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Sample records for blurred vision due

  1. A pilot trial of tele-ophthalmology for diagnosis of chronic blurred vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Johnson Choon Hwai; Poh, Eugenie Wei Ting; Srinivasan, Sanjay; Lim, Tock Han

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of tele-ophthalmology in diagnosing the major causes of chronic blurring of vision. Thirty consecutive patients attending a primary eye-care facility in Singapore (the Ang Mo Kio Polyclinic, AMKP) with the symptom of chronic blurred vision were recruited. An ophthalmic technician was trained to perform Snellen acuity; auto-refraction; intraocular pressure measurement; red-colour perimetry; video recordings of extraocular movement, cover tests and pupillary reactions; and anterior segment and fundus photography. Digital information was transmitted to a tertiary hospital in Singapore (the Tan Tock Seng Hospital) via a tele-ophthalmology system for teleconsultation with an ophthalmologist. The diagnoses were compared with face-to-face consultation by another ophthalmologist at the AMKP. A user experience questionnaire was administered at the end of the consultation. Using face-to-face consultation as the gold standard, tele-ophthalmology achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing media opacity (n = 29), maculopathy (n = 23) and keratopathy (n = 30) of any type; and 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity in diagnosing optic neuropathy of any type (n = 24). The majority of the patients (97%) were satisfied with the tele-ophthalmology workflow and consultation. The tele-ophthalmology system was able to detect causes of chronic blurred vision accurately. It has the potential to deliver high-accuracy diagnostic eye support to remote areas if suitably trained ophthalmic technicians are available.

  2. Image Acquisition of Robust Vision Systems to Monitor Blurred Objects in Hazy Smoking Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yongjin; Park, Seungkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Kim, Donglyul; Nam, Sungmo; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2014-01-01

    Image information in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important data for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, robust vision system for structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments, such as the places of a fire and detonation, is essential in remote monitoring. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog, dust. The vision system based on wavefront correction can be applied to blurred imaging environments and the range-gated imaging system can be applied to both of blurred imaging and darken light environments. Wavefront control is a widely used technique to improve the performance of optical systems by actively correcting wavefront distortions, such as atmospheric turbulence, thermally-induced distortions, and laser or laser device aberrations, which can reduce the peak intensity and smear an acquired image. The principal applications of wavefront control are for improving the image quality in optical imaging systems such as infrared astronomical telescopes, in imaging and tracking rapidly moving space objects, and in compensating for laser beam distortion through the atmosphere. A conventional wavefront correction system consists of a wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror and a control computer. The control computer measures the wavefront distortions using a wavefront sensor and corrects it using a deformable mirror in a closed-loop. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra

  3. Image Acquisition of Robust Vision Systems to Monitor Blurred Objects in Hazy Smoking Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yongjin; Park, Seungkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Kim, Donglyul; Nam, Sungmo; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Image information in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important data for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, robust vision system for structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments, such as the places of a fire and detonation, is essential in remote monitoring. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog, dust. The vision system based on wavefront correction can be applied to blurred imaging environments and the range-gated imaging system can be applied to both of blurred imaging and darken light environments. Wavefront control is a widely used technique to improve the performance of optical systems by actively correcting wavefront distortions, such as atmospheric turbulence, thermally-induced distortions, and laser or laser device aberrations, which can reduce the peak intensity and smear an acquired image. The principal applications of wavefront control are for improving the image quality in optical imaging systems such as infrared astronomical telescopes, in imaging and tracking rapidly moving space objects, and in compensating for laser beam distortion through the atmosphere. A conventional wavefront correction system consists of a wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror and a control computer. The control computer measures the wavefront distortions using a wavefront sensor and corrects it using a deformable mirror in a closed-loop. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra

  4. Photographic simulation of off-axis blurring due to chromatic aberration in spectacle lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroslovački, Pavle; Guyton, David L

    2015-02-01

    Spectacle lens materials of high refractive index (nd) tend to have high chromatic dispersion (low Abbé number [V]), which may contribute to visual blurring with oblique viewing. A patient who noted off-axis blurring with new high-refractive-index spectacle lenses prompted us to do a photographic simulation of the off-axis aberrations in 3 readily available spectacle lens materials, CR-39 (nd = 1.50), polyurethane (nd = 1.60), and polycarbonate (nd = 1.59). Both chromatic and monochromatic aberrations were found to cause off-axis image degradation. Chromatic aberration was more prominent in the higher-index materials (especially polycarbonate), whereas the lower-index CR-39 had more astigmatism of oblique incidence. It is important to consider off-axis aberrations when a patient complains of otherwise unexplained blurred vision with a new pair of spectacle lenses, especially given the increasing promotion of high-refractive-index materials with high chromatic dispersion. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A 58-year-old female with blurred vision and apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hong SHI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old right handed woman, with 12 years of formal education, had a five-year history of slowly progressive blurred vision and apraxia. Five years before the examination she gradually became blurred vision and had difficulties identifying static objects within the visual field. Then she went to an ophthalmologist and received cataract surgery. However, the symptoms were not improved after surgery. Two years later, she had difficulty doing household chores and was unable to dress herself. She developed an anxiety disorder in the absence of prominent language or memory deficits. Five years after onset, she showed global cognitive decline and abilities of daily life decline. On neurological examination she was alert. Neuropsychological testing revealed a mini-mental state examination (MMSE score of 20/30 with anomia, agraphia, alexia and partial impairment on time orientation. Biochemical investigations for disorders involving thyroid function, vitamin B12, and folate were unremarkable. A brain MRI showed diffuse cortical atrophy and hippocampus atrophy. An 18F-FDG PET scan showed bilateral hypometabolism at the frontal lobes, tempoparietooccipital adjunction, posterior cingulate cortices and precuneus, insular lobes, caudate nuclei and right thalamus. An 11C-PIB PET scan showed bilateral amyloid deposits at bilateral frontal lobes and occipital lobes, left temporal lobe and insular, basal ganglia, bilateral cingulate cortices and precuneus. No PSEN1, PSEN2 or APP mutations were identified. This early-onset patient had an unusual cognitive complaint, including visual agnosia and apraxia. The clinical features, structural and functional imaging findings of this case were compatible with the diagnosis of Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA. PCA is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by a progressive, often dramatic and relatively selective decline in visual processing skills and other functions subserved by parietal, occipital and

  6. Blur Clarified: A review and Synthesis of Blur Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J.

    2011-01-01

    Blur is an important attribute of human spatial vision, and sensitivity to blur has been the subject of considerable experimental research and theoretical modeling. Often these models have invoked specialized concepts or mechanisms, such as intrinsic blur, multiple channels, or blur estimation units. In this paper we review the several experimental studies of blur discrimination and find they are in broad empirical agreement. But contrary to previous modeling efforts, we find that the essential features of blur discrimination are fully accounted for by a visible contrast energy model (ViCE), in which two spatial patterns are distinguished when the integrated difference between their masked local contrast energy responses reaches a threshold value.

  7. Chromatic blur perception in the presence of luminance contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Ben J; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2017-06-01

    Hel-Or showed that blurring the chromatic but not the luminance layer of an image of a natural scene failed to elicit any impression of blur. Subsequent studies have suggested that this effect is due either to chromatic blur being masked by spatially contiguous luminance edges in the scene (Journal of Vision 13 (2013) 14), or to a relatively compressed transducer function for chromatic blur (Journal of Vision 15 (2015) 6). To test between the two explanations we conducted experiments using as stimuli both images of natural scenes as well as simple edges. First, we found that in color-and-luminance images of natural scenes more chromatic blur was needed to perceptually match a given level of blur in an isoluminant, i.e. colour-only scene. However, when the luminance layer in the scene was rotated relative to the chromatic layer, thus removing the colour-luminance edge correlations, the matched blur levels were near equal. Both results are consistent with Sharman et al.'s explanation. Second, when observers matched the blurs of luminance-only with isoluminant scenes, the matched blurs were equal, against Kingdom et al.'s prediction. Third, we measured the perceived blur in a square-wave as a function of (i) contrast (ii) number of luminance edges and (iii) the relative spatial phase between the colour and luminance edges. We found that the perceived chromatic blur was dependent on both relative phase and the number of luminance edges, or dependent on the luminance contrast if only a single edge is present. We conclude that this Hel-Or effect is largely due to masking of chromatic blur by spatially contiguous luminance edges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level....

  9. Disparity-driven vs blur-driven models of accommodation and convergence in binocular vision and intermittent strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2014-12-01

    To propose an alternative and practical model to conceptualize clinical patterns of concomitant intermittent strabismus, heterophoria, and convergence and accommodation anomalies. Despite identical ratios, there can be a disparity- or blur-biased "style" in three hypothetical scenarios: normal; high ratio of accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) and low ratio of convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C); low AC/A and high CA/C. We calculated disparity bias indices (DBI) to reflect these biases and provide early objective data from small illustrative clinical groups that fit these styles. Normal adults (n = 56) and children (n = 24) showed disparity bias (adult DBI 0.43 [95% CI, 0.50-0.36], child DBI 0.20 [95% CI, 0.31-0.07]; P = 0.001). Accommodative esotropia (n = 3) showed less disparity-bias (DBI 0.03). In the high AC/A-low CA/C scenario, early presbyopia (n = 22) showed mean DBI of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.28-0.06), compared to DBI of -0.31 in convergence excess esotropia (n=8). In the low AC/A-high CA/C scenario near exotropia (n = 17) showed mean DBI of 0.27. DBI ranged between 1.25 and -1.67. Establishing disparity or blur bias adds to AC/A and CA/C ratios to explain clinical patterns. Excessive bias or inflexibility in near-cue use increases risk of clinical problems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SU-F-T-560: Measurement of Dose Blurring Effect Due to Respiratory Motion for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Using Monte Carlo Based Calculation Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badkul, R; Pokhrel, D; Jiang, H; Lominska, C; Wang, F; Ramanjappa, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Intra-fractional tumor motion due to respiration may potentially compromise dose delivery for SBRT of lung tumors. Even sufficient margins are used to ensure there is no geometric miss of target volume, there is potential dose blurring effect may present due to motion and could impact the tumor coverage if motions are larger. In this study we investigated dose blurring effect of open fields as well as Lung SBRT patients planned using 2 non-coplanar dynamic conformal arcs(NCDCA) and few conformal beams(CB) calculated with Monte Carlo (MC) based algorithm utilizing phantom with 2D-diode array(MapCheck) and ion-chamber. Methods: SBRT lung patients were planned on Brainlab-iPlan system using 4D-CT scan and ITV were contoured on MIP image set and verified on all breathing phase image sets to account for breathing motion and then 5mm margin was applied to generate PTV. Plans were created using two NCDCA and 4-5 CB 6MV photon calculated using XVMC MC-algorithm. 3 SBRT patients plans were transferred to phantom with MapCheck and 0.125cc ion-chamber inserted in the middle of phantom to calculate dose. Also open field 3×3, 5×5 and 10×10 were calculated on this phantom. Phantom was placed on motion platform with varying motion from 5, 10, 20 and 30 mm with duty cycle of 4 second. Measurements were carried out for open fields as well 3 patients plans at static and various degree of motions. MapCheck planar dose and ion-chamber reading were collected and compared with static measurements and computed values to evaluate the dosimetric effect on tumor coverage due to motion. Results: To eliminate complexity of patients plan 3 simple open fields were also measured to see the dose blurring effect with the introduction of motion. All motion measured ionchamber values were normalized to corresponding static value. For open fields 5×5 and 10×10 normalized central axis ion-chamber values were 1.00 for all motions but for 3×3 they were 1 up to 10mm motion and 0.97 and 0

  11. Accommodative spasm with bilateral vision loss due to untreated intermittent exotropia in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, V; Ganesh, S; Sethi, S

    2012-01-01

    Intermittent exotropia (IXT) is an exodeviation intermittently controlled by fusional mechanisms. Patients with IXT may present with asthenopic symptoms, blurred vision, headaches, diplopia or visual confusion and reading difficulties; especially after prolonged periods of near work. To report the presentation and management of a young adult with intractable accommodative spasm secondary to long standing intermittent exotropia. The patient was found to have bilateral accommodative spasm with high pseudomyopia and severe impairment of vision. There was a tendency for recurrence with discontinuation of cycloplegics. A total relief of symptoms was noticed after strabismus surgery was undertaken for the exotropia. A detailed orthoptic evaluation with emphasis on recognizing accommodative spasm as an unusual presentation of IXT, could aid in appropriate diagnosis and treatment of such cases. © NEPjOPH.

  12. Brief communication : Unilateral blindness and low vision due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-11-15

    To assess the magnitude of unilateral blindness or low vision caused by strabismic amblyopia in astrabismic population, a prospective study was conducted between November 15, 1995 and March 20, 1997 at Menelik II Hospital. The visual acuity of 361 patients with strabismus was evaluated. The average age of ...

  13. Restoration of motion blurred images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-08-01

    Image restoration is a classic problem in image processing. Image degradations can occur due to several reasons, for instance, imperfections of imaging systems, quantization errors, atmospheric turbulence, relative motion between camera or objects, among others. Motion blur is a typical degradation in dynamic imaging systems. In this work, we present a method to estimate the parameters of linear motion blur degradation from a captured blurred image. The proposed method is based on analyzing the frequency spectrum of a captured image in order to firstly estimate the degradation parameters, and then, to restore the image with a linear filter. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by processing synthetic and real-life images. The obtained results are characterized in terms of accuracy of image restoration given by an objective criterion.

  14. Quality of life and near vision impairment due to functional presbyopia among rural Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Congdon, Nathan; He, Xiangdong; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Yang, Amy; He, Wei

    2011-06-13

    To evaluate the impact of near-vision impairment on visual functioning and quality of life in a rural adult population in Shenyang, northern China. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged 40+ years, during which functional presbyopia (correctable presenting near vision vision-related quality of life and spectacle usage questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers to determine the degree of self-rated difficulty with near tasks. A total of 1008 respondents (91.5% of 1102 eligible persons) were examined, and 776 (78%) of completed the questionnaires (mean age, 57.0 ± 10.2 years; 63.3% women). Near-vision spectacle wearers obtained their spectacles primarily from markets (74.5%) and optical shops (21.7%), and only 1.14% from eye clinics. Among 538 (69.3%) persons with functional presbyopia, self-rated overall (distance and near) vision was worse (P vision. Compared to persons without presbyopia, presbyopic persons were more likely to report diminished accomplishment due to vision (P = 0.01, adjusted for age, sex, education, and distance vision.) Difficulties with activities of daily living and resulting social impediments are common due to presbyopia in this setting. Most spectacle wearers with presbyopia in rural China obtain near correction from sources that do not provide comprehensive vision care.

  15. Differences in 3D dose distributions due to calculation method of voxel S-values and the influence of image blurring in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacilio, Massimiliano; Basile, Chiara; Amato, Ernesto; Lanconelli, Nico; Torres, Leonel Alberto; Perez, Marco Coca; Gil, Alex Vergara; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Cremonesi, Marta; Diaz, Nestor Cornejo; Fernández, María; Lassmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study compares 3D dose distributions obtained with voxel S values (VSVs) for soft tissue, calculated by several methods at their current state-of-the-art, varying the degree of image blurring. The methods were: 1) convolution of Dose Point Kernel (DPK) for water, using a scaling factor method; 2) an analytical model (AM), fitting the deposited energy as a function of the source-target distance; 3) a rescaling method (RSM) based on a set of high-resolution VSVs for each isotope; 4) local energy deposition (LED). VSVs calculated by direct Monte Carlo simulations were assumed as reference. Dose distributions were calculated considering spheroidal clusters with various sizes (251, 1237 and 4139 voxels of 3 mm size), uniformly filled with 131 I, 177 Lu, 188 Re or 90 Y. The activity distributions were blurred with Gaussian filters of various widths (6, 8 and 12 mm). Moreover, 3D-dosimetry was performed for 10 treatments with 90 Y derivatives. Cumulative Dose Volume Histograms (cDVHs) were compared, studying the differences in D 95% , D 50% or D max (ΔD 95% , ΔD 50% and ΔD max ) and dose profiles. For unblurred spheroidal clusters, ΔD 95% , ΔD 50% and ΔD max were mostly within some percents, slightly higher for 177 Lu with DPK (8%) and RSM (12%) and considerably higher for LED (ΔD 95% up to 59%). Increasing the blurring, differences decreased and also LED yielded very similar results, but D 95% and D 50% underestimations between 30–60% and 15–50%, respectively (with respect to 3D-dosimetry with unblurred distributions), were evidenced. Also for clinical images (affected by blurring as well), cDVHs differences for most methods were within few percents, except for slightly higher differences with LED, and almost systematic for dose profiles with DPK (−1.2%), AM (−3.0%) and RSM (4.5%), whereas showed an oscillating trend with LED. The major concern for 3D-dosimetry on clinical SPECT images is more strongly represented by image blurring than by

  16. A Stochastic Approach for Blurred Image Restoration and Optical Flow Computation on Field Image Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文; 陈熙霖

    1997-01-01

    The blur in target images caused by camera vibration due to robot motion or hand shaking and by object(s) moving in the background scene is different to deal with in the computer vision system.In this paper,the authors study the relation model between motion and blur in the case of object motion existing in video image sequence,and work on a practical computation algorithm for both motion analysis and blut image restoration.Combining the general optical flow and stochastic process,the paper presents and approach by which the motion velocity can be calculated from blurred images.On the other hand,the blurred image can also be restored using the obtained motion information.For solving a problem with small motion limitation on the general optical flow computation,a multiresolution optical flow algoritm based on MAP estimation is proposed. For restoring the blurred image ,an iteration algorithm and the obtained motion velocity are used.The experiment shows that the proposed approach for both motion velocity computation and blurred image restoration works well.

  17. Experimental determination of blurring in x-ray fluoroscopy last image hold due to patient movement and its repercussion to patient doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibelalde, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Vano, E.; Fernandez, J.M.; Alberdi, J.; Molinero, A.

    2001-01-01

    Significant dose reduction can be achieved in fluoroscopy and interventional radiology by using the last image hold (LIH). This feature in modern digital fluoroscopy x-ray units usually works with frame or temporal averaging techniques to reduce noise. This image quality works quite well for objects without motion but it could be a serious limitation in presence of motion blur. With an in-house developed robotic device, the authors have experimentally determined the image quality degradation introduced by normal physiological movements (i.e., respiratory and cardiac pulse movements). FAXIL test objects TO.10 and 18FG from Leeds University have been used for spatial resolution limit and threshold contrast detail detectability. Seven X-ray equipment with last image hold features from three different manufacturers were analysed. Although results show that motion blur affects LIH to different extends depending on equipment, magnification, entrance dose and detail size, it can be estimated that, on average for all equipment and analysed conditions, it represents 30% degradation in image quality parameters in comparison with static images. (author)

  18. The prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in the Australian National Eye Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Stuart; Xie, Jing; Foreman, Joshua; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in Australia. The National Eye Health Survey (NEHS) is a population-based cross-sectional study that examined 3098 non-Indigenous Australians (aged 50-98 years) and 1738 Indigenous Australians (aged 40-92 years) living in 30 randomly selected sites, stratified by remoteness. An eye was considered to have vision loss due to trauma if the best-corrected visual acuity was worse than 6/12 and the main cause was attributed to ocular trauma. This determination was made by two independent ophthalmologists and any disagreements were adjudicated by a third senior ophthalmologist. The sampling weight adjusted prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older and Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and over was 0.24% (95%CI: 0.10, 0.52) and 0.79% (95%CI: 0.56, 1.13), respectively. Trauma was attributed as an underlying cause of bilateral vision loss in one Indigenous participant, with all other cases being monocular. Males displayed a higher prevalence of vision loss from ocular trauma than females in both the non-Indigenous (0.47% vs. 1.25%, p=0.03) and Indigenous populations (0.12% vs. 0.38%, p=0.02). After multivariate adjustments, residing in Very Remote geographical areas was associated with higher odds of vision loss from ocular trauma. We estimate that 2.4 per 1000 non-Indigenous and 7.9 per 1000 Indigenous Australian adults have monocular vision loss due to a previous severe ocular trauma. Our findings indicate that males, Indigenous Australians and those residing in Very Remote communities may benefit from targeted health promotion to improve awareness of trauma prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of blurred image portions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for image enhancement, comprising a first step ( 41 ) of distinguishing blurred and non-blurred image portions of an input image, and a second step ( 42 ) of enhancing at least one of said blurred image portions of said input image to produce an output image. Said

  20. Restoration of non-uniform exposure motion blurred image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanhong; Xu, Tingfa; Wang, Ningming; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Restoring motion-blurred image is the key technologies in the opto-electronic detection system. The imaging sensors such as CCD and infrared imaging sensor, which are mounted on the motion platforms, quickly move together with the platforms of high speed. As a result, the images become blur. The image degradation will cause great trouble for the succeeding jobs such as objects detection, target recognition and tracking. So the motion-blurred images must be restoration before detecting motion targets in the subsequent images. On the demand of the real weapon task, in order to deal with targets in the complex background, this dissertation uses the new theories in the field of image processing and computer vision to research the new technology of motion deblurring and motion detection. The principle content is as follows: 1) When the prior knowledge about degradation function is unknown, the uniform motion blurred images are restored. At first, the blur parameters, including the motion blur extent and direction of PSF(point spread function), are estimated individually in domain of logarithmic frequency. The direction of PSF is calculated by extracting the central light line of the spectrum, and the extent is computed by minimizing the correction between the fourier spectrum of the blurred image and a detecting function. Moreover, in order to remove the strip in the deblurred image, windows technique is employed in the algorithm, which makes the deblurred image clear. 2) According to the principle of infrared image non-uniform exposure, a new restoration model for infrared blurred images is developed. The fitting of infrared image non-uniform exposure curve is performed by experiment data. The blurred images are restored by the fitting curve.

  1. Global Vision Impairment and Blindness Due to Uncorrected Refractive Error, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin S; Leasher, Janet; Bourne, Rupert R; Flaxman, Seth R; Jonas, Jost B; Keeffe, Jill; Limburg, Hans; Pesudovs, Konrad; Price, Holly; White, Richard A; Wong, Tien Y; Taylor, Hugh R; Resnikoff, Serge

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to estimate worldwide the number of people with moderate and severe visual impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity blindness (presenting visual acuity blind (7.9% increase from 1990) and 101.2 million (95% CI: 87.88-125.5 million) vision impaired due to URE (15% increase since 1990), while the global population increased by 30% (1990-2010). The all-age age-standardized prevalence of URE blindness decreased 33% from 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.2%) in 1990 to 0.1% (95% CI: 0.1-0.1%) in 2010, whereas the prevalence of URE MSVI decreased 25% from 2.1% (95% CI: 1.6-2.4%) in 1990 to 1.5% (95% CI: 1.3-1.9%) in 2010. In 2010, URE contributed 20.9% (95% CI: 15.2-25.9%) of all blindness and 52.9% (95% CI: 47.2-57.3%) of all MSVI worldwide. The contribution of URE to all MSVI ranged from 44.2 to 48.1% in all regions except in South Asia which was at 65.4% (95% CI: 62-72%). : We conclude that in 2010, uncorrected refractive error continues as the leading cause of vision impairment and the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, affecting a total of 108 million people or 1 in 90 persons.

  2. Postural stability in the elderly during sensory perturbations and dual tasking: the influence of refractive blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2003-07-01

    To determine the influence of refractive blur on postural stability during somatosensory and vestibular system perturbation and dual tasking. Fifteen healthy, elderly subjects (mean age, 71 +/- 5 years), who had no history of falls and had normal vision, were recruited. Postural stability during standing was assessed using a force platform, and was determined as the root mean square (RMS) of the center of pressure (COP) signal in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral directions collected over a 30-second period. Data were collected under normal standing conditions and with somatosensory and vestibular system perturbations. Measurements were repeated with an additional physical and/or cognitive task. Postural stability was measured under conditions of binocular refractive blur of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 D and with eyes closed. The data were analyzed with a population-averaged linear model. The greatest increases in postural instability were due to disruptions of the somatosensory and vestibular systems. Increasing refractive blur caused increasing postural instability, and its effect was greater when the input from the other sensory systems was disrupted. Performing an additional cognitive and physical task increased A-P RMS COP further. All these detrimental effects on postural stability were cumulative. The findings highlight the multifactorial nature of postural stability and indicate why the elderly, many of whom have poor vision and musculoskeletal and central nervous system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling. The findings also highlight that standing instability in both normal and perturbed conditions was significantly increased with refractive blur. Correcting visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive error could be a useful intervention strategy to help prevent falls and fall-related injuries in the elderly.

  3. Prevalence of remediable disability due to low vision among institutionalised elderly people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, L.J. de; Hoyng, C.B.; Froeling, P.G.A.M.; Meulendijks, C.F.M.; Wilt, G.J. van der

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of remediable visual disability among institutionalised elderly people, resulting from inappropriate use or non-use of low-vision aids, is reported to be high, but largely rests on anecdotal evidence. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of binocular low vision and underlying

  4. Restoration of motion-blurred image based on border deformation detection: a traffic sign restoration model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of motor vehicle Driver Assistance Systems (DAS, the safety problems associated with automatic driving have become a hot issue in Intelligent Transportation. The traffic sign is one of the most important tools used to reinforce traffic rules. However, traffic sign image degradation based on computer vision is unavoidable during the vehicle movement process. In order to quickly and accurately recognize traffic signs in motion-blurred images in DAS, a new image restoration algorithm based on border deformation detection in the spatial domain is proposed in this paper. The border of a traffic sign is extracted using color information, and then the width of the border is measured in all directions. According to the width measured and the corresponding direction, both the motion direction and scale of the image can be confirmed, and this information can be used to restore the motion-blurred image. Finally, a gray mean grads (GMG ratio is presented to evaluate the image restoration quality. Compared to the traditional restoration approach which is based on the blind deconvolution method and Lucy-Richardson method, our method can greatly restore motion blurred images and improve the correct recognition rate. Our experiments show that the proposed method is able to restore traffic sign information accurately and efficiently.

  5. Training improves reading speed in peripheral vision: Is it due to attention?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye-Won; Kwon, MiYoung; Legge, Gordon E.; Gefroh, Joshua J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that perceptual training in peripheral vision, using a letter-recognition task, increases reading speed and letter recognition (Chung, Legge, & Cheung, 2004). We tested the hypothesis that enhanced deployment of spatial attention to peripheral vision explains this training effect. Subjects were pre- and post-tested with 3 tasks at 10° above and below fixation—RSVP reading speed, trigram letter recognition (used to construct visual-span profiles), and deployment of ...

  6. Training improves reading speed in peripheral vision: is it due to attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Won; Kwon, Miyoung; Legge, Gordon E; Gefroh, Joshua J

    2010-06-01

    Previous research has shown that perceptual training in peripheral vision, using a letter-recognition task, increases reading speed and letter recognition (S. T. L. Chung, G. E. Legge, & S. H. Cheung, 2004). We tested the hypothesis that enhanced deployment of spatial attention to peripheral vision explains this training effect. Subjects were pre- and post-tested with 3 tasks at 10° above and below fixation-RSVP reading speed, trigram letter recognition (used to construct visual-span profiles), and deployment of spatial attention (measured as the benefit of a pre-cue for target position in a lexical-decision task). Groups of five normally sighted young adults received 4 days of trigram letter-recognition training in upper or lower visual fields, or central vision. A control group received no training. Our measure of deployment of spatial attention revealed visual-field anisotropies; better deployment of attention in the lower field than the upper, and in the lower-right quadrant compared with the other three quadrants. All subject groups exhibited slight improvement in deployment of spatial attention to peripheral vision in the post-test, but this improvement was not correlated with training-related increases in reading speed and the size of visual-span profiles. Our results indicate that improved deployment of spatial attention to peripheral vision does not account for improved reading speed and letter recognition in peripheral vision.

  7. DETECTING AND CORRECTING MOTION BLUR FROM IMAGES SHOT WITH CHANNEL-DEPENDENT EXPOSURE TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lelégard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a pipeline developed to automatically detect and correct motion blur due to the airplane motion in aerial images provided by a digital camera system with channel-dependent exposure times. Blurred images show anisotropy in their Fourier Transform coefficients that can be detected and estimated to recover the characteristics of the motion blur. To disambiguate the anisotropy produced by a motion blur from the possible spectral anisotropy produced by some periodic patterns present in a sharp image, we consider the phase difference of the Fourier Transform of two channel shot with different exposure times (i.e. with different blur extensions. This is possible because of the deep correlation between the three visible channels ensures phase coherence of the Fourier Transform coefficients in sharp images. In this context, considering the phase difference constitutes both a good detector and estimator of the motion blur parameters. In order to improve on this estimation, the phase difference is performed on local windows in the image where the channels are more correlated. The main lobe of the phase difference, where the phase difference between two channels is close to zero actually imitates an ellipse which axis ratio discriminates blur and which orientation and minor axis give respectively the orientation and the blur kernel extension of the long exposure-time channels. However, this approach is not robust to the presence in the phase difference of minor lobes due to phase sign inversions in the Fourier transform of the motion blur. They are removed by considering the polar representation of the phase difference. Based on the blur detection step, blur correction is eventually performed using two different approaches depending on the blur extension size: using either a simple frequency-based fusion for small blur or a semi blind iterative method for larger blur. The higher computing costs of the latter method make it only

  8. Edge dependent motion blur reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a circuit arrangement to reduce motion blur of images shown in non-stroboscopic display devices, in particular Liquid Crystal Display Panels (LCDs). Thin Film Transistor Displays (TFTs), Color Sequential Displays. Plasma Display Panels (PDPs), Digital Micro

  9. Ocular problems of computer vision syndrome: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayakutty Muni Raja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, ophthalmologists are facing a new group of patients having eye problems related to prolonged and excessive computer use. When the demand for near work exceeds the normal ability of the eye to perform the job comfortably, one develops discomfort and prolonged exposure, which leads to a cascade of reactions that can be put together as computer vision syndrome (CVS. In India, the computer-using population is more than 40 million, and 80% have discomfort due to CVS. Eye strain, headache, blurring of vision and dryness are the most common symptoms. Workstation modification, voluntary blinking, adjustment of the brightness of screen and breaks in between can reduce CVS.

  10. Blur Detection is Unaffected by Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschky, Lester C; Ringer, Ryan V; Johnson, Aaron P; Larson, Adam M; Neider, Mark; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-03-01

    Blur detection is affected by retinal eccentricity, but is it also affected by attentional resources? Research showing effects of selective attention on acuity and contrast sensitivity suggests that allocating attention should increase blur detection. However, research showing that blur affects selection of saccade targets suggests that blur detection may be pre-attentive. To investigate this question, we carried out experiments in which viewers detected blur in real-world scenes under varying levels of cognitive load manipulated by the N -back task. We used adaptive threshold estimation to measure blur detection thresholds at 0°, 3°, 6°, and 9° eccentricity. Participants carried out blur detection as a single task, a single task with to-be-ignored letters, or an N-back task with four levels of cognitive load (0, 1, 2, or 3-back). In Experiment 1, blur was presented gaze-contingently for occasional single eye fixations while participants viewed scenes in preparation for an easy picture recognition memory task, and the N -back stimuli were presented auditorily. The results for three participants showed a large effect of retinal eccentricity on blur thresholds, significant effects of N -back level on N -back performance, scene recognition memory, and gaze dispersion, but no effect of N -back level on blur thresholds. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 but presented the images tachistoscopically for 200 ms (half with, half without blur), to determine whether gaze-contingent blur presentation in Experiment 1 had produced attentional capture by blur onset during a fixation, thus eliminating any effect of cognitive load on blur detection. The results with three new participants replicated those of Experiment 1, indicating that the use of gaze-contingent blur presentation could not explain the lack of effect of cognitive load on blur detection. Thus, apparently blur detection in real-world scene images is unaffected by attentional resources, as manipulated by

  11. An unusual complication of combined gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy and phacoemulsification: vision loss due to intracapsular hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalinbas, Duygu; Aktas, Zeynep; Hepsen, İbrahim; Dilekmen, Nilay

    2017-09-23

    To report two cases with an acute vision loss due to intracapsular hemorrhage (hematoma) after an uncomplicated gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (GATT) combined with phacoemulsification surgery. Case report. Seventy-six-year-old male and 75-year-old female patients with cataract and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (XFG) uncontrolled with maximum medical therapy both underwent GATT combined with phacoemulsification. Shortly after the surgery, intracapsular hematoma behind the intraocular lens (IOL) were noted in both patients. Hematoma cleared in both of them via IOL extraction-anterior vitrectomy and YAG-laser capsulotomy, respectively. Hematoma cleared in both patients without any surgical complications. Vision loss due to unclearing intracapsular hematoma might be an early complication of combined GATT and phacoemulsification surgery.

  12. Color vision abnormality as the sole manifestation of posterior reversible encephalopathy due to post-partum HELLP syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hironori; Matsubara, Teppei; Makino, Shinji; Horie, Kenji; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2017-03-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is associated with several symptoms; of those, visual acuity loss, light oversensitivity (photophobia), and light flashes (photopsia) are known as PRES-related eye symptoms. We report a post-partum woman with PRES associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome (HELLP), in whom color vision abnormality (achromatopsia) was the sole manifestation. Cesarean section was performed at 28 weeks due to headache, epigastralgia, and severe hypertension. HELLP became evident after delivery. On post-partum day 1, she complained of achromatopsia, stating: "all things look brownish-gray". Ophthalmologic examination was normal, but brain magnetic resonance imaging showed occipital lobe lesions, indicative of PRES, and, interestingly, also color vision center (area V4) lesions, suggesting that the achromatopsia had been caused by brain damage. It may be prudent to question HELLP patients concerning achromatopsia. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. INTEGRATION OF IMAGE-DERIVED AND POS-DERIVED FEATURES FOR IMAGE BLUR DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-A. Teo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The image quality plays an important role for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV’s applications. The small fixed wings UAV is suffering from the image blur due to the crosswind and the turbulence. Position and Orientation System (POS, which provides the position and orientation information, is installed onto an UAV to enable acquisition of UAV trajectory. It can be used to calculate the positional and angular velocities when the camera shutter is open. This study proposes a POS-assisted method to detect the blur image. The major steps include feature extraction, blur image detection and verification. In feature extraction, this study extracts different features from images and POS. The image-derived features include mean and standard deviation of image gradient. For POS-derived features, we modify the traditional degree-of-linear-blur (blinear method to degree-of-motion-blur (bmotion based on the collinear condition equations and POS parameters. Besides, POS parameters such as positional and angular velocities are also adopted as POS-derived features. In blur detection, this study uses Support Vector Machines (SVM classifier and extracted features (i.e. image information, POS data, blinear and bmotion to separate blur and sharp UAV images. The experiment utilizes SenseFly eBee UAV system. The number of image is 129. In blur image detection, we use the proposed degree-of-motion-blur and other image features to classify the blur image and sharp images. The classification result shows that the overall accuracy using image features is only 56%. The integration of image-derived and POS-derived features have improved the overall accuracy from 56% to 76% in blur detection. Besides, this study indicates that the performance of the proposed degree-of-motion-blur is better than the traditional degree-of-linear-blur.

  14. La ceguera y baja visión en el mundo:: ¿un problema médico o social? Blindness and blurred vision in the word: medical or social problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Landín Sorí

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se realiza un análisis de la ceguera y la baja visión y sus causas sociales. Las últimas investigaciones indican que el número de personas que padecen ceguera evitable va en aumento. Los costos que suponen la educación, la rehabilitación y la pérdida de productividad por causa de la ceguera tienen importantes repercusiones en las personas, las familias, las comunidades y las naciones, en particular en las zonas más pobres del mundo. Se compara la necesidad social con el avance de las características de la Oftalmología dentro de las Ciencias Médicas y su dinámica en cuanto al desarrollo tecnológico. El objetivo final constituye la valoración de las condiciones que desde el punto de vista social y político, científico y tecnológico han dado origen a la Misión MilagroIn the work it is carried out an analysis of the blindness and the drop vision and their social causes. The last investigations indicate that the number of people that suffer avoidable blindness goes in increase. The costs that suppose the education, the rehabilitation and the loss of productivity by reason of the blindness have important repercussions in people, the families, the communities and the nations, in particular in the poorest areas in the world. The social necessity is compared with the advance of the characteristics of the Ophthalmology inside the Medical Sciences and its dynamics as for the technological development. The final objective constitutes the valuation of the conditions that it have given origin to the Mission Miracle from the social and political, scientific and technological point of view

  15. Recognition of Images Degraded by Gaussian Blur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Farokhi, Sajad; Höschl, Cyril; Suk, Tomáš; Zitová, Barbara; Pedone, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2016), s. 790-806 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Blurred image * object recognition * blur invariant comparison * Gaussian blur * projection operators * image moments * moment invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.828, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0454335.pdf

  16. Blurred digital mammography images: an analysis of technical recall and observer detection performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wang Kei; Borgen, Rita; Kelly, Judith; Millington, Sara; Hilton, Beverley; Aspin, Rob; Lança, Carla; Hogg, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Blurred images in full-field digital mammography are a problem in the UK Breast Screening Programme. Technical recalls may be due to blurring not being seen on lower resolution monitors used for review. This study assesses the visual detection of blurring on a 2.3-MP monitor and a 5-MP report grade monitor and proposes an observer standard for the visual detection of blurring on a 5-MP reporting grade monitor. 28 observers assessed 120 images for blurring; 20 images had no blurring present, whereas 100 images had blurring imposed through mathematical simulation at 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mm levels of motion. Technical recall rate for both monitors and angular size at each level of motion were calculated. χ 2 tests were used to test whether significant differences in blurring detection existed between 2.3- and 5-MP monitors. The technical recall rate for 2.3- and 5-MP monitors are 20.3% and 9.1%, respectively. The angular size for 0.2- to 1-mm motion varied from 55 to 275 arc s. The minimum amount of motion for visual detection of blurring in this study is 0.4 mm. For 0.2-mm simulated motion, there was no significant difference [χ 2 (1, N = 1095) = 1.61, p = 0.20] in blurring detection between the 2.3- and 5-MP monitors. According to this study, monitors ≤2.3 MP are not suitable for technical review of full-field digital mammography images for the detection of blur. Advances in knowledge: This research proposes the first observer standard for the visual detection of blurring.

  17. Automatic detection of blurred images in UAV image sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberth, Till; Wackrow, Rene; Chandler, Jim H.

    2016-12-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including, change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. Images with known blur are processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur. The algorithm is required to process UAV images fast and reliably to relieve the operator from detecting blurred images manually. The newly developed method makes it possible to detect blur caused by linear camera displacement and is based on human detection of blur. Humans detect blurred images best by comparing it to other images in order to establish whether an image is blurred or not. The developed algorithm simulates this procedure by creating an image for comparison using image processing. Creating internally a comparable image makes the method independent of

  18. Bilateral vision loss due to Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy after long-term alcohol, nicotine and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Johanna; Matthé, Egbert

    2018-04-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is relatively rare, and no clinical pathognomonic signs exist. We present a rare case of bilateral vision loss of a patient with multiple drug abuse in the history. A 31-year-old man presented with a history of progressive, decreased vision in both eyes for 6 month. On examination, his visual acuity was hand motion in both eyes. Funduscopy demonstrated a temporal pallor of the optic disc. Goldmann visual field perimetry showed a crescent visual field in the right eye and a circular decrease to less than 50 ° in the left eye. Electroretinogram showed a scotopic b-wave amplitude reduction. Optical coherence tomographies, Heidelberg Retina tomography, visual evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging with contrast as well as blood tests were normal. The patient reported to consume various kinds of drugs as well as recreational drug use and alcohol consumption since he was 16 years old. We started a hemodilution therapy, believing the patient suffered from a bilateral, toxic optic neuropathy due to his lifestyle. Laboratory results later on showed Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a rare disease without a typical, pathognomonic presentation. Even though the patient gave good reasons for a toxic optic neuropathy, one should never stop to test for other diseases.

  19. IDENTIFIKASI DISTORSI BLUR PADA GAMBAR DIGITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Prasetya Gunawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu masalah yang sering muncul dalam dunia fotografi adalah efek blur yang dapat diakibatkan baik oleh objek yang bergerak maupun gerakan kamera yang berhubungan dengan kecepatan rana (shutter speed ketika gambar akan diambil. Paper ini menyajikan sebuah metode baru yang sederhana untuk mendeteksi kemunculan distorsi blur yang tidak diinginkan pada gambar digital. Metode yang diusulkan menggunakan transformasi discrete cosine transform (DCT pada gambar yang telah mengalami distorsi dengan ukuran blok DCT yang bervariasi. Hasil dari pendeteksian ini kemudian digunakan untuk meningkatkan kualitas gambar melalui metode debluring berdasarkan korelasi pixel yang diterapkan pada area tertentu pada gambar yang mengandung distorsi blur ini. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa kualitas gambar yang disempurnakan dihasilkan oleh metode debluring secara selektif menggunakan deteksi distorsi blur lokal akan lebih baik daripada yang tidak melalui proses seleksi. Dari berbagai ukuran blok yang digunakan dalam percobaan, blok berukuran 32×32 piksel menghasilkan kualitas gambar yang secara umum lebih baik. One of the problems that often arise in photography is a blurring effect that can be caused either by a moving object or camera movements that associated with the shutter speed when the picture is taken. This paper presents a simple new method for detecting the appearance of unwanted blur distortion in digital images. The proposed method uses the transformation of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT on the image that has been distorted with varying DCT block size. The results of the detection used to improve image quality through debluring method based on pixel correlation that applied to certain areas of the image that contains this blur distortion. The experimental results show that the enhanced picture quality produced by the method of selectively debluring using a local blur distortion detection is better than not through the selection process

  20. Nanotech, blur and tragedy in recent artworks by Gerhard Richter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2008-01-01

    The author considers Gerhard Richter's work on nanotechnology, highlighting how these pieces continue the artist's ontology on photographic blur and, as such, raise questions about truth and reality with respect to the mass media's visual presentation of nanotechnology. The four works discussed i...... and terrorism, and contrasts Richter's artworks with utopian visions of nano-science in the mass media.......The author considers Gerhard Richter's work on nanotechnology, highlighting how these pieces continue the artist's ontology on photographic blur and, as such, raise questions about truth and reality with respect to the mass media's visual presentation of nanotechnology. The four works discussed...

