a hierarchical regression analysis. A second experiment with 57 participants (BMI range: 19.1 kg/m(2)-38.7 kg/m(2)) then confirmed the significant positive association between BMI and perceived ability to image odors. These results raise the possibility that imagery ability may play a role in the heightened food cue reactivity observed in obese individuals.

  8. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children. (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie


    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  9. p21/Cyclin E pathway modulates anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1 in cancer cells. (United States)

    Deng, Wen; Zhou, Yuan; Tiwari, Agnes F Y; Su, Hang; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Dandan; Lau, Victoria Ming Yi; Hau, Pok Man; Yip, Yim Ling; Cheung, Annie L M; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Tsao, Sai Wah


    Apart from regulating stem cell self-renewal, embryonic development and proliferation, Bmi-1 has been recently reported to be critical in the maintenance of genome integrity. In searching for novel mechanisms underlying the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1, we observed, for the first time, that Bmi-1 positively regulates p21 expression. We extended the finding that Bmi-1 deficiency induced chromosome breaks in multiple cancer cell models. Interestingly, we further demonstrated that knockdown of cyclin E or ectopic overexpression of p21 rescued Bmi-1 deficiency-induced chromosome breaks. We therefore conclude that p21/cyclin E pathway is crucial in modulating the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1. As it is well established that the overexpression of cyclin E potently induces genome instability and p21 suppresses the function of cyclin E, the novel and important implication from our findings is that Bmi-1 plays an important role in limiting genomic instability in cylin E-overexpressing cancer cells by positive regulation of p21.

  10. Associations between Food Outlets around Schools and BMI among Primary Students in England: A Cross-Classified Multi-Level Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Williams

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy-makers are interested in the influence that food retailing around schools may have on child obesity risk. Most previous research comes from North America, uses data aggregated at the school-level and focuses on associations between fast food outlets and school obesity rates. This study examines associations between food retailing and BMI among a large sample of primary school students in Berkshire, England. By controlling for individual, school and home characteristics and stratifying results across the primary school years, we aimed to identify if the food environment around schools had an effect on BMI, independent of socio-economic variables.We measured the densities of fast food outlets and food stores found within schoolchildren's home and school environments using Geographic Information Systems (GIS and data from local councils. We linked these data to measures from the 2010/11 National Child Measurement Programme and used a cross-classified multi-level approach to examine associations between food retailing and BMI z-scores. Analyses were stratified among Reception (aged 4-5 and Year 6 (aged 10-11 students to measure associations across the primary school years.Our multilevel model had three levels to account for individual (n = 16,956, home neighbourhood (n = 664 and school (n = 268 factors. After controlling for confounders, there were no significant associations between retailing near schools and student BMI, but significant positive associations between fast food outlets in home neighbourhood and BMI z-scores. Year 6 students living in areas with the highest density of fast food outlets had an average BMI z-score that was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.20 higher than those living in areas with none.We found little evidence to suggest that food retailing around schools influences student BMI. There is some evidence to suggest that fast food outlet densities in a child's home neighbourhood may have an effect on BMI

  11. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen


    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  12. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and BMI change among U.S. adolescents (United States)

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Falbe, Jennifer; Hu, Frank B.; Field, Alison E.


    Background Among adults, the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is inversely related to body mass index (BMI). Data are lacking on adherence to the MDP among youth in the United States and whether the MDP is related to weight change in that group. Objective To assess whether adherence to the MDP was associated with BMI change among adolescents. To examine temporality we studied the association between baseline and 2–3 year changes in adherence to the MDP with concurrent changes in BMI, as well as subsequent changes in BMI over a 7-year period. Methods We prospectively followed 6 002 females and 4 916 males in the Growing Up Today Study 2, aged 8–15 in 2004, living across the United States. Data were collected by questionnaire in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011. Dietary intake was assessed by the Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire. The KidMed Index was derived to measure the adherence to the MDP. We used generalized estimating equations with repeated measures within subjects to assess the association between MDP and BMI change. Results A two-point increment in the KidMed Index was independently associated with a lower gain in BMI (−0.04 kg/m2; p=0.001). A greater increase in adherence to the KidMed Index was independently related to a lower gain in BMI in both the concurrent (p-for-trend<0.001) and the subsequent period (p-for-trend=0.002). Conclusions Adherence to MDP was inversely associated with change in BMI among adolescents. 2-year improvement in adherence to MDP was independently associated with less steep gain in the BMI in both the concurrent and the subsequent period. PMID:27102053