  1. Partial Deconvolution with Inaccurate Blur Kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongwei; Zuo, Wangmeng; Zhang, David; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-17

    Most non-blind deconvolution methods are developed under the error-free kernel assumption, and are not robust to inaccurate blur kernel. Unfortunately, despite the great progress in blind deconvolution, estimation error remains inevitable during blur kernel estimation. Consequently, severe artifacts such as ringing effects and distortions are likely to be introduced in the non-blind deconvolution stage. In this paper, we tackle this issue by suggesting: (i) a partial map in the Fourier domain for modeling kernel estimation error, and (ii) a partial deconvolution model for robust deblurring with inaccurate blur kernel. The partial map is constructed by detecting the reliable Fourier entries of estimated blur kernel. And partial deconvolution is applied to wavelet-based and learning-based models to suppress the adverse effect of kernel estimation error. Furthermore, an E-M algorithm is developed for estimating the partial map and recovering the latent sharp image alternatively. Experimental results show that our partial deconvolution model is effective in relieving artifacts caused by inaccurate blur kernel, and can achieve favorable deblurring quality on synthetic and real blurry images.Most non-blind deconvolution methods are developed under the error-free kernel assumption, and are not robust to inaccurate blur kernel. Unfortunately, despite the great progress in blind deconvolution, estimation error remains inevitable during blur kernel estimation. Consequently, severe artifacts such as ringing effects and distortions are likely to be introduced in the non-blind deconvolution stage. In this paper, we tackle this issue by suggesting: (i) a partial map in the Fourier domain for modeling kernel estimation error, and (ii) a partial deconvolution model for robust deblurring with inaccurate blur kernel. The partial map is constructed by detecting the reliable Fourier entries of estimated blur kernel. And partial deconvolution is applied to wavelet-based and learning

  2. Computer vision syndrome (CVS) - Thermographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamosa-Rincón, L. E.; Jaime-Díaz, J. M.; Ruiz-Cardona, D. F.

    2017-01-01

    The use of computers has reported an exponential growth in the last decades, the possibility of carrying out several tasks for both professional and leisure purposes has contributed to the great acceptance by the users. The consequences and impact of uninterrupted tasks with computers screens or displays on the visual health, have grabbed researcher’s attention. When spending long periods of time in front of a computer screen, human eyes are subjected to great efforts, which in turn triggers a set of symptoms known as Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). Most common of them are: blurred vision, visual fatigue and Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) due to unappropriate lubrication of ocular surface when blinking decreases. An experimental protocol was de-signed and implemented to perform thermographic studies on healthy human eyes during exposure to dis-plays of computers, with the main purpose of comparing the existing differences in temperature variations of healthy ocular surfaces.

  3. A blur-invariant local feature for motion blurred image matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qiang; Aoki, Terumasa

    2017-07-01

    Image matching between a blurred (caused by camera motion, out of focus, etc.) image and a non-blurred image is a critical task for many image/video applications. However, most of the existing local feature schemes fail to achieve this work. This paper presents a blur-invariant descriptor and a novel local feature scheme including the descriptor and the interest point detector based on moment symmetry - the authors' previous work. The descriptor is based on a new concept - center peak moment-like element (CPME) which is robust to blur and boundary effect. Then by constructing CPMEs, the descriptor is also distinctive and suitable for image matching. Experimental results show our scheme outperforms state of the art methods for blurred image matching

  4. UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    REDDY SC; LOH KY

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syn...

  5. Real-time deblurring of handshake blurred images on smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourreza-Shahri, Reza; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses an Android app for the purpose of removing blur that is introduced as a result of handshakes when taking images via a smartphone. This algorithm utilizes two images to achieve deblurring in a computationally efficient manner without suffering from artifacts associated with deconvolution deblurring algorithms. The first image is the normal or auto-exposure image and the second image is a short-exposure image that is automatically captured immediately before or after the auto-exposure image is taken. A low rank approximation image is obtained by applying singular value decomposition to the auto-exposure image which may appear blurred due to handshakes. This approximation image does not suffer from blurring while incorporating the image brightness and contrast information. The eigenvalues extracted from the low rank approximation image are then combined with those from the shortexposure image. It is shown that this deblurring app is computationally more efficient than the adaptive tonal correction algorithm which was previously developed for the same purpose.

  6. Blind estimation of blur in hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mo; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem; Uss, Mykhail; Abramov, Sergey; Lukin, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Hyperspectral images acquired by remote sensing systems are generally degraded by noise and can be sometimes more severely degraded by blur. When no knowledge is available about the degradations present on the original image, blind restoration methods can only be considered. By blind, we mean absolutely no knowledge neither of the blur point spread function (PSF) nor the original latent channel and the noise level. In this study, we address the blind restoration of the degraded channels component-wise, according to a sequential scheme. For each degraded channel, the sequential scheme estimates the blur point spread function (PSF) in a first stage and deconvolves the degraded channel in a second and final stage by means of using the PSF previously estimated. We propose a new component-wise blind method for estimating effectively and accurately the blur point spread function. This method follows recent approaches suggesting the detection, selection and use of sufficiently salient edges in the current processed channel for supporting the regularized blur PSF estimation. Several modifications are beneficially introduced in our work. A new selection of salient edges through thresholding adequately the cumulative distribution of their corresponding gradient magnitudes is introduced. Besides, quasi-automatic and spatially adaptive tuning of the involved regularization parameters is considered. To prove applicability and higher efficiency of the proposed method, we compare it against the method it originates from and four representative edge-sparsifying regularized methods of the literature already assessed in a previous work. Our attention is mainly paid to the objective analysis (via ݈l1-norm) of the blur PSF error estimation accuracy. The tests are performed on a synthetic hyperspectral image. This synthetic hyperspectral image has been built from various samples from classified areas of a real-life hyperspectral image, in order to benefit from realistic spatial

  7. Occlusion edge blur: A cue to relative visual depth

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, J.A.; Burbeck, C.A.; Ariely, D.; Rolland, J.P.; Martin, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    We studied whether the blur/sharpness of an occlusion boundary between a sharply focused surface and a blurred surface is used as a relative depth cue. Observers judged relative depth in pairs of images that differed only in the blurriness of the common boundary between two adjoining texture regions, one blurred and one sharply focused. Two experiments were conducted; in both, observers consistently used the blur of the boundary as a cue to relative depth. However, the strength of the cue, re...

  8. Registration of Large Motion Blurred CMOS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    raju@ee.iitm.ac.in - Institution : Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras, India - Mailing Address : Room ESB 307c, Dept. of Electrical ...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0066 Registration of Large Motion Blurred CMOS Images Ambasamudram Rajagopalan INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MADRAS Final...NUMBER 5f.  WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MADRAS SARDAR PATEL ROAD Chennai, 600036

  9. Atypical Wernicke′s syndrome sans encephalopathy with acute bilateral vision loss due to post-chiasmatic optic tract edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soaham Dilip Desai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged male presented with acute bilateral vision loss, 4 weeks after undergoing gastric bypass surgery for gastric carcinoma. He had normal sensorium, fundoscopy, normal pupillary reaction to light, but had mild opthalmoparesis and nystagmus with ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed post-chiasmatic optic tract edema along with other classical features of Wernicke′s syndrome. Thiamine supplementation leads to complete resolution of clinical as well as imaging findings. In appropriate clinical settings, a high index of suspicion and early treatment are essential for managing Wernicke′s syndrome even in patients with atypical clinical and imaging presentation.

  10. The influence of structure depth on image blurring of micrometres-thick specimens in MeV transmission electron imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Ying; Cao, Meng; Nishi, Ryuji

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of structure depth on image blurring of micrometres-thick films by experiment and simulation with a conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM). First, ultra-high-voltage electron microscope (ultra-HVEM) images of nanometer gold particles embedded in thick epoxy-resin films were acquired in the experiment and compared with simulated images. Then, variations of image blurring of gold particles at different depths were evaluated by calculating the particle diameter. The results showed that with a decrease in depth, image blurring increased. This depth-related property was more apparent for thicker specimens. Fortunately, larger particle depth involves less image blurring, even for a 10-μm-thick epoxy-resin film. The quality dependence on depth of a 3D reconstruction of particle structures in thick specimens was revealed by electron tomography. The evolution of image blurring with structure depth is determined mainly by multiple elastic scattering effects. Thick specimens of heavier materials produced more blurring due to a larger lateral spread of electrons after scattering from the structure. Nevertheless, increasing electron energy to 2MeV can reduce blurring and produce an acceptable image quality for thick specimens in the TEM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biofeedback for Better Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  12. Efficient Image Blur in Web-Based Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Scripting languages require the use of high-level library functions to implement efficient image processing; thus, real-time image blur in web-based applications is a challenging task unless specific library functions are available for this purpose. We present a pyramid blur algorithm, which can ...

  13. Postural stability changes in the elderly with cataract simulation and refractive blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2003-11-01

    To determine the influence of cataractous and refractive blur on postural stability and limb-load asymmetry (LLA) and to establish how postural stability changes with the spatial frequency and contrast of the visual stimulus. Thirteen elderly subjects (mean age, 70.76 +/- 4.14 [SD] years) with no history of falls and normal vision were recruited. Postural stability was determined as the root mean square [RMS] of the center of pressure (COP) signal in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral directions and LLA was determined as the ratio of the average body weight placed on the more-loaded limb to the less-loaded limb, recorded during a 30-second period. Data were collected under normal standing conditions and with somatosensory system input disrupted. Measurements were repeated with four visual targets with high (8 cyc/deg) or low (2 cyc/deg) spatial frequency and high (Weber contrast, approximately 95%) or low (Weber contrast, approximately 25%) contrast. Postural stability was measured under conditions of binocular refractive blur of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 D and with cataract simulation. The data were analyzed in a population-averaged linear model. The cataract simulation caused significant increases in postural instability equivalent to that caused by 8-D blur conditions, and its effect was greater when the input from the somatosensory system was disrupted. High spatial frequency targets increased postural instability. Refractive blur, cataract simulation, or eye closure had no effect on LLA. Findings indicate that cataractous and refractive blur increase postural instability, and show why the elderly, many of whom have poor vision along with musculoskeletal and central nervous system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling. Findings also highlight that changes in contrast sensitivity rather than resolution changes are responsible for increasing postural instability. Providing low spatial frequency information in certain environments may be useful in

  14. COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME: A SHORT REVIEW.

    OpenAIRE

    Sameena; Mohd Inayatullah

    2012-01-01

    Computers are probably one of the biggest scientific inventions of the modern era, and since then they have become an integral part of our life. The increased usage of computers have lead to variety of ocular symptoms which includ es eye strain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and diplopia, collectively referred to as Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). CVS may have a significant impact not only on visual com fort but also occupational productivit...

  15. Using Opaque Image Blur for Real-Time Depth-of-Field Rendering and Image-Based Motion Blur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    While depth of field is an important cinematographic means, its use in real-time computer graphics is still limited by the computational costs that are necessary to achieve a sufficient image quality. Specifically, color bleeding artifacts between objects at different depths are most effectively...... that the opaque image blur can also be used to add motion blur effects to images in real time....

  16. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  17. UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REDDY SC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  18. Iterative correction method for shift-variant blurring caused by collimator aperture in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Koichi; Katsu, Haruto

    1996-01-01

    A collimation system in single photon computed tomography (SPECT) induces blurring on reconstructed images. The blurring varies with the collimator aperture which is determined by the shape of the hole (its diameter and length), and with the distance between the collimator surface and the object. The blurring has shift-variant properties. This paper presents a new iterative method for correcting the shift-variant blurring. The method estimates the ratio of 'ideal projection value' to 'measured projection value' at each sample point. The term 'ideal projection value' means the number of photons which enter the hole perpendicular to the collimator surface, and the term 'measured projection value' means the number of photons which enter the hole at acute angles to the collimator aperture axis. If the estimation is accurate, ideal projection value can be obtained as the product of the measured projection value and the estimated ratio. The accuracy of the estimation is improved iteratively by comparing the measured projection value with a weighted summation of several estimated projection value. The simulation results showed that spatial resolution was improved without amplification of artifacts due to statistical noise. (author)

  19. Edge Modeling by Two Blur Parameters in Varying Contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Suyoung

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a method of modeling edge profiles with two blur parameters, and estimating and predicting those edge parameters with varying brightness combinations and camera-to-object distances (COD). First, the validity of the edge model is proven mathematically. Then, it is proven experimentally with edges from a set of images captured for specifically designed target sheets and with edges from natural images. Estimation of the two blur parameters for each observed edge profile is performed with a brute-force method to find parameters that produce global minimum errors. Then, using the estimated blur parameters, actual blur parameters of edges with arbitrary brightness combinations are predicted using a surface interpolation method (i.e., kriging). The predicted surfaces show that the two blur parameters of the proposed edge model depend on both dark-side edge brightness and light-side edge brightness following a certain global trend. This is similar across varying CODs. The proposed edge model is compared with a one-blur parameter edge model using experiments of the root mean squared error for fitting the edge models to each observed edge profile. The comparison results suggest that the proposed edge model has superiority over the one-blur parameter edge model in most cases where edges have varying brightness combinations.

  20. Theory of reflectivity blurring in seismic depth imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, C. J.; Kitchenside, P. W.; Fletcher, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    A subsurface extended image gather obtained during controlled-source depth imaging yields a blurred kernel of an interface reflection operator. This reflectivity kernel or reflection function is comprised of the interface plane-wave reflection coefficients and so, in principle, the gather contains amplitude versus offset or angle information. We present a modelling theory for extended image gathers that accounts for variable illumination and blurring, under the assumption of a good migration-velocity model. The method involves forward modelling as well as migration or back propagation so as to define a receiver-side blurring function, which contains the effects of the detector array for a given shot. Composition with the modelled incident wave and summation over shots then yields an overall blurring function that relates the reflectivity to the extended image gather obtained from field data. The spatial evolution or instability of blurring functions is a key concept and there is generally not just spatial blurring in the apparent reflectivity, but also slowness or angle blurring. Gridded blurring functions can be estimated with, for example, a reverse-time migration modelling engine. A calibration step is required to account for ad hoc band limitedness in the modelling and the method also exploits blurring-function reciprocity. To demonstrate the concepts, we show numerical examples of various quantities using the well-known SIGSBEE test model and a simple salt-body overburden model, both for 2-D. The moderately strong slowness/angle blurring in the latter model suggests that the effect on amplitude versus offset or angle analysis should be considered in more realistic structures. Although the description and examples are for 2-D, the extension to 3-D is conceptually straightforward. The computational cost of overall blurring functions implies their targeted use for the foreseeable future, for example, in reservoir characterization. The description is for scalar

  1. The role of vision processing in prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Nick; He, Xuming; McCarthy, Chris; Horne, Lachlan; Kim, Junae; Scott, Adele; Lieby, Paulette

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic vision provides vision which is reduced in resolution and dynamic range compared to normal human vision. This comes about both due to residual damage to the visual system from the condition that caused vision loss, and due to limitations of current technology. However, even with limitations, prosthetic vision may still be able to support functional performance which is sufficient for tasks which are key to restoring independent living and quality of life. Here vision processing can play a key role, ensuring that information which is critical to the performance of key tasks is available within the capability of the available prosthetic vision. In this paper, we frame vision processing for prosthetic vision, highlight some key areas which present problems in terms of quality of life, and present examples where vision processing can help achieve better outcomes.

  2. Prevalence of computer vision syndrome in Erbil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dler Jalal Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Nearly all colleges, universities and homes today are regularly using video display terminals, such as computer, iPad, mobile, and TV. Very little research has been carried out on Kurdish users to reveal the effect of video display terminals on the eye and vision. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of computer vision syndrome among computer users. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department of Rizgary and Erbil teaching hospitals in Erbil city. Those used computers in the months preceding the date of this study were included in the study. Results: Among 173 participants aged between 8 to 48 years (mean age of 23.28±6.6 years, the prevalence of computer vision syndrome found to be 89.65%. The most disturbing symptom was eye irritation (79.8%, followed by blurred vision(75.7%. Participants who were using visual display terminals for more than six hours per day were at higher risk of developing nearly all symptoms of computer vision syndrome. Significant correlation was found between time-consuming on computer and symptoms such as headache (P <0.001, redness (P <0.001, eye irritation (P <0.001, blurred vision (P <0.001 and neck pain (P <0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that more than three-fourths of the participants had one of the symptoms of computer vision syndrome while working on visual display terminals. Keywords: Computer vision syndrome; Headache; Neck pain; Blurred vision.

  3. Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... USAJobs Home » Statistics and Data » Low Vision Listen Low Vision Low Vision Defined: Low Vision is defined as the best- ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Low Vision by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 ...

  4. Vision Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Vision Lab personnel perform research, development, testing and evaluation of eye protection and vision performance. The lab maintains and continues to develop...

  5. A novel rotational invariants target recognition method for rotating motion blurred images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jinhui; Gong, Meiling; Dong, Mingwei; Zeng, Yiliang; Zhang, Yuzhen

    2017-11-01

    The imaging of the image sensor is blurred due to the rotational motion of the carrier and reducing the target recognition rate greatly. Although the traditional mode that restores the image first and then identifies the target can improve the recognition rate, it takes a long time to recognize. In order to solve this problem, a rotating fuzzy invariants extracted model was constructed that recognizes target directly. The model includes three metric layers. The object description capability of metric algorithms that contain gray value statistical algorithm, improved round projection transformation algorithm and rotation-convolution moment invariants in the three metric layers ranges from low to high, and the metric layer with the lowest description ability among them is as the input which can eliminate non pixel points of target region from degenerate image gradually. Experimental results show that the proposed model can improve the correct target recognition rate of blurred image and optimum allocation between the computational complexity and function of region.

  6. [A design of refractometer based on blur circle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yikui; Huang, Shenghai; Ye, Huifang; Zou, Ruitao; Tong, Gengmin; Zhuo, Ran

    2011-03-01

    Design a convenient and stable eye refractometer based on the theory of blur circle. Analyze the retinal blur circle in both Emsly reduced eye model and Liou & Brennan 1997 eye model by ZEMAX. Design the coefficients including PD (pupil diameter) and NO' (length between node point and fovea) with the purpose of improving the accuracy. At last, compare the clinical optometry data from this refractor with the data obtained from optometry hospital in Wenzhou. The blur circle diameters are nearly the same in both reduced eye model and the Liou & Brennan 1997 eye model. With the PD = 4 mm and NO' = 20 mm, the refractor shows a fine accuracy in optometry. The paired t test shows that the myopia group and the astigmatism axial direction group have no statistical difference between the data from the blur circle refractor and the hospital (P > 0.05), while the astigmatism degree group has the result of P = 0.41 which may be caused by the poor cooperation of pediatric patients. 80% of the astigmatism degree data differ from the data from the hospital in less than 0.75D. The blur circle refractor, with the features of convenience and fine accuracy, is promised to be a new style of refractometer in the future.

  7. Luminance cues constrain chromatic blur discrimination in natural scene stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Rebecca J; McGraw, Paul V; Peirce, Jonathan W

    2013-03-22

    Introducing blur into the color components of a natural scene has very little effect on its percept, whereas blur introduced into the luminance component is very noticeable. Here we quantify the dominance of luminance information in blur detection and examine a number of potential causes. We show that the interaction between chromatic and luminance information is not explained by reduced acuity or spatial resolution limitations for chromatic cues, the effective contrast of the luminance cue, or chromatic and achromatic statistical regularities in the images. Regardless of the quality of chromatic information, the visual system gives primacy to luminance signals when determining edge location. In natural viewing, luminance information appears to be specialized for detecting object boundaries while chromatic information may be used to determine surface properties.

  8. Projection Operators and Moment Invariants to Image Blurring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Suk, Tomáš; Boldyš, Jiří; Zitová, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2015), s. 786-802 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S; GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Blurred image * N-fold rotation symmetry * projection operators * image moments * moment invariants * blur invariants * object recognition Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 6.077, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/flusser-0434521.pdf

  9. The Methods of Information Security Based on Blurring of System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Andreevich Styugin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the model of researching system with own known input, output and set of discrete internal states. These theoretical objects like an absolutely protected from research system and an absolutely indiscernible data transfer channel are defined. Generalization of the principle of Shannon Secrecy are made. The method of system blurring is defined. Theoretically cryptographically strong of absolutely indiscernible data transfer channel is proved and its practical unbreakable against unreliable pseudo random number generator is shown. This paper present system with blurring of channel named Pseudo IDTC and shown asymptotic complexity of break this system compare with AES and GOST.

  10. Blurring of the public/private divide: the Canadian chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Thomas, Bryan

    2010-06-01

    Blurring of public/private divide is occurring in different ways around the world, with differential effects in terms of access and equity. In Canada, one pathway towards privatization has received particular attention: duplicative private insurance, allowing those with the financial means to bypass queues in the public system. We assess recent legal and policy developments on this front, but also describe other trends towards the blurring of public and private in Canada: the reliance on mandated private insurance for pharmaceutical coverage; provincial governments' reliance on public-private partnerships to finance hospitals; and the incorporation of for-profit clinics within the public health care system.

  11. Night Vision Manual for the Flight Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    macula and fovea centralis. 4. Duality theory of vision-extends sensitivity of vision over 100,000 times (Fig. 12). ~Im Uilting Ullmlrage WVIVIWCentral...lowered night vision capa- bilities due to disease or degenerations . F. Hypoxia 1. Decrement of central vision due to 02 lack is quite small; such as, at

  12. Edge and line detection of complicated and blurred objects

    OpenAIRE

    Haugsdal, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This report deals with edge and line detection in pictures with complicated and/or blurred objects. It explores the alternatives available, in edge detection, edge linking and object recognition. Choice of methods are the Canny edge detection and Local edge search processing combined with regional edge search processing in the form of polygon approximation.

  13. Blurring the Boundaries of Public and Private Education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Abdeljalil

    2013-01-01

    A typical analysis of the privatization of education in Latin America focuses on private sector development at the expense of public education. In this paper, I propose a different view that will highlight the blurring of boundaries between public and private education in Brazil. This confusion perpetuates the historical duality of the education…

  14. A Blur track on Mars: how do you top that?

    CERN Multimedia

    Cooke, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    "On the eve of the landing of the Beagle 2 space probe on Mars, one of its instigators, Blur bassist Alex James, talks exclusively about his new-found passion for space 'Talking with scientists makes me feel giddy with excitement. Life on Mars, I mean, come on! How dead do you have to be not to find that interesting?' (1 page).

  15. Blind assessment of image blur using the Haar wavelet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available algorithms. We present an intuitive quality metric for characterizing the amount of blur in an image, through blind image assessment, using the Haar discrete wavelet transform. Thus, the method does not require a reference image or any prior information...

  16. VISION development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.; Whitman, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    VISION is a flexible and extensible object-oriented programming environment for prototyping computer-vision and pattern-recognition algorithms. This year's effort focused on three major areas: documentation, graphics, and support for new applications

  17. Computational vision

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1990-01-01

    The book is suitable for advanced courses in computer vision and image processing. In addition to providing an overall view of computational vision, it contains extensive material on topics that are not usually covered in computer vision texts (including parallel distributed processing and neural networks) and considers many real applications.

  18. [Ophthalmologist and "computer vision syndrome"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barar, A; Apatachioaie, Ioana Daniela; Apatachioaie, C; Marceanu-Brasov, L

    2007-01-01

    The authors had tried to collect the data available on the Internet about a subject that we consider as being totally ignored in the Romanian scientific literature and unexpectedly insufficiently treated in the specialized ophthalmologic literature. Known in the specialty literature under the generic name of "Computer vision syndrome", it is defined by the American Optometric Association as a complex of eye and vision problems related to the activities which stress the near vision and which are experienced in relation, or during, the use of the computer. During the consultations we hear frequent complaints of eye-strain - asthenopia, headaches, blurred distance and/or near vision, dry and irritated eyes, slow refocusing, neck and backache, photophobia, sensation of diplopia, light sensitivity, and double vision, but because of the lack of information, we overlooked them too easily, without going thoroughly into the real motives. In most of the developed countries, there are recommendations issued by renowned medical associations with regard to the definition, the diagnosis, and the methods for the prevention, treatment and periodical control of the symptoms found in computer users, in conjunction with an extremely detailed ergonomic legislation. We found out that these problems incite a much too low interest in our country. We would like to rouse the interest of our ophthalmologist colleagues in the understanding and the recognition of these symptoms and in their treatment, or at least their improvement, through specialized measures or through the cooperation with our specialist occupational medicine colleagues.

  19. Altered vision destabilizes gait in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Hesseberg, Karin; Sletvold, Olav

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of dim light and four experimentally induced changes in vision on gait speed and footfall and trunk parameters in older persons walking on level ground. Using a quasi-experimental design, gait characteristics were assessed in full light, dim light, and in dim light combined with manipulations resulting in reduced depth vision, double vision, blurred vision, and tunnel vision, respectively. A convenience sample of 24 home-dwelling older women and men (mean age 78.5 years, SD 3.4) with normal vision for their age and able to walk at least 10 m without assistance participated. Outcome measures were gait speed and spatial and temporal parameters of footfall and trunk acceleration, derived from an electronic gait mat and accelerometers. Dim light alone had no effect. Vision manipulations combined with dim light had effect on most footfall parameters but few trunk parameters. The largest effects were found regarding double and tunnel vision. Men increased and women decreased gait speed following manipulations (p=0.017), with gender differences also in stride velocity variability (p=0.017) and inter-stride medio-lateral trunk acceleration variability (p=0.014). Gender effects were related to differences in body height and physical functioning. Results indicate that visual problems lead to a more cautious and unstable gait pattern even under relatively simple conditions. This points to the importance of assessing vision in older persons and correcting visual impairments where possible.

  20. Altered Ecological Flows Blur Boundaries in Urbanizing Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Lookingbill

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the boundary concept to ecological processes has been recently questioned. Humans in the post-industrial era have created novel lateral transport fluxes that have not been sufficiently considered in watershed studies. We describe patterns of land-use change within the Potomac River basin and demonstrate how these changes have blurred traditional ecosystem boundaries by increasing the movement of people, materials, and energy into and within the basin. We argue that this expansion of ecological commerce requires new science, monitoring, and management strategies focused on large rivers and suggest that traditional geopolitical and economic boundaries for environmental decision making be appropriately revised. Effective mitigation of the consequences of blurred boundaries will benefit from a broad-scale, interdisciplinary framework that can track and explicitly account for ecological fluxes of water, energy, materials, and organisms across human-dominated landscapes.

  1. Registration of Images with N-fold Dihedral Blur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pedone, M.; Flusser, Jan; Heikkila, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 1036-1045 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S; GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Image registration * blurred images * N-fold rotational symmetry * dihedral symmetry * phase correlation Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.735, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/ZOI/flusser-0441247.pdf

  2. A Single Image Deblurring Algorithm for Nonuniform Motion Blur Using Uniform Defocus Map Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common artifacts in digital photography is motion blur. When capturing an image under dim light by using a handheld camera, the tendency of the photographer’s hand to shake causes the image to blur. In response to this problem, image deblurring has become an active topic in computational photography and image processing in recent years. From the view of signal processing, image deblurring can be reduced to a deconvolution problem if the kernel function of the motion blur is assumed to be shift invariant. However, the kernel function is not always shift invariant in real cases; for example, in-plane rotation of a camera or a moving object can blur different parts of an image according to different kernel functions. An image that is degraded by multiple blur kernels is called a nonuniform blur image. In this paper, we propose a novel single image deblurring algorithm for nonuniform motion blur images that is blurred by moving object. First, a proposed uniform defocus map method is presented for measurement of the amounts and directions of motion blur. These blurred regions are then used to estimate point spread functions simultaneously. Finally, a fast deconvolution algorithm is used to restore the nonuniform blur image. We expect that the proposed method can achieve satisfactory deblurring of a single nonuniform blur image.

  3. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... of visual aids. Some options include: Magnifiers High power reading glasses Devices that make it easier to ...

  4. Micro Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Kohtaro; Ohara, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    In the field of the micro vision, there are few researches compared with macro environment. However, applying to the study result for macro computer vision technique, you can measure and observe the micro environment. Moreover, based on the effects of micro environment, it is possible to discovery the new theories and new techniques.

  5. Fourier correction for spatially variant collimator blurring in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, W.; Lewitt, R.M.; Edholm, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    In single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), projection data are acquired by rotating the photon detector around a patient, either in a circular orbit or in a noncircular orbit. The projection data of the desired spatial distribution of emission activity is blurred by the point-response function of the collimator that is used to define the range of directions of gamma-ray photons reaching the detector. The point-response function of the collimator is not spatially stationary, but depends on the distance from the collimator to the point. Conventional methods for deblurring collimator projection data are based on approximating the actual distance-dependent point-response function by a spatially invariant blurring function, so that deconvolution methods can be applied independently to the data at each angle of view. A method is described in this paper for distance-dependent preprocessing of SPECT projection data prior to image reconstruction. Based on the special distance-dependent characteristics of the Fourier coefficients of the sinogram, a spatially variant inverse filter can be developed to process the projection data in all views simultaneously. The algorithm is first derived from fourier analysis of the projection data from the circular orbit geometry. For circular orbit projection data, experimental results from both simulated data and real phantom data indicate the potential of this method. It is shown that the spatial filtering method can be extended to the projection data from the noncircular orbit geometry. Experiments on simulated projection data from an elliptical orbit demonstrate correction of the spatially variant blurring and distortion in the reconstructed image caused by the noncircular orbit geometry

  6. Circular blurred shape model for multiclass symbol recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Fornés, Alicia; Pujol, Oriol; Lladós, Josep; Radeva, Petia

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a circular blurred shape model descriptor to deal with the problem of symbol detection and classification as a particular case of object recognition. The feature extraction is performed by capturing the spatial arrangement of significant object characteristics in a correlogram structure. The shape information from objects is shared among correlogram regions, where a prior blurring degree defines the level of distortion allowed in the symbol, making the descriptor tolerant to irregular deformations. Moreover, the descriptor is rotation invariant by definition. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed descriptor in both the multiclass symbol recognition and symbol detection domains. In order to perform the symbol detection, the descriptors are learned using a cascade of classifiers. In the case of multiclass categorization, the new feature space is learned using a set of binary classifiers which are embedded in an error-correcting output code design. The results over four symbol data sets show the significant improvements of the proposed descriptor compared to the state-of-the-art descriptors. In particular, the results are even more significant in those cases where the symbols suffer from elastic deformations.

  7. Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is the combination of eye and vision problems associated with the use of computers. In modern western society the use of computers for both vocational and avocational activities is almost universal. However, CVS may have a significant impact not only on visual comfort but also occupational productivity since between 64% and 90% of computer users experience visual symptoms which may include eyestrain, headaches, ocular discomfort, dry eye, diplopia and blurred vision either at near or when looking into the distance after prolonged computer use. This paper reviews the principal ocular causes for this condition, namely oculomotor anomalies and dry eye. Accommodation and vergence responses to electronic screens appear to be similar to those found when viewing printed materials, whereas the prevalence of dry eye symptoms is greater during computer operation. The latter is probably due to a decrease in blink rate and blink amplitude, as well as increased corneal exposure resulting from the monitor frequently being positioned in primary gaze. However, the efficacy of proposed treatments to reduce symptoms of CVS is unproven. A better understanding of the physiology underlying CVS is critical to allow more accurate diagnosis and treatment. This will enable practitioners to optimize visual comfort and efficiency during computer operation. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  8. Schools at the Rural-Urban Boundary - Blurring the Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Logan, John R

    2017-07-01

    Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010-2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America. We then apply spatially explicit methods to reveal blurred boundaries and gradual gradients rather than sharp breaks at the edges of these zones. The results show high levels of variation within the suburbs and substantial commonality between rural and urban areas.

  9. Effects of picture size reduction and blurring on emotional engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Cesarei

    Full Text Available The activity of basic motivational systems is reflected in emotional responses to arousing stimuli, such as natural pictures. The manipulation of picture properties such as size or detail allows for investigation into the extent to which separate emotional reactions are similarly modulated by perceptual changes, or, rather, may subserve different functions. Pursuing this line of research, the present study examined the effects of two types of perceptual degradation, namely picture size reduction and blurring, on emotional responses. Both manipulations reduced picture relevance and dampened affective modulation of skin conductance, possibly because of a reduced action preparation in response to degraded or remote pictures. However, the affective modulation of the startle reflex did not vary with picture degradation, suggesting that the identification of these degraded affective cues activated the neural circuits mediating appetitive or defensive motivation.

  10. Visualizing deep neural network by alternately image blurring and deblurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Haijun; Cheng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Visualization from trained deep neural networks has drawn massive public attention in recent. One of the visualization approaches is to train images maximizing the activation of specific neurons. However, directly maximizing the activation would lead to unrecognizable images, which cannot provide any meaningful information. In this paper, we introduce a simple but effective technique to constrain the optimization route of the visualization. By adding two totally inverse transformations, image blurring and deblurring, to the optimization procedure, recognizable images can be created. Our algorithm is good at extracting the details in the images, which are usually filtered by previous methods in the visualizations. Extensive experiments on AlexNet, VGGNet and GoogLeNet illustrate that we can better understand the neural networks utilizing the knowledge obtained by the visualization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Joint de-blurring and nonuniformity correction method for infrared microscopy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Anselmo; Torres, Sergio; Machuca, Guillermo; Ramírez, Wagner; Gutiérrez, Pablo A.; Viafora, Laura A.; Godoy, Sebastián E.; Vera, Esteban

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we present a new technique to simultaneously reduce two major degradation artifacts found in mid-wavelength infrared microscopy imagery, namely the inherent focal-plane array nonuniformity noise and the scene defocus presented due to the point spread function of the infrared microscope. We correct both nuisances using a novel, recursive method that combines the constant range nonuniformity correction algorithm with a frame-by-frame deconvolution approach. The ability of the method to jointly compensate for both nonuniformity noise and blur is demonstrated using two different real mid-wavelength infrared microscopic video sequences, which were captured from two microscopic living organisms using a Janos-Sofradir mid-wavelength infrared microscopy setup. The performance of the proposed method is assessed on real and simulated infrared data by computing the root mean-square error and the roughness-laplacian pattern index, which was specifically developed for the present work.

  12. Evaluation of noise and blur effects with SIRT-FISTA-TV reconstruction algorithm: Application to fast environmental transmission electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjak, Hussein; Grenier, Thomas; Epicier, Thierry; Koneti, Siddardha; Roiban, Lucian; Gay, Anne-Sophie; Magnin, Isabelle; Peyrin, Françoise; Maxim, Voichita

    2018-06-01

    Fast tomography in Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy (ETEM) is of a great interest for in situ experiments where it allows to observe 3D real-time evolution of nanomaterials under operating conditions. In this context, we are working on speeding up the acquisition step to a few seconds mainly with applications on nanocatalysts. In order to accomplish such rapid acquisitions of the required tilt series of projections, a modern 4K high-speed camera is used, that can capture up to 100 images per second in a 2K binning mode. However, due to the fast rotation of the sample during the tilt procedure, noise and blur effects may occur in many projections which in turn would lead to poor quality reconstructions. Blurred projections make classical reconstruction algorithms inappropriate and require the use of prior information. In this work, a regularized algebraic reconstruction algorithm named SIRT-FISTA-TV is proposed. The performance of this algorithm using blurred data is studied by means of a numerical blur introduced into simulated images series to mimic possible mechanical instabilities/drifts during fast acquisitions. We also present reconstruction results from noisy data to show the robustness of the algorithm to noise. Finally, we show reconstructions with experimental datasets and we demonstrate the interest of fast tomography with an ultra-fast acquisition performed under environmental conditions, i.e. gas and temperature, in the ETEM. Compared to classically used SIRT and SART approaches, our proposed SIRT-FISTA-TV reconstruction algorithm provides higher quality tomograms allowing easier segmentation of the reconstructed volume for a better final processing and analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...

  14. Development and evaluation of vision rehabilitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a range of vision rehabilitation devices and techniques for people with impaired vision due to either central vision loss or severely restricted peripheral visual field. We have conducted evaluation studies with patients to test the utilities of these techniques in an effort to document their advantages as well as their limitations. Here we describe our work on a visual field expander based on a head mounted display (HMD) for tunnel vision, a vision enhancement device for central vision loss, and a frequency domain JPEG/MPEG based image enhancement technique. All the evaluation studies included visual search paradigms that are suitable for conducting indoor controllable experiments.

  15. Low Vision Rehabilitation and Diabetic Retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sarfaraz A.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is emerging as a major cause of blindness. Diabetic retinopathy calls for a multidisciplinary to the patients. Management of the patient requires a team work by the internist, diabetologist, dietician, ophthalmologist and low vision therapist. Diabetic retinopathy very often results in vision loss. It is important for ophthalmologist to recognize the importance of low vision rehabilitation in formulating appropriate treatment strategies. People with low vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy usually experience difficulty in daily life. Most people with diabetic retinopathy (who have remaining useful vision) can be helped with low vision devices. However, often one low vision device may not be suitable for all purposes. A comprehensive low vision evaluation is required to assess the person's current visual status, identify the goals and the visual needs, and then design an individualized vision rehabilitation program to meet these needs. (author)

  16. Sensor performance as a function of sampling (d) and optical blur (Fλ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Detector sampling and optical blur are two major factors affecting Target Acquisition (TA) performance with modern EO and IR systems. In order to quantify their relative significance, we simulated five realistic LWIR and MWIR sensors from very under-sampled (detector pitch d >> diffraction blur Fλ)

  17. Agrarian Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul

    A new feature in "Country Teacher,""Agrarian Visions" reminds rural teachers that they can do something about rural decline. Like to populism of the 1890s, the "new populism" advocates rural living. Current attempts to address rural decline are contrary to agrarianism because: (1) telecommunications experts seek to…

  18. Fractured Visions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Inger Ellekilde

    2016-01-01

    In the post-war period a heterogeneous group of photographers articulate a new photographic approach to the city as motive in a photographic language that combines intense formalism with subjective vision. This paper analyses the photobook Fragments of a City published in 1960 by Danish photograp...

  19. Embodied Visions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    Embodied Visions presents a groundbreaking analysis of film through the lens of bioculturalism, revealing how human biology as well as human culture determine how films are made and experienced. Throughout the book the author uses the breakthroughs of modern brain science to explain general featu...

  20. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an efficient and cost-effective method to identify children with visual impairment or eye conditions that are likely to lead ... main goal of vision screening is to identify children who have or are at ... visual impairment unless treated in early childhood. Other problems that ...

  1. Impact of computer use on children's vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozeis, N

    2009-10-01

    Today, millions of children use computers on a daily basis. Extensive viewing of the computer screen can lead to eye discomfort, fatigue, blurred vision and headaches, dry eyes and other symptoms of eyestrain. These symptoms may be caused by poor lighting, glare, an improper work station set-up, vision problems of which the person was not previously aware, or a combination of these factors. Children can experience many of the same symptoms related to computer use as adults. However, some unique aspects of how children use computers may make them more susceptible than adults to the development of these problems. In this study, the most common eye symptoms related to computer use in childhood, the possible causes and ways to avoid them are reviewed.

  2. Social Media Blurred the Distinction Between Author and Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud

    The last few years have seen the emergence of the sharing economy. As social media blurred the distinction between author and reader, everyone can now offer or receive services thanks to the networking tools provided by new technological companies. Take Uber, and its billion of journeys in 2015 alone, with tens of thousands of vehicles crawling every moment in the globe's biggest cities. As often, when confronted with a technological change, we observe a polarization of society, and the search for an equilibrium characterized by new norms, rights, and obligations. Understanding the mechanisms behind this re-organization requires an integrated, interdisciplinary approach, covering an intricate web of legal, societal, economical, and computational issues which, we believe, could benefit from a complex systems perspective. As a first step, we are currently studying the dynamics of pricing in Uber. In this new de-regulated world, journey prices fluctuate in time depending on traffic but also on the service's perceived balance of passenger demand and driver supply...

  3. Materiality matters: Blurred boundaries and the domestication of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kate; Will, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Previous scholarship on novel foods, including functional foods, has suggested that they are difficult to categorise for both regulators and users. It is argued that they blur the boundary between 'food' and 'drug' and that uncertainties about the products create 'experimental' or 'restless' approaches to consumption. We investigate these uncertainties drawing on data about the use of functional foods containing phytosterols, which are licensed for sale in the EU for people wishing to reduce their cholesterol. We start from an interest in the products as material objects and their incorporation into everyday practices. We consider the scripts encoded in the physical form of the products through their regulation, production and packaging and find that these scripts shape but do not determine their use. The domestication of phytosterols involves bundling the products together with other objects (pills, supplements, foodstuffs). Considering their incorporation into different systems of objects offers new understandings of the products as foods or drugs. In their accounts of their practices, consumers appear to be relatively untroubled by uncertainties about the character of the products. We conclude that attending to materials and practices offers a productive way to open up and interrogate the idea of categorical uncertainties surrounding new food products.

  4. Visions and visioning in foresight activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Grosu, Dan

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the roles of visioning processes and visions in foresight activities and in societal discourses and changes parallel to or following foresight activities. The overall topic can be characterised as the dynamics and mechanisms that make visions and visioning processes work...... or not work. The theoretical part of the paper presents an actor-network theory approach to the analyses of visions and visioning processes, where the shaping of the visions and the visioning and what has made them work or not work is analysed. The empirical part is based on analyses of the roles of visions...... and visioning processes in a number of foresight processes from different societal contexts. The analyses have been carried out as part of the work in the COST A22 network on foresight. A vision is here understood as a description of a desirable or preferable future, compared to a scenario which is understood...