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : 1 To study lipid profile in patients with type2 diabetes mellitus. 2 To study BMI in patients with type - 2 diabetes mellitus. 3 To correlate BMI and lipid profile in type - 2 diabetes mellitus subjects. Design: A hospital based study was done for 1 year. SETTING: ESIC MEDICAL COLLEGE & POST GRADUATE INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCE & RESEARCH RAJAJINAGAR , BENGALURU. METHODS : Fasting lipid profile was studied in 100 patients of Type - 2 diabetes mellitus and none of them were on hypolipidemic drugs. Different fractions of lipid profile were compared between male and female , duration of diabetes and glycemic control. RESULTS : Out of 100 cases , 41 were males and 59 females. Most of in dividuals were obese. Most individuals had poor glycemic control (67%. Prevalence of hypercholesterolemia , hypertriglyceridemia , raised LDL - C was 62% , 63% , 76% respectively with no significant difference between male and female patients. Prevalence of low HDL - C was 94% , more in females than males with statistically significant difference. There was no correlation between dyslipidemia and glycemic control (HbA1c. As duration of diabetes increased there was increase in serum TG. Other parameters like TC , LD L - C , and HDL - C were not affected by duration of diabetes. Though statistically not significant , compared to males , females were more obese (BMI 24.72±3.82 vs. 26.33±4.62. CONCLUSION: Most of our patients had dyslipidemia irrespective of duration of diabete s. Female patientshad high frequency of low HDL which is an important risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease especially in type - 2 diabetic patients. It is therefore recommended that every type - 2 diabetic patients should have a fasting lipid profile measure d especially the female to reduce risk of CHD

  14. Analysis of the influence of sound signal processing parameters on the quality voice command recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Dyuzhayev


    Full Text Available Introduction. For the task of voice control over different devices recognition of single (isolated voice commands is required. Typically, this control method requires high reliability (at least 95% accuracy voice recognition. It should be noted that voice commands are often pronounced in high noisiness. All presently known methods and algorithms of speech recognition do not allow to clearly determine which parameters of sound signal can provide the best results. The main part. On the first level of voice recognition is about preprocessing and extracting of acoustic features that have a number of useful features – they are easily calculated, providing a compact representation of the voice commands that are resistant to noise interference; On the next level given command is looked for in the reference dictionary. To get MFCC coefficients input file has to be divided into frames. Each frame is measured by a window function and processed by discrete Fourier transform. The resulting representation of signal in the frequency domain is divided into ranges using a set of triangular filters. The last step is to perform discrete cosine transform. Method of dynamic time warping allows to get a value that is an inverse of degree of similarity between given command and a reference. Conclusions. Research has shown that in the field of voice commands recognition optimum results in terms of quality / performance can be achieved using the following parameters of sound signal processing:8 kHz sample rate, frame duration 70–120 ms, Hamming weighting function of a window, number of Fourier samples is 512.

  15. Levantamento e identificação dos símbolos gráficos utilizados para a caracterização de controles e comandos em máquinas agrícolas Classification and identification of the graphic symbols used for the characterization of controls and commands in agricultural machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton dos S. Alonço


    Full Text Available Os símbolos gráficos utilizados para indicar a função dos comandos e controles das máquinas agrícolas tornam a operação mais segura. Logo, este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a simbologia existente nas máquinas agrícolas disponíveis nas quatro principais concessionárias de Santa Maria - RS. No levantamento, foram utilizados como parâmetros os símbolos gráficos recomendados pelas normas técnicas, sendo os existentes nas máquinas estudadas fotografados e posteriormente anotados em planilha. O resultado encontrado foi, em média, de 86%, em relação à utilização dos símbolos gráficos recomendados pelas normas, porém existe também a utilização de símbolos gráficos criados pela própria empresa, o que pode gerar dúvidas no operador da máquina agrícola, pois nem sempre o significado dos mesmos coincide com o descrito nas normas. Os resultados demonstraram que os fabricantes das máquinas agrícolas utilizam as normas existentes, mas ainda não o fazem de forma correta e homogênea.The graphic symbols that indicate the function of the commands and controls of the agricultural machines, keep its safer operation. Therefore, this work had as objective, the identification of the existent ones in the available agricultural machines in the four principal concessionary of Santa Maria City - RS, Brazil, the rising were used as parameter, the graphic symbols recommended in the standards, and the existent ones in the studied machines were photographed and later logged in a spreadsheet. The conformities and nonconformities found were contained in a table for better visualization. The result found was average of 86%, in relation to the use of the graphic symbols recommended by the standards, however, there is the use of graphic symbols also created by the own company, what generates doubts in the operator of the agricultural machine, because not always the meaning of the same ones coincides with described in the standards

  16. Contribution to the conception, the modelling and the control of automotive power train and of electric converters; Contribution a la conception, la modelisation et la commande du groupe motopropulseur automobile et de convertisseurs d`energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidan, P.