  5. Computer vision syndrome: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrisankaran, Sowjanya; Sheedy, James E

    2015-01-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a collection of symptoms related to prolonged work at a computer display. This article reviews the current knowledge about the symptoms, related factors and treatment modalities for CVS. Relevant literature on CVS published during the past 65 years was analyzed. Symptoms reported by computer users are classified into internal ocular symptoms (strain and ache), external ocular symptoms (dryness, irritation, burning), visual symptoms (blur, double vision) and musculoskeletal symptoms (neck and shoulder pain). The major factors associated with CVS are either environmental (improper lighting, display position and viewing distance) and/or dependent on the user's visual abilities (uncorrected refractive error, oculomotor disorders and tear film abnormalities). Although the factors associated with CVS have been identified the physiological mechanisms that underlie CVS are not completely understood. Additionally, advances in technology have led to the increased use of hand-held devices, which might impose somewhat different visual challenges compared to desktop displays. Further research is required to better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying CVS and symptoms associated with the use of hand-held and stereoscopic displays.

  6. Pleiades Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.

  7. Optoelectronic vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunye; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1993-06-01

    Scientists have searched every discipline to find effective methods of treating blindness, such as using aids based on conversion of the optical image, to auditory or tactile stimuli. However, the limited performance of such equipment and difficulties in training patients have seriously hampered practical applications. A great edification has been given by the discovery of Foerster (1929) and Krause & Schum (1931), who found that the electrical stimulation of the visual cortex evokes the perception of a small spot of light called `phosphene' in both blind and sighted subjects. According to this principle, it is possible to invite artificial vision by using stimulation with electrodes placed on the vision neural system, thereby developing a prosthesis for the blind that might be of value in reading and mobility. In fact, a number of investigators have already exploited this phenomena to produce a functional visual prosthesis, bringing about great advances in this area.

  8. Lambda Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Michael

    2014-06-01

    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  9. Virtual Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzopoulos, Demetri; Qureshi, Faisal Z.

    Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly motivated to investigate complex multi-camera sensing and control issues that arise in the automatic visual surveillance of extensive, highly populated public spaces such as airports and train stations. However, they often encounter serious impediments to deploying and experimenting with large-scale physical camera networks in such real-world environments. We propose an alternative approach called "Virtual Vision", which facilitates this type of research through the virtual reality simulation of populated urban spaces, camera sensor networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by developing two highly automated surveillance systems comprising passive and active pan/tilt/zoom cameras that are deployed in a virtual train station environment populated by autonomous, lifelike virtual pedestrians. The easily reconfigurable virtual cameras distributed in this environment generate synthetic video feeds that emulate those acquired by real surveillance cameras monitoring public spaces. The novel multi-camera control strategies that we describe enable the cameras to collaborate in persistently observing pedestrians of interest and in acquiring close-up videos of pedestrians in designated areas.

  10. Measurement of optical blurring in a turbulent cloud chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Corey D.; Ciochetto, David S.; Cantrell, Will H.; Roggemann, Michael C.; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2016-10-01

    Earth's atmosphere can significantly impact the propagation of electromagnetic radiation, degrading the performance of imaging systems. Deleterious effects of the atmosphere include turbulence, absorption and scattering by particulates. Turbulence leads to blurring, while absorption attenuates the energy that reaches imaging sensors. The optical properties of aerosols and clouds also impact radiation propagation via scattering, resulting in decorrelation from unscattered light. Models have been proposed for calculating a point spread function (PSF) for aerosol scattering, providing a method for simulating the contrast and spatial detail expected when imaging through atmospheres with significant aerosol optical depth. However, these synthetic images and their predicating theory would benefit from comparison with measurements in a controlled environment. Recently, Michigan Technological University (MTU) has designed a novel laboratory cloud chamber. This multiphase, turbulent "Pi Chamber" is capable of pressures down to 100 hPa and temperatures from -55 to +55°C. Additionally, humidity and aerosol concentrations are controllable. These boundary conditions can be combined to form and sustain clouds in an instrumented laboratory setting for measuring the impact of clouds on radiation propagation. This paper describes an experiment to generate mixing and expansion clouds in supersaturated conditions with salt aerosols, and an example of measured imagery viewed through the generated cloud is shown. Aerosol and cloud droplet distributions measured during the experiment are used to predict scattering PSF and MTF curves, and a methodology for validating existing theory is detailed. Measured atmospheric inputs will be used to simulate aerosol-induced image degradation for comparison with measured imagery taken through actual cloud conditions. The aerosol MTF will be experimentally calculated and compared to theoretical expressions. The key result of this study is the

  11. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  12. Near vision anomalies in Black high school children in Empangeni, South Africa: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O. Wajuihian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to read efficiently and comfortably is important in the intellectual development and academic performance of a child. Some children experience difficulties when reading due to symptoms related to near vision anomalies. Aim: To explore the feasibility of conducting a large study to determine the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in high school children in Empangeni, South Africa. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive pilot study designed to provide preliminary data on prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in a sample of high school-children in South Africa. Study participants comprised 65 Black children (30 males and 35 females, ages ranged between 13 and 19 years with a mean age and standard deviation of 17 ± 1.43 years. The visual functions evaluated and the techniques used included visual acuity (LogMAR acuity chart, refractive error (autorefractor and subjective refraction, heterophoria (von Graefe, near point of convergence (push-in-to-double, amplitude of accommodation (push-in-to-blur accommodation facility (± 2 D flipper lenses, relative accommodation, accommodation response (monocular estimation method and fusional vergences (step vergence with prism bars. Possible associations between symptoms and near vision anomalies were explored using a 20-point symptoms questionnaire. Results: Prevalence estimates were: Myopia 4.8%, hyperopia 1.6% and astigmatism 1.6%.  For accommodative anomalies, 1.6% had accommodative insufficiency while 1.6% had accommodative infacility. For convergence anomalies, 3.2% had receded near point of convergence, 16% had low suspect convergence insufficiency, no participant had high suspect convergence insufficiency, 1.6% had definite convergence insufficiency and 3.2% had convergence excess. Female participants reported more symptoms than the males and the association between clinical measures and symptoms

  13. Iterative PSF Estimation and Its Application to Shift Invariant and Variant Blur Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Won Jung; Byeong-Doo Choi; Sung-Jea Ko

    2009-01-01

    Among image restoration approaches, image deconvolution has been considered a powerful solution. In image deconvolution, a point spread function (PSF), which describes the blur of the image, needs to be determined. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an iterative PSF estimation algorithm which is able to estimate an accurate PSF. In real-world motion-blurred images, a simple parametric model of the PSF fails when a camera moves in an arbitrary direction with an inconsistent speed during an e...

  14. Predictors of vision impairment in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Zubizarreta, Irati; Llufriu, Sara; Blanco, Yolanda; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Sepulveda, Maria; Guerrero, Ana; Alba, Salut; Andorra, Magi; Camos, Anna; Sanchez-Vela, Laura; Alfonso, Veronica; Saiz, Albert; Villoslada, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment significantly alters the quality of life of people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to identify predictors (independent variables) of visual outcomes, and to define their relationship with neurological disability and retinal atrophy when assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 119 consecutive patients with MS, assessing vision using high contrast visual acuity (LogMar), 2.5% and 1.25% low contrast visual acuity (Sloan charts), and color vision (Hardy-Rand-Rittler plates). Quality of vision is a patient reported outcome based on an individual's unique perception of his or her vision and was assessed with the Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (VFQ-25) with the 10 neuro-ophthalmologic items. MS disability was assessed using the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), the MS functional composite (MSFC) and the brief repetitive battery-neuropsychology (BRB-N). Retinal atrophy was assessed using spectral domain OCT, measuring the thickness of the peripapillar retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the volume of the ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL). The vision of patients with MS was impaired, particularly in eyes with prior optic neuritis. Retinal atrophy (pRNFL and GCIPL) was closely associated with impaired low contrast vision and color vision, whereas the volume of the GCIPL showed a trend (p = 0.092) to be associated with quality of vision. Multiple regression analysis revealed that EDSS was an explanatory variable for high contrast vision after stepwise analysis, GCIPL volume for low contrast vision, and GCIPL volume and EDSS for color vision. The explanatory variables for quality of vision were high contrast vision and color vision. In summary, quality of vision in MS depends on the impairment of high contrast visual acuity and color vision due to the disease.

  15. Low Vision FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is a visual impairment, not correctable ... person’s ability to perform everyday activities. What causes low vision? Low vision can result from a variety of ...

  16. Pediatric Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Low Vision What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes ... and play. What are the signs of Low Vision? Some signs of low vision include difficulty recognizing ...

  17. Motion-Blur-Free High-Speed Video Shooting Using a Resonant Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiaki Inoue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel concept of actuator-driven frame-by-frame intermittent tracking for motion-blur-free video shooting of fast-moving objects. The camera frame and shutter timings are controlled for motion blur reduction in synchronization with a free-vibration-type actuator vibrating with a large amplitude at hundreds of hertz so that motion blur can be significantly reduced in free-viewpoint high-frame-rate video shooting for fast-moving objects by deriving the maximum performance of the actuator. We develop a prototype of a motion-blur-free video shooting system by implementing our frame-by-frame intermittent tracking algorithm on a high-speed video camera system with a resonant mirror vibrating at 750 Hz. It can capture 1024 × 1024 images of fast-moving objects at 750 fps with an exposure time of 0.33 ms without motion blur. Several experimental results for fast-moving objects verify that our proposed method can reduce image degradation from motion blur without decreasing the camera exposure time.

  18. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  19. Robot vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    Almost all industrial robots use internal sensors such as shaft encoders which measure rotary position, or tachometers which measure velocity, to control their motions. Most controllers also provide interface capabilities so that signals from conveyors, machine tools, and the robot itself may be used to accomplish a task. However, advanced external sensors, such as visual sensors, can provide a much greater degree of adaptability for robot control as well as add automatic inspection capabilities to the industrial robot. Visual and other sensors are now being used in fundamental operations such as material processing with immediate inspection, material handling with adaption, arc welding, and complex assembly tasks. A new industry of robot vision has emerged. The application of these systems is an area of great potential

  20. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  1. Impairments to Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  2. Motion-blurred star acquisition method of the star tracker under high dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wei, Minsong

    2013-08-26

    The star tracker is one of the most promising attitude measurement devices used in spacecraft due to its extremely high accuracy. However, high dynamic performance is still one of its constraints. Smearing appears, making it more difficult to distinguish the energy dispersive star point from the noise. An effective star acquisition approach for motion-blurred star image is proposed in this work. The correlation filter and mathematical morphology algorithm is combined to enhance the signal energy and evaluate slowly varying background noise. The star point can be separated from most types of noise in this manner, making extraction and recognition easier. Partial image differentiation is then utilized to obtain the motion parameters from only one image of the star tracker based on the above process. Considering the motion model, the reference window is adopted to perform centroid determination. Star acquisition results of real on-orbit star images and laboratory validation experiments demonstrate that the method described in this work is effective and the dynamic performance of the star tracker could be improved along with more identified stars and guaranteed position accuracy of the star point.

  3. Digital Tomosynthesis System Geometry Analysis Using Convolution-Based Blur-and-Add (BAA) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Yoon, Sungwon; Solomon, Edward G; Star-Lack, Josh; Pelc, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis is a three-dimensional imaging technique with a lower radiation dose than computed tomography (CT). Due to the missing data in tomosynthesis systems, out-of-plane structures in the depth direction cannot be completely removed by the reconstruction algorithms. In this work, we analyzed the impulse responses of common tomosynthesis systems on a plane-to-plane basis and proposed a fast and accurate convolution-based blur-and-add (BAA) model to simulate the backprojected images. In addition, the analysis formalism describing the impulse response of out-of-plane structures can be generalized to both rotating and parallel gantries. We implemented a ray tracing forward projection and backprojection (ray-based model) algorithm and the convolution-based BAA model to simulate the shift-and-add (backproject) tomosynthesis reconstructions. The convolution-based BAA model with proper geometry distortion correction provides reasonably accurate estimates of the tomosynthesis reconstruction. A numerical comparison indicates that the simulated images using the two models differ by less than 6% in terms of the root-mean-squared error. This convolution-based BAA model can be used in efficient system geometry analysis, reconstruction algorithm design, out-of-plane artifacts suppression, and CT-tomosynthesis registration.

  4. Adaptive restoration of a partially coherent blurred image using an all-optical feedback interferometer with a liquid-crystal device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Tomohiro; Barnes, Thomas H

    2002-02-01

    A liquid-crystal adaptive optics system using all-optical feedback interferometry is applied to partially coherent imaging through a phase disturbance. A theoretical analysis based on the propagation of the cross-spectral density shows that the blurred image due to the phase disturbance can be restored, in principle, irrespective of the state of coherence of the light illuminating the object. Experimental verification of the theory has been performed for two cases when the object to be imaged is illuminated by spatially coherent light originating from a He-Ne laser and by spatially incoherent white light from a halogen lamp. We observed in both cases that images blurred by the phase disturbance were successfully restored, in agreement with the theory, immediately after the adaptive optics system was activated. The origin of the deviation of the experimental results from the theory, together with the effect of the feedback misalignment inherent in our optical arrangement, is also discussed.

  5. Evaluation of teachers' performance of vision screening in primary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Petronilla

    Evaluation of Teachers' Performance of Vision Screening in Primary. School Children in Port ... teachers can effectively perform vision screening in school children using ..... may be due to variations in methodology and definitions used, as this ...

  6. DE-BLURRING SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IMAGES USING WAVELET DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu M. Sasi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Single photon emission computed tomography imaging is a popular nuclear medicine imaging technique which generates images by detecting radiations emitted by radioactive isotopes injected in the human body. Scattering of these emitted radiations introduces blur in this type of images. This paper proposes an image processing technique to enhance cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images by reducing the blur in the image. The algorithm works in two main stages. In the first stage a maximum likelihood estimate of the point spread function and the true image is obtained. In the second stage Lucy Richardson algorithm is applied on the selected wavelet coefficients of the true image estimate. The significant contribution of this paper is that processing of images is done in the wavelet domain. Pre-filtering is also done as a sub stage to avoid unwanted ringing effects. Real cardiac images are used for the quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the algorithm. Blur metric, peak signal to noise ratio and Tenengrad criterion are used as quantitative measures. Comparison against other existing de-blurring algorithms is also done. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method effectively reduces blur present in the image.

  7. Accurate estimation of motion blur parameters in noisy remote sensing image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xueyan; Wang, Lin; Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Huilin; Tao, Zhong

    2015-05-01

    The relative motion between remote sensing satellite sensor and objects is one of the most common reasons for remote sensing image degradation. It seriously weakens image data interpretation and information extraction. In practice, point spread function (PSF) should be estimated firstly for image restoration. Identifying motion blur direction and length accurately is very crucial for PSF and restoring image with precision. In general, the regular light-and-dark stripes in the spectrum can be employed to obtain the parameters by using Radon transform. However, serious noise existing in actual remote sensing images often causes the stripes unobvious. The parameters would be difficult to calculate and the error of the result relatively big. In this paper, an improved motion blur parameter identification method to noisy remote sensing image is proposed to solve this problem. The spectrum characteristic of noisy remote sensing image is analyzed firstly. An interactive image segmentation method based on graph theory called GrabCut is adopted to effectively extract the edge of the light center in the spectrum. Motion blur direction is estimated by applying Radon transform on the segmentation result. In order to reduce random error, a method based on whole column statistics is used during calculating blur length. Finally, Lucy-Richardson algorithm is applied to restore the remote sensing images of the moon after estimating blur parameters. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and robustness of our algorithm.

  8. Reduce blurring and distortion in a projection type virtual image display using integrated small optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yendo, Tomohiro

    2015-03-01

    Head Up Display (HUD) is being applied to automobile. HUD displays information as far virtual image on the windshield. Existing HUD usually displays planar information. If the image corresponding to scenery on the road like Augmented Reality (AR) is displayed on the HUD, driver can efficiently get the information. To actualize this, HUD covering large viewing field is needed. However existing HUD cannot cover large viewing field. Therefore we have proposed system consisting of projector and many small diameter convex lenses. However observed virtual image has blurring and distortion . In this paper, we propose two methods to reduce blurring and distortion of images. First, to reduce blurring of images, distance between each of screen and lens comprised in lens array is adjusted. We inferred from the more distant the lens from center of the array is more blurred that the cause of blurring is curvature of field of lens in the array. Second, to avoid distortion of images, each lens in the array is curved spherically. We inferred from the more distant the lens from center of the array is more distorted that the cause of distortion is incident angle of ray. We confirmed effectiveness of both methods.

  9. What Is Low Vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Rights Training Resources Workplace Technology CareerConnect Stories Working as a Senior with Vision Loss For Seniors Age-Related Vision ... Changes Health and Aging Retirement Living Continuing to Work as a Senior with Vision Loss Get Connected About VisionAware Join ...

  10. Eyesight quality and Computer Vision Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdănici, Camelia Margareta; Săndulache, Diana Elena; Nechita, Corina Andreea

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects that gadgets have on eyesight quality. A prospective observational study was conducted from January to July 2016, on 60 people who were divided into two groups: Group 1 - 30 middle school pupils with a mean age of 11.9 ± 1.86 and Group 2 - 30 patients evaluated in the Ophthalmology Clinic, "Sf. Spiridon" Hospital, Iași, with a mean age of 21.36 ± 7.16 years. The clinical parameters observed were the following: visual acuity (VA), objective refraction, binocular vision (BV), fusional amplitude (FA), Schirmer's test. A questionnaire was also distributed, which contained 8 questions that highlighted the gadget's impact on the eyesight. The use of different gadgets, such as computer, laptops, mobile phones or other displays become part of our everyday life and people experience a variety of ocular symptoms or vision problems related to these. Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) represents a group of visual and extraocular symptoms associated with sustained use of visual display terminals. Headache, blurred vision, and ocular congestion are the most frequent manifestations determined by the long time use of gadgets. Mobile phones and laptops are the most frequently used gadgets. People who use gadgets for a long time have a sustained effort for accommodation. A small amount of refractive errors (especially myopic shift) was objectively recorded by various studies on near work. Dry eye syndrome could also be identified, and an improvement of visual comfort could be observed after the instillation of artificial tears drops. Computer Vision Syndrome is still under-diagnosed, and people should be made aware of the bad effects the prolonged use of gadgets has on eyesight.

  11. Blurred image restoration using knife-edge function and optimal window Wiener filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shudao; Yan, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Motion blur in images is usually modeled as the convolution of a point spread function (PSF) and the original image represented as pixel intensities. The knife-edge function can be used to model various types of motion-blurs, and hence it allows for the construction of a PSF and accurate estimation of the degradation function without knowledge of the specific degradation model. This paper addresses the problem of image restoration using a knife-edge function and optimal window Wiener filtering. In the proposed method, we first calculate the motion-blur parameters and construct the optimal window. Then, we use the detected knife-edge function to obtain the system degradation function. Finally, we perform Wiener filtering to obtain the restored image. Experiments show that the restored image has improved resolution and contrast parameters with clear details and no discernible ringing effects. PMID:29377950

  12. Positron range in PET imaging: an alternative approach for assessing and correcting the blurring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars; Le Loirec, Cindy; Champion, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Background: Positron range impairs resolution in PET imaging, especially for high-energy emitters and for small-animal PET. De-blurring in image reconstruction is possible if the blurring distribution is known. Further, the percentage of annihilation events within a given distance from the point...... on allowed-decay isotopes. Methods: It is argued that blurring at the detection level should not be described by positron range r, but instead the 2D-projected distance δ (equal to the closest distance between decay and line-of-response). To determine these 2D distributions, results from a dedicated positron...... is important for improved resolution in PET imaging. Relevant distributions for positron range have been derived for seven isotopes. Distributions for other allowed-decay isotopes may be estimated with the above formulas....

  13. Multi-frequency interpolation in spiral magnetic resonance fingerprinting for correction of off-resonance blurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostenson, Jason; Robison, Ryan K; Zwart, Nicholas R; Welch, E Brian

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) pulse sequences often employ spiral trajectories for data readout. Spiral k-space acquisitions are vulnerable to blurring in the spatial domain in the presence of static field off-resonance. This work describes a blurring correction algorithm for use in spiral MRF and demonstrates its effectiveness in phantom and in vivo experiments. Results show that image quality of T1 and T2 parametric maps is improved by application of this correction. This MRF correction has negligible effect on the concordance correlation coefficient and improves coefficient of variation in regions of off-resonance relative to uncorrected measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vision, eye disease, and art: 2015 Keeler Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, M F

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine normal vision and eye disease in relation to art. Ophthalmology cannot explain art, but vision is a tool for artists and its normal and abnormal characteristics may influence what an artist can do. The retina codes for contrast, and the impact of this is evident throughout art history from Asian brush painting, to Renaissance chiaroscuro, to Op Art. Art exists, and can portray day or night, only because of the way retina adjusts to light. Color processing is complex, but artists have exploited it to create shimmer (Seurat, Op Art), or to disconnect color from form (fauvists, expressionists, Andy Warhol). It is hazardous to diagnose eye disease from an artist's work, because artists have license to create as they wish. El Greco was not astigmatic; Monet was not myopic; Turner did not have cataracts. But when eye disease is documented, the effects can be analyzed. Color-blind artists limit their palette to ambers and blues, and avoid greens. Dense brown cataracts destroy color distinctions, and Monet's late canvases (before surgery) showed strange and intense uses of color. Degas had failing vision for 40 years, and his pastels grew coarser and coarser. He may have continued working because his blurred vision smoothed over the rough work. This paper can barely touch upon the complexity of either vision or art. However, it demonstrates some ways in which understanding vision and eye disease give insight into art, and thereby an appreciation of both art and ophthalmology.

  15. Variational approach for restoring blurred images with cauchy noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciacchitano, Federica; Dong, Yiqiu; Zeng, Tieyong

    2015-01-01

    model, we add a quadratic penalty term, which guarantees the uniqueness of the solution. Due to the convexity of our model, the primal dual algorithm is employed to solve the minimization problem. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method for simultaneously deblurring...... and denoising images corrupted by Cauchy noise. Comparison with other existing and well-known methods is provided as well....

  16. Computer vision syndrome and ergonomic practices among undergraduate university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowatt, Lizette; Gordon, Carron; Santosh, Arvind Babu Rajendra; Jones, Thaon

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) and ergonomic practices among students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences at The University of the West Indies (UWI), Jamaica. A cross-sectional study was done with a self-administered questionnaire. Four hundred and nine students participated; 78% were females. The mean age was 21.6 years. Neck pain (75.1%), eye strain (67%), shoulder pain (65.5%) and eye burn (61.9%) were the most common CVS symptoms. Dry eyes (26.2%), double vision (28.9%) and blurred vision (51.6%) were the least commonly experienced symptoms. Eye burning (P = .001), eye strain (P = .041) and neck pain (P = .023) were significantly related to level of viewing. Moderate eye burning (55.1%) and double vision (56%) occurred in those who used handheld devices (P = .001 and .007, respectively). Moderate blurred vision was reported in 52% who looked down at the device compared with 14.8% who held it at an angle. Severe eye strain occurred in 63% of those who looked down at a device compared with 21% who kept the device at eye level. Shoulder pain was not related to pattern of use. Ocular symptoms and neck pain were less likely if the device was held just below eye level. There is a high prevalence of Symptoms of CVS amongst university students which could be reduced, in particular neck pain and eye strain and burning, with improved ergonomic practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Visual problems in young adults due to computer use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschos, M M; Chatziralli, I P; Siasou, G; Papazisis, L

    2012-04-01

    Computer use can cause visual problems. The purpose of our study was to evaluate visual problems due to computer use in young adults. Participants in our study were 87 adults, 48 male and 39 female, mean aged 31.3 years old (SD 7.6). All the participants completed a questionnaire regarding visual problems detected after computer use. The mean daily use of computers was 3.2 hours (SD 2.7). 65.5 % of the participants complained for dry eye, mainly after more than 2.5 hours of computer use. 32 persons (36.8 %) had a foreign body sensation in their eyes, while 15 participants (17.2 %) complained for blurred vision which caused difficulties in driving, after 3.25 hours of continuous computer use. 10.3 % of the participants sought medical advice for their problem. There was a statistically significant correlation between the frequency of visual problems and the duration of computer use (p = 0.021). 79.3 % of the participants use artificial tears during or after long use of computers, so as not to feel any ocular discomfort. The main symptom after computer use in young adults was dry eye. All visual problems associated with the duration of computer use. Artificial tears play an important role in the treatment of ocular discomfort after computer use. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. A Convex Variational Model for Restoring Blurred Images with Multiplicative Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yiqiu; Tieyong Zeng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new variational model for restoring blurred images with multiplicative noise is proposed. Based on the statistical property of the noise, a quadratic penalty function technique is utilized in order to obtain a strictly convex model under a mild condition, which guarantees...

  19. New Hybrid Variational Recovery Model for Blurred Images with Multiplicative Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yiqiu; Zeng, Tieyong

    2013-01-01

    A new hybrid variational model for recovering blurred images in the presence of multiplicative noise is proposed. Inspired by previous work on multiplicative noise removal, an I-divergence technique is used to build a strictly convex model under a condition that ensures the uniqueness...

  20. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Marcel A.; Eidhof, Marloes B.; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic

  1. Nanotech, blur and tragedy in recent artworks by Gerhard Richter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2008-01-01

    The author considers Gerhard Richter's work on nanotechnology, highlighting how these pieces continue the artist's ontology on photographic blur and, as such, raise questions about truth and reality with respect to the mass media's visual presentation of nanotechnology. The four works discussed i...

  2. Blurring Boundaries: From the Danish Welfare State to the European Social Model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context and on the inte......Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context...... and on the integration of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services, 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law...... aspects, and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...

  3. Understanding and Modeling the Evolution of Critical Points under Gaussian Blurring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, A.; Florack, L.M.J.; Heyden, A.; Sparr, G.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the deep structure of Gaussian scale space images, one needs to understand the behaviour of critical points under the influence of parameter-driven blurring. During this evolution two different types of special points are encountered, the so-called scale space saddles and the

  4. Efficient dense blur map estimation for automatic 2D-to-3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosters, L. P. J.; de Haan, G.

    2012-03-01

    Focus is an important depth cue for 2D-to-3D conversion of low depth-of-field images and video. However, focus can be only reliably estimated on edges. Therefore, Bea et al. [1] first proposed an optimization based approach to propagate focus to non-edge image portions, for single image focus editing. While their approach produces accurate dense blur maps, the computational complexity and memory requirements for solving the resulting sparse linear system with standard multigrid or (multilevel) preconditioning techniques, are infeasible within the stringent requirements of the consumer electronics and broadcast industry. In this paper we propose fast, efficient, low latency, line scanning based focus propagation, which mitigates the need for complex multigrid or (multilevel) preconditioning techniques. In addition we propose facial blur compensation to compensate for false shading edges that cause incorrect blur estimates in people's faces. In general shading leads to incorrect focus estimates, which may lead to unnatural 3D and visual discomfort. Since visual attention mostly tends to faces, our solution solves the most distracting errors. A subjective assessment by paired comparison on a set of challenging low-depth-of-field images shows that the proposed approach achieves equal 3D image quality as optimization based approaches, and that facial blur compensation results in a significant improvement.

  5. The Role of Clarity and Blur in Guiding Visual Attention in Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, James T.; MacDonald, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Visual artists and photographers believe that a viewer's gaze can be guided by selective use of image clarity and blur, but there is little systematic research. In this study, participants performed several eye-tracking tasks with the same naturalistic photographs, including recognition memory for the entire photo, as well as recognition memory…

  6. Iterative PSF Estimation and Its Application to Shift Invariant and Variant Blur Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Won Jung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among image restoration approaches, image deconvolution has been considered a powerful solution. In image deconvolution, a point spread function (PSF, which describes the blur of the image, needs to be determined. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an iterative PSF estimation algorithm which is able to estimate an accurate PSF. In real-world motion-blurred images, a simple parametric model of the PSF fails when a camera moves in an arbitrary direction with an inconsistent speed during an exposure time. Moreover, the PSF normally changes with spatial location. In order to accurately estimate the complex PSF of a real motion blurred image, we iteratively update the PSF by using a directional spreading operator. The directional spreading is applied to the PSF when it reduces the amount of the blur and the restoration artifacts. Then, to generalize the proposed technique to the linear shift variant (LSV model, a piecewise invariant approach is adopted by the proposed image segmentation method. Experimental results show that the proposed method effectively estimates the PSF and restores the degraded images.

  7. Age Estimation Robust to Optical and Motion Blurring by Deep Residual CNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Seong Kang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, real-time human age estimation based on facial images has been applied in various areas. Underneath this phenomenon lies an awareness that age estimation plays an important role in applying big data to target marketing for age groups, product demand surveys, consumer trend analysis, etc. However, in a real-world environment, various optical and motion blurring effects can occur. Such effects usually cause a problem in fully capturing facial features such as wrinkles, which are essential to age estimation, thereby degrading accuracy. Most of the previous studies on age estimation were conducted for input images almost free from blurring effect. To overcome this limitation, we propose the use of a deep ResNet-152 convolutional neural network for age estimation, which is robust to various optical and motion blurring effects of visible light camera sensors. We performed experiments with various optical and motion blurred images created from the park aging mind laboratory (PAL and craniofacial longitudinal morphological face database (MORPH databases, which are publicly available. According to the results, the proposed method exhibited better age estimation performance than the previous methods.

  8. Binocular versus standard occlusion or blurring treatment for unilateral amblyopia in children aged three to eight years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Vijay; Bossi, Manuela; Bunce, Catey; Greenwood, John A; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret

    2015-08-11

    Current treatments for amblyopia in children, occlusion and pharmacological blurring, have had limited success, with less than two-thirds of children achieving good visual acuity of at least 0.20 logMAR in the amblyopic eye, limited improvement of stereopsis, and poor compliance. A new treatment approach, based on the dichoptic presentation of movies or computer games (images presented separately to each eye), may yield better results, as it aims to balance the input of visual information from each eye to the brain. Compliance may also improve with these more child-friendly treatment procedures. To determine whether binocular treatments in children aged three to eight years with unilateral amblyopia result in better visual outcomes than conventional occlusion or pharmacological blurring treatment. We searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register (last date of searches: 14 April 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to April 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. Two review authors independently screened the results of the search in order to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria of the review: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled participants between the ages of three and eight years old with unilateral amblyopia, defined as best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) worse than 0.200 logMAR in the amblyopic eye, and BCVA 0.200 logMAR or better in the fellow eye, in the presence of an amblyogenic risk factor such as anisometropia, strabismus, or both. Prior

  9. [Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented.

  10. Few-view single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction based on a blurred piecewise constant object model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Paul A.; Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Schmidt, Taly G.

    2013-01-01

    the assumed blurring model. Generally, increased values of the blurring parameter and TV weighting parameters reduced noise and streaking artifacts, while decreasing spatial resolution. As the number of views decreased from 60 to 9 the accuracy of images reconstructed using the proposed algorithm varied...

  11. Low Vision Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/lowvision.html MedlinePlus: Low Vision Tips We are sorry. MedlinePlus no longer maintains the For Low Vision Users page. You will still find health resources ...

  12. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  13. Evolution of Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Mikhail

    The evolution of photoreception, giving rise to eye, offers a kaleidoscopic view on selection acting at both the organ and molecular levels. The molecular level is mainly considered in the lecture. The greatest progress to date has been made in relation to the opsin visual pigments. Opsins appeared before eyes did. Two- and three-dimensional organization for rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane, as well as molecular mechanisms of visual pigments spectral tuning, photoisomerization and also opsin as a G-protein coupled receptor are considered. Molecular mechanisms of visual pigments spectral tuning, namely switching of chromophore (physiological time scale) and amino acid changes in the chromophore site of opsin (evolutionary time scale) is considered in the lecture. Photoisomerization of rhodopsin chromophore, 11-cis retinal is the only photochemical reaction in vision. The reaction is extemely fast (less that 200 fs) and high efficient (. is 0.65). The rhodopsin photolysis and kinetics of the earlier products appearance, photo- and bathorhodopsin, is considered. It is known that light is not only a carrier of information, but also a risk factor of damage to the eye. This photobiological paradox of vision is mainly due to the nature of rhodopsin chromophore. Photooxidation is the base of the paradox. All factors present in the phototrceptor cells to initiate free-radical photooxidation: photosensitizers, oxygen and substrates of oxidation: lipids and proteins (opsin). That is why photoprotective system of the eye structures appeared in the course of evolution. Three lines of protective system to prevent light damage to the retina and retina pigment epithelium is known: permanent renewal of rod and cone outer segment, powerful antioxidant system and optical media as cut-off filters where the lens is a key component. The molecular mechanisms of light damage to the eye and photoprotective system of the eye is considered in the lecture. The molecular

  14. Robot Vision Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  15. A child's vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a Compact Range-gated Vision System to Monitor Structures in Low-visibility Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Lyul; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Image acquisition in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, automatic vision system to monitor structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments such as the places of a fire and detonation is essential. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog and dust. To overcome the imaging distortion caused by obstacle materials, robust vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination through disturbance materials. One of active vision system is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from the blurred and darken light environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and range image data is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through disturbance materials, such as smoke particles and dust particles. In contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology enables operation even in harsh environments like low-visibility smoky environment. In this paper, a compact range-gated vision system is developed to monitor structures in low-visibility environment. The system consists of illumination light, a range-gating camera and a control computer. Visualization experiments are carried out in low-visibility foggy environment to see imaging capability

  17. Development of a Compact Range-gated Vision System to Monitor Structures in Low-visibility Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Lyul; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Image acquisition in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, automatic vision system to monitor structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments such as the places of a fire and detonation is essential. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog and dust. To overcome the imaging distortion caused by obstacle materials, robust vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination through disturbance materials. One of active vision system is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from the blurred and darken light environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and range image data is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through disturbance materials, such as smoke particles and dust particles. In contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology enables operation even in harsh environments like low-visibility smoky environment. In this paper, a compact range-gated vision system is developed to monitor structures in low-visibility environment. The system consists of illumination light, a range-gating camera and a control computer. Visualization experiments are carried out in low-visibility foggy environment to see imaging capability.

  18. Thermal blurring effects on fluctuations of conserved charges in rapidity space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, M.; Kitazawa, M.; Onishi, Y.; Sakaida, M.

    2016-12-15

    We argue that the diffusion in the hadron phase and the thermal blurring at thermal freezeout affect observed conserved charge fluctuations considerably in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and show that their effects are of similar order at RHIC and LHC, and thus equally important in understanding experimental data. We also argue that, in order to disentangle them and obtain the initial state charge fluctuations, which we are interested in, it is crucial to measure their dependence on the rapidity window size. In the energy range of the beam energy scan program at RHIC, the diffusion effect would be less important because of the shorter duration of the hadron phase, but the importance of thermal blurring is not reduced. In addition, it is necessary to take account of the complex correspondence between the space-time rapidity and rapidity of observed particles, there.

  19. A Fast Algorithm for Image Super-Resolution from Blurred Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Michael K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of reconstruction of a high-resolution image from several blurred low-resolution image frames. The image frames consist of blurred, decimated, and noisy versions of a high-resolution image. The high-resolution image is modeled as a Markov random field (MRF, and a maximum a posteriori (MAP estimation technique is used for the restoration. We show that with the periodic boundary condition, a high-resolution image can be restored efficiently by using fast Fourier transforms. We also apply the preconditioned conjugate gradient method to restore high-resolution images in the aperiodic boundary condition. Computer simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. Blur kernel estimation with algebraic tomography technique and intensity profiles of object boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingacheva, Anastasia; Chukalina, Marina; Khanipov, Timur; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2018-04-01

    Motion blur caused by camera vibration is a common source of degradation in photographs. In this paper we study the problem of finding the point spread function (PSF) of a blurred image using the tomography technique. The PSF reconstruction result strongly depends on the particular tomography technique used. We present a tomography algorithm with regularization adapted specifically for this task. We use the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART algorithm) as the starting algorithm and introduce regularization. We use the conjugate gradient method for numerical implementation of the proposed approach. The algorithm is tested using a dataset which contains 9 kernels extracted from real photographs by the Adobe corporation where the point spread function is known. We also investigate influence of noise on the quality of image reconstruction and investigate how the number of projections influence the magnitude change of the reconstruction error.

  1. Vision Assessment and Prescription of Low Vision Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Keeffe, Jill

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of vision and prescription of low vision devices are part of a comprehensive low vision service. Other components of the service include training the person affected by low vision in use of vision and other senses, mobility, activities of daily living, and support for education, employment or leisure activities. Specialist vision rehabilitation agencies have services to provide access to information (libraries) and activity centres for groups of people with impaired vision.

  2. Flexible friends? Flexible working time arrangements, blurred work-life boundaries and friendship

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Vivi Bach; Lewis, Suzan

    2012-01-01

    The changing nature and demands of work raise concerns about how workers can find time for activities such as friendship and leisure, which are important for well-being. This article brings friendship into the work-life debate by exploring how individuals do friendship in a period characterised by time dilemmas, blurred work-life boundaries and increased employer- and employee-led flexible working. Interviews with employees selected according to their working time structures were supplemented...

  3. Positron range in PET imaging: an alternative approach for assessing and correcting the blurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jødal, L.; Le Loirec, C.; Champion, C.

    2012-06-01

    Positron range impairs resolution in PET imaging, especially for high-energy emitters and for small-animal PET. De-blurring in image reconstruction is possible if the blurring distribution is known. Furthermore, the percentage of annihilation events within a given distance from the point of positron emission is relevant for assessing statistical noise. This paper aims to determine the positron range distribution relevant for blurring for seven medically relevant PET isotopes, 18F, 11C, 13N, 15O, 68Ga, 62Cu and 82Rb, and derive empirical formulas for the distributions. This paper focuses on allowed-decay isotopes. It is argued that blurring at the detection level should not be described by the positron range r, but instead the 2D projected distance δ (equal to the closest distance between decay and line of response). To determine these 2D distributions, results from a dedicated positron track-structure Monte Carlo code, Electron and POsitron TRANsport (EPOTRAN), were used. Materials other than water were studied with PENELOPE. The radial cumulative probability distribution G2D(δ) and the radial probability density distribution g2D(δ) were determined. G2D(δ) could be approximated by the empirical function 1 - exp(-Aδ2 - Bδ), where A = 0.0266 (Emean)-1.716 and B = 0.1119 (Emean)-1.934, with Emean being the mean positron energy in MeV and δ in mm. The radial density distribution g2D(δ) could be approximated by differentiation of G2D(δ). Distributions in other media were very similar to water. The positron range is important for improved resolution in PET imaging. Relevant distributions for the positron range have been derived for seven isotopes. Distributions for other allowed-decay isotopes may be estimated with the above formulas.

  4. Impact of corneal cross-linking combined with photorefractive keratectomy on blurring strength

    OpenAIRE

    Labiris, Georgios; Sideroudi, Haris; Angelonias, Dimitris; Georgantzoglou, Kimonas; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    Georgios Labiris,1,2 Haris Sideroudi,2 Dimitris Angelonias,2 Kimonas Georgantzoglou,2 Vassilios P Kozobolis1,21Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, 2Eye Institute of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of corneal cross-linking combined with photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on blurring strength.Methods: A total of 63 patients with keratoconus were recruited for this study, and two study groups were formed acc...

  5. Framework for Processing Videos in the Presence of Spatially Varying Motion Blur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    32 bits, a warped image requires 5000 × 5000 × 32 bits, that is 95.3 megabytes. If all three colour channels are used , this value will triple. Storing...sub-image sizes S. The blur kernels are displayed as binary images with non-zero values shown in white colour . point, any further increase in S...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MADRAS Final Report 02/10/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/ IOA

  6. Moment forms invariant to rotation and blur in arbitrary number of dimensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Boldyš, Jiří; Zitová, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2003), s. 234-246 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1711; GA ČR GP102/01/P065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : blur invariants * rotation invariants * group representation theory Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.823, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20030006.pdf

  7. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM.

  8. Local blur analysis and phase error correction method for fringe projection profilometry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li; Da, Feipeng

    2018-05-20

    We introduce a flexible error correction method for fringe projection profilometry (FPP) systems in the presence of local blur phenomenon. Local blur caused by global light transport such as camera defocus, projector defocus, and subsurface scattering will cause significant systematic errors in FPP systems. Previous methods, which adopt high-frequency patterns to separate the direct and global components, fail when the global light phenomenon occurs locally. In this paper, the influence of local blur on phase quality is thoroughly analyzed, and a concise error correction method is proposed to compensate the phase errors. For defocus phenomenon, this method can be directly applied. With the aid of spatially varying point spread functions and local frontal plane assumption, experiments show that the proposed method can effectively alleviate the system errors and improve the final reconstruction accuracy in various scenes. For a subsurface scattering scenario, if the translucent object is dominated by multiple scattering, the proposed method can also be applied to correct systematic errors once the bidirectional scattering-surface reflectance distribution function of the object material is measured.

  9. FPGA Vision Data Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.

    2013-01-01

    JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.

  10. Vision-based interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such

  11. Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0012 Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide Elizabeth Shoda, Alex...June 2015 – May 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... automated vision tests , or AVT. Development of the AVT was required to support threshold-level vision testing capability needed to investigate the

  12. Progress in computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A. K.; Dorai, C.

    Computer vision has emerged as a challenging and important area of research, both as an engineering and a scientific discipline. The growing importance of computer vision is evident from the fact that it was identified as one of the "Grand Challenges" and also from its prominent role in the National Information Infrastructure. While the design of a general-purpose vision system continues to be elusive machine vision systems are being used successfully in specific application elusive, machine vision systems are being used successfully in specific application domains. Building a practical vision system requires a careful selection of appropriate sensors, extraction and integration of information from available cues in the sensed data, and evaluation of system robustness and performance. The authors discuss and demonstrate advantages of (1) multi-sensor fusion, (2) combination of features and classifiers, (3) integration of visual modules, and (IV) admissibility and goal-directed evaluation of vision algorithms. The requirements of several prominent real world applications such as biometry, document image analysis, image and video database retrieval, and automatic object model construction offer exciting problems and new opportunities to design and evaluate vision algorithms.

  13. Jane Addams’ Social Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar

    2018-01-01

    resonated with key tenets of social gospel theology, which imbued her texts with an overarching vision of humanity’s progressive history. It is suggested that Addams’ vision of a major transition in industrial society, one involving a BChristian renaissance^ and individuals’ transformation into Bsocialized...

  14. Computer vision for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Graham; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    fixed to players or equipment is generally not possible. This provides a rich set of opportunities for the application of computer vision techniques to help the competitors, coaches and audience. This paper discusses a selection of current commercial applications that use computer vision for sports...

  15. Copenhagen Energy Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Connolly, David

    The short-term goal for The City of Copenhagen is a CO2 neutral energy supply by the year 2025, and the long-term vision for Denmark is a 100% renewable energy (RE) supply by the year 2050. In this project, it is concluded that Copenhagen plays a key role in this transition. The long-term vision...

  16. Modeling foveal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florack, L.M.J.; Sgallari, F.; Murli, A.; Paragios, N.

    2007-01-01

    geometric model is proposed for an artificial foveal vision system, and its plausibility in the context of biological vision is explored. The model is based on an isotropic, scale invariant two-form that describes the spatial layout of receptive fields in the the visual sensorium (in the biological

  17. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  18. Light Vision Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  19. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  20. Erasing and blurring memories: The differential impact of interference on separate aspects of forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sol Z; Fidalgo, Celia; Barense, Morgan D; Lee, Andy C H; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    Interference disrupts information processing across many timescales, from immediate perception to memory over short and long durations. The widely held similarity assumption states that as similarity between interfering information and memory contents increases, so too does the degree of impairment. However, information is lost from memory in different ways. For instance, studied content might be erased in an all-or-nothing manner. Alternatively, information may be retained but the precision might be degraded or blurred. Here, we asked whether the similarity of interfering information to memory contents might differentially impact these 2 aspects of forgetting. Observers studied colored images of real-world objects, each followed by a stream of interfering objects. Across 4 experiments, we manipulated the similarity between the studied object and the interfering objects in circular color space. After interference, memory for object color was tested continuously on a color wheel, which in combination with mixture modeling, allowed for estimation of how erasing and blurring differentially contribute to forgetting. In contrast to the similarity assumption, we show that highly dissimilar interfering items caused the greatest increase in random guess responses, suggesting a greater frequency of memory erasure (Experiments 1-3). Moreover, we found that observers were generally able to resist interference from highly similar items, perhaps through surround suppression (Experiments 1 and 4). Finally, we report that interference from items of intermediate similarity tended to blur or decrease memory precision (Experiments 3 and 4). These results reveal that the nature of visual similarity can differentially alter how information is lost from memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Quantification of mouse in vivo whole-body vibration amplitude from motion-blur using x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhengyi; Yuan, Xunhua; Pollmann, Steven I; Nikolov, Hristo N; Holdsworth, David W; Welch, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal effects of whole-body vibration on animals and humans have become an intensely studied topic recently, due to the potential of applying this method as a non-pharmacological therapy for strengthening bones. It is relatively easy to quantify the transmission of whole-body mechanical vibration through the human skeletal system using accelerometers. However, this is not the case for small-animal pre-clinical studies because currently available accelerometers have a large mass, relative to the mass of the animals, which causes the accelerometers themselves to affect the way vibration is transmitted. Additionally, live animals do not typically remain motionless for long periods, unless they are anesthetized, and they are required to maintain a static standing posture during these studies. These challenges provide the motivation for the development of a method to quantify vibrational transmission in small animals. We present a novel imaging technique to quantify whole-body vibration transmission in small animals using 280 μm diameter tungsten carbide beads implanted into the hind limbs of mice. Employing time-exposure digital x-ray imaging, vibrational amplitude is quantified based on the blurring of the implanted beads caused by the vibrational motion. Our in vivo results have shown this technique is capable of measuring vibration amplitudes as small as 0.1 mm, with precision as small as  ±10 μm, allowing us to distinguish differences in the transmitted vibration at different locations on the hindlimbs of mice. (paper)

  2. Quantification of mouse in vivo whole-body vibration amplitude from motion-blur using x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengyi; Welch, Ian; Yuan, Xunhua; Pollmann, Steven I.; Nikolov, Hristo N.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2015-08-01

    Musculoskeletal effects of whole-body vibration on animals and humans have become an intensely studied topic recently, due to the potential of applying this method as a non-pharmacological therapy for strengthening bones. It is relatively easy to quantify the transmission of whole-body mechanical vibration through the human skeletal system using accelerometers. However, this is not the case for small-animal pre-clinical studies because currently available accelerometers have a large mass, relative to the mass of the animals, which causes the accelerometers themselves to affect the way vibration is transmitted. Additionally, live animals do not typically remain motionless for long periods, unless they are anesthetized, and they are required to maintain a static standing posture during these studies. These challenges provide the motivation for the development of a method to quantify vibrational transmission in small animals. We present a novel imaging technique to quantify whole-body vibration transmission in small animals using 280 μm diameter tungsten carbide beads implanted into the hind limbs of mice. Employing time-exposure digital x-ray imaging, vibrational amplitude is quantified based on the blurring of the implanted beads caused by the vibrational motion. Our in vivo results have shown this technique is capable of measuring vibration amplitudes as small as 0.1 mm, with precision as small as  ±10 μm, allowing us to distinguish differences in the transmitted vibration at different locations on the hindlimbs of mice.

  3. Vision systems for scientific and engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadda, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Human performance can get degraded due to boredom, distraction and fatigue in vision-related tasks such as measurement, counting etc. Vision based techniques are increasingly being employed in many scientific and engineering applications. Notable advances in this field are emerging from continuing improvements in the fields of sensors and related technologies, and advances in computer hardware and software. Automation utilizing vision-based systems can perform repetitive tasks faster and more accurately, with greater consistency over time than humans. Electronics and Instrumentation Services Division has developed vision-based systems for several applications to perform tasks such as precision alignment, biometric access control, measurement, counting etc. This paper describes in brief four such applications. (author)

  4. Application of mathematical removal of positron range blurring in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.F.; Derenzo, S.E.; Uber, D.

    1990-01-01

    The range of positrons in tissue is an important limitation to the ultimate spatial resolution achievable in positron emission tomography. In this work the authors have applied a Fourier deconvolution technique to remove range blurring in images taken by the Donner 600-crystal positron tomograph. Using phantom data, the authors have found significant improvement in the image quality and the FWHM for both 68 Ga and 82 Rb. These were successfully corrected so that the images and FWHM almost matched those of 18 F which has negligible positron range. However, statistical noise was increased by the deconvolution process and it was not practical to recover the full spatial resolution of the tomograph

  5. Restoration of color images degraded by space-variant motion blur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šorel, Michal; Flusser, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 4673 (2007), s. 450-457 ISSN 0302-9743. [Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns. Vienna, 27.08.2007-29.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : deblurring * space-variant restoration * motion blur * color Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74272-2_56

  6. The blurred boundaries of political violence in the Sahel-Sahara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    The Sahel and the Sahara are faced with exceptional political instability involving a combination of rebellions, jihadist insurgencies, coups d’état, protest movements and illegal trafficking. Analysis of the outbreaks of violence reveals that the region is not just the victim of an escalation...... of wars and conflicts that marked the 20th century. The Sahel-Sahara has also become the setting of a globalised security environment, in which boundaries between what is local and global, domestic and international, military and civilian, politics and identity are blurred....

  7. A method for correcting the depth-of-interaction blurring in PET cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A method is presented for the purpose of correcting PET images for the blurring caused by variations in the depth-of-interaction in position-sensitive gamma ray detectors. In the case of a fine-cut 50x50x30 mm BGO block detector, the method is shown to improve the detector resolution by about 25%, measured in the geometry corresponding to detection at the edge of the field-of-view. Strengths and weaknesses of the method are discussed and its potential usefulness for improving the images of future PET cameras is assessed. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  8. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    1 Stereo Vision Inside Tire P.S. Els C.M. Becker University of Pretoria W911NF-14-1-0590 Final...Stereo Vision Inside Tire 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-14-1-0590 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Prof PS Els CM...on the development of a stereo vision system that can be mounted inside a rolling tire , known as T2-CAM for Tire -Terrain CAMera. The T2-CAM system

  9. Depth-Based Selective Blurring in Stereo Images Using Accelerated Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subhayan; Guddeti, Ram Mohana Reddy

    2014-09-01

    We propose a hybrid method for stereo disparity estimation by combining block and region-based stereo matching approaches. It generates dense depth maps from disparity measurements of only 18 % image pixels (left or right). The methodology involves segmenting pixel lightness values using fast K-Means implementation, refining segment boundaries using morphological filtering and connected components analysis; then determining boundaries' disparities using sum of absolute differences (SAD) cost function. Complete disparity maps are reconstructed from boundaries' disparities. We consider an application of our method for depth-based selective blurring of non-interest regions of stereo images, using Gaussian blur to de-focus users' non-interest regions. Experiments on Middlebury dataset demonstrate that our method outperforms traditional disparity estimation approaches using SAD and normalized cross correlation by up to 33.6 % and some recent methods by up to 6.1 %. Further, our method is highly parallelizable using CPU-GPU framework based on Java Thread Pool and APARAPI with speed-up of 5.8 for 250 stereo video frames (4,096 × 2,304).

  10. Perfect blind restoration of images blurred by multiple filters: theory and efficient algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikumar, G; Bresler, Y

    1999-01-01

    We address the problem of restoring an image from its noisy convolutions with two or more unknown finite impulse response (FIR) filters. We develop theoretical results about the existence and uniqueness of solutions, and show that under some generically true assumptions, both the filters and the image can be determined exactly in the absence of noise, and stably estimated in its presence. We present efficient algorithms to estimate the blur functions and their sizes. These algorithms are of two types, subspace-based and likelihood-based, and are extensions of techniques proposed for the solution of the multichannel blind deconvolution problem in one dimension. We present memory and computation-efficient techniques to handle the very large matrices arising in the two-dimensional (2-D) case. Once the blur functions are determined, they are used in a multichannel deconvolution step to reconstruct the unknown image. The theoretical and practical implications of edge effects, and "weakly exciting" images are examined. Finally, the algorithms are demonstrated on synthetic and real data.

  11. Restoration of a single superresolution image from several blurred, noisy, and undersampled measured images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, M; Feuer, A

    1997-01-01

    The three main tools in the single image restoration theory are the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimator, and the set theoretic approach using projection onto convex sets (POCS). This paper utilizes the above known tools to propose a unified methodology toward the more complicated problem of superresolution restoration. In the superresolution restoration problem, an improved resolution image is restored from several geometrically warped, blurred, noisy and downsampled measured images. The superresolution restoration problem is modeled and analyzed from the ML, the MAP, and POCS points of view, yielding a generalization of the known superresolution restoration methods. The proposed restoration approach is general but assumes explicit knowledge of the linear space- and time-variant blur, the (additive Gaussian) noise, the different measured resolutions, and the (smooth) motion characteristics. A hybrid method combining the simplicity of the ML and the incorporation of nonellipsoid constraints is presented, giving improved restoration performance, compared with the ML and the POCS approaches. The hybrid method is shown to converge to the unique optimal solution of a new definition of the optimization problem. Superresolution restoration from motionless measurements is also discussed. Simulations demonstrate the power of the proposed methodology.

  12. Prosthetic component segmentation with blur compensation: a fast method for 3D fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroni, Giacomo; Tersi, Luca; Corsi, Cristiana; Stagni, Rita

    2012-06-01

    A new method for prosthetic component segmentation from fluoroscopic images is presented. The hybrid approach we propose combines diffusion filtering, region growing and level-set techniques without exploiting any a priori knowledge of the analyzed geometry. The method was evaluated on a synthetic dataset including 270 images of knee and hip prosthesis merged to real fluoroscopic data simulating different conditions of blurring and illumination gradient. The performance of the method was assessed by comparing estimated contours to references using different metrics. Results showed that the segmentation procedure is fast, accurate, independent on the operator as well as on the specific geometrical characteristics of the prosthetic component, and able to compensate for amount of blurring and illumination gradient. Importantly, the method allows a strong reduction of required user interaction time when compared to traditional segmentation techniques. Its effectiveness and robustness in different image conditions, together with simplicity and fast implementation, make this prosthetic component segmentation procedure promising and suitable for multiple clinical applications including assessment of in vivo joint kinematics in a variety of cases.

  13. delta-vision

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Delta Vision is intended to identify a strategy for managing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta as a sustainable ecosystem that would continue to support environmental...

  14. Computer Vision Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Susan A

    2017-07-01

    With the increased use of electronic devices with visual displays, computer vision syndrome is becoming a major public health issue. Improving the visual status of workers using computers results in greater productivity in the workplace and improved visual comfort.

  15. INSA: Vision and Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kwan-Kyoo

    2013-01-01

    INSA vision: Contribution to the world peace via advanced and excellent nuclear nonproliferation and security education and training; Objectives: Provide practical education and training programs; Raise internationally-recognized experts; Improve awareness about nuclear nonproliferation and security

  16. Manifestation of a sellar hemangioblastoma due to pituitary apoplexy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahli Rahel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hemangioblastomas are rare, benign tumors occurring in any part of the nervous system. Most are found as sporadic tumors in the cerebellum or spinal cord. However, these neoplasms are also associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. We report a rare case of a sporadic sellar hemangioblastoma that became symptomatic due to pituitary apoplexy. Case presentation An 80-year-old, otherwise healthy Caucasian woman presented to our facility with severe headache attacks, hypocortisolism and blurred vision. A magnetic resonance imaging scan showed an acute hemorrhage of a known, stable and asymptomatic sellar mass lesion with chiasmatic compression accounting for our patient's acute visual impairment. The tumor was resected by a transnasal, transsphenoidal approach and histological examination revealed a capillary hemangioblastoma (World Health Organization grade I. Our patient recovered well and substitutional therapy was started for panhypopituitarism. A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scan performed 16 months postoperatively showed good chiasmatic decompression with no tumor recurrence. Conclusions A review of the literature confirmed supratentorial locations of hemangioblastomas to be very unusual, especially within the sellar region. However, intrasellar hemangioblastoma must be considered in the differential diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy.

  17. A practical introduction to computer vision with OpenCV

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson-Howe, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Explains the theory behind basic computer vision and provides a bridge from the theory to practical implementation using the industry standard OpenCV libraries Computer Vision is a rapidly expanding area and it is becoming progressively easier for developers to make use of this field due to the ready availability of high quality libraries (such as OpenCV 2).  This text is intended to facilitate the practical use of computer vision with the goal being to bridge the gap between the theory and the practical implementation of computer vision. The book will explain how to use the relevant OpenCV

  18. Acute Reversal of Vision Metamorphopsia: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Acute reversal of vision metamorphopsia (RVM is a rare, paroxysmal, sudden and transient vertical inversion of vision, also known as floor-on-the-ceiling phenomenon. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but it may due to transient impairment of vestibular projections to the parietal lobes. Case description: Here we present a case of a 60 year-old man with a right paramedian pontine stroke developed episodes of upside-down reversal of vision during transition from awake to sleep time (hypnagogic acute reversal of vision metamorphopsia that subsided after treatment with gabapentin.

  19. Schools at the Rural-Urban Boundary – Blurring the Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Logan, John R.

    2018-01-01

    Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010–2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America. We then apply spatially explicit methods to reveal blurred boundaries and gradual gradients rather than sharp breaks at the edges of these zones. The results show high levels of variation within the suburbs and substantial commonality between rural and urban areas. PMID:29430017

  20. Variable blurred reflection in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 493

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonson, K.; Gallo, L. C.; Wilkins, D. R.; Fabian, A. C.

    2018-04-01

    We examine a 200 ks XMM-Newton observation of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 493. The active galaxy was half as bright as in a previous 2003 snapshot observation and the current lower flux enables a study of the putative reflection component in detail. We determine the characteristics of the 2015 X-ray continuum by first analyzing the short-term variability using model-independent techniques. We then continue with a time-resolve analysis including spectral fitting and modelling the fractional variability. We determine that the variability arises from changes in the amount of primary flux striking the accretion disk, which induces changes in the ionization parameter and flux of the blurred reflection component. The observations seem consistent with the picture that the primary source is of roughly constant brightness and that variations arise from changes in the degree of light bending happening in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole.

  1. [Quality system Vision 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Evasio; Pitocchi, Oreste; de Luca, Italo; Ferrari, Roberto

    2002-12-01

    A recent document of the Italian Ministry of Health points out that all structures which provide services to the National Health System should implement a Quality System according to the ISO 9000 standards. Vision 2000 is the new version of the ISO standard. Vision 2000 is less bureaucratic than the old version. The specific requests of the Vision 2000 are: a) to identify, to monitor and to analyze the processes of the structure, b) to measure the results of the processes so as to ensure that they are effective, d) to implement actions necessary to achieve the planned results and the continual improvement of these processes, e) to identify customer requests and to measure customer satisfaction. Specific attention should be also dedicated to the competence and training of the personnel involved in the processes. The principles of the Vision 2000 agree with the principles of total quality management. The present article illustrates the Vision 2000 standard and provides practical examples of the implementation of this standard in cardiological departments.

  2. IDA's Energy Vision 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Hansen, Kenneth

    IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 provides a Smart Energy System strategy for a 100% renewable Denmark in 2050. The vision presented should not be regarded as the only option in 2050 but as one scenario out of several possibilities. With this vision the Danish Society of Engineers, IDA, presents its third...... contribution for an energy strategy for Denmark. The IDA’s Energy Plan 2030 was prepared in 2006 and IDA’s Climate Plan was prepared in 2009. IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 is developed for IDA by representatives from The Society of Engineers and by a group of researchers at Aalborg University. It is based on state......-of-the-art knowledge about how low cost energy systems can be designed while also focusing on long-term resource efficiency. The Energy Vision 2050 has the ambition to focus on all parts of the energy system rather than single technologies, but to have an approach in which all sectors are integrated. While Denmark...

  3. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  4. Integrating National Space Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines value proposition assumptions for various models nations may use to justify, shape, and guide their space programs. Nations organize major societal investments like space programs to actualize national visions represented by leaders as investments in the public good. The paper defines nine 'vision drivers' that circumscribe the motivations evidently underpinning national space programs. It then describes 19 fundamental space activity objectives (eight extant and eleven prospective) that nations already do or could in the future use to actualize the visions they select. Finally the paper presents four contrasting models of engagement among nations, and compares these models to assess realistic pounds on the pace of human progress in space over the coming decades. The conclusion is that orthogonal engagement, albeit unlikely because it is unprecedented, would yield the most robust and rapid global progress.

  5. Interoperability Strategic Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Knight, Mark R.; Melton, Ronald B.; Narang, David; Martin, Maurice; Nordman, Bruce; Khandekar, Aditya; Hardy, Keith S.

    2018-02-28

    The Interoperability Strategic Vision whitepaper aims to promote a common understanding of the meaning and characteristics of interoperability and to provide a strategy to advance the state of interoperability as applied to integration challenges facing grid modernization. This includes addressing the quality of integrating devices and systems and the discipline to improve the process of successfully integrating these components as business models and information technology improve over time. The strategic vision for interoperability described in this document applies throughout the electric energy generation, delivery, and end-use supply chain. Its scope includes interactive technologies and business processes from bulk energy levels to lower voltage level equipment and the millions of appliances that are becoming equipped with processing power and communication interfaces. A transformational aspect of a vision for interoperability in the future electric system is the coordinated operation of intelligent devices and systems at the edges of grid infrastructure. This challenge offers an example for addressing interoperability concerns throughout the electric system.

  6. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  7. Color Vision in Aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Hilde R; Hagen, Lene A; Landsend, Erlend C S; Gilson, Stuart J; Utheim, Øygunn A; Utheim, Tor P; Neitz, Maureen; Baraas, Rigmor C

    2018-04-01

    To assess color vision and its association with retinal structure in persons with congenital aniridia. We included 36 persons with congenital aniridia (10-66 years), and 52 healthy, normal trichromatic controls (10-74 years) in the study. Color vision was assessed with Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) pseudo-isochromatic plates (4th ed., 2002); Cambridge Color Test and a low-vision version of the Color Assessment and Diagnosis test (CAD-LV). Cone-opsin genes were analyzed to confirm normal versus congenital color vision deficiencies. Visual acuity and ocular media opacities were assessed. The central 30° of both eyes were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 to grade the severity of foveal hypoplasia (FH, normal to complete: 0-4). Five participants with aniridia had cone opsin genes conferring deutan color vision deficiency and were excluded from further analysis. Of the 31 with aniridia and normal opsin genes, 11 made two or more red-green (RG) errors on HRR, four of whom also made yellow-blue (YB) errors; one made YB errors only. A total of 19 participants had higher CAD-LV RG thresholds, of which eight also had higher CAD-LV YB thresholds, than normal controls. In aniridia, the thresholds were higher along the RG than the YB axis, and those with a complete FH had significantly higher RG thresholds than those with mild FH (P = 0.038). Additional increase in YB threshold was associated with secondary ocular pathology. Arrested foveal formation and associated alterations in retinal processing are likely to be the primary reason for impaired red-green color vision in aniridia.

  8. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, C

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  9. Low Vision Enhancement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with the Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute in Baltimore, Md., to incorporate NASA software originally developed by NASA to process satellite images into the Low Vision Enhancement System (LVES). The LVES, referred to as 'ELVIS' by its users, is a portable image processing system that could make it possible to improve a person's vision by enhancing and altering images to compensate for impaired eyesight. The system consists of two orientation cameras, a zoom camera, and a video projection system. The headset and hand-held control weigh about two pounds each. Pictured is Jacob Webb, the first Mississippian to use the LVES.

  10. En vision for CBS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision.......Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision....

  11. Using a Graphics Turing Test to Evaluate the Effect of Frame Rate and Motion Blur on Telepresence of Animated Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Mathias; Johansen, Stine Schmieg; Krog, Kim Srirat

    2013-01-01

    A limited Graphics Turing Test is used to determine the frame rate that is required to achieve telepresence of an animated object. For low object velocities of 2.25 and 4.5 degrees of visual angle per second at 60 frames per second a rotating object with no added motion blur is able to pass the t...

  12. Near vision spectacle coverage and barriers to near vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    easily help to address this visual disability.7 An average cost of near vision spectacle in Ghana is approximately. $ 5.8 Near-vision spectacle could be dispensed as single vision, bifocal or progressive eye glasses to meet near vi- sion needs.2. Recent evidence suggests that the ageing population in. Ghana is increasing ...

  13. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mike

    2011-01-01

    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight…

  14. Effects of visual skills training, vision coaching and sports vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of three different approaches to improving sports performance through improvements in “sports vision:” (1) a visual skills training programme, (2) traditional vision coaching sessions, and (3) a multi-disciplinary approach identified as sports vision dynamics.

  15. Vision system for diagnostic task | Merad | Global Journal of Pure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to environment degraded conditions, direct measurements are not possible. ... Degraded conditions: vibrations, water and chip of metal projections, ... Before tooling, the vision system has to answer: “is it the right piece at the right place?

  16. Comments on "Weed Recognition using Image Blur Information" by Peng, Z. & Jun, C., Biosystems Engineering 110 (2), p. 198-205”

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Suk, Tomáš; Zitová, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 126 (2014), s. 104-108 ISSN 1537-5110 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Keywords : Weed recognition * Blur * Moment Invariants * Blur Invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.619, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/flusser-0431031.pdf

  17. ABCs of foveal vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchko, Roy M.; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents a simple mathematical performance model of the human foveal vision system based on an extensive analysis of the Blackwell-McCready (BM) data set. It includes a closed-form equation, the (ABC)t law, that allows the analyst to predict the entire range of BM threshold data. Relationships are derived among the four fundamental parameters of foveal vision: target area A, background luminance B, threshold contrast C, and stimulus presentation time t. Hyperbolic-curve fits on log-log plots of the data lead to the well-known laws of Ricco, Blackwell, Weber and Fechner, and Bloch. This paper unifies important relationships associated with target and background scene parameters as they relate to the human foveal vision process. The process of detecting a BM target, using foveal vision, is reduced to the total temporal summation of light energy modified by a multiplicative energy ratio. A stochastic model of human observer performance is presented in terms of a cumulative Gaussian distribution, which is a function of the apparent and BM contrast threshold values.

  18. Home vision tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... missing areas. If any lines appear distorted or broken, note their location on the grid using a pen or pencil. DISTANCE VISION This is the standard eye chart doctors use, which has been adapted for home use. The chart is attached to a wall ...

  19. VISION AND READING ABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

    SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

  20. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  1. KiWi Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffert, Sebastian; Bry, Francois; Dolog, Peter

    This deliverable describes the common vision of the KiWi project, ranging from motivation over use cases and usage scenarios to user interaction, system architecture and technologies, and the research that is performed as part of the project. The deliverable is intended for a wide audience to give...

  2. Direct vision internal urethrotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L

    1984-01-01

    During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...

  3. Vision eller verklighet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas E

    2012-01-01

    and drawing analysis. This study suggests that there is a gap between reality and visions. Despite research-based guidelines, the architecture of contemporary residential care homes relies on universal qualities that are associated with the home environment rather than with the particular conditions...

  4. Tectonic vision in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1999-01-01

    By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kahn...

  5. Vision: Essential Scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph; Torre, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Few concepts are more noted in the leadership effects research than vision. It is a cardinal element in the school improvement equation as well. Yet, it remains one of the least well-specified components of that algorithm. Based on a comprehensive review of the research on effective leadership and school improvement from 1995 to 2012, we bring…

  6. Motion Control with Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. Dick van Schenk Brill; Ir Peter Boots

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the work that is done by a group of I3 students at Philips CFT in Eindhoven, Netherlands. I3 is an initiative of Fontys University of Professional Education also located in Eindhoven. The work focuses on the use of computer vision in motion control. Experiments are done with

  7. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Ángel; Carbonell-Bonete, Stela; Cacho-Martínez, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the symptoms associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the methods used to obtain the subjects' symptoms. We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. The literature search was performed in Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS. A total of 657 articles were identified, and 56 met the inclusion criteria. We found 267 different ways of naming the symptoms related to these anomalies, which we grouped into 34 symptom categories. Of the 56 studies, 35 employed questionnaires and 21 obtained the symptoms from clinical histories. We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS V-15) and CIRS parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the Conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. The most widely used questionnaire (21 studies) was the CISS V-15. Of the 34 categories of symptoms, the most frequently mentioned were: headache, blurred vision, diplopia, visual fatigue, and movement or flicker of words at near vision, which were fundamentally related to near vision and binocular anomalies. There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3) were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  8. Local Directional Probability Optimization for Quantification of Blurred Gray/White Matter Junction in Magnetic Resonance Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Qu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The blurred gray/white matter junction is an important feature of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD lesions. FCD is the main cause of epilepsy and can be detected through magnetic resonance (MR imaging. Several earlier studies have focused on computing the gradient magnitude of the MR image and used the resulting map to model the blurred gray/white matter junction. However, gradient magnitude cannot quantify the blurred gray/white matter junction. Therefore, we proposed a novel algorithm called local directional probability optimization (LDPO for detecting and quantifying the width of the gray/white matter boundary (GWB within the lesional areas. The proposed LDPO method mainly consists of the following three stages: (1 introduction of a hidden Markov random field-expectation-maximization algorithm to compute the probability images of brain tissues in order to obtain the GWB region; (2 generation of local directions from gray matter (GM to white matter (WM passing through the GWB, considering the GWB to be an electric potential field; (3 determination of the optimal local directions for any given voxel of GWB, based on iterative searching of the neighborhood. This was then used to measure the width of the GWB. The proposed LDPO method was tested on real MR images of patients with FCD lesions. The results indicated that the LDPO method could quantify the GWB width. On the GWB width map, the width of the blurred GWB in the lesional region was observed to be greater than that in the non-lesional regions. The proposed GWB width map produced higher F-scores in terms of detecting the blurred GWB within the FCD lesional region as compared to that of FCD feature maps, indicating better trade-off between precision and recall.

  9. Impact of the Parameter Variation on the Image Blurring in 3 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Phantom Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Nam Kug; Cho, Kyung Sik; Lee, Jin Seong [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    To evaluate the effects of the key imaging-parameter alterations on the four MR sequences in a phantom study. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on a MR phantom with an 8-channel head coil by using a 3 T MR system. The images were obtained in the axial plane on four MR sequences [T1-weighted, T2-weighted, Proton-density, and 3 dimensional (3D) fast spin echo (FSE)] with controlled variations in the following key parameters: 1) echo train length (ETL), 2) repetition time (TR), and 3) echo time (TE). The image blurring was determined by the degree of the gradient angle; i.e., the blurring increased as the gradient angle decreases. The increasing ETL was observed to cause an increase in the image blurring on all pulse sequences with a statistical significance (p = 0.004) on the 3D FSE. Increasing the TR appeared to have no effect except a statistically significant decrease on the T1-weighted images (p = 0.011). Increasing TE showed no effect on the T1-weighted images (p = 0.932); however, it caused an increase of blurring on the proton density images (p = 0.016) as well as the T2-weighted images (p < 0.001), and a decrease on the 3D FSE (p = 0.001). To reduce the image blurring, short ETL and long TE for 3D FSE, long TR for T1-weighted images and short TE for proton-density and T2-weighted images should be applied.

  10. INL Vision and Strategy 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Rekha Sukamar

    2015-01-01

    This Laboratory vision and strategy presents INL's vision and strategy for the Laboratory and is our introduction to a special place dedicated to improving our nation's energy security future.

  11. What is vision Hampton Roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...

  12. Vision in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Valentine, Emma L; Gibson, Georgina; Thomas, Hannah R; Oh, Sera; Pyo, Young Ah; Lacherez, Philippe; Mathur, Ankit

    2013-09-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size. The water environment was simulated by placing goggles filled with saline in front of the eyes with apertures placed at the front of the goggles. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition in order to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (seven participants), grating resolution (eight participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (one participant). For letter acuity, mean loss of vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log min of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1 mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7 mm aperture. The vision in min of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2 mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6 mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2 mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased with a 2 log unit loss by 3 c/°. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8, and 1.3 c/° with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70, and 1.13 c/°. In conclusion, vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets.

  13. Baseflow vs floods: Linking geomorphology and ecology by blurring disciplinary and ecosystem boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M. W.; Stanley, E. H.; Small, M.

    2011-12-01

    emerge from drawing in geomorphology or hydrology into ecology, or vice versa. We suggest two approaches to continuing to bridge disciplines and potentially push forward river science. First, by looking for concepts formative in one discipline for which there are no analogous counter-parts in the other discipline, we may be able to re-analyze existing data in ways that are more conducive to interpretation by other disciplines. Converting nutrient spiraling metrics into effective discharge metrics is one such example. Another example worth exploring is Schumm and Licthy's classic time, space, and causality, but applied to stream ecology or biogeochemistry. A second approach is to blur the boundaries of ecosystems studied, either temporally or spatially. For example, expanding the spatial scale beyond the 'obvious' boundary of the streambed led to the discovery of the hyporheic zone; expanding traditional ecology study reaches led to the spate of research on tributary junctions network geometry. We suspect that there are similar opportunities for new discoveries or concepts through the intentional blurring of oft-used boundaries to stream studies.

  14. Immersive Environments: Using Flow and Sound to Blur Inhabitant and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Luke

    Following in the footsteps of motif-reviving, aesthetically-focused Postmodern and deconstructivist architecture, purely computer-generated formalist contemporary architecture (i.e. blobitecture) has been reduced to vast, empty sculptural, and therefore, purely ocularcentric gestures for their own sake. Taking precedent over the deliberate relation to the people inhabiting them beyond scaleless visual stimulation, the forms become separated from and hostile toward their inhabitants; a boundary appears. This thesis calls for a reintroduction of human-centered design beyond Modern functionalism and ergonomics and Postmodern form and metaphor into architecture by exploring ecological psychology (specifically how one becomes attached to objects) and phenomenology (specifically sound) in an attempt to reach a contemporary human scale using the technology of today: the physiological mind. Psychologist Dr. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's concept of flow---when one becomes so mentally immersed within the current activity and immediate surroundings that the boundary between inhabitant and environment becomes transparent through a form of trance---is the embodiment of this thesis' goal, but it is limited to only specific moments throughout the day and typically studied without regard to the environment. Physiologically, the area within the brain---the medial prefrontal cortex---stimulated during flow experiences is also stimulated by the synthesis of sound, memory, and emotion. By exploiting sound (a sense not typically focused on within phenomenology) as a form of constant nuance within the everyday productive dissonance, the engagement and complete concentration on one's own interpretation of this sensory input affords flow experiences and, therefore, a blurred boundary with one's environment. This thesis aims to answer the question: How does the built environment embody flow? The above concept will be illustrated within a ubiquitous building type---the everyday housing tower

  15. Telerehabilitation for people with low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Ava K; Wykstra, Stephanie L; Yoshinaga, Patrick D; Li, Tianjing

    2015-08-31

    Low vision affects over 300 million people worldwide and can compromise both activities of daily living and quality of life. Rehabilitative training and vision assistive equipment (VAE) may help, but some visually impaired people have limited resources to attend in-person visits at rehabilitation clinics. These people may be able to overcome barriers to care through remote, Internet-based consultation (i.e., telerehabilitation). To compare the effects of telerehabilitation with face-to-face (e.g., in-office or inpatient) vision rehabilitation services for improving vision-related quality of life and reading speed in people with visual function loss due to any ocular condition. Secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with scheduled rehabilitation sessions, abandonment rates for visual assistive equipment devices, and patient satisfaction ratings. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015 Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1980 to June 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2015), PubMed (1980 to June 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any language restriction or study design filter in the electronic searches; however, we restricted the searches from 1980 onwards because the Internet was not introduced to the public until 1982. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 June 2015. We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) in which participants were diagnosed with low vision and were undergoing low vision rehabilitation using an Internet, web-based technology compared with an approach based on in-person consultations. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts, and then full-text articles against

  16. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The imaging capability of a surveillance vision system from harsh low-visibility environments such as in fire and detonation areas is a key function to monitor the safety of the facilities. 2D and range image data acquired from low-visibility environment are important data to assess the safety and prepare appropriate countermeasures. Passive vision systems, such as conventional camera and binocular stereo vision systems usually cannot acquire image information when the reflected light is highly scattered and absorbed by airborne particles such as fog. In addition, the image resolution captured through low-density airborne particles is decreased because the image is blurred and dimmed by the scattering, emission and absorption. Active vision systems, such as structured light vision and projected stereo vision are usually more robust for harsh environment than passive vision systems. However, the performance is considerably decreased in proportion to the density of the particles. The RGI system provides 2D and range image data from several RGI images and it moreover provides clear images from low-visibility fog and smoke environment by using the sum of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays becoming more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of its compact portable configuration. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been

  17. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The imaging capability of a surveillance vision system from harsh low-visibility environments such as in fire and detonation areas is a key function to monitor the safety of the facilities. 2D and range image data acquired from low-visibility environment are important data to assess the safety and prepare appropriate countermeasures. Passive vision systems, such as conventional camera and binocular stereo vision systems usually cannot acquire image information when the reflected light is highly scattered and absorbed by airborne particles such as fog. In addition, the image resolution captured through low-density airborne particles is decreased because the image is blurred and dimmed by the scattering, emission and absorption. Active vision systems, such as structured light vision and projected stereo vision are usually more robust for harsh environment than passive vision systems. However, the performance is considerably decreased in proportion to the density of the particles. The RGI system provides 2D and range image data from several RGI images and it moreover provides clear images from low-visibility fog and smoke environment by using the sum of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays becoming more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of its compact portable configuration. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been

  18. What You Should Know (Low Vision)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cataract Diabetic retinopathy Glaucoma Macular degeneration What is low vision? When you have low vision, eyeglasses, contact lenses, ... eyesight. How do I know if I have low vision? Below are some signs of low vision. Even ...

  19. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  20. Computer Vision Syndrome in Eleven to Eighteen-Year-Old Students in Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Prolonged use of computers can lead to complications such as eye strain, eye and head aches, double and blurred vision, tired eyes, irritation, burning and itching eyes, eye redness, light sensitivity, dry eyes, muscle strains, and other problems. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate visual problems and major symptoms, and their associations among computer users, aged between 11 and 18 years old, residing in the Qazvin city of Iran, during year 2010. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was done on 642 secondary to pre university students who had referred to the eye clinic of Buali hospital of Qazvin during year 2013. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information and 26 questions on visual effects of the computer was used to gather information. Participants answered all questions and then underwent complete eye examinations and in some cases cycloplegic refraction. Visual acuity (VA was measured with a logMAR in six meters. Refraction errors were determined using an auto refractometer (Potece and Heine retinoscope. The collected data was then analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. Results The results of this study indicated that 63.86% of the subjects had refractive errors. Refractive errors were significantly different in children of different genders (P < 0.05. The most common complaints associated with the continuous use of computers were eyestrain, eye pain, eye redness, headache, and blurred vision. The most prevalent (81.8% eye-related problem in computer users was eyestrain and the least prevalent was dry eyes (7.84%. In order to reduce computer related problems 54.2% of the participants suggested taking enough rest, 37.9% recommended use of computers only for necessary tasks, while 24.4% and 19.1% suggested the use of monitor shields and proper working distance, respectively. Conclusions Our findings revealed that using computers for prolonged periods of time can lead to eye

  1. Overcoming turbulence-induced space-variant blur by using phase-diverse speckle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Brian J; Paxman, Richard G; Carrara, David A; Seldin, John H

    2009-01-01

    Space-variant blur occurs when imaging through volume turbulence over sufficiently large fields of view. Space-variant effects are particularly severe in horizontal-path imaging, slant-path (air-to-ground or ground-to-air) geometries, and ground-based imaging of low-elevation satellites or astronomical objects. In these geometries, the isoplanatic angle can be comparable to or even smaller than the diffraction-limited resolution angle. We report on a postdetection correction method that seeks to correct for the effects of space-variant aberrations, with the goal of reconstructing near-diffraction-limited imagery. Our approach has been to generalize the method of phase-diverse speckle (PDS) by using a physically motivated distributed-phase-screen model. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the reconstruction of near-diffraction-limited imagery under both matched and mismatched model assumptions. In addition, we present evidence that PDS could be used as a beaconless wavefront sensor in a multiconjugate adaptive optics system when imaging extended scenes.

  2. eLearning and eMaking: 3D Printing Blurring the Digital and the Physical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Loy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the potential of 3D printing as an eLearning tool for design education and the role of eMaking in bringing together the virtual and the physical in the design studio. eLearning has matured from the basics of lecture capture into sophisticated, interactive learning activities for students. At the same time, laptops and internet enabled phones have made computer-based learning mobile, invading classroom learning, changing communication between students, enabling on the spot research, and making the recording of ideas and activities easier. The barriers between online and offline are becoming blurred in a combined digital and physical learning environment. Three-dimensional printing is part of this unification and can be an empowering learning tool for students, changing their relationship with the virtual and the physical, allowing them to take ideas and thinking from screen to reality and back again in an iterative, connected process, however, from an eLearning point of view it is, more importantly, a transformative technology with the potential to change the relationship of the learner to their learning and the scope and nature of their work. Examples from Griffith Product Design student learning illustrate the potential of eMaking to enhance combined learning in a digital age.

  3. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Paus, S. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Wagner, J. [University Medical Center, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany); Malter, M.P. [University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Pruess, H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J. [Ulm University, Department of Neurology, Ulm (Germany); Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F. [University Innsbruck, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Ufer, F. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Bien, C.G. [Epilepsy Centre Bethel, Bielefeld-Bethel (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  4. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I.; Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A.; Paus, S.; Wagner, J.; Malter, M.P.; Pruess, H.; Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J.; Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F.; Ufer, F.; Bien, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  5. A study of glasses-type color CGH using a color filter considering reduction of blurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Saki; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a glasses-type color computer generated hologram (CGH) by using a color filter. The proposed glasses consist of two "lenses" made of overlapping holograms and color filters. The holograms, which are calculated to reconstruct images in each primary color, are divided to small areas, which we called cells, and superimposed on one hologram. In the same way, colors of the filter correspond to the hologram cells. We can configure it very simply without a complex optical system, and the configuration yields a small and light weight system suitable for glasses. When the cell is small enough, the colors are mixed and reconstructed color images are observed. In addition, color expression of reconstruction images improves, too. However, using small cells blurrs reconstructed images because of the following reasons: (1) interference between cells because of the correlation with the cells, and (2) reduction of resolution caused by the size of the cell hologram. We are investigating in order to make a hologram that has high resolution reconstructed color images without ghost images. In this paper, we discuss (1) the details of the proposed glasses-type color CGH, (2) appropriate cell size for an eye system, (3) effects of cell shape on the reconstructed images, and (4) a new method to reduce the blurring of the images.

  6. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, H; Rauer, S; Mader, I; Paus, S; Wagner, J; Malter, M P; Prüss, H; Lewerenz, J; Kassubek, J; Hegen, H; Auer, M; Deisenhammer, F; Ufer, F; Bien, C G; Baumgartner, A

    2015-12-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE.