    The overall work presented in this thesis globally deals with the conception, the modelling and the control of some applied systems. The first part is devoted to the automotive domain. It concerns the still actualized context of energy savings and reduction of atmospheric pollution, by the improvement of the engine/drive-train control and more particularly of the spark-ignition engine control. In this aim, a first investigation deals with the fuel/air ratio control during the transient phases and suggests the use of an intake manifold pressure control by means of an electric throttle actuator, in order to control the air filling. An original strategy of simultaneous control of fuel and air fillings is then proposed. Another improvement method by an electrical assistance of the engine using a self-controlled synchronous machine drive, is also developed. In the frame of idle-speed control, a prototype allows to show the contribution of this assistance in term of stability and consumption reduction. The second part of the report principally deals with the modelling and the control of electric converters. After a first section describing a methodology of a control-oriented modelling for some classes of static converters, an example of a design of the whole converter-controller is suggested. On the basis of a fourth order voltage switched-mode inverter which should operate as a function generator, the close interaction between filtering quality, structure design and control performances is analyzed and a solution is proposed. For every subject taken up, some prospective features are suggested as well. (author) 37 refs.

  17. Are associations between electronic media use and BMI different across levels of physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Haug, Ellen; Rasmussen, Mette;


    and electronic media use are additive or interactive in predicting BMI and risk for overweight among adolescents. METHODS: The data used in this study stem from the 2009/2010 survey of "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: A WHO Cross-National Survey. The sample consisted of 107184 13 and 15......BACKGROUND: The use of electronic media has been found to be a risk factor for higher BMI and for being overweight. Physical activity has been found to be associated with lower BMI and lower risk for being overweight. Little is known about whether the associations between physical activity...

  18. Increased genetic variance of BMI with a higher prevalence of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokholm, Benjamin; Silventoinen, Karri; Ängquist, Lars;


    There is no doubt that the dramatic worldwide increase in obesity prevalence is due to changes in environmental factors. However, twin studies suggest that genetic differences are responsible for the major part of the variation in body mass index (BMI) and other measures of body fatness within...... populations. Several recent studies suggest that the genetic effects on adiposity may be stronger when combined with presumed risk factors for obesity. We tested the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight and a higher BMI mean is associated with a larger genetic variation in BMI....

  19. Effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on asthma in childhood: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Granell


    Full Text Available Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach.We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs. 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-values<0.001 and with childhood asthma (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.38-4.76 per unit score, p = 0.003. The estimated causal RR for the effect of BMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16-2.07 per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19-3.03 than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89-2.11 though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31. The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11-1.79 per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.11 per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects.Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  20. Diabetes surgery in type 2 BMI 24-29 vs IMC 30-34 diabetic patients: is there differences among restrictive, malabsorptive and gastric bypass procedures? (United States)

    Garciacaballero, M; Navarrete, S; Favretti, F; Celik, A; Del Castillo, D


    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a public health problem with a prevalence of 345 million people worldwide that it may double by the year 2030 and have a high costs and mortality. Gastrointestinal surgery is accepted as a form of treatment that was already suggested for obese in 1987 by Pories, confirmed for obese patients by the metaanalysis of Buchwald and the direct comparison of gastric bypass with medical treatment in the study of Schauer that demonstrate a 4 fold greater resolution rate of DM with surgery. Improvement occurs immediately after surgery, before the patients lose weight in with BMI > 35; but there is doubt if the existent evidence is enough to extrapolate these results to patients with BMI < 35 and especially with BMI < 30, in spite that four reviews in patients with this BMI and DM2 demonstrated the same results when stomach, duodenum and part of jejunum is bypassed as happen gastric bypass (better results with this of one anastomosis than of two anastomosis, Roux-en-Y) BPD. For patients with a BMI between 30 and 35 restrictive techniques: LAGB and SGL are good but not better than the mixed: RYGB, BAGUA, or SG-DJB with remission from 60 to 100%, minor in the derivative: BPD and above on the IID with a 81% of remission. There are no differences in the metabolic control in comparison to the obese, It is progressively better with DJB, SDS, IID and BAGUA especially in patients who do not require insulin, have less time with disease, have normal C peptide levels, and not so much relation with the initial BMI that is only important to decide the degree of restriction. Although several mechanisms has been suggested for explaining these results such as caloric intake, hormonal changes, bypass of the anterior or early stimulation of posterior intestine, fundectomy, intestinal gluconeogenesis and others, new ones will appear in the near future.