  7. Optic neuropathy due to allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Tresa Cyriac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis presented to the ophthalmology outpatient department of our hospital with complaints of blurred vision in the right eye of a few days duration and vague complaints of pain around the eyes. The visual acuity on examination was grossly reduced in the right eye and normal in the left eye. Color vision was normal. Anterior segment examination including pupils was normal. Dilated fundus examination was normal except for temporal pallor in the right optic disc. Automated perimetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of brain and orbit were done. The imaging report showed a bilateral pansinusitis with pressure on the right optic nerve. Perimetry showed a superior field defect on the right side. ENT consultation and computed tomography (CT with contrast helped to diagnose this as a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The patient was started on systemic steroids under the care of the ENT surgeon. After a few days, pre-operative assessment showed a gross improvement of visual acuity. Endoscopic sinus surgery was done to remove the polyps and thick mucus material. Histopathologic examination confirmed allergic fungal mucin. Days after surgery, the visual acuity improved further and repeat perimetry showed gross improvement in the visual field. Good history taking and a detailed ophthalmic examination, keeping in mind the probable causes of loss of vision of few days duration with no findings other than a decreased visual acuity and a suspicious disc, were key to the early diagnosis and investigation in this case. This helped in early referral and management of the case before permanent damage and irreversible visual loss occurred. The optic nerve is a cranial nerve which, once damaged permanently, will not regenerate. The amount of sinus involvement was extensive on both sides and invariably the left optic nerve would have been involved in a few days, if intervention was delayed.

  8. Realisering af Vision 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    Repræsentanter for byggesektoren har på 11 dialogmøder drøftet Erhvervs- og Byggestyrelsens "Vision 2020 - Byggeri med mening". Drøftelserne førte til formulering af en lang række initiativforslag til realisering af visionen. Den mest centrale udfordring bliver at reducere fejl og mangler i...... byggeriet. Branchen lægger også vægt på, at styringen af Vision 2020s reaisering sker i byggesektoren. Initiativforslagene er i rapporten samlet under 3 hovedområder. Det første hovedområde lægger vægt på bygningerne, brugerbehov og det globale samfund. Det andet omhandler processen og leverancesystemet...

  9. The Siemens vision

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Dijk, B

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available engagement Siemens Centre of Knowledge Interchange (CKI) • Partnership and collaboration with Universities • Industry specific • Multi-million investment, annually Siemens mentors • All Siemens employees actively encouraged to engage with schools.... Siemens is an engineering company. Vision 2020 “we make what matters” including the next generation of engineers make a difference, change the world. > €20M annual donations to education. Siemens ownership culture 348,000 employees...

  10. Research for VISION 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ackland

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We need good quality information to be able to carry out our eye care programmes in support of VISION 2020, to measure (and improve our performance, and to advocate for the resources and support we need to succeed. Much of this information can be collected, analysed, and used as part of our daily work, as many of the articles in this issue show.

  11. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.

  12. Vision and the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtman, Joseph N

    2010-02-01

    For nearly 2 millennia, signs of hypothalamic-related vision disorders have been noticed as illustrated by paintings and drawings of that time of undiagnosed Horner's syndrome. It was not until the 1800s, however, that specific connections between the hypothalamus and the vision system were discovered. With a fuller elaboration of the autonomic nervous system in the early to mid 1900s, many more pathways were discovered. The more recently discovered retinohypothalamic tracts show the extent and influence of light stimulation on hypothalamic function and bodily processes. The hypothalamus maintains its myriad connections via neural pathways, such as with the pituitary and pineal glands; the chemical messengers of the peptides, cytokines, and neurotransmitters; and the nitric oxide mechanism. As a result of these connections, the hypothalamus has involvement in many degenerative diseases. A complete feedback mechanism between the eye and hypothalamus is established by the retinohypothalamic tracts and the ciliary nerves innervating the anterior pole of the eye and the retina. A discussion of hypothalamic-related vision disorders includes neurologic syndromes, the lacrimal system, the retina, and ocular inflammation. Tables and figures have been used to aid in the explanation of the many connections and chemicals controlled by the hypothalamus. The understanding of the functions of the hypothalamus will allow the clinician to gain better insight into the many pathologies associated between the vision system and the hypothalamus. In the future, it may be possible that some ocular disease treatments will be via direct action on hypothalamic function. Copyright 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Low Vision Devices and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Azam Butt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision is the ability to see with a clear perception of detail, colour and contrast, and to distinguish objects visually. Like any other sense, vision tends to deteriorate or diminish naturally with age. In most cases, reduction in visual capability can be corrected with glasses, medicine or surgery. However, if the visual changes occur because of an incurable eye disease, condition or injury, vision loss can be permanent. Many people around the world with permanent visual impairment have some residual vision which can be used with the help of low vision services, materials and devices. This paper describes different options for the enhancement of residual vision including optical and non-optical devices and providing training for the low vision client.

  14. TO STUDY THE ROLE OF ERGONOMICS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Ergonomics is the science of designing the job equipment and workplace to fit the worker by obtaining a correct match between the human body, work related tasks and work tools. By applying the science of ergonomics we can reduce the difficulties faced by computer users. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of tear substitutes and the role of ergonomics in the management of Computer Vision Syndrome. Development of counseling plan, initial treatment plan, prevent complications and educate the subjects about the disease process and to enhance public awareness. MATERIALS AND METHODS A minimum of 100 subjects were selected randomly irrespective of gender, place and nature of computer work & ethnic differences. The subjects were between age group of 10-60 years who had been using the computer for a minimum of 2 hours/day for atleast 5-6 days a week. The subjects underwent tests like Schirmer's, Test film breakup time (TBUT, Inter Blink Interval and Ocular surface staining. A Computer Vision score was taken out based on 5 symptoms each of which was given a score of 2. The symptoms included foreign body sensation, redness, eyestrain, blurring of vision and frequent change in refraction. The score of more than 6 was treated as Computer Vision syndrome and the subjects underwent synoptophore tests and refraction. RESULT In the present study where we had divided 100 subjects into 2 groups of 50 each and given tear substitutes only in one group and ergonomics was considered with tear substitutes in the other. We saw that there was more improvement after 4 weeks and 8 weeks in the group taking lubricants and ergonomics into consideration than lubricants alone. More improvement was seen in eyestrain and blurring (P0.05. CONCLUSION Advanced training in proper computer usage can decrease discomfort.

  15. Ecstasy and vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Hultgård

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we shall present some observations on the role played by ecstasy in the activity of the seer, as he emerges in ancient Jewish and Iranian texts. In the Jewish religious literature of the Hellenistic-Roman period, visions are described on almost every page, and visions were the most important means of divine revelation. Specific techniques for inducing the ecstatic state are not recorded in the Jewish sources. Some elements in the pattern leading up to the vision may be interpreted as parts of a method for inducing the final ecstasy; i.e. fasting and prayer. The Iranian material shows clearly the importance of ecstasy in the activity of the seer. The ecstatic seeing also means that the visionary shares with Ahura Mazda a divine quality, the "wisdom of omniscience". The granting of the "wisdom of omniscience" appears as a temporary and it conveys to the visionary a supernatural seeing. There is evidence to suggest that chanting was an important method of inducing ecstasy within the early Zoroastrian community. We do not find in the Jewish material a clear correspondence to the Iranian notion of "omniscient wisdom".

  16. Blurring the boundaries: using institutional ethnography to inquire into health professions education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Stella L; Bisaillon, Laura; Webster, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative, social science approaches to research have surged in popularity within health professions education (HPE) over the past decade. Institutional ethnography (IE) offers the field another sociological approach to inquiry. Although widely used in nursing and health care research, IE remains relatively uncommon in the HPE research community. This article provides a brief introduction to IE and suggests why HPE researchers may wish to consider it for future studies. Part 1 of this paper presents IE's conceptual grounding in: (i) the entry point to inquiry ('materiality'), (ii) a generous definition of 'work' and (iii) a focus on how 'texts' such as policies, forms and written protocols influence activity. Part 2 of this paper outlines the method's key features through exemplars from our own research. Part 3 discusses the ways in which research that blurs the lines between educational and clinical practice can be both generative for HPE and accomplished using IE. The authors demonstrate the usefulness of IE for studying complex social issues in HPE. It is posited that a key added value of IE is that it goes beyond individual-level explanations of problems and phenomena, yet also closely studies individuals' activities, rather than remaining at an abstract or distant level of analysis. Thereby, IE can result in feasible and meaningful social change at the nexus of health professions education and other social systems such as clinical practice. IE adds to the growing qualitative research toolkit for HPE researchers. It is worth considering because it may enable change through the study of HPE in relation to other social processes, structures and systems, including the clinical practice world. A particular benefit may be found in blending HPE research with research on clinical practice, toward changing practice and policy through IE, given the interrelated nature of these fields. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  17. Developmental changes in the balance of disparity, blur and looming/proximity cues to drive ocular alignment and focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Accurate co-ordination of accommodation and convergence is necessary to view near objects and develop fine motor co-ordination. We used a remote haploscopic videorefraction paradigm to measure longitudinal changes in simultaneous ocular accommodation and vergence to targets at different depths, and to all combinations of blur, binocular disparity, and change-in-size (“proximity”) cues. Infants were followed longitudinally and compared to older children and young adults, with the prediction that sensitivity to different cues would change during development. Mean infant responses to the most naturalistic condition were similar to those of adults from 6-7 weeks (accommodation) and 8-9 weeks (vergence). Proximity cues influenced responses most in infants less than 14 weeks of age, but sensitivity declined thereafter. Between 12-28 weeks of age infants were equally responsive to all three cues, while in older children and adults manipulation of disparity resulted in the greatest changes in response. Despite rapid development of visual acuity (thus increasing availability of blur cues), responses to blur were stable throughout development. Our results suggest that during much of infancy, vergence and accommodation responses are not dependent on the development of specific depth cues, but make use of any cues available to drive appropriate changes in response. PMID:24344547

  18. Automated Vision Test Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    crystal display monitor (NEC Multisync, P232W) at 1920x1080 resolution. Proper calibration was confirmed using a spot photometer/colorimeter (X-Rite i1...visual input to the right and left eye was achieved using liquid crystal display shuttered glasses (NVIDIA 3D Vision 2). The stereo target (Figure 4...threshold on the automated tasks. • Subjects had a lower (better) threshold on color testing for all cone types using the OCCT due to a ceiling

  19. Vision/INS Integrated Navigation System for Poor Vision Navigation Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of an inertial navigation system, many aiding sensors can be used. Among these aiding sensors, a vision sensor is of particular note due to its benefits in terms of weight, cost, and power consumption. This paper proposes an inertial and vision integrated navigation method for poor vision navigation environments. The proposed method uses focal plane measurements of landmarks in order to provide position, velocity and attitude outputs even when the number of landmarks on the focal plane is not enough for navigation. In order to verify the proposed method, computer simulations and van tests are carried out. The results show that the proposed method gives accurate and reliable position, velocity and attitude outputs when the number of landmarks is insufficient.

  20. Vision Problems in Homeless Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Natalie L; Smith, Thomas J; DeSantis, Diana; Suhocki, Marissa; Fenske, Danielle

    2015-08-01

    Vision problems in homeless children can decrease educational achievement and quality of life. To estimate the prevalence and specific diagnoses of vision problems in children in an urban homeless shelter. A prospective series of 107 homeless children and teenagers who underwent screening with a vision questionnaire, eye chart screening (if mature enough) and if vision problem suspected, evaluation by a pediatric ophthalmologist. Glasses and other therapeutic interventions were provided if necessary. The prevalence of vision problems in this population was 25%. Common diagnoses included astigmatism, amblyopia, anisometropia, myopia, and hyperopia. Glasses were required and provided for 24 children (22%). Vision problems in homeless children are common and frequently correctable with ophthalmic intervention. Evaluation by pediatric ophthalmologist is crucial for accurate diagnoses and treatment. Our system of screening and evaluation is feasible, efficacious, and reproducible in other homeless care situations.

  1. Company Vision and Organizational Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Toman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a company is largely dependent on the company itself; it depends above all on its corporate governance, management, and implementation, as well as on decision-making processes and coordination. Many authors believe that organizational learning and knowledge are the most relevant aspects of company effectiveness. If a company wants to be effective it needs to create and realize its vision; to do this, it needs creativity, imagination, and knowledge, which can be obtained or enhanced through learning. This paper defines vision, learning, creativity and management and, above all, their relationships. The author argues that company vision influences the learning and knowledge of employees in the company through the vision’s content, through the vision-creating process, and through the vision enforcement process. Conversely, the influence of learning on company vision is explained. The paper is aimed at the use in the practice of companies and helps them to increase their effectiveness.

  2. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  3. Active Vision for Sociable Robots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breazeal, Cynthia; Edsinger, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Scassellati, Brian

    2001-01-01

    .... In humanoid robotic systems, or in any animate vision system that interacts with people, social dynamics provide additional levels of constraint and provide additional opportunities for processing economy...

  4. Social Constraints on Animate Vision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breazeal, Cynthia; Edsinger, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Scassellati, Brian

    2000-01-01

    .... In humanoid robotic systems, or in any animate vision system that interacts with people, social dynamics provide additional levels of constraint and provide additional opportunities for processing economy...

  5. Coherent laser vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastion, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system

  6. Energy visions 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Energy Visions 2050 considers measures for addressing the enormous future challenges facing the energy sector, focusing on technological and techno-economic perspectives. The analysis of the development of technologies covers the whole energy chain, highlighting the necessity of efficient energy use in all activities of societies. The contents include a discussion on potential future low-emission and renewable energy conversion technologies, as well as new technology solutions in the industrial, building and transport sectors and in energy supply systems. The move towards zero-emission energy systems has consequenses for energy supply, and makes the analysis of energy resources presented in the book all the more valuable. Scenarios of alternative development paths to 2050 at the global, European and Finnish levels are presented, assuming different technological development options, economic growth rates, degrees of globalisation and information flows. The results show interesting differences between the scenarios with regard to energy production and use, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, and global warming. Energy Visions 2050 in mainly intended for those who have a fairly good knowledge of the energy sector and energy technologies, e.g. energy policymakers, experts responsible for energy-related issues in industry, and investors in energy technologies. The topics are approached from a global perspective. In some technological details, however, Finnish technology and Finland's technological achievements are highlighted. The topics and viewpoints of the book will certainly be of interest to international readers as well

  7. Coherent laser vision system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  8. Python and computer vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doak, J. E. (Justin E.); Prasad, Lakshman

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Python in a computer vision (CV) project. We begin by providing background information on the specific approach to CV employed by the project. This includes a brief discussion of Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT), the Chordal Axis Transform (CAT), shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalization of strings representing objects. (The terms 'object' and 'blob' are used interchangeably, both referring to an entity extracted from an image.) The rest of the paper focuses on the use of Python in three critical areas: (1) interactions with a MySQL database, (2) rapid prototyping of algorithms, and (3) gluing together all components of the project including existing C and C++ modules. For (l), we provide a schema definition and discuss how the various tables interact to represent objects in the database as tree structures. (2) focuses on an algorithm to create a hierarchical representation of an object, given its string representation, and an algorithm to match unknown objects against objects in a database. And finally, (3) discusses the use of Boost Python to interact with the pre-existing C and C++ code that creates the CDTs and CATS, performs shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalizes object strings. The paper concludes with a vision of the future use of Python for the CV project.

  9. The Relationship Between Fusion, Suppression, and Diplopia in Normal and Amblyopic Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Daniel P; Baldwin, Alex S; Hess, Robert F

    2016-10-01

    Single vision occurs through a combination of fusion and suppression. When neither mechanism takes place, we experience diplopia. Under normal viewing conditions, the perceptual state depends on the spatial scale and interocular disparity. The purpose of this study was to examine the three perceptual states in human participants with normal and amblyopic vision. Participants viewed two dichoptically separated horizontal blurred edges with an opposite tilt (2.35°) and indicated their binocular percept: "one flat edge," "one tilted edge," or "two edges." The edges varied with scale (fine 4 min arc and coarse 32 min arc), disparity, and interocular contrast. We investigated how the binocular interactions vary in amblyopic (visual acuity [VA] > 0.2 logMAR, n = 4) and normal vision (VA ≤ 0 logMAR, n = 4) under interocular variations in stimulus contrast and luminance. In amblyopia, despite the established sensory dominance of the fellow eye, fusion prevails at the coarse scale and small disparities (75%). We also show that increasing the relative contrast to the amblyopic eye enhances the probability of fusion at the fine scale (from 18% to 38%), and leads to a reversal of the sensory dominance at coarse scale. In normal vision we found that interocular luminance imbalances disturbed binocular combination only at the fine scale in a way similar to that seen in amblyopia. Our results build upon the growing evidence that the amblyopic visual system is binocular and further show that the suppressive mechanisms rendering the amblyopic system functionally monocular are scale dependent.

  10. Fish invasions in the world's river systems: when natural processes are blurred by human activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Leprieur

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Because species invasions are a principal driver of the human-induced biodiversity crisis, the identification of the major determinants of global invasions is a prerequisite for adopting sound conservation policies. Three major hypotheses, which are not necessarily mutually exclusive, have been proposed to explain the establishment of non-native species: the "human activity" hypothesis, which argues that human activities facilitate the establishment of non-native species by disturbing natural landscapes and by increasing propagule pressure; the "biotic resistance" hypothesis, predicting that species-rich communities will readily impede the establishment of non-native species; and the "biotic acceptance" hypothesis, predicting that environmentally suitable habitats for native species are also suitable for non-native species. We tested these hypotheses and report here a global map of fish invasions (i.e., the number of non-native fish species established per river basin using an original worldwide dataset of freshwater fish occurrences, environmental variables, and human activity indicators for 1,055 river basins covering more than 80% of Earth's surface. First, we identified six major invasion hotspots where non-native species represent more than a quarter of the total number of species. According to the World Conservation Union, these areas are also characterised by the highest proportion of threatened fish species. Second, we show that the human activity indicators account for most of the global variation in non-native species richness, which is highly consistent with the "human activity" hypothesis. In contrast, our results do not provide support for either the "biotic acceptance" or the "biotic resistance" hypothesis. We show that the biogeography of fish invasions matches the geography of human impact at the global scale, which means that natural processes are blurred by human activities in driving fish invasions in the world's river systems

  11. Understanding and applying machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Zeuch, Nello

    2000-01-01

    A discussion of applications of machine vision technology in the semiconductor, electronic, automotive, wood, food, pharmaceutical, printing, and container industries. It describes systems that enable projects to move forward swiftly and efficiently, and focuses on the nuances of the engineering and system integration of machine vision technology.

  12. Management Matters. Nurture Your Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2005-01-01

    In many professional roles, long-term vision may help guide short-term decisions. This is especially true for school library professionals as library media programs are constantly evolving. This author suggests strategies to assist library media specialists to nurture their vision and provides reviews of several sources and experts in the field…

  13. Eldercare at Home: Vision Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeing close objects or reading small print. Many things can be done to help with these vision problems. Using reading ... t Working If vision problems seem to be getting worse and are of major concern to the ... what the results have been. Related Resources ...

  14. IPPF's strategic vision 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H

    1994-09-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) supports the objectives of the International Conference on Population and Development. The draft conference document displays the linkages between women's rights, poverty, population, and sustainable development. In the next two to three decades the global population will grow by a staggering 50% and that reality requires sustained socioeconomic growth. The 6 components of IPPF's Strategic Vision 2000 and the action agenda for meeting these challenges are as follows: 1) The small family is rapidly becoming the cultural norm everywhere, as more than 60% of all fertile women and men are using safe and effective contraceptive methods. 2) Sexual and reproductive health is becoming an integral part of the physical, mental, and social health culture and not just the absence of pregnancy, disease or injury. The members of IPPF have been developing programs concentrating on adolescent sexuality. IPPF is also concerned about HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases as they relate to the work undertaken by family planning associations. 3) The quality of care has been heightened by the right of informed choice, service sustainability, and the maintenance of the highest standards. 4) Vigorous programs are in place to eliminate unsafe abortion and to increase access to safe abortion. 5) Young people are systematically supported to give voice to the need for understanding their sexuality and services. There are currently more than 500 million young women and men between the ages of 15 and 19, and their numbers increase for a long time to come. 6) Women are fast moving towards full participation in all aspects of local and global development demanding reproductive rights. IPPF and its associations, through Vision 2000, are committed to the objective of sexual and reproductive health at the national and international levels.

  15. 2020 Vision Project Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.

    2000-11-01

    Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceived computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.

  16. Functional programming for computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuel, Thomas M.

    1992-04-01

    Functional programming is a style of programming that avoids the use of side effects (like assignment) and uses functions as first class data objects. Compared with imperative programs, functional programs can be parallelized better, and provide better encapsulation, type checking, and abstractions. This is important for building and integrating large vision software systems. In the past, efficiency has been an obstacle to the application of functional programming techniques in computationally intensive areas such as computer vision. We discuss and evaluate several 'functional' data structures for representing efficiently data structures and objects common in computer vision. In particular, we will address: automatic storage allocation and reclamation issues; abstraction of control structures; efficient sequential update of large data structures; representing images as functions; and object-oriented programming. Our experience suggests that functional techniques are feasible for high- performance vision systems, and that a functional approach simplifies the implementation and integration of vision systems greatly. Examples in C++ and SML are given.

  17. Computer vision for an autonomous mobile robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Withey, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision systems are essential for practical, autonomous, mobile robots – machines that employ artificial intelligence and control their own motion within an environment. As with biological systems, computer vision systems include the vision...

  18. Blur Quantification of Medical Images: Dicom Media, Whole Slide Images, Generic Images and Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ameisen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/ Background We have designed a quality assurance tool to quantify blur by quantifying the sharpness of custom-sized tiles composing an image, generating global results, detailed exchangeable logs and sharpness-maps regardless of their dimensions, quantity or acquisition rate [1]. We have now integrated the programming libraries and the standalone program we built to existing workflows and software, in order to improve quality assurance procedures. Aims When integrated in an acquisition workflow, the ability to map the quality of local areas inside an image allows to re-acquire parts of the image that were not scanned properly, or discard and re-acquire images when the global results fall under the thresholds set by the users. When integrated in an image analysis software, the regions of interest can be automatically chosen or suggested to the user according to the quality-map of the image to analyze, reducing the amount of incoherent analysis results. When integrated as a library in an image management platform, or as a standalone program in a storage server, a systematic quality check can detect de-calibration of the acquisition software, failed acquisitions that may be automatically deleted and users can be notified to re-acquire the images when below their quality-thresholds profiles. A quantified quality score can be inserted in each image’s metadata for traceability purposes. When integrated as a library in a local or remote image viewer, the best quality tiles can be sent first to the viewer, and magnification levels can be dynamically resampled for a better render. Methods One notable implementation, using our Java library, is inside the FlexMIm project [2], which includes 27 pathology laboratories in the Paris area (coordinated by APHP, research laboratories from University Paris 6 Paris 7, as well as 3 companies: TRIBVN, PERTIMM and Orange. All Whole Slide Images are systematically analyzed and mapped as they enter the

  19. Development of a battery of functional tests for low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Bradley E; Martin, Scott R; Kelly, Corey B; Jones, Lisa A; Raasch, Thomas W; Bullimore, Mark A

    2009-08-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a battery of tests of functional visual performance of everyday tasks intended to be suitable for assessment of low vision patients. The functional test battery comprises-Reading rate: reading aloud 20 unrelated words for each of four print sizes (8, 4, 2, & 1 M); Telephone book: finding a name and reading the telephone number; Medicine bottle label: reading the name and dosing; Utility bill: reading the due date and amount due; Cooking instructions: reading cooking time on a food package; Coin sorting: making a specified amount from coins placed on a table; Playing card recognition: identifying denomination and suit; and Face recognition: identifying expressions of printed, life-size faces at 1 and 3 m. All tests were timed except face and playing card recognition. Fourteen normally sighted and 24 low vision subjects were assessed with the functional test battery. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and quality of life (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 [NEI-VFQ 25]) were measured and the functional tests repeated. Subsequently, 23 low vision patients participated in a pilot randomized clinical trial with half receiving low vision rehabilitation and half a delayed intervention. The functional tests were administered at enrollment and 3 months later. Normally sighted subjects could perform all tasks but the proportion of trials performed correctly by the low vision subjects ranged from 35% for face recognition at 3 m, to 95% for the playing card identification. On average, low vision subjects performed three times slower than the normally sighted subjects. Timed tasks with a visual search component showed poorer repeatability. In the pilot clinical trial, low vision rehabilitation produced the greatest improvement for the medicine bottle and cooking instruction tasks. Performance of patients on these functional tests has been assessed. Some appear responsive to low vision rehabilitation.

  20. Vision enhanced navigation for unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Brandon Loy

    A vision based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm is evaluated for use on unmanned systems. SLAM is a technique used by a vehicle to build a map of an environment while concurrently keeping track of its location within the map, without a priori knowledge. The work in this thesis is focused on using SLAM as a navigation solution when global positioning system (GPS) service is degraded or temporarily unavailable. Previous work on unmanned systems that lead up to the determination that a better navigation solution than GPS alone is first presented. This previous work includes control of unmanned systems, simulation, and unmanned vehicle hardware testing. The proposed SLAM algorithm follows the work originally developed by Davidson et al. in which they dub their algorithm MonoSLAM [1--4]. A new approach using the Pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking algorithm from Intel's OpenCV (open computer vision) library is presented as a means of keeping correct landmark correspondences as the vehicle moves through the scene. Though this landmark tracking method is unusable for long term SLAM due to its inability to recognize revisited landmarks, as opposed to the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), its computational efficiency makes it a good candidate for short term navigation between GPS position updates. Additional sensor information is then considered by fusing INS and GPS information into the SLAM filter. The SLAM system, in its vision only and vision/IMU form, is tested on a table top, in an open room, and finally in an outdoor environment. For the outdoor environment, a form of the slam algorithm that fuses vision, IMU, and GPS information is tested. The proposed SLAM algorithm, and its several forms, are implemented in C++ using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Experiments utilizing a live video feed from a webcam are performed. The different forms of the filter are compared and conclusions are made on

  1. National Hydrogen Vision Meeting Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-11-01

    This document provides presentations and summaries of the notes from the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting''s facilitated breakout sessions. The Vision Meeting, which took place November 15-16, 2001, kicked off the public-private partnership that will pave the way to a more secure and cleaner energy future for America. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, A National Vision of America''s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy - To 2030 and Beyond, which is also available online.

  2. Emotion improves and impairs early vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Bruno R; Zeelenberg, René

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that emotion enhances early vision, but the generality of this finding remains unknown. Do the benefits of emotion extend to all basic aspects of vision, or are they limited in scope? Our results show that the brief presentation of a fearful face, compared with a neutral face, enhances sensitivity for the orientation of subsequently presented low-spatial-frequency stimuli, but diminishes orientation sensitivity for high-spatial-frequency stimuli. This is the first demonstration that emotion not only improves but also impairs low-level vision. The selective low-spatial-frequency benefits are consistent with the idea that emotion enhances magnocellular processing. Additionally, we suggest that the high-spatial-frequency deficits are due to inhibitory interactions between magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. Our results suggest an emotion-induced trade-off in visual processing, rather than a general improvement. This trade-off may benefit perceptual dimensions that are relevant for survival at the expense of those that are less relevant.

  3. Manifold learning in machine vision and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Smart algorithms are used in Machine vision and Robotics to organize or extract high-level information from the available data. Nowadays, Machine learning is an essential and ubiquitous tool to automate extraction patterns or regularities from data (images in Machine vision; camera, laser, and sonar sensors data in Robotics) in order to solve various subject-oriented tasks such as understanding and classification of images content, navigation of mobile autonomous robot in uncertain environments, robot manipulation in medical robotics and computer-assisted surgery, and other. Usually such data have high dimensionality, however, due to various dependencies between their components and constraints caused by physical reasons, all "feasible and usable data" occupy only a very small part in high dimensional "observation space" with smaller intrinsic dimensionality. Generally accepted model of such data is manifold model in accordance with which the data lie on or near an unknown manifold (surface) of lower dimensionality embedded in an ambient high dimensional observation space; real-world high-dimensional data obtained from "natural" sources meet, as a rule, this model. The use of Manifold learning technique in Machine vision and Robotics, which discovers a low-dimensional structure of high dimensional data and results in effective algorithms for solving of a large number of various subject-oriented tasks, is the content of the conference plenary speech some topics of which are in the paper.

  4. Evaluating Fall Risk in People with Low Vision: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Kierstyn Napier-Dovorany, OD; Victoria Graham, DPT

    2013-01-01

    Background: People with low vision have increased risk for falls and preventable health conditions due to sedentary lifestyle and reduced participation in social activities. This case series describes an interprofessional low vision, balance, and mobility evaluation of two patients referred to our low vision optometric clinic. Case Report: RM, an 82-year-old white female with diabetic retinopathy, and PC, a 55-year-old white female with retinopathy of prematurity, completed a comprehensive lo...

  5. 2020 vision for KAUST

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Felicitas Pauss, Head of International Relations at CERN, greets Members of the Board of Trustees of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, KAUST, who visited CERN on Friday 6 August.   Members of Board of Trustees of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology upon their arrival at CERN. KAUST, which is situated on Saudi Arabia’s Red Sea coast, is a new, forward-looking co-educational and research university with a vision to become one of the world’s top ten science and technology Universities by 2020, stimulating the intellectual life of Saudi Arabia and making significant contributions to the country’s economy. CERN’s Director General, Rolf Heuer, is a member of the Board of Trustees. “I accepted the invitation to join the board because I believe that KAUST’s values can make a real difference to the region and to the world,” he said. The University’s mission statement emphasises achiev...

  6. Visiones de la etnicidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL ÁNGEL RÍO RUIZ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta y evalúa las principales contribuciones de algunos de los estudios sobre etnicidad y relaciones étnicas en unas últimas décadas marcadas, frente a los pronósticos de diversas variantes de la teoría sociológica contemporánea, por una notable intensificación de los conflictos sociales articulados sobre lealtades y divisorias étnicas. Se exponen los avances y se identifican algunas de las lagunas y abusos que han presidido el debate entre las visiones primordialistas y construcitivistas de la etnicidad. Frente a los reduccionismos del primordialismo cultural y, tambien, de ciertas versiones encasilladas en la teoría constructivista, como los enfoques instrumentalistas radicales de la identidad étinica, se incide en la necesidad de considerar a la etnicidad como un fenómeno dual: una combinación de muchos aspectos única entre interés y adhesión primaria o afectiva, lo que dota a las asociaciones étnicas de una notable superioridad frente a otras formas de asociación colectiva como núcleo de movilización social.

  7. Vision In Stroke cohort: Profile overview of visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J

    2017-11-01

    To profile the full range of visual disorders from a large prospective observation study of stroke survivors referred by stroke multidisciplinary teams to orthoptic services with suspected visual problems. Multicenter prospective study undertaken in 20 acute Trust hospitals. Standardized screening/referral forms and investigation forms documented data on referral signs and symptoms plus type and extent of visual impairment. Of 1,345 patients referred with suspected visual impairment, 915 were recruited (59% men; mean age at stroke onset 69 years [SD 14]). Initial visual assessment was at median 22 days post stroke onset. Eight percent had normal visual assessment. Of 92% with confirmed visual impairment, 24% had reduced central visual acuity visual field loss was present in 52%, most commonly homonymous hemianopia. Fifteen percent had visual inattention and 4.6% had other visual perceptual disorders. Overall 84% were visually symptomatic with visual field loss the most common complaint followed by blurred vision, reading difficulty, and diplopia. Treatment options were provided to all with confirmed visual impairment. Targeted advice was most commonly provided along with refraction, prisms, and occlusion. There are a wide range of visual disorders that occur following stroke and, frequently, with visual symptoms. There are equally a wide variety of treatment options available for these individuals. All stroke survivors require screening for visual impairment and warrant referral for specialist assessment and targeted treatment specific to the type of visual impairment.

  8. Computer and visual display terminals (VDT) vision syndrome (CVDTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, J K S; Jain, Vaibhav Kumar; Chaturvedi, Piyush; Kaushik, Jaya; Jain, Gunjan; Parihar, Ashwini K S

    2016-07-01

    Computer and visual display terminals have become an essential part of modern lifestyle. The use of these devices has made our life simple in household work as well as in offices. However the prolonged use of these devices is not without any complication. Computer and visual display terminals syndrome is a constellation of symptoms ocular as well as extraocular associated with prolonged use of visual display terminals. This syndrome is gaining importance in this modern era because of the widespread use of technologies in day-to-day life. It is associated with asthenopic symptoms, visual blurring, dry eyes, musculoskeletal symptoms such as neck pain, back pain, shoulder pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, psychosocial factors, venous thromboembolism, shoulder tendonitis, and elbow epicondylitis. Proper identification of symptoms and causative factors are necessary for the accurate diagnosis and management. This article focuses on the various aspects of the computer vision display terminals syndrome described in the previous literature. Further research is needed for the better understanding of the complex pathophysiology and management.

  9. Computer Vision for Timber Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate computer vision methods for timber harvesting operations. The background for developing computer vision for timber harvesting is to document origin of timber and to collect qualitative and quantitative parameters concerning the timber for efficient harvest...... segments. The purpose of image segmentation is to make the basis for more advanced computer vision methods like object recognition and classification. Our second method concerns image classification and we present a method where we classify small timber samples to tree species based on Active Appearance...... to the development of the logTracker system the described methods have a general applicability making them useful for many other computer vision problems....

  10. Strategic Vision: A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moyer, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, this selected bibliography reflects books, documents, periodical articles, and a number of web sites...

  11. Strategic Vision. A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibish, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, the following bibliography reflects books, documents, and periodical articles available in our Library...

  12. Strategic Vision: A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibish, Jane

    2001-01-01

    Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, the following bibliography reflects books, documents, and periodical articles in the Army War College Library...

  13. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  14. Artificial intelligence and computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yujie

    2017-01-01

    This edited book presents essential findings in the research fields of artificial intelligence and computer vision, with a primary focus on new research ideas and results for mathematical problems involved in computer vision systems. The book provides an international forum for researchers to summarize the most recent developments and ideas in the field, with a special emphasis on the technical and observational results obtained in the past few years.

  15. Barriers to accessing low vision services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Tamara L; Simpson, John A; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Keeffe, Jill E

    2003-07-01

    To investigate barriers to accessing low vision services in Australia. Adults with a vision impairment (vision difficulties, duration of vision loss and satisfaction with vision and also examined issues of awareness of low vision services and referral to services. Focus groups were also conducted with vision impaired (Vision Australia Foundation. The discussions were recorded and transcribed. The questionnaire revealed that referral to low vision services was associated with a greater degree of vision loss (p = 0.002) and a greater self-perception of low vision (p = 0.005) but that referral was not associated with satisfaction (p = 0.144) or difficulties related to vision (p = 0.169). Participants with mild and moderate vision impairment each reported similar levels of difficulties with daily activities and satisfaction with their vision (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the level of difficulties experienced with daily activities between those with mild-moderate and severe vision impairment (p low vision services related to awareness of services among the general public and eye care professionals, understanding of low vision and the services available, acceptance of low vision, the referral process, and transport. In addition to the expected difficulties with lack of awareness of services by people with low vision, many people do not understand what the services provide and do not identify themselves as having low vision. Knowledge of these barriers, from the perspective of people with low vision, can now be used to guide the development and content of future health-promotion campaigns.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition color blindness color vision defects defective color vision vision defect, color ... Perception KidsHealth from the Nemours Foundation MalaCards: color blindness MalaCards: color vision deficiency Orphanet: Blue cone monochromatism Orphanet: NON ...

  17. Computer vision syndrome: a study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices in Indian ophthalmologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Jatinder; Navin, Neeraj; Thakur, Bali Renu

    2007-01-01

    To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether 'computer use by practitioners' had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS). A random KAP survey was carried out on 300 Indian ophthalmologists using a 34-point spot-questionnaire in January 2005. All the doctors who responded were aware of CVS. The chief presenting symptoms were eyestrain (97.8%), headache (82.1%), tiredness and burning sensation (79.1%), watering (66.4%) and redness (61.2%). Ophthalmologists using computers reported that focusing from distance to near and vice versa (P =0.006, chi2 test), blurred vision at a distance (P =0.016, chi2 test) and blepharospasm (P =0.026, chi2 test) formed part of the syndrome. The main mode of treatment used was tear substitutes. Half of ophthalmologists (50.7%) were not prescribing any spectacles. They did not have any preference for any special type of glasses (68.7%) or spectral filters. Computer-users were more likely to prescribe sedatives/anxiolytics (P = 0.04, chi2 test), spectacles (P = 0.02, chi2 test) and conscious frequent blinking (P = 0.003, chi2 test) than the non-computer-users. All respondents were aware of CVS. Confusion regarding treatment guidelines was observed in both groups. Computer-using ophthalmologists were more informed of symptoms and diagnostic signs but were misinformed about treatment modalities.

  18. Development of an In Flight Vision Self-Assessment Questionnaire for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Vicky E.; Gibson, Charles R.; Pierpoline, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    OVERVIEW A NASA Flight Medicine optometrist teamed with a human factors specialist to develop an electronic questionnaire for crewmembers to record their visual acuity test scores and perceived vision assessment. It will be implemented on the International Space Station (ISS) and administered as part of a suite of tools for early detection of potential vision changes. The goal of this effort was to rapidly develop a set of questions to help in early detection of visual (e.g. blurred vision) and/or non-visual (e.g. headaches) symptoms by allowing the ISS crewmembers to think about their own current vision during their spaceflight missions. PROCESS An iterative process began with a Space Shuttle one-page paper questionnaire generated by the optometrist that was updated by applying human factors design principles. It was used as a baseline to establish an electronic questionnaire for ISS missions. Additional questions needed for the ISS missions were included and the information was organized to take advantage of the computer-based file format available. Human factors heuristics were applied to the prototype and then they were reviewed by the optometrist and procedures specialists with rapid-turn around updates that lead to the final questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS With about only a month lead time, a usable tool to collect crewmember assessments was developed through this cross-discipline collaboration. With only a little expenditure of energy, the potential payoff is great. ISS crewmembers will complete the questionnaire at 30 days into the mission, 100 days into the mission and 30 days prior to return to Earth. The systematic layout may also facilitate physicians later data extraction for quick interpretation of the data. The data collected along with other measures (e.g. retinal and ultrasound imaging) at regular intervals could potentially lead to early detection and treatment of related vision problems than using the other measures alone.

  19. Rotational Kinematics Model Based Adaptive Particle Filter for Robust Human Tracking in Thermal Omnidirectional Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhe Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel surveillance system named thermal omnidirectional vision (TOV system which can work in total darkness with a wild field of view. Different to the conventional thermal vision sensor, the proposed vision system exhibits serious nonlinear distortion due to the effect of the quadratic mirror. To effectively model the inherent distortion of omnidirectional vision, an equivalent sphere projection is employed to adaptively calculate parameterized distorted neighborhood of an object in the image plane. With the equivalent projection based adaptive neighborhood calculation, a distortion-invariant gradient coding feature is proposed for thermal catadioptric vision. For robust tracking purpose, a rotational kinematic modeled adaptive particle filter is proposed based on the characteristic of omnidirectional vision, which can handle multiple movements effectively, including the rapid motions. Finally, the experiments are given to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm for human tracking in TOV system.

  20. GrabBlur--a framework to facilitate the secure exchange of whole-exome and -genome SNV data using VCF files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stade, Björn; Seelow, Dominik; Thomsen, Ingo; Krawczak, Michael; Franke, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of whole exomes or genomes is increasingly being used in human genetic research and diagnostics. Sharing NGS data with third parties can help physicians and researchers to identify causative or predisposing mutations for a specific sample of interest more efficiently. In many cases, however, the exchange of such data may collide with data privacy regulations. GrabBlur is a newly developed tool to aggregate and share NGS-derived single nucleotide variant (SNV) data in a public database, keeping individual samples unidentifiable. In contrast to other currently existing SNV databases, GrabBlur includes phenotypic information and contact details of the submitter of a given database entry. By means of GrabBlur human geneticists can securely and easily share SNV data from resequencing projects. GrabBlur can ease the interpretation of SNV data by offering basic annotations, genotype frequencies and in particular phenotypic information - given that this information was shared - for the SNV of interest. GrabBlur facilitates the combination of phenotypic and NGS data (VCF files) via a local interface or command line operations. Data submissions may include HPO (Human Phenotype Ontology) terms, other trait descriptions, NGS technology information and the identity of the submitter. Most of this information is optional and its provision at the discretion of the submitter. Upon initial intake, GrabBlur merges and aggregates all sample-specific data. If a certain SNV is rare, the sample-specific information is replaced with the submitter identity. Generally, all data in GrabBlur are highly aggregated so that they can be shared with others while ensuring maximum privacy. Thus, it is impossible to reconstruct complete exomes or genomes from the database or to re-identify single individuals. After the individual information has been sufficiently "blurred", the data can be uploaded into a publicly accessible domain where aggregated genotypes are

  1. Reinforcement learning in computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, A. V.; Burnaev, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, machine learning has become one of the basic technologies used in solving various computer vision tasks such as feature detection, image segmentation, object recognition and tracking. In many applications, various complex systems such as robots are equipped with visual sensors from which they learn state of surrounding environment by solving corresponding computer vision tasks. Solutions of these tasks are used for making decisions about possible future actions. It is not surprising that when solving computer vision tasks we should take into account special aspects of their subsequent application in model-based predictive control. Reinforcement learning is one of modern machine learning technologies in which learning is carried out through interaction with the environment. In recent years, Reinforcement learning has been used both for solving such applied tasks as processing and analysis of visual information, and for solving specific computer vision problems such as filtering, extracting image features, localizing objects in scenes, and many others. The paper describes shortly the Reinforcement learning technology and its use for solving computer vision problems.

  2. 76 FR 17481 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... crashes and no convictions for moving violations in a CMV. Tyler R. Peebles Mr. Peebles, 23, has retinal.... Donald E. Stone Mr. Stone, 54, has optic atrophy in his left eye due to a traumatic injury. The best... examination in 2010, his optometrist noted, ``It is my opinion that Mr. Stone has sufficient vision to operate...

  3. A survey on vision-based human action recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter

    Vision-based human action recognition is the process of labeling image sequences with action labels. Robust solutions to this problem have applications in domains such as visual surveillance, video retrieval and human–computer interaction. The task is challenging due to variations in motion

  4. Profile of Low Vision Population Attending Low Vision Clinic in a Peripheral Eye Hospital in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Safal Khanal, BOptom; Pekila Lama, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Blindness and low vision are major causes of morbidity and constitute a significant public health problem, both detrimental to the quality of life for the individual and an economic burden on the individual, family, and society in general. People with low vision have the potential for enhancement of functional vision if they receive the appropriate low vision services. The present study aims to determine the profile of the low vision population attending a low vision clinic at a p...

  5. Vision and the Nobel Prize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Fábio Barreto

    2018-04-01

    The Nobel Prize is the world's foremost honor for scientific advances in medicine and other areas. Founded by Alfred Nobel, the prizes have been awarded annually since 1901. We reviewed the literature on persons who have won or competed for this prize in subjects related to vision and ophthalmology. The topics were divided into vision physiology, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, disease mechanism, and miscellaneous categories. Allvar Gullstrand is the only ophthalmologist to win a Nobel Prize; he is also the only one to receive it for work in ophthalmology. Other ophthalmologists that have been nominated were Hjalmar Schiötz (tonometer), Karl Koller (topical anesthesia), and Jules Gonin (retinal detachment). Other scientists have won the prize for eye-related research: Ragnar Granit, Haldan Hartline and George Wald (chemistry and physiology of vision), and David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel (processing in the visual system). Peter Medawar is the only person born in Brazil to have won the Nobel Prize.

  6. Quantum vision in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Yehuda

    We present four models for describing a 3-D vision. Similar to the mirror scenario, our models allow 3-D vision with no need for additional accessories such as stereoscopic glasses or a hologram film. These four models are based on brain interpretation rather than pure objective encryption. We consider the observer "subjective" selection of a measuring device and the corresponding quantum collapse into one of his selected states, as a tool for interpreting reality in according to the observer concepts. This is the basic concept of our study and it is introduced in the first model. Other models suggests "soften" versions that might be much easier to implement. Our quantum interpretation approach contribute to the following fields. In technology the proposed models can be implemented into real devices, allowing 3-D vision without additional accessories. Artificial intelligence: In the desire to create a machine that exchange information by using human terminologies, our interpretation approach seems to be appropriate.

  7. Rebalancing binocular vision in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M

    2014-03-01

    Humans with amblyopia have an asymmetry in binocular vision: neural signals from the amblyopic eye are suppressed in the cortex by the fellow eye. The purpose of this study was to develop new models and methods for rebalancing this asymmetric binocular vision by manipulating the contrast and luminance in the two eyes. We measured the perceived phase of a cyclopean sinewave by asking normal and amblyopic observers to indicate the apparent location (phase) of the dark trough in the horizontal cyclopean sine wave relative to a black horizontal reference line, and used the same stimuli to measure perceived contrast by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to one eye. We varied both the relative contrast and luminance of the two eyes' inputs, in order to rebalance the asymmetric binocular vision. Amblyopic binocular vision becomes more and more asymmetric the higher the stimulus contrast or spatial frequency. Reanalysing our previous data, we found that, at a given spatial frequency, the binocular asymmetry could be described by a log-linear formula with two parameters, one for the maximum asymmetry and one for the rate at which the binocular system becomes asymmetric as the contrast increases. Our new data demonstrates that reducing the dominant eye's mean luminance reduces its suppression of the non-dominant eye, and therefore rebalances the asymmetric binocular vision. While the binocular asymmetry in amblyopic vision can be rebalanced by manipulating the relative contrast or luminance of the two eyes at a given spatial frequency and contrast, it is very difficult or even impossible to rebalance the asymmetry for all visual conditions. Nonetheless, wearing a neutral density filter before the dominant eye (or increasing the mean luminance in the non-dominant eye) may be more beneficial than the traditional method of patching the dominant eye for treating amblyopia. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The

  8. Advances in embedded computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Kisacanin, Branislav

    2014-01-01

    This illuminating collection offers a fresh look at the very latest advances in the field of embedded computer vision. Emerging areas covered by this comprehensive text/reference include the embedded realization of 3D vision technologies for a variety of applications, such as stereo cameras on mobile devices. Recent trends towards the development of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with embedded image and video processing algorithms are also examined. The authoritative insights range from historical perspectives to future developments, reviewing embedded implementation, tools, technolog

  9. Christina Mosegaards barok-vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isar, Nicoletta

    2008-01-01

      Christina Mosegaards barok-vision: om folder, ansigter og stilhed Det mest fængslende ved Christinas billeder er ved første øjekast den slående kontrast mellem roen i hendes ikonagtige ansigter og den dramatiske drejende bevægelse i stoffolderne. Men er de nu så radikalt forskellige i deres nat...... under sløret. Hun forbliver tro mod sin særegne vision i ikonerne, som i deres hudvæv gentager det opal-agtige og iriserende i marmorfoldens årer....

  10. Postraumatic delayed loss of vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partington, C.R.; Graves, V.B.; Ruetenacht, D.A.; Weinstein, J.M.; Strother, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging studies and clinical findings in 10 patients who suffered delayed vision loss beginning 1 day to 13 years after head trauma have been reviewed. Two different primary lesions could be identified: pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery and carotid cavernous fistula. The pathologic changes associated with pseudoaneurysm included compression of the optic nerves and/or chiasm by arterial aneurysm and intracranial hematoma. Carotid cavernous fistula caused delayed vision loss by compression of the optic nerves and chiasm by saccular dilatation of the cavernous sinus and by abnormal orbital venous drainage with retinal venous stasis, retinal edema, and glaucoma

  11. Object recognition in images by human vision and computer vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Q.; Dijkstra, J.; Vries, de B.

    2010-01-01

    Object recognition plays a major role in human behaviour research in the built environment. Computer based object recognition techniques using images as input are challenging, but not an adequate representation of human vision. This paper reports on the differences in object shape recognition

  12. Stimulation of functional vision in children with perinatal brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimović, Sonja; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the most common causes of bilateral visual loss, which frequently occurs due to perinatal brain injury. Vision in early life has great impact on acquisition of basic comprehensions which are fundamental for further development. Therefore, early detection of visual problems and early intervention is necessary. The aim of the present study is to determine specific visual functioning of children with perinatal brain damage and the influence of visual stimulation on development of functional vision at early age of life. We initially assessed 30 children with perinatal brain damage up to 3 years of age, who were reffered to our pediatric low vision cabinet in "Little house" from child neurologists, ophthalmologists Type and degree of visual impairment was determined according to functional vision assessment of each child. On the bases of those assessments different kind of visual stimulations were carried out with children who have been identified to have a certain visual impairment. Through visual stimulation program some of the children were stimulated with light stimulus, some with different materials under the ultraviolet (UV) light, and some with bright color and high contrast materials. Children were also involved in program of early stimulation of overall sensory motor development. Goals and methods of therapy were determined individually, based on observation of child's possibilities and need. After one year of program, reassessment was done. Results for visual functions and functional vision were compared to evaluate the improvement of the vision development. These results have shown that there was significant improvement in functional vision, especially in visual attention and visual communication.

  13. Disseminated neurocysticercosis presenting as isolated acute monocular painless vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav M Kasundra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, the most common parasitic infection of the nervous system, is known to affect the brain, eyes, muscular tissues and subcutaneous tissues. However, it is very rare for patients with ocular cysts to have concomitant cerebral cysts. Also, the dominant clinical manifestation of patients with cerebral cysts is either seizures or headache. We report a patient who presented with acute monocular painless vision loss due to intraocular submacular cysticercosis, who on investigation had multiple cerebral parenchymal cysticercal cysts, but never had any seizures. Although such a vision loss after initiation of antiparasitic treatment has been mentioned previously, acute monocular vision loss as the presenting feature of ocular cysticercosis is rare. We present a brief review of literature along with this case report.

  14. Review: Familiarity to Vision Rehabilitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Sadegh-Pour

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the numbers of low vision patients who have been visited and treated in eye clinics, sometimes there is no exact treatment to increase their visual acuity. Therefore, the necessity to pay attention to vision rehabilitation for them is strongly felt. The aims of this essay are to define vision rehabilitation and its process in relevant centers (called Low Vision Clinic.The statistic of low vision people is reported and the method of collecting data is described. Standard definition, causes of low vision and related diseases (congenital, heredity, acquired… are explained. In addition, low vision aids and role of test and prescription are discussed. Sometimes ophthalmologists and optometrists can not exactly cure patient to raise their V.A because there is no treatment or drug or ordinary glasses. In these cases the clients should refer to low vision clinic and visit low vision specialist on vision rehabilitation process. After primary evaluation they are tested completely and at the end are prescribed proper low vision aid and also provided with advice in relation to career, education role and training techniques especially in children. At the last part of present dissertation, some examples are provided to show effectiveness of vision rehabilitation and low vision aid among the clients in different countries.

  15. Visual memory for objects following foveal vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringswald, Franziska; Herbik, Anne; Hofmüller, Wolfram; Hoffmann, Michael B; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Allocation of visual attention is crucial for encoding items into visual long-term memory. In free vision, attention is closely linked to the center of gaze, raising the question whether foveal vision loss entails suboptimal deployment of attention and subsequent impairment of object encoding. To investigate this question, we examined visual long-term memory for objects in patients suffering from foveal vision loss due to age-related macular degeneration. We measured patients' change detection sensitivity after a period of free scene exploration monocularly with their worse eye when possible, and under binocular vision, comparing sensitivity and eye movements to matched normal-sighted controls. A highly salient cue was used to capture attention to a nontarget location before a target change occurred in half of the trials, ensuring that change detection relied on memory. Patients' monocular and binocular sensitivity to object change was comparable to controls, even after more than 4 intervening fixations, and not significantly correlated with visual impairment. We conclude that extrafoveal vision suffices for efficient encoding into visual long-term memory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Visions of Vision: An Exploratory Study of the Role College and University Presidents Play in Developing Institutional Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWade, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research explores how college and university presidents engage in the process of developing formal institutional vision. The inquiry identifies roles presidents play in vision development, which is often undertaken as part of strategic-planning initiatives. Two constructs of leadership and institutional vision are used to examine…

  17. Return of the Vision Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the role of corporate vision videos as a possible setting for participation when exploring the future potentials (and pitfalls) of new technological concepts. We propose that through the recent decade’s rise web 2.0 platforms, and the viral effects of user sharing, the corpora...

  18. Assessing Functional Vision Using Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Simon; Ross, Malcolm

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a software system which uses microcomputers to aid in the assessment of functional vision in visually impaired students. The software also aims to be visually stimulating and to develop hand-eye coordination, visual memory, and cognitive abilities. (DB)

  19. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused

  20. Faculty Perceptions of Strategic Visioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Laurence R.; Smith, Richard

    This report presents an examination of the use of a participative model in the strategic planning process at a publicly-supported, comprehensive institution in the middle Atlantic region of the United States. Specific attention is given to the process of developing the vision statement, an undertaking of approximately 15 months preceding Board of…

  1. Smart vision chips: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christof

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents four working analog VLSI vision chips: (1) time-derivative retina, (2) zero-crossing chip, (3) resistive fuse, and (4) figure-ground chip; work in progress on computing motion and neuromorphic systems; and conceptual and practical lessons learned.

  2. Real-time vision systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  3. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  4. Vision - Gateway to the brain

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Is the brain the result of (evolutionary) tinkering, or is it governed by natural law? How can we objectively know? What is the nature of consciousness? Vision research is spear-heading the quest and is making rapid progress with the help of new experimental, computational and theoretical tools. At the same time it is about to lead to important technical applications.

  5. Tunnel Vision in Environmental Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problem-solving styles in environmental management and the specific deficiencies in these styles that might be grouped under the label "tunnel vision," a form of selective attention contributing to inadequate problem-formulation, partial solutions to complex problems, and generation of additional problems. Includes educational…

  6. Machine Learning for Robotic Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Machine learning is a crucial enabling technology for robotics, in particular for unlocking the capabilities afforded by visual sensing. This talk will present research within Prof Drummond’s lab that explores how machine learning can be developed and used within the context of Robotic Vision.

  7. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  8. Neuromathematics of vision

    CERN Document Server

    Sarti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book is devoted to the study of the functional architecture of the visual cortex. Its geometrical structure is the differential geometry of the connectivity between neural cells. This connectivity is building and  shaping the hidden brain structures underlying visual perception. The story of the problem runs over the last 30 years, since the discovery of Hubel and Wiesel of the modular structure of the primary visual cortex, and slowly cams towards a theoretical understanding of the experimental data on what we now know as functional architecture of the primary visual cortex. Experimental data comes from several domains:  neurophysiology, phenomenology of perception and neurocognitive imaging. Imaging techniques like functional MRI and diffusion tensor MRI allow to deepen the study of cortical structures.  Due to this variety of experimental data, neuromathematematics deals with modelling  both cortical structures and perceptual spaces. From the mathematical point of view, neuromathematical call for ...

  9. Computer vision and machine learning for archaeology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Boon, P.; Lange, G.; Paijmans, J.J.; Postma, E.

    2006-01-01

    Until now, computer vision and machine learning techniques barely contributed to the archaeological domain. The use of these techniques can support archaeologists in their assessment and classification of archaeological finds. The paper illustrates the use of computer vision techniques for

  10. Cities and Climate - What Visions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haentjens, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Given the difficulty of achieving a global agreement to cope with the challenges of climate change or even a national resilience programme, an increasing number of initiatives are coming up from the local level for preemptively implementing policies to adapt to climate change or combat it. There are several towns and cities across the world that have taken this line (Copenhagen, Totnes, Vaexjoe, Bristol, etc.) but, as Jean Haentjens shows here, an effective response to climate change requires the development of a genuine strategic vision capable of mobilizing all the actors concerned. For the moment, the towns and cities that have managed to come up with such a vision are few and far between. After a -largely historical- review of the importance of vision in changes of urban paradigm, Jean Haentjens stresses how much twenty-first century eco-urbanism broadens the range of possible solutions to the many issues facing our towns and cities today. But, though digital innovations in fact offer new opportunities at the local level, we should nonetheless be wary of 'technological solutionism': the new technologies are tools which towns and cities can use to their advantage, but to become really 'smart' they have to develop a vision. After presenting a series of established or emerging urban models (the frugal city, the creative city, the leisure city and the eco-metropolis), along with the values and imaginative conceptions that underpin them, this article shows - without being unaware of the potential obstacles - how a town or city can produce and renew its strategic vision to reinvent itself and meet the challenges of today

  11. Vision research with functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakadomari, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    Present state of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is based on changes of MR signals produced by blood circulation changes due to the nerve activity, in vision research was reviewed. In this field, there are international associations of Human Brain Mapping and for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) and reports presented in ARVO in 1998 and 1999 were firstly described. Next, the comparison between two conditions was defined as the experimental paradigm of fMRI and analyses with the event related fMRI and with classification into visual central regions were explained. Major findings obtained by stimulation of visual central regions were discussed on the lateral corpus geniculatum, areas of V1, V2, V3 (VP), V3A, V4A (V8), V5 and LO (lateral occipital complex), and others. In practice of actual fMRI, the noise is often attributable to the examinee factor and notification for speculating the result is important. The value of fMRI in the clinical ophthalmological diagnosis was discussed and thought to be further investigated. (K.H.)

  12. A vision of graded hemispheric specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the process by which the cerebral hemispheres reach their mature functional organization remains challenging. We propose a theoretical account in which, in the domain of vision, faces and words come to be represented adjacent to retinotopic cortex by virtue of the need to discriminate among homogeneous exemplars. Orthographic representations are further constrained to be proximal to typically left-lateralized language-related information to minimize connectivity length between visual and language areas. As reading is acquired, orthography comes to rely more heavily (albeit not exclusively) on the left fusiform region to bridge vision and language. Consequently, due to competition from emerging word representations, face representations that were initially bilateral become lateralized to the right fusiform region (albeit, again, not exclusively). We review recent research that describes constraints that give rise to this graded hemispheric arrangement. We then summarize empirical evidence from a variety of studies (behavioral, evoked response potential, functional imaging) across different populations (children, adolescents, and adults; left handers and individuals with developmental dyslexia) that supports the claims that hemispheric lateralization is graded rather than binary and that this graded organization emerges dynamically over the course of development. Perturbations of this system either during development or in adulthood provide further insights into the principles governing hemispheric organization. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Making a vision document tangible using "vision-tactics-metrics" tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Ivo; Slomski, Carol

    2006-01-01

    We describe a method of making a vision document tangible by attaching specific tactics and metrics to the key elements of the vision. We report on the development and early use of a "vision-tactics-metrics" table in a department of surgery. Use of the table centered the vision in the daily life of the department and its faculty, and facilitated cultural change.

  14. School Vision of Learning: Urban Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Tiffany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author develops her school vision of learning. She explains the theories she used to help develop the vision. The author then goes into detail on the methods she will use to make her vision for a school that prepares urban students for a successful life after high school. She takes into account all the stakeholders and how they…

  15. The Vision Thing in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, George

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that while the concept of "vision" in higher education has been met with disdain, criticism is based on misconceptions of vision's nature and role--that vision requires a charismatic administrator and that visionaries are dreamers. Educators and planners are urged to use imaginative thinking to connect the institution's and staff's…

  16. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  17. The cost of vision loss in Canada. 2. Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Alan F; Gordon, Keith D; Bellan, Lorne; Mitchell, Scott; Pezzullo, M Lynne

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to provide the financial underpinnings necessary for effective planning for the provision of eye health services in Canada. Canada is facing an aging demographic and all the major eye diseases are diseases associated with aging. It is essential that we have information based on the best available data to support national and provincial vision health plans. The design associated with the prevalence-based approach used in this study was outlined previously in detail in The Cost of Vision Loss in Canada: Methodology. The methods associated with the prevalence-based approach used in this study were previously outlined in detail in The Cost of Vision Loss in Canada: Methodology. The financial cost of VL in Canada in 2007 was estimated to be $15.8 billion per annum: $8.6 billion (54.6%) represents direct health system expenditure; $4.4 billion (28.0%) was productivity lost due to lower employment, higher absenteeism, and premature death of Canadians with VL; $1.8 billion (11.1%) was the dead weight losses (DWL) from transfers including welfare payments and taxation forgone; $0.7 billion (4.4%) was the value of the care for people with VL; $305 million (1.9%) was other indirect costs such as aids and home modifications and the bring forward of funeral costs. Additionally, the value of the lost well-being (disability and premature death) was estimated at a further $11.7 billion. In per capita terms, this amounts to a financial cost of $19370 per person with VL per annum. Including the value of lost well-being, the cost is $33704 per person per annum. There is a growing awareness in Canada and around the world of the impact of VL on health costs and on the economy in general. This awareness is supported by the growing number of independent studies on the cost of vision loss both nationally and globally. Because most of these studies are limited by the minimal amount of available data, the overall cost of vision loss is likely underestimated

  18. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple...... sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique...... of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes...

  19. Blurring of the vessels of the interhemispheric fissure in multislice CT angiography: a sign of meningeal carcinomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl-Wagner, Birgit B.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten; Herrmann, Karin; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Bruening, Roland; Dichgans, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Meningeal carcinomatosis remains a challenging diagnosis to make, with both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and radiological methods having a limited sensitivity. We aimed at describing a possible diagnostic sign of multislice CT angiography (MS-CTA) in the diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis. Upon retrospective analysis of MSCT angiographies of the brain, a conspicuous sign of the vessels of the interhemispheric fissure was noted in five patients. Cranial MSCT angiographies were performed with a standardized protocol (120 kV, 200 mA s, collimation of 4 x 1 mm, table feed per rotation 4 mm). We injected 120 ml of nonionic contrast medium as a bolus, and data acquisition was started after a fixed delay of 35 s. In order to elucidate the finding, correlation with clinical follow-up and/or CSF findings was performed for all patients. In five patients there was a blurring, an increased number, and a pathologic configuration of the vessels of the interhemispheric fissure. All five patients with this sign had clinical signs and symptoms of meningeal carcinomatosis. Three patients had positive CSF cytology, one further patient had follow-up spinal MRI 6 weeks later demonstrating meningeal carcinomatosis. One patient declined lumbar puncture. MS-CTA has the capacity to demonstrate a pathologic configuration of the vessels of the interhemispheric fissure in patients with meningeal carcinomatosis. This sign may serve as an indicator of meningeal carcinomatosis and should raise the suspicion of this disease entity. (orig.)

  20. Spherical blurred shape model for 3-D object and pose recognition: quantitative analysis and HCI applications in smart environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Oscar; Reyes, Miguel; Escalera, Sergio; Gonzàlez, Jordi

    2014-12-01

    The use of depth maps is of increasing interest after the advent of cheap multisensor devices based on structured light, such as Kinect. In this context, there is a strong need of powerful 3-D shape descriptors able to generate rich object representations. Although several 3-D descriptors have been already proposed in the literature, the research of discriminative and computationally efficient descriptors is still an open issue. In this paper, we propose a novel point cloud descriptor called spherical blurred shape model (SBSM) that successfully encodes the structure density and local variabilities of an object based on shape voxel distances and a neighborhood propagation strategy. The proposed SBSM is proven to be rotation and scale invariant, robust to noise and occlusions, highly discriminative for multiple categories of complex objects like the human hand, and computationally efficient since the SBSM complexity is linear to the number of object voxels. Experimental evaluation in public depth multiclass object data, 3-D facial expressions data, and a novel hand poses data sets show significant performance improvements in relation to state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposal is also proved for object spotting in 3-D scenes and for real-time automatic hand pose recognition in human computer interaction scenarios.

  1. Causes of vision impairment and assessment of need for low vision services for students of blind schools in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansakar, I; Thapa, H B; Salma, K C; Ganguly, S; Kandel, R P; Rajasekaran, S

    The present study is first of its kind to evaluate causes of visual impairment of blind students in Nepal and assess their need for low vision rehabilitation services. To evaluate causes of vision impairment of students enrolled in blind schools in Nepal and assess the need for low vision rehabilitation services in these students. A survey was conducted in 12 blind schools in Nepal, which were registered with Nepal Association for Welfare of Blindness (NAWB).It was conducted by a team of an ophthalmologist and an optometrist, by using standard eye examination protocols of the World Health Organization Prevention of Blindness Program (WHO/PBL). Of the 345 students enrolled in 12 schools, 285 students were examined (response rate of 82.61%). The students were in the 5 - 29 years age group. Nearly three-fourth of the children had become blind within one year of age and 52.3% visually impaired at birth and 20.7% developed vision impairment within one year of age. After refraction, 26 students (9.12%) had mild visual impairment, 21 students (7.37%) had severe visual impairment and 238 students (83.51%) were blind. The main cause of vision impairment was found to be corneal 35.79% and retina diseases, mainly dystrophy, 20.35% followed by problems with the whole globe, lens and optic nerve, accounting for 13.33%, 12.63% and 12.98% respectively. The major etiological factors were those of childhood such as Vitamin A deficiency, measles and similar causes (42.11%) followed by hereditary causes (25.26%). Of the total students examined, 48.07% were visually impaired due to preventable causes and 16.14% treatable aggregating to 64.21% of avoidable blindness. Fifty seven (28.22%) students could read smaller than 2 M print size after low vision assessment for near and 33(15.78%) students benefited with telescopic trial for distance low vision. In Nepal, renewed focus on providing best possible quality of life for visually impaired children by proper low vision assessment and eye

  2. VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Jeffers, Robert F.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Piet, Steven J.; Baker, Benjamin A.; Grimm, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R and D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating 'what if' scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., 'reactor types' not individual reactors and 'separation types' not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft

  3. New development in robot vision

    CERN Document Server

    Behal, Aman; Chung, Chi-Kit

    2015-01-01

    The field of robotic vision has advanced dramatically recently with the development of new range sensors.  Tremendous progress has been made resulting in significant impact on areas such as robotic navigation, scene/environment understanding, and visual learning. This edited book provides a solid and diversified reference source for some of the most recent important advancements in the field of robotic vision. The book starts with articles that describe new techniques to understand scenes from 2D/3D data such as estimation of planar structures, recognition of multiple objects in the scene using different kinds of features as well as their spatial and semantic relationships, generation of 3D object models, approach to recognize partially occluded objects, etc. Novel techniques are introduced to improve 3D perception accuracy with other sensors such as a gyroscope, positioning accuracy with a visual servoing based alignment strategy for microassembly, and increasing object recognition reliability using related...

  4. Trends and developments in industrial machine vision: 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niel, Kurt; Heinzl, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    When following current advancements and implementations in the field of machine vision there seems to be no borders for future developments: Calculating power constantly increases, and new ideas are spreading and previously challenging approaches are introduced in to mass market. Within the past decades these advances have had dramatic impacts on our lives. Consumer electronics, e.g. computers or telephones, which once occupied large volumes, now fit in the palm of a hand. To note just a few examples e.g. face recognition was adopted by the consumer market, 3D capturing became cheap, due to the huge community SW-coding got easier using sophisticated development platforms. However, still there is a remaining gap between consumer and industrial applications. While the first ones have to be entertaining, the second have to be reliable. Recent studies (e.g. VDMA [1], Germany) show a moderately increasing market for machine vision in industry. Asking industry regarding their needs the main challenges for industrial machine vision are simple usage and reliability for the process, quick support, full automation, self/easy adjustment at changing process parameters, "forget it in the line". Furthermore a big challenge is to support quality control: Nowadays the operator has to accurately define the tested features for checking the probes. There is an upcoming development also to let automated machine vision applications find out essential parameters in a more abstract level (top down). In this work we focus on three current and future topics for industrial machine vision: Metrology supporting automation, quality control (inline/atline/offline) as well as visualization and analysis of datasets with steadily growing sizes. Finally the general trend of the pixel orientated towards object orientated evaluation is addressed. We do not directly address the field of robotics taking advances from machine vision. This is actually a fast changing area which is worth an own

  5. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  6. Machine vision theory, algorithms, practicalities

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E R

    2005-01-01

    In the last 40 years, machine vision has evolved into a mature field embracing a wide range of applications including surveillance, automated inspection, robot assembly, vehicle guidance, traffic monitoring and control, signature verification, biometric measurement, and analysis of remotely sensed images. While researchers and industry specialists continue to document their work in this area, it has become increasingly difficult for professionals and graduate students to understand the essential theory and practicalities well enough to design their own algorithms and systems. This book directl

  7. Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square . Cambridge, MA 02139 C\\ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO0 ADDRESS...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A.I.Memo No. 1037 April, 1988 Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision Joachim Heel Abstract: In this... Artificial Intelligence L3 Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the Laboratory’s [1 Artificial Intelligence Research is

  8. A Vision for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Moloney, David; Deniz, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    For the past 40 years, computer scientists and engineers have been building technology that has allowed machine vision to be used in high value applications from factory automation to Mars rovers. However, until now the availability of computational power has limited the application of these technologies to niches with a strong enough need to overcome the cost and power hurdles. This is changing rapidly as the computational means have now become available to bring computer visi...

  9. A vision for photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Perezagua, E. [Isofoton, Madrid (Spain); Demarcq, F.; Bal, J.L. [ADEME, Paris (France); Alferov, Z.I.; Andreev, V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); De Segundo, K. [Shell International Renewables, London (United Kingdom); Dimmler, B. [Wuerth Solar GMBH und Co.KG, Marbach am Neckar (Germany); Goetzberger, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Itoiz Beunza, C. [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Lojkowski, W. [High Pressure Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland); Nowak, S. [NET Nowak nergy and Technology Ltd, St. Ursen (Switzerland); Vleuten, P. van der [Free Energy International, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van Zolingen, R.J.C. [Shell Solar, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-02-01

    The report identifies the major technical and non-technical barriers to the uptake of the technology and outlines a strategic research agenda designed to ensure a breakthrough of PV (photovoltaics) and an increase in deployment in the Union and worldwide. The Council proposes the use of a European Technology Platform as a mechanism to implement the strategy and achieve the wider goals defined in the vision.

  10. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  11. Computer vision in control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2015-01-01

    Volume 1 : This book is focused on the recent advances in computer vision methodologies and technical solutions using conventional and intelligent paradigms. The Contributions include: ·         Morphological Image Analysis for Computer Vision Applications. ·         Methods for Detecting of Structural Changes in Computer Vision Systems. ·         Hierarchical Adaptive KL-based Transform: Algorithms and Applications. ·         Automatic Estimation for Parameters of Image Projective Transforms Based on Object-invariant Cores. ·         A Way of Energy Analysis for Image and Video Sequence Processing. ·         Optimal Measurement of Visual Motion Across Spatial and Temporal Scales. ·         Scene Analysis Using Morphological Mathematics and Fuzzy Logic. ·         Digital Video Stabilization in Static and Dynamic Scenes. ·         Implementation of Hadamard Matrices for Image Processing. ·         A Generalized Criterion ...

  12. Riemannian computing in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive treatise on Riemannian geometric computations and related statistical inferences in several computer vision problems. This edited volume includes chapter contributions from leading figures in the field of computer vision who are applying Riemannian geometric approaches in problems such as face recognition, activity recognition, object detection, biomedical image analysis, and structure-from-motion. Some of the mathematical entities that necessitate a geometric analysis include rotation matrices (e.g. in modeling camera motion), stick figures (e.g. for activity recognition), subspace comparisons (e.g. in face recognition), symmetric positive-definite matrices (e.g. in diffusion tensor imaging), and function-spaces (e.g. in studying shapes of closed contours).   ·         Illustrates Riemannian computing theory on applications in computer vision, machine learning, and robotics ·         Emphasis on algorithmic advances that will allow re-application in other...

  13. AN INVESTIGATION OF VISION PROBLEMS AND THE VISION CARE SYSTEM IN RURAL CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yunli; Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Ma, Xiaochen; Congdon, Nathan; Zhou, Zhongqiang; Boswell, Matthew; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the prevalence of vision problems and the accessibility to and quality of vision care in rural China. We obtained data from 4 sources: 1) the National Rural Vision Care Survey; 2) the Private Optometrists Survey; 3) the County Hospital Eye Care Survey; and 4) the Rural School Vision Care Survey. The data from each of the surveys were collected by the authors during 2012. Thirty-three percent of the rural population surveyed self-reported vision problems. Twenty-two percent of subjects surveyed had ever had a vision exam. Among those who self-reported having vision problems, 34% did not wear eyeglasses. Fifty-four percent of those with vision problems who had eyeglasses did not have a vision exam prior to receiving glasses. However, having a vision exam did not always guarantee access to quality vision care. Four channels of vision care service were assessed. The school vision examination program did not increase the usage rate of eyeglasses. Each county-hospital was staffed with three eye-doctors having one year of education beyond high school, serving more than 400,000 residents. Private optometrists often had low levels of education and professional certification. In conclusion, our findings shows that the vision care system in rural China is inadequate and ineffective in meeting the needs of the rural population sampled.

  14. Real-time high-speed motion blur compensation system based on back-and-forth motion control of galvanometer mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Takanoshin; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2015-12-14

    We developed a novel real-time motion blur compensation system for the blur caused by high-speed one-dimensional motion between a camera and a target. The system consists of a galvanometer mirror and a high-speed color camera, without the need for any additional sensors. We controlled the galvanometer mirror with continuous back-and-forth oscillating motion synchronized to a high-speed camera. The angular speed of the mirror is given in real time within 10 ms based on the concept of background tracking and rapid raw Bayer block matching. Experiments demonstrated that our system captures motion-invariant images of objects moving at speeds up to 30 km/h.

  15. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  16. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  17. An alternative approach to depth of field which avoids the blur circle and uses the pixel pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Modern thermal imaging systems apply more and more uncooled detectors. High volume applications work with detectors which have a reduced pixel count (typical between 200x150 and 640x480). This shrinks the application of modern image treatment procedures like wave front coding. On the other hand side, uncooled detectors demand lenses with fast F-numbers near 1.0. Which are the limits on resolution if the target to analyze changes its distance to the camera system? The aim to implement lens arrangements without any focusing mechanism demands a deeper quantification of the Depth of Field problem. The proposed Depth of Field approach avoids the classic "accepted image blur circle". It bases on a camera specific depth of focus which is transformed in the object space by paraxial relations. The traditional RAYLEIGH's -criterion bases on the unaberrated Point Spread Function and delivers a first order relation for the depth of focus. Hence, neither the actual lens resolution neither the detector impact is considered. The camera specific depth of focus respects a lot of camera properties: Lens aberrations at actual F-number, detector size and pixel pitch. The through focus MTF is the base of the camera specific depth of focus. It has a nearly symmetric course around the maximum of sharp imaging. The through focus MTF is considered at detector's Nyquist frequency. The camera specific depth of focus is this the axial distance in front and behind of sharp image plane where the through focus MTF is pitch (detector). The DLTF- discussion provides physical limits and technical requirements. The detector development with pixel pitches smaller than captured wavelength in the LWIR-region generates a special challenge for optical design.

  18. Validation of the blurring of a small object on CT images calculated on the basis of three-dimensional spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Masaki; Wada, Shinichi; Saito, Masatoshi

    2005-01-01

    We determine three-dimensional (3D) blurring of a small object on computed tomography (CT) images calculated on the basis of 3D spatial resolution. The images were characterized by point spread function (PSF), line spread function (LSF) and slice sensitivity profile (SSP). In advance, we systematically arranged expressions in the model for the imaging system to calculate 3D images under various conditions of spatial resolution. As a small object, we made a blood vessel phantom in which the direction of the vessel was not parallel to either the xy scan-plane or the z-axis perpendicular to the scan-plane. Therefore, when scanning the phantom, non-sharpness must be induced in all axes of the image. To predict the image blurring of the phantom, 3D spatial resolution is essential. The LSF and SSP were measured on our scanner, and two-dimensional (2D) PSF in the scan-plane was derived from the LSF by solving an integral equation. We obtained 3D images by convolving the 3D object-function of the phantom with both 2D PSF and SSP, corresponding to the 3D convolution. Calculated images showed good agreement with scanned images. Our technique of determining 3D blurring offers an accuracy advantage in 3D shape (size) and density measurements of small objects. (author)

  19. Molecular patterns of X chromosome-linked color vision genes among 134 menof European ancestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond-Borg, M.; Deeb, S.S.; Motulsky, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors used Southern blot hybridization to study X chromosome-linked color vision genes encoding the apoproteins of red and green visual pigments in 134 unselected Caucasian men. One hundred and thirteen individuals (84.3%) had a normal arrangement of their color vision pigment genes. All had one red pigment gene; the number of green pigment genes ranged from one to five with a mode of two. The frequency of molecular genotypes indicative of normal color vision (84.3%) was significantly lower than had been observed in previous studies of color vision phenotypes. Color vision defects can be due to deletions of red or green pigment genes or due to formation of hybrid genes comprising portions of both red and green pigment genes. Characteristic anomalous patterns were seen in 15 (11.2%) individuals: 7 (5.2%) had patterns characteristic of deuteranomaly, 2 (1.5%) had patterns characteristic of deuteranopia, and 6 (4.5%) had protan patterns. Previously undescribed hybrid gene patterns consisting of both green and red pigment gene fragments in addition to normal red and green genes were observed in another 6 individuals (4.5%). Thus, DNA testing detected anomalous color vision pigment genes at a higher frequency than expected from phenotypic color vision tests

  20. Stimulation of Functional Vision in Children with Perinatal Brain Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Alimović, Sonja; Mejaški-Bošnjak, Vlatka

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the most common causes of bilateral visual loss, which frequently occurs due to perinatal brain injury. Vision in early life has great impact on acquisition of basic comprehensions which are fundamental for further development. Therefore, early detection of visual problems and early intervention is necessary. The aim of the present study is to determine specific visual functioning of children with perinatal brain damage and the influence of visual st...

  1. Applying a manufacturing vision development prototype in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Luxhøj, James T.; Johansen, John

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to summarise the empirical application of a designed case-based manufacturing vision (MV) development prototype (CBRM). This empirical application is undertaken using case study strategy, due to its ability to answer the research questions regarding...... enterprise. The three real world cases (companies) were selected in the USA within different industrial segments. The application results suggest that the CBRM is supportive of the decision-making process for tackling strategic manufacturing issues....

  2. Lifestyle Journalism: Blurring boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle journalism has experienced enormous growth in the media over the past two decades, but scholars in the fields of journalism and communication studies have so far paid relatively little attention to a field that is still sometimes seen as "not real journalism". There is now an urgent need...... for in-depth exploration and contextualisation of this field, with its increasing relevance for 21st century consumer cultures. For the first time, this book presents a wide range of studies which have engaged with the field of lifestyle journalism in order to outline the various political, economic...... of sub-fields such as travel, music, food, health, fashion and personal technology journalism. This volume provides a fascinating account of the different facets of lifestyle journalism, and charts the way forward for a more sustained analysis of the field. This book was originally published as a special...

  3. Investigation into the use of smartphone as a machine vision device for engineering metrology and flaw detection, with focus on drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Vikram; Bateman, Richard

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the use of a Smartphone and its camera vision capabilities in Engineering metrology and flaw detection, with a view to develop a low cost alternative to Machine vision systems which are out of range for small scale manufacturers. A Smartphone has to provide a similar level of accuracy as Machine Vision devices like Smart cameras. The objective set out was to develop an App on an Android Smartphone, incorporating advanced Computer vision algorithms written in java code. The App could then be used for recording measurements of Twist Drill bits and hole geometry, and analysing the results for accuracy. A detailed literature review was carried out for in-depth study of Machine vision systems and their capabilities, including a comparison between the HTC One X Android Smartphone and the Teledyne Dalsa BOA Smart camera. A review of the existing metrology Apps in the market was also undertaken. In addition, the drilling operation was evaluated to establish key measurement parameters of a twist Drill bit, especially flank wear and diameter. The methodology covers software development of the Android App, including the use of image processing algorithms like Gaussian Blur, Sobel and Canny available from OpenCV software library, as well as designing and developing the experimental set-up for carrying out the measurements. The results obtained from the experimental set-up were analysed for geometry of Twist Drill bits and holes, including diametrical measurements and flaw detection. The results show that Smartphones like the HTC One X have the processing power and the camera capability to carry out metrological tasks, although dimensional accuracy achievable from the Smartphone App is below the level provided by Machine vision devices like Smart cameras. A Smartphone with mechanical attachments, capable of image processing and having a reasonable level of accuracy in dimensional measurement, has the potential to become a handy low-cost Machine vision

  4. Review On Applications Of Neural Network To Computer Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.

    1989-03-01

    Neural network models have many potential applications to computer vision due to their parallel structures, learnability, implicit representation of domain knowledge, fault tolerance, and ability of handling statistical data. This paper demonstrates the basic principles, typical models and their applications in this field. Variety of neural models, such as associative memory, multilayer back-propagation perceptron, self-stabilized adaptive resonance network, hierarchical structured neocognitron, high order correlator, network with gating control and other models, can be applied to visual signal recognition, reinforcement, recall, stereo vision, motion, object tracking and other vision processes. Most of the algorithms have been simulated on com-puters. Some have been implemented with special hardware. Some systems use features, such as edges and profiles, of images as the data form for input. Other systems use raw data as input signals to the networks. We will present some novel ideas contained in these approaches and provide a comparison of these methods. Some unsolved problems are mentioned, such as extracting the intrinsic properties of the input information, integrating those low level functions to a high-level cognitive system, achieving invariances and other problems. Perspectives of applications of some human vision models and neural network models are analyzed.

  5. Retinal dopamine mediates multiple dimensions of light-adapted vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chad R; Ruan, Guo-Xiang; Aseem, Fazila; Abey, Jane; Gamble, Karen; Stanwood, Greg; Palmiter, Richard D; Iuvone, P Michael; McMahon, Douglas G

    2012-07-04

    Dopamine is a key neuromodulator in the retina and brain that supports motor, cognitive, and visual function. Here, we developed a mouse model on a C57 background in which expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase, is specifically disrupted in the retina. This model enabled assessment of the overall role of retinal dopamine in vision using electrophysiological (electroretinogram), psychophysical (optokinetic tracking), and pharmacological techniques. Significant disruptions were observed in high-resolution, light-adapted vision caused by specific deficits in light responses, contrast sensitivity, acuity, and circadian rhythms in this retinal dopamine-depleted mouse model. These global effects of retinal dopamine on vision are driven by the differential actions of dopamine D1 and D4 receptors on specific retinal functions and appear to be due to the ongoing bioavailability of dopamine rather than developmental effects. Together, our data indicate that dopamine is necessary for the circadian nature of light-adapted vision as well as optimal contrast detection and acuity.

  6. 'Everest' Panorama; 20-20 Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 'Everest' Panorama 20-20 Vision (QTVR) [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 'Everest' Panorama Animation If a human with perfect vision donned a spacesuit and stepped onto the martian surface, the view would be as clear as this sweeping panorama taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. That's because the rover's panoramic camera has the equivalent of 20-20 vision. Earthlings can take a virtual tour of the scenery by zooming in on their computer screens many times to get a closer look at, say, a rock outcrop or a sand drift, without losing any detail. This level of clarity is unequaled in the history of Mars exploration. It took Spirit three days, sols 620 to 622 (Oct. 1 to Oct. 3, 2005), to acquire all the images combined into this mosaic, called the 'Everest Panorama,' looking outward in every direction from the true summit of 'Husband Hill.' During that period, the sky changed in color and brightness due to atmospheric dust variations, as shown in contrasting sections of this mosaic. Haze occasionally obscured the view of the hills on the distant rim of Gusev Crater 80 kilometers (50 miles) away. As dust devils swooped across the horizon in the upper right portion of the panorama, the robotic explorer changed the filters on the camera from red to green to blue, making the dust devils appear red, green, and blue. In reality, the dust devils are similar in color to the reddish-brown soils of Mars. No attempt was made to 'smooth' the sky in this mosaic, as has been done in other panoramic-camera mosaics to simulate the view one would get by taking in the landscape all at once. The result is a sweeping vista that allows viewers to observe weather changes on Mars. The summit of Husband Hill is a broad plateau of rock outcrops and windblown drifts about 100 meters (300 feet) higher than the surrounding plains of Gusev Crater. In the distance, near the center of the mosaic, is the 'South Basin,' the

  7. Evidence Based Medicine in Space Flight: Evaluation of Inflight Vision Data for Operational Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Mason, Sara; Foy, Millennia; Wear, Mary; Taiym, Wafa; Moynihan, Shannan; Alexander, David; Hart, Steve; Tarver, William

    2015-01-01

    Due to recently identified vision changes associated with space flight, JSC Space and Clinical Operations (SCO) implemented broad mission-related vision testing starting in 2009. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), 3 Tesla Brain and Orbit MRIs, Optical Biometry were implemented terrestrially for clinical monitoring. While no inflight vision testing was in place, already available onorbit technology was leveraged to facilitate in-flight clinical monitoring, including visual acuity, Amsler grid, tonometry, and ultrasonography. In 2013, on-orbit testing capabilities were expanded to include contrast sensitivity testing and OCT. As these additional testing capabilities have been added, resource prioritization, particularly crew time, is under evaluation.

  8. Vision in avian emberizid foragers: maximizing both binocular vision and fronto-lateral visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Bret A; Pita, Diana; Tyrrell, Luke P; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Avian species vary in their visual system configuration, but previous studies have often compared single visual traits between two to three distantly related species. However, birds use different visual dimensions that cannot be maximized simultaneously to meet different perceptual demands, potentially leading to trade-offs between visual traits. We studied the degree of inter-specific variation in multiple visual traits related to foraging and anti-predator behaviors in nine species of closely related emberizid sparrows, controlling for phylogenetic effects. Emberizid sparrows maximize binocular vision, even seeing their bill tips in some eye positions, which may enhance the detection of prey and facilitate food handling. Sparrows have a single retinal center of acute vision (i.e. fovea) projecting fronto-laterally (but not into the binocular field). The foveal projection close to the edge of the binocular field may shorten the time to gather and process both monocular and binocular visual information from the foraging substrate. Contrary to previous work, we found that species with larger visual fields had higher visual acuity, which may compensate for larger blind spots (i.e. pectens) above the center of acute vision, enhancing predator detection. Finally, species with a steeper change in ganglion cell density across the retina had higher eye movement amplitude, probably due to a more pronounced reduction in visual resolution away from the fovea, which would need to be moved around more frequently. The visual configuration of emberizid passive prey foragers is substantially different from that of previously studied avian groups (e.g. sit-and-wait and tactile foragers). © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcer, Laura J.; Miller, David H.; Reingold, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  10. Computer vision syndrome and associated factors among medical and engineering students in chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logaraj, M; Madhupriya, V; Hegde, Sk

    2014-03-01

    Almost all institutions, colleges, universities and homes today were using computer regularly. Very little research has been carried out on Indian users especially among college students the effects of computer use on the eye and vision related problems. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) among medical and engineering students and the factors associated with the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical and engineering college students of a University situated in the suburban area of Chennai. Students who used computer in the month preceding the date of study were included in the study. The participants were surveyed using pre-tested structured questionnaire. Among engineering students, the prevalence of CVS was found to be 81.9% (176/215) while among medical students; it was found to be 78.6% (158/201). A significantly higher proportion of engineering students 40.9% (88/215) used computers for 4-6 h/day as compared to medical students 10% (20/201) (P medical students. Students who used computer for 4-6 h were at significantly higher risk of developing redness (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-3.1,P = 0.04), burning sensation (OR = 2.1,95% CI = 1.3-3.1, P computer for less than 4 h. Significant correlation was found between increased hours of computer use and the symptoms redness, burning sensation, blurred vision and dry eyes. The present study revealed that more than three-fourth of the students complained of any one of the symptoms of CVS while working on the computer.

  11. Trial frame refraction versus autorefraction among new patients in a low-vision clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Dawn K; McGwin, Gerald; Searcey, Karen; Gao, Liyan; Snow, Marsha; Waterbor, John; Owsley, Cynthia

    2013-01-02

    To determine the relationship between refractive error as measured by autorefraction and that measured by trial frame refraction among a sample of adults with vision impairment seen in a university-based low-vision clinic and to determine if autorefraction might be a suitable replacement for trial frame refraction. A retrospective chart review of all new patients 19 years or older seen over an 18-month period was conducted and the following data collected: age, sex, primary ocular diagnosis, entering distance visual acuity, habitual correction, trial frame refraction, autorefraction, and distance visual acuity measured after trial frame refraction. Trial frame refraction and autorefraction were compared using paired t-tests, intraclass correlations, and Bland-Altman plots. Final analyses included 440 patients for whom both trial frame refraction and autorefraction data were available for the better eye. Participants were mostly female (59%) with a mean age of 68 years (SD = 20). Age-related macular degeneration was the most common etiology for vision impairment (44%). Values for autorefraction and trial frame refraction were statistically different, but highly correlated for the spherical equivalent power (r = 0.92), the cylinder power (r = 0.80) and overall blurring strength (0.89). Although the values of the cross-cylinders J(0) and J(45) were similar, they were poorly correlated (0.08 and 0.15, respectively). The range of differences in spherical equivalent power was large (-8.6 to 4.9). Autorefraction is highly correlated with trial frame refraction. Differences are sometimes substantial, making autorefraction an unsuitable substitute for trial frame refraction.

  12. Computer vision syndrome: A study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices in Indian Ophthalmologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Jatinder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether ′computer use by practitioners′ had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS. Materials and Methods: A random KAP survey was carried out on 300 Indian ophthalmologists using a 34-point spot-questionnaire in January 2005. Results: All the doctors who responded were aware of CVS. The chief presenting symptoms were eyestrain (97.8%, headache (82.1%, tiredness and burning sensation (79.1%, watering (66.4% and redness (61.2%. Ophthalmologists using computers reported that focusing from distance to near and vice versa ( P =0.006, χ2 test, blurred vision at a distance ( P =0.016, χ2 test and blepharospasm ( P =0.026, χ2 test formed part of the syndrome. The main mode of treatment used was tear substitutes. Half of ophthalmologists (50.7% were not prescribing any spectacles. They did not have any preference for any special type of glasses (68.7% or spectral filters. Computer-users were more likely to prescribe sedatives/ anxiolytics ( P = 0.04, χ2 test, spectacles ( P = 0.02, χ2 test and conscious frequent blinking ( P = 0.003, χ2 test than the non-computer-users. Conclusions: All respondents were aware of CVS. Confusion regarding treatment guidelines was observed in both groups. Computer-using ophthalmologists were more informed of symptoms and diagnostic signs but were misinformed about treatment modalities.

  13. Women and the vision thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Herminia; Obodaru, Otilia

    2009-01-01

    Are women rated lower than men in evaluations of their leadership capabilities because of lingering gender bias? No, according to an analysis of thousands of 360-degree assessments collected by Insead's executive education program. That analysis showed that women tend to outshine men in all areas but one: vision. Unfortunately, that exception is a big one. At the top tiers of management, the ability to see opportunities, craft strategy based on a broad view of the business, and inspire others is a must-have. To explore the nature of the deficit, and whether it is a perception or reality, Insead professor Ibarra and doctoral candidate Obodaru interviewed female executives and studied the evaluation data. They developed three possible explanations. First, women may do just as much as men to shape the future but go about it in a different way; a leader who is less directive, includes more people, and shares credit might not fit people's mental model of a visionary. Second, women may believe they have less license to go out on a limb. Those who have built careers on detail-focused, shoulder-to-the-wheel execution may hesitate to stray from facts into unprovable assertions about the future. Third, women may choose not to cultivate reputations as big visionaries. Having seen bluster passed off as vision, they may dismiss the importance of selling visions. The top two candidates for the Democratic nomination for U.S. president in 2008 offer an instructive parallel. The runner-up, Hillary Clinton, was viewed as a get-it-done type with an impressive, if uninspiring, grasp of policy detail. The winner, Barack Obama, was seen as a charismatic visionary offering a hopeful, if undetailed, future. The good news is that every dimension of leadership is learned, not inborn. As more women become skilled at, and known for, envisioning the future, nothing will hold them back.

  14. Computer and machine vision theory, algorithms, practicalities

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E R

    2012-01-01

    Computer and Machine Vision: Theory, Algorithms, Practicalities (previously entitled Machine Vision) clearly and systematically presents the basic methodology of computer and machine vision, covering the essential elements of the theory while emphasizing algorithmic and practical design constraints. This fully revised fourth edition has brought in more of the concepts and applications of computer vision, making it a very comprehensive and up-to-date tutorial text suitable for graduate students, researchers and R&D engineers working in this vibrant subject. Key features include: Practical examples and case studies give the 'ins and outs' of developing real-world vision systems, giving engineers the realities of implementing the principles in practice New chapters containing case studies on surveillance and driver assistance systems give practical methods on these cutting-edge applications in computer vision Necessary mathematics and essential theory are made approachable by careful explanations and well-il...

  15. State of Vision Development in Slovenian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Toman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vision is a prerequisite for efficient strategic planning and the effectiveness of a company. If a company has no vision (i.e., it does not know where it is heading, then it cannot build on advantages, eliminate weaknesses, exploit opportunities and avoid threats. The term ‘vision’ is often used in scientific and professional literature, but it should be noted that different authors understand the term differently and often discuss it inadequately. Many questions regarding the nature of vision arise in practice and in theory, and I answer many of them in my article. I define vision, explain the reasons for its necessity and provide its characteristics and content. I define mission and explain the main difference between vision and mission. The majority of the article presents the results of empirical research on the state of vision setting in Slovenian companies. The article highlights the way in which these terms are understood by top managers.

  16. Standards for vision science libraries: 2014 revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C Brooke; Lamson, Karen S; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J Chris

    2014-10-01

    This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the "Standards for Vision Science Libraries" aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users.

  17. Operational Assessment of Color Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    YN0Ve_jXBUC&pg=PR11&source=gbs_selected_page s&cad=2#v=onepage&q&f=false. 5. Jeffries BJ. Color - blindness : its dangers and its detection. Boston (MA...Brussels, Belgium. Neuilly-sur-Seine (France): NATO; 1972. AGARD-CP-99. 11. Monlux DJ, Finne HA, Stephens MB. Color blindness and military fitness...unlimited. STINFO COPY AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2016-0008 Operational Assessment of Color Vision Steve Wright, O.D.; James Gaska, Ph.D

  18. Re-visions of rationality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R

    2005-01-01

    The appeal of simple algorithms that take account of both the constraints of human cognitive capacity and the structure of environments has been an enduring theme in cognitive science. A novel version of such a boundedly rational perspective views the mind as containing an 'adaptive toolbox' of specialized cognitive heuristics suited to different problems. Although intuitively appealing, when this version was proposed, empirical evidence for the use of such heuristics was scant. I argue that in the light of empirical studies carried out since then, it is time this 'vision of rationality' was revised. An alternative view based on integrative models rather than collections of heuristics is proposed.

  19. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  20. ASCI's Vision for supercomputing future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, N.D.

    2003-01-01

    The full text of publication follows. Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC, formerly Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative [ASCI]) was established in 1995 to help Defense Programs shift from test-based confidence to simulation-based confidence. Specifically, ASC is a focused and balanced program that is accelerating the development of simulation capabilities needed to analyze and predict the performance, safety, and reliability of nuclear weapons and certify their functionality - far exceeding what might have been achieved in the absence of a focused initiative. To realize its vision, ASC is creating simulation and proto-typing capabilities, based on advanced weapon codes and high-performance computing

  1. Night vision: changing the way we drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, Stuart H.; Kyle, Robert J. S.; Nicklin, Robert L.; Kormos, Alexander L.

    2001-03-01

    A revolutionary new Night Vision System has been designed to help drivers see well beyond their headlights. From luxury automobiles to heavy trucks, Night Vision is helping drivers see better, see further, and react sooner. This paper describes how Night Vision Systems are being used in transportation and their viability for the future. It describes recent improvements to the system currently in the second year of production. It also addresses consumer education and awareness, cost reduction, product reliability, market expansion and future improvements.

  2. Visions of the Future of (Legal) Education

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    One law professor takes a stab at imagining an ideal law school of the future and describing how to get there. The Essay spells out a specific possible vision, taking into account changes to the demand for legal services and changes to the economics and composition of the legal profession. That thought experiment leads to a series of observations about values and vision in legal education in general and about what it might take to move any vision forward.

  3. Vision servo of industrial robot: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujin

    2018-04-01

    Robot technology has been implemented to various areas of production and life. With the continuous development of robot applications, requirements of the robot are also getting higher and higher. In order to get better perception of the robots, vision sensors have been widely used in industrial robots. In this paper, application directions of industrial robots are reviewed. The development, classification and application of robot vision servo technology are discussed, and the development prospect of industrial robot vision servo technology is proposed.

  4. Information Society Visions in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Kristensen, Thomas Myrup

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the information society visions put forward by the governments/administrations of the Nordic countries and compares them to the visions advanced at the EU-level. The paper suggests that the information society visions constitute a kind of common ideology for almost the whole...... political spectrum although it is characterised by a high degree of neo-liberal thinking. It is further argued that there is no distinctly Nordic model for an information society....

  5. Algorithmic strategies for FPGA-based vision

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Yoong Kang

    2016-01-01

    As demands for real-time computer vision applications increase, implementations on alternative architectures have been explored. These architectures include Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), which offer a high degree of flexibility and parallelism. A problem with this is that many computer vision algorithms have been optimized for serial processing, and this often does not map well to FPGA implementation. This thesis introduces the concept of FPGA-tailored computer vision algorithms...

  6. FPGA Implementation of Computer Vision Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhonghua

    2014-01-01

    Computer vision algorithms, which play an significant role in vision processing, is widely applied in many aspects such as geology survey, traffic management and medical care, etc.. Most of the situations require the process to be real-timed, in other words, as fast as possible. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have a advantage of parallelism fabric in programming, comparing to the serial communications of CPUs, which makes FPGA a perfect platform for implementing vision algorithms. The...

  7. Prevalence of vision loss among hospital in-patients; a risk factor for falls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leat, Susan J; Zecevic, Aleksandra A; Keeling, Alexis; Hileeto, Denise; Labreche, Tammy; Brymer, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Despite poor vision being a risk factor for falls, current hospital policies and practices often do not include a vision assessment at patient admission or in the hospital's incident reporting system when a fall occurs. Our purpose was to document the prevalence of vision loss in hospital general medicine units to increase awareness of poor vision as a potential risk factor for falls that occur within the hospital, and inform future preventative practice. This cross-sectional study took place in medicine units of an acute care hospital. Participants were adult in-patients. Visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity and stereoacuity were measured, and patients were screened for field loss, extinction and neglect. 115 participants took part (average age 67 ± 17, 48% female). Overall, 89% had a visual impairment defined as being outside the age-norms for one or more vision measure, 62% had low vision, and 36% had vision loss equivalent to legal blindness [VA equal to or poorer than 1.0 logMAR (6/60, 20/200) or ≥10x below age-norms]. There was a considerable discrepancy between the prevalence of low vision and the percentage of patients who reported an ocular diagnosis that would result in visual loss (30%). Ten patients fell during the study period, and of these 100% had visual impairment, 90% had low vision and 60% had vision loss equivalent to legal blindness, which compares to 58%, 22% and 9% for non-fallers. Similar high prevalences were found in those whose reason for admission to the hospital was a fall (92%, 63% and 33% respectively). Vision loss has a high prevalence among patients in hospital medicine units, and is higher still among those who fall. Since vision loss may be a contributing factor to falls that occur in hospitals, implementing an assessment of vision at hospital admission would be useful to alert staff to those patients who are at risk for falls due to poor vision, so that preventative measures can be applied. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic

  8. Synthetic vision to augment sensor based vision for remotely piloted vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadema, J.; Koeners, J.; Theunissen, E.

    2006-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, several research programs have demonstrated potential advantages of synthetic vision technology for manned aviation. More recently, some research programs have focused on integrating synthetic vision technology into control stations for remotely controlled aircraft. The

  9. Vision Restoration in Glaucoma by Activating Residual Vision with a Holistic, Clinical Approach: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Bernhard A; Cárdenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Gao, Ying

    2018-01-01

    How to cite this article: Sabel BA, Cárdenas-Morales L, Gao Y. Vision Restoration in Glaucoma by activating Residual Vision with a Holistic, Clinical Approach: A Review. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2018;12(1):1-9.

  10. Quality of life in Nepalese patients with low vision and the impact of low vision services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Gyawali

    2012-10-01

    Conclusions: Low vision patients have poor quality of life as measured with the NEI VFQ-25. Low vision service is associated with improved visual function, better quality of life and high rate of patient satisfaction.

  11. Participative Action Research: The Vision Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the principles behind the design and management of the Vision Conference: a one-day workshop for a large group of participants endeavoured to create ideas, projects and visions for the future activities of a local community or an organisation. A case study from a local community in Denmark is also presented with the purpose of illustrating the organisation, planning and management of a Vision Conference. The paper focuses in the three central social processes of the conference: group work, problem solving and facilitation. The paper ends with a discussion of creativity and creativity techniques suitable for Vision Conferences.

  12. Applications of AI, machine vision and robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Kim; Bunke, H

    1995-01-01

    This text features a broad array of research efforts in computer vision including low level processing, perceptual organization, object recognition and active vision. The volume's nine papers specifically report on topics such as sensor confidence, low level feature extraction schemes, non-parametric multi-scale curve smoothing, integration of geometric and non-geometric attributes for object recognition, design criteria for a four degree-of-freedom robot head, a real-time vision system based on control of visual attention and a behavior-based active eye vision system. The scope of the book pr

  13. Color in Computer Vision Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gevers, Theo; van de Weijer, Joost; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2012-01-01

    While the field of computer vision drives many of today’s digital technologies and communication networks, the topic of color has emerged only recently in most computer vision applications. One of the most extensive works to date on color in computer vision, this book provides a complete set of tools for working with color in the field of image understanding. Based on the authors’ intense collaboration for more than a decade and drawing on the latest thinking in the field of computer science, the book integrates topics from color science and computer vision, clearly linking theor

  14. Pengukuran Jarak Berbasiskan Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Herwidiana Kartowisastro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring distance from an object can be conducted in a variety of ways, including by making use of distance measuring sensors such as ultrasonic sensors, or using the approach based vision system. This last mode has advantages in terms of flexibility, namely a monitored object has relatively no restrictions characteristic of the materials used at the same time it also has its own difficulties associated with object orientation and state of the room where the object is located. To overcome this problem, so this study examines the possibility of using stereo vision to measure the distance to an object. The system was developed starting from image extraction, information extraction characteristics of the objects contained in the image and visual distance measurement process with 2 separate cameras placed in a distance of 70 cm. The measurement object can be in the range of 50 cm - 130 cm with a percentage error of 5:53%. Lighting conditions (homogeneity and intensity has a great influence on the accuracy of the measurement results. 

  15. Early vision and focal attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  16. Vision for 2030; Visie 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    This is the long term vision of the Dutch Transmission System Operator TenneT with respect to the 380kV and 220 kV parts of the national electricity distribution grid. In this vision 4 trend scenarios have been developed. The scenarios 'Green Revolution' and 'Sustainable transition' are based on a sustainable society whereas 'Money rules' and 'New strongholds' depict a society that mainly depends on fossil fuels. For 'Green revolution' and 'Money rules' a free global market is assumed and for 'Sustainable transition' and 'New strongholds' a regionally oriented market with protectionism is assumed. [mk]. [Dutch] Een langetermijnvisie van de Nederlandse Transmission System Operator TenneT op het 380 kV en 220kV deel van het landelijke elektriciteitstransportnet. Daarvoor zijn vier trendscenario's ontwikkeld. De scenario's Groene Revolutie en Duurzame Transitie gaan uit van een duurzame samenleving terwijl Geld Regeert en Nieuwe Burchten een samenleving hanteert die vooral afhankelijk is van fossiele brandstoffen. Voor Groene Revolutie en Geld Regeert wordt een vrije mondiale markt verondersteld en voor Duurzame Transitie en Nieuwe Burchten een regionaal georienteerde markt waarbij sprake is van protectionisme.

  17. Spatial vision in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravin eChakravarthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.

  18. Vision document Energy Market Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maa, J.; Van Gemert, M.; Giesbertz, P.; Vermeulen, M.; Beusmans, P.; Te Velthuis, M.; Drahos, M.

    2006-11-01

    June 2006 the second consultation document of the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) on the title subject (the first was in 2002) was published. The purpose of the consultation is to involve all the relevant and interested parties in the development of the energy market in the Netherlands and to consult those parties on studies that have been carried out by the NMa so far: (1) defining (possible) relevant markets in the electricity sector, and (2) the vision and opinion of the NMa with respect to mergers and take-overs. Also, the consultation document is a contribution to the response of the letter from the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs of May 2005 in which the NMa was requested to give an overview of the preconditions with regard to competition and it's legal aspects. In this vision document all the relevant parties and stakeholders are informed about the development of energy markets in the Netherlands and abroad. Also an overview is given of the reactions from many stakeholders, involved and interested parties. [nl

  19. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  20. Causes of Childhood Vision Impairment in the School for the Blind in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Moodley, Vanessa R

    2017-12-01

    Our study provides the much-needed evidence on causes of childhood blindness in Eritrea. This will assist authorities to plan appropriate strategies and implement preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services to address these causes of vision loss in children in this resource-limited country. This study aims to identify the causes of severe vision impairment and blindness in children attending the only school for the blind in Eritrea. All children enrolled in the school were examined, and the World Health Organization form for the examination of visually impaired children was used to record the data. Examination included visual acuity, refraction, anterior segment, and fundus assessment. Causes of vision loss for children with severe vision impairment (visual acuity blindness (visual acuity blindness. The major causes of vision loss were corneal scars (16.9%), cataract (12.7%), phthisis bulbi (11.3%), congenital eye deformities (11.3%), optic atrophy (9.3%), and presumed chorioretinal Toxoplasma scars (7.0%). Hereditary factors were the major known etiological category (15.5%) followed by the sequel of eye injuries (12.7%). Blindness due to vitamin A deficiency was not found, whereas infectious causes such as measles and ophthalmia neonatorum were relatively absent (one case each). Potentially avoidable causes of vision impairment were accounted for in 47.9% of children. This study provides the first direct evidence on childhood vision impairment in Eritrea. Despite the limitations, it is clearly shown that nearly half of the vision loss is due to avoidable causes. Thus, preventive public health strategies, specialist pediatric eye care, and rehabilitative services are recommended to address childhood vision impairment in Eritrea.

  1. Prevalence and associated factors of computer vision syndrome among bank workers in Gondar City, northwest Ethiopia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa NL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Natnael Lakachew Assefa, Dawit Zenebe Weldemichael, Haile Woretaw Alemu, Dereje Hayilu Anbesse Department of Optometry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Use of computers is generally encouraged; this is to keep up with the fast-moving world of technology, research and science. Extensive use of computers will result in computer vision syndrome (CVS, and the prevalence is increased dramatically. The main objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of CVS among bank workers in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional institution-based study was conducted among computer-using bank workers in Gondar city from April to June, 2015. Data were collected through structured questionnaires and observations with checklists, entered with Epi Info™ 7 and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were carried out to compute the different rates, proportion and relevant associations.Results: Among the total 304 computer-using bank workers, the prevalence of CVS was 73% (95% confidence interval [CI]=68.04, 78.02. Blurred vision (42.4%, headache (23.0% and redness (23.0% were the most experienced symptoms. Inappropriate sitting position was 2.3 times (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.33; 95% CI=1.27, 4.28 more likely to be associated with CVS when compared with appropriate sitting position. Those working on the computer for more than 20 minutes without break were nearly 2 times (AOR=1.93; 95% CI=1.11, 3.35 more likely to have suffered from CVS when compared with those taking break within 20 minutes, and those wearing eye glasses were 3 times (AOR=3.19; 95% CI=1.07, 9.51 more likely to suffer from CVS when compared with those not wearing glasses.Conclusion: About three-fourths of computer-using bank workers suffered from CVS with the most experienced symptoms being blurred vision

  2. The Pedagogy of Teaching Educational Vision: A Vision Coach's Field Notes about Leaders as Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The emerging field of educational visioning is full of challenges and phenomena worthy of careful analysis and documentation. A relatively neglected phenomenon is the learning curve of the leaders (often lay leaders) involved in the visioning process. This article documents a range of experiences of the author serving as a vision coach to five…

  3. The CCH Vision Stimulation Program for Infants with Low Vision: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguire, L. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital vision stimulation program, involving in-home intervention with 15 visually impaired infants. Comparison with controls indicated benefits of appropriate vision stimulation in increasing the neural foundation for vision and visual-motor function in visually impaired infants. (Author/DB)

  4. Vision as subjective perception; La vision, une perception subjective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reppas, J.B. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Biological Labs.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-07-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey`s one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: (1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.).

  5. Low Vision Care: The Need to Maximise Visual Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Pararajasegaram

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available People with low vision have residual vision with some light perception, but their vision loss does not lend itself to improvement by standard spectacles or medical or surgical treatment. Such persons have the potential for enhanced functional vision if they receive appropriate low vision care services.

  6. Managing Dreams and Ambitions: A Psychological Analysis of Vision Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Stam (Daan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe communication of inspiring visions is arguably the sine qua non of change-oriented leadership. Visions are images of the future. Vision communication refers to the expression of a vision with the aim of convincing others (usually followers) that the vision is valid. Despite the fact

  7. Survey of blindness and low vision in Egbedore, South-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, O U; Ashaye, A O; Adeoti, C O; Mahmoud, A O

    2010-01-01

    Developing efficient and cost-effective eye care programmes for communities in Nigeria has been hampered by inadequate and inaccurate data on blindness and low vision. To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and low vision among adults 50 years and older in South-Western Nigeria in order to develop viable eye care programme for the community. Twenty clusters of 60 subjects of age 50 years and older were selected by systematic random cluster sampling. Information was collected and ocular examinations were conducted on each consenting subject. Data were recorded in specially designed questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistical methods. Out of the 1200 subjects enrolled for the study, 1183(98.6%) were interviewed and examined. Seventy five (6.3%)) of the 1183 subjects were bilaterally blind and 223(18.9%) had bilateral low vision according to WHO definition of blindness and low vision. Blindness was about 1.6 times commoner in men than women. Cataract, glaucoma and posterior segment disorders were major causes of bilateral blindness. Bilateral low vision was mainly due to cataract, refractive errors and posterior segment disorders. The prevalence of blindness and low vision in this study population was high. The main causes are avoidable. Elimination of avoidable blindness and low vision calls for attention and commitment from government and eye care workers in South Western Nigeria.

  8. A Robust Vision Module for Humanoid Robotic Ping-Pong Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Developing a vision module for a humanoid ping-pong game is challenging due to the spin and the non-linear rebound of the ping-pong ball. In this paper, we present a robust predictive vision module to overcome these problems. The hardware of the vision module is composed of two stereo camera pairs with each pair detecting the 3D positions of the ball on one half of the ping-pong table. The software of the vision module divides the trajectory of the ball into four parts and uses the perceived trajectory in the first part to predict the other parts. In particular, the software of the vision module uses an aerodynamic model to predict the trajectories of the ball in the air and uses a novel non-linear rebound model to predict the change of the ball's motion during rebound. The average prediction error of our vision module at the ball returning point is less than 50 mm - a value small enough for standard sized ping-pong rackets. Its average processing speed is 120fps. The precision and efficiency of our vision module enables two humanoid robots to play ping-pong continuously for more than 200 rounds.

  9. Functional Vision Observation. Technical Assistance Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Education for Exceptional Students.

    Technical assistance is provided concerning documentation of functional vision loss for Florida students with visual impairments. The functional vision observation should obtain enough information for determination of special service eligibility. The observation is designed to supplement information on the medical eye examination, and is conducted…

  10. Literacy skills of children with low vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gompel, M.

    2005-01-01

    The main question of the studies reported in this thesis is how the reading and spelling skills of children with low vision compare to those of their sighted peers, and which factors determine the variation in reading and spelling ability in children with low vision. In the study reported in chapter

  11. Reading by Children with Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompel, Marjolein; van Bon, Wim H. J.; Schreuder, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This study of the reading of text found that despite their lower reading speed on a reading-comprehension task, the children with low vision comprehended texts at least as well as did the sighted children. Children with low vision need more time to read and comprehend a text, but they seem to use this time with enough efficiency to process the…

  12. Efficacy of a Low Vision Patient Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemsen, Dennis W.; Bergstrom, A. Ren?e; Hathaway, Julie C.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of obstacles can prevent persons or individuals with low vision from deriving the greatest possible benefit from the rehabilitation process, including inadequate understanding of their visual impairment, lack of knowledge about available services, and misconceptions about low vision devices. This study explores the use of a…

  13. Vision: A Conceptual Framework for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo

    2013-01-01

    Vision is essential to the implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model. Drawing from research in organizational leadership, this article provides a conceptual framework for how school counselors can incorporate vision as a strategy for implementing school counseling programs within the context of practice.…

  14. Investigating Teachers' Personal Visions and Beliefs: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating Teachers' Personal Visions and Beliefs: Implications for Quality in Language Teacher Education. ... attitude, focus and performance. The growing influence of constructivism in teacher education and the increase in the amount of research into teacher cognition has put the notion of beliefs and vision into central ...

  15. The Democratic Vision of Carl Schmitt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to justify two propositions. One, that Schmitt’s political vision is indeed democratic and second, that Schmitt’s democratic vision, plebiscitary or leadership democracy, is better adapted to our modern political condition and the challenges confronting modern...

  16. Community identities as visions for landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    William P. Stewart; Derek Liebert; Kevin W. Larkin

    2004-01-01

    Residents' felt senses of their community can play substantial roles in determining visions for landscape change. Community identities are often anchored in tangible environments and events of a community, and have the potential to serve as visions for landscape planning processes. Photo-elicitation is applied in this study to connect community-based meanings to...

  17. Pre-attentive and attentive vision module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A.

    This paper introduces a new vision module, called PAAV, developed for the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Unlike ACT-R's default vision module that was originally developed for top-down perception only, PAAV was designed to model a wide range of tasks, such as visual search and scene viewing, where

  18. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NIGERIAN LOW VISION POPULATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vision and refractive errors among Braille reading children in Nigeria identified corneal, lens problems and glaucoma as causes of visual impairment. Susan also reported on the causes of low vision and blindness in East Africa and listed. “whole globe” –retina and corneal/phthisis as major cause in that order. These reports ...

  19. Implementing Vision Research in Special Needs Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Gunvor Birkeland; Aanstad, Monica L.; Leirvik, Eva Iren B.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents experiences from vision research implemented in education and argues for the need for teachers with visual competence and insight into suitable methods for stimulation and learning. A new type of continuing professional development (CPD) focuses on the role of vision in children's learning and development, the consequences of…

  20. A vision for modernizing environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2007, the US National Research Council (NRC) published a Vision and Strategy for [human health] Toxicity Testing in the 21st century. Central to the vision was increased reliance on high throughput in vitro testing and predictive approaches based on mechanistic understanding o...

  1. Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to follow or track an object, like a toy or ball, with their eyes as it moves across their field of vision. If your baby can't make steady eye contact by this time or seems unable to see, let your child's doctor know. See Infant Vision Development: What Can Babies See? for more information. Before ...

  2. Color vision: introduction by the feature editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Steven L; Baraas, Rigmor; Lee, Barry B; Lindsey, Delwin T; Uchikawa, Keiji; Webster, Michael A; Werner, John S

    2016-03-01

    This feature issue of the Journal of the Optical Society of America A (JOSA A) reflects the basic and applied research interests of members of the color vision community. Most of the articles stem from presentations at the 23rd Biennial Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society (ICVS).

  3. Tensors in image processing and computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    De Luis García, Rodrigo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2009-01-01

    Tensor signal processing is an emerging field with important applications to computer vision and image processing. This book presents the developments in this branch of signal processing, offering research and discussions by experts in the area. It is suitable for advanced students working in the area of computer vision and image processing.

  4. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  5. Using brain stimulation to disentangle neural correlates of conscious vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Sack, Alexander T

    2014-01-01

    Research into the neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs) has blossomed, due to the advent of new and increasingly sophisticated brain research tools. Neuroimaging has uncovered a variety of brain processes that relate to conscious perception, obtained in a range of experimental paradigms. But methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging or electroencephalography do not always afford inference on the functional role these brain processes play in conscious vision. Such empirical NCCs could reflect neural prerequisites, neural consequences, or neural substrates of a conscious experience. Here, we take a closer look at the use of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques in this context. We discuss and review how NIBS methodology can enlighten our understanding of brain mechanisms underlying conscious vision by disentangling the empirical NCCs.

  6. Using Brain Stimulation to Disentangle Neural Correlates of Conscious Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Alexander de Graaf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research into the neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs has blossomed, due to the advent of new and increasingly sophisticated brain research tools. Neuroimaging has uncovered a variety of brain processes that relate to conscious perception, obtained in a range of experimental paradigms. But methods such as fMRI or EEG do not always afford inference on the role these brain processes play in conscious vision. Such empirical neural correlates of consciousness could reflect neural prerequisites, neural consequences, or neural substrates of a conscious experience. Here, we take a closer look at the use of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS techniques in this context. We discuss and review how NIBS methodology can enlighten our understanding of brain mechanisms underlying conscious vision by disentangling the empirical neural correlates of consciousness.

  7. Extending Driving Vision Based on Image Mosaic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Car cameras have been used extensively to assist driving by make driving visible. However, due to the limitation of the Angle of View (AoV, the dead zone still exists, which is a primary origin of car accidents. In this paper, we introduce a system to extend the vision of drivers to 360 degrees. Our system consists of four wide-angle cameras, which are mounted at different sides of a car. Although the AoV of each camera is within 180 degrees, relying on the image mosaic technique, our system can seamlessly integrate 4-channel videos into a panorama video. The panorama video enable drivers to observe everywhere around a car as far as three meters from a top view. We performed experiments in a laboratory environment. Preliminary results show that our system can eliminate vision dead zone completely. Additionally, the real-time performance of our system can satisfy requirements for practical use.

  8. Stereo vision techniques for telescience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, S.

    1990-02-01

    The Botanic Experiment is one of the pilot experiments in the Telescience Test Bed program at the ESTEC research and technology center of the European Space Agency. The aim of the Telescience Test Bed is to develop the techniques required by an experimenter using a ground based work station for remote control, monitoring, and modification of an experiment operating on a space platform. The purpose of the Botanic Experiment is to examine the growth of seedlings under various illumination conditions with a video camera from a number of viewpoints throughout the duration of the experiment. This paper describes the Botanic Experiment and the points addressed in developing a stereo vision software package to extract quantitative information about the seedlings from the recorded video images.

  9. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  10. Development of Moire machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1987-10-01

    Three dimensional perception is essential to the development of versatile robotics systems in order to handle complex manufacturing tasks in future factories and in providing high accuracy measurements needed in flexible manufacturing and quality control. A program is described which will develop the potential of Moire techniques to provide this capability in vision systems and automated measurements, and demonstrate artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to take advantage of the strengths of Moire sensing. Moire techniques provide a means of optically manipulating the complex visual data in a three dimensional scene into a form which can be easily and quickly analyzed by computers. This type of optical data manipulation provides high productivity through integrated automation, producing a high quality product while reducing computer and mechanical manipulation requirements and thereby the cost and time of production. This nondestructive evaluation is developed to be able to make full field range measurement and three dimensional scene analysis.

  11. New Media Vision for IYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P. L.; Koppelman, M.

    2008-11-01

    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Committee seeks to provide and promote online astronomy experiences in the places that people work, play and learn; create content that will expose people to astronomy, provide them regular content, and create special opportunities for learning; distribute content for active (pull) and passive (push) channels and through guerilla marketing technique; use a diverse suite of technologies to reach people on multiple platforms and in diverse online settings. To make these goals a reality we have brought together a diverse group of astronomy new media practitioners to both mentor grass roots efforts and spearhead national initiatives. You are invited to partner you programs with the New Media Task Group. In this paper we lay out are goals and define our vision.

  12. Soft Computing Techniques in Vision Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yeon-Mo

    2012-01-01

    This Special Edited Volume is a unique approach towards Computational solution for the upcoming field of study called Vision Science. From a scientific firmament Optics, Ophthalmology, and Optical Science has surpassed an Odyssey of optimizing configurations of Optical systems, Surveillance Cameras and other Nano optical devices with the metaphor of Nano Science and Technology. Still these systems are falling short of its computational aspect to achieve the pinnacle of human vision system. In this edited volume much attention has been given to address the coupling issues Computational Science and Vision Studies.  It is a comprehensive collection of research works addressing various related areas of Vision Science like Visual Perception and Visual system, Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, Psychophysics and Ophthalmology, linguistic relativity, color vision etc. This issue carries some latest developments in the form of research articles and presentations. The volume is rich of contents with technical tools ...

  13. Vision based systems for UAV applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuś, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is motivated by a significant number of vision based algorithms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) that were developed during research and development projects. Vision information is utilized in various applications like visual surveillance, aim systems, recognition systems, collision-avoidance systems and navigation. This book presents practical applications, examples and recent challenges in these mentioned application fields. The aim of the book is to create a valuable source of information for researchers and constructors of solutions utilizing vision from UAV. Scientists, researchers and graduate students involved in computer vision, image processing, data fusion, control algorithms, mechanics, data mining, navigation and IC can find many valuable, useful and practical suggestions and solutions. The latest challenges for vision based systems are also presented.

  14. Dense image correspondences for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ce

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems.   ·         Provides i...

  15. Limits of colour vision in dim light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Almut; Lind, Olle

    2010-09-01

    Humans and most vertebrates have duplex retinae with multiple cone types for colour vision in bright light, and one single rod type for achromatic vision in dim light. Instead of comparing signals from multiple spectral types of photoreceptors, such species use one highly sensitive receptor type thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio at night. However, the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor, the nocturnal bee Xylocopa tranquebarica and the nocturnal gecko Tarentola chazaliae can discriminate colours at extremely dim light intensities. To be able to do so, they sacrifice spatial and temporal resolution in favour of colour vision. We review what is known about colour vision in dim light, and compare colour vision thresholds with the optical sensitivity of the photoreceptors in selected animal species with lens and compound eyes. © 2010 The Authors, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics © 2010 The College of Optometrists.

  16. Resolution of VISION, a crystal-analyzer spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, Philip A.; Daemen, Luke L.; Larese, John Z.

    2009-01-01

    We present both analytic and Monte Carlo calculations of the resolution of VISION, which is a crystal-analyzer spectrometer based on the TOSCA design. The analyzer crystal in VISION is configured to focus in time, radial, and transverse directions ('triple focused'). Previously published analytical results have two serious flaws in the handling of the statistics, which gave misleading results. First, Gaussian distributions were assumed for all resolution components, so that full-width-half-maximum could be used. Not only is this a very poor approximation for most terms, it is also completely unnecessary because standard deviations can be combined in quadrature for any shape distribution (except Lorentzian). The second flaw was the choice of variables that are not independent, so that significant correlations were ignored. An example of the effect of including correlations is that the mosaic spread of the analyzer crystals does not contribute to the resolution in first order. Monte Carlo simulation is not limited to first order, and we find a mild optimum value for mosaic spread. A complete set of six independent variables is: neutron emission time, incident flight-path variation (due to moderator tilt), sample thickness, mean path in the analyzer (due to multiple reflections), sample-to-detector radial distance, and detector thickness. We treat separately the resolution contributions from histogramming and rebinning during data acquisition and reduction, and describe a scheme for VISION that minimizes the effect on resolution. We compare the contributions of the six variables to the total resolution, both analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of a complete VISION model using the Neutron Instrument Simulation Package (NISP).

  17. Impact of low vision services on the quality of life of low vision patients in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin O. Ovenseri-Ogbomo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients’ perspectives on the impact of clinical interventions have been recognised as critical elements in patient care. Quality-of-life instruments are designed to measure these perspectives. We used the National Eye Institute’s 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ to measure the impact of optical low vision devices on the quality of life of 22 low vision patients who obtained and were using low vision devices from a secondary low vision clinic in the Eastern Region, Ghana. The study employed a pre- and post-intervention technique. We found statistically significant improvements in measured visual acuity and NEI VFQ scores in 8 of the 10 domains evaluated. We conclude that optical low vision devices have a positive impact on the quality of life of low vision patients in Ghana. Keywords: low vision; quality of life; visual acuity; visual impairment; Ghana

  18. provision of low vision service in the department of ophthalmology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    of distance refractive error and common eye related or surgical ... assessment of residual vision and needs, and the identification of ways and means to address the problem. ... The clinical records of low vision patients seen at the Low Vision.

  19. Optics, illumination, and image sensing for machine vision II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetkoff, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on the general subject of machine vision. Topics include illumination and viewing systems, x-ray imaging, automatic SMT inspection with x-ray vision, and 3-D sensing for machine vision

  20. Visual impairment secondary to congenital glaucoma in children: visual responses, optical correction and use of low vision AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Onuki Haddad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Congenital glaucoma is frequently associated with visual impairment due to optic nerve damage, corneal opacities, cataracts and amblyopia. Poor vision in childhood is related to global developmental problems, and referral to vision habilitation/rehabilitation services should be without delay to promote efficient management of the impaired vision. OBJECTIVE: To analyze data concerning visual response, the use of optical correction and prescribed low vision aids in a population of children with congenital glaucoma. METHOD: The authors analyzed data from 100 children with congenital glaucoma to assess best corrected visual acuity, prescribed optical correction and low vision aids. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent of the sample were male, 43% female. The mean age was 6.3 years. Two percent presented normal visual acuity levels, 29% mild visual impairment, 28% moderate visual impairment, 15% severe visual impairment, 11% profound visual impairment, and 15% near blindness. Sixty-eight percent received optical correction for refractive errors. Optical low vision aids were adopted for distance vision in 34% of the patients and for near vision in 6%. A manual monocular telescopic system with 2.8 × magnification was the most frequently prescribed low vision aid for distance, and for near vision a +38 diopter illuminated stand magnifier was most frequently prescribed. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Careful low vision assessment and the appropriate prescription of optical corrections and low vision aids are mandatory in children with congenital glaucoma, since this will assist their global development, improving efficiency in daily life activities and promoting social and educational inclusion.

  1. Embedded active vision system based on an FPGA architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Chalimbaud , Pierre; Berry , François

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In computer vision and more particularly in vision processing, the impressive evolution of algorithms and the emergence of new techniques dramatically increase algorithm complexity. In this paper, a novel FPGA-based architecture dedicated to active vision (and more precisely early vision) is proposed. Active vision appears as an alternative approach to deal with artificial vision problems. The central idea is to take into account the perceptual aspects of visual tasks,...

  2. Intelligent Computer Vision System for Automated Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, Ivan; Georgieva, Antoniya

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate an Intelligent Computer Vision System applied for recognition and classification of commercially available cork tiles. The system is capable of acquiring and processing gray images using several feature generation and analysis techniques. Its functionality includes image acquisition, feature extraction and preprocessing, and feature classification with neural networks (NN). We also discuss system test and validation results from the recognition and classification tasks. The system investigation also includes statistical feature processing (features number and dimensionality reduction techniques) and classifier design (NN architecture, target coding, learning complexity and performance, and training with our own metaheuristic optimization method). The NNs trained with our genetic low-discrepancy search method (GLPτS) for global optimisation demonstrated very good generalisation abilities. In our view, the reported testing success rate of up to 95% is due to several factors: combination of feature generation techniques; application of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which appeared to be very efficient for preprocessing the data; and use of suitable NN design and learning method.

  3. Functional vision loss: a diagnosis of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Rex B; Ilsen, Pauline F

    2007-10-01

    Most cases of visual acuity or visual field loss can be attributed to ocular pathology or ocular manifestations of systemic pathology. They can also occasionally be attributed to nonpathologic processes or malingering. Functional vision loss is any decrease in vision the origin of which cannot be attributed to a pathologic or structural abnormality. Two cases of functional vision loss are described. In the first, a 58-year-old man presented for a baseline eye examination for enrollment in a vision rehabilitation program. He reported bilateral blindness since a motor vehicle accident with head trauma 4 years prior. Entering visual acuity was "no light perception" in each eye. Ocular health examination was normal and the patient made frequent eye contact with the examiners. He was referred for neuroimaging and electrophysiologic testing. The second case was a 49-year-old man who presented with a long history of intermittent monocular diplopia. His medical history was significant for psycho-medical evaluations and a diagnosis of factitious disorder. Entering uncorrected visual acuities were 20/20 in each eye, but visual field testing found constriction. No abnormalities were found that could account for the monocular diplopia or visual field deficit. A diagnosis of functional vision loss secondary to factitious disorder was made. Functional vision loss is a diagnosis of exclusion. In the event of reduced vision in the context of a normal ocular health examination, all other pathology must be ruled out before making the diagnosis of functional vision loss. Evaluation must include auxiliary ophthalmologic testing, neuroimaging of the visual pathway, review of the medical history and lifestyle, and psychiatric evaluation. Comanagement with a psychiatrist is essential for patients with functional vision loss.

  4. LATE VISION: PROCESSES AND EPISTEMIC STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios eRaftopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine the processes that occur in late vision and address the problem of whether late vision should be construed as a properly speaking perceptual stage, or as a thought-like discursive stage. Specifically, I argue that late vision, its (partly conceptual nature notwithstanding, neither is constituted by nor does it implicate what I call pure thoughts, that is, propositional structures that are formed in the cognitive areas of the brain through, and participate in, discursive reasoning and inferences. At the same time, the output of late vision, namely an explicit belief concerning the identity and category membership of an object (that is, a recognitional belief or its features, eventually enters into discursive reasoning. Using Jackendoff’s distinction between visual awareness, which characterizes perception, and visual understanding, which characterizes pure thought, I claim that the contents of late vision belong to visual awareness and not to visual understanding and that although late vision implicates beliefs, either implicit or explicit, these beliefs are hybrid visual/conceptual constructs and not pure thoughts. Distinguishing between these hybrid representations and pure thoughts and delineating the nature of the representations of late vision lays the ground for examining, among other things, the process of conceptualization that occurs in visual processing and the way concepts modulate perceptual content affecting either its representational or phenomenal character. I also do not discuss the epistemological relations between the representations of late vision and the perceptual judgments they ‘support’, or ‘guide’ or ‘render possible’ or ‘evidence’ or ‘entitle’. However, the specification of the epistemology of late vision lays the ground for attacking that problem as well.

  5. Vision in high-level football officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, António Manuel Gonçalves; Serra, Pedro M; McAlinden, Colm; Barrett, Brendan T

    2017-01-01

    Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of pfootball officials were similar to published normative values for young, adult populations and similar between R and AR. Clinically-measured vision did not differ according to officiating level. Visual acuity measured with and without a pinhole disc indicated that around one quarter of participants may be capable of better vision when officiating, as evidenced by better acuity (≥1 line of letters) using the pinhole. Amongst the clinical visual tests we used, we did not find evidence for above-average performance in elite-level football officials. Although the impact of uncorrected mild to moderate refractive error upon officiating performance is unknown, with a greater uptake of eye examinations, visual

  6. Vision in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Locket, N Adam

    2004-08-01

    detection and localisation of point-source bioluminescence at ecologically meaningful distances. At all depths, the eyes of animals active on and over the nutrient-rich sea floor are generally larger than the eyes of pelagic species. In fishes, the retinal ganglion cells are also frequently arranged in a horizontal visual streak, an adaptation for viewing the wide flat horizon of the sea floor, and all animals living there. These and many other aspects of light and vision in the deep sea are reviewed in support of the following conclusion: it is not only the intensity of light at different depths, but also its distribution in space, which has been a major force in the evolution of deep-sea vision.

  7. Computer vision based room interior design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nasir; Hussain, Saddam; Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a new application of computer vision. To the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first attempt to incorporate computer vision techniques into room interior designing. The computer vision based interior designing is achieved in two steps: object identification and color assignment. The image segmentation approach is used for the identification of the objects in the room and different color schemes are used for color assignment to these objects. The proposed approach is applied to simple as well as complex images from online sources. The proposed approach not only accelerated the process of interior designing but also made it very efficient by giving multiple alternatives.

  8. Stereo vision with distance and gradient recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Suk-Bum; Yang, Tae-Kyu

    2007-12-01

    Robot vision technology is needed for the stable walking, object recognition and the movement to the target spot. By some sensors which use infrared rays and ultrasonic, robot can overcome the urgent state or dangerous time. But stereo vision of three dimensional space would make robot have powerful artificial intelligence. In this paper we consider about the stereo vision for stable and correct movement of a biped robot. When a robot confront with an inclination plane or steps, particular algorithms are needed to go on without failure. This study developed the recognition algorithm of distance and gradient of environment by stereo matching process.

  9. Neuropharmacology of vision in goldfish: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ferrer, Carlos; Neumeyer, Christa

    2009-05-01

    The goldfish is one of the few animals exceptionally well analyzed in behavioral experiments and also in electrophysiological and neuroanatomical investigations of the retina. To get insight into the functional organization of the retina we studied color vision, motion detection and temporal resolution before and after intra-ocular injection of neuropharmaca with known effects on retinal neurons. Bicuculline, strychnine, curare, atropine, and dopamine D1- and D2-receptor antagonists were used. The results reviewed here indicate separate and parallel processing of L-cone contribution to different visual functions, and the influence of several neurotransmitters (dopamine, acetylcholine, glycine, and GABA) on motion vision, color vision, and temporal resolution.

  10. Mobile Atmospheric Sensing using Vision Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuchun; Cui, Weihong; Rui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Air quality monitoring, especially the atmospheric phenomenon of thick haze, has been an acute problem in most countries and a hot topic in the atmospheric sensing. Recently thick haze occurs more frequently in most cities of China due to the rapid growth of traffic, farming, wildfires, and industrial development. It forms a low-hanging shroud that impairs visibility and becomes a respiratory health threat. Traditionally the dust, smoke, and other particles in relatively dry sky are reported at fixed meteorological stations. The coverage of these sampling stations is limited and cannot accommodate with the emergent incidence of thick haze from industrial pollution. In addition, the visual effect of thick haze is not yet investigated in the current practice. Thick haze appears colorful veil (e.g., yellowish, brownish-grey, etc) in video log images and results in a loss of contrast in the subject due to the light scattering through haze particles. This paper proposes an intuitive and mobile atmospheric sensing using vision approach. Based on the video log images collected by a mobile sensing vehicle, a Haze Veil Index (HVI) is proposed to identify the type and severity level of thick haze from the color and texture perspective. HVI characterizes the overall veil effect of haze spatially. HVI first identifies the haze color from the color deviation histogram of the white-balanced hazy image. The white-balancing is conducted with the most haze-opaque pixels in the dark channel and seed growing strategy. Then pixel-wise haze severity level of atmospheric veil is inferred by approximating the upper veil limit with the dark color of each pixel in a hazy image. The proposed method is tested on a diverse set of actual hazy video log images under varying atmospheric conditions and backgrounds in Wuhan City, China. Experimental results show the proposed HVI is effective for visually atmospheric sensing. The proposed method is promising for haze monitoring and prediction in

  11. METHODOLOGY OF TECHNIQUE PREPARATION FOR LOW VISION JAVELIN THROWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Matić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Javelin throwing discipline for disabled people has been expanding couple of years back. In addition, world’s records have been improving year after year. The esential part in preparation of low vision javelin throwers is mastering the technique elements, crucial for acquiring better results. Method of theoretical analysis, decriptive and comparative methods of survey were applied. Relevant knowledge in the area of low vision javelin throwers was analyzed and systematized, and then interpretated theoretically and applied on the top javelin thrower, which served as a base for the inovative apporoach in methodology and praxis with disabled people. Due to visual impairment, the coordination and balance are challenged. This limitation practically makes the difference in methodology, explained in this article. Apart from the goals focused on improving the condition and results on competitions, more specialized goals should be considered, e.g. improving of orientation, balance and socialization process for the people who have low vision. Special approach used in the technique preparation brought the significant improvement in techique of our famous Paralympian Grlica Miloš. In addition to the technique improvement he acquired better results on the big competitions and a few worldwide valuable prizes were won. The area of ’sport for disabled people’ is not enough present in the praxis of sport’s workers. More articles and scientific surveys on this topic are needed for further work and results improvement with these kind of sportsmen.

  12. An ancient explanation of presbyopia based on binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    Presbyopia, understood as the age-related loss of ability to clearly see near objects, was known to ancient Greeks. However, few references to it can be found in ancient manuscripts. A relevant discussion on presbyopia appears in a book called Symposiacs written by Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus around 100 A.C. In this work, Plutarch provided four explanations of presbyopia, associated with different theories of vision. One of the explanations is particularly interesting as it is based on a binocular theory of vision. In this theory, vision is produced when visual rays, emanating from the eyes, form visual cones that impinge on the objects to be seen. Visual rays coming from old people's eyes, it was supposed, are weaker than those from younger people's eyes; so the theory, to be logically coherent, implies that this effect is compensated by the increase in light intensity due to the overlapping, at a certain distance, of the visual cones coming from both eyes. Thus, it benefits the reader to move the reading text further away from the eyes in order to increase the fusion area of both visual cones. The historical hypothesis taking into consideration that the astronomer Hipparchus of Nicaea was the source of Plutarch's explanation of the theory is discussed. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Advantages of computer cameras over video cameras/frame grabbers for high-speed vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gaylord G.; Walker, Jo N.

    1997-09-01

    Cameras designed to work specifically with computers can have certain advantages in comparison to the use of cameras loosely defined as 'video' cameras. In recent years the camera type distinctions have become somewhat blurred, with a great presence of 'digital cameras' aimed more at the home markets. This latter category is not considered here. The term 'computer camera' herein is intended to mean one which has low level computer (and software) control of the CCD clocking. These can often be used to satisfy some of the more demanding machine vision tasks, and in some cases with a higher rate of measurements than video cameras. Several of these specific applications are described here, including some which use recently designed CCDs which offer good combinations of parameters such as noise, speed, and resolution. Among the considerations for the choice of camera type in any given application would be such effects as 'pixel jitter,' and 'anti-aliasing.' Some of these effects may only be relevant if there is a mismatch between the number of pixels per line in the camera CCD and the number of analog to digital (A/D) sampling points along a video scan line. For the computer camera case these numbers are guaranteed to match, which alleviates some measurement inaccuracies and leads to higher effective resolution.

  14. Colombia, mining country. Vision a year 2019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Scope of the state action for the mining sector, the performance of the mining sector, regional perceptions of mining development, construction of a long-term vision for the mining sector, the action plan and goals follow-up

  15. Robot vision for nuclear advanced robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Ryoichi; Okano, Hideharu; Kuno, Yoshinori; Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Shimada, Hideo; Okada, Satoshi; Kawamura, Astuo

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes Robot Vision and Operation System for Nuclear Advanced Robot. This Robot Vision consists of robot position detection, obstacle detection and object recognition. With these vision techniques, a mobile robot can make a path and move autonomously along the planned path. The authors implemented the above robot vision system on the 'Advanced Robot for Nuclear Power Plant' and tested in an environment mocked up as nuclear power plant facilities. Since the operation system for this robot consists of operator's console and a large stereo monitor, this system can be easily operated by one person. Experimental tests were made using the Advanced Robot (nuclear robot). Results indicate that the proposed operation system is very useful, and can be operate by only person. (author)

  16. Perioperative Vision Loss in Cervical Spinal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Brandon C; Lam, Arthur; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J; Nassr, Ahmad; Currier, Bradford L; Sebastian, Arjun S; Arnold, Paul M; Hamilton, Steven R; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective multicenter case series. To assess the rate of perioperative vision loss following cervical spinal surgery. Medical records for 17 625 patients from 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network who received cervical spine surgery (levels from C2 to C7) between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, inclusive, were reviewed to identify occurrences of vision loss following surgery. Of the 17 625 patients in the registry, there were 13 946 patients assessed for the complication of blindness. There were 9591 cases that involved only anterior surgical approaches; the remaining 4355 cases were posterior and/or circumferential fusions. There were no cases of blindness or vision loss in the postoperative period reported during the sampling period. Perioperative vision loss following cervical spinal surgery is exceedingly rare.

  17. Low Vision Driving with Bioptics: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Chuck; Corn, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an overview of driving for adolescents and adults who meet their states' visual requirements for low vision driving using bioptic lenses. It also discusses the outcomes of two studies of bioptic driver education.

  18. Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology ... Retinopathy Diagnosis Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Non-Proliferative Diabetic ...

  19. Object categorization: computer and human vision perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickinson, Sven J

    2009-01-01

    .... The result of a series of four highly successful workshops on the topic, the book gathers many of the most distinguished researchers from both computer and human vision to reflect on their experience...

  20. International Conference on Computational Vision and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Computer Vision and Robotic is one of the most challenging areas of 21st century. Its application ranges from Agriculture to Medicine, Household applications to Humanoid, Deep-sea-application to Space application, and Industry applications to Man-less-plant. Today’s technologies demand to produce intelligent machine, which are enabling applications in various domains and services. Robotics is one such area which encompasses number of technology in it and its application is widespread. Computational vision or Machine vision is one of the most challenging tools for the robot to make it intelligent.   This volume covers chapters from various areas of Computational Vision such as Image and Video Coding and Analysis, Image Watermarking, Noise Reduction and Cancellation, Block Matching and Motion Estimation, Tracking of Deformable Object using Steerable Pyramid Wavelet Transformation, Medical Image Fusion, CT and MRI Image Fusion based on Stationary Wavelet Transform. The book also covers articles from applicati...

  1. Vision Hampton Roads : public responsiveness summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    All comments submitted to Vision Hampton Roads were reviewed prior to addition to the final : document. Using this Public Responsiveness Summary, citizens will be able to see and track how : their engagement has impacted results. On the following pag...

  2. Behavioral Risk Factors - Vision & Eye Health

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2016. In 2013 and subsequently, one question in the core of BRFSS asks about vision: Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing...

  3. Behavioral Risk Factors - Vision & Eye Health

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2015. In 2013 and subsequently, one question in the core of BRFSS asks about vision: Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing...

  4. Connected and autonomous vehicles 2040 vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) commissioned a one-year project, Connected and Autonomous : Vehicles 2040 Vision, with researchers at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) to assess the implications of connected and : autonomous ve...

  5. Physics Based Vision Systems for Robotic Manipulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the increase of robotic manipulation tasks (TA4.3), specifically dexterous manipulation tasks (TA4.3.2), more advanced computer vision algorithms will be...

  6. Computer vision for biomedical image applications. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanxi [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Computer Science, The Robotics Institute; Jiang, Tianzi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). National Lab. of Pattern Recognition, Inst. of Automation; Zhang, Changshui (eds.) [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Automation

    2005-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Workshop on Computer Vision for Biomedical Image Applications: Current Techniques and Future Trends, CVBIA 2005, held in Beijing, China, in October 2005 within the scope of ICCV 20. (orig.)

  7. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the ...

  8. Prevalence of computer vision syndrome in Erbil

    OpenAIRE

    Dler Jalal Ahmed; Eman Hussein Alwan

    2018-01-01

    Background and objective: Nearly all colleges, universities and homes today are regularly using video display terminals, such as computer, iPad, mobile, and TV. Very little research has been carried out on Kurdish users to reveal the effect of video display terminals on the eye and vision. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of computer vision syndrome among computer users. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department of Rizgary...

  9. Static and dynamic postural control in low-vision and normal-vision adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomomitsu, Mônica S V; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Morimoto, Eurica; Bobbio, Tatiana G; Greve, Julia M D

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of reduced visual information on postural control by comparing low-vision and normal-vision adults in static and dynamic conditions. Twenty-five low-vision subjects and twenty-five normal sighted adults were evaluated for static and dynamic balance using four protocols: 1) the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance on firm and foam surfaces with eyes opened and closed; 2) Unilateral Stance with eyes opened and closed; 3) Tandem Walk; and 4) Step Up/Over. The results showed that the low-vision group presented greater body sway compared with the normal vision during balance on a foam surface (p≤0.001), the Unilateral Stance test for both limbs (p≤0.001), and the Tandem Walk test. The low-vision group showed greater step width (p≤0.001) and slower gait speed (p≤0.004). In the Step Up/Over task, low-vision participants were more cautious in stepping up (right p≤0.005 and left p≤0.009) and in executing the movement (p≤0.001). These findings suggest that visual feedback is crucial for determining balance, especially for dynamic tasks and on foam surfaces. Low-vision individuals had worse postural stability than normal-vision adults in terms of dynamic tests and balance on foam surfaces.

  10. Peripheral vision of youths with low vision: motion perception, crowding, and visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadin, Duje; Nyquist, Jeffrey B; Lusk, Kelly E; Corn, Anne L; Lappin, Joseph S

    2012-08-24

    Effects of low vision on peripheral visual function are poorly understood, especially in children whose visual skills are still developing. The aim of this study was to measure both central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical and low vision. Of specific interest was the extent to which measures of foveal function predict performance of peripheral tasks. We assessed central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical vision (n = 7, ages 10-17) and low vision (n = 24, ages 9-18). Experimental measures used both static and moving stimuli and included visual crowding, visual search, motion acuity, motion direction discrimination, and multitarget motion comparison. In most tasks, visual function was impaired in youths with low vision. Substantial differences, however, were found both between participant groups and, importantly, across different tasks within participant groups. Foveal visual acuity was a modest predictor of peripheral form vision and motion sensitivity in either the central or peripheral field. Despite exhibiting normal motion discriminations in fovea, motion sensitivity of youths with low vision deteriorated in the periphery. This contrasted with typically sighted participants, who showed improved motion sensitivity with increasing eccentricity. Visual search was greatly impaired in youths with low vision. Our results reveal a complex pattern of visual deficits in peripheral vision and indicate a significant role of attentional mechanisms in observed impairments. These deficits were not adequately captured by measures of foveal function, arguing for the importance of independently assessing peripheral visual function.

  11. Peripheral Vision of Youths with Low Vision: Motion Perception, Crowding, and Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadin, Duje; Nyquist, Jeffrey B.; Lusk, Kelly E.; Corn, Anne L.; Lappin, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Effects of low vision on peripheral visual function are poorly understood, especially in children whose visual skills are still developing. The aim of this study was to measure both central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical and low vision. Of specific interest was the extent to which measures of foveal function predict performance of peripheral tasks. Methods. We assessed central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical vision (n = 7, ages 10–17) and low vision (n = 24, ages 9–18). Experimental measures used both static and moving stimuli and included visual crowding, visual search, motion acuity, motion direction discrimination, and multitarget motion comparison. Results. In most tasks, visual function was impaired in youths with low vision. Substantial differences, however, were found both between participant groups and, importantly, across different tasks within participant groups. Foveal visual acuity was a modest predictor of peripheral form vision and motion sensitivity in either the central or peripheral field. Despite exhibiting normal motion discriminations in fovea, motion sensitivity of youths with low vision deteriorated in the periphery. This contrasted with typically sighted participants, who showed improved motion sensitivity with increasing eccentricity. Visual search was greatly impaired in youths with low vision. Conclusions. Our results reveal a complex pattern of visual deficits in peripheral vision and indicate a significant role of attentional mechanisms in observed impairments. These deficits were not adequately captured by measures of foveal function, arguing for the importance of independently assessing peripheral visual function. PMID:22836766

  12. Learning from vision-to-touch is different than from touch-to-vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar A Wismeijer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied whether vision can teach touch to the same extent as touch seems to teach vision. In a 2 x 2 between-participants learning study, we artificially correlated visual gloss cues with haptic compliance cues. In two "natural" tasks, we tested whether visual gloss estimations have an influence on haptic estimations of softness and vice versa. In two "new" tasks, in which participants were either asked to haptically judge glossiness or to visually judge softness, we investigated how perceptual estimates transfer from one sense to the other. Our results showed that vision does not teach touch as efficient as touch seems to teach vision.

  13. Learning from vision-to-touch is different than learning from touch-to-vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismeijer, Dagmar A; Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Drewing, Knut

    2012-01-01

    We studied whether vision can teach touch to the same extent as touch seems to teach vision. In a 2 × 2 between-participants learning study, we artificially correlated visual gloss cues with haptic compliance cues. In two "natural" tasks, we tested whether visual gloss estimations have an influence on haptic estimations of softness and vice versa. In two "novel" tasks, in which participants were either asked to haptically judge glossiness or to visually judge softness, we investigated how perceptual estimates transfer from one sense to the other. Our results showed that vision does not teach touch as efficient as touch seems to teach vision.

  14. Understanding of how older adults with low vision obtain, process, and understand health information and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Nam

    2017-10-16

    Twenty-five years after the Americans with Disabilities Act, there has still been a lack of advancement of accessibility in healthcare for people with visual impairments, particularly older adults with low vision. This study aims to advance understanding of how older adults with low vision obtain, process, and use health information and services, and to seek opportunities of information technology to support them. A convenience sample of 10 older adults with low vision participated in semi-structured phone interviews, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis. Participants shared various concerns in accessing, understanding, and using health information, care services, and multimedia technologies. Two main themes and nine subthemes emerged from the analysis. Due to the concerns, older adults with low vision tended to fail to obtain the full range of all health information and services to meet their specific needs. Those with low vision still rely on residual vision such that multimedia-based information which can be useful, but it should still be designed to ensure its accessibility, usability, and understandability.

  15. Correlations of memory and learning with vision in aged patients before and after a cataract operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerström, R

    1992-12-01

    The connection between memory and learning with vision was investigated by studying 100 cataract operation patients, aged 71 to 76 years, 25 of them being men and 75 women. The cataract operation restored sufficient acuity of vision for reading (minimum E-test value 0.40) to 79% of the subjects. Short-term memory was studied with series of numbers, homogenic and heterogenic inhibition, and long sentences. Learning was tested with paired-associate learning and word learning. Psychological symptoms were measured on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and personality on the Mini-Mult MMPI. Memory and learning improved significantly when vision was normalized after the cataract operation. Poor memory and learning scores correlated with monocular vision before the operation and with defects in the field of vision, due to glaucoma and exceeding 20%, postsurgery. Monocular vision and defects in the visual field caused a continuous sense of abnormalness, which impaired old people's ability to concentrate on tasks of memory and learning. Cerebrovascular disturbances, beginning dementia, and moderate psychological symptoms obstructed memory and learning on both test rounds. Depression was the most important psychological symptom contributing to poor memory and learning scores after the cataract operation. The memory and learning defects mainly reflected disturbances in memorizing.

  16. Subjective evaluation of uncorrected vision in patients undergoing cataract surgery with (diffractive multifocal lenses and monovision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stock RA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo Alexandre Stock, Thaís Thumé, Luan Gabriel Paese, Elcio Luiz Bonamigo Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina, Rua Getúlio Vargas, Joaçaba, Santa Catarina, Brazil Purpose: To analyze patient satisfaction and difficulties with bilateral multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs implantation and aspheric monofocal IOLs implantation using monovision, after cataract surgery.Materials and methods: A total of 61 participants were included in the study, 29 with monovision and 32 with multifocal lenses. The inclusion criteria were patients undergoing phacoemulsification for bilateral visual impairment due to cataracts and presenting with postoperative visual acuity of 20/30 or better for distance and line J3 or better for near vision.Results: The 2 groups had similar results regarding difficulties with daily activities such as distance vision, near vision, watching television, reading, cooking, using a computer or cellphone, shaving/putting on makeup and shopping. There were differences in responses between the groups regarding difficulty with night vision (P=0.0565 and night driving (P=0.0291. Degree of satisfaction in terms of distance vision without glasses was statistically significantly better in monovision group (P=0.0332, but not for near (P=0.9101.Conclusion: Both techniques yielded satisfactory results regarding visual acuity for different activities without the need to use glasses. Multifocal lenses are a good option for patients with the exception of night driving, and who desire independence from glasses. Keywords: cataract extraction, aphakia, postcataract, patient satisfaction, night vision

  17. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  18. Color Vision Defects in School Going Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Shrestha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Color Vision defect can be observed in various diseases of optic nerve and retina and also a significant number of people suffer from the inherited condition of red and green color defect. Methods: A cross-sectional descritptive study was designed with purposive sampling of students from various schools of Kathmandu Valley. All children were subjected to color vision evaluation using Ishihara Isochromatic color plates along with other examination to rule out any other causes of color deficiency. Results: A total of 2001 students were examined, 1050 male students and 951 females with mean age of 10.35 (±2.75 and 10.54 (±2.72 respectively. Among the total students examined, 2.1% had some form of color vision defects. Of the male population , 3.9% had color vision defects while none of the female was found with the deficiency. Conclusions: The prelevance of color vision defect in Nepal is significant and comparable with the prelevance quoted in the studies from different countries. Keywords:color vision; congenital red green color effect; Nepal; prevalence.

  19. Key Informant Perceptions of Vision Loss in Children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    understand how vision can practically be assessed and how poor vision can affect a child, whether by limiting the ability to do activities of daily living or by limiting social interactions. In this group, there were some misconceptions regarding the use of color vision and the assessment of reading as a tool for vision assessment ...

  20. Lessons Learned from the Creation of a Center of Excellence in Low Vision and Vision Rehabilitation in Wenzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoff, Rebecca; Heilberger, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    A model Center of Excellence in Low Vision and Vision Rehabilitation was created in a health care setting in China utilizing an inter-institutional relationship with a United States optometric institution. Accomplishments of, limitations to, and stimuli to the provision of low vision and vision rehabilitation services are shared.

  1. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  2. Efficacy of vision therapy in children with learning disability and associated binocular vision anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with specific learning disorders have a high frequency of binocular vision disorders and vision therapy plays a significant role in improving the BV parameters. Children with SLD should be screened for BV anomalies as it could potentially be an added hindrance to the reading difficulty in this special population.

  3. The Trickle-Down Effect of Institutional Vision: Vision Statements and Academic Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelman, Robert; Atkin, David; Dalessandro, Amy; Snyder-Suhy, Sharon; Janstova, Patricie

    2007-01-01

    A description of the kinds of educated humans to be cultivated at a particular institution can be found in the college or university vision statement. The extent that vision is reflected in the governing models of advising operations, known by personnel, and transformed into day-to-day activities was assessed through a NACADA membership survey.…

  4. Habitat-induced degradation of sound signals: Quantifying the effects of communication sounds and bird location on blur ratio, excess attenuation, and signal-to-noise ratio in blackbird song

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, T.; Larsen, O N; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    1993-01-01

    measures were calculated from changes of the amplitude functions (i.e., envelopes) of the degraded songs using a new technique which allowed a compensation for the contribution of the background noise to the amplitude values. Representative songs were broadcast in a deciduous forest without leaves......The habitat-induced degradation of the full song of the blackbird (Turdus merula) was quantified by measuring excess attenuation, reduction of the signal-to-noise ratio, and blur ratio, the latter measure representing the degree of blurring of amplitude and frequency patterns over time. All three...

  5. Correction for near vision in pseudophakic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujić Mirjana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to show the mean values of correction for near vision and to discuss the presbyopic correction in pseudophakic patients. Setting was the Eye department where authors work. Inclusion criteria for 55 patients were native or corrected distant vision of 0.8-1.0 on Snellen's chart; 0,6 on Jagger's chart for near vision; round pupil and good position of the implant. Biometry of the anterior chamber depth with Alcon biophysics during distant and near vision was performed in our study. „Hi square" test was carried out and it was concluded that patients younger than 59 years (41 eyes had median correction of +2.0 dsph, while patients older than 60 years (36 eyes had correction of+3.0 dsph, but it was not statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference of the correction between pseudophakic (41 and phakic (19 eyes in patients younger than 59 years. The anterior movement of the IOL was 0.18 mm in the younger group and 0.15 mm in the older group. With good IOL movement and new materials which could have changeable refractive power, the problem of pseudophakic correction for near vision might be solved.

  6. Health system vision of iran in 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamigooran, N; Esmailzadeh, H; Rajabi, F; Majdzadeh, R; Larijani, B; Dastgerdi, M Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Vast changes in disease features and risk factors and influence of demographic, economical, and social trends on health system, makes formulating a long term evolutionary plan, unavoidable. In this regard, to determine health system vision in a long term horizon is a primary stage. After narrative and purposeful review of documentaries, major themes of vision statement were determined and its context was organized in a work group consist of selected managers and experts of health system. Final content of the statement was prepared after several sessions of group discussions and receiving ideas of policy makers and experts of health system. Vision statement in evolutionary plan of health system is considered to be :"a progressive community in the course of human prosperity which has attained to a developed level of health standards in the light of the most efficient and equitable health system in visionary region(1) and with the regarding to health in all policies, accountability and innovation". An explanatory context was compiled either to create a complete image of the vision. Social values and leaders' strategic goals, and also main orientations are generally mentioned in vision statement. In this statement prosperity and justice are considered as major values and ideals in society of Iran; development and excellence in the region as leaders' strategic goals; and also considering efficiency and equality, health in all policies, and accountability and innovation as main orientations of health system.

  7. Coevolution of coloration and colour vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Olle; Henze, Miriam J; Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2017-07-05

    The evolutionary relationship between signals and animal senses has broad significance, with potential consequences for speciation, and for the efficacy and honesty of biological communication. Here we outline current understanding of the diversity of colour vision in two contrasting groups: the phylogenetically conservative birds, and the more variable butterflies. Evidence for coevolution of colour signals and vision exists in both groups, but is limited to observations of phenotypic differences between visual systems, which might be correlated with coloration. Here, to illustrate how one might interpret the evolutionary significance of such differences, we used colour vision modelling based on an avian eye to evaluate the effects of variation in three key characters: photoreceptor spectral sensitivity, oil droplet pigmentation and the proportions of different photoreceptor types. The models predict that physiologically realistic changes in any one character will have little effect, but complementary shifts in all three can substantially affect discriminability of three types of natural spectra. These observations about the adaptive landscape of colour vision may help to explain the general conservatism of photoreceptor spectral sensitivities in birds. This approach can be extended to other types of eye and spectra to inform future work on coevolution of coloration and colour vision.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Mini-review: Far peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    The region of far peripheral vision, beyond 60 degrees of visual angle, is important to the evaluation of peripheral dark shadows (negative dysphotopsia) seen by some intraocular lens (IOL) patients. Theoretical calculations show that the limited diameter of an IOL affects ray paths at large angles, leading to a dimming of the main image for small pupils, and to peripheral illumination by light bypassing the IOL for larger pupils. These effects are rarely bothersome, and cataract surgery is highly successful, but there is a need to improve the characterization of far peripheral vision, for both pseudophakic and phakic eyes. Perimetry is the main quantitative test, but the purpose is to evaluate pathologies rather than characterize vision (and object and image regions are no longer uniquely related in the pseudophakic eye). The maximum visual angle is approximately 105 0 , but there is limited information about variations with age, race, or refractive error (in case there is an unexpected link with the development of myopia), or about how clear cornea, iris location, and the limiting retina are related. Also, the detection of peripheral motion is widely recognized to be important, yet rarely evaluated. Overall, people rarely complain specifically about this visual region, but with "normal" vision including an IOL for >5% of people, and increasing interest in virtual reality and augmented reality, there are new reasons to characterize peripheral vision more completely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. VISION- REQUIREMENT FOR A SUCCESSFUL LEADER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela - Olimpia Lobonea (Oltean

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available These people were called in the past chiefs, rulers. Now they are known as leaders. After management by objectives, strategic planning, project organization, this concept appears as a tool called "fourth generation". It is called VISION. Leadership and vision exist in the actual sense, which has become modern a few decades ago, managing to gather during this time a variety of scientific instruments. The connection between these two domains creates a certain type of leader, the visionary leader. The hypothesis from which we start is that all active leaders have a vision of what needs to be accomplished, and the inability to predict something that could be provided involves loss the capacity of the leader. Without vision, the energy reaches the lowest quotas, production decreases, terms limits are exceeded and human resources begin to dissipate.. The conclusion is that visionary leaders are endowed with multiple attributes (multiple intelligence, even if sometimes the role of intuition and unconscious in building vision at the expense of reason that is based on experience and facts is exaggerated.

  10. 78 FR 77366 - Federal Employee Dental and Vision Insurance Program; Qualifying Life Event Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program. DATES: Comment date: Comments are due on or... enrollment status under the Federal Employee Dental and Vision Insurance Program. OPM is proposing these... for FEDVIP enrollment changes and therefore better align FEDVIP with the Federal Employees Health...

  11. The Effects of Authentic Vision Statement on Challenges Experienced by First Year Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdos, Monica

    2011-01-01

    A new superintendent in a new school district (NSND) can be a challenging position. The literature review asserts that many challenges faced by NSNDs are due to the absence of a shared vision. Challenges can be listed as work stoppage, personnel, financial, fighting ghosts, homecoming procession and many other aspects of running a district.…

  12. The Use of Visual Feedback during Signing: Evidence from Signers with Impaired Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; Korpics, Franco; Petronio, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The role of visual feedback during the production of American Sign Language was investigated by comparing the size of signing space during conversations and narrative monologues for normally sighted signers, signers with tunnel vision due to Usher syndrome, and functionally blind signers. The interlocutor for all groups was a normally sighted deaf…

  13. GPU accelerated left/right hand-segmentation in first person vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betancourt Arango, A.; Marcenaro, L.; Barakova, E.I.; Rauterberg, M.; Regazzoni, C.S.; Hua, G.; Jegou, H.

    2016-01-01

    Wearable cameras allow users to record their daily activities from a user-centered (First Person Vision) perspective. Due to their favourable location, they frequently capture the hands of the user, and may thus represent a promising user-machine interaction tool for different applications. Existent

  14. Sustainable Urban Waterfutures: A Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Urban growth is seriously limited by water scarcity on every continent, and trying to house more people that aspire to current developed region water services is simply impossible due to lack of available water, let alone the cost. Furthermore, traditional water/...

  15. Low vision and mobility scooters: the experiences of individuals with low vision who use mobility scooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Keri S; Butler, Mary

    2018-05-09

    Older adults with low vision are a growing population with rehabilitation needs including support with community mobility to enable community participation. Some older adults with low vision choose to use mobility scooters to mobilize within their community, but there is limited research about the use by people with low vision. This paper describes a pilot study and asks the question: what are the experiences of persons with low vision who use mobility scooters? This study gathered the experiences of four participants with low vision, aged 51 and over, who regularly use mobility scooters. Diverse methods were used including a go-along, a semi-structured interview and a new measure of functional vision for mobility called the vision-related outcomes in orientation and mobility (VROOM). Four themes were found to describe experiences: autonomy and well-being, accessibility, community interactions and self-regulation. Discussion and implications: This study was a pilot for a larger study examining self-regulation in scooter users. However, as roles emerge for health professionals and scooters, the findings also provide evidence to inform practice, because it demonstrates the complex meaning and influences on performance involved in low vision mobility scooter use. Implications for rehabilitation Scooter use supports autonomy and well-being and community connections for individuals with both mobility and visual impairments. Low vision scooter users demonstrate self-regulation of their scooter use to manage both their visual and environmental limitations. Issues of accessibility experienced by this sample affect a wider community of footpath users, emphasizing the need for councils to address inadequate infrastructure. Rehabilitators can support their low vision clients' scooter use by acknowledging issues of accessibility and promoting self-regulation strategies to manage risks and barriers.

  16. Efficacy of vision therapy in children with learning disability and associated binocular vision anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Shah, Prerana; Ramani, Krishna Kumar; Ramanujan, Lalitha

    To report the frequency of binocular vision (BV) anomalies in children with specific learning disorders (SLD) and to assess the efficacy of vision therapy (VT) in children with a non-strabismic binocular vision anomaly (NSBVA). The study was carried out at a centre for learning disability (LD). Comprehensive eye examination and binocular vision assessment was carried out for 94 children (mean (SD) age: 15 (2.2) years) diagnosed with specific learning disorder. BV assessment was done for children with best corrected visual acuity of ≥6/9 - N6, cooperative for examination and free from any ocular pathology. For children with a diagnosis of NSBVA (n=46), 24 children were randomized to VT and no intervention was provided to the other 22 children who served as experimental controls. At the end of 10 sessions of vision therapy, BV assessment was performed for both the intervention and non-intervention groups. Binocular vision anomalies were found in 59 children (62.8%) among which 22% (n=13) had strabismic binocular vision anomalies (SBVA) and 78% (n=46) had a NSBVA. Accommodative infacility (AIF) was the commonest of the NSBVA and found in 67%, followed by convergence insufficiency (CI) in 25%. Post-vision therapy, the intervention group showed significant improvement in all the BV parameters (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05) except negative fusional vergence. Children with specific learning disorders have a high frequency of binocular vision disorders and vision therapy plays a significant role in improving the BV parameters. Children with SLD should be screened for BV anomalies as it could potentially be an added hindrance to the reading difficulty in this special population. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Panhypopituitarism Due to Hemochromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Özkaya; Kadir Gis; Ali Çetinkaya

    2013-01-01

    Hemochromatosis is an iron storage disease. Panhypopituitarism is a clinical condition in which the anterior pituitary hormones are deficient. Herein, we report a rare case of panhypopituitarism due to hemochromatosis. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 125-6

  18. Deference and Due Process

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeule, Cornelius Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the textbooks, procedural due process is a strictly judicial enterprise; although substantive entitlements are created by legislative and executive action, it is for courts to decide independently what process the Constitution requires. The notion that procedural due process might be committed primarily to the discretion of the agencies themselves is almost entirely absent from the academic literature. The facts on the ground are very different. Thanks to converging strands of caselaw ...

  19. Vision based tunnel inspection using non-rigid registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Amir; Ullah, Shan; Shahzad, Danish

    2015-04-01

    Growing numbers of long tunnels across the globe has increased the need for safety measurements and inspections of tunnels in these days. To avoid serious damages, tunnel inspection is highly recommended at regular intervals of time to find any deformations or cracks at the right time. While following the stringent safety and tunnel accessibility standards, conventional geodetic surveying using techniques of civil engineering and other manual and mechanical methods are time consuming and results in troublesome of routine life. An automatic tunnel inspection by image processing techniques using non rigid registration has been proposed. There are many other image processing methods used for image registration purposes. Most of the processes are operation of images in its spatial domain like finding edges and corners by Harris edge detection method. These methods are quite time consuming and fail for some or other reasons like for blurred or images with noise. Due to use of image features directly by these methods in the process, are known by the group, correlation by image features. The other method is featureless correlation, in which the images are converted into its frequency domain and then correlated with each other. The shift in spatial domain is the same as in frequency domain, but the processing is order faster than in spatial domain. In the proposed method modified normalized phase correlation has been used to find any shift between two images. As pre pre-processing the tunnel images i.e. reference and template are divided into small patches. All these relative patches are registered by the proposed modified normalized phase correlation. By the application of the proposed algorithm we get the pixel movement of the images. And then these pixels shifts are converted to measuring units like mm, cm etc. After the complete process if there is any shift in the tunnel at described points are located.

  20. [Present-day sports activities among the blind and persons with poor vision in different countries of the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmachev, R A

    2003-01-01

    The approach of a country to persons with limited physical abilities is an important component of country's social-and-cultural policy. Blindness is a most severe variety of health disorders leading to social defect and social insufficiency. The role of adaptive physical culture is important within the system of the social-and-medical rehabilitation of the blind because the sedentary life mode has a negative effect on organisms of the disabled due to vision. Sports is not only a method for correcting the general somatic condition, but it is also an important social-and-physiological factor that enables the blind to comprehend their abilities as an example for others. As for our country, the information about the modern sports activities among the disabled due to vision is absolutely insufficient for the public at large. An analysis of results of examination (conducted by using the computer data base of the International Blind Sportsmen Association--IBSA) of 2386 blind and impaired vision sportsmen is presented in the paper. Data about sport disciplines and types of ophthalmic pathologies encountered among the high-class blind and impaired vision athletes from different world countries are described. The above data can be helpful in elaborating the rehabilitation programs for persons with severe disorders of the organ of vision to be used in rehabilitation centers, sport federations and clubs of the disabled as well as in other institutions dealing with rehabilitation of the disabled due to vision in our country